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Sample records for normal eye development

  1. LADARWave wavefront measurement in normal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalita, Maria Regina; Finkenthal, Josel; Xu, Meng; Krueger, Ronald R

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the correlation of Alcon LADARWave wavefront measurements with clinical refraction and corneal topography. In a retrospective, non-comparative case series, 60 eyes (30 patients) of healthy individuals evaluated by preoperative examination for refractive surgery were enrolled (manifest sphere, -11.00 to +4.50 D; manifest cylinder, 0 to -4.75 D; 45 eyes were myopic, 12 eyes were hyperopic, and 3 had mixed astigmatism). Correlation of manifest refraction, cycloplegic refraction, and topographic data with wavefront refraction and higher order aberration was assessed. Match percentage given by the wavefront was analyzed. This number represents how much of the wavefront refraction is due to sphere and cylinder (high percentage match) or is influenced by higher order aberration (low percentage match), in which case aberrometer refraction will not be close to phoropter refraction. Pearson's correlation coefficient was assessed for two continuous variables, adjusting for repeated measurements. The median match percentage was 91%. Mean values for all higher order aberration components in a 7.0-mm pupil were: coma = 0.35 +/- 0.29 microm, spherical aberrations = 0.36 +/- 0.31 microm, and other terms of higher order aberrations = 0.31 +/- 0.14 microm. Wavefront sphere, cylinder, and axis terms were highly correlated to manifest and cycloplegic measurements. The high match subgroup had a higher correlation coefficient than the low match subgroup for refraction. Topographic cylinder and axis were not strongly correlated to wavefront refraction, but manifest axis was significantly correlated to topographic axis. In 60 normal eyes, the Alcon LADARWave wavefront measurement was highly correlated with refraction, but less well with corneal topography.

  2. Normalizing videos of anterior eye segment surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quellec, Gwénolé; Charriére, Katia; Lamard, Mathieu; Cochener, Béatrice; Cazuguel, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Anterior eye segment surgeries are usually video-recorded. If we are able to efficiently analyze surgical videos in real-time, new decision support tools will emerge. The main anatomical landmarks in these videos are the pupil boundaries and the limbus, but segmenting them is challenging due to the variety of colors and textures in the pupil, the iris, the sclera and the lids. In this paper, we present a solution to reliably normalize the center and the scale in videos, without explicitly segmenting these landmarks. First, a robust solution to track the pupil center is presented: it uses the fact that the pupil boundaries, the limbus and the sclera / lid interface are concentric. Second, a solution to estimate the zoom level is presented: it relies on the illumination pattern reflected on the cornea. The proposed solution was assessed in a dataset of 186 real-live cataract surgery videos. The distance between the true and estimated pupil centers was equal to 8.0 ± 6.9% of the limbus radius. The correlation between the estimated zoom level and the true limbus size in images was high: R = 0.834.

  3. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the normal human eye and its expression pattern in selected eye tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinmei; Wu, Yazhen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    and retina. The COX-2 expression was less in tumours deriving from the ciliary epithelium and also in retinoblastoma. Conclusion: Cyclooxygenase-2 is constitutively expressed in normal human eyes. The expression of COX-2 is much lower in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells.......Purpose: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme involved in neoplastic processes. The purpose of the present study is to investigate COX-2 expression in the normal human eye and the expression pattern in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining...... using antibodies against COX-2 was performed on paraffin sections of normal human eyes and selected eye tumours arising from cells expressing COX-2. Results: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression was found in various structures of the normal eye. Abundant expression was seen in the cornea, iris, ciliary body...

  4. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...

  5. Dual Bar homeo box genes of Drosophila required in two photoreceptor cells, R1 and R6, and primary pigment cells for normal eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashijima, S; Kojima, T; Michiue, T; Ishimaru, S; Emori, Y; Saigo, K

    1992-01-01

    In the Bar mutation of Drosophila, ommatidial differentiation is known to be suppressed in the anterior portion of the eye. Our structural analysis shows that the Bar region contains a pair of homeo box genes, BarH1 and BarH2. These genes encode polypeptides similar in size and sequence and share a common homeo domain that is identical in sequence except for putative trans-activator-binding sites. We also show, by mosaic analysis and immunostaining with anti-BarH1/BarH2 antibodies, that BarH1 and BarH2 are not only specifically coexpressed but also functionally required in R1/R6 prephotoreceptors and primary pigment cells in developing ommatidia. In R1/R6, the expression of BarH1 and BarH2 appears to be regulated by rough and glass gene products. BarH1 and BarH2 proteins are essential to normal lens formation, formation of three types of pigment cells, and elimination of excess cells from mature ommatidia. Taken together, our results suggest that Bar homeo domain proteins may play key roles in the fate-determination processes of pigment cells and cone cells.

  6. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the normal human eye and its expression pattern in selected eye tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinmei; Wu, Yazhen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    and retina. The COX-2 expression was less in tumours deriving from the ciliary epithelium and also in retinoblastoma. Conclusion: Cyclooxygenase-2 is constitutively expressed in normal human eyes. The expression of COX-2 is much lower in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells....

  7. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: Infancy Preschool years Middle childhood years Adolescence Soon after birth, an infant normally loses about 5% to 10% of their birth weight. By about age ...

  8. Distinct Biochemical Activities of Eyes absent During Drosophila Eye Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Meng; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a highly conserved transcriptional coactivator and protein phosphatase that plays vital roles in multiple developmental processes from Drosophila to humans. Eya proteins contain a PST (Proline-Serine-Threonine)-rich transactivation domain, a threonine phosphatase motif (TPM), and a tyrosine protein phosphatase domain. Using a genomic rescue system, we find that the PST domain is essential for Eya activity and Dac expression, and the TPM is required for full Eya function. We also find that the threonine phosphatase activity plays only a minor role during Drosophila eye development and the primary function of the PST and TPM domains is transactivation that can be largely substituted by the heterologous activation domain VP16. Along with our previous results that the tyrosine phosphatase activity of Eya is dispensable for normal Eya function in eye formation, we demonstrate that a primary function of Eya during Drosophila eye development is as a transcriptional coactivator. Moreover, the PST/TPM and the threonine phosphatase activity are not required for in vitro interaction between retinal determination factors. Finally, this work is the first report of an Eya-Ey physical interaction. These findings are particularly important because they highlight the need for an in vivo approach that accurately dissects protein function. PMID:26980695

  9. Retinal image degradation by optical aberrations and light scatter in normal and albino chick eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yibin; Shieh, Kevin; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2007-02-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of retinal image quality requires that light scatter as well as optical aberrations be considered. In investigating how retinal image degradation affects eye growth in the chick model of myopia, we developed a simple method based on Shack-Hartmann images for evaluating the effects of both monochromatic aberrations and light scatter on retinal image quality. We further evaluated our method in the current study by applying it to data collected from both normal chick eyes and albino eyes that were expected to show increased intraocular light scatter. To analyze light scatter in our method, each Shack-Hartmann dot is treated as a local point spread function (PSF) that is the convolution of a local scatter PSF and a lenslet diffraction PSF. The local scatter PSF is obtained by de-convolution, and is fitted with a circularly symmetric Gaussian function using nonlinear regressions. A whole-eye scatter PSF also can be derived from the local scatter PSFs for the analyzed pupil. Aberrations are analyzed using OSA standard Zernike polynomials, and aberration-related PSF calculated from reconstructed wavefront using fast Fourier transform. Modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are computed separately for aberration and scatter PSFs, and a whole-eye MTF is derived as the product of the two. This method was applied to 4 normal and 4 albino eyes. Compared to normal eyes, albino eyes were more aberrated and showed greater light scatter. As a result, overall retinal image degradation was much greater in albino eyes than in normal eyes, with the relative contribution to retinal image degradation of light scatter compared to aberrations also being greater for albino eyes.

  10. Choroidal Excavation in Eye with Normal Tension Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunobu Asao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the case of an eye with normal tension glaucoma and a choroidal excavation. Methods: This is an observational case report. Results: A 59-year-old woman with normal tension glaucoma had a choroidal excavation in the left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure were within normal limits and had been stable for 5 years. Fundus examination showed a small white lesion inferior to the macula and a nerve fiber layer defect at the inferior edge of the optic disc. Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA showed visual field defects corresponding to the nerve fiber layer defect with C30-2, and a central scotoma superior to the macula with C10-2. Optical coherence tomography (OCT showed a 150-µm deep choroidal excavation. Disruptions of the IS/OS line were detected only in the area inferior to the choroidal excavation. During the 5 months of follow-up, her best-corrected visual acuity remained at 1.0 and the IOP ranged from 12 to 14 mm Hg in the left eye. The fundus and OCT images did not deteriorate and the choroidal excavation did not enlarge. Conclusions: The disruption of the inner/outer segment (IS/OS line was detected only at the area surrounding the choroidal excavation. OCT examinations are useful in assessing the area of the residual IS/OS line, and HFA can be used to estimate the residual central visual field.

  11. Assessment of Corneal Epithelial Thickness in Asymmetric Keratoconic Eyes and Normal Eyes Using Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Catalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the characteristics of asymmetric keratoconic eyes and normal eyes by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT corneal mapping. Methods. Retrospective corneal and epithelial thickness OCT data for 74 patients were compared in three groups of eyes: keratoconic (n=22 and normal fellow eyes (n=22 in patients with asymmetric keratoconus and normal eyes (n=104 in healthy subjects. Areas under the curve (AUC of receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves for each variable were compared across groups to indicate their discrimination capacity. Results. Three variables were found to differ significantly between fellow eyes and normal eyes (all p<0.05: minimum corneal thickness, thinnest corneal point, and central corneal thickness. These variables combined showed a high discrimination power to differentiate fellow eyes from normal eyes indicated by an AUC of 0.840 (95% CI: 0.762–0.918. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that topographically normal fellow eyes in patients with very asymmetric keratoconus differ from the eyes of healthy individuals in terms of their corneal epithelial and pachymetry maps. This type of information could be useful for an early diagnosis of keratoconus in topographically normal eyes.

  12. Peripapillary Scleral Thickness in Perfusion-Fixed Normal Monkey Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, J. Crawford; Blidner, Richard A.; Bellezza, Anthony J.; Thompson, Hilary W.; Hart, Richard T.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the thickness of the peripapillary sclera in perfusion-fixed normal monkey eyes so as to build accurate computational models of intraocular pressure (IOP)-related stress and strain within these tissues. Methods Nine rhesus monkeys were perfusion fixed, each with one normal eye set to an IOP of 10 mm Hg by manometer. A 6-mm-diameter specimen containing the optic nerve head and peripapillary sclera was trephined from each scleral shell and cut into 4-μm serial sagittal sections across the scleral canal opening, either horizontally (four eyes) or vertically (five eyes). The thickness of the peripapillary sclera was measured on every 24th section at 100-μm intervals from the posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO) to the peripheral edge of the specimen. The data were pooled by quadrant (superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal), regions within each quadrant, and distance from the PSCO, overall and for individual eyes, and subjected to analysis of variance. Results In terms of distance from the PSCO, the peripapillary sclera was thinnest nearest the PSCO (201 μm, nasal; 201 μm, temporal; 240 μm, inferior; 249 μm, superior), thickened progressively to a maximum in the midperiphery approximately 600 to 1000 μm from the PSCO (326 μm, nasal; 415 μm, superior; 420 μm, temporal; 422 μm, inferior), and thinned again peripherally in all quadrants. The peripapillary sclera was thinner in the nasal quadrant when compared with the other quadrants superiorly, inferiorly, and temporally (central region means of 291 μm, nasal; 369 μm, superior; 372 μm, inferior; and 369 μm, temporal; P < 0.0001). Conclusions In the normal monkey eye, peripapillary scleral thickness varies significantly with distance from the posterior scleral canal opening and is thinner in the nasal quadrant than in the other quadrants. These differences are substantial and are likely to affect the magnitude of IOP-related stress and strain within these tissues for a given level

  13. Evaluation of a risk factor scoring system for corneal ectasia after LASIK in eyes with normal topography.

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    Binder, Perry S; Trattler, William B

    2010-04-01

    To assess a previously published risk score system for predicting postoperative LASIK ectasia in eyes with normal preoperative topography. A retrospective review of one surgeon's LASIK database was performed for eyes with Randleman ectasia risk scores based on patient age corneal thickness -8.00 diopters that had a minimum follow-up of 1 year. RESULTS Of 1702 eyes with myopic errors and normal topographies, 35 (2.0%) eyes had a combined risk score between 5 and 9 points, 92 (5.4%) eyes had a combined risk score of 4 or higher, and 208 (12.2%) eyes had a combined score of 3 or higher. None of these eyes developed ectasia, whereas 3 eyes with preoperative topographic keratoconus with no other risk factors developed ectasia. The current risk score system would have eliminated 5.4% of eyes with 4 or more points from LASIK surgery, and would have also required the surgeon to advise an additional 6.8% of eyes with a score of 3 that they were at "moderate risk" and should "proceed with caution." In eyes with normal preoperative topographies, the scoring system may not accurately predict whether patients are at increased risk for developing postoperative LASIK ectasia.

  14. Comparison between eyelid indices of ptotic eye and normal fellow eye in patients with unilateral congenital ptosis.

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    Bagheri, Abbas; Tavakoli, Mehdi; Najmi, Hadi; Erfanian Salim, Reza; Yazdani, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between levator muscle function (LMF) and other eyelid parameters in the normal and affected eyes of patients with unilateral congenital ptosis. This study includes subjects with unilateral congenital upper lid ptosis who were referred for operation over a 2-year period. Patients with other eyelid abnormalities and previous eyelid surgery were excluded. Eyelid parameters including LMF, lid fissure height (LFH) and margin reflex distance (MRD) were measured in both eyes and analyzed. A total of 77 patients with mean age of 26.4 ± 16.4 years were enrolled in the study. Mean LMF was 8.3 ± 4.6 mm in the ptotic and 13.1 ± 3.6 mm in the normal fellow eyes. Each millimeter of difference in LMF was associated with 0.30 mm of difference in LFH (95% CI: 0.25-0.35, P muscle dysfunction in the development of congenital ptosis and its severity. Furthermore, a direct correlation was also present between LMF of ptotic and non-ptotic eyes suggesting possible bilateral involvement in apparently unilateral congenital ptosis. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human secretory phospholipase A(2), group IB in normal eyes and in eye diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Prause, Jan U; Bazan, Nicolas G

    2007-01-01

    study was to identify human GIB (hGIB) in the normal human eye and investigate the pattern of expression in patients with eye diseases involving hGIB-rich cells. METHODS: Human GIB mRNA was identified in the human retina by means of in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Antibodies against...... hGIB-rich cells and found downregulation of hGIB in proliferating RPE cells as well as in diseased corneal endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Human GIB is highly expressed in cells with neurodermal origin. The pattern of expression of hGIB in diseases involving hGIB-rich cells demonstrated......PURPOSE: Secretory phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)) are enzymes involved in lipid turnover. We recently identified sPLA(2) group IB (GIB) in the rat retina as well as in cerebral neurons and found upregulation to occur in response to light damage and seizures, respectively. The purpose of the present...

  16. Normal SPECT thallium-201 bull's-eye display: gender differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, R.L.; Tamas, M.J.; Cloninger, K.

    1988-01-01

    The bull's-eye technique synthesizes three-dimensional information from single photon emission computed tomographic 201 TI images into two dimensions so that a patient's data can be compared quantitatively against a normal file. To characterize the normal database and to clarify differences between males and females, clinical data and exercise electrocardiography were used to identify 50 males and 50 females with less than 5% probability of coronary artery disease. Results show inhomogeneity of the 201 TI distributions at stress and delay: septal to lateral wall count ratios are less than 1.0 in both females and males; anterior to inferior wall count ratios are greater than 1.0 in males but are approximately equal to 1.0 in females. Washout rate is faster in females than males at the same peak exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure, despite lower exercise time. These important differences suggest that quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic 201 TI images requires gender-matched normal files

  17. Ocular Axial Length and Keratometry Readings of Normal Eyes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To provide average axial length and keratometry readings in healthy eyes of people in Rivers and surrounding states in southern Nigeria. This may guide the purchase of intraocular lens in the study area. Materials and methods: Four hundred consecutive patients with 800 non-cataractous eyes attending the eye clinic ...

  18. Excess caffeine exposure impairs eye development during chick embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng-lai; Wang, Guang; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine has been an integral component of our diet and medicines for centuries. It is now known that over consumption of caffeine has detrimental effects on our health, and also disrupts normal foetal development in pregnant mothers. In this study, we investigated the potential teratogenic effect of caffeine over-exposure on eye development in the early chick embryo. Firstly, we demonstrated that caffeine exposure caused chick embryos to develop asymmetrical microphthalmia and induced the orbital bone to develop abnormally. Secondly, caffeine exposure perturbed Pax6 expression in the retina of the developing eye. In addition, it perturbed the migration of HNK-1+ cranial neural crest cells. Pax6 is an important gene that regulates eye development, so altering the expression of this gene might be the cause for the abnormal eye development. Thirdly, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly increased in eye tissues following caffeine treatment, and that the addition of anti-oxidant vitamin C could rescue the eyes from developing abnormally in the presence of caffeine. This suggests that excess ROS induced by caffeine is one of the mechanisms involved in the teratogenic alterations observed in the eye during embryogenesis. In sum, our experiments in the chick embryo demonstrated that caffeine is a potential teratogen. It causes asymmetrical microphthalmia to develop by increasing ROS production and perturbs Pax6 expression. PMID:24636305

  19. Comparison of Corneal Dynamic and Tomographic Analysis in Normal, Forme Fruste Keratoconic, and Keratoconic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu Meng; Chan, Tommy C Y; Yu, Marco; Jhanji, Vishal

    2017-09-01

    To investigate and compare the diagnostic ability of corneal tomography and dynamic corneal response to differentiate between normal eyes and those with forme fruste keratoconus and keratoconus. Corneal tomography was performed using Pentacam (Pentacam HR; Oculus Optikgeräte, Wetzlar, Germany). Corneal deformation response was captured via Corvis ST (Optikgeräte) using a beta version of Corvis software. Classification analysis between normal eyes and eyes with forme fruste keratoconus and between normal and keratoconic eyes was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) and partial AUC (pAUC) for each classifying parameter were compared. Twenty-one patients with forme fruste keratoconus in one eye and clinically evident keratoconus in the fellow eye and 38 normal individuals were recruited. Overall, 21 eyes with forme fruste keratoconus and 18 eyes with keratoconus were compared with 73 normal eyes. The mean age of the participants was comparable between groups. Comparative analysis between Pentacam and Corvis ST parameters showed significantly lower AUC and pAUC for Corvis ST parameters in differentiating keratoconic from normal eyes (P ≥ .049). However, comparable AUC and pAUC was observed between the Corvis Biomechanical Index (AUC = 0.785; pAUC = 0.079) and D value of the Belin/Ambrósio Enhanced Ectasia Display (AUC = 0.757; pAUC = 0.068) (P ≥ .477) for detection of forme fruste keratoconus with sensitivities of 63.2% and 52.6%, given a common specificity of 80.3%. The current study showed the feasibility of use of non-tomographical parameters obtained from the Corvis ST for differentiating normal eyes and those with forme fruste keratoconus and keratoconus. The diagnostic ability of the Corvis ST was comparable to that of the Pentacam for differentiating normal eyes and eyes with forme fruste keratoconus. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(9):632-638.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Repeatability of a Commercially Available Adaptive Optics Visual Simulator and Aberrometer in Normal and Keratoconic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Rohit; Kochar, Shruti; Grover, Tushar; Khamar, Pooja; Kusumgar, Pallak; Sainani, Kanchan; Sinha Roy, Abhijit

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of aberration measurement obtained by a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer combined with a visual adaptive optics simulator in normal and keratoconic eyes. One hundred fifteen normal eyes and 92 eyes with grade I and II keratoconus, as per the Amsler-Krumeich classification, were included in the study. To evaluate the repeatability, three consecutive measurements of ocular aberrations were obtained by a single operator. Zernike analyses up to the 5th order for a pupil size of 4.5 mm were performed. Statistical analyses included the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and within-subject standard deviation (SD). For intrasession repeatability, the ICC value for sphere and cylinder was 0.94 and 0.93 in normal eyes and 0.98 and 0.97 in keratoconic eyes, respectively. The ICC for root mean square of higher order aberrations (HOA RMS ) was 0.82 in normal and 0.98 in keratoconic eyes. For 3rd order aberrations (trefoil and coma), the ICC values were greater than 0.87 for normal eyes and greater than 0.92 for keratoconic eyes. The ICC for spherical aberration was 0.92 and 0.90 in normal and keratoconic eyes, respectively. Visual adaptive optics provided repeatable aberrometry data in both normal and keratoconic eyes. For most of the parameters, the repeatability in eyes with early keratoconus was somewhat better than that for normal eyes. The repeatability of the Zernike terms was acceptable for 3rd order (trefoil and coma) and spherical aberrations. Therefore, visual adaptive optics was a suitable tool to perform repeatable aberrometric measurements. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(11):769-772.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Repeatability of vessel density measurements of optical coherence tomography angiography in normal and glaucoma eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Jayasree P; Rao, Harsha L; Weinreb, Robert N; Pradhan, Zia S; Dasari, Srilakshmi; Riyazuddin, Mohammed; Puttiah, Narenda K; Rao, Dhanraj A S; Devi, Sathi; Mansouri, Kaweh; Webers, Carroll Ab

    2018-03-01

    To compare the intrasession repeatability of peripapillary and macular vessel density measurements of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in normal and glaucoma eyes, and to evaluate the effect of signal strength of OCTA scans on the repeatability. In a cross-sectional study, three optic nerve head scans each of 65 eyes (30 normal, 35 glaucoma eyes) and three macular scans each of 69 eyes (35 normal, 34 glaucoma eyes) acquired in the same session with OCTA were analysed. Repeatability was assessed using within-subject coefficient of repeatability (CRw) and variation (CVw). Effect of signal strength index (SSI) on repeatability was evaluated with repeated-measures mixed-effects models. CRw (%) and CVw (%) of peripapillary measurements in normal eyes ranged between 3.3 and 7.0, and 2.5 and 4.4 respectively, and that in glaucoma eyes between 3.5 and 7.1, and 2.6 and 6.6. For the macular, these measurements ranged between 4.1 and 6.0, and 3.3 and 4.7 in normal eyes and 4.3 and 6.9, and 3.7 and 5.6 in glaucoma eyes. Repeatability estimates of most measurements were similar in normal and glaucoma eyes. Vessel densities of both peripapillary and macular regions significantly increased with increase in SSI of repeat scans (coefficients ranging from 0.15 to 0.38, pnormal eyes and eyes with glaucoma. SSI values of the scans had a significant effect on the repeatability of OCTA with the vessel density values increasing in scans with higher SSI values. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. SyntEyes KTC: higher order statistical eye model for developing keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Jos J; Rodriguez, Pablo; Ruiz Hidalgo, Irene; Navarro, Rafael; Tassignon, Marie-José; Koppen, Carina

    2017-05-01

    To present and validate a stochastic eye model for developing keratoconus to e.g. improve optical corrective strategies. This could be particularly useful for researchers that do not have access to original keratoconic data. The Scheimpflug tomography, ocular biometry and wavefront of 145 keratoconic right eyes were collected. These data were processed using principal component analysis for parameter reduction, followed by a multivariate Gaussian fit that produces a stochastic model for keratoconus (SyntEyes KTC). The output of this model is filtered to remove the occasional incorrect topography patterns by either an automatic or manual procedure. Finally, the output of this keratoconus model is matched to that of the original model for normal eyes using the non-corneal biometry to obtain a description of keratoconus development. The synthetic data generated by the model were found to be significantly equal to the original data (non-parametric Mann-Whitney equivalence test; 145/154 passed). The variability of the synthetic data, however, was often significantly less than that of the original data, especially for the higher order Zernike terms of corneal elevation (non-parametric Levene test; p eyes with incorrect topographies. Interpolation between matched pairs of normal and keratoconic SyntEyes appears to provide an adequate model for keratoconus progression. The synthetic data provided by the proposed keratoconus model closely resembles actual clinical data and may be used for a range of research applications when (sufficient) real data is not available. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  3. Comparing the Effects of Particulate Matter on the Ocular Surfaces of Normal Eyes and a Dry Eye Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji Yun; Kang, Boram; Eom, Youngsub; Kim, Hyo Myung; Song, Jong Suk

    2017-05-01

    To compare the effect of exposure to particulate matter on the ocular surface of normal and experimental dry eye (EDE) rat models. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were used as the particulate matter. Rats were divided into 4 groups: normal control group, TiO2 challenge group of the normal model, EDE control group, and TiO2 challenge group of the EDE model. After 24 hours, corneal clarity was compared and tear samples were collected for quantification of lactate dehydrogenase, MUC5AC, and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations. The periorbital tissues were used to evaluate the inflammatory cell infiltration and detect apoptotic cells. The corneal clarity score was greater in the EDE model than in the normal model. The score increased after TiO2 challenge in each group compared with each control group (normal control vs. TiO2 challenge group, 0.0 ± 0.0 vs. 0.8 ± 0.6, P = 0.024; EDE control vs. TiO2 challenge group, 2.2 ± 0.6 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4, P = 0.026). The tear lactate dehydrogenase level and inflammatory cell infiltration on the ocular surface were higher in the EDE model than in the normal model. These measurements increased significantly in both normal and EDE models after TiO2 challenge. The tumor necrosis factor-α levels and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells were also higher in the EDE model than in the normal model. TiO2 nanoparticle exposure on the ocular surface had a more prominent effect in the EDE model than it did in the normal model. The ocular surface of dry eyes seems to be more vulnerable to fine dust of air pollution than that of normal eyes.

  4. Comparison of keratometric and pachymetric parameters with Scheimpflug imaging in normal and keratoconic Asian eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim HB

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hou-Boon Lim,1 Gavin Tan,1 Li Lim,1 Hla Myint Htoon2 1Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore Purpose: To evaluate the keratometric and pachymetric parameters of keratoconic corneas of Asian eyes with the Scheimpflug imaging camera. Patients and methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 22 eyes with Amsler-Krumeich stage 1 keratoconus and 48 eyes from normal subjects conducted in a tertiary eye hospital. A rotating Scheimpflug imaging system, the Pentacam, was used to evaluate all eyes for tomographic parameters, as well as pachymetric progression indices (PPI and Ambrósio relational thickness (ART. Results: All PPI and ART parameter values were significantly different between study and control groups. Cornea minimum radius of curvature, absolute distance from corneal apex to thinnest location, as well as the distance from corneal apex to thinnest location in Y-axis also demonstrated statistically significant differences. The mean ART values for keratoconus eyes were 241 µm (ART-maximum and 352 µm (ART-average, falling within previously reported best cutoff values for detecting keratoconus. On receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, the area under the curve values were highest for PPI and ART parameters. Conclusion: There are significant differences in tomographic parameters between stage 1 keratoconic and normal Asian eyes. Pachymetric indices such as the PPI and the ART index can serve as additional tools in differentiating keratoconic from normal eyes. The findings validate the usefulness of the ART in identifying keratoconic eyes in Asians. Keywords: keratoconus, pentacam, corneal tomography, Ambrósio relational thickness

  5. Relationship between eye dominance and pattern electroretinograms in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Umit; Gunduz, Kemal; Okudan, Nilsel; Gokbel, Hakki; Bodur, Sait; Tan, Uner

    2005-02-01

    The authors conducted a study in 100 non-smoker healthy normal human subjects to find a relationship between eye dominance and macular function as tested by using transient stimulus and electroretinography. Eye preference procedure was carried out using two reference points and pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) were recorded using black and white checks, each check subtending 23'. Trace averager was retriggered every 300 milliseconds (ms) with data collection time of 150 ms. The difference in PERG P50 amplitudes between right and left eyes was analyzed using Student's t test. There was no significant difference in PERG P50 amplitudes between the right and left eye dominant subjects as well as no significant differences between the right and left eyes in right eye dominants and left eye dominants, but in the left-eye dominant group the left eye PERG P50 amplitudes were significantly higher in females than males. Although pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials of healthy subjects provide electrophysiological evidence of lateralization in the nervous system, sensory eye dominance seems to have no correlation with macular function.

  6. Comparison of saccadic reaction time between normal and glaucoma using an eye movement perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Mazumdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the saccadic reaction time (SRT in both the central and peripheral visual field in normal and glaucomatous eyes using eye movement perimetery (EMP. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four normal and 25 glaucoma subjects underwent EMP and visual field testing on the Humphrey Field Analyser (HFA 24-2 program. The EMP is based on infrared tracking of the corneal reflex. Fifty-four test locations corresponding to the locations on the 24-2 HFA program were tested. SRTs at different eccentricities and for different severities of glaucoma were compared between normal and glaucoma subjects. Results: Mean SRT was calculated for both normal and glaucoma subjects. Mann-Whitney U test showed statistically significant (P < 0.001 differences in SRT′s between normal and glaucoma subjects in all zones. Conclusion: SRT was prolonged in eyes with glaucoma across different eccentricities.

  7. Frequency Domain Electroretinography in Retinitis Pigmentosa versus Normal Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Hassan-Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare electroretinogram (ERG characteristics in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP and normal subjects using frequency domain analysis. Methods: Five basic ERG recordings were performed in normal subjects and patients with a clinical diagnosis of RP according to the ISCEV (International Society of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision protocol. Frequency domain analysis was performed by MATLAB software. Different frequency domain parameters were compared between the study groups. Results: Peak frequency (Fmod of flicker and oscillatory responses in RP patients showed significant (P<0.0001 high pass response as compared to normal controls. Peak frequency (Fmod of the other responses was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: In addition to conventional ERG using time domain methods, frequency domain analysis may be useful for diagnosis of RP. Oscillatory and flicker responses may be analyzed in frequency domain. Fast Fourier transform may reveal two distinct high pass responses (shift to higher frequencies in Fmod. Time and frequency domain analyses may be performed simultaneously with many modern ERG machines and may therefore be recommended in RP patients.

  8. Corneal aberrations in normal and keratoconic eyes using an OPD-Scan Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naderan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate higher order aberrations(HOAsof the corneal surface in normal and keratoconic eyes.METHODS: Using an OPD-Scan Ⅱ wavefront analyzer, aberrometric parameters of the corneal surface in one eye of 80 patients with keratoconus(KCand 91 participants with normal eyes were evaluated. The Zernike coefficients from third- to sixth-order as well as root mean square(RMSof primary coma, coma-like aberrations, and total HOA were calculated and compared between both groups.RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in all aberrometric parameters between the measurements of the KC and normal participants(PPCONCLUSION: Corneal wavefront measurements by means of OPD-Scan Ⅱ were significantly higher in keratoconic corneas than normal corneas.

  9. Development of the New Zealand White Rabbit Eye: I. Pre- and Postnatal Development of Eye Tunics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, M; Haddad, S; Emam, M

    2017-10-01

    The New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit has been and is right now regularly utilized in ophthalmic surgery evaluation. Inside NZW rabbit eye, the visibility of ocular structures throughout surgical procedure is fantastic. Younger rabbits are used in different ages for the evaluation of ophthalmic surgery. Complete studies of ocular development in the NZW rabbits have not been reported previously. The aim of the present investigation was to describe the major landmarks and the time course of the pre- and post-natal development of the complete eye tunics of the NZW rabbit to give a superb model as well as a fruitful area for further ophthalmological investigations. Serial histological sections of NZW rabbit prenatal (E13-E28) and post-natal (P1-P14) stages were examined, respectively. The eye of the NZW rabbit developed in a similar manner to that of the human and domestic animals eyes; the principal differences were at the time of occurrence of certain developmental events, absence of pigmentation which represent an exploited benefit for ophthalmic surgery, remarkable Bowman's membrane at E25, poor developed ciliary stroma and juvenile retinal layer until P9. In human, the basic morphogenetic processes of the development of eye tunics are completed towards the end of the first half of gestation period. However, the latter represents the beginning stage of the development of eye tunics in the rabbit. Thus, allowing various extensive ophthalmic researches to be performed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Association between the percent tissue altered and post-laser in situ keratomileusis ectasia in eyes with normal preoperative topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Smadja, David; Gomes, Beatriz F; Mello, Glauco R; Monteiro, Mario L R; Wilson, Steven E; Randleman, J Bradley

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the association of a novel metric, percent tissue altered, with the occurrence of ectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in eyes with normal corneal topography and to compare this metric with other recognized risk factors. Retrospective case-control study. The study included 30 eyes from 16 patients with bilateral normal preoperative Placido-based corneal topography that developed ectasia after LASIK (ectasia group) and 174 eyes from 88 consecutive patients with uncomplicated LASIK and at least 3 years of postoperative follow-up. The following metrics were evaluated: age, preoperative central corneal thickness, residual stromal bed, Ectasia Risk Score System scores, and percent tissue altered, derived from [PTA = (FT + AD)/CCT], where FT = flap thickness, AD = ablation depth, and CCT = preoperative central corneal thickness. In the ectasia group, percent tissue altered ≥40 was the most prevalent factor (97%), followed by age ectasia risk score ≥ 3 (43%) (P ectasia risk score ≥ 4 (8). Stepwise logistic regression revealed percent tissue altered ≥ 40 as the single most significant independent variable (P ectasia in eyes with normal preoperative topography and was a more robust indicator of risk than all other variables in this patient population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimising RGP lens fitting in normal eyes using 3D topographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Worp, Eef; de Brabander, John; Lubberman, Ben; Marin, Gildas; Hendrikse, Fred

    2002-06-01

    To analyse, retrospectively, the effect of fitting characteristics on comfort of wear and the role that 3D topographic data can play in attaining an optimal lens fit with rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses in normal eyes. Included were 60 normal myopic eyes (1.00-5.00 D) with astigmatism limited to 2.00 D. Lenses were ordered empirically, based on traditional fitting rules. The initial fit based on traditional computation was accepted in 40% of the eyes. To achieve an acceptable fit, 15% of the eyes needed an adaptation of the back optic zone radius, in 28% switching from a multicurve to an aspheric lens design was indicated and in 17% a non-rotational symmetric lens design was favoured. The reason for changing the lens parameters could in 88% be attributed to mid-peripheral differences between corneal shape as found with 3D corneal topography. Average comfort of wear improved statistically significantly (chi(2), P<0.05) from 5.2 initially to 7.7 after 3 months in the group with optimal lens fits, while comfort slightly decreased (not significant) in the group with sub-optimal fits. Switching to a non-rotational symmetric lens design, when indicated, improved comfort significantly (chi(2), P<0.05) from 5.0 to 7.3. In normal eyes, the measurement of corneal shape, especially in the mid-peripheral regions, is of importance to optimise RGP lens fit. Optimised lens fits increases comfort of wear.

  12. Pax genes in eye development and evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2005), s. 430-438 ISSN 0959-437X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/04/1358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : paxpax * eye development * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.361, year: 2005

  13. Effects of adrenergic drugs on aqueous humour dynamics in the normal human eye. I. Salbutamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakes, R L; Siah, P B

    1984-06-01

    The immediate effects of topical salbutamol, a beta 2 adrenergic agonist, on the aqueous humour dynamics of 22 normal subjects was studied by fluorophotometry and tonography. Significant lowering of intraocular pressure was accompanied by a significant increase in both aqueous flow rate and tonographic facility of outflow. Uveoscleral outflow was calculated and found to be significantly increased by salbutamol. This appeared to be the predominant acute pressure lowering effect of beta receptor stimulation in the normal human eye.

  14. Discussion and Future Directions for Eye Tracker Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Mulvey, Fiona; Mardanbegi, Diako

    2011-01-01

    Eye and gaze tracking have a long history but there is still plenty of room for further development. In this concluding chapter for Section 6, we consider future perspectives for the development of eye and gaze tracking.......Eye and gaze tracking have a long history but there is still plenty of room for further development. In this concluding chapter for Section 6, we consider future perspectives for the development of eye and gaze tracking....

  15. ORA waveform-derived biomechanical parameters to distinguish normal from keratoconic eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Luz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA; Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Buffalo, NY to distinguish between normal and keratoconic eyes, by comparing pressure and waveform signal-derived parameters. METHODS: This retrospective comparative case series study included 112 patients with normal corneas and 41 patients with bilateral keratoconic eyes. One eye from each subject was randomly selected for analysis. Keratoconus diagnosis was based on clinical examinations, including Placido disk-based corneal topography and rotating Scheimpflug corneal tomography. Data from the ORA best waveform score (WS measurements were extracted using ORA software. Corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldman-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg, cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc, and 37 parameters derived from the waveform signal were analyzed. Differences in the distributions among the groups were assessed using the Mann-Whitney test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were calculated. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences between keratoconic and normal eyes were found in all parameters (p<0.05 except IOPcc and W1. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC was greater than 0.85 for 11 parameters, including CH (0.852 and CRF (0.895. The parameters related to the area under the waveform peak during the second and first applanations (p2area and p1area had the best performances, with AUROCs of 0.939 and 0.929, respectively. The AUROCs for CRF, p2area, and p1area were significantly greater than that for CH. CONCLUSION: There are significant differences in biomechanical metrics between normal and keratoconic eyes. Compared with the pressure-derived parameters, corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor, novel waveform-derived ORA parameters provide better identification of keratoconus.

  16. ORA waveform-derived biomechanical parameters to distinguish normal from keratoconic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Allan; Fontes, Bruno Machado; Lopes, Bernardo; Ramos, Isaac; Schor, Paulo; Ambrósio, Renato

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA; Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Buffalo, NY) to distinguish between normal and keratoconic eyes, by comparing pressure and waveform signal-derived parameters. This retrospective comparative case series study included 112 patients with normal corneas and 41 patients with bilateral keratoconic eyes. One eye from each subject was randomly selected for analysis. Keratoconus diagnosis was based on clinical examinations, including Placido disk-based corneal topography and rotating Scheimpflug corneal tomography. Data from the ORA best waveform score (WS) measurements were extracted using ORA software. Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldman-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), and 37 parameters derived from the waveform signal were analyzed. Differences in the distributions among the groups were assessed using the Mann-Whitney test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated. Statistically significant differences between keratoconic and normal eyes were found in all parameters (p<0.05) except IOPcc and W1. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) was greater than 0.85 for 11 parameters, including CH (0.852) and CRF (0.895). The parameters related to the area under the waveform peak during the second and first applanations (p2area and p1area) had the best performances, with AUROCs of 0.939 and 0.929, respectively. The AUROCs for CRF, p2area, and p1area were significantly greater than that for CH. There are significant differences in biomechanical metrics between normal and keratoconic eyes. Compared with the pressure-derived parameters, corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor, novel waveform-derived ORA parameters provide better identification of keratoconus.

  17. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN VISUAL FUNCTION AND SUBRETINAL DRUSENOID DEPOSITS IN NORMAL AND EARLY AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION EYES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, David; Zarubina, Anna V; Clark, Mark E; Huisingh, Carrie E; Jackson, Gregory R; Zhang, Yuhua; McGwin, Gerald; Curcio, Christine A; Owsley, Cynthia

    2017-07-01

    To examine the association between subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDDs) identified by multimodal retinal imaging and visual function in older eyes with normal macular health or in the earliest phases of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Age-related macular degeneration status for each eye was defined according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) 9-step classification system (normal = Step 1, early AMD = Steps 2-4) based on color fundus photographs. Visual functions measured were best-corrected photopic visual acuity, contrast and light sensitivity, mesopic visual acuity, low-luminance deficit, and rod-mediated dark adaptation. Subretinal drusenoid deposits were identified through multimodal imaging (color fundus photographs, infrared reflectance and fundus autofluorescence images, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography). The sample included 1,202 eyes (958 eyes with normal health and 244 eyes with early AMD). In normal eyes, SDDs were not associated with any visual function evaluated. In eyes with early AMD, dark adaptation was markedly delayed in eyes with SDDs versus no SDD (a 4-minute delay on average), P = 0.0213. However, this association diminished after age adjustment, P = 0.2645. Other visual functions in early AMD eyes were not associated with SDDs. In a study specifically focused on eyes in normal macular health and in the earliest phases of AMD, early AMD eyes with SDDs have slower dark adaptation, largely attributable to the older ages of eyes with SDD; they did not exhibit deficits in other visual functions. Subretinal drusenoid deposits in older eyes in normal macular health are not associated with any visual functions evaluated.

  18. Eye contact effects on social preference and face recognition in normal ageing and in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopis, D; Baltazar, M; Geronikola, N; Beaucousin, V; Conty, L

    2017-12-01

    Perceiving a direct gaze (i.e. another individual's gaze directed to the observer leading to eye contact) influences positively a wide range of cognitive processes. In particular, direct gaze perception is known to stimulate memory for other's faces and to increase their likeability. Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in social withdrawal and cognitive decline. However, patients show preserved eye contact behaviours until the middle stage of the disease. The eye contact effects could be preserved in AD and be used to compensate for cognitive and social deficits. Yet, it is unknown whether these effects are preserved in normal ageing. The aim of this study was to address whether the positive effects of eye contact on memory for faces and likeability of others are preserved in healthy older adults and in patients with early to mild AD. Nineteen AD patients, 20 older adults and 20 young adults participated in our study. Participants were first presented with faces displaying either direct or averted gaze and rated each face's degree of likeability. They were then asked to identify the faces they had previously seen during a surprise recognition test. Results showed that the effect of eye contact on other's likeability was preserved in normal ageing and in AD. By contrast, an effect of eye contact on memory for faces seems to emerge only in young participants, suggesting that this effect declines with ageing. Interestingly, however, AD patients show a positive correlation between ratings of likeability and recognition scores, suggesting that they implicitly allocated their encoding resources to most likeable faces. These results open a new way for a "compensating" therapy in AD.

  19. Effect of Low-Level Laser Stimulation on EEG Power in Normal Subjects with Closed Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Huah Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we found that the low-level laser (LLL stimulation at the palm with a frequency of 10 Hz was able to induce significant brain activation in normal subjects with opened eyes. However, the electroencephalography (EEG changes to LLL stimulation in subjects with closed eyes have not been studied. In the present study, the laser array stimulator was applied to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm of the tested subjects with closed eyes (the laser group. The EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The EEG amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band at 19 locations were calculated. These power data were then analyzed by SPSS software using repeated-measure ANOVAs and appropriate posthoc tests. We found a pronounced decrease in the EEG power in alpha-bandwidth during laser simulation and then less decrease in the EEG power in delta-bandwidth in normal subjects with laser stimulation. The EEG power in beta-bandwidth in the right occipital area also decreased significantly in the laser group. We suggest that LLL stimulation might be conducive to falling into sleep in patients with sleep problems.

  20. The medical eye: Conclusions from eye tracking research on expertise development in medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Jaarsma, Thomas; Dewhurst, Richard; Boshuizen, Els

    2013-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Jaarsma, T., Dewhurst, R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, October). The medical eye: Conclusions from eye tracking research on expertise development in medicine. Paper presented at the New tools and practices for seeing and learning in medicine ’12, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

  1. Comparison of macular OCTs in right and left eyes of normal people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudi, Tahereh; Kafieh, Rahele; Rabbani, Hossein; Mehri dehnavi, Alireza; Akhlagi, Mohammadreza

    2014-03-01

    Retinal 3D Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality in ocular diseases. Due to large volumes of OCT data, it is better to utilize automatic extraction of information from OCT images, such as total retinal thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT). These two thickness values have become useful indices to indicate the progress of diseases like glaucoma, according to the asymmetry between two eyes of an individual. Furthermore, the loss of ganglion cells may not be diagnosable by other tests and even not be evaluated when we only consider the thickness of one eye (due to dramatic different thickness among individuals). This can justify our need to have a comparison between thicknesses of two eyes in symmetricity. Therefore, we have proposed an asymmetry analysis of the retinal nerve layer thickness and total retinal thickness around the macula in the normal Iranian population. In the first step retinal borders are segmented by diffusion map method and thickness profiles were made. Then we found the middle point of the macula by pattern matching scheme. RNFLT and retinal thickness are analyzed in 9 sectors and the mean and standard deviation of each sector in the right and left eye are obtained. The maximums of the average RNFL thickness in right and left eyes are seen in the perifoveal nasal, and the minimums are seen in the fovea. Tolerance limits in RNFL thickness is shown to be between 0.78 to 2.4 μm for 19 volunteers used in this study.

  2. A naked-eye colorimetric "PCR developer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Paola; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Despite several advances in molecular biology and diagnostics, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is currently the gold standard for nucleic acids amplification and detection, due to its versatility, low-cost and universality, with estimated market of several billion dollars/year. Nevertheless, PCR still relies on the laborious, time-consuming, and multi-step gel electrophoresis-based detection, which includes gel casting, electrophoretic run, gel staining, and gel visualization. In this work, we propose a "PCR developer", namely a universal one-step, one-tube method, based on controlled aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), to detect PCR products by naked eye in few minutes, with no need for any instrumentation. We demonstrated the specificity and sensitivity of the PCR developer on different model targets, suitable for a qualitative detection in real-world diagnostics (i.e., gene rearrangements, genetically modified organisms, and pathogens). The PCR developer proved to be highly specific and ultra-sensitive, discriminating down to few copies of HIV viral DNA, diluted in an excess of interfering human genomic DNA, which is a clinically relevant viral load. Hence, it could be a valuable tool for both academic research and clinical applications.

  3. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, E A; Tiffany, J M; Yokoi, N; Bron, A J

    2010-01-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  4. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  5. The mechanism of timolol in lowering intraocular pressure. In the normal eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakes, R L; Brubaker, R F

    1978-11-01

    A single-drop, double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the mechanism of the ocular-pressure lowering property of timolol maleate, a beta-adrenergic blocker, was carried out in 23 normal subjects, using fluorophotometry. Timolol suppressed aqueous formation in all subjects. The range of suppression was 13% to 48%, with a mean +/- SD of 34% +/- 9%. The drug had no effect on anterior chamber volume or endothelial permeability to fluorescein and, apparently, had no effect on outflow resistance. No differences were observed between its effect on men and women or between eyes with light and dark irides.

  6. Development of an Interactive Anatomical Three-Dimensional Eye Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lauren K.; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    The discrete anatomy of the eye's intricate oculomotor system is conceptually difficult for novice students to grasp. This is problematic given that this group of muscles represents one of the most common sites of clinical intervention in the treatment of ocular motility disorders and other eye disorders. This project was designed to develop a…

  7. Anterior segment angiography of the normal canine eye: a comparison between indocyanine green and sodium fluorescein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, C G; Alario, A

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare indocyanine green (IG) and sodium fluorescein (SF) angiographic findings in the normal canine anterior segment using a digital single lens reflex (dSLR) camera adaptor. Images were obtained from 10 brown-eyed Beagles, free of ocular and systemic disease. All animals received butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg IM), maropitant citrate (1.0 mg/kg SC) and diphenhydramine (2.0 mg/kg SC) 20 min prior to propofol (4 mg/kg IV bolus, 0.2 mg/kg/min continuous rate infusion). Standard color imaging was performed prior to the administration of 0.25% IG (1 mg/kg IV). Imaging was performed using a full spectrum dSLR camera, dSLR camera adaptor, camera lens (Canon 60 mm f/2.8 Macro) and an accessory flash. Images were obtained at a rate of 1/s immediately following IG bolus for 30 s, then at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 min. Ten minutes later, 10% SF (20 mg/kg IV) was administered. Imaging was repeated using the same adaptor system and imaging sequence protocol. Arterial, capillary and venous phases were identified during anterior segment IG angiography (ASIGA) and their time sequences were recorded. ASIGA offered improved visualization of the iris vasculature in heavily pigmented eyes compared to anterior segment SF angiography (ASSFA), since visualization of the vascular pattern during ASSFA was not possible due to pigment masking. Leakage of SF was noted in a total of six eyes. The use of IG and SF was not associated with any observed adverse events. The adaptor described here provides a cost-effective alternative to existing imaging systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of optic disc topography in non-glaucomatous eyes of children with juvenile diabetes mellitus and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgin, Ufuk; Cankaya, Bülent; Simsek, Tulay; Batman, Aygen

    2010-01-01

    To compare the optic disc topography parameters of children with juvenile diabetes mellitus and normal children using the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT III) (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). The topographic optic disc parameters (cup volume, cup area, rim volume, rim area, disc area, mean cup-to-disc ratio, and mean cup depth) of 28 non-glaucomatous eyes of 28 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 28 eyes of 28 age-matched healthy children were compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. No statistically significant differences were found between cup volume (P = .782), cup area (P = .878), rim volume (P = .853), disc area (P = .452), mean cup-to-disc ratio (P = .852), and mean cup depth (P = .711) of eyes of cases with diabetes mellitus and normal subjects. This result suggests that non-glaucomatous eyes of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects have similar topographic optic disc characteristics. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. SU-F-T-51: Investigating the Effect of Eye Size and Eccentricity On Normal Tissue Doses From Eye Plaque Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsdofer, E; Crilly, R [Oregon Health & Science University Portland, OR (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study investigates the effect of eye size and eccentricity on doses to critical tissues by simulating doses in the Plaque Simulator (v. 6.3.1) software. Present OHSU plaque brachytherapy treatment focuses on delivering radiation to the tumor measured with ocular ultrasound plus a small margin and assumes the orbit has the dimensions of a “standard eye.” Accurately modeling the dimensions of the orbit requires a high resolution ocular CT. This study quantifies how standard differences in equatorial diameters and eccentricity affect calculated doses to critical structures in order to query the justification of the additional CT scan to the treatment planning process. Methods: Tumors of 10 mm × 10 mm × 5 mm were modeled at the 12:00:00 hour with a latitude of 45 degrees. Right eyes were modeled at a number of equatorial diameters from 17.5 to 28 mm for each of the standard non-notched COMS plaques with silastic inserts. The COMS plaques were fully loaded with uniform activity, centered on the tumor, and prescribed to a common tumor dose (85 Gy/100 hours). Variations in the calculated doses to normal structures were examined to see if the changes were significant. Results: The calculated dose to normal structures show a marked dependence on eye geometry. This is exemplified by fovea dose which more than doubled in the smaller eyes and nearly halved in the larger model. Additional significant dependence was found in plaque size on the calculated dose in spite of all plaques giving the same dose to the prescription point. Conclusion: The variation in dose with eye dimension fully justifies the addition of a high resolution ocular CT to the planning technique. Additional attention must be made to plaque size beyond simply covering the tumor when considering normal tissue dose.

  10. Vascular expression of endothelial antigen PAL-E indicates absence of blood-ocular barriers in the normal eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlingemann, R O; Hofman, P; Anderson, L; Troost, D; van der Gaag, R

    1997-01-01

    The endothelium-specific antigen PAL-E is expressed in capillaries and veins throughout the body with the exception of the brain, where the antigen is absent from anatomical sites with a patent blood-brain barrier. In this study we determined vascular endothelial staining for PAL-E in the normal eye in relation to the ocular blood-tissue barriers. Immunohistochemical staining of frozen tissue sections of eyes from 22 cornea donors and a number of normal animal autopsy eyes was performed for the PAL-E antigen and the blood-brain barrier marker glucose transporter 1. In normal human and animal eyes, endothelial PAL-E staining was absent from the microvasculature in iris, ciliary muscle, optic nerve and retina. In a few normal human eyes, some weakly stained capillaries were observed in the retina and nerve fiber layer, mostly in the peripapillary area. Marked staining of capillaries and venules with PAL-E was observed in the conjunctiva, episclera, sclera, ciliary processes, choriocapillaris and optic nerve head. In general, the endothelial antigen PAL-E is absent from microvessels involved in the blood-ocular and the blood-retinal barriers. PAL-E may therefore be a useful marker to identify pathological breakdown of blood-ocular barriers.

  11. Dimensions of the foveal avascular zone using the Heidelberg retinal angiogram-2 in normal eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Deepa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose was to study the dimensions of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ using Heidelberg Retinal Angiogram-2 (HRA-2; Heidelberg Engineering GmBH, Dossenheim, Germany. Materials and Methods: An observational study of the FAZ area and circumference was done with fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA using HRA-2 in 31 normal individuals. The FAZ was studied using both contrast-adjusted and nonadjusted methods. Contrast adjustment was done to obtain better visualization of the finer capillaries around the fovea enabling more precise measurements of the FAZ in normal eyes. Results: The mean area of the FAZ calculated by the contrast-adjusted method was 0.2753 mm 2 (±0.074 and the mean circumference was 2.22 mm (±0.048. By the conventional method, the area and circumference of the FAZ were 0.6241 mm 2 (±0.177 and 3.23 mm (±0.454, respectively. Conclusion: The measurements of area and circumference of FAZ using contrast-adjusted methods were significantly smaller than the conventional method.

  12. Spectral-Domain OCT Analysis of Regional Epithelial Thickness Profiles in Keratoconus, Postoperative Corneal Ectasia, and Normal Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Karolinne Maia; Straziota, Claudia Perez; Stulting, R. Doyle; Randleman, J. Bradley

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess corneal microarchitecture and regional epithelial thickness profile in eyes with keratoconus, postoperative corneal ectasia, and normal unoperated eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). METHODS Regional corneal epithelial thickness profiles of eyes with keratoconus (KC) and postoperative corneal ectasia (Ectasia) were measured with anterior segment SC OCT (Optovue RTVue-100, Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA) and compared retrospectively to those of normal eyes (Control). Epithelial thickness was assessed at 21 points, 0.5 mm apart, across the central 6-mm of the corneal apex in the horizontal and vertical meridians. RESULTS One hundred twenty eyes were evaluated, including 49 eyes from 29 patients with KC, 32 eyes from 16 patients with Ectasia, and 39 eyes from 21 control patients. Average epithelial thickness at the corneal apex was 41.18±6.47μm (range 30 to 51 μm) in eyes with KC, 46.5±6.72μm in eyes with ectasia (range 34 to 60 μm), and 50.45±3.92 μm in normal eyes (range 42 to 55 μm). Apical epithelial thickness was significantly thinner in eyes with KC (p ectasia (p=.0007) than it was in controls. Epithelial thickness ranges in all other areas varied widely for KC (SD, range 21 to 101 μm) and ectasia (SD, range 30 to 82 μm) compared to controls (SD, range 43 to 64), p = .0063 CONCLUSION Central epithelial thickness was, on average, significantly thinner in ectatic corneas compared to controls; however, both central and regional epithelial thickness was highly irregular and variable in corneas with keratoconus and postoperative corneal ectasia. These thickness variations may alter preoperative topographic features and measurements in unpredictable ways, especially steepest K values. Regional epithelial thickness cannot be assumed to be uniform in ectatic corneas and therefore may require direct measurement when considering treatments for which underlying stromal thickness is particularly important, such as

  13. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teenagers Baby's Vision Development: What to Expect the First Year Normal Vision Development in Children Refractive Errors in Children Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Children’s Eye Injuries: Prevention ...

  14. Macular thickness and macular volume measurements using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in normal Nepalese eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokharel A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amrit Pokharel,1 Gauri Shankar Shrestha,2 Jyoti Baba Shrestha2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital, 2B P Koirala Lions Centre for Ophthalmic Studies, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal Purpose: To record the normative values for macular thickness and macular volume in normal Nepalese eyes. Methods: In all, 126 eyes of 63 emmetropic subjects (mean age: 21.17±6.76 years; range: 10–37 years were assessed for macular thickness and macular volume, using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography over 6×6 mm2 in the posterior pole. A fast macular thickness protocol was employed. Statistics such as the mean, median, standard deviation, percentiles, and range were used, while a P-value was set at 0.05 to test significance. Results: Average macular thickness and total macular volume were larger in males compared to females. With each year of increasing age, these variables decreased by 0.556 µm and 0.0156 mm3 for average macular thickness and total macular volume, respectively. The macular thickness was greatest in the inner superior section and lowest at the center of the fovea. The volume was greatest in the outer nasal section and thinnest in the fovea. The central subfield thickness (r=-0.243, P=0.055 and foveal volume (r=0.216, P=0.09 did not correlate with age. Conclusion: Males and females differ significantly with regard to macular thickness and macular volume measurements. Reports by other studies that the increase in axial length reduced thickness and volume, were negated by this study which found a positive correlation among axial length, thickness, and volume. Keywords: macular thickness, macular volume, optical coherence tomography, Nepal

  15. Development and experimentation of an eye/brain/task testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Nora; Villarreal, James

    1987-01-01

    The principal objective is to develop a laboratory testbed that will provide a unique capability to elicit, control, record, and analyze the relationship of operator task loading, operator eye movement, and operator brain wave data in a computer system environment. The ramifications of an integrated eye/brain monitor to the man machine interface are staggering. The success of such a system would benefit users of space and defense, paraplegics, and the monitoring of boring screens (nuclear power plants, air defense, etc.)

  16. Mouse Dach2 mutants do not exhibit gross defects in eye development or brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard J; Pesah, Yakov I; Harding, Mark; Paylor, Richard; Mardon, Graeme

    2006-02-01

    Drosophila dachshund is a critical regulator of eye, brain, and limb formation. Vertebrate homologs, Dach1 and Dach2, are expressed in the developing retina, brain, and limbs, suggesting functional conservation of the dachshund/Dach gene family. Dach1 mutants die postnatally, but exhibit grossly normal development. Here we report the generation of Dach2 mutant mice. Although deletion of Dach2 exon 1 results in abrogation of RNA expression, Dach2 mutants are viable and fertile. Histochemical analysis reveals grossly normal Dach2 mutant eye development. In addition, a battery of neurological assays failed to yield significant differences in behavior between Dach2 mutants and controls. We discuss these findings in the light of published observations of DACH2 mutations in the human population. Finally, to test the functional conservation hypothesis, we generated Dach2; Dach1 double mutant mice. Dach double mutants die after birth, similar to Dach1 homozygotes. However, unlike Drosophila dachshund mutants that lack eyes and exhibit leg truncations, the eyes and limbs of Dach double mutants are present, suggesting differences between Dach and dachshund gene function during embryonic eye and limb formation.

  17. Quality of life in glaucoma patients and normal subjects related to the severity of damage in each eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Carreras, O; Anton, A; Mora, C; Pastor, L; Gudiña, S; Maull, R; Vega, Z; Castilla, M

    2017-11-01

    To assess the quality of life in glaucoma patients and normal subjects, and to assess its relationship with the severity of damage in each eye. A cross-sectional study was conducted with prospective selection of cases. The study included 464 subjects and were distributed into 4categories. Subjects included in group 1 had both eyes normal, that is with a normal intraocular pressure (IOP), optic disk and visual fields (VF), or mild glaucoma, defined as untreated IOP>21mmHg and abnormal VF with mean defect (MD) over -6dB. Group 2 consisted of patients with both eyes with mild or moderate glaucoma, defined as untreated IOP>21mmHg and abnormal VF with MD between -6 and -12dB. Group 3 included patients with moderate to severe glaucoma, that is, untreated IOP>21mmHg and abnormal VF with MD of less than -12dB in both eyes. Group 4 consisted of patients with asymmetric glaucoma damage, that is, they had one eye with severe glaucoma and the other eye normal or with mild glaucoma. All subjects completed 3 different questionnaires. Global quality of life was evaluated with EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D). Vision related quality of life was assessed with Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25). Quality of life related to ocular surface disease was measured with Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). VFQ-25 showed that group 3 had significantly lower scores than group 1 in mental health (P=.006), dependence (P=.006), colour vision (P=.002), and peripheral vision (P=.002). EQ-5D showed no significant differences between any group, but a trend was found to greater difficulty in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2, and in all dimensions. OSDI showed a higher score, or which was the same as a major disability, in groups 2 and 3 than group 1 (P=.021 and P=.014, respectively). VFQ-25 only found significant differences between group 1 and group 4. Dimensions with significant differences were found between group 1 and 3 (both eyes with advanced or moderate glaucoma). These were not found between group 1 and

  18. Rat Optic Nerve Head Anatomy within 3D Histomorphometric Reconstructions of Normal Control Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Marta; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Cepurna, William O.; Johnson, Elaine C.; Morrison, John C.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to three-dimensionally (3D) characterize the principal macroscopic and microscopic relationships within the rat optic nerve head (ONH) and quantify them in normal control eyes. Perfusion-fixed, trephinated ONH from 8 normal control eyes of 8 Brown Norway Rats were 3D histomorphometrically reconstructed, visualized, delineated and parameterized. The rat ONH consists of 2 scleral openings, (a superior neurovascular and inferior arterial) separated by a thin connective tissue strip we have termed the “scleral sling”. Within the superior opening, the nerve abuts a prominent extension of Bruch's Membrane (BM) superiorly and is surrounded by a vascular plexus, as it passes through the sclera, that is a continuous from the choroid into and through the dural sheath and contains the central retinal vein (CRV), (inferiorly). The inferior scleral opening contains the central retinal artery and three long posterior ciliary arteries which obliquely pass through the sclera to obtain the choroid. Bruch's Membrane Opening (BMO) is irregular and vertically elongated, enclosing the nerve (superiorly) and CRV and CRA (inferiorly). Overall mean BMO Depth, BMO Area, Choroidal Thickness and peripapillary Scleral Thickness were 29 μm, 56.5 × 103 μm2, 57 μm and 104 μm respectively. Mean anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) and posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO) radii were 201 ± 15 μm and 204 ± 16 μm, respectively. Mean optic nerve area at the ASCO and PSCO were 46.3 × 103 ± 4.4 × 103 μm2 and 44.1 × 103 ± 4.5 × 103 μm2 respectively. In conclusion, the 3D complexity of the rat ONH and the extent to which it differs from the primate have been under-appreciated within previous 2D studies. Properly understood, these anatomic differences may provide new insights into the relative susceptibilities of the rat and primate ONH to elevated intraocular pressure. PMID:26021973

  19. Rat optic nerve head anatomy within 3D histomorphometric reconstructions of normal control eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Marta; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K; Cepurna, William O; Johnson, Elaine C; Morrison, John C; Burgoyne, Claude F

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to three-dimensionally (3D) characterize the principal macroscopic and microscopic relationships within the rat optic nerve head (ONH) and quantify them in normal control eyes. Perfusion-fixed, trephinated ONH from 8 normal control eyes of 8 Brown Norway Rats were 3D histomorphometrically reconstructed, visualized, delineated and parameterized. The rat ONH consists of 2 scleral openings, (a superior neurovascular and inferior arterial) separated by a thin connective tissue strip we have termed the "scleral sling". Within the superior opening, the nerve abuts a prominent extension of Bruch's Membrane (BM) superiorly and is surrounded by a vascular plexus, as it passes through the sclera, that is a continuous from the choroid into and through the dural sheath and contains the central retinal vein (CRV), (inferiorly). The inferior scleral opening contains the central retinal artery and three long posterior ciliary arteries which obliquely pass through the sclera to obtain the choroid. Bruch's Membrane Opening (BMO) is irregular and vertically elongated, enclosing the nerve (superiorly) and CRV and CRA (inferiorly). Overall mean BMO Depth, BMO Area, Choroidal Thickness and peripapillary Scleral Thickness were 29 μm, 56.5 × 10(3) μm(2), 57 μm and 104 μm respectively. Mean anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) and posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO) radii were 201 ± 15 μm and 204 ± 16 μm, respectively. Mean optic nerve area at the ASCO and PSCO were 46.3 × 10(3)±4.4 × 10(3) μm(2) and 44.1 × 10(3)±4.5 × 10(3) μm(2) respectively. In conclusion, the 3D complexity of the rat ONH and the extent to which it differs from the primate have been under-appreciated within previous 2D studies. Properly understood, these anatomic differences may provide new insights into the relative susceptibilities of the rat and primate ONH to elevated intraocular pressure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SD-OCT analysis of regional epithelial thickness profiles in keratoconus, postoperative corneal ectasia, and normal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Karolinne Maia; Perez-Straziota, Claudia E; Perez-Straziota, E; Stulting, R Doyle; Randleman, J Bradley

    2013-03-01

    To assess corneal microarchitecture and regional epithelial thickness profile in eyes with keratoconus, postoperative corneal ectasia (ectasia), and normal unoperated eyes (controls) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Regional corneal epithelial thickness profiles were measured with anterior segment SD-OCT (Optovue RTVue-100, Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA). Epithelial thickness was assessed at 21 points, 0.5 mm apart, across the central 6-mm of the corneal apex in the horizontal and vertical meridians. One hundred twenty eyes were evaluated, including 49 eyes from 29 patients with keratoconus, 32 eyes from 16 patients with ectasia, and 39 eyes from 21 control patients. Average epithelial thickness at the corneal apex was 41.18 ± 6.47 μm (range: 30 to 51 μm) for keratoconus, 46.5 ± 6.72 μm for ectasia (range: 34 to 60 μm), and 50.45 ± 3.92 μm for controls (range: 42 to 55 μm). Apical epithelial thickness was significantly thinner in eyes with keratoconus (P ectasia (P = .0007) than in controls. Epithelial thickness ranges in all other areas varied widely for keratoconus (range: 21 to 101 μm) and ectasia (range: 30 to 82 μm) compared to controls (range: 43 to 64) (P = .0063). SD-OCT demonstrated significant central and regional epithelial thickness profile differences between keratoconus, ectasia, and control eyes, with significant variability and unpredictability in ectatic eyes. This regional irregularity may necessitate direct epithelial thickness measurement for treatments where underlying stromal variations may be clinically relevant, including corneal collagen cross-linking or topography-guided ablations. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Vascular expression of endothelial antigen PAL-E indicates absence of blood-ocular barriers in the normal eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlingemann, R. O.; Hofman, P.; Anderson, L.; Troost, D.; van der Gaag, R.

    1997-01-01

    The endothelium-specific antigen PAL-E is expressed in capillaries and veins throughout the body with the exception of the brain, where the antigen is absent from anatomical sites with a patent blood-brain barrier. In this study we determined vascular endothelial staining for PAL-E in the normal eye

  2. Eye growth and myopia development: Unifying theory and Matlab model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, George K; Mahadas, Kausalendra; Mohammad, Faisal

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article is to present an updated unifying theory of the mechanisms underlying eye growth and myopia development. A series of model simulation programs were developed to illustrate the mechanism of eye growth regulation and myopia development. Two fundamental processes are presumed to govern the relationship between physiological optics and eye growth: genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback. Cornea/lens is considered to have only a genetically pre-programmed component, whereas eye growth is considered to have both a genetically pre-programmed and a blur feedback component. Moreover, based on the Incremental Retinal-Defocus Theory (IRDT), the rate of change of blur size provides the direction for blur-driven regulation. The various factors affecting eye growth are shown in 5 simulations: (1 - unregulated eye growth): blur feedback is rendered ineffective, as in the case of form deprivation, so there is only genetically pre-programmed eye growth, generally resulting in myopia; (2 - regulated eye growth): blur feedback regulation demonstrates the emmetropization process, with abnormally excessive or reduced eye growth leading to myopia and hyperopia, respectively; (3 - repeated near-far viewing): simulation of large-to-small change in blur size as seen in the accommodative stimulus/response function, and via IRDT as well as nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), leading to the development of myopia; (4 - neurochemical bulk flow and diffusion): release of dopamine from the inner plexiform layer of the retina, and the subsequent diffusion and relay of neurochemical cascade show that a decrease in dopamine results in a reduction of proteoglycan synthesis rate, which leads to myopia; (5 - Simulink model): model of genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback components that allows for different input functions to simulate experimental manipulations that result in hyperopia, emmetropia, and myopia. These model simulation programs

  3. Optical coherence tomography of the preterm eye: from retinopathy of prematurity to brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Adam L; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Chen, Xi; Toth, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants with retinopathy of prematurity are at increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Because the neurosensory retina is an extension of the central nervous system, anatomic abnormalities in the anterior visual pathway often relate to system and central nervous system health. We describe optical coherence tomography as a powerful imaging modality that has recently been adapted to the infant population and provides noninvasive, high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging of the infant eye at the bedside. Optical coherence tomography has increased understanding of normal eye development and has identified several potential biomarkers of brain abnormalities and poorer neurodevelopment. PMID:28539807

  4. The corneoscleral shell of the eye: potentials of assessing biomechanical parameters in normal and pathological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Iomdina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews modern methods of evaluating the biomechanical properties of the corneoscleral shell of the eye that can be used both in the studies of the pathogenesis of various ophthalmic pathologies and in clinical practice. The biomechanical parameters of the cornea and the sclera have been shown to be diagnostically significant in assessing the risk of complications and the effectiveness of keratorefractive interventions, in the diagnosis and the prognosis of keratoconus, progressive myopia, or glaucoma. In clinical practice, a special device, Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA, has been used on a large scale. The analyzer is used to assess two parameters that characterize viscoelastic properties of the cornea — corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF. Reduced levels of CH and CRF have been noted after eximer laser surgery, especially that administered to patients who demonstrate a regression in the refraction effect or suffer from keratoconus. This fact justifies the use of these biomechanical parameters as additional diagnostic criteria in the evaluation of the state of the cornea. At the same time, ORA data are shown to reflect the biomechanical response to the impact of the air pulse not only from the cornea alone but also from the whole corneoscleral capsule. This is probably the cause of reduced CH in children with progressive myopia and a weakened supportive function of the sclera, as well as such reduction in glaucomatous adult patients. It is hypothesized that a low CH value is a result of remodeling of the connective tissue matrix of the corneoscleral shell of the eye and can be an independent factor testifying to a risk of glaucoma progression. Reduced CH in primary open-angle glaucoma occurs in parallel with the development of pathological structural changes of the optic disc, and deterioration of visual fields, which is an evidence of a specific character and sensitivity of this parameter. The

  5. Relationship Between Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Tilt and Glaucoma Development in Myopic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Han, Jong Chul; Kee, Changwon

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface tilt angle in myopic eyes and associate it with glaucoma development. In this retrospective study, medical records of myopic patients referred for glaucoma examination from July 1, 2012 to March 30, 2016 were reviewed. Comprehensive ophthalmic examination including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were performed. We measured the angle of anterior LC surface tilt against Bruch's membrane opening from optical coherence tomography images at the center of the clinical optic disc margin. In horizontal and vertical sections, the angles were defined as α and β, respectively. Patients were grouped according to the presence of glaucomatous damage and factors including optic nerve head morphologic parameters and LC tilt angles were compared between the 2 groups. Among 138 patients originally enrolled, 102 patients were finally analyzed. One eye from 1 patient was randomly chosen. Fifty-five eyes had glaucoma and 47 were normal. The degree of myopia and all optic nerve head morphologic parameters were not significantly different between the 2 groups. However, |α| and |β| were significantly larger in the glaucoma group (all Pglaucoma in normal-pressure myopic eyes. Angulation of the LC against Bruch's membrane opening plane might be associated with increased glaucoma susceptibility in myopic eyes. Further investigations are warranted before clinical utilization of LC tilt as glaucoma susceptibility biomarker.

  6. Lutein and its oxidized forms in eye structures throughout prenatal human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, Ina G; Yakovleva, Marina A; Tatikolov, Alexander S; Kononikhin, A S; Feldman, Tatiana B; Poltavtseva, Rimma A; Nikolaev, E N; Sukhikh, Gennady T; Ostrovsky, Mikhail A

    2017-07-01

    The presence of carotenoids in the vitreous body, retina, lens, retinal pigment epithelium together with choroid (hereinafter RPE), and ciliary body and iris together with choroidal stroma (hereinafter CBI) was studied throughout the second trimester of prenatal development of the human eye. It has been found that the vitreous body, retina, and RPE contain lutein and its oxidized forms. Zeaxanthin was not found in the tissues studied. The presence of lutein in the vitreous body is transient and no longer detected after 28 weeks of gestation. Lutein was not detected in the lens and CBI, but its oxidized forms were found. The presence of carotenoids in different tissues of the eye in the course of normal eye development and the antioxidant role of carotenoids are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Issue 3. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Bashisth N. Singh Parul Banerjee. Research Note Volume 94 Issue 3 September 2015 pp 493-495 ...

  8. Frizzled 3 acts upstream of Alcam during embryonic eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigfried, Franziska A; Cizelsky, Wiebke; Pfister, Astrid S; Dietmann, Petra; Walther, Paul; Kühl, Michael; Kühl, Susanne J

    2017-06-01

    Formation of a functional eye during vertebrate embryogenesis requires different processes such as cell differentiation, cell migration, cell-cell interactions as well as intracellular signalling processes. It was previously shown that the non-canonical Wnt receptor Frizzled 3 (Fzd3) is required for proper eye formation, however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that loss of Fzd3 induces severe malformations of the developing eye and that this defect is phenocopied by loss of the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (Alcam). Promoter analysis revealed the presence of a Fzd3 responsive element within the alcam promoter, which is responsible for alcam expression during anterior neural development. In-depth analysis identified the jun N-terminal protein kinase 1 (JNK1) and the transcription factor paired box 2 (Pax2) to be important for the activation of alcam expression. Altogether our study reveals that alcam is activated through non-canonical Wnt signalling during embryonic eye development in Xenopus laevis and shows that this pathway plays a similar role in different tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Millennium development goals and eye health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah B Faal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 2000, world leaders made a commitment to build a more equitable, prosperous and safer world by 2015 and launched the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. In the previous year, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020-VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has focused on the prevention of a disability-blindness and recognized a health issue-sight as a human right. Both global initiatives have made considerable progress with synergy especially on MDG 1-the reduction of poverty and the reduction in numbers of the blind. A review of the MDGs has identified the need to address disparities within and between countries, quality, and disability. Noncommunicable diseases are emerging as a challenge to the MDGs and Vision 2020:0 the Right to Sight. For the future, up to and beyond 2015, there will be need for both initiatives to continue to work in synergy to address present and emerging challenges.

  10. Normal temporal binding window but no sound-induced flash illusion in people with one eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Stefania S; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2018-04-19

    Integrating vision and hearing is an important way in which we process our rich sensory environment. Partial deprivation of the visual system from the loss of one eye early in life results in adaptive changes in the remaining senses (e.g., Hoover et al. in Exp Brain Res 216:565-74, 2012). The current study investigates whether losing one eye early in life impacts the temporal window in which audiovisual events are integrated and whether there is vulnerability to the sound-induced flash illusion. In Experiment 1, we measured the temporal binding window with a simultaneity judgement task where low-level auditory and visual stimuli were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies. People with one eye did not differ in the width of their temporal binding window, but they took longer to make judgements compared to binocular viewing controls. In Experiment 2, we measured how many light flashes were perceived when a single flash was paired with multiple auditory beeps in close succession (sound induced flash illusion). Unlike controls, who perceived multiple light flashes with two, three or four beeps, people with one eye were not susceptible to the sound-induced flash illusion. In addition, they took no longer to respond compared to both binocular and monocular (eye-patched) viewing controls. Taken together, these results suggest that the lack of susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion in people with one eye cannot be accounted for by the width of the temporal binding window. These results provide evidence for adaptations in audiovisual integration due to the reduction of visual input from the loss of one eye early in life.

  11. [Psychomotor development and its disorders: between normal and pathological development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericat, Agustina; Bibiana Orden, Alicia

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses some aspects of psychomotor development and its disorders, with special emphasis on psychomotor retardation. Diagnostic classifications of psychomotor problems, such as DSM-IV and CIE-10, are referred to and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. The concept of normality as a synonym for the statistical mean in the context of psychomotor disorders is also analyzed in order to consider its dynamic and variability, thereby avoiding the normality/pathology opposition, while some issues, such as the social and cultural aspects, are highlighted, making it possible to rethink the universality and relativity of psychomotor development.

  12. Comparison of Visual Function in Older Eyes in the Earliest Stages of Age-related Macular Degeneration to Those in Normal Macular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; Huisingh, Carrie; Clark, Mark E; Jackson, Gregory R; McGwin, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    To compare the ability of several visual functional tests in terms of the strength of their associations with the earliest phases of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which bears on their potential to serve as functional endpoints in evaluating treatments for early AMD and prevention strategies. Eyes from adults ≥60 years old were identified as being in normal macular health or in the earliest stages of AMD (steps 2, 3 or 4) through grading of color stereo-fundus photos by an experienced grader masked to all other study variables who used the 9-step Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) classification system for AMD severity. Visual function was assessed using the following tests: best-corrected visual acuity, low luminance visual acuity, spatial contrast sensitivity, macular cone-mediated light sensitivity and rod-mediated dark adaptation. A total of 1260 eyes were tested from 640 participants; 1007 eyes were in normal macular health (defined as step 1 in AREDS system) and 253 eyes had early AMD (defined as steps 2, 3 or 4). Adjusting for age and gender, early AMD eyes had two times the odds of having delayed rod-mediated dark adaptation than eyes in normal macular health (p = 0.0019). Visual acuity, low luminance acuity, spatial contrast sensitivity and macular light sensitivity did not differ between normal eyes and early AMD eyes. Eyes in the earliest phases of AMD were two times more likely to have delayed rod-mediated dark adaptation, as assessed by the rod-intercept, as compared to older eyes in normal macular health, whereas there was no difference in early AMD versus normal eyes in tests of visual acuity, low luminance acuity, macular light sensitivity and spatial contrast sensitivity.

  13. Effects of 0.2% brimonidine and 0.2% brimonidine-0.5% timolol on intraocular pressure and pupil size in normal equine eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Zup, M; Lassaline, M; Kass, P H; Miller, P E; Thomasy, S M

    2017-11-01

    Brimonidine is an α 2 -adrenergic agonist that decreases aqueous humour production and may increase uveoscleral outflow. It has not been evaluated in normal or glaucomatous equine eyes. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of brimonidine in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP), alone and in conjunction with timolol, as a treatment for equine glaucoma by comparing IOP in normal equine eyes treated with brimonidine and brimonidine-timolol, respectively, with IOP in control eyes. A balanced crossover design with 16 horses receiving one of two treatments, brimonidine and brimonidine-timolol, during each of two 10-day study phases, was used. Four horses were randomly assigned to each of four combinations of treated eye (right or left) and drug order within the two 10-day study phases (brimonidine first or brimonidine-timolol first). Pupil size and conjunctival hyperaemia were assessed twice per day and IOP was measured three times per day using rebound tonometry in both eyes of 16 normal horses throughout two 10-day study periods (brimonidine and brimonidine-timolol) separated by an 18-day washout period. One eye of each horse was treated with brimonidine or brimonidine-timolol and the opposite eye was treated with balanced salt solution (BSS). There were no adverse effects and no significant changes in pupil size in normal equine eyes treated with brimonidine or brimonidine-timolol. Average IOP in normal equine eyes treated with brimonidine (25.6 mmHg) was statistically higher than in eyes treated with brimonidine-timolol (24.6 mmHg) or BSS (24.5 mmHg). However, IOP differences were of ≤1 mmHg and thus not clinically important. Horses with normal eyes may not be as sensitive to the IOP-lowering effects of treatment as horses with glaucoma. Brimonidine and brimonidine-timolol are well tolerated in normal horses but do not decrease IOP. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Further development of forensic eye color predictive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Gomez-Tato, A; Alvarez-Dios, J; Casares de Cal, M; Cruz, R; Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Fondevila, M; Rodriguez-Cid, M J; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

    2013-01-01

    In forensic analysis predictive tests for external visible characteristics (or EVCs), including inference of iris color, represent a potentially useful tool to guide criminal investigations. Two recent studies, both focused on forensic testing, have analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes underlying common eye color variation (Mengel-From et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 4:323 and Walsh et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 5:170). Each study arrived at different recommendations for eye color predictive tests aiming to type the most closely associated SNPs, although both confirmed rs12913832 in HERC2 as the key predictor, widely recognized as the most strongly associated marker with blue and brown iris colors. Differences between these two studies in identification of other eye color predictors may partly arise from varying approaches to assigning phenotypes, notably those not unequivocally blue or dark brown and therefore occupying an intermediate iris color continuum. We have developed two single base extension assays typing 37 SNPs in pigmentation-associated genes to study SNP-genotype based prediction of eye, skin, and hair color variation. These assays were used to test the performance of different sets of eye color predictors in 416 subjects from six populations of north and south Europe. The presence of a complex and continuous range of intermediate phenotypes distinct from blue and brown eye colors was confirmed by establishing eye color populations compared to genetic clusters defined using Structure software. Our study explored the effect of an expanded SNP combination beyond six markers has on the ability to predict eye color in a forensic test without extending the SNP assay excessively - thus maintaining a balance between the test's predictive value and an ability to reliably type challenging DNA with a multiplex of manageable size. Our evaluation used AUC analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves) and na

  15. Normal Speed and Accuracy of Saccade and Vergence Eye Movements in Dyslexic Reader Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Bucci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Latency of eye movements depends on cortical structures while speed of execution and accuracy depends mostly on subcortical brainstem structures. Prior studies reported in dyslexic reader children abnormalities of latencies of saccades (isolated and combined with vergence; such abnormalities were attributed to deficits of fixation control and of visual attention. In this study we examine speed and accuracy characteristics of horizontal eye movements in natural space (saccades, vergence and combined movements in dyslexic reader children. Methods. Two paradigms are tested: gap paradigm (fixation offset 200 ms prior to target onset, producing shorter latencies, in both non-dyslexic reader and dyslexic reader children and simultaneous paradigm. Seventeen dyslexic reader children (mean age: 12±0.08 years and thirteen non-dyslexic reader children (mean age: 12±1 years were tested. Horizontal eye movements from both eyes were recorded simultaneously by a photoelectric device (Oculometer, Dr. Bouis. Results. For all movements tested (saccades, vergence, isolated or combined and for both paradigms, the mean velocity and accuracy were similar in dyslexic readers and non-dyslexic readers; no significant difference was found. Conclusion. This negative but important result, suggests no dysfunction of brainstem ocular motor circuits in dyslexic readers. It contrasts results on latencies related to visual attention dysfunction at cortical level.

  16. The refractive development of the eye of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius): a new avian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andison, M E; Sivak, J G; Bird, D M

    1992-06-01

    Most measures of avian visual performance are carried out on commonly available domestic species such as the chicken, and most of the data on avian induced refractive error deals with chickens. Raptors are predatory birds in which good visual resolving ability is particularly important. Behavioral studies indicate that the eyes of raptors have two to three times the resolving ability of the human eye. The domestic chicken is precocial at hatching whereas most raptors are semi-altricial. This study was an effort to determine if the effect of early visual deprivation on the refractive development of the chicken eye can be reproduced in the American kestrel, a species which is not domesticated and in which the need for acute vision is particularly important. Visual deprivation was achieved by unilaterally applying translucent plastic goggles over the eyes of kestrels two days after hatching. Refractive error was measured using a retinoscope and trial lenses. Ocular growth was monitored by A-scan ultrasonography, and frozen ocular sections of sacrificed birds. The effect of the experimental manipulation on the contralateral control eye and body weight was evaluated each day over a 42-day period. The goggles did not significantly affect the normal changes in body weight or the normal pattern of ocular growth and refractive development in the untreated eyes. An analysis of the refractive state changes as a result of form deprivation was made each week for 6 weeks after hatching on both the treated and untreated eyes in a separate group of experimental birds. Visual form deprivation caused a significant myopic shift in refractive error and a significant increase in the vitreous chamber depth in the treated eyes at 3 and 6 weeks of age. However, the amount of myopia produced is much less than that induced in chicks, and in certain cases hyperopia is produced. The kestrels recover from myopia and hyperopia within 10 days of goggle removal, after 3 to 4 weeks of deprivation

  17. Origin, development, and evolution of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Marín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR has led to a great number of studies since its appearance in 1989. The aim of this article is to describe EMDR development and evolution to the present day. With this purpose a search was carried out on MEDLINE and PsycINFO with the entry "eye movement desensitization". After revising the resulting 797 articles, those that because of their relevance explained best the development and evolution of the technique were chosen and shaped into a lifeline graphically representing the history of EMDR. Despite the fact that during the first years the focus of research was on the validation of the technique for post-traumatic disorder (PTSD, it was soon applied to other areas. Only 14% of the articles found account for controlled studies. Up to date, in spite of the effectiveness of EMDR for the treatment of PTSD that has been proven, many different explanatory hypotheses are still up for discussion.

  18. Dynamic changes of anterior segment in patients with different stages of primary angle-closure in both eyes and normal subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiu Lin

    Full Text Available To compare changes in anterior segment parameters under light and dark (light-to-dark conditions among eyes with chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma (CPACG, fellow eyes with confirmed or suspect primary angle-closure (PAC or PACS, and age-matched healthy eyes.Consecutive patients with CPACG in one eye and PAC/PACS in the fellow eye, as well as age-matched healthy subjects were recruited. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements were conducted under light and dark conditions, and anterior chamber, lens, and iris parameters compared. Demographic and biometric factors associated with light-to-dark change in iris area were analyzed by linear regression.Fifty-seven patients (mean age 59.6±8.9 years and 30 normal subjects matched for age (60.6±9.3 years and sex ratio were recruited. In regards to differences under light-to-dark conditions, angle opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500μm and iris area during light-to-dark transition were smaller in CPACG eyes than fellow PACS/PAC eyes and normal eyes (P<0.017. Pupil diameter change was largest in normal eyes, and larger in PACS/PAC eyes than CPACG eyes (P<0.017. There was an average reduction of 0.145 mm2 in iris area for each millimeter of pupil diameter increase in CPACG eyes, 0.161 mm2 in fellow PAC/PACS eyes, and 0.165 mm2 in normal eyes. Larger iris curvature in the dark and diagnosis of PACG were significantly associated with less light-to-dark iris area changes.Dynamic changes in iris parameters with light-to-dark transition differed significantly among CPACG eyes, fellow PAC/PACS eyes, and normal eyes. Greater iris curvature under dark conditions was correlated with reduced light-to-dark change in iris area and pupil diameter, which may contribute to disease progression.

  19. Comparison of choroidal thickness measurements between spectral-domain OCT and swept-source OCT in normal and diseased eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sidra Zafar,1 MA Rehman Siddiqui,2,3 Rida Shahzad1 1Medical College, Aga Khan University Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Shahzad Eye Hospital, 3South City Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Purpose: Sub-foveal choroidal thickness (SFCT is affected in many ocular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare SFCT measurements between Topcon 3D 2000 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT and Topcon swept-source OCT (SS-OCT, with different laser wavelengths, in normal and diseased populations. Materials and methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, noninterventional study including 27 normal volunteers and 27 participants with retinal disease. OCT scans were performed sequentially and under standardized conditions using both SD-OCT and SS-OCT. The OCT scans were evaluated by two independent graders. Paired t-tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were used to assess the statistically significant difference between SFCT measurements as measured by the two devices. Results: Mean SFCT measurements for all 54 participants were 264.9±103.1 µm using SD-OCT (range: 47–470 µm and 278.5±110.5 µm using SS-OCT (range: 56–502 µm, with an inter-device ICC of 0.850. Greater variability was noted in the diseased eyes. Inter-device ICCs were 0.870 (95% CI; 0.760–0.924 and 0.840 (95% CI; 0.654–0.930 for normal and diseased eyes, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.132. Conclusion: Both machines reliably measure SFCT. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. Keywords: choroidal imaging, diseased, normal, SD-OCT, SS-OCT

  20. Development of an interactive anatomical three-dimensional eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lauren K; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Wilson, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    The discrete anatomy of the eye's intricate oculomotor system is conceptually difficult for novice students to grasp. This is problematic given that this group of muscles represents one of the most common sites of clinical intervention in the treatment of ocular motility disorders and other eye disorders. This project was designed to develop a digital, interactive, three-dimensional (3D) model of the muscles and cranial nerves of the oculomotor system. Development of the 3D model utilized data from the Visible Human Project (VHP) dataset that was refined using multiple forms of 3D software. The model was then paired with a virtual user interface in order to create a novel 3D learning tool for the human oculomotor system. Development of the virtual eye model was done while attempting to adhere to the principles of cognitive load theory (CLT) and the reduction of extraneous load in particular. The detailed approach, digital tools employed, and the CLT guidelines are described herein. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Comparison of choroidal thickness measurements between spectral-domain OCT and swept-source OCT in normal and diseased eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sidra; Siddiqui, Ma Rehman; Shahzad, Rida

    2016-01-01

    Sub-foveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) is affected in many ocular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare SFCT measurements between Topcon 3D 2000 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and Topcon swept-source OCT (SS-OCT), with different laser wavelengths, in normal and diseased populations. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, noninterventional study including 27 normal volunteers and 27 participants with retinal disease. OCT scans were performed sequentially and under standardized conditions using both SD-OCT and SS-OCT. The OCT scans were evaluated by two independent graders. Paired t -tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess the statistically significant difference between SFCT measurements as measured by the two devices. Mean SFCT measurements for all 54 participants were 264.9±103.1 μm using SD-OCT (range: 47-470 μm) and 278.5±110.5 μm using SS-OCT (range: 56-502 μm), with an inter-device ICC of 0.850. Greater variability was noted in the diseased eyes. Inter-device ICCs were 0.870 (95% CI; 0.760-0.924) and 0.840 (95% CI; 0.654-0.930) for normal and diseased eyes, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant ( P =0.132). Both machines reliably measure SFCT. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  2. Genome-wide DNA binding pattern of the homeodomain transcription factor Sine oculis (So in the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Jusiak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The eye of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides a highly tractable genetic model system for the study of animal development, and many genes that regulate Drosophila eye formation have homologs implicated in human development and disease. Among these is the homeobox gene sine oculis (so, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor (TF that is both necessary for eye development and sufficient to reprogram a subset of cells outside the normal eye field toward an eye fate. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of So binding to DNA prepared from developing Drosophila eye tissue in order to identify candidate direct targets of So-mediated transcriptional regulation, as described in our recent article [20]. The data are available from NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO with the accession number GSE52943. Here we describe the methods, data analysis, and quality control of our So ChIP-seq dataset.

  3. Comparison of objective optical quality measured by double-pass aberrometry in patients with moderate dry eye: Normal saline vs. artificial tears: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeer, G; Chamy, Y; Pisella, P-J

    2018-02-01

    Dry eye is defined by a tear film instability resulting in variable but systematic fluctuations in quality of vision. Variability in optical quality can be demonstrated using a double pass aberrometer such as the Optical Quality Analyzing System, Visiometrics (OQAS). The goal of this work is to compare fluctuations in objective quality of vision measured by OQAS between treatment with normal saline eye drops and treatment with carmellose 0.5% and hyaluronic acid 0.1% (Optive Fusion [OF], Allergan) in patients with moderate dry eye syndrome. Optical quality was measured by evaluating the variations in the Optical Scattering Index (OSI) over 20seconds using the OQAS. Inclusion criteria were dry eye syndrome with an ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score >23 treated only with artificial tears. The patients were their own controls: OF in one eye and normal saline in the fellow eye. The choice of the subject eye and control eye was determined in a randomized fashion. OSI variations were measured in each eye before instillation, 5minutes and 2hours after instillation. The primary endpoint was OSI fluctuation over 20seconds of measurement. Secondary endpoints were the number of blinks and patient preference (preferred eye). Preliminary results were obtained on 19 patients. Average OSDI score was 36.8. Visual acuity was 10/10 with no significant difference between the two eyes. Prior to instillation, there was no significant difference between "normal saline" and "OF" eyes in terms of OSI, OSI variability or number of blinks. In the normal saline eye, there were no significant variations in mean OSI, OSI variability, OSI slope, or number of blinks. However, in the "OF" eye, there was a significant variation between initial and 2-hour OSI variability (0.363 versus 0.204, Pvision measured by OQAS is an interesting parameter for evaluating the effectiveness of a lacrimal substitute. The purpose of artificial tears is, among other things, to provide comfort and a reduction

  4. [Comparison of objective optical quality measured by double-pass aberrometry in patients with moderate dry eye: Normal saline vs. artificial tears: A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeer, G; Chamy, Y; Pisella, P-J

    2018-03-01

    Dry eye is defined by a tear film instability resulting in variable but systematic fluctuations in the quality of vision. Variability in optical quality can be demonstrated using a double pass aberrometer such as the OQAS (Optical Quality Analyzing System, Visiometrics). The goal of this work is to compare fluctuations in objective quality of vision measured by OQAS between treatment with normal saline eye drops and treatment with carmellose 0.5% and hyaluronic acid 0.1% (Optive Fusion [OF], Allergan) in patients with moderate dry eye syndrome. Optical quality was measured by evaluating the variations in the Optical Scattering Index (OSI) over 20seconds using the OQAS. Inclusion criteria were dry eye syndrome with an Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score>23 treated only with artificial tears. The patients were their own controls: OF in one eye and normal saline in the fellow eye. The choice of the subject eye and control eye was determined in a randomized fashion. OSI variations were measured in each eye before instillation, 5minutes and 2hours after instillation. The primary endpoint was OSI fluctuation over 20seconds of measurement. Secondary endpoints were the number of blinks and patient's preference (preferred eye). Preliminary results were obtained on 19 patients. Average OSDI score was 36.8. Visual acuity was 10/10 with no significant difference between the two eyes. Prior to instillation, there was no significant difference between "normal saline" and "OF" eyes in terms of OSI, OSI variability or number of blinks. In the normal saline eye, there was no significant variation in mean OSI, OSI variability, OSI slope, or number of blinks. However, in the "OF" eye, there was a significant variation between initial and 2-hour OSI variability (0.363 versus 0.204; Pvision measured by OQAS is an interesting parameter for evaluating the effectiveness of a lacrimal substitute. The purpose of artificial tears is, among other things, to provide comfort and a

  5. Comparison of Scheimpflug and swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography in normal and keratoconus eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Seyed Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Akbar; Abtahi, Zahra-Alsadat; Abtahi, Mohammad-Ali; Sonbolestan, Seyed Ali; Abtahi, Seyed-Hossein; Mohammadinia, Mohadeseh; Isfahani, Kimia Nekouie

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the agreement of anterior segment optical coherence tomography with its older well-known opponent i.e., Sheimpflug imaging in evaluation of the cornea in normal and keratoconus subjects. 107 normal and 56 keratoconus eyes were evaluated with the anterior segment optical coherence tomography followed by the Scheimpflug imaging. Parameters included axial keratometry data in both of steep and flat meridians, mean keratometry and the astigmatism values in the central 4.0 mm zone, central, thinnest and apex corneal thicknesses, Q-value in 8 mm zone and pupil diameter. Corneal topographic maps were recorded and were evaluated for anterior highest and lowest points, posterior highest and lowest points. Average values were recorded for analysis. All anterior cornea keratometry indices showed perfect agreement between two devices in normal corneas; while the level of agreement in keratoconus cases ranged from moderate to strong. All posterior keratometry indices also showed perfect agreement in both groups; except for flat K in normal corneas and steep K in KC ones. The amount of corneal cylinder in normal corneas had perfect agreement, and moderate to strong agreement in anterior/posterior cornea in keratoconus group. Anterior highest and lowest points showed strong and perfect agreement in normal and keratoconus cases, respectively. Posterior highest and lowest points showed strong agreement in normal cases. Thickness indices (central, thinnest, and apex thicknesses) showed perfect agreement between two devices in both normal and KC groups. Mean values of anterior and posterior highest points were statistically higher in Scheimpflug system. Although two imaging technologies had statistically numerical different output, it seems that they have a good agreement in most parameters.

  6. Physical Development: What's Normal? What's Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... largely by the genes inherited from the parents . Teen Growth Pattern Whatever pattern a teen's growth follows, it is during the pubertal years that ... See Physical Development in Girls: What to Expect . Growth in both ... of development is over, most teens grow no more than another inch or two. ...

  7. Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Eduardo J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses cornerstone of Montessori theory, normalization, which asserts that if a child is placed in an optimum prepared environment where inner impulses match external opportunities, the undeviated self emerges, a being totally in harmony with its surroundings. Makes distinctions regarding normalization, normalized, and normality, indicating how…

  8. Effects of adrenergic drugs on aqueous humour dynamics in the normal human eye. I. Salbutamol.

    OpenAIRE

    Coakes, R. L.; Siah, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    The immediate effects of topical salbutamol, a beta 2 adrenergic agonist, on the aqueous humour dynamics of 22 normal subjects was studied by fluorophotometry and tonography. Significant lowering of intraocular pressure was accompanied by a significant increase in both aqueous flow rate and tonographic facility of outflow. Uveoscleral outflow was calculated and found to be significantly increased by salbutamol. This appeared to be the predominant acute pressure lowering effect of beta recepto...

  9. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dilated eye exam once a year Photo courtesy of the National Eye Institute, NIH. Your eyes ... vessels can lead to serious vision problems. Photo courtesy of the National Eye Institute, NIH. Normal vision ...

  10. Development and validation of an eye care educational programme for intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ok-Hee; Yoo, Yang-Sook; Yun, Sun-Hee; Hwang, Kyung-Hye

    2017-07-01

    To develop and validate an eye care educational programme for intensive care unit nurses. Eye care guidelines and protocols have been developed for increasing eye care implementation in intensive care units. However, the guidelines lack consistency in assessment or intervention methodology. This was a one-sample pre/postprogramme evaluation study design for testing the effects of the eye care educational programme, developed for and applied to intensive care unit nurses, on their levels of knowledge and awareness. The eye care educational programme was developed based on literature review and survey of educational needs. Thirty intensive care unit nurses served as subjects for the study. The levels of eye care-related knowledge, awareness and practice were enhanced following the implementation of the educational programme. Moreover, satisfaction with the educational programme was high. It is necessary to intensify eye care education aimed at new nurses who are inexperienced in intensive care unit nursing and provide continuing education on the latest eye care methods and information to experienced nurses. The eye care educational programme developed in this study can be used as a strategy to periodically assess the eye status of patients and facilitate the appropriate eye care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Automated quantification of optic nerve axons in primate glaucomatous and normal eyes--method and comparison to semi-automated manual quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Juan; Cull, Grant; Wang, Lin; Fortune, Brad; Gardiner, Stuart; Burgoyne, Claude F; Cioffi, George A

    2012-05-01

    To describe an algorithm and software application (APP) for 100% optic nerve axon counting and to compare its performance with a semi-automated manual (SAM) method in optic nerve cross-section images (images) from normal and experimental glaucoma (EG) nonhuman primate (NHP) eyes. ON cross sections from eight EG eyes from eight NHPs, five EG and five normal eyes from five NHPs, and 12 normal eyes from 12 NHPs were imaged at 100×. Calibration (n = 500) and validation (n = 50) image sets ranging from normal to end-stage damage were assembled. Correlation between APP and SAM axon counts was assessed by Deming regression within the calibration set and a compensation formula was generated to account for the subtle, systematic differences. Then, compensated APP counts for each validation image were compared with the mean and 95% confidence interval of five SAM counts of the validation set performed by a single observer. Calibration set APP counts linearly correlated to SAM counts (APP = 10.77 + 1.03 [SAM]; R(2) = 0.94, P < 0.0001) in normal to end-stage damage images. In the validation set, compensated APP counts fell within the 95% confidence interval of the SAM counts in 42 of the 50 images and were within 12 axons of the confidence intervals in six of the eight remaining images. Uncompensated axon density maps for the normal and EG eyes of a representative NHP were generated. An APP for 100% ON axon counts has been calibrated and validated relative to SAM counts in normal and EG NHP eyes.

  12. Effect of acute intraocular pressure elevation on the minimum rim width in normal, ocular hypertensive and glaucoma eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sourabh; Tun, Tin A; Baskaran, Mani; Atalay, Eray; Thakku, Sri Gowtham; Liang, Zhang; Milea, Dan; Strouthidis, Nicholas G; Aung, Tin; Girard, Michael Ja

    2018-01-01

    To estimate and compare changes in the Bruch's membrane opening-minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) and area in normal, ocular hypertensive and glaucoma eyes following acute elevations in intraocular pressure (IOP). The optic nerve heads (ONHs) of 104 subjects (31 normals, 20 ocular hypertension (OHT) and 53 with primary glaucoma) were imaged using Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT; Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Germany). IOP was raised twice by applying a force (0.64 n then 0.9 n) to the anterior sclera using an ophthalmo-dynamometer. After each IOP increment, IOP was held constant, measured with a Tonopen (AVIA applanation tonometer, Reichert, Depew, New York, USA), and ONH was rescanned with OCT. In each OCT volume, BMO-MRW and area were calculated and at each IOP increment. The baseline MRW was significantly smaller in glaucoma subjects (174.3±54.3 µm) compared with normal (287.4±42.2 µm, pglaucoma subjects was significantly thinner at the first and second IOP elevations than that at baseline (both p0.05). Acute IOP elevation leads to compression of the nerve fibre layers of neuroretinal rim in glaucoma subjects only without changing ONH size. This suggests that the neural and connective tissues at ONH level in glaucoma subjects are more susceptible to acute IOP episodes than OHT or normal controls. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. More to it than meets the eye: how eye movements can elucidate the development of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathman, Thanujeni; Ghetti, Simona

    2016-07-01

    The ability to recognise past events along with the contexts in which they occurred is a hallmark of episodic memory, a critical capacity. Eye movements have been shown to track veridical memory for the associations between events and their contexts (relational binding). Such eye-movement effects emerge several seconds before, or in the absence of, explicit response, and are linked to the integrity and function of the hippocampus. Drawing from research from infancy through late childhood, and by comparing to investigations from typical adults, patient populations, and animal models, it seems increasingly clear that eye movements reflect item-item, item-temporal, and item-spatial associations in developmental populations. We analyse this line of work, identify missing pieces in the literature and outline future avenues of research, in order to help elucidate the development of episodic memory.

  14. "Differently normal" and "normally different": negotiations of female embodiment in women's accounts of 'atypical' sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntram, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    During recent decades numerous feminist scholars have scrutinized the two-sex model and questioned its status in Western societies and medicine. Along the same line, increased attention has been paid to individuals' experiences of atypical sex development, also known as intersex or 'disorders of sex development' (DSD). Yet research on individuals' experiences of finding out about their atypical sex development in adolescence has been scarce. Against this backdrop, the present article analyses 23 in-depth interviews with women who in their teens found out about their atypical sex development. The interviews were conducted during 2009-2012 and the interviewees were all Swedish. Drawing on feminist research on female embodiment and social scientific studies on diagnosis, I examine how the women make sense of their bodies and situations. First, I aim to explore how the women construe normality as they negotiate female embodiment. Second, I aim to investigate how the divergent manners in which these negotiations are expressed can be further understood via the women's different access to a diagnosis. Through a thematic and interpretative analysis, I outline two negotiation strategies: the "differently normal" and the "normally different" strategy. In the former, the women present themselves as just slightly different from 'normal' women. In the latter, they stress that everyone is different in some manner and thereby claim normalcy. The analysis shows that access to diagnosis corresponds to the ways in which the women present themselves as "differently normal" and "normally different", thus shedding light on the complex role of diagnosis in their negotiations of female embodiment. It also reveals that the women make use of what they do have and how alignments with and work on norms interplay as normality is construed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optical coherence tomography angiography vessel density mapping at various retinal layers in healthy and normal tension glaucoma eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joong Won; Sung, Kyung Rim; Lee, Ji Yun; Kwon, Junki; Seong, Mincheol

    2017-06-01

    To investigate peripapillary vessel density at various spatial locations and layers in healthy and normal tension glaucoma eyes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). A commercial OCTA device (AngioPlex; Carl Zeiss Meditec) was used to image microvasculature in a 6 × 6-mm optic disc region. Vessel densities of superficial and deep retinal layers were calculated using an automatic thresholding algorithm. Vessel density maps were plotted by averaging individual angiogram images. The spatial characteristics of vessel densities were analyzed at clock-hour sectors and in five 0.7-mm-thick concentric circles from a diameter of 2.0 to 5.5 mm. Areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUCs) assessed the glaucoma diagnostic ability. Vessel density maps of superficial and deep retinal layers were significantly reduced at the 7 and 11 o'clock positions in glaucomatous eyes. In superficial layer, vessel density significantly decreased as the distance from the optic disc margin increased, except in the innermost circle (2.0-2.7-mm). There were significant differences in AUCs of superficial vessel density between innermost circle and the other outer circles. In the deep layer, the innermost circle showed significantly higher vessel density than the outer circles. Vessel density at 7 o'clock showed the best diagnostic performance (AUCs, 0.898 and 0.789) both in the superficial and deep layers. The innermost circle showed eccentric feature compared to the outer circles in terms of spatial characteristics and diagnostic ability. Understanding of the spatial characteristics of peripapillary vasculature may be helpful in clinical practice and determining the optimal measurement area of vessel density.

  16. Increased nuchal translucency, normal karyotype and infant development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltoft, Caroline Borregaard; Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Hansen, Bo Mølholm

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether chromosomally normal fetuses with a nuchal translucency (NT) = 99th percentile(3.5 mm) in the first trimester have an increased risk of delayed development at 2 years of age....

  17. Eye Development in Sepia officinalis Embryo: What the Uncommon Gene Expression Profiles Tell Us about Eye Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imarazene, Boudjema; Andouche, Aude; Bassaglia, Yann; Lopez, Pascal-Jean; Bonnaud-Ponticelli, Laure

    2017-01-01

    In metazoans, there is a remarkable diversity of photosensitive structures; their shapes, physiology, optical properties, and development are different. To approach the evolution of photosensitive structures and visual function, cephalopods are particularly interesting organisms due to their most highly centralized nervous system and their camerular eyes which constitute a convergence with those of vertebrates. The eye morphogenesis in numerous metazoans is controlled mainly by a conserved Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN) including pax, six, eya , and dac playing also key developmental roles in non-retinal structures and tissues of vertebrates and Drosophila . Here we have identified and explored the role of Sof-dac, Sof-six1/2, Sof-eya in eye morphogenesis, and nervous structures controlling the visual function in Sepia officinalis . We compare that with the already shown expressions in eye development of Sof-otx and Sof-pax genes. Rhodopsin is the pigment responsible for light sensitivity in metazoan, which correlate to correlate visual function and eye development. We studied Sof-rhodopsin expression during retina differentiation. By in situ hybridization, we show that (1) all of the RDGN genes, including Sof-pax6 , are expressed in the eye area during the early developmental stages but they are not expressed in the retina, unlike Sof-otx , which could have a role in retina differentiation; (2) Sof-rhodopsin is expressed in the retina just before vision gets functional, from stage 23 to hatching. Our results evidence a role of Sof-six1/2, Sof-eya , and Sof-dac in eye development. However, the gene network involved in the retinal photoreceptor differentiation remains to be determined. Moreover, for the first time, Sof-rhodopsin expression is shown in the embryonic retina of cuttlefish suggesting the evolutionary conservation of the role of rhodopsin in visual phototransduction within metazoans. These findings are correlated with the physiological and

  18. Eye Development in Sepia officinalis Embryo: What the Uncommon Gene Expression Profiles Tell Us about Eye Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudjema Imarazene

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In metazoans, there is a remarkable diversity of photosensitive structures; their shapes, physiology, optical properties, and development are different. To approach the evolution of photosensitive structures and visual function, cephalopods are particularly interesting organisms due to their most highly centralized nervous system and their camerular eyes which constitute a convergence with those of vertebrates. The eye morphogenesis in numerous metazoans is controlled mainly by a conserved Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN including pax, six, eya, and dac playing also key developmental roles in non-retinal structures and tissues of vertebrates and Drosophila. Here we have identified and explored the role of Sof-dac, Sof-six1/2, Sof-eya in eye morphogenesis, and nervous structures controlling the visual function in Sepia officinalis. We compare that with the already shown expressions in eye development of Sof-otx and Sof-pax genes. Rhodopsin is the pigment responsible for light sensitivity in metazoan, which correlate to correlate visual function and eye development. We studied Sof-rhodopsin expression during retina differentiation. By in situ hybridization, we show that (1 all of the RDGN genes, including Sof-pax6, are expressed in the eye area during the early developmental stages but they are not expressed in the retina, unlike Sof-otx, which could have a role in retina differentiation; (2 Sof-rhodopsin is expressed in the retina just before vision gets functional, from stage 23 to hatching. Our results evidence a role of Sof-six1/2, Sof-eya, and Sof-dac in eye development. However, the gene network involved in the retinal photoreceptor differentiation remains to be determined. Moreover, for the first time, Sof-rhodopsin expression is shown in the embryonic retina of cuttlefish suggesting the evolutionary conservation of the role of rhodopsin in visual phototransduction within metazoans. These findings are correlated with the

  19. In vivo imaging of palisades of Vogt in dry eye versus normal subjects using en-face spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajdene Ghouali

    Full Text Available To evaluate a possible clinical application of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT using en-face module for the imaging of the corneoscleral limbus in normal subjects and dry eye patients.Seventy-six subjects were included in this study. Seventy eyes of 35 consecutive patients with dry eye disease and 82 eyes of 41 healthy control subjects were investigated. All subjects were examined with the Avanti RTVue® anterior segment OCT. En-face OCT images of the corneoscleral limbus were acquired in four quadrants (inferior, superior, nasal and temporal and then were analyzed semi-quantitatively according to whether or not palisades of Vogt (POV were visible. En-face OCT images were then compared to in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM in eleven eyes of 7 healthy and dry eye patients.En-face SD-OCT showed POV as a radially oriented network, located in superficial corneoscleral limbus, with a good correlation with IVCM features. It provided an easy and reproducible identification of POV without any special preparation or any direct contact, with a grading scale from 0 (no visualization to 3 (high visualization. The POV were found predominantly in superior (P<0.001 and inferior (P<0.001 quadrants when compared to the nasal and temporal quadrants for all subjects examined. The visibility score decreased with age (P<0.001 and was lower in dry eye patients (P<0.01. In addition, the score decreased in accordance with the severity of dry eye disease (P<0.001.En-face SD-OCT is a non-contact imaging technique that can be used to evaluate the POV, thus providing valuable information about differences in the limbal anatomy of dry eye patients as compared to healthy patients.

  20. The Identification and the Functional Validation of Eye Development and Regeneration Genes in Schmidtea Mediterranea

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Lozano, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Discovering the master genes necessary to build the eye in an invertebrate model such as S. mediterranea could help us to understand numerous retinopathies and age-related degeneration of the human eye. The aim of this study was to select and determine the functional activity of genes involved in the regeneration and development of the S. mediterranea eye. Gene ontology was the tool used to select the genes; while RNA interference and RNA hybridization provided the first approach towards esta...

  1. Unilateral Amblyopia Affects Two Eyes: Fellow Eye Deficits in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Kimberly; Giaschi, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes. Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity. While these fellow eye deficits have been noted, no overarching theory has been proposed to describe why and under what conditions the fellow eye is impacted by amblyopia. Here, we consider four explanations that may account for decreased fellow eye sensitivity: the fellow eye is adversely impacted by treatment for amblyopia; the maturation of the fellow eye is delayed by amblyopia; fellow eye sensitivity is impacted for visual functions that rely on binocular cortex; and fellow eye deficits reflect an adaptive mechanism that works to equalize the sensitivity of the two eyes. To evaluate these ideas, we describe five visual functions that are commonly reported to be deficient in the amblyopic eye (hyperacuity, contrast sensitivity, spatial integration, global motion, and motion-defined form), and unify the current evidence for fellow eye deficits. Further research targeted at exploring fellow eye deficits in amblyopia will provide us with a broader understanding of normal visual development and how amblyopia impacts the developing visual system.

  2. Normal Morning Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Levels and No Association with Rapid Eye Movement or Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Parameters in Narcolepsy Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrölkamp, Maren; Jennum, Poul J; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2017-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved...... in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid...

  3. Cystatin C and lactoferrin concentrations in biological fluids as possible prognostic factors in eye tumor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya A. Dikovskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the possible role of cystatin C in eye biological fluids locally and in serum and lactoferrin revealing anti-tumor activity in eye tumor development. Background. The increased number of eye tumors was registered recently not only in the countries with high insolation, but also in the northern countries including Russia (11 cases per million of population. Search for new biological markers is important for diagnosis and prognosis in eye tumors. Cystatin C, an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteases, plays an important protective role in several tumors. Lactoferrin was shown to express anti-tumor and antiviral activities. It was hypothesized that cystatin C and lactoferrin could serve as possible biomarkers in the diagnosis of malignant and benign eye tumors. Study design. A total of 54 patients with choroidal melanoma and benign eye tumors were examined (part of them undergoing surgical treatment. Serum, tear fluid and intraocular fluid samples obtained from the anterior chamber of eyes in patients with choroidal melanoma were studied. Methods. Cystatin C concentration in serum and eye biological fluids was measured by commercial ELISA kits for human (BioVendor, Czechia; lactoferrin concentration – by Lactoferrin-strip D 4106 ELISA test systems (Vector-BEST, Novosibirsk Region, Russia. Results. Cystatin C concentration in serum of healthy persons was significantly higher as compared to tear and intraocular fluids. In patients with choroidal melanoma, increased cystatin C concentration was similar in tear fluid of both the eyes. Lactoferrin level in tear fluid of healthy persons was significantly higher than its serum level. Significantly increased lactoferrin concentration in tear fluid was noted in patients with benign and malignant eye tumors. Conclusion. Increased level of cystatin C in tear fluid seems to be a possible diagnostic factor in the eye tumors studied. However, it does not allow us to differentiate

  4. [Magnetic resonance imaging features of tear outflow and structural changes of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct in normal subjects with eyes closed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, J R; Zhang, Y L

    2018-03-11

    Objective: To investigate the static and dynamic features of the normal lacrimal sac (LS)-nasolacrimal duct (NLD), and find out if tear flows while the subject is in supine position with eyes closed. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Healthy volunteers and patients whose head were examined by MRI in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine with normal LS-NLD were recruited. The normal lacrimal ducts of the candidates were scanned, while candidates remained in supine position, by static or dynamic imaging procedures with a 1.5T MRI system, which adopted the thinnest slice thickness, consecutive sections (no spacing) and two scanning planes (axial and coronal planes of LS-NLD). The static and dynamic imaging procedures were done in June and July 2014 and October 2015, respectively. The static imaging was performed with conventional T(2)WI, contrast-enhanced 3D FIESTA-C, contrast-enhanced T(1)WI and heavy T(2)WI pulse sequences under normal physiological condition, and 104 eyes with normal LS-NLD from 39 patients and 13 healthy volunteers (21 male and 31 female) aged 10 to 75 years were scanned with the static procedure. The dynamic imaging was done with heavy T(2)WI pulse sequence. The coronal dynamic imaging was done only after 0.9% NaCl was instilled in the conjunctival sacs, and 20 eyes with normal LS-NLD of 10 volunteers (6 male and 4 female) aged 23 to 53 years were scanned with the coronal dynamic procedure. The axial dynamic imaging was done under normal physiological condition and after 0.9% NaCl was instilled in the conjunctival sacs respectively, and 20 eyes with normal LS-NLD of 10 volunteers (8 male and 2 female) aged 20 to 40 years were scanned with the axial dynamic procedure. The incidences on the axial dynamic imaging under the two conditions were compared with χ(2) test. Results: A total of 104 eyes with normal LS-NLD (52 candidates) were scanned with the static imaging sequences. In all LS-NLDs, an

  5. The concurrent use of three implicit measures (eye movements, pupillometry, and event-related potentials) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Kerry; Coderre, Emily; Bosley, Laura; Buz, Esteban; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Gordon, Barry

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen the advent and proliferation of the use of implicit techniques to study learning and cognition. One such application is the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge. Other implicit assessment techniques that may be well-suited to other testing situations or to use with varied participant groups have not been used as widely to study receptive vocabulary knowledge. We sought to develop additional implicit techniques to study receptive vocabulary knowledge that could augment the knowledge gained from the use of the ERP technique. Specifically, we used a simple forced-choice paradigm to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adult participants using eye movement monitoring (EM) and pupillometry. In the same group of participants, we also used an N400 semantic incongruity ERP paradigm to assess their knowledge of two groups of words: those expected to be known to the participants (high-frequency, familiar words) and those expected to be unknown (low-frequency, unfamiliar words). All three measures showed reliable differences between the known and unknown words. EM and pupillometry thus may provide insight into receptive vocabulary knowledge similar to that from ERPs. The development of additional implicit assessment techniques may increase the feasibility of receptive vocabulary testing across a wider range of participant groups and testing situations, and may make the conduct of such testing more accessible to a wider range of researchers, clinicians, and educators.

  6. MRI of normal and pathological fetal lung development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprian, Gregor [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: gregor.kasprian@meduniwien.ac.at; Balassy, Csilla [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal lung development is a complex process influenced by mechanical and many biochemical factors. In addition to ultrasound, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitutes a new method to investigate this process in vivo during the second and third trimester. The techniques of MRI volumetry, assessment of signal intensities, and MRI spectroscopy of the fetal lung have been used to analyze this process and have already been applied clinically to identify abnormal fetal lung growth. Particularly in conditions such as oligohydramnios and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), pulmonary hypoplasia may be the cause of neonatal death. A precise diagnosis and quantification of compromised fetal lung development may improve post- and perinatal management. The main events in fetal lung development are reviewed and MR volumetric data from 106 normal fetuses, as well as different examples of pathological lung growth, are provided.

  7. Xenopus pax6 mutants affect eye development and other organ systems, and have phenotypic similarities to human aniridia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Takuya; Fisher, Marilyn; Nakajima, Keisuke; Odeleye, Akinleye O; Zimmerman, Keith B; Fish, Margaret B; Yaoita, Yoshio; Chojnowski, Jena L; Lauderdale, James D; Netland, Peter A; Grainger, Robert M

    2015-12-15

    Mutations in the Pax6 gene cause ocular defects in both vertebrate and invertebrate animal species, and the disease aniridia in humans. Despite extensive experimentation on this gene in multiple species, including humans, we still do not understand the earliest effects on development mediated by this gene. This prompted us to develop pax6 mutant lines in Xenopus tropicalis taking advantage of the utility of the Xenopus system for examining early development and in addition to establish a model for studying the human disease aniridia in an accessible lower vertebrate. We have generated mutants in pax6 by using Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease (TALEN) constructs for gene editing in X. tropicalis. Embryos with putative null mutations show severe eye abnormalities and changes in brain development, as assessed by changes in morphology and gene expression. One gene that we found is downregulated very early in development in these pax6 mutants is myc, a gene involved in pluripotency and progenitor cell maintenance and likely a mediator of some key pax6 functions in the embryo. Changes in gene expression in the developing brain and pancreas reflect other important functions of pax6 during development. In mutations with partial loss of pax6 function eye development is initially relatively normal but froglets show an underdeveloped iris, similar to the classic phenotype (aniridia) seen in human patients with PAX6 mutations. Other eye abnormalities observed in these froglets, including cataracts and corneal defects, are also common in human aniridia. The frog model thus allows us to examine the earliest deficits in eye formation as a result of pax6 lesions, and provides a useful model for understanding the developmental basis for the aniridia phenotype seen in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An Investigation of Aberration Components and their Associated Factors in Quintuple Normal Corneal Topographic Patterns in the Referrers of the Isfahan Persian Eye Clinic, 2014-2015, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirzajani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Evaluation of anterior corneal surface aberrations according to normal corneal topography is important. In this study, aberrations of corneal anterior surface in eyes with normal topographic pattern, was comparatively investigated. Methods: In this comparative study, 165 eyes of 97 patients (20-30 years old, which had normal corneal topographic pattern, were evaluated. Data collection tools were Pentacam topographer, Tomey topographer, standard Snellen visual acuity chart, and slit-lamp. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Tukey post-hoc tests. Results: Based on the results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, the distribution of all data was normal (0.058

    normal topographic pattern, aberration analysis is essential to achieve higher visual quality after refractive surgery.

  9. Development of Eye Position Dependency of Slow Phase Velocity during Caloric Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockisch, Christopher J.; Khojasteh, Elham; Straumann, Dominik; Hegemann, Stefan C. A.

    2012-01-01

    The nystagmus in patients with vestibular disorders often has an eye position dependency, called Alexander’s law, where the slow phase velocity is higher with gaze in the fast phase direction compared with gaze in the slow phase direction. Alexander’s law has been hypothesized to arise either due to adaptive changes in the velocity-to-position neural integrator, or as a consequence of processing of the vestibular-ocular reflex. We tested whether Alexander’s law arises only as a consequence of non-physiologic vestibular stimulation. We measured the time course of the development of Alexander’s law in healthy humans with nystagmus caused by three types of caloric vestibular stimulation: cold (unilateral inhibition), warm (unilateral excitation), and simultaneous bilateral bithermal (one side cold, the other warm) stimulation, mimicking the normal push-pull pattern of vestibular stimulation. Alexander’s law, measured as a negative slope of the velocity versus position curve, was observed in all conditions. A reversed pattern of eye position dependency (positive slope) was found <10% of the time. The slope often changed with nystagmus velocity (cross-correlation of nystagmus speed and slope was significant in 50% of cases), and the average lag of the slope with the speed was not significantly different from zero. Our results do not support the hypothesis that Alexander’s law can only be observed with non-physiologic vestibular stimulation. Further, the rapid development of Alexander’s law, while possible for an adaptive mechanism, is nonetheless quite fast compared to most other ocular motor adaptations. These results suggest that Alexander’s law may not be a consequence of a true adaptive mechanism. PMID:23251522

  10. Development of eye position dependency of slow phase velocity during caloric stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Bockisch

    Full Text Available The nystagmus in patients with vestibular disorders often has an eye position dependency, called Alexander's law, where the slow phase velocity is higher with gaze in the fast phase direction compared with gaze in the slow phase direction. Alexander's law has been hypothesized to arise either due to adaptive changes in the velocity-to-position neural integrator, or as a consequence of processing of the vestibular-ocular reflex. We tested whether Alexander's law arises only as a consequence of non-physiologic vestibular stimulation. We measured the time course of the development of Alexander's law in healthy humans with nystagmus caused by three types of caloric vestibular stimulation: cold (unilateral inhibition, warm (unilateral excitation, and simultaneous bilateral bithermal (one side cold, the other warm stimulation, mimicking the normal push-pull pattern of vestibular stimulation. Alexander's law, measured as a negative slope of the velocity versus position curve, was observed in all conditions. A reversed pattern of eye position dependency (positive slope was found <10% of the time. The slope often changed with nystagmus velocity (cross-correlation of nystagmus speed and slope was significant in 50% of cases, and the average lag of the slope with the speed was not significantly different from zero. Our results do not support the hypothesis that Alexander's law can only be observed with non-physiologic vestibular stimulation. Further, the rapid development of Alexander's law, while possible for an adaptive mechanism, is nonetheless quite fast compared to most other ocular motor adaptations. These results suggest that Alexander's law may not be a consequence of a true adaptive mechanism.

  11. The benefits of aging: cellular senescence in normal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garijo, Ainhoa; Steller, Herman

    2014-01-13

    Senescence is a form of cellular aging that limits the proliferative capacity of cells. Senescence can be triggered by different stress stimuli, such as DNA damage or oncogene activation. Two recent articles published in Cell have uncovered an unexpected role for cellular senescence during development, as a process that contributes to remodeling and patterning of the embryo. These findings are exciting and have important implications for the understanding of normal developmental and the evolutionary origin of senescence.

  12. RNA Binding Proteins in Eye Development and Disease: Implication of Conserved RNA Granule Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Soma; Siddam, Archana D.; Barnum, Carrie E.; Janga, Sarath Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The molecular biology of metazoan eye development is an area of intense investigation. These efforts have led to the surprising recognition that although insect and vertebrate eyes have dramatically different structures, the orthologs or family members of several conserved transcription and signaling regulators such as Pax6, Six3, Prox1 and Bmp4 are commonly required for their development. In contrast, our understanding of post-transcriptional regulation in eye development and disease, particularly regarding the function of RNA binding proteins (RBPs), is limited. We examine the present knowledge of RBPs in eye development in the insect model Drosophila, as well as several vertebrate models such as fish, frog, chicken and mouse. Interestingly, of the 42 RBPs that have been investigated with for their expression or function in vertebrate eye development, 24 (~60%) are recognized in eukaryotic cells as components of RNA granules such as Processing bodies (P-bodies), Stress granules, or other specialized ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. We discuss the distinct developmental and cellular events that may necessitate potential RBP/RNA granule-associated RNA regulon models to facilitate post-transcriptional control of gene expression in eye morphogenesis. In support of these hypotheses, three RBPs and RNP/RNA granule components Tdrd7, Caprin2 and Stau2 are linked to ocular developmental defects such as congenital cataract, Peters anomaly and microphthalmia in human patients or animal models. We conclude by discussing the utility of interdisciplinary approaches such as the bioinformatics tool iSyTE (integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery) to prioritize RBPs for deriving post-transcriptional regulatory networks in eye development and disease. PMID:27133484

  13. CON4EI: Development of serious eye damage and eye irritation testing strategies with respect to the requirements of the UN GHS/EU CLP hazard categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, Sandra; Van Rompay, An R

    2017-06-16

    The main objective of the CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project (2015-2016) was to develop tiered, non-animal testing strategies for serious eye damage and eye irritation assessment in relation to the most important drivers of classification. The serious eye damage and eye irritation potential of a set of 80 chemicals was identified based on existing in vivo Draize eye test data and testing was conducted using the following eight alternative test methods: BCOP (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability)+histopathology, BCOP-LLBO (BCOP Laser Light-Based Opacitometer), ICE (Isolated Chicken Eye)+histopathology, STE (Short Term Exposure), EpiOcular™ EIT (EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test), EpiOcular™ ET-50 (EpiOcular™ Time-to-toxicity), SkinEthic™ HCE EIT (SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelial Eye Irritation Test), and SMI (Slug Mucosal Irritation). Project management decided to not include the ICE data in this project since the execution showed relevant, and not predictable, deviations from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline (TG) 438 and Guidance Document 160. At this stage, the outcome of these deviations has not been fully assessed. In addition to these alternative test methods, the computational models Toxtree and Case Ultra were taken into account. This project assessed the relevance of these test methods, their applicability domains and limitations in terms of 'drivers of classification', and their strengths and weaknesses. In this way, methods were identified that fit into a tiered-testing strategy for serious eye damage/eye irritation assessment to distinguish United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS) Category 1 (Cat 1) chemicals from non-Cat 1 chemicals and address the gap namely distinguish between Category 2 (Cat 2) and Cat 1 chemicals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Development of an imaging VUV monochromator in normal incidence region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koog, Joong-San.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes a development of the two-dimensional imaging monochromator system. A commercial normal incidence monochromator working on off-Rowland circle mounting is used for this purpose. The imaging is achieved with utilizing the pinhole camera effect created by an entrance slit of limited height. The astigmatism in the normal incidence mounting is small compared with a grazing incidence mount, but has a finite value. The point is that for near normal incidence, the vertical focusing with a concave grating is produced at outside across the exit slit. Therefore, by putting a 2-D detector at the position away from the exit slit (∼30 cm), a one-to-one correspondence between the position of a point on the detector and where it originated in the source is accomplished. This paper consists of 1) the principle and development of the imaging monochromator using the off-Rowland mounting, including the 2-D detector system, 2) a computer simulation by ray tracing for investigations of the imaging properties of imaging system, and aberration from the spherical concave grating on the exit slit, 3) the plasma light source (TPD-S) for the test experiments, 4) Performances of the imaging monochromator system on the spatial resolution and sensitivity, and 5) the use of this system for diagnostic studies on the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. (J.P.N.)

  15. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Parameters Measured by Scanning Laser Polarimetry with Enhanced Corneal Compensation in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Ara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the intrasession repeatability and intersession reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness parameters measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP with enhanced corneal compensation (ECC in healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Methods. One randomly selected eye of 82 healthy individuals and 60 glaucoma subjects was evaluated. Three scans were acquired during the first visit to evaluate intravisit repeatability. A different operator obtained two additional scans within 2 months after the first session to determine intervisit reproducibility. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, coefficient of variation (COV, and test-retest variability (TRT were calculated for all SLP parameters in both groups. Results. ICCs ranged from 0.920 to 0.982 for intravisit measurements and from 0.910 to 0.978 for intervisit measurements. The temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT average was the highest (0.967 and 0.946 in normal eyes, while nerve fiber indicator (NFI; 0.982 and inferior average (0.978 yielded the best ICC in glaucomatous eyes for intravisit and intervisit measurements, respectively. All COVs were under 10% in both groups, except NFI. TSNIT average had the lowest COV (2.43% in either type of measurement. Intervisit TRT ranged from 6.48 to 12.84. Conclusions. The reproducibility of peripapillary RNFL measurements obtained with SLP-ECC was excellent, indicating that SLP-ECC is sufficiently accurate for monitoring glaucoma progression.

  16. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Parameters Measured by Scanning Laser Polarimetry with Enhanced Corneal Compensation in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Mirian; Ferreras, Antonio; Pajarin, Ana B; Calvo, Pilar; Figus, Michele; Frezzotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the intrasession repeatability and intersession reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness parameters measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) with enhanced corneal compensation (ECC) in healthy and glaucomatous eyes. One randomly selected eye of 82 healthy individuals and 60 glaucoma subjects was evaluated. Three scans were acquired during the first visit to evaluate intravisit repeatability. A different operator obtained two additional scans within 2 months after the first session to determine intervisit reproducibility. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (COV), and test-retest variability (TRT) were calculated for all SLP parameters in both groups. ICCs ranged from 0.920 to 0.982 for intravisit measurements and from 0.910 to 0.978 for intervisit measurements. The temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT) average was the highest (0.967 and 0.946) in normal eyes, while nerve fiber indicator (NFI; 0.982) and inferior average (0.978) yielded the best ICC in glaucomatous eyes for intravisit and intervisit measurements, respectively. All COVs were under 10% in both groups, except NFI. TSNIT average had the lowest COV (2.43%) in either type of measurement. Intervisit TRT ranged from 6.48 to 12.84. The reproducibility of peripapillary RNFL measurements obtained with SLP-ECC was excellent, indicating that SLP-ECC is sufficiently accurate for monitoring glaucoma progression.

  17. Development of SPIES (Space Intelligent Eyeing System) for smart vehicle tracing and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Suzanah; Ariffin Osoman, Muhammad; Guan Liyong, Chua; Zulfadhli Mohd Noor, Mohd; Mohamed, Ikhwan

    2016-06-01

    SPIES or Space-based Intelligent Eyeing System is an intelligent technology which can be utilized for various applications such as gathering spatial information of features on Earth, tracking system for the movement of an object, tracing system to trace the history information, monitoring driving behavior, security and alarm system as an observer in real time and many more. SPIES as will be developed and supplied modularly will encourage the usage based on needs and affordability of users. SPIES are a complete system with camera, GSM, GPS/GNSS and G-Sensor modules with intelligent function and capabilities. Mainly the camera is used to capture pictures and video and sometimes with audio of an event. Its usage is not limited to normal use for nostalgic purpose but can be used as a reference for security and material of evidence when an undesirable event such as crime occurs. When integrated with space based technology of the Global Navigational Satellite System (GNSS), photos and videos can be recorded together with positioning information. A product of the integration of these technologies when integrated with Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) and Geographic Information System (GIS) will produce innovation in the form of information gathering methods in still picture or video with positioning information that can be conveyed in real time via the web to display location on the map hence creating an intelligent eyeing system based on space technology. The importance of providing global positioning information is a challenge but overcome by SPIES even in areas without GNSS signal reception for the purpose of continuous tracking and tracing capability

  18. The risk of newly developed visual impairment in treated normal-tension glaucoma: 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jeong; Kim, Martha; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung; Kim, Seok Hwan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the risk and risk factors for newly developed visual impairment in treated patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) followed up on for 10 years. Patients with NTG, who did not have visual impairment at the initial diagnosis and had undergone intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering treatment for more than 7 years, were included on the basis of a retrospective chart review. Visual impairment was defined as either low vision (0.05 [20/400] ≤ visual acuity (VA) visual field (VF) visual impairment, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and generalized linear mixed effects models were utilized. During the 10.8 years mean follow-up period, 20 eyes of 16 patients were diagnosed as visual impairment (12 eyes as low vision, 8 as blindness) among 623 eyes of 411 patients. The cumulative risk of visual impairment in at least one eye was 2.8% at 10 years and 8.7% at 15 years. The risk factors for visual impairment from treated NTG were worse VF mean deviation (MD) at diagnosis and longer follow-up period. The risk of newly developed visual impairment in the treated patients with NTG was relatively low. Worse VF MD at diagnosis and longer follow-up period were associated with development of visual impairment. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Direct non-cell autonomous Pax6 activity regulates eye development in the zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prochiantz Alain

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modifications in Pax6 homeogene expression produce strong eye phenotypes. This suggested to us that eye development might be an appropriate model to verify if homeoprotein intercellular passage has important functions in early development. Similar to other homeoproteins, Pax6 has two domains that enable secretion and internalization by live cells and, thus, intercellular passage. In principle, a straightforward way to test the hypothesis would be to mutate one of the two sequences to produce a 'cell autonomous only' Pax6. However, this was not possible because these sequences are in the homeodomain and their modification would affect Pax6 transcriptional properties. We have thus developed an approach aimed at blocking Pax6 only in the extracellular milieu of developing zebrafish embryos. Results A first strategy was to inject a one-cell embryo with a mRNA encoding a secreted single-chain anti-Pax6 antibody. A second, complementary, strategy was to inject a Pax6 antibody in the blastula extracellular milieu. In both cases, 'dissymmetric eyes', 'one eye only' and 'no eye' phenotypes were produced. In most cases, lens phenotypes paralleled retina malformations. Although eye phenotypes were analyzed 30 hours post-fertilization, there was a strong correlation between early eye field asymmetry, early asymmetry in Pax6 expression and later-occurring eye malformations. Several controls were introduced, demonstrating that the effect is specific to Pax6 and cannot be explained by intracellular antibody activities. Conclusion This study supports the hypothesis that the Pax6 transcription factor is also a signaling molecule with direct non-cell autonomous activity.

  20. Development of the diagnostic system of Alzheimer-type dementia using eye movement

    OpenAIRE

    川上, 裕子; 史, 学敏; 郭, 怡; 福島, 省吾; 村上, 宗司; 川瀬, 康裕; 福本, 一朗

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed at developing a simple evaluation system for Alzheimer-type dementia patients using eye movement; which focused on the vision cognitive impairment in Alzheimer-type dementia patients. It has been reported that there are some vision cognitive impairments e.g. smooth-pursuit, stereoscopic vision et al in Alzheimer-type dementia patients. In this study, we investigated horizontal conjugate eye movement between Alzheimer-type dementia patients and healthy elderly pe...

  1. Neural circuits of eye movements during performance of the visual exploration task, which is similar to the responsive search score task, in schizophrenia patients and normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Yasundo; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Matsuura, Masato

    2004-01-01

    Abnormal exploratory eye movements have been studied as a biological marker for schizophrenia. Using functional MRI (fMRI), we investigated brain activations of 12 healthy and 8 schizophrenic subjects during performance of a visual exploration task that is similar to the responsive search score task to clarify the neural basis of the abnormal exploratory eye movement. Performance data, such as the number of eye movements, the reaction time, and the percentage of correct answers showed no significant differences between the two groups. Only the normal subjects showed activations at the bilateral thalamus and the left anterior medial frontal cortex during the visual exploration tasks. In contrast, only the schizophrenic subjects showed activations at the right anterior cingulate gyms during the same tasks. The activation at the different locations between the two groups, the left anterior medial frontal cortex in normal subjects and the right anterior cingulate gyrus in schizophrenia subjects, was explained by the feature of the visual tasks. Hypoactivation at the bilateral thalamus supports a dysfunctional filtering theory of schizophrenia. (author)

  2. Corneal thickness and elevation measurements using swept-source optical coherence tomography and slit scanning topography in normal and keratoconic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhanji, Vishal; Yang, Bingzhi; Yu, Marco; Ye, Cong; Leung, Christopher K S

    2013-11-01

    To compare corneal thickness and corneal elevation using swept source optical coherence tomography and slit scanning topography. Prospective study. 41 normal and 46 keratoconus subjects. All eyes were imaged using swept source optical coherence tomography and slit scanning tomography during the same visit. Mean corneal thickness and best-fit sphere measurements were compared between the instruments. Agreement of measurements between swept source optical coherence tomography and scanning slit topography was analyzed. Intra-rater reproducibility coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient were evaluated. In normal eyes, central corneal thickness measured by swept source optical coherence tomography was thinner compared with slit scanning topography (p topography. In keratoconus eyes, central corneal thickness was thinner on swept source optical coherence tomography than slit scanning topography (p = 0.081) and ultrasound pachymetry (p = 0.001). There were significant differences between thinnest corneal thickness, and, anterior and posterior best-fit sphere measurements between both instruments (p topography. With better reproducibility coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients, swept source optical coherence tomography may provide a reliable alternative for measurement of corneal parameters. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. Emotion processes in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Carroll E; Fine, Sarah; Mostow, Allison; Trentacosta, Christopher; Campbell, Jan

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of the role of emotions in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention. The conceptual framework stems from three tenets of differential emotions theory (DET). These principles concern the constructs of emotion utilization; intersystem connections among modular emotion systems, cognition, and action; and the organizational and motivational functions of discrete emotions. Particular emotions and patterns of emotions function differentially in different periods of development and in influencing the cognition and behavior associated with different forms of psychopathology. Established prevention programs have not emphasized the concept of emotion as motivation. It is even more critical that they have generally neglected the idea of modulating emotions, not simply to achieve self-regulation, but also to utilize their inherently adaptive functions as a means of facilitating the development of social competence and preventing psychopathology. The paper includes a brief description of a theory-based prevention program and suggestions for complementary targeted interventions to address specific externalizing and internalizing problems. In the final section, we describe ways in which emotion-centered preventions can provide excellent opportunities for research on the development of normal and abnormal behavior.

  4. Neurotransmitter signaling pathways required for normal development in Xenopus laevis embryos: a pharmacological survey screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kelly G; Levin, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Neurotransmitters are not only involved in brain function but are also important signaling molecules for many diverse cell types. Neurotransmitters are widely conserved, from evolutionarily ancient organisms lacking nervous systems through man. Here, results are reported from a loss- and gain-of-function survey, using pharmacological modulators of several neurotransmitter pathways to examine possible roles for these pathways in normal embryogenesis. Applying reagents targeting the glutamatergic, adrenergic and dopaminergic pathways to embryos of Xenopus laevis from gastrulation to organogenesis stages, we observed and quantified numerous malformations, including craniofacial defects, hyperpigmentation, muscle mispatterning and miscoiling of the gut. These data implicate several key neurotransmitters in new embryonic patterning roles, reveal novel earlier stages for processes involved in eye development, suggest new targets for subsequent molecular-genetic investigation, and highlight the necessity for in-depth toxicology studies of psychoactive compounds to which human embryos might be exposed during pregnancy. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  5. Homeotic regeneration of eye in amphibian tadpoles and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... vitamin A increases the likelihood of homeotic regeneration (57% in the control group and 71% in the vitamin A treated group). Histological studies showed that the newly transformed median eye developed from the pineal organ. The pineal eye so developed possessed all components of a normal eye such as a retina, ...

  6. A Model of the Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Drosophila Eye Disc Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Patrick; Sánchez-Aragón, Máximo; Aguilar-Hidalgo, Daniel; Lehtinen, Birgitta; Casares, Fernando; Iber, Dagmar

    2016-09-01

    Patterning and growth are linked during early development and have to be tightly controlled to result in a functional tissue or organ. During the development of the Drosophila eye, this linkage is particularly clear: the growth of the eye primordium mainly results from proliferating cells ahead of the morphogenetic furrow (MF), a moving signaling wave that sweeps across the tissue from the posterior to the anterior side, that induces proliferating cells anterior to it to differentiate and become cell cycle quiescent in its wake. Therefore, final eye disc size depends on the proliferation rate of undifferentiated cells and on the speed with which the MF sweeps across the eye disc. We developed a spatio-temporal model of the growing eye disc based on the regulatory interactions controlled by the signals Decapentaplegic (Dpp), Hedgehog (Hh) and the transcription factor Homothorax (Hth) and explored how the signaling patterns affect the movement of the MF and impact on eye disc growth. We used published and new quantitative data to parameterize the model. In particular, two crucial parameter values, the degradation rate of Hth and the diffusion coefficient of Hh, were measured. The model is able to reproduce the linear movement of the MF and the termination of growth of the primordium. We further show that the model can explain several mutant phenotypes, but fails to reproduce the previously observed scaling of the Dpp gradient in the anterior compartment.

  7. Cell cycle arrest by a gradient of Dpp signaling during Drosophila eye development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Abhishek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secreted morphogen Dpp plays important roles in spatial regulation of gene expression and cell cycle progression in the developing Drosophila eye. Dpp signaling is required for timely cell cycle arrest ahead of the morphogenetic furrow as a prelude to differentiation, and is also important for eye disc growth. The dpp gene is expressed at multiple locations in the eye imaginal disc, including the morphogenetic furrow that sweeps across the eye disc as differentiation initiates. Results Studies of Brinker and Dad expression, and of Mad phosphorylation, establish that there is a gradient of Dpp signaling in the eye imaginal disc anterior to the morphogenetic furrow, predominantly in the anterior-posterior axis, and also Dpp signaling at the margins of the disc epithelium and in the dorsal peripodial membrane. Almost all signaling activity seems to spread through the plane of the epithelia, although peripodial epithelium cells can also respond to underlying disc cells. There is a graded requirement for Dpp signaling components for G1 arrest in the eye disc, with more stringent requirements further anteriorly where signaling is lower. The signaling level defines the cell cycle response, because elevated signaling through expression of an activated Thickveins receptor molecule arrested cells at more anterior locations. Very anterior regions of the eye disc were not arrested in response to activated receptor, however, and evidence is presented that expression of the Homothorax protein may contribute to this protection. By contrast to activated Thickveins, ectopic expression of processed Dpp leads to very high levels of Mad phosphorylation which appear to have non-physiological consequences. Conclusions G1 arrest occurs at a threshold level of Dpp signaling within a morphogen gradient in the anterior eye. G1 arrest is specific for one competent domain in the eye disc, allowing Dpp signaling to promote growth at earlier

  8. Expressive vocabulary of children with normal and deviant phonological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, Marcia de Lima; Mota, Helena Bolli; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa

    2010-01-01

    expressive vocabulary of children with normal and deviant phonological development. to determine whether alterations presented by children with phonological disorders occur only at the phonological level or if there are any impacts on lexical acquisition; to compare the vocabulary performance of children with phonological disorders to reference values presented by the used test. participants of the study were 36 children of both genders, 14 with phonological disorders (Study group) and 22 with typical language development (Control Group). The ABFW - Vocabulary Test (Befi-Lopes, 2000) was used for assessing the expressive vocabulary of children and later to compare the performance of both groups. the performance of children with phonological disorder in the expressive vocabulary test is similar to that of children with normal phonological development. Most of the children of both groups reached the benchmarks proposed by the test for the different semantic fields. The semantic field Places demonstrated to be the most complex for both groups. the alterations presented by children with phonological disorder area limited to the phonological level, having no impact on the lexical aspect of language.

  9. Development of criteria for evaluating clinical response in thyroid eye disease using a modified Delphi technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas, Raymond S; Tsirbas, Angelo; Gordon, Mark

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify components of a provisional clinical response index for thyroid eye disease using a modified Delphi technique. METHODS: The International Thyroid Eye Disease Society conducted a structured, 3-round Delphi exercise establishing consensus for a core set of measures for clinical...... trials in thyroid eye disease. The steering committee discussed the results in a face-to-face meeting (nominal group technique) and evaluated each criterion with respect to its feasibility, reliability, redundancy, and validity. Redundant measures were consolidated or excluded. RESULTS: Criteria were...... exercise, we developed provisional core measures for assessing disease activity and severity in clinical trials of therapies for thyroid eye disease. These measures will be iteratively refined for use in multicenter clinical trials....

  10. Discriminação entre olhos normais e glaucomatosos mediante polarimetria de varredura a laser Discrimination between normal and glaucomatous eyes by scanning laser polarimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Magacho

    2004-04-01

    specificity (Sp were calculated for each individual GDx parameter. Finally, a multivariate logistic analysis was developed in order to achieve a better Se/Sp ratio for the diagnosis of glaucoma. RESULTS: The best GDx individual parameters were: the number (Se: 79.5%%, Sp: 81.8%, area under the ROC curve: 0.870, maximum modulation (Se: 83.0%, Sp: 76.1%, area under the ROC curve: 0.842 and ellipse modulation (Se: 65.2%, Sp: 88.6%. The multivariate logistic analysis resulted in an area under the ROC curve of 0.920 (Se: 85.7%, Sp: 90.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of 2 or more parameters in a multivariate logistic analysis increases the ability of scanning laser polarimetry to discriminate between normal and glaucomatous eyes.

  11. Effects of Microgravity on Embryonic Quail Eye Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joyce E.; Wells, Diane C.; Paulsen, Avelina Q.; Conrad, Gary W.

    1997-01-01

    Immunohistochemical methods were used to stain neurofilament protein in corneal nerves of Embryonic Day 16 (E16) quail eyes that had been fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde at room temperature for several months. Fixation was according to the methods used by the Mir 21/NASA 2 Avian Developmental Biology Flight Experiments for quail embryos incubated on the Mir Space Station. After fixation, corneas were pretreated to improve immunohistochemical visualization of neurofilaments. A sequential combination of three pretreatments [microwave heating in saline G, followed by extraction with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 37 C, followed by digestion with hyaluronidase at 37 C], produced increased antibody staining of corneal nerve neurofilament proteins, compared with corneas subjected to no prior pretreatments. Darker nerve staining and increased numbers of fine branches were observed, together with lower background staining after such pretreatments. In contrast, use of any single pretreatment or pair of pretreatments resulted in only slight and inconsistent enhancement of nerve staining. Only the sequential combination of all three pretreatments resulted in consistently better nerve staining.

  12. Beta-irradiation (106RU 106RH) versus gamma-irradiation (125I): a comparative study on the normal rabbit eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacin, F.; Amara, S.; Kemeny, J.L.; Bard, J.J.; Donnarieix, D.; Rozan, R.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical and histological effects of brachytherapy using 125 I and 106 Ru 106 Rh on normal rabbit eyes with doses similar to those recommended in man for choroidal melanoma treatment. Methods: Fourteen pigmented rabbit eyes were treated with a 12 mm applicator either loaded with 125 I, either 106 Ru 106 Rh, or inactive (control). In the 125 I group, the eyes received 100 Gy at 5 mm (COMS recommendations). In the 106 Ru 106 Rh group, the eyes received 100 Gy a 3,5 mm (apex of a theoretical melanoma with a 3 mm height). The doses at different points of the sclera, retina, optic disc, lens, were calculated using two softwares. The radiation effects were evaluated by clinical and histological examination after 4 days, 4 weeks, 3, 6, 9 months and one year. Results: Although the mean total dose at the external sclera and the irradiated volume were always more important in the 125 I group, the observed damaging effects were much more important in the 106 Ru 106 Rh group. At the plaque implantation site, in the 125 I group, the fundus lesions were invisible until the sixth month and then appeared as a very discrete pigmentation without any gross vascular modification. In the 106 Ru 106 Rh group, there was a retinal necrosis after a few days, followed by an atrophic chorioretinal scar. The retinal and choroidal vessels were destroyed. A cataract was observed in one eye of each group after six months. One explanation of the differences in the biological responses observed for comparable macroscopic doses could be the different distributions of the ionizations at a microscopic scale. Conclusions: The choice of the best isotope able to deliver a sterilizing dose to a choridal melanoma while reducing the radiation damages to the normal ocular structure is still in discussion. In our study on normal ocular tissues, with a follow-up limited to one year. 125 I demonstrated to be less damaging than 106 Ru 106 Rh

  13. The normal development of Platynereis dumerilii (Nereididae, Annelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Thorsten

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polychaete annelid Platynereis dumerilii is an emerging model organism for the study of molecular developmental processes, evolution, neurobiology and marine biology. Annelids belong to the Lophotrochozoa, the so far understudied third major branch of bilaterian animals besides deuterostomes and ecdysozoans. P. dumerilii has proven highly relevant to explore ancient bilaterian conditions via comparison to the deuterostomes, because it has accumulated less evolutionary change than conventional ecdysozoan models. Previous staging was mainly referring to hours post fertilization but did not allow matching stages between studies performed at (even slightly different temperatures. To overcome this, and to provide a first comprehensive description of P. dumerilii normal development, a temperature-independent staging system is needed. Results Platynereis dumerilii normal development is subdivided into 16 stages, starting with the zygote and ending with the death of the mature worms after delivering their gametes. The stages described can be easily identified by conventional light microscopy or even by dissecting scope. Developmental landmarks such as the beginning of phototaxis, the visibility of the stomodeal opening and of the chaetae, the first occurrence of the ciliary bands, the formation of the parapodia, the extension of antennae and cirri, the onset of feeding and other characteristics are used to define different developmental stages. The morphology of all larval stages as well as of juveniles and adults is documented by light microscopy. We also provide an overview of important steps in the development of the nervous system and of the musculature, using fluorescent labeling techniques and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Timing of each developmental stage refers to hours post fertilization at 18 ± 0.1°C. For comparison, we determined the pace of development of larvae raised at 14°C, 16°C, 20°C, 25°C, 28°C and

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of the Planarian Eye Identifies ovo as a Specific Regulator of Eye Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain W. Lapan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the millions of invertebrate species with visual systems, the genetic basis of eye development and function is well understood only in Drosophila melanogaster. We describe an eye transcriptome for the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Planarian photoreceptors expressed orthologs of genes required for phototransduction and microvillus structure in Drosophila and vertebrates, and optic pigment cells expressed solute transporters and melanin synthesis enzymes similar to those active in the vertebrate retinal pigment epithelium. Orthologs of several planarian eye genes, such as bestrophin-1 and Usher syndrome genes, cause eye defects in mammals when perturbed and were not previously described to have roles in invertebrate eyes. Five previously undescribed planarian eye transcription factors were required for normal eye formation during head regeneration. In particular, a conserved, transcription-factor-encoding ovo gene was expressed from the earliest stages of eye regeneration and was required for regeneration of all cell types of the eye.

  15. Spontaneous Closure of a Fully Developed Macular Hole in a Severely Myopic Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bruè

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Myopic macular holes can be difficult to close with surgery and are frequently associated with retinal detachment. We report on a case of a macular hole in a severely myopic eye that underwent spontaneous closure. Methods. An observational case study. Results. A 55-year-old female was referred to Ophthalmology for a central scotoma and metamorphopsia in the right eye. Visual acuity was 1/20 in both eyes. Fundus examination showed loss of the foveal depression, with a small yellow ring in the center of the fovea in the right eye, and a tilted optic disc and peripapillary staphyloma bilaterally. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT revealed a fully developed macular hole with a rim of thickened and slightly elevated retina in the right eye. The patient refused surgery. After 4 years of follow-up, her visual acuity improved to 20/40 in the right eye, and SD-OCT revealed spontaneous sealing of the macular hole without bare retinal pigment epithelium. Conclusions. Myopic macular holes represent a challenge regarding their management, and the prognosis is often poor.

  16. Eye development in the four-eyed fishAnableps anableps: cranial and retinal adaptations to simultaneous aerial and aquatic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Louise N; Lorena, Jamily; Costa, Carinne M; Araujo, Maysa S; Frota-Lima, Gabriela N; Matos-Rodrigues, Gabriel E; Martins, Rodrigo A P; Mattox, George M T; Schneider, Patricia N

    2017-04-12

    The unique eyes of the four-eyed fish Anableps anableps have long intrigued biologists. Key features associated with the bulging eye of Anableps include the expanded frontal bone and the duplicated pupils and cornea. Furthermore, the Anableps retina expresses different photoreceptor genes in dorsal and ventral regions, potentially associated with distinct aerial and aquatic stimuli. To gain insight into the developmental basis of the Anableps unique eye, we examined neurocranium and eye ontogeny, as well as photoreceptor gene expression during larval stages. First, we described six larval stages during which duplication of eye structures occurs. Our osteological analysis of neurocranium ontogeny revealed another distinctive Anablepid feature: an ossified interorbital septum partially separating the orbital cavities. Furthermore, we identified the onset of differences in cell proliferation and cell layer density between dorsal and ventral regions of the retina. Finally, we show that differential photoreceptor gene expression in the retina initiates during development, suggesting that it is inherited and not environmentally determined. In sum, our results shed light on the ontogenetic steps leading to the highly derived Anableps eye. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Expression patterns of Wnt genes during development of an anterior part of the chicken eye

    OpenAIRE

    Fokina, Valentina M.; Frolova, Elena I.

    2006-01-01

    To address the roles of Wnts in the development of the anterior eye, we used a chicken model to perform comprehensive expression analysis of all Wnt genes during anterior eye development. In analyzing the available genomic sequences, we found that the chicken genome encodes 18 Wnt proteins that are homologous to corresponding human and mouse proteins. The mRNA sequences for 12 chicken Wnt genes are available in GenBank, and mRNAs for six other Wnt genes (Wnt2, Wnt5b, Wnt7b, Wnt8b, Wnt9b and W...

  18. Two dynamin-2 genes are required for normal zebrafish development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Gibbs

    Full Text Available Dynamin-2 (DNM2 is a large GTPase involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and related trafficking pathways. Mutations in human DNM2 cause two distinct neuromuscular disorders: centronuclear myopathy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Zebrafish have been shown to be an excellent animal model for many neurologic disorders, and this system has the potential to inform our understanding of DNM2-related disease. Currently, little is known about the endogenous zebrafish orthologs to human DNM2. In this study, we characterize two zebrafish dynamin-2 genes, dnm2 and dnm2-like. Both orthologs are structurally similar to human DNM2 at the gene and protein levels. They are expressed throughout early development and in all adult tissues examined. Knockdown of dnm2 and dnm2-like gene products resulted in extensive morphological abnormalities during development, and expression of human DNM2 RNA rescued these phenotypes. Our findings suggest that dnm2 and dnm2-like are orthologs to human DNM2, and that they are required for normal zebrafish development.

  19. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... causing some people discomfort even if they have normal vision. Taking a break from viewing usually relieves ... in children with healthy eyes. The development of normal 3-D vision in children is stimulated as ...

  20. Permanent chemical phenylketonuria and a normal phenylalanine tolerance in two sisters with a normal mental development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadman, S.K.; Ketting, D.; Bree, P.K. de; Heiden, C. van der; Grimberg, M.Th.; Kruijswijk, H.

    1975-01-01

    A positive ferric chloride reaction was found at routine examination of the urine of a 14 year old mentally normal girl, admitted for complaints of headache and other meningitis-like symptoms. It turned out that she excreted permanently increased amounts of phenylpyruvic, phenyllactic and

  1. What Drives Embryo Development? Chromosomal Normality or Mitochondria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bayram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report the arrest of euploid embryos with high mtDNA content. Design. A report of 2 cases. Setting. Private fertility clinic. Patients. 2 patients, 45 and 40 years old undergoing IVF treatment. Interventions. Mature oocytes were collected and vitrified from two ovarian stimulations. Postthaw, survived mature oocytes underwent fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number were done using next generation sequencing (NGS. The only normal embryo among the all-biopsied embryos had the highest “Mitoscore” value and was the only arrested embryo in both cases. Therefore, the embryo transfer was cancelled. Main Outcome Measures. Postthaw survival and fertilization rate, embryo euploidy, mtDNA copy number, and embryo development. Results. In both patients, after PGS only 1 embryo was euploid. Both embryos had the highest mtDNA copy number from all tested embryos and both embryos were arrested on further development. Conclusions. These cases clearly demonstrate the lack of correlation between mtDNA value (Mitoscore and chromosomal status of embryo.

  2. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome, and normal vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2013-12-01

    To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Interocular acuity differences and binocular summation ratios were compared between groups. Crowding ratios were calculated by dividing the single Landolt C decimal acuity with the crowded Landolt C decimal acuity mono- and binocularly. A linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the contribution of 5 predictors to the monocular and binocular crowding ratio: nystagmus amplitude, nystagmus frequency, strabismus, astigmatism, and anisometropia. Crowding ratios were higher under mono- and binocular viewing conditions for children with infantile nystagmus syndrome than for children with normal vision. Children with albinism showed higher crowding ratios in their poorer eye and under binocular viewing conditions than children with normal vision. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome showed larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision (0.1 logMAR in our clinical groups and 0.0 logMAR in children with normal vision). Binocular summation ratios did not differ between groups. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude predicted the crowding ratio in the poorer eye (p = 0.015 and p = 0.005, respectively). The crowding ratio in the better eye showed a marginally significant relation with nystagmus frequency and depth of anisometropia (p = 0.082 and p = 0.070, respectively). The binocular crowding ratio was not predicted by any of the variables. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome show larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude are significant predictors of the crowding ratio in the poorer eye.

  3. Proper ciliary assembly is critical for restricting Hedgehog signaling during early eye development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jacob B; Lupu, Floria I; Eggenschwiler, Jonathan T

    2017-10-01

    Patterning of the vertebrate eye into optic stalk, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and neural retina (NR) territories relies on a number of signaling pathways, but how these signals are interpreted by optic progenitors is not well understood. The primary cilium is a microtubule-based organelle that is essential for Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, but it has also been implicated in the regulation of other signaling pathways. Here, we show that the optic primordium is ciliated during early eye development and that ciliogenesis is essential for proper patterning and morphogenesis of the mouse eye. Ift172 mutants fail to generate primary cilia and exhibit patterning defects that resemble those of Gli3 mutants, suggesting that cilia are required to restrict Hh activity during eye formation. Ift122 mutants, which produce cilia with abnormal morphology, generate optic vesicles that fail to invaginate to produce the optic cup. These mutants also lack formation of the lens, RPE and NR. Such phenotypic features are accompanied by strong, ectopic Hh pathway activity, evidenced by altered gene expression patterns. Removal of GLI2 from Ift122 mutants rescued several aspects of optic cup and lens morphogenesis as well as RPE and NR specification. Collectively, our data suggest that proper assembly of primary cilia is critical for restricting the Hedgehog pathway during eye formation in the mouse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. WNT/β-Catenin Signaling in Vertebrate Eye Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fujimura, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, November (2016), č. článku 138. ISSN 2296-634X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : retina * WNT * b-catenin * development * differentiation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  5. Development of a novel approach to the assessment of eye-hand coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiseok; Junghans, Barbara M; Ryan, Malcolm; Khuu, Sieu; Suttle, Catherine M

    2014-05-15

    Current methods to measure eye-hand coordination (EHC) have been widely applied in research and practical fields. However, some aspects of the methods, such as subjectivity, high price, portability, and high appraisal contribute to difficulties in EHC testing. The test was developed on an Apple iPad(®) and involves tracing up to 13 shapes with a stylus pen. The time taken to complete each trace and the spatial accuracy of the tracing is automatically recorded. The difficulty level for each shape was evaluated theoretically based on the complexity and length of outline. Ten adults aged 31.5±7.8 years and five children aged 9.4±1.1 years with normal vision participated. In adults, the time taken to trace and number of errors significantly decreased from the first to the second attempt (p<0.05) but not thereafter, suggesting a learning effect with repeatability after a practice attempt. Time taken and number of errors in children were both higher in monocular than binocular viewing conditions (p=0.02 and p<0.01, respectively) while adults' performance was similar in both viewing conditions. Existing EHC tests are subjective in clinics and require higher skills and cost in research, and measure gross EHC. This novel test has been developed to address some of the limitations. The test is engaging for children and adults and is an objective method with potential for the assessment of fine EHC, suited to clinic-based and research use in ophthalmic or brain trauma settings, and in developmental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Argos induces programmed cell death in the developing Drosophila eye by inhibition of the Ras pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamoto, K; Taguchi, A; Hirota, Y; Yamada, C; Jin, M H; Okano, H

    1998-04-01

    We studied the role of Ras signaling in the regulation of cell death during Drosophila eye development. Overexpression of Argos, a diffusible inhibitor of the EGF receptor and Ras signaling, caused excessive cell death in developing eyes at pupal stages. The Argos-induced cell death was suppressed by coexpression of the anti-apoptotic genes p35, diap1, or diap2 in the eye as well as by the Df(3L)H99 chromosomal deletion that lacks three apoptosis-inducing genes, reaper, head involution defective (hid) and grim. Transient misexpression of the activated Ras1 protein (Ras1V12) later in pupal development suppressed the Argos-induced cell death. Thus, Argos-induced cell death seemed to have resulted from the suppression of the anti-apoptotic function of Ras. Conversely, cell death induced by overexpression of Hid was suppressed by gain-of-function mutations of the genes coding for MEK and ERK. These results support the idea that Ras signaling functions in two distinct processes during eye development, first triggering the recruitment of cells and later negatively regulating cell death.

  7. The Early Development of Sight-Reading Skills in Adulthood: A Study of Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Huovinen, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of skill development on the eye movements of beginning adult sight-readers were examined, focusing on changes in the allocation of visual attention within metrical units as well as in the processing of larger melodic intervals. The participants were future elementary school teachers, taking part in a 9-month-long music…

  8. Human behavioral biology: commentary on Lerner and von Eye's sociobiology and human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; Burgess, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that in their examination of arguments forwarded by sociobiologists to account for key features of human development, R. M. Lerner and A. von Eye (see record 1992-23071-001) misunderstand the role of general theory in science. They also fail to characterize the work of sociobiologists

  9. Viscoplastic Model Development with an Eye Toward Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Alan D.; Walker, Kevin P.

    1995-01-01

    A viscoplastic theory is developed that reduces analytically to creep theory under steady-state conditions. A viscoplastic model is constructed within this theoretical framework by defining material functions that have close ties to the physics of inelasticity. As a consequence, this model is easily characterized-only steady-state creep data, monotonic stress-strain curves, and saturated stress-strain hysteresis loops are required.

  10. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or child care if you're not able to take time off — just stay consistent in practicing good hygiene. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria normally present in the mother's birth canal. ...

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of Spectralis SD OCT Automated Macular Layers Segmentation to Discriminate Normal from Early Glaucomatous Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Marta; Dyrda, Agnieszka Anna; Biarnés, Marc; Gómez, Alicia; Martín, Carlos; Mora, Clara; Fatti, Gianluca; Antón, Alfonso

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the macular retinal layer segmentation software of the Spectralis spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) device (Heidelberg Engineering, Inc., Heidelberg, Germany) to discriminate between healthy and early glaucoma (EG) eyes. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Forty EG eyes and 40 healthy controls were included. All participants were examined using the standard posterior pole and the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) protocols of the Spectralis OCT device. Using an Early Treatment Diagnostic Retinopathy Study circle at the macular level, the automated retinal segmentation software was applied to determine thicknesses of the following parameters: total retinal thickness, inner retinal layer (IRL), macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), macular ganglion cell layer (mGCL), macular inner plexiform layer (mIPL), macular inner nuclear layer (mINL), macular outer plexiform layer (mOPL), macular outer nuclear layer (mONL), photoreceptors (PR), and retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE). The ganglion cell complex (GCC) was determined by adding the mRNFL, mGCL, and mIPL parameters and the ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer (mGCL-IPL) was determined by combining the mGCL and mIPL parameters. Thickness of each layer was compared between the groups, and the layer and sector with the best area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were identified. Comparison of pRNFL, IRL, mRNFL, mGCL, mIPL, mGCC, mGCL-IPL, mINL, mOPL, mONL, PR, and RPE parameters and total retinal thicknesses between groups for the different areas and their corresponding AUCs. Peripapillary RNFL was significantly thinner in the EG group globally and in all 6 sectors assessed (P < 0.0005). For the macular variables, retinal thickness was significantly reduced in the EG group for total retinal thickness, mIRL, mRNFL, mGCL, and mIPL. The 2 best isolated parameters to discriminate between the 2 groups were pRNFL (AUC, 0.956) and

  12. Development of a global motor rating scale for young children (0-4 years) including eye-hand grip coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivre-Douret, L; Burnod, Y

    2001-11-01

    A comparative study of the eight motor rating scales available in Western countries demonstrated methodological differences in the choice of items and standardization. We have developed a global motor rating scale that includes items which measure postural-motor, locomotor (PML) and eye-hand grip coordination (EHGC), and which allows the assessment of an average of motor function level (MFL), PML and EHGC development. Scores obtained were used to define the acquisition of motor age based on the skills completed. The items were selected on the basis of the average age at which the function developed in two populations of healthy full-term French infants, followed from birth to 4 months (n = 60) and from 4 months to 4 years (n = 63). Recent French developmental standards (mean age and standard deviation) of acquisition allow the identification of neuro-psychomotor deviations from normal motor behaviour. This includes both static and dynamic motor coordination sequences. Inter-examiner correlations (n = 3) for 15 randomly selected children indicated a coefficient of 0.90. The scale revealed a sequence in the organization of learned postural-motor, locomotor and eye-hand gripping skills which can contribute to the understanding of brain areas implicated in this maturation process.

  13. Mutations modulating the Argos-regulated signaling pathway in Drosophila eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, A; Sawamoto, K; Okano, H

    2000-04-01

    Argos is a secreted protein that contains an EGF-like domain and acts as an inhibitor of Drosophila EGF receptor activation. To identify genes that function in the Argos-regulated signaling pathway, we performed a genetic screen for enhancers and suppressors of the eye phenotype caused by the overexpression of argos. As a result, new alleles of known genes encoding components of the EGF receptor pathway, such as Star, sprouty, bulge, and clown, were isolated. To study the role of clown in development, we examined the eye and wing phenotypes of the clown mutants in detail. In the eye discs of clown mutants, the pattern of neuronal differentiation was impaired, showing a phenotype similar to those caused by a gain-of-function EGF receptor mutation and overexpression of secreted Spitz, an activating ligand for the EGF receptor. There was also an increased number of pigment cells in the clown eyes. Epistatic analysis placed clown between argos and Ras1. In addition, we found that clown negatively regulated the development of wing veins. These results suggest that the clown gene product is important for the Argos-mediated inhibition of EGF receptor activation during the development of various tissues. In addition to the known genes, we identified six mutations of novel genes. Genetic characterization of these mutants suggested that they have distinct roles in cell differentiation and/or survival regulated by the EGF receptor pathway.

  14. A role for GnRH in early brain regionalization and eye development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng; Page, Louise; Sherwood, Nancy M

    2006-09-26

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a highly conserved peptide that is expressed early in brain development in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we detected GnRH mRNA within 2h post fertilization by RT-PCR. To determine if GnRH is involved in development, we used gene knockdown techniques to block translation of gnrh2 or gnrh3 mRNA after which the expression patterns for gene markers were examined at 24h post fertilization with in situ hybridization. First, loss of either GnRH2 or GnRH3 affected regionalization of the brain as shown by a change in expression of fgf8 or pax2.1 genes in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary or diencephalon-midbrain boundary. Second, lack of GnRH2 and/or GnRH3 altered gene markers expressed in the formation of the eye cup (pax2.1, pax6.1, mab21l2 and meis1.1) or eye stalk (fgf8 and pax2.1). Third, knockdown of GnRH2 affected the size and shape of the midbrain and expression of gene markers therein. Results from assays with the TUNEL method and caspase-3 and -9 activity showed the brain and eye changes were unlikely to result from secondary apoptotic cell death before 24h post fertilization. These experiments suggest that GnRH loss-of-function affects early brain and eye formation during development.

  15. Improving the normalization of complex interventions: measure development based on normalization process theory (NoMAD): study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, Tracy L; Rapley, Tim; Girling, Melissa; Mair, Frances S; Murray, Elizabeth; Treweek, Shaun; McColl, Elaine; Steen, Ian Nicholas; May, Carl R

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding implementation processes is key to ensuring that complex interventions in healthcare are taken up in practice and thus maximize intended benefits for service provision and (ultimately) care to patients. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) provides a framework for understanding how a new intervention becomes part of normal practice. This study aims to develop and validate simple generic tools derived from NPT, to be used to improve the implementation of complex healthca...

  16. Visual-Motor Localizations in Normal and Subnormal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Feriha

    1981-01-01

    Reports four experiments comparing the visual target localization performance of severely subnormal, moderately subnormal, and normal preschoolers, of like mental age, under conditions of visually guided or visually directed feedback. (SJL)

  17. CRIM1 haploinsufficiency causes defects in eye development in human and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleggia, Filippo; Li, Yun; Fan, Jieqing; Elcioğlu, Nursel H; Toker, Ebru; Wieland, Thomas; Maumenee, Irene H; Akarsu, Nurten A; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Lang, Richard; Wollnik, Bernd

    2015-04-15

    Colobomatous macrophthalmia with microcornea syndrome (MACOM, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 602499) is an autosomal dominantly inherited malformation of the eye, which is characterized by microcornea with increased axial length, coloboma of the iris and of the optic disc, and severe myopia. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in two affected individuals from the 2p23-p16-linked MACOM family, which includes 13 affected individuals in 3 generations. As no shared novel variation was found on the linked haplotype, we performed copy number variation (CNV) analysis by comparing the coverage of all exons in the WES data sets of the 2 patients with the coverage of 26 control exomes. We identified a heterozygous deletion predicted to span 22 kb including exons 14-17 of CRIM1 (cysteine-rich transmembrane bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) regulator 1). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis confirmed the deletion, which was present in 11 affected individuals. Split-read analysis of WES data followed by breakpoint PCR and Sanger sequencing determined both breakpoints flanked by a 4-bp microhomology (CTTG). In the mouse, Crim1 is a growth-factor-binding protein with pleiotropic roles in the development of multiple organs, including the eye. To investigate the role of Crim1 during eye development in mice, we crossed a Crim1(flox) mouse line with the Ap2α-cre mouse line, which expresses Cre in the head surface ectoderm. Strikingly, we observed alterations of eye development in homozygous mice leading to severe anatomical and morphological changes overlapping with the anomalies observed in MACOM patients. Taken together, these findings identify CRIM1 as the causative gene for MACOM syndrome and emphasize the importance of CRIM1 in eye development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Rat optic nerve head anatomy within three- dimensional histomorphometric reconstructions of normal and early experimental glaucoma eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Pazos López, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Objetciu: Reconstruir en 3D caps del nervi òptic (CNOs) de rata camb glaucoma experimental (GExp) precoç unilateral, per proporcionar la primera descripció histomorfomètrica del CNO de controls normales i amb GExp primerenc en aquesta espècie. Métodos: Es va injectar sèrum salí hipertònic unilateralment en les venes epiesclerals de 8 rates noruegues que van ser sacrificades 4 setmantes després (fixació-perfusió). Cinc observadors enmascarats graduaren el dany de seccions del nervi òptic (NO) ...

  19. Development of the eye in the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, P G; Krause, W J

    1993-01-01

    Marsupials are unique models for developmental biology-oriented research because of the immature state of their development at birth. The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) has several advantages over other marsupials, including large litter size, short prenatal period (12.5 d), an extended postnatal period while accessible in the pouch, and its ability to reproduce reliably in captivity. Studies of ocular development in this species have not been reported previously. The aim of the present investigation was therefore to document the major landmarks in prenatal and postnatal development of the cornea, lens, iris, ciliary body and retina. Fifteen embryos (10.5, 10.7 and 11 d postconception and 6 h after birth [12 d]) were studied by paraffin histology. Eyes of pouch young at 8 d, 2, 6, 9 and 13 wk were studied by transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. The study revealed a similar pattern of ocular development in Didelphis to other metatherian and eutherian mammals. Differentiation of the eye is particularly rapid in the 2 d before birth. For example, although the lens vesicle separates from the surface ectoderm on d 10, by birth (2.5 d later) a primitive cornea and fused eyelids have formed, presumably to protect the eye during migration to the pouch. At birth the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) contains melanin; however, the inner layer of the optic cup does not differentiate into an inner and outer neuroblastic layer until 8 d after birth. Around 6 wk after birth most components of the adult eye are identifiable, albeit in an immature form. These include the corneal layers, the iris (including the sphincter pupillae), ciliary processes, RPE tapetum, and a fully laminated retina with immature photoreceptors. A knowledge of the timing of major events in eye development in Didelphis and their comparison with equivalent events in human eye development should allow the appropriate choice of stages for any future experimental studies

  20. Development of a sensory neuronal cell model for the estimation of mild eye irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, Johanna; Forsby, Anna

    2004-10-01

    In an attempt to improve the in vitro test strategy for the estimation of eye irritation, a neuronal cell model has been developed, with cells expressing vanilloid receptor type 1 (VR1) nociceptors. The currently accepted method for measuring eye irritancy is the ethically and scientifically criticised Draize rabbit eye test, despite the fact that alternative in vitro methods are available which have proved to be reliable and reproducible for predicting severe ocular toxicity. However, no alternative tests for measuring neuronal stimulation have yet been developed, and the prediction of eye irritation in the mild range is therefore insufficient. VR1 is a nociceptor localised in C-fibre neurons innervating the cornea and the surrounding tissue, and it responds to potentially damaging stimuli by releasing Ca2+ into the cytoplasm. As a sensory endpoint, [Ca2+]i was measured in VR1 transfected cells, as well as in control cells. Short-term cell cytotoxicity studies (cell membrane rupture and morphological divergence) were used to determine the non-corrosive concentrations of the test chemicals. Preliminary results indicated that hygiene products used daily may induce eye irritation via VR1 nociceptors. The lowest toxic concentration (0.025%) of liquid hand soap, as determined by morphologic divergences of cells, generated an 80% increase in [Ca2+]i over the basal [Ca2+]i in VR1 transfected cells, whereas the non-specific [Ca2+]i increased by 33%. Furthermore, all the endpoints studied indicated that shampoo for children was less active than shampoo for adults. If this method is successfully validated with standardised reference chemicals, the model could complete the test battery of in vitro alternatives, resulting in the saving of thousands of laboratory animals.

  1. A positive role for patched-smoothened signaling in promoting cell proliferation during normal head development in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamala, Baragur V; Bhat, Krishna Moorthi

    2002-04-01

    The transmembrane receptor Patched regulates several developmental processes in both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, Patched also acts as a tumor suppressor. The Patched pathway normally operates by negatively regulating Smoothened, a G-protein-coupled receptor; binding of Hedgehog ligand to Patched relieves this negative interaction and allows signaling by Smoothened. We show that Ptc regulates Drosophila head development by promoting cell proliferation in the eye-antennal disc. During head morphogenesis, Patched positively interacts with Smoothened, which leads to the activation of Activin type I receptor Baboon and stimulation of cell proliferation in the eye-antennal disc. Thus, loss of Ptc or Smoothened activity affects cell proliferation in the eye-antennal disc and results in adult head capsule defects. Similarly, reducing the dose of smoothened in a patched background enhances the head defects. Consistent with these results, gain-of-function Hedgehog interferes with the activation of Baboon by Patched and Smoothened, leading to a similar head capsule defect. Expression of an activated form of Baboon in the patched domain in a patched mutant background completely rescues the head defects. These results provide insight into head morphogenesis, a process we know very little about, and reveal an unexpected non-canonical positive signaling pathway in which Patched and Smoothened function to promote cell proliferation as opposed to repressing it.

  2. Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Suppresses Development of Eyes and Germ Cells through Blocking Synthesis of Retinoic Acid in Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Eri; Hosseini, Hamid; Kang, Dong K.; Kitano, Takeshi; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    Application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) has attracted rising attention in various scientific fields including medical, pharmacological, and biological sciences, although its effects and molecular mechanisms leading to the effects remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a single, high-intensity (10–30 kV/cm), 60-ns PEF exposure affects gene expression and impairs development of eyes and germ cells in medaka (Oryzias latipes). Exposure of early blastula stage embryos to nsPEF down-regulated the expression of several transcription factors which are essential for eye development, causing abnormal eye formation. Moreover, the majority of the exposed genetic female embryos showed a fewer number of germ cells similar to that of the control (unexposed) genetic male at 9 days post-fertilization (dpf). However, all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) treatment following the exposure rescued proliferation of germ cells and resumption of normal eye development, suggesting that the phenotypes induced by nsPEF are caused by a decrease of retinoic acid levels. These results confirm that nsPEFs induce novel effects during embryogenesis in medaka. PMID:23936463

  3. Nanosecond pulsed electric field suppresses development of eyes and germ cells through blocking synthesis of retinoic acid in Medaka (Oryzias latipes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Shiraishi

    Full Text Available Application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs has attracted rising attention in various scientific fields including medical, pharmacological, and biological sciences, although its effects and molecular mechanisms leading to the effects remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a single, high-intensity (10-30 kV/cm, 60-ns PEF exposure affects gene expression and impairs development of eyes and germ cells in medaka (Oryzias latipes. Exposure of early blastula stage embryos to nsPEF down-regulated the expression of several transcription factors which are essential for eye development, causing abnormal eye formation. Moreover, the majority of the exposed genetic female embryos showed a fewer number of germ cells similar to that of the control (unexposed genetic male at 9 days post-fertilization (dpf. However, all-trans retinoic acid (atRA treatment following the exposure rescued proliferation of germ cells and resumption of normal eye development, suggesting that the phenotypes induced by nsPEF are caused by a decrease of retinoic acid levels. These results confirm that nsPEFs induce novel effects during embryogenesis in medaka.

  4. Increased Saccadic Rate during Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in Patients at Ultra High Risk for Developing a Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tricht, M. J.; Nieman, D. H.; Bour, L. J.; Boeree, T.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; de Haan, L.; Linszen, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormalities in eye tracking are consistently observed in schizophrenia patients and their relatives and have been proposed as an endophenotype of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of patients at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for developing psychosis on a task of smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM). Forty-six UHR…

  5. Nestin is essential for zebrafish brain and eye development through control of progenitor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Ling; Yuh, Chiou-Hwa; Wu, Kenneth K

    2010-02-19

    Nestin is expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPC) of developing brain. Despite its wide use as an NPC marker, the function of nestin in embryo development is unclear. As nestin is conserved in zebrafish and its predicted sequence is clustered with the mammalian nestin orthologue, we used zebrafish as a model to investigate its role in embryogenesis. Injection of nestin morpholino (MO) into fertilized eggs induced time- and dose-dependent brain and eye developmental defects. Nestin morphants exhibited characteristic morphological changes including small head, small eyes and hydrocephalus. Histological examinations show reduced hind- and mid-brain size, dilated ventricle, poorly organized retina and underdeveloped lens. Injection of control nestin MO did not induce brain or eye changes. Nestin MO injection reduced expression of ascl1b (achaete-scute complex-like 1b), a marker of NPCs, without affecting its distribution. Nestin MO did not influence Elavl3/4 (Embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila-like 3/4) (a neuronal marker), or otx2 (a midbrain neuronal marker), but severely perturbed cranial motor nerve development and axon distribution. To determine whether the developmental defects are due to excessive NPC apoptosis and/or reduced NPC proliferation, we analyzed apoptosis by TUNEL assay and acridine orange staining and proliferation by BrdU incorporation, pcna and mcm5 expressions. Excessive apoptosis was noted in hindbrain and midbrain cells. Apoptotic signals were colocalized with ascl1b. Proliferation markers were not significantly altered by nestin MO. These results suggest that nestin is essential for zebrafish brain and eye development probably through control of progenitor cell apoptosis.

  6. The post-natal development of intraocular pressure in normal domestic cats (Felis catus) and in feline congenital glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Sara; Shinsako, Daniel; Kiland, Julie A; Yaccarino, Vincent; Ellinwood, N Matthew; Ben-Shlomo, Gil; McLellan, Gillian J

    2018-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most consistent risk factor for progressive vision loss in glaucoma. Cats with recessively inherited feline congenital glaucoma (FCG) exhibit elevated IOP with gradual, painless progression of glaucoma similar to humans and are studied as a model of glaucoma in humans and animals. Here, post-natal development of IOP was characterized in normal domestic cats and in cats with FCG caused by a homozygous LTBP2 mutation. Rebound tonometry (TonoVet ® , ICare Oy, Finland) was used to measure IOP non-invasively, 2-3 times weekly in 63 FCG and 33 normal kittens, of both sexes, from eyelid opening until 3-6 months of age. IOPs in the left and right eyes of both FCG and normal kittens were compared by paired t-test and linear regression. One-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post-tests were used to compare IOP of cats grouped by age and disease status. A p-value normal kittens and 8.72 mmHg (SD = 1.4) in kittens with FCG. Mean IOP at age 10 weeks was significantly higher in FCG (19.8 mmHg; 95% CI = 17.7, 21.9  mmHg) than in normal kittens (13.2 mmHg; 95% CI = 11.9, 14.5  mmHg). At 3 months of age, IOP in normal cats reached adult values while IOP in FCG cats continued to increase through at least six months of age. These results provide ranges for normal IOP values in young kittens and confirm that IOP is significantly higher than normal by 10wks of age in this spontaneous feline glaucoma model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transplantation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into the Developing Mouse Eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun-Shil; Yu, Song-Hee; Jang, Yu-Jin; Hwang, Dong-Youn; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been studied widely for their potential to differentiate into various lineage cells including neural cells in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the influence of the developing host environment on the integration and morphological and molecular differentiation of MSCs, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were transplanted into the developing mouse retina. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing BM-MSCs were transplanted by intraocular injections into mice, ranging in ages from 1 day postnatal (PN) to 10 days PN. The survival dates ranged from 7 days post-transplantation (DPT) to 28DPT, at which time an immunohistochemical analysis was performed on the eyes. The transplanted BM-MSCs survived and showed morphological differentiation into neural cells and some processes within the host retina. Some transplanted cells expressed microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2ab, marker for mature neural cells) or glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP, marker for glial cells) at 5PN 7DPT. In addition, some transplanted cells integrated into the developing retina. The morphological and molecular differentiation and integration within the 5PN 7DPT eye was greater than those of other-aged host eye. The present findings suggest that the age of the host environment can strongly influence the differentiation and integration of BM-MSCs

  8. Transplantation of Adipose Derived Stromal Cells into the Developing Mouse Eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Song-Hee; Jang, Yu-Jin; Lee, Eun-Shil; Hwang, Dong-Youn; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Adipose derived stromal cells (ADSCs) were transplanted into a developing mouse eye to investigate the influence of a developing host micro environment on integration and differentiation. Green fluorescent protein-expressing ADSCs were transplanted by intraocular injections. The age of the mouse was in the range of 1 to 10 days postnatal (PN). Survival dates ranged from 7 to 28 post transplantation (DPT), at which time immunohistochemistry was performed. The transplanted ADSCs displayed some morphological differentiations in the host eye. Some cells expressed microtubule associated protein 2 (marker for mature neuron), or glial fibrillary acid protein (marker for glial cell). In addition, some cells integrated into the ganglion cell layer. The integration and differentiation of the transplanted ADSCs in the 5 and 10 PN 7 DPT were better than in the host eye the other age ranges. This study was aimed at demonstrating how the age of host micro environment would influence the differentiation and integration of the transplanted ADSCs. However, it was found that the integration and differentiation into the developing retina were very limited when compared with other stem cells, such as murine brain progenitor cell

  9. CON4EI: Development of testing strategies for hazard identification and labelling for serious eye damage and eye irritation of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, E; Verstraelen, S; Alépée, N; Kandarova, H; Drzewiecka, A; Gruszka, K; Guest, R; Willoughby, J A; Van Rompay, A R

    2017-09-28

    Assessment of acute eye irritation potential is part of the international regulatory requirements for safety testing of chemicals. In the last decades, many efforts have been made in the search for alternative methods to replace the regulatory in vivo Draize rabbit eye test (OECD TG 405). Success in terms of complete replacement of the regulatory in vivo Draize rabbit eye test has not yet been achieved. The main objective of the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project was to develop tiered testing strategies for serious eye damage and eye irritation assessment that can lead to complete replacement of OECD TG 405. A set of 80 reference chemicals (e.g. balanced by important driver of classification and physical state), was tested with seven test methods. Based on the results of this project, three different strategies were suggested. We have provided a standalone (EpiOcular ET-50), a two-tiered and three-tiered strategy, that can be used to distinguish between Cat 1 and Cat 2 chemicals and chemicals that do not require classification (No Cat). The two-tiered and three-tiered strategies use an RhCE test method (EpiOcular EIT or SkinEthic™ EIT) at the bottom (identification No Cat) in combination with the BCOP LLBO (two-tiered strategy) or BCOP OP-KIT and SMI (three-tiered strategy) at the top (identification Cat 1). For our proposed strategies, 71.1% - 82.9% Cat 1, 64.2% - 68.5% Cat 2 and ≥80% No Cat chemicals were correctly identified. Also, similar results were obtained for the Top-Down and Bottom-Up approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Eye Dosimeter Using Additive Manufacturing Techniques to Monitor Occupational Eye Lens Exposures to Interventional Radiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, JungHwan

    In this project, an eye dosimeter was designed for monitoring occupational lens of the eye exposures targeted to interventional radiologists who are often indirectly exposed to scattered radiation from the patient while performing image-guided procedures. The dosimeter was designed with a computer-aided design software to facilitate additive manufacturing techniques to make the dosimeter. The dosimeter consisted of three separate components that are attached to the hinges and the bridge of the occupational worker's protective eyewear. The produced dosimeter was radiologically calibrated to measure the lens dose on an anthropomorphic phantom of the human head. To supplement the physical design, an algorithm was written that prompts the user to input the element responses of the dosimeter, then estimates the average angle, energy, and resulting lens dose of the exposure by comparing the input with the data acquired during the dosimeter calibration procedure. The performance of the calibrated dosimeter (and the algorithm) was evaluated according to guidelines of the American National Standards Institute, and the dosimeter demonstrated a performance that was in compliance with the standard's performance criteria which suggests that the design of the eye dosimeter is feasible.

  11. Development and validation of an instrument to assess job satisfaction in eye-care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Prakash; Cronjé, Sonja; O'Connor, Patricia M; Khadka, Jyoti; Rao, Gullapalli N; Holden, Brien A

    2017-11-01

    The aim was to develop and validate an instrument to measure job satisfaction in eye-care personnel and assess the job satisfaction of one-year trained vision technicians in India. A pilot instrument for assessing job satisfaction was developed, based on a literature review and input from a public health expert panel. Rasch analysis was used to assess psychometric properties and to undertake an iterative item reduction. The instrument was then administered to vision technicians in vision centres of Andhra Pradesh in India. Associations between vision technicians' job satisfaction and factors such as age, gender and experience were analysed using t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Rasch analysis confirmed that the 15-item job satisfaction in eye-care personnel (JSEP) was a unidimensional instrument with good fit statistics, measurement precisions and absence of differential item functioning. Overall, vision technicians reported high rates of job satisfaction (0.46 logits). Age, gender and experience were not associated with high job satisfaction score. Item score analysis showed non-financial incentives, salary and workload were the most important determinants of job satisfaction. The 15-item JSEP instrument is a valid instrument for assessing job satisfaction among eye-care personnel. Overall, vision technicians in India demonstrated high rates of job satisfaction. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  12. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  13. Transcription factors: normal and malignant development of blood cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravid, Katya; Licht, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    ... and the Development of the Erythroid Lineage James J. Bieker 71 II TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS AND THE MYELOID LINEAGE 85 6 RUNX1(AML1) and CBFB: Genes Required for the Development of All Definitive Hematopoietic Lineages 87 Nancy A. Speck and Elaine Dzierzak 7 PU.1 and the Development of the Myeloid Lineage Daniel G. Tenen 103 vvi CONTENTS 8 CCAAT/Enhancer-...

  14. Test-retest repeatability of the pupil light response to blue and red light stimuli in normal human eyes using a novel pupillometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Milea, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the repeatability of pupil responses to colored light stimuli in healthy subjects using a prototype chromatic pupillometer. One eye of 10 healthy subjects was tested twice in the same day using monochromatic light exposure at two selected wavelengths (660 and 470¿nm, i......, we have developed a novel prototype of color pupillometer which demonstrates good repeatability in evoking and recording the pupillary response to a bright blue and red light stimulus.......In this study, we evaluated the repeatability of pupil responses to colored light stimuli in healthy subjects using a prototype chromatic pupillometer. One eye of 10 healthy subjects was tested twice in the same day using monochromatic light exposure at two selected wavelengths (660 and 470¿nm......, intensity 300¿cd/m(2)) presented continuously for 20¿s. Pupil responses were recorded in real-time before, during, and after light exposure. Maximal contraction amplitude and sustained contraction amplitude were calculated. In addition, we quantified the summed pupil response during continuous light...

  15. Control of G1 in the developing Drosophila eye: rca1 regulates Cyclin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zavitz, K H; Thomas, B J; Lin, M; Campbell, S; Zipursky, S L

    1997-01-01

    In the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster, cells become synchronized in the G1 phase of the cell cycle just prior to the onset of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis. In roughex (rux) mutants, cells enter S phase precociously because of ectopic activation of a Cyclin A/Cdk complex in early G1. This leads to defects in cell fate and pattern formation, and results in abnormalities in the morphology of the adult eye. A screen for dominant suppressors of the rux eye phenotype led to the identification of mutations in cyclin A, string (cdc25), and new cell cycle genes. One of these genes, regulator of cyclin A (rca1), encodes a novel protein required for both mitotic and meiotic cell cycle progression. rca1 mutants arrest in G2 of embryonic cell cycle 16 with a phenotype very similar to cyclin A loss of function mutants. Expression of rca1 transgenes in G1 or in postmitotic neurons promotes Cyclin A protein accumulation and drives cells into S phase in a Cyclin A-dependent fashion.

  16. Development of a finite-element eye model to investigate retinal hemorrhages in shaken baby syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarasa, Jeyendran; Deck, Caroline; Meyer, Frank; Bourdet, Nicolas; Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Willinger, Rémy

    2018-04-01

    Retinal hemorrhages (RH) are among injuries sustained by a large number of shaken baby syndrome victims, but also by a small proportion of road accident victims. In order to have a better understanding of the underlying of RH mechanisms, we aimed to develop a complete human eye and orbit finite element model. Five occipital head impacts, at different heights and on different surfaces, and three shaking experiments were conducted with a 6-week-old dummy (Q0 dummy). This allowed obtaining a precise description of the motion in those two specific situations, which was then used as input for the eye model simulation. Results showed that four parameters (pressure, Von Mises stress and strain, 1st principal stress) are relevant for shaking-fall comparison. Indeed, in the retina, the softest shaking leads to pressure that is 4 times higher than the most severe impact (1.43 vs. 0.34 kPa). For the Von Mises stress, strain and 1st principal stress, this ratio rises to 4.27, 6.53 and 14.74, respectively. Moreover, regions of high stress and strain in the retina and the choroid were identified and compared to what is seen on fundoscopy. The comparison between linear and rotational acceleration in fall and shaking events demonstrated the important role of the rotational acceleration in inducing such injuries. Even though the eye model was not validated, the conclusion of this study is that compared to falls, shaking an infant leads to extreme eye loading as demonstrated by the values taken by the four mentioned mechanical parameters in the retina and the choroid.

  17. Continued Development of the AF/SGR Tricorder Program - Laser Eye Protection, Biomarkers of Laser Injury and Sensor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    about its effect on pilots is “Aussie laser -pointer dazzle attacks on airliners: Bad” at ://www.theregister.co.uk/2008/04/03...Algorithms in Medicine, 2010: p. 1. 7. Aussie laser -pointer dazzle attacks on airliners: Bad. 2008 [cited 2008 September 30]; Available from...34 Program – Laser Eye Protection, Biomarkers of Laser Injury, and Sensor Development Final Technical Report Reporting Period: 30 September 2007

  18. Improving the normalization of complex interventions: measure development based on normalization process theory (NoMAD): study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding implementation processes is key to ensuring that complex interventions in healthcare are taken up in practice and thus maximize intended benefits for service provision and (ultimately) care to patients. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) provides a framework for understanding how a new intervention becomes part of normal practice. This study aims to develop and validate simple generic tools derived from NPT, to be used to improve the implementation of complex healthcare interventions. Objectives The objectives of this study are to: develop a set of NPT-based measures and formatively evaluate their use for identifying implementation problems and monitoring progress; conduct preliminary evaluation of these measures across a range of interventions and contexts, and identify factors that affect this process; explore the utility of these measures for predicting outcomes; and develop an online users’ manual for the measures. Methods A combination of qualitative (workshops, item development, user feedback, cognitive interviews) and quantitative (survey) methods will be used to develop NPT measures, and test the utility of the measures in six healthcare intervention settings. Discussion The measures developed in the study will be available for use by those involved in planning, implementing, and evaluating complex interventions in healthcare and have the potential to enhance the chances of their implementation, leading to sustained changes in working practices. PMID:23578304

  19. Development of a novel pink-eyed dilution mouse model showing progressive darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Akira; Sugiyama, Makoto; Hondo, Eiichi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Yamagishi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Oca2(p-cas) (oculocutaneous albinism II; pink-eyed dilution castaneus) is a coat color mutant gene on mouse chromosome 7 that arose spontaneously in wild Mus musculus castaneus mice. Mice homozygous for Oca2(p-cas) usually exhibit pink eyes and gray coat hair on the non-agouti genetic background, and this ordinary phenotype remains unchanged throughout life. During breeding of a mixed strain carrying this gene on the C57BL/6J background, we discovered a novel spontaneous mutation that causes darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging. In this study, we developed a novel mouse model showing this unique phenotype. Gross observations revealed that the pink eyes and gray coat hair of the novel mutant young mice became progressively darker in color by approximately 3 months after birth. Light and transmission-electron microscopic observations revealed a marked increase in melanin pigmentation of coat hair shafts and choroid of the eye in the novel mice compared to that in the ordinary mice. Sequence analysis of Oca2(p-cas) revealed a 4.1-kb deletion involving exons 15 and 16 of its wild-type gene. However, there was no sequence difference between the two types of mutant mice. Mating experiments suggested that the novel mutant phenotype was not inherited in a simple fashion, due to incomplete penetrance. The novel spontaneous mutant mouse is the first example of progressive hair darkening animals and is an essential animal model for understanding of the regulation mechanisms of melanin biosynthesis with aging.

  20. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... persuasive, conclusive theories on how 3-D digital products could cause damage in children with healthy eyes. The development of normal 3-D vision in children is stimulated as they use their eyes in day-to-day social and natural environments, and this development is largely complete by ...

  1. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-D digital products on eye and visual development, health, or function in children, nor are there persuasive, conclusive theories on how 3-D digital products could cause damage in children with healthy eyes. The development of normal 3-D vision in children is ...

  2. A resource for assessing information processing in the developing brain using EEG and eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Nicolas; Ho, Erica J; Alexander, Lindsay M; Xu, Helen Y; Jozanovic, Renee K; Henin, Simon; Petroni, Agustin; Cohen, Samantha; Marcelle, Enitan T; Parra, Lucas C; Milham, Michael P; Kelly, Simon P

    2017-04-11

    We present a dataset combining electrophysiology and eye tracking intended as a resource for the investigation of information processing in the developing brain. The dataset includes high-density task-based and task-free EEG, eye tracking, and cognitive and behavioral data collected from 126 individuals (ages: 6-44). The task battery spans both the simple/complex and passive/active dimensions to cover a range of approaches prevalent in modern cognitive neuroscience. The active task paradigms facilitate principled deconstruction of core components of task performance in the developing brain, whereas the passive paradigms permit the examination of intrinsic functional network activity during varying amounts of external stimulation. Alongside these neurophysiological data, we include an abbreviated cognitive test battery and questionnaire-based measures of psychiatric functioning. We hope that this dataset will lead to the development of novel assays of neural processes fundamental to information processing, which can be used to index healthy brain development as well as detect pathologic processes.

  3. Progress on different ocular surgeries and dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The health of ocular surface is maintained by the ocular surface(cornea and conjunctiva, accessory lacrimal gland and meibomian gland, the main lacrimal gland and the lachrymal function units between them, any damage in which can lead to the failure of integrity and normal function of tear film. With the development of medical science, more and more eye surgeries are operated to treat eye diseases. However, preoperative anesthetic applications, operation process, preservatives in the eye drops may lead to tear film instability and/or abnormal manifestation on eye surface which may cause dry eyes.

  4. Notch signaling in the pigmented epithelium of the anterior eye segment promotes ciliary body development at the expense of iris formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Bhushan; Nowell, Craig S; Ihm, JongEun; Kostic, Corinne; Arsenijevic, Yvan; Moulin, Alexandre P; Schorderet, Daniel F; Beermann, Friedrich; Radtke, Freddy

    2014-07-01

    The ciliary body and iris are pigmented epithelial structures in the anterior eye segment that function to maintain correct intra-ocular pressure and regulate exposure of the internal eye structures to light, respectively. The cellular and molecular factors that mediate the development of the ciliary body and iris from the ocular pigmented epithelium remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we have investigated the role of Notch signaling during the development of the anterior pigmented epithelium by using genetic loss- and gain-of-function approaches. Loss of canonical Notch signaling results in normal iris development but absence of the ciliary body. This causes progressive hypotony and over time leads to phthisis bulbi, a condition characterized by shrinkage of the eye and loss of structure/function. Conversely, Notch gain-of-function results in aniridia and profound ciliary body hyperplasia, which causes ocular hypertension and glaucoma-like disease. Collectively, these data indicate that Notch signaling promotes ciliary body development at the expense of iris formation and reveals novel animal models of human ocular pathologies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Neuroimaging Studies of Normal Brain Development and Their Relevance for Understanding Childhood Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Rachel; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging findings which identify normal brain development trajectories are presented. Results show that early brain development begins with the neural tube formation and ends with myelintation. How disturbances in brain development patterns are related to childhood psychiatric disorders is examined.

  6. A model for investigating developmental eye repair in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kha, Cindy X; Son, Philip H; Lauper, Julia; Tseng, Kelly Ai-Sun

    2018-04-01

    Vertebrate eye development is complex and requires early interactions between neuroectoderm and surface ectoderm during embryogenesis. In the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, individual eye tissues such as the retina and lens can undergo regeneration. However, it has been reported that removal of either the specified eye field at the neurula stage or the eye during tadpole stage does not induce replacement. Here we describe a model for investigating Xenopus developmental eye repair. We found that tailbud embryos can readily regrow eyes after surgical removal of over 83% of the specified eye and lens tissues. The regrown eye reached a comparable size to the contralateral control by 5 days and overall animal development was normal. It contained the expected complement of eye cell types (including the pigmented epithelium, retina and lens), and is connected to the brain. Our data also demonstrate that apoptosis, an early mechanism that regulates appendage regeneration, is also required for eye regrowth. Treatment with apoptosis inhibitors (M50054 or NS3694) blocked eye regrowth by inhibiting caspase activation. Together, our findings indicate that frog embryos can undergo successful eye repair after considerable tissue loss and reveals a required role for apoptosis in this process. Furthermore, this Xenopus model allows for rapid comparisons of productive eye repair and developmental pathways. It can also facilitate the molecular dissection of signaling mechanisms necessary for initiating repair. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of an electrooculogram-based eye-computer interface for communication of individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Won-Du; Cha, Ho-Seung; Kim, Do Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyun; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2017-09-08

    Electrooculogram (EOG) can be used to continuously track eye movements and can thus be considered as an alternative to conventional camera-based eye trackers. Although many EOG-based eye tracking systems have been studied with the ultimate goal of providing a new way of communication for individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), most of them were tested with healthy people only. In this paper, we investigated the feasibility of EOG-based eye-writing as a new mode of communication for individuals with ALS. We developed an EOG-based eye-writing system and tested this system with 18 healthy participants and three participants with ALS. We also applied a new method for removing crosstalk between horizontal and vertical EOG components. All study participants were asked to eye-write specially designed patterns of 10 Arabic numbers three times after a short practice session. Our system achieved a mean recognition rates of 95.93% for healthy participants and showed recognition rates of 95.00%, 66.67%, and 93.33% for the three participants with ALS. The low recognition rates in one of the participants with ALS was mainly due to miswritten letters, the number of which decreased as the experiment proceeded. Our proposed eye-writing system is a feasible human-computer interface (HCI) tool for enabling practical communication of individuals with ALS.

  8. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for maintenance but not activation of Pitx2 expression in neural crest during eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Amanda L; Gage, Philip J

    2010-12-01

    Pitx2 is a paired-like homeodomain gene that acts as a key regulator of eye development. Despite its significance, upstream regulation of Pitx2 expression during eye development remains incompletely understood. We use neural crest-specific ablation of Ctnnb1 to demonstrate that canonical Wnt signaling is not required for initial activation of Pitx2 in neural crest. However, canonical Wnt signaling is subsequently required to maintain Pitx2 expression in the neural crest. Eye development in Ctnnb1-null mice appears grossly normal early but significant phenotypes emerge following loss of Pitx2 expression. LEF-1 and β-catenin bind Pitx2 promoter sequences in ocular neural crest, indicating a likely direct effect of canonical Wnt signaling on Pitx2 expression. Combining our data with previous reports, we propose a model wherein a sequential code of retinoic acid followed by canonical Wnt signaling are required for activation and maintenance of Pitx2 expression, respectively. Other key transcription factors in the neural crest, including Foxc1, do not require intact canonical Wnt signaling. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Long Term Consequences: Effects on Normal Development Profile after Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Riley, David O.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; McKee, Ann C.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Each year in the United States, approximately 1.7 million people are diagnosed with a traumatic brain injury (TBI); an estimated 75% of these injuries are classified as mild TBIs (mTBI) or concussions. The symptoms of such injuries include a variety of somatic, cognitive, and behavioral deficits. While these symptoms typically resolve in a matter of weeks, both children and adults may suffer from Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) for months or longer. Suffering from PCS-related symptoms for an extended time may delay an individual’s return to work, adversely affect one’s quality of life, and result in additional social and economic costs. Though a consensus has not been reached on the cause of long-term PCS, it is likely that biological, physiological, psychological, and social elements all play a role in symptom persistence. Additionally, persistent PCS may adversely affect one’s developmental trajectory. The enduring effects of head trauma are not limited to PCS-related effects, however. A progressive tauopathy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is believed to stem from repeated brain trauma. While CTE was originally associated with boxing, it has recently been found in other cases of repetitive head injury including former football and hockey players, and professional wrestlers. In addition to this observed pathology, repetitive brain trauma is also associated with Alzheimer’s-like dementia, Parkinsonism, and motor neuron disease including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). With these significant long-term effects of head injuries, there is a clear need to develop effective diagnoses, treatments, and education plans to reduce future burden and incidence. PMID:22050943

  10. Eukaryotic initiation factor eIF6 modulates the expression of Kermit 2/XGIPC in IGF- regulated eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, N; Tussellino, M; Carotenuto, R; Ronca, R; Rizzolio, S; Biffo, S; Campanella, C

    2017-07-01

    The eukaryotic initiation translation factor eIF6 is a highly conserved, essential protein implicated in translation. eIF6 is regulated in vivo by extracellular signals, such as IGF signaling (for a review see Miluzio et al., 2009). In Xenopus, eif6 over-expression causes a delay in eye development (De Marco et al., 2011). In this study we showed that eif6 co-immunoprecipitates with the insulin-like growth factor receptor (igfr) and may function downstream of igf in eye formation. The relationship between eif6 and gipc2, a protein partner of a variety of molecules including membrane proteins, was investigated. gipc2 is required for maintaining igf-induced akt activation on eye development (Wu et al., 2006). Significantly eif6 and gipc2 have opposite effects in eye development. While eif6 is required for eye formation below threshold levels, gipc2 knockdown impairs eye development (De Marco et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2006). In this study, it was shown that in eif6 over-expressors, the delay in eye morphogenesis is reversed by gipc2 injection, while the injection of eif6 down-regulates gipc2 expression. Real-time-PCR indicates that eif6 regulates gipc2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, gipc2 knockdown has no significant effect on eif6 mRNA levels. These results suggest that eif6 regulation of gipc2 enables correct morphogenesis of Xenopus eye and stimulate questions on the molecular network implicated in this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué son las alergias de ...

  12. Disconjugate eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Dominik

    2007-01-01

    To foveate targets in different depths, the movements of the two eyes must be disconjugate. Fine measurements of eye rotations about the three principal axes have demonstrated that disconjugate eye movements may appear not only in the horizontal, but also in the vertical and torsional directions. In the presence of visual targets, disconjugate eye movements are driven by the vergence system, but they may also appear during vestibular stimulation. Disconjugate eye movements are highly adaptable by visual disparities, but under normal condition the effects of adaptation only persist when one eye is covered. Finally, disorders of the brainstem and cerebellum may lead to abnormal disconjugate eye movements that are often specific for the topography of the lesion. This chapter reviews the literature on the phenomenology of disconjugate eye movements over the last 15 years.

  13. Early Divergence of Central and Peripheral Neural Retina Precursors During Vertebrate Eye Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, Sara J.; Mikawa, Takashi; Hyer, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    During development of the vertebrate eye, optic tissue is progressively compartmentalized into functionally distinct tissues. From the central to the peripheral optic cup, the original optic neuroepithelial tissue compartmentalizes, forming retina, ciliary body and iris. The retina can be further sub-divided into peripheral and central compartments, where the central domain is specialized for higher visual acuity, having a higher ratio and density of cone photoreceptors in most species. Classically, models depict a segregation of the early optic cup into only two domains, neural and non-neural. Recent studies, however, uncovered discrete precursors for central and peripheral retina in the optic vesicle, indicating that the neural retina cannot be considered as a single unit with homogeneous specification and development. Instead, central and peripheral retina may be subject to distinct developmental pathways that underlie their specialization. This review focuses on lineage relationships in the retina and revisits the historical context for segregation of central and peripheral retina precursors before overt eye morphogenesis. PMID:25329498

  14. Early divergence of central and peripheral neural retina precursors during vertebrate eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, Sara J; Mikawa, Takashi; Hyer, Jeanette

    2015-03-01

    During development of the vertebrate eye, optic tissue is progressively compartmentalized into functionally distinct tissues. From the central to the peripheral optic cup, the original optic neuroepithelial tissue compartmentalizes, forming retina, ciliary body, and iris. The retina can be further sub-divided into peripheral and central compartments, where the central domain is specialized for higher visual acuity, having a higher ratio and density of cone photoreceptors in most species. Classically, models depict a segregation of the early optic cup into only two domains, neural and non-neural. Recent studies, however, uncovered discrete precursors for central and peripheral retina in the optic vesicle, indicating that the neural retina cannot be considered as a single unit with homogeneous specification and development. Instead, central and peripheral retina may be subject to distinct developmental pathways that underlie their specialization. This review focuses on lineage relationships in the retina and revisits the historical context for segregation of central and peripheral retina precursors before overt eye morphogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Eye cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Eye cosmetics are useful to highlight and emphasize the eyes. Currently available eye cosmetics include eye shadows, eye shadow setting creams, under-eye concealers, eye-liners, mascaras, artificial eyelashes, and eyebrow pencils. Special care must be taken when patients with sensitive skin or contact lens wearers select eye cosmetics. Eye cosmetics may also be the cause of either irritant or allergic contact dermatitis, which are two causes of the upper-eyelid dermatitis syndrome.

  16. Development of online use of theory of mind during adolescence: An eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonidou, Irene; Dumontheil, Iroise; Chow, Wing-Yee; Breheny, Richard

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the development of theory of mind use through eye-tracking in children (9-13years old, n=14), adolescents (14-17.9years old, n=28), and adults (19-29years old, n=23). Participants performed a computerized task in which a director instructed them to move objects placed on a set of shelves. Some of the objects were blocked off from the director's point of view; therefore, participants needed to take into consideration the director's ignorance of these objects when following the director's instructions. In a control condition, participants performed the same task in the absence of the director and were told that the instructions would refer only to items in slots without a back panel, controlling for general cognitive demands of the task. Participants also performed two inhibitory control tasks. We replicated previous findings, namely that in the director-present condition, but not in the control condition, children and adolescents made more errors than adults, suggesting that theory of mind use improves between adolescence and adulthood. Inhibitory control partly accounted for errors on the director task, indicating that it is a factor of developmental change in perspective taking. Eye-tracking data revealed early eye gaze differences between trials where the director's perspective was taken into account and those where it was not. Once differences in accuracy rates were considered, all age groups engaged in the same kind of online processing during perspective taking but differed in how often they engaged in perspective taking. When perspective is correctly taken, all age groups' gaze data point to an early influence of perspective information. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... function in children, nor are there persuasive, conclusive theories on how 3-D digital products could cause damage in children with healthy eyes. The development of normal 3-D vision in children is stimulated ...

  18. Development and psychometric evaluation of a questionnaire on nurses' clinical competence eye care in intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Abbas; Saeid, Yaser; Ashrafi, Shahrbanoo; Taheri-Kharameh, Zahra

    2017-05-01

    Given the high prevalence of eye disorders in intensive care units, evaluating critical care nurses' competence in providing standard eye care is a matter of utmost importance. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no valid questionnaire for measuring nurses' competence to undertake eye care. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a questionnaire on nurses' clinical competence in providing eye care to patients hospitalized in intensive care units. This was a psychometric study. We initially performed a literature review and developed a 38-item questionnaire consisting of knowledge, attitude and practice domains. We invited a panel of experts and a group of critical care nurses to assess the content and face validity of the questionnaire. Thereafter, we evaluated its construct validity by using the exploratory factor analysis and the known-groups comparison technique. Moreover, the test-retest and the internal consistency evaluation techniques were used for assessing the reliability of the questionnaire. Totally, 35 items remained in the final version of the questionnaire. Based on the results of the exploratory factor analysis, we categorized the items of the questionnaire into three factors. The Cronbach's alpha for the attitude and the practice domains as well as the Kuder-Richardson 20 for the knowledge domain showed satisfactory internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for the whole questionnaire also was 0·83. The results of this study suggest that the nurses' clinical competence in eye care questionnaire has a good factor structure and an acceptable reliability. A complication of sedation and coma is that some patients are unable to maintain effective eyelid closure. These patients present a higher risk of eye complications. Development of tools for evaluating nurses' competence in providing standard eye care is a fundamental prerequisite for improving the quality of eye care. © 2015 British Association

  19. Fukutin-related protein is essential for mouse muscle, brain and eye development and mutation recapitulates the wide clinical spectrums of dystroglycanopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiumo Michael; Keramaris-Vrantsis, Elizabeth; Lidov, Hart G; Norton, James H; Zinchenko, Natalia; Gruber, Helen E; Thresher, Randy; Blake, Derek J; Ashar, Jignya; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Lu, Qi L

    2010-10-15

    Mutations in fukutin-related protein (FKRP) cause a common subset of muscular dystrophies characterized by aberrant glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (α-DG), collectively known as dystroglycanopathies. The clinical variations associated with FKRP mutations range from mild limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I with predominantly muscle phenotypes to severe Walker-Warburg syndrome and muscle-eye-brain disease with striking structural brain and eye defects. In the present study, we have generated animal models and demonstrated that ablation of FKRP functions is embryonic lethal and that the homozygous-null embryos die before reaching E12.5. The homozygous knock-in mouse carrying the missense P448L mutation almost completely lacks functional glycosylation of α-DG in muscles and brain, validating the essential role of FKRP in the functional glycosylation of α-DG. However, the knock-in mouse survives and develops a wide range of structural abnormalities in the central nervous system, characteristics of neuronal migration defects. The brain and eye defects are highly reminiscent of the phenotypes seen in severe dystroglycanopathy patients. In addition, skeletal muscles develop progressive muscular dystrophy. Our results confirm that post-translational modifications of α-DG are essential for normal development of the brain and eyes. In addition, both the mutation itself and the levels of FKRP expression are equally critical for the survival of the animals. The exceptionally wide clinical spectrums recapitulated in the P448L mice also suggest the involvement of other factors in the disease progression. The mutant mouse represents a valuable model to further elucidate the functions of FKRP and develop therapies for FKRP-related muscular dystrophies.

  20. Molecular description of eye defects in the zebrafish Pax6b mutant, sunrise, reveals a Pax6b-dependent genetic network in the developing anterior chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Takamiya

    Full Text Available The cornea is a central component of the camera eye of vertebrates and even slight corneal disturbances severely affect vision. The transcription factor PAX6 is required for normal eye development, namely the proper separation of the lens from the developing cornea and the formation of the iris and anterior chamber. Human PAX6 mutations are associated with severe ocular disorders such as aniridia, Peters anomaly and chronic limbal stem cell insufficiency. To develop the zebrafish as a model for corneal disease, we first performed transcriptome and in situ expression analysis to identify marker genes to characterise the cornea in normal and pathological conditions. We show that, at 7 days post fertilisation (dpf, the zebrafish cornea expresses the majority of marker genes (67/84 tested genes found also expressed in the cornea of juvenile and adult stages. We also characterised homozygous pax6b mutants. Mutant embryos have a thick cornea, iris hypoplasia, a shallow anterior chamber and a small lens. Ultrastructure analysis revealed a disrupted corneal endothelium. pax6b mutants show loss of corneal epithelial gene expression including regulatory genes (sox3, tfap2a, foxc1a and pitx2. In contrast, several genes (pitx2, ctnnb2, dcn and fabp7a were ectopically expressed in the malformed corneal endothelium. Lack of pax6b function leads to severe disturbance of the corneal gene regulatory programme.

  1. Development of an evaluation function for eye-hand coordination robotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernalete, N; Tang, F; Chang, S M; Cheng, F Y; Vetter, P; Stegemann, M; Grantner, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the continuation of a work presented at ICORR 07, in which we discussed the possibility of improving eye-hand coordination in children diagnosed with this problem, using a robotic mapping from a haptic user interface to a virtual environment. Our goal is to develop, implement and refine a system that will assess and improve the eye-hand coordination and grip strength in children diagnosed with poor graphomotor skills. A detailed analysis of patters (e.g., labyrinths, letters and angles) was conducted in order to select three very distinguishable levels of difficulty that could be included in the system, and which would yield the greatest benefit in terms of assessment of coordination and strength issues as well as in training. Support algorithms (position, force, velocity, inertia and viscosity) were also developed and incorporated into the tasks in order to introduce general computer assistance to the mapping of the user's movements to the computer screen without overriding the user's commands to the robotic device. In order to evaluate performance (given by %accuracy and time) of the executed tasks, a sophisticated evaluation function was designed based on image analysis and edge detection algorithms. This paper presents the development of the haptic tasks, the various assistance algorithms, the description of the evaluation function and the results of a study implemented at the Motor Development Clinic at Cal Poly Pomona. The results (Accuracy and Time) of this function are currently being used as inputs to an Intelligent Decision Support System (described in), which in turn, suggests the next task to be executed by the subject based on his/her performance. © 2011 IEEE

  2. Rybp, a polycomb complex-associated protein, is required for mouse eye development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber-Agus Nicole

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rybp (Ring1 and YY1 binding protein is a zinc finger protein which interacts with the members of the mammalian polycomb complexes. Previously we have shown that Rybp is critical for early embryogenesis and that haploinsufficiency of Rybp in a subset of embryos causes failure of neural tube closure. Here we investigated the requirement for Rybp in ocular development using four in vivo mouse models which resulted in either the ablation or overexpression of Rybp. Results Our results demonstrate that loss of a single Rybp allele in conventional knockout mice often resulted in retinal coloboma, an incomplete closure of the optic fissure, characterized by perturbed localization of Pax6 but not of Pax2. In addition, about one half of Rybp-/- Rybp+/+ chimeric embryos also developed retinal colobomas and malformed lenses. Tissue-specific transgenic overexpression of Rybp in the lens resulted in abnormal fiber cell differentiation and severe lens opacification with increased levels of AP-2α and Sox2, and reduced levels of βA4-crystallin gene expression. Ubiquitous transgenic overexpression of Rybp in the entire eye caused abnormal retinal folds, corneal neovascularization, and lens opacification. Additional changes included defects in anterior eye development. Conclusion These studies establish Rybp as a novel gene that has been associated with coloboma. Other genes linked to coloboma encode various classes of transcription factors such as BCOR, CBP, Chx10, Pax2, Pax6, Six3, Ski, Vax1 and Vax2. We propose that the multiple functions for Rybp in regulating mouse retinal and lens development are mediated by genetic, epigenetic and physical interactions between these genes and proteins.

  3. Eye Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Symptoms This symptoms list is for general reference ... Y Z A-Z A B Blood in Eye Bloodshot Eye Blurriness Burning Eyes C Crusty Eyelid ...

  4. Eye pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  5. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Eye structures; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: l'oeil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, V.; Dendale, R. [Departement d' oncologie-radiotherapie, institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-15

    The radiation dose received by the eye depends on the pathology, tumour location (ocular globe, orbit, neighboring structures) and the radiation technique. The major complication is the complete loss of vision, which is often multi-factorial. This article, based on a literature review, describes the radiation effects and the tolerance doses for all eye structures: cornea, lens, retina, optic nerves, orbit and ocular adnexa. (authors)

  6. Connecting eye to eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Rask, Anders Bindslev

    2017-01-01

    Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is used a frame for supporting online and blended learning in educations. The online communication and collaboration are afforded by the social collaboration. However, the social collaboration is based on the establishment of direct eye contact...... (Khalid, Deska & Hugenberg, 2016), but direct eye contact is challenged by the position of the digital devices and thus CSCL. Lack of eye contact is the chief contributor to the negative effects of online disinhibition (Lapidot-Lefler & Barak, 2012) and the problem is the location of the web camera...... at the computer. Eye contact is challenged by the displacement between the senders´ and receivers´ focus on the screen picture and the camera's location at the top or bottom of screens on all digital devices. The aim of this paper is accordingly to investigate the influence of the displacement in eye contact...

  7. Benefits of early development of eye-hand coordination: evidence from the LOOK longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, R D; Cunningham, R B; Telford, R M; Olive, L S; Byrne, D G; Abhayaratna, W P

    2013-10-01

    We investigated longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between eye-hand coordination (EHC) and cardiorespiratory fitness (multistage run), physical activity (pedometers), percent body fat (%BF, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), body image, and organized sport participation (questionnaires) in 406 boys and 384 girls at 8 and 10 years of age. EHC was measured by a throw and wall-rebound catch test involving 40 attempts of increasing difficulty. Median EHC improved during two years from 18 to 32 (boys) and 9 to 24 (girls), and gender differences and improvements were both significant (P 0.3). Finally, even at age 8 years, boys and girls participating in organized sport possessed better EHC than non-participants. These data provide evidence for the premise that early acquisition of this single motor skill promotes the development of a child's fitness, body image, and participation in sport. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Clinical usefulness of myocardial iodine-123-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid distribution abnormality in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy based on normal data file in bull's-eye polar map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Mitani, Isao; Sumita, Shinichi

    1998-01-01

    Visual interpretation of iodine-123-beta-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid ( 123 I-BMIPP) myocardial images cannot easily detect mild reduction in tracer uptake. Objective assessment of myocardial 123 I-BMIPP maldistributions at rest was attempted using a bull's-eye map and its normal data file for detecting myocardial damage in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Six patients, two with Kearns-Sayre syndrome and four with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS), and 10 normal subjects were studied. Fractional myocardial uptake of 1 23 I-BMIPP was also measured by dynamic static imaging to assess the global myocardial free fatty acid. These data were compared with the cardiothoracic ratio measured by chest radiography and left ventricular ejection fraction assessed by echocardiography. Abnormal cardiothoracic ratio and lower ejection fraction were detected in only one patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Abnormal fractional myocardial uptake was detected in two patients (1.61%, 1.91%), whereas abnormal regional 123 I-BMIPP uptake assessed by the bull's-eye map was detected in five patients (83%). All patients showed abnormal uptake in the anterior portion, and one showed progressive atrioventricular conduction abnormality and systolic dysfunction with extended 123 I-BMIPP abnormal uptake. The results suggest that assessment based on the normal data file in a bull's-eye polar map is clinically useful for detection of myocardial damage in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. (author)

  9. Computerized tomography and head growth curve infantile macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eda, Isematsu; Kitahara, Tadashi; Takashima, Sachio; Takeshita, Kenzo

    1982-01-01

    Macrocephaly was defined as a head measuring larger than 98th percentile. We have evaluated CT findings and head growth curves in 25 infants with large heads. Ten (40%) of 25 infants with large heads were normal developmentally and neurologically. Five (20%) of those were mentally retarded. The other 10 infants (40%) included hydrocephalus (4 cases), malformation syndrome (3 cases), brain tumor (1 case), metabolic disorder (1 case) and degenerative disorder (1 case). Their head growth curves were typed as (I), (II) and (III): Type (I) (excessive head growth curve to 2 SDs above normal); Type (II) (head growth curve gradually approached to 2 SDs above normal); Type (III) (head growth curve parallel to 2 SDs above normal). Ten of macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development were studied clinically and radiologically in details. They were all male. CT pictures of those showed normal or various abnormal findings: ventricular dilatations, wide frontal and temporal subdural spaces, wide interhemispheric fissures, wide cerebral sulci, and large sylvian fissures. CT findings in 2 of those, which because normal after repeated CT examinations, resembled benign subdural collection. CT findings in one of those were external hydrocephalus. Head growth curves were obtained from 8 of those. Six cases revealed type (II) and two cases did type (III). The remaining 2 cases could not be followed up. We consider that CT findings of infants showed macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development reveals normal or various abnormal (ventricular dilatations, benign subdural collection, external hydrocephalus) and their head growth curves are not at least excessive. Infants with mental retardation showed similar CT findings and head growth curves as those with normal psychomotor development. It was difficult to distinguish normal from mentally retarded infants by either CT findings or head growth curves. (author)

  10. Evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Apontic controls the G1/S progression by inducing cyclin e during eye development

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qingxin

    2014-06-16

    During Drosophila eye development, differentiation initiates in the posterior region of the eye disk and progresses anteriorly as a wave marked by the morphogenetic furrow (MF), which demarcates the boundary between anterior undifferentiated cells and posterior differentiated photoreceptors. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of gene expression immediately before the onset of differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that Apontic (Apt), which is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is expressed in the differentiating cells posterior to the MF. Moreover, it directly induces the expression of cyclin E and is also required for the G1-to-S phase transition, which is known to be essential for the initiation of cell differentiation at the MF. These observations identify a pathway crucial for eye development, governed by a mechanism in which Cyclin E promotes the G1-to-S phase transition when regulated by Apt.

  11. A comparison of the ocular hypotensive effect of 0.025% bromocriptine and 0.25% timolol eye drops in normal human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Sereiti, M R; Coakes, R L; O'Sullivan, D P; Turner, P

    1989-10-01

    1. The ocular hypotensive effect of 0.025% bromocriptine and 0.25% timolol eye drops was compared in nine healthy human volunteers, using non-contact tonometry. 2. Considering all post-dosing measurements compared with placebo and including the baseline values as continuous independent variables, using multiple linear regression analysis, both bromocriptine and timolol had a significant ocular hypotensive effect (P less than 0.0001) in the treated eye with a significant but lesser effect in the contralateral eye. 3. In the concentrations used, timolol was more efficacious than bromocriptine in lowering intraocular pressure (P less than 0.025). 4. Using other forms of vehicles for bromocriptine to improve efficacy and studying the ocular hypotensive effect of topical application of other dopamine-2-receptor agonists such as pergolide and lisuride was suggested.

  12. Development of an Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire as a tool to study eye diseases patients in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Saleh Abdelfattah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To develop and test an Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25.METHODS:NEI-VFQ-25 was translated into Arabic according to WHO translation guidelines. We enrolled adult consenting patients with bilateral chronic eye diseases who presented to 14 hospitals across Egypt from October to December 2012, and documented their clinical findings. Psychometric properties were then tested using STATA.RESULTS:We recruited 379 patients, whose mean age was (54.5±15y. Of 46.2% were males, 227 had cataract, 31 had glaucoma, 23 had retinal detachment, 37 had diabetic retinopathy, and 61 had miscellaneous visual defects. Non-response rate and the floor and ceiling numbers of the Arabic version (ARB-VFQ-25 were calculated. Internal consistency was high in all subscales (except general health, with Cronbach-α ranging from 0.702-0.911. Test-retest reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.79.CONCLUSION:ARB-VFQ-25 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing visual functions of Arabic speaking patients. However, some questions had high non-response rates and should be substituted by available alternatives. Our results support the importance of including self-reported visual functions as part of routine ophthalmologic examination.

  13. Evaluation of auditory processing and phonemic discrimination in children with normal and disordered phonological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attoni, Tiago Mendonça; Quintas, Victor Gandra; Mota, Helena Bolli

    2010-01-01

    Auditory processing and phonemic discrimination are essential for communication. Retrospective. To evaluate auditory processing and phonemic discrimination in children with normal and disordered phonological development. An evaluation of 46 children was carried out: 22 had phonological disorders and 24 had normally developing speech. Diotic , monotic and dichotic tests were applied to assess auditory processing and a test to evaluate phonemic discrimination abilities. Cross-sectional, contemporary. The values of normally-developing children were within the normal range in all auditory processing tests; these children attained maximum phonemic discrimination test scores. Children with phonological disorders performed worse in the latter, and presented disordered auditory processing. Auditory processing and phonemic discrimination in children with phonological disorders are altered.

  14. Eye health in the priests and novices in central Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuwanporn, Sombat; Pattamasing na Ayutaya, Sukhontha; Wutthiphan, Sorot; Ratanasirintrawut, Suvit; Sothornwit, Nisa; Jenchitr, Watanee; Pongprayoon, Chalao

    2008-01-01

    Early detection and proper management of eye diseases in priests and novices is cost effective, and minimize serious ocular damage and permanent loss of vision. Therefore, the Department of Ophthalmology, Priest Hospital set-up an eye examination project for the priests and novices who came for physical examination. The laboratory test was part of the Sustained and Holistic Healthcare Program for Priests and Novices as Commemoration of His Majesty the King's 60 Years of Accession to the Throne. To evaluate eye health status and screening for refractive error in priests and novices and to provide free spectacles and eye health education to fulfill the criteria of voluntary Buddhist eye health workers. Between February and June 2006, the Department of Ophthalmology, Priest Hospital conducted eye examination for the priests and novices in 28 temples in central Bangkok. The priest and novices with refractive error and abnormal eye examination received appointment for repeated refraction and complete eye examination in Priest Hospital. Six hundred forty nine priests and novices had complete eye examination. Normal visual acuity (Snellen VA 20/20) was found in 355 (54.69%) cases. The most common eye diseases were refractive error with 294 cases (45.30%), cataract with 41 cases (6.32%), glaucoma with 10 cases (1.54%) and vitreoretinal diseases, which included diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration and branch retinal venous occlusion with eight cases (1.23%). Three novices had amblyopia (0.46%). Most of the priests and novices in central Bangkok had good eye health. Half of the eye problems were refractive errors. Since most of other eye diseases reported in priests were associated with aging and systemic diseases as hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease, regular ophthalmic examination should be provided in this risk group. Eye health education should be provided for sustainable eye health development as voluntary eye health workers in Buddhism.

  15. VisualEyes: a modular software system for oculomotor experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Kim, Eun H; Kim, Eun; Alvarez, Tara; Alvarez, Tara L

    2011-03-25

    Eye movement studies have provided a strong foundation forming an understanding of how the brain acquires visual information in both the normal and dysfunctional brain.(1) However, development of a platform to stimulate and store eye movements can require substantial programming, time and costs. Many systems do not offer the flexibility to program numerous stimuli for a variety of experimental needs. However, the VisualEyes System has a flexible architecture, allowing the operator to choose any background and foreground stimulus, program one or two screens for tandem or opposing eye movements and stimulate the left and right eye independently. This system can significantly reduce the programming development time needed to conduct an oculomotor study. The VisualEyes System will be discussed in three parts: 1) the oculomotor recording device to acquire eye movement responses, 2) the VisualEyes software written in LabView, to generate an array of stimuli and store responses as text files and 3) offline data analysis. Eye movements can be recorded by several types of instrumentation such as: a limbus tracking system, a sclera search coil, or a video image system. Typical eye movement stimuli such as saccadic steps, vergent ramps and vergent steps with the corresponding responses will be shown. In this video report, we demonstrate the flexibility of a system to create numerous visual stimuli and record eye movements that can be utilized by basic scientists and clinicians to study healthy as well as clinical populations.

  16. A male with unilateral microphthalmia reveals a role for TMX3 in eye development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chao, Ryan; Nevin, Linda; Agarwal, Pooja

    2010-01-01

    of the deleted genes, TMX3, was expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium and lens epithelium in the developing murine eye. We re-sequenced TMX3 in 162 patients with anophthalmia or microphthalmia, and found two missense substitutions in unrelated patients: c.116G>A, predicting p.Arg39Gln, in a male...... with unilateral microphthalmia and retinal coloboma, and c.322G>A, predicting p.Asp108Asn, in a female with unilateral microphthalmia and severe micrognathia. We used two antisense morpholinos targeted against the zebrafish TMX3 orthologue, zgc:110025, to examine the effects of reduced gene expression in eye...

  17. Test-retest repeatability of the pupil light response to blue and red light stimuli in normal human eyes using a novel pupillometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Milea, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the repeatability of pupil responses to colored light stimuli in healthy subjects using a prototype chromatic pupillometer. One eye of 10 healthy subjects was tested twice in the same day using monochromatic light exposure at two selected wavelengths (660 and 470¿nm, i...

  18. Test-retest repeatability of the pupil light response to blue and red light stimuli in normal human eyes using a novel pupillometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Milea, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the repeatability of pupil responses to colored light stimuli in healthy subjects using a prototype chromatic pupillometer. One eye of 10 healthy subjects was tested twice in the same day using monochromatic light exposure at two selected wavelengths (660 and 470 nm, i...

  19. Development of a simple dry eye model in the albino rabbit and evaluation of some tear substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgalassi, S; Panichi, L; Chetoni, P; Saettone, M F; Boldrini, E

    1999-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with the development of a simple dry eye model in the rabbit, induced by daily repeated instillations of 1.0% atropine sulphate. The evolution of the dry eye syndrome in the animals was assessed by the Schirmer I test and by examination of the cornea after fluorescein staining. The model produced rapidly some typical dry eye symptoms and could be satisfactorily used for a preliminary assessment of the protective activity of some polymeric tear substitutes. These were based on hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium hyaluronate, sodium polyacrylate or tamarind gum. The latter polymer showed the best overall results. Ferning tests on the formulations were also performed: their validity as predictors of the efficacy of tear substitutes is discussed.

  20. 'It Opened My Eyes'-examining the impact of a multifaceted chlamydia testing intervention on general practitioners using Normalization Process Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Anna; Hocking, Jane; Guy, Rebecca; Fairley, Christopher K; Smith, Kirsty; Vaisey, Alaina; Donovan, Basil; Imrie, John; Gunn, Jane; Temple-Smith, Meredith

    2018-03-28

    Chlamydia is the most common notifiable sexually transmissible infection in Australia. Left untreated, it can develop into pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. The majority of notifications come from general practice and it is ideally situated to test young Australians. The Australian Chlamydia Control Effectiveness Pilot (ACCEPt) was a multifaceted intervention that aimed to reduce chlamydia prevalence by increasing testing in 16- to 29-year-olds attending general practice. GPs were interviewed to describe the effectiveness of the ACCEPt intervention in integrating chlamydia testing into routine practice using Normalization Process Theory (NPT). GPs were purposively selected based on age, gender, geographic location and size of practice at baseline and midpoint. Interview data were analysed regarding the intervention components and results were interpreted using NPT. A total of 44 GPs at baseline and 24 at midpoint were interviewed. Most GPs reported offering a test based on age at midpoint versus offering a test based on symptoms or patient request at baseline. Quarterly feedback was the most significant ACCEPt component for facilitating a chlamydia test. The ACCEPt intervention has been able to moderately normalize chlamydia testing among GPs, although the components had varying levels of effectiveness. NPT can demonstrate the effective implementation of an intervention in general practice and has been valuable in understanding which components are essential and which components can be improved upon.

  1. An Infant Development-inspired Approach to Robot Hand-eye Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel developmental learning approach for hand-eye coordination in an autonomous robotic system. Robotic hand-eye coordination plays an important role in dealing with real-time environments. Under the approach, infant developmental patterns are introduced to build our robot's learning system. The method works by first constructing a brain-like computational structure to control the robot, and then by using infant behavioural patterns to build a hand-eye coordination learning algorithm. This work is supported by an experimental evaluation, which shows that the control system is implemented simply, and that the learning approach provides fast and incremental learning of behavioural competence.

  2. Risk identification for quality on stage of pharmaceutical development of combined eye drops for glaucoma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Миколайович Якубчук

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify the possible risks associated with critical quality attribute of combined eye drops for the treatment of glaucoma using of common risk evaluation methodologies for plannig a drug quality on the stage of pharmaceutical development. Methods: The paper used method of causal analysis. The maximal number of factors has been define to identify potential factors that provide most significant impact on the drug quality and Ishikawa diagram - graphical representation of causes and effects has been built.Results: Analysis allowed to organize the possible factors affecting the drug quality in the generalized categories: quality control methods, medicines and excipients, primary packaging, proper manufacturing conditions and the stage of the process. The most important factors that are carriers of the risk factors and may lead to negative effects have been identified for the generalized categories.Conclusions: Determined at the stage of pharmaceutical development potential critical quality attribute of AFI, excipients and primary packaging, critical parameters of the process, provide a better understanding, reduction and adoption of risk in subsequent stages of the life cycle of the drug

  3. Eye Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  4. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  5. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  6. Eye Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  7. Postnatal development of the hippocampal dentate gyrus under normal and experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, J.; Bayer, S.

    Studies on postnatal maturation of the dentate gyrus are reviewed. Some topics discussed are: normal development of the dentate gyrus, cytogenesis, morphogenesis, synaptogenesis, gleogenesis, myelogenesis, development of the gyrus under experimental conditions, and effects of x radiation on cytogenesis and morphogenesis

  8. Development of a voxel phantom specific for simulation of eye brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Marcilio S.; Lima, Fernando R.A.

    2013-01-01

    The ophthalmic brachytherapy involves inserting a plate with seeds of radioactive material in the patient's eye for the treatment of tumors. The radiation dose to be taken by the patient is prescribed by physicians and time of application of the material is calculated from calibration curves supplied by the manufacturers of the plates. To estimate the dose absorbed by the patient, in a series of diagnostic tests, it is necessary to perform simulations using a computational model of exposure. These models are composed primarily by a anthropomorphic phantom, and a Monte Carlo code. The coupling of a phantom voxel whole body to a Monte Carlo code is a complex process because the computer model simulations with exposure takes time, knowledge of the code used and various adjustments to be implemented. The problem is aggravated even more complex when you want to radiate one region of the body. In this work we developed a phantom, specifically the region containing the eyeball, from MASH (Male Adult voxel). This model was coupled to the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc (Electron Gamma Shower) together with an algorithm simulator source of I-125 , considering only its effect of higher energy range

  9. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: informing future drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Julie AE; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson’s disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep–wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement of the brainstem and other structures, which is in line with the gradual involvement known in these disorders. We propose that these findings may help identify biomarkers of individuals at high risk of subsequent conversion to parkinsonism. PMID:27186147

  10. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: informing future drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennum P

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Poul Jennum, Julie AE Christensen, Marielle Zoetmulder Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Danish Center for Sleep Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson’s disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep–wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement of the brainstem and other structures, which is in line with the gradual involvement known in these disorders. We propose that these findings may help identify biomarkers of individuals at high risk of subsequent conversion to parkinsonism. Keywords: motor control, brain stem, hypothalamus, hypocretin

  11. Identification of potential tissue-specific cancer biomarkers and development of cancer versus normal genomic classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Akram; Biegert, Greyson; Adamec, Jiri; Helikar, Tomáš

    2017-10-17

    Machine learning techniques for cancer prediction and biomarker discovery can hasten cancer detection and significantly improve prognosis. Recent "OMICS" studies which include a variety of cancer and normal tissue samples along with machine learning approaches have the potential to further accelerate such discovery. To demonstrate this potential, 2,175 gene expression samples from nine tissue types were obtained to identify gene sets whose expression is characteristic of each cancer class. Using random forests classification and ten-fold cross-validation, we developed nine single-tissue classifiers, two multi-tissue cancer-versus-normal classifiers, and one multi-tissue normal classifier. Given a sample of a specified tissue type, the single-tissue models classified samples as cancer or normal with a testing accuracy between 85.29% and 100%. Given a sample of non-specific tissue type, the multi-tissue bi-class model classified the sample as cancer versus normal with a testing accuracy of 97.89%. Given a sample of non-specific tissue type, the multi-tissue multi-class model classified the sample as cancer versus normal and as a specific tissue type with a testing accuracy of 97.43%. Given a normal sample of any of the nine tissue types, the multi-tissue normal model classified the sample as a particular tissue type with a testing accuracy of 97.35%. The machine learning classifiers developed in this study identify potential cancer biomarkers with sensitivity and specificity that exceed those of existing biomarkers and pointed to pathways that are critical to tissue-specific tumor development. This study demonstrates the feasibility of predicting the tissue origin of carcinoma in the context of multiple cancer classes.

  12. Working memory in Farsi-speaking children with normal development and cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Zahra; Amidfar, Meysam; Dadgar, Hooshang; Jalaie, Shohre

    2014-04-01

    Working memory has an important role in language acquisition and development of cognition skills. The ability of encoding, storage and retrieval of phonological codes, as activities of working memory, acquired by audition sense. Children with cochlear implant experience a period that they are not able to perceive sounds. In order to assess the effect of hearing on working memory, we investigated working memory as a cognition skill in children with normal development and cochlear implant. Fifty students with normal hearing and 50 students with cochlear implant aged 5-7 years participated in this study. Children educated in the preschool, the first and second grades. Children with normal development were matched based on age, gender, and grade of education with cochlear implant. Two components of working memory including phonological loop and central executive were compared between two groups. Phonological loop assessed by nonword repetition task and forward digit span. To assess central executive component backward digit span was used. The developmental trend was studied in children with normal development and cochlear implant as well. The effect of age at implantation in children with cochlear implants on components of working memory was investigated. There are significant differences between children with normal development and cochlear implant in all tasks that assess working memory (p children's age at implantation was negatively correlated with all tasks (p memory between different grades showed significant differences both in children with normal development and in children with cochlear implant (p children with cochlear implant may experience difficulties in working memory. Therefore, these children have problems in encoding, practicing, and repeating phonological units. The results also suggested working memory develops when the child grows up. In cochlear implant children, with decreasing age at implantation and increasing their experience in perceiving

  13. Development of Estimating Equation of Machine Operational Skill by Utilizing Eye Movement Measurement and Analysis of Stress and Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For an establishment of a skill evaluation method for human support systems, development of an estimating equation of the machine operational skill is presented. Factors of the eye movement such as frequency, velocity, and moving distance of saccade were computed using the developed eye gaze measurement system, and the eye movement features were determined from these factors. The estimating equation was derived through an outlier test (to eliminate nonstandard data and a principal component analysis (to find dominant components. Using a cooperative carrying task (cc-task simulator, the eye movement and operational data of the machine operators were recorded, and effectiveness of the derived estimating equation was investigated. As a result, it was confirmed that the estimating equation was effective strongly against actual simple skill levels (r=0.56–0.84. In addition, effects of internal condition such as fatigue and stress on the estimating equation were analyzed. Using heart rate (HR and coefficient of variation of R-R interval (Cvrri. Correlation analysis between these biosignal indexes and the estimating equation of operational skill found that the equation reflected effects of stress and fatigue, although the equation could estimate the skill level adequately.

  14. The EGF receptor and notch signaling pathways control the initiation of the morphogenetic furrow during Drosophila eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J P; Moses, K

    2001-07-01

    The onset of pattern formation in the developing Drosophila retina begins with the initiation of the morphogenetic furrow, the leading edge of a wave of retinal development that transforms a uniform epithelium, the eye imaginal disc into a near crystalline array of ommatidial elements. The initiation of this wave of morphogenesis is under the control of the secreted morphogens Hedgehog (Hh), Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Wingless (Wg). We show that the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Notch signaling cascades are crucial components that are also required to initiate retinal development. We also show that the initiation of the morphogenetic furrow is the sum of two genetically separable processes: (1) the 'birth' of pattern formation at the posterior margin of the eye imaginal disc; and (2) the subsequent 'reincarnation' of retinal development across the epithelium.

  15. Developing Composite Indicators for Agricultural Sustainability Assessment: Effect of Normalization and Aggregation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byomkesh Talukder

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the sustainability of agricultural systems is multidimensional in nature and requires holistic measures using indicators with different measurements and units reflecting social, economic, and environmental aspects. To simplify the assessment process, various indicators have different units, and measurements are grouped under broad indicator heads, and normalization and/or transformation processes are carried out in order to aggregate them. In this study, a total of 50 indicators from agricultural sustainability categories of productivity, stability, efficiency, durability, compatibility, and equity are employed to investigate which normalization technique is the most suitable for further mathematical analysis for developing a final composite indicator. To understand the consistency and quality of normalization measurement techniques and compare the benefits and drawbacks of the various selected normalization processes, the indicators of agricultural sustainability are considered. Each of the different techniques for normalization has advantages and drawbacks. This study shows that the proportionate normalization and hybrid aggregation rules of the arithmetic mean and the geometric mean are appropriate for the selected data set, and that this technique has a wider applicability for developing composite indicators for agricultural sustainability assessment.

  16. Development of in-situ rock shear test under low compressive to tensile normal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Takashi; Shin, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an in-situ rock shear testing method to evaluate the shear strength under low normal stress condition including tensile stress, which is usually ignored in the assessment of safety factor of the foundations for nuclear power plants against sliding. The results are as follows. (1) A new in-situ rock shear testing method is devised, in which tensile normal stress can be applied on the shear plane of a specimen by directly pulling up a steel box bonded to the specimen. By applying the counter shear load to cancel the moment induced by the main shear load, it can obtain shear strength under low normal stress. (2) Some model tests on Oya tuff and diatomaceous mudstone have been performed using the developed test method. The shear strength changed smoothly from low values at tensile normal stresses to higher values at compressive normal stresses. The failure criterion has been found to be bi-linear on the shear stress vs normal stress plane. (author)

  17. Recognition of Emotion from Facial Expressions with Direct or Averted Eye Gaze and Varying Expression Intensities in Children with Autism Disorder and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Dina; Davidson, Denise; Camras, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Eye gaze direction and expression intensity effects on emotion recognition in children with autism disorder and typically developing children were investigated. Children with autism disorder and typically developing children identified happy and angry expressions equally well. Children with autism disorder, however, were less accurate in identifying fear expressions across intensities and eye gaze directions. Children with autism disorder rated expressions with direct eyes, and 50% expressions, as more intense than typically developing children. A trend was also found for sad expressions, as children with autism disorder were less accurate in recognizing sadness at 100% intensity with direct eyes than typically developing children. Although the present research showed that children with autism disorder are sensitive to eye gaze direction, impairments in the recognition of fear, and possibly sadness, exist. Furthermore, children with autism disorder and typically developing children perceive the intensity of emotional expressions differently. PMID:24804098

  18. Recognition of Emotion from Facial Expressions with Direct or Averted Eye Gaze and Varying Expression Intensities in Children with Autism Disorder and Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Tell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye gaze direction and expression intensity effects on emotion recognition in children with autism disorder and typically developing children were investigated. Children with autism disorder and typically developing children identified happy and angry expressions equally well. Children with autism disorder, however, were less accurate in identifying fear expressions across intensities and eye gaze directions. Children with autism disorder rated expressions with direct eyes, and 50% expressions, as more intense than typically developing children. A trend was also found for sad expressions, as children with autism disorder were less accurate in recognizing sadness at 100% intensity with direct eyes than typically developing children. Although the present research showed that children with autism disorder are sensitive to eye gaze direction, impairments in the recognition of fear, and possibly sadness, exist. Furthermore, children with autism disorder and typically developing children perceive the intensity of emotional expressions differently.

  19. Overweight and obese infants present lower cognitive and motor development scores than normal-weight peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Ana Cristina Resende; Mendonça, Vanessa Amaral; Andrade, Camila Alves de; Oliveira, Katherine Simone Caires; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Compare the cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers and investigate the correlation of body weight, body length and body mass index with cognitive and motor development. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 28 overweight/obese infants and 28 normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Both groups were evaluated with cognitive and motor scales of the Bayley-III infant development test. The t-test for independent samples was performed to compare the groups, and the Spearman correlation was used to verify the association between variables. Overweight/obese infants showed lower cognitive and motor composite scores than their normal-weight peers. A significant negative association was found of body weight and body length with cognitive development and of body mass index with motor development. This is the first study that found an effect on both cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants when compared with normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC): eye-specific Tsc1-ablation disrupts visual-pathway development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Iwan; Hägglund, Anna-Carin; Törnqvist, Gunilla; Nord, Christoffer; Ahlgren, Ulf; Carlsson, Leif

    2015-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome that is best characterised by neurodevelopmental deficits and the presence of benign tumours (called hamartomas) in affected organs. This multi-organ disorder results from inactivating point mutations in either the TSC1 or the TSC2 genes and consequent activation of the canonical mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signalling (mTORC1) pathway. Because lesions to the eye are central to TSC diagnosis, we report here the generation and characterisation of the first eye-specific TSC mouse model. We demonstrate that conditional ablation of Tsc1 in eye-committed progenitor cells leads to the accelerated differentiation and subsequent ectopic radial migration of retinal ganglion cells. This results in an increase in retinal ganglion cell apoptosis and consequent regionalised axonal loss within the optic nerve and topographical changes to the contra- and ipsilateral input within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. Eyes from adult mice exhibit aberrant retinal architecture and display all the classic neuropathological hallmarks of TSC, including an increase in organ and cell size, ring heterotopias, hamartomas with retinal detachment, and lamination defects. Our results provide the first major insight into the molecular etiology of TSC within the developing eye and demonstrate a pivotal role for Tsc1 in regulating various aspects of visual-pathway development. Our novel mouse model therefore provides a valuable resource for future studies concerning the molecular mechanisms underlying TSC and also as a platform to evaluate new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of this multi-organ disorder. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Reproductive behavior, development and eye regression in the cave armored catfish, Ancistrus cryptophthalmus Reis, 1987 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae, breed in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Secutti

    Full Text Available The troglobitic armored catfish, Ancistrus cryptophthalmus (Loricariidae, Ancistrinae is known from four caves in the São Domingos karst area, upper rio Tocantins basin, Central Brazil. These populations differ in general body shape and degree of reduction of eyes and of pigmentation. The small Passa Três population (around 1,000 individuals presents the most reduced eyes, which are not externally visible in adults. A small group of Passa Três catfish, one male and three females, reproduced spontaneously thrice in laboratory, at the end of summertime in 2000, 2003 and 2004. Herein we describe the reproductive behavior during the 2003 event, as well as the early development of the 2003 and 2004 offsprings, with focus on body growth and ontogenetic regression of eyes. The parental care by the male, which includes defense of the rock shelter where the egg clutch is laid, cleaning and oxygenation of eggs, is typical of many loricariids. On the other hand, the slow development, including delayed eye degeneration, low body growth rates and high estimated longevity (15 years or more are characteristic of precocial, or K-selected, life cycles. In the absence of comparable data for close epigean relatives (Ancistrus spp., it is not possible to establish whether these features are an autapomorphic specialization of the troglobitic A. cryptophthalmus or a plesiomorphic trait already present in the epigean ancestor, possibly favoring the adoption of the life in the food-poor cave environment. We briefly discuss the current hypotheses on eye regression in troglobitic vertebrates.

  2. A novel mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC: eye-specific Tsc1-ablation disrupts visual-pathway development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Jones

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant syndrome that is best characterised by neurodevelopmental deficits and the presence of benign tumours (called hamartomas in affected organs. This multi-organ disorder results from inactivating point mutations in either the TSC1 or the TSC2 genes and consequent activation of the canonical mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signalling (mTORC1 pathway. Because lesions to the eye are central to TSC diagnosis, we report here the generation and characterisation of the first eye-specific TSC mouse model. We demonstrate that conditional ablation of Tsc1 in eye-committed progenitor cells leads to the accelerated differentiation and subsequent ectopic radial migration of retinal ganglion cells. This results in an increase in retinal ganglion cell apoptosis and consequent regionalised axonal loss within the optic nerve and topographical changes to the contra- and ipsilateral input within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. Eyes from adult mice exhibit aberrant retinal architecture and display all the classic neuropathological hallmarks of TSC, including an increase in organ and cell size, ring heterotopias, hamartomas with retinal detachment, and lamination defects. Our results provide the first major insight into the molecular etiology of TSC within the developing eye and demonstrate a pivotal role for Tsc1 in regulating various aspects of visual-pathway development. Our novel mouse model therefore provides a valuable resource for future studies concerning the molecular mechanisms underlying TSC and also as a platform to evaluate new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of this multi-organ disorder.

  3. Unilateral Keratoconus after Chronic Eye Rubbing by the Nondominant Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To report the development of unilateral keratoconus in a healthy male after persistent unilateral eye rubbing by the nondominant hand which was not needed for professional activities. Methods: Observational case report. Results: A 60-year-old male was first seen in our clinic due to decreased vision in his left eye. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy of the left eye revealed Vogt’s striae, stromal thinning, and a stromal scar. Corneal topography showed a stage 4 keratoconus. Clinical examination and corneal topography of the right eye were normal. Medical history revealed a habit of chronic eye rubbing only in the left eye because of the right hand being occupied for professional needs. During follow-up of 5 years, Scheimpflug images of the right eye stayed normal while the left eye showed a stable cone. Discussion: This case report supports the hypothesis of mechanical fatigue of the cornea due to repetitive shear stress on the surface caused by eye-rubbing.

  4. The development of a consensus statement on normal physiologic birth: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Holly Powell; Cheyney, Melissa; Lawlor, Mary; Myers, Suzy; Schuiling, Kerri; Tanner, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing consensus on a definition of, and best practices for, normal physiologic birth in the United States. Evidence supports the use of physiologic birth practices, yet a working definition of this term has been elusive. We began by convening a task force of 21 individuals from 3 midwifery organizations and various childbirth advocacy and consumer groups. A modified Delphi approach was utilized to achieve consensus around 2 research questions: 1) What is normal physiologic birth? and 2) What practices most effectively support its achievement? Answers to these questions were collected anonymously from task force members during multiple phases that included a preliminary briefing, an initial face-to-face roundtable, 9 iterative Delphi rounds, and reciprocal feedback from a wider audience of stakeholders at national and international conferences. Content analysis identified specific statements and concepts in the first Delphi round, which were subsequently ranked in following rounds. An initial draft was constructed based on the priorities that emerged and presented for feedback to peers and childbirth advocates whose comments were incorporated into the final document. Four key themes were identified from our initial questions; these provided the framework for the document: 1) definitions of normal physiologic birth, 2) mechanisms and outcomes of normal physiologic birth, 3) factors that influence normal physiologic birth, and 4) recommendations for increasing normal physiologic birth. These areas comprised the final sections in the multi-organizational consensus statement. The modified Delphi approach we employed allowed for the development of a consensus statement that will serve as a template for education, practice, and future research in maternity care. The completion of this statement marks the beginning of a project to promote systemic changes that support normal physiologic birth, and thus, have the potential to

  5. The Dens: Normal Development, Developmental Variants and Anomalies, and Traumatic Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T O′Brien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate interpretation of cervical spine imagining can be challenging, especially in children and the elderly. The biomechanics of the developing pediatric spine and age-related degenerative changes predispose these patient populations to injuries centered at the craniocervical junction. In addition, congenital anomalies are common in this region, especially those associated with the axis/dens, due to its complexity in terms of development compared to other vertebral levels. The most common congenital variations of the dens include the os odontoideum and a persistent ossiculum terminale. At times, it is necessary to distinguish normal development, developmental variants, and developmental anomalies from traumatic injuries in the setting of acute traumatic injury. Key imaging features are useful to differentiate between traumatic fractures and normal or variant anatomy acutely; however, the radiologist must first have a basic understanding of the spectrum of normal developmental anatomy and its anatomic variations in order to make an accurate assessment. This review article attempts to provide the basic framework required for accurate interpretation of cervical spine imaging with a focus on the dens, specifically covering the normal development and ossification of the dens, common congenital variants and their various imaging appearances, fracture classifications, imaging appearances, and treatment options.

  6. Role of CD56 in Normal Kidney Development and Wilms Tumorigenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Li-Wei; Brok, Jesper; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    The cell-surface glycoprotein CD56 has three major isoforms that play important roles in cell adhesion and signaling, which may promote cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, or migration. It is an important molecule in normal kidney development and acts as a key marker in Wilms tumor stem...

  7. Understanding Emotions from Standardized Facial Expressions in Autism and Normal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Fulvia

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated the recognition of standardized facial expressions of emotion (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, surprise) at a perceptual level (experiment 1) and at a semantic level (experiments 2 and 3) in children with autism (N= 20) and normally developing children (N= 20). Results revealed that children with autism were as…

  8. The hnRNP A1 homolog Hrp36 is essential for normal development ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-11

    Aug 11, 2012 ... [Singh AK and Lakhotia SC 2012 The hnRNP A1 homolog Hrp36 is essential for normal development, female fecundity, omega speckle formation and stress tolerance in ..... (b), freshly emerged flies (c) or within 3 days after emergence (d) when reared from egg hatching onwards at 30°C±1°C. Figure 1.

  9. Different modes of APC/C activation control growth and neuron-glia interaction in the developing Drosophila eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuert, Helen; Yuva-Aydemir, Yeliz; Silies, Marion; Klämbt, Christian

    2017-12-15

    The development of the nervous system requires tight control of cell division, fate specification and migration. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that affects different steps of cell cycle progression, as well as having postmitotic functions in nervous system development. It can therefore link different developmental stages in one tissue. The two adaptor proteins, Fizzy/Cdc20 and Fizzy-related/Cdh1, confer APC/C substrate specificity. Here, we show that two distinct modes of APC/C function act during Drosophila eye development. Fizzy/Cdc20 controls the early growth of the eye disc anlage and the concomitant entry of glial cells onto the disc. In contrast, fzr/cdh1 acts during neuronal patterning and photoreceptor axon growth, and subsequently affects neuron-glia interaction. To further address the postmitotic role of Fzr/Cdh1 in controlling neuron-glia interaction, we identified a series of novel APC/C candidate substrates. Four of our candidate genes are required for fzr/cdh1 -dependent neuron-glia interaction, including the dynein light chain Dlc90F Taken together, our data show how different modes of APC/C activation can couple early growth and neuron-glia interaction during eye disc development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Teamwork for eye care

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, M Babar

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) – the development of the people who deliver health care – has been identified as one of the key pillars of eye health delivery. HRD is one of the essential building blocks of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan: ‘Towards universal eye health’. The importance of HRD is also recognised beyond eye care, as can be seen in the WHO Health Systems approach.

  11. The Development and Characterisation of a Structure-activity Relationship Model of the Draize Eye Irritation Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, H S; Zhang, Y P; Klopman, G

    1998-01-01

    A structure-activity relationship (SAR) model based on the results of 297 chemicals tested in the Draize eye irritation assay was developed. The SAR model displayed a predictivity of 74% for chemicals not included in the model. The SAR analysis indicated that chemical reactivity was not a requirement for eye irritation. The major structural determinants included hydrophilicity, alkalinity (i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary amines), acidity (for example, the carboxylic acid moiety), and putative lipophobic 4.5-5.4Å receptor-binding ligands. The analysis revealed that, while there were significant structural overlaps between the SAR models of ocular irritation, allergic contact dermatitis and respiratory hypersensitivity, there was much less overlap between ocular irritation and cell toxicity. This decreased overlap must be considered in developing strategies to replace the Draize test with in vitro cellular toxicity assays. 1998 FRAME.

  12. Eye Movement Disorders in Dyslexia. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, Leon; And Others

    Eye movements of 18 male and seven female dyslexic children and 10 normal children were evaluated to determine if eye movement disorders may be the cause of some of the symptoms associated with dyslexia. Data on eye movements were collected while Ss moved their eyes from one fixation point to another in a nonreading situation. Errors in vertical…

  13. Reversing blood flows act through klf2a to ensure normal valvulogenesis in the developing heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Vermot

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Heart valve anomalies are some of the most common congenital heart defects, yet neither the genetic nor the epigenetic forces guiding heart valve development are well understood. When functioning normally, mature heart valves prevent intracardiac retrograde blood flow; before valves develop, there is considerable regurgitation, resulting in reversing (or oscillatory flows between the atrium and ventricle. As reversing flows are particularly strong stimuli to endothelial cells in culture, an attractive hypothesis is that heart valves form as a developmental response to retrograde blood flows through the maturing heart. Here, we exploit the relationship between oscillatory flow and heart rate to manipulate the amount of retrograde flow in the atrioventricular (AV canal before and during valvulogenesis, and find that this leads to arrested valve growth. Using this manipulation, we determined that klf2a is normally expressed in the valve precursors in response to reversing flows, and is dramatically reduced by treatments that decrease such flows. Experimentally knocking down the expression of this shear-responsive gene with morpholine antisense oligonucleotides (MOs results in dysfunctional valves. Thus, klf2a expression appears to be necessary for normal valve formation. This, together with its dependence on intracardiac hemodynamic forces, makes klf2a expression an early and reliable indicator of proper valve development. Together, these results demonstrate a critical role for reversing flows during valvulogenesis and show how relatively subtle perturbations of normal hemodynamic patterns can lead to both major alterations in gene expression and severe valve dysgenesis.

  14. Eye Absence Does Not Regulate Planarian Stem Cells during Eye Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoCascio, Samuel A; Lapan, Sylvain W; Reddien, Peter W

    2017-02-27

    Dividing cells called neoblasts contain pluripotent stem cells and drive planarian flatworm regeneration from diverse injuries. A long-standing question is whether neoblasts directly sense and respond to the identity of missing tissues during regeneration. We used the eye to investigate this question. Surprisingly, eye removal was neither sufficient nor necessary for neoblasts to increase eye progenitor production. Neoblasts normally increase eye progenitor production following decapitation, facilitating regeneration. Eye removal alone, however, did not induce this response. Eye regeneration following eye-specific resection resulted from homeostatic rates of eye progenitor production and less cell death in the regenerating eye. Conversely, large head injuries that left eyes intact increased eye progenitor production. Large injuries also non-specifically increased progenitor production for multiple uninjured tissues. We propose a model for eye regeneration in which eye tissue production by planarian stem cells is not directly regulated by the absence of the eye itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mapping Gene Regulatory Networks in Drosophila Eye Development by Large-Scale Transcriptome Perturbations and Motif Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Potier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome control is operated by transcription factors (TFs controlling their target genes by binding to promoters and enhancers. Conceptually, the interactions between TFs, their binding sites, and their functional targets are represented by gene regulatory networks (GRNs. Deciphering in vivo GRNs underlying organ development in an unbiased genome-wide setting involves identifying both functional TF-gene interactions and physical TF-DNA interactions. To reverse engineer the GRNs of eye development in Drosophila, we performed RNA-seq across 72 genetic perturbations and sorted cell types and inferred a coexpression network. Next, we derived direct TF-DNA interactions using computational motif inference, ultimately connecting 241 TFs to 5,632 direct target genes through 24,926 enhancers. Using this network, we found network motifs, cis-regulatory codes, and regulators of eye development. We validate the predicted target regions of Grainyhead by ChIP-seq and identify this factor as a general cofactor in the eye network, being bound to thousands of nucleosome-free regions.

  16. Characterization of the split ends-like gene spenito reveals functional antagonism between SPOC family members during Drosophila eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemc, Jennifer; Rebay, Ilaria

    2006-05-01

    The novel family of SPOC domain proteins is composed of broadly conserved nuclear factors that fall into two subclasses, termed large and small, based on protein size. Members of the large subgroup, which includes Drosophila SPEN and human SHARP, have been characterized as transcriptional corepressors acting downstream of a variety of essential cell signaling pathways, while those of the small subclass have remained largely unstudied. Since SPEN has been implicated in Drosophila eye development, and the small SPOC protein NITO is also expressed in the developing eye, we have used this context to perform a structure-function analysis of NITO and to examine the relationship between the two SPOC family subclasses. Our results demonstrate that the phenotypes obtained from overexpressing NITO share striking similarity to those associated with loss of spen. Dosage-sensitive genetic interactions further support a model of functional antagonism between NITO and SPEN during Drosophila eye development. These results suggest that large and small SPOC family proteins may have opposing functions in certain developmental contexts.

  17. Microstructure, length, and connection of limbic tracts in normal human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaowen eYu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cingulum and fornix play an important role in memory, attention, spatial orientation and feeling functions. Both microstructure and length of these limbic tracts can be affected by mental disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, autism, anxiety, and schizophrenia. To date, there has been little systematic characterization of their microstructure, length and functional connectivity in normally developing brains. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI data from 65 normally developing right-handed subjects from birth to young adulthood was acquired. After cingulate gyrus part of the cingulum (cgc, hippocampal part of the cingulum (cgh and fornix (fx were traced with DTI tractography, absolute and normalized tract lengths and DTI-derived metrics including fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity were measured for traced limbic tracts. Free water elimination (FWE algorithm was adopted to improve accuracy of the measurements of DTI-derived metrics. The role of these limbic tracts in the functional network at birth and adulthood was explored. We found a logarithmic age-dependent trajectory for FWE-corrected DTI metric changes with fast increase of microstructural integrity from birth to 2-year-old followed by a slow increase to 25-year-old. Normalized tract length of cgc increases with age, while no significant relationship with age was found for normalized tract lengths of cgh and fx. Stronger microstructural integrity on the left side compared to that of right side was found. With integrated DTI and rs-fMRI, the key connectional role of cgc and cgh in the default mode network (DMN was confirmed as early as birth. Systematic characterization of length and DTI metrics after FWE correction of limbic tracts offers insight into their morphological and microstructural developmental trajectories. These trajectories may serve as a normal reference for pediatric patients with

  18. Study on the relationship between turbulent normal stresses in the fully developed bare rod bundle flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kye Bock; Lee, Byung Jin

    1995-01-01

    The turbulence structure for fully developed flow through the subchannels formed by the bare rod array depends on the pitch to rod diameter ratio. For fairly open spaced bare rod arrays, the distributions of the three components of the turbulent normal stresses are similar to those measured in circular pipe. However, for more closely spaced arrays, the turbulence structure, especially in the gap region, departs markedly from the pipe flow distribution. A linear relationship between turbulent normal stresses and turbulent kinetic energy for fully developed turbulent flow through regularly spaced bare rod arrays has been developed. This correlation can be used in connection with various theoretical analyses applied in turbulence research. 9 figs., 10 refs. (Author)

  19. Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ducharme

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of developmental trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual typically-developing subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753 from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models, with statistical correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory. Analyses were performed with and without controlling for total brain volume. These data are provided for reference and comparison with other databases. Further discussion and interpretation on cortical developmental trajectories can be found in the associated Ducharme et al.׳s article “Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – the importance of quality control procedures” (Ducharme et al., 2015 [1].

  20. Development of the short time exposure (STE) test: an in vitro eye irritation test using SIRC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Koike, Mirei; Honda, Hiroshi; Ito, Yuichi; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2008-04-01

    Using SIRC (rabbit corneal cell line) cells, we developed an alternative eye irritation test: the short time exposure (STE) test. This STE test is a cytotoxicity test using physiological saline or mineral oil as the test solvent. Evaluation exposure time is short (5 min), which is similar to actual exposure situations, and uses the cell viability (CV) at a constant concentration as the endpoint for irritation potential. First, in order to confirm the usefulness of this STE test in assessing eye irritation potential of chemicals, 51 raw materials were tested and the correlation between CV in the STE test and the eye irritation score in the Draize test was examined. For the undiluted raw materials tested in the Draize test, the 5% test concentration in the STE test gave irritation classes that correlated well with the irritation classes from the Draize test (accuracy: 89.6%). For those materials tested as a 10% solution in the Draize test, STE irritation classes with 0.05% test concentration corresponded well with the Draize irritation classes (accuracy: 80.0%). Next, using the cell viabilities at these two concentrations, the STE prediction model (PM) was developed. A score of 1 or 2 was given for the results from each tested concentration in the STE test and Draize test. The scores from each test were then summed to yield a 3-level (Rank 1: minimally irritant, Rank 2: moderate irritant, Rank 3: severe irritant) eye irritation potential classification. Rank classification in the STE test showed a good correlation mostly to that in the Draize test (irritation class correspondence rate: 70.2%, but after exclusion of data of alcoholic materials, the rate was 91.7%). In most cytotoxicity test, the cytotoxicity of acids and amines is generally underestimated due the use of medium as the solvent. This is the result of the buffering capacity of the media. On the other hand, the STE test could predict the eye irritation potential by evaluating the chemical with a 5% test

  1. Complexity of cis-regulatory organization of six3a during forebrain and eye development in zebrafish

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    Wang Horng-Dar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Six3a belongs to the SIX family of homeodomain proteins and is expressed in the most anterior neural plate at the beginning of neurogenesis in various species. Though the function of Six3a as a crucial regulator of eye and forebrain development has been thoroughly investigated, the transcriptional regulation of six3a is not well understood. Results To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of six3a, we performed an in vivo reporter assay. Alignment of the 21-kb region surrounding the zebrafish six3a gene with the analogous region from different species identified several conserved non-coding modules. Transgenesis in zebrafish identified two enhancer elements and one suppressor. The D module drives the GFP reporter in the forebrain and eyes at an early stage, while the A module is responsible for the later expression. The A module also works as a repressor suppressing ectopic expression from the D module. Mutational analysis further minimized the A module to four highly conserved elements and the D module to three elements. Using electrophoresis mobility shift assays, we also provided evidence for the presence of DNA-binding proteins in embryonic nuclear extracts. The transcription factors that may occupy those highly conserved elements were also predicted. Conclusion This study provides a comprehensive view of six3a transcription regulation during brain and eye development and offers an opportunity to establish the gene regulatory networks underlying neurogenesis in zebrafish.

  2. Expression of the Norrie disease gene (Ndp) in developing and adult mouse eye, ear, and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Smallwood, Philip; Nathans, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The Norrie disease gene (Ndp) codes for a secreted protein, Norrin, that activates canonical Wnt signaling by binding to its receptor, Frizzled-4. This signaling system is required for normal vascular development in the retina and for vascular survival in the cochlea. In mammals, the pattern of Ndp expression beyond the retina is poorly defined due to the low abundance of Norrin mRNA and protein. Here, we characterize Ndp expression during mouse development by studying a knock-in mouse that carries the coding sequence of human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP) inserted at the Ndp locus (Ndp(AP)). In the CNS, Ndp(AP) expression is apparent by E10.5 and is dynamic and complex. The anatomically delimited regions of Ndp(AP) expression observed prenatally in the CNS are replaced postnatally by widespread expression in astrocytes in the forebrain and midbrain, Bergman glia in the cerebellum, and Müller glia in the retina. In the developing and adult cochlea, Ndp(AP) expression is closely associated with two densely vascularized regions, the stria vascularis and a capillary plexus between the organ of Corti and the spiral ganglion. These observations suggest the possibility that Norrin may have developmental and/or homeostatic functions beyond the retina and cochlea. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Research and analysis of contradictions and strategies of Hainan tourism development under the new normal background

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    Xie Xiangxiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, China’s economic and social development has entered into a new normal state, the construction of Hainan international tourism island also has entered into the middle and late period. Hainan tourism has made brilliant achievements, but the development contradictions have become increasingly serious. Based on the analysis of the current situation and realistic problems of Hainan tourism, this paper points out five principal problems of Hainan tourism development--industrial status, supply-demand relationship, cultural preservation, subject-object relationship and government-business relationship, and it also proposes strategic suggestions on the great tourism, large interconnection, great culture, big Hainan and big special zone.

  4. Developing an eye-tracking algorithm as a potential tool for early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in children.

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    Natalia I Vargas-Cuentas

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD currently affects nearly 1 in 160 children worldwide. In over two-thirds of evaluations, no validated diagnostics are used and gold standard diagnostic tools are used in less than 5% of evaluations. Currently, the diagnosis of ASD requires lengthy and expensive tests, in addition to clinical confirmation. Therefore, fast, cheap, portable, and easy-to-administer screening instruments for ASD are required. Several studies have shown that children with ASD have a lower preference for social scenes compared with children without ASD. Based on this, eye-tracking and measurement of gaze preference for social scenes has been used as a screening tool for ASD. Currently available eye-tracking software requires intensive calibration, training, or holding of the head to prevent interference with gaze recognition limiting its use in children with ASD.In this study, we designed a simple eye-tracking algorithm that does not require calibration or head holding, as a platform for future validation of a cost-effective ASD potential screening instrument. This system operates on a portable and inexpensive tablet to measure gaze preference of children for social compared to abstract scenes. A child watches a one-minute stimulus video composed of a social scene projected on the left side and an abstract scene projected on the right side of the tablet's screen. We designed five stimulus videos by changing the social/abstract scenes. Every child observed all the five videos in random order. We developed an eye-tracking algorithm that calculates the child's gaze preference for the social and abstract scenes, estimated as the percentage of the accumulated time that the child observes the left or right side of the screen, respectively. Twenty-three children without a prior history of ASD and 8 children with a clinical diagnosis of ASD were evaluated. The recorded video of the child´s eye movement was analyzed both manually by an observer

  5. Developing an eye-tracking algorithm as a potential tool for early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Cuentas, Natalia I.; Roman-Gonzalez, Avid; Gilman, Robert H.; Barrientos, Franklin; Ting, James; Hidalgo, Daniela; Jensen, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) currently affects nearly 1 in 160 children worldwide. In over two-thirds of evaluations, no validated diagnostics are used and gold standard diagnostic tools are used in less than 5% of evaluations. Currently, the diagnosis of ASD requires lengthy and expensive tests, in addition to clinical confirmation. Therefore, fast, cheap, portable, and easy-to-administer screening instruments for ASD are required. Several studies have shown that children with ASD have a lower preference for social scenes compared with children without ASD. Based on this, eye-tracking and measurement of gaze preference for social scenes has been used as a screening tool for ASD. Currently available eye-tracking software requires intensive calibration, training, or holding of the head to prevent interference with gaze recognition limiting its use in children with ASD. Methods In this study, we designed a simple eye-tracking algorithm that does not require calibration or head holding, as a platform for future validation of a cost-effective ASD potential screening instrument. This system operates on a portable and inexpensive tablet to measure gaze preference of children for social compared to abstract scenes. A child watches a one-minute stimulus video composed of a social scene projected on the left side and an abstract scene projected on the right side of the tablet’s screen. We designed five stimulus videos by changing the social/abstract scenes. Every child observed all the five videos in random order. We developed an eye-tracking algorithm that calculates the child’s gaze preference for the social and abstract scenes, estimated as the percentage of the accumulated time that the child observes the left or right side of the screen, respectively. Twenty-three children without a prior history of ASD and 8 children with a clinical diagnosis of ASD were evaluated. The recorded video of the child´s eye movement was analyzed both manually by an

  6. The dentate nucleus in children: normal development and patterns of disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McErlean, Aoife; Abdalla, Khaled; Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-03-15

    The dentate nuclei lie deep within the cerebellum and play a vital role in the pathways involved in fine motor control and coordination. They are susceptible to a variety of diseases. Some pathological processes preferentially affect the dentate nuclei, while concomitant basal ganglia or white matter involvement can be a striking finding in others. A familiarity with the normal appearance of the dentate nuclei at different ages in combination with the radiological distribution of pathology in the brain allows the paediatric radiologist to develop a logical approach to the interpretation of MR imaging of these deep cerebellar nuclei. In this article we review the normal appearance and MR features of the dentate nuclei, including changes that are seen with myelination. We describe the specific imaging characteristics of childhood diseases that involve the dentate nuclei, and develop a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of dentate nucleus abnormalities on MR imaging. (orig.)

  7. The dentate nucleus in children: normal development and patterns of disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McErlean, Aoife; Abdalla, Khaled; Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    The dentate nuclei lie deep within the cerebellum and play a vital role in the pathways involved in fine motor control and coordination. They are susceptible to a variety of diseases. Some pathological processes preferentially affect the dentate nuclei, while concomitant basal ganglia or white matter involvement can be a striking finding in others. A familiarity with the normal appearance of the dentate nuclei at different ages in combination with the radiological distribution of pathology in the brain allows the paediatric radiologist to develop a logical approach to the interpretation of MR imaging of these deep cerebellar nuclei. In this article we review the normal appearance and MR features of the dentate nuclei, including changes that are seen with myelination. We describe the specific imaging characteristics of childhood diseases that involve the dentate nuclei, and develop a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of dentate nucleus abnormalities on MR imaging. (orig.)

  8. Organization of eye bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  9. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  10. China's natural gas exploration and development strategies under the new normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China's natural gas industry has experienced a great leap-forward development in the past decade. Since the second half of 2014, however, international oil price has dropped sharply and global oil and gas markets have been sluggish. In China, economy growth rate slows down and resource environments tend to be more restricted. And energy production and consumption revolution speed up, and the development of natural gas industry experience profound changes internally and externally. Through review on the achievements in recent high-speed development and analysis on the future development of China's natural gas industry, it is believed that the growth rates of China's natural gas output and consumption will slow down and the supply and demand fundamentals present loose states. Low-permeability tight, deep–extra deep and unconventional reservoirs will be the principal targets of natural gas exploration and development and the tendency of resource deterioration is inevitable. The pressure to the decrease of gas price rises due to the sustained recession of oil price and the sharp decrease of alternative energy price. The normal means to increase benefits is to control investment strictly and reduce cost greatly. As for the new normal, five suggestions are proposed for natural gas exploration and development in China. Firstly, reinforce exploration continuously by guaranteeing work load and investment at the required level, and tamp the development basis. Secondly, pay much attention to early development evaluation, give prominence to plan implementation design and control productivity construction rhythm. Thirdly, pay attention to the top-level design of mature gas field development and adjustment, with fine description and management as the priority, and improve overall development level. Fourthly, strengthen the researches on exploration and development technologies, with the simplification and practicability of technologies as the focus, and

  11. Development of a theory of implementation and integration: Normalization Process Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Carl R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theories are important tools in the social and natural sciences. The methods by which they are derived are rarely described and discussed. Normalization Process Theory explains how new technologies, ways of acting, and ways of working become routinely embedded in everyday practice, and has applications in the study of implementation processes. This paper describes the process by which it was built. Methods Between 1998 and 2008, we developed a theory. We derived a set of empirical generalizations from analysis of data collected in qualitative studies of healthcare work and organization. We developed an applied theoretical model through analysis of empirical generalizations. Finally, we built a formal theory through a process of extension and implication analysis of the applied theoretical model. Results Each phase of theory development showed that the constructs of the theory did not conflict with each other, had explanatory power, and possessed sufficient robustness for formal testing. As the theory developed, its scope expanded from a set of observed regularities in data with procedural explanations, to an applied theoretical model, to a formal middle-range theory. Conclusion Normalization Process Theory has been developed through procedures that were properly sceptical and critical, and which were opened to review at each stage of development. The theory has been shown to merit formal testing.

  12. Development of the conceptual framework for the Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ) in glaucoma using a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Jean-Philippe; Denis, Philippe; Vigneux, Marc; Trudeau, Elyse; Guillemin, Isabelle; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2007-08-06

    Compliance is a major issue in glaucoma care. It is usually poor in glaucomatous patients, and may ultimately result in an acceleration of the disease progression and a risk of blindness. Reasons for this poor compliance are complex and multifactorial, amongst which patient satisfaction can be counted. The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment. A qualitative study was carried out to develop the questionnaire. An interview guide was developed based on a literature review. Structured interviews of fifteen French and English patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or intraocular hypertension were conducted by trained interviewers of the native language of the interviewees. General concepts and subconcepts were identified from the transcripts. The questionnaire was developed using the patient verbatim, and submitted to six patients (French and English) for cognitive debriefing. Following patients' comments, items were modified and restructured, and a pilot questionnaire was designed. Analysis of data from the interviews with patients and clinicians resulted in the elicitation of concepts related to patient satisfaction and compliance with glaucomatous treatment. These were further refined and used to generate a test questionnaire, which consisted of 46 items grouped into 6 domains: patient characteristics, treatment characteristics, patient-clinician relationship, patient experience with the disease and the treatment, interaction between the patient and the treatment, and patient knowledge of the disease and the treatment. The Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ) conceptual framework and items were developed simultaneously in French and in English. This questionnaire could be used to evaluate patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment and would facilitate the identification of patients at risk of being non-compliant prior to clinical trials or innovative

  13. Development of the conceptual framework for the Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ© in glaucoma using a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudeau Elyse

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compliance is a major issue in glaucoma care. It is usually poor in glaucomatous patients, and may ultimately result in an acceleration of the disease progression and a risk of blindness. Reasons for this poor compliance are complex and multifactorial, amongst which patient satisfaction can be counted. The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment. Methods A qualitative study was carried out to develop the questionnaire. An interview guide was developed based on a literature review. Structured interviews of fifteen French and English patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or intraocular hypertension were conducted by trained interviewers of the native language of the interviewees. General concepts and subconcepts were identified from the transcripts. The questionnaire was developed using the patient verbatim, and submitted to six patients (French and English for cognitive debriefing. Following patients' comments, items were modified and restructured, and a pilot questionnaire was designed. Results Analysis of data from the interviews with patients and clinicians resulted in the elicitation of concepts related to patient satisfaction and compliance with glaucomatous treatment. These were further refined and used to generate a test questionnaire, which consisted of 46 items grouped into 6 domains: patient characteristics, treatment characteristics, patient-clinician relationship, patient experience with the disease and the treatment, interaction between the patient and the treatment, and patient knowledge of the disease and the treatment. Conclusion The Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ conceptual framework and items were developed simultaneously in French and in English. This questionnaire could be used to evaluate patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment and would facilitate the identification of patients at risk

  14. The refinement of ipsilateral eye retinotopic maps is increased by removing the dominant contralateral eye in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer L Smith

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Shortly after eye opening, initially disorganized visual cortex circuitry is rapidly refined to form smooth retinotopic maps. This process asymptotes long before adulthood, but it is unknown whether further refinement is possible. Prior work from our lab has shown that the retinotopic map of the non-dominant ipsilateral eye develops faster when the dominant contralateral eye is removed. We examined whether input from the contralateral eye might also limit the ultimate refinement of the ipsilateral eye retinotopic map in adults. In addition, we examined whether the increased refinement involved the recruitment of adjacent cortical area.By surgically implanting a chronic optical window over visual cortex in mice, we repeatedly measured the degree of retinotopic map refinement using quantitative intrinsic signal optical imaging over four weeks. We removed the contralateral eye and observed that the retinotopic map for the ipsilateral eye was further refined and the maximum magnitude of response increased. However, these changes were not accompanied by an increase in the area of responsive cortex.Since the retinotopic map was functionally refined to a greater degree without taking over adjacent cortical area, we conclude that input from the contralateral eye limits the normal refinement of visual cortical circuitry in mice. These findings suggest that the refinement capacity of cortical circuitry is normally saturated.

  15. Neurotransmitters, more than meets the eye--neurotransmitters and their perspectives in cancer development and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi Jie; Cho, Chi Hin

    2011-09-30

    The neurotransmitter/receptor system has been shown to modulate various aspects of tumor development including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, migration and metastasis. It has been found that tumor tissues can not only synthesize and release a wide range of neurotransmitters but also produce different biological effects via respective receptors. These tissues are also innervated by nerve fibers but the biological significance is unknown. Nevertheless neurotransmitters can produce either stimulatory or inhibitory effect in normal and tumor tissues. These effects are dependent on the types of tissues and the kinds of neurotransmitter as well as the subtypes of corresponding receptors being involved. These findings clearly extend the conventional role of neurotransmitters in nervous system to the actions in oncogenesis. In this regard, intervention or stimulation of these neuronal pathways in different cancer diseases would have significant clinical implications in cancer treatments. Here, we summarize the influences of various well-characterized neurotransmitters and their receptors on tumor growth and further discuss the respective possible strategies and perspectives for cancer therapy in the future. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Quantum photoelectron effects in the eye retina and development of colour vision theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremkov, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    The quantum semiconductor mechanism of the colour vision of mans is created. The mechanism is based on quantum effects under influence of light waves exciting valence electrons in different microelement's atoms (Zn, Cu, Fe, Co, P, Br, Se, et al.) that are presented in the photoreceptor's cells of the eye retina (columns and retorts) with the quasi-periodical disks structure. The microelement concentrations correspond to the impurity atom amount in semiconductors, and the photoelectron's current passes out its signal to the vision nerve. The mechanism explains existence of the man colour-blindness, degradation of the vision sensitivity with the man's age and other peculiarities of the colour vision. (authors)

  17. The role of eye movement driven attention in functional strabismic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Crewther, Sheila Gillard; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2015-01-01

    Strabismic amblyopia "blunt vision" is a developmental anomaly that affects binocular vision and results in lowered visual acuity. Strabismus is a term for a misalignment of the visual axes and is usually characterized by impaired ability of the strabismic eye to take up fixation. Such impaired fixation is usually a function of the temporally and spatially impaired binocular eye movements that normally underlie binocular shifts in visual attention. In this review, we discuss how abnormal eye movement function in children with misaligned eyes influences the development of normal binocular visual attention and results in deficits in visual function such as depth perception. We also discuss how eye movement function deficits in adult amblyopia patients can also lead to other abnormalities in visual perception. Finally, we examine how the nonamblyopic eye of an amblyope is also affected in strabismic amblyopia.

  18. The Role of Eye Movement Driven Attention in Functional Strabismic Amblyopia

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    Hao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strabismic amblyopia “blunt vision” is a developmental anomaly that affects binocular vision and results in lowered visual acuity. Strabismus is a term for a misalignment of the visual axes and is usually characterized by impaired ability of the strabismic eye to take up fixation. Such impaired fixation is usually a function of the temporally and spatially impaired binocular eye movements that normally underlie binocular shifts in visual attention. In this review, we discuss how abnormal eye movement function in children with misaligned eyes influences the development of normal binocular visual attention and results in deficits in visual function such as depth perception. We also discuss how eye movement function deficits in adult amblyopia patients can also lead to other abnormalities in visual perception. Finally, we examine how the nonamblyopic eye of an amblyope is also affected in strabismic amblyopia.

  19. Eye growth in term- and preterm-born eyes modeled from magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Robert J; Fulton, Anne B; Chui, Toco Y P; Moskowitz, Anne; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Hansen, Ronald M; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Akula, James D

    2015-05-01

    We generated a model of eye growth and tested it against an eye known to develop abnormally, one with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We reviewed extant magnetic resonance images (MRIs) from term and preterm-born patients for suitable images (n = 129). We binned subjects for analysis based upon postmenstrual age at birth (in weeks) and ROP history ("Term" ≥ 37, "Premature" ≤ 32 with no ROP, "ROP" ≤ 32 with ROP). We measured the axial positions and curvatures of the cornea, anterior and posterior lens, and inner retinal surface. We fit anterior chamber depth (ACD), posterior segment depth (PSD), axial length (AL), and corneal and lenticular curvatures with logistic growth curves that we then evaluated for significant differences. We also measured the length of rays from the centroid to the surface of the eye at 5° intervals, and described the length versus age relationship of each ray, L(ray)(x), using the same logistic growth curve. We determined the rate of ray elongation, E(ray)(x), from L(ray)dy/dx. Then, we estimated the scleral growth that accounted for E(ray)(x), G(x), at every age and position. Relative to Term, development of ACD, PSD, AL, and corneal and lenticular curvatures was delayed in ROP eyes, but not Premature eyes. In Term infants, G(x) was fast and predominantly equatorial; in age-matched ROP eyes, maximal G(x) was offset by approximately 90°. We produced a model of normal eye growth in term-born subjects. Relative to normal, the ROP eye is characterized by delayed, abnormal growth.

  20. Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone during normal and pathological gonadal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Graem, N

    1999-01-01

    The ontogeny of expression of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was examined by immunohistochemistry in 135 human gonadal tissue specimens of various developmental age, ranging from 6 weeks of fetal development to 38 yr of postnatal age. The series included specimens from normal testes and ovaries...... and from individuals either with pathological conditions affecting gonadal development or with idiopathic infertility manifested as azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. AMH expression was found only in Sertoli and granulosa cells. A 6-week-old fetal testis at the indifferent gonad stage did not yet...... express AMH. The protein was first visible at 8.5 weeks of development, when sex cords have not yet been formed. Afterward, a majority of testicular specimens, including those from pathological conditions, strongly expressed AMH through fetal development and childhood until puberty. Markedly prolonged...

  1. Desenvolvimento do olhar e do contato ocular em lactentes de zero a quatro meses de idade The development of looking behavior and eye-contact in breast feeding children aged between 0 and 4 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Elise Gerbelli Belini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: investigar o desenvolvimento do contato ocular e do comportamento visual de bebês entre zero e quatro meses. MÉTODOS: dezessete bebês típicos foram filmados mensalmente por 30 minutos, sendo transcritas 11 categorias de observação do olhar, quantificadas e tratadas estatisticamente através dos testes de Friedman (α = 0,050 e dos Postos Sinalizados de Wilcoxon (α de Bonferroni = 0,010. RESULTADOS: houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes nas frequências das categorias: "olhar para os olhos da mãe" (pOBJECTIVES: to investigate the development of eye-contact and visual behavior in babies aged between 0 and 4 months. METHODS: sixteen normal babies were filmed monthly for 30 minutes, and 11 eleven visual behavior categories observed and transcribed. These were then quantified and treated statistically using the Friedman test (α = 0.050 and Wilcoxon's Signed Rank test (Bonferroni's α = 0,010. RESULTS: there were statistical differences in frequency between the various categories: "looking mother in the eye" (p<0.001, "looking mother in the face" (p<0.001, "looking at an object" (p<0.001, "looking at the researcher" (p<0.001, "actively looking at the surroundings" (p<0.001, "passively looking at the surroundings" (p<0.001, "looking at own body" (p=0.001 and "eyes closed" (p=0.005. Eye-contact was detected in the third week of life in 64.7% and developed during the first five months of life (p=0.010 in 50% of the intervals between data collection. CONCLUSIONS: eye-contact can be detected from the neonatal period onwards and develops over the first few months of life. The frequency of the baby's eye-contact with its mother increases longitudinally in the first four months. Other focuses of attention, apart from the mother's eyes, are also fundamental during the early stages of development outside the womb.

  2. Genetically induced abnormal cranial development in human trisomy 18 with holoprosencephaly: comparisons with the normal tempo of osteogenic-neural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Shaina N; Ziermann, Janine M; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C

    2015-07-01

    Craniofacial malformations are common congenital defects caused by failed midline inductive signals. These midline defects are associated with exposure of the fetus to exogenous teratogens and with inborn genetic errors such as those found in Down, Patau, Edwards' and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndromes. Yet, there are no studies that analyze contributions of synchronous neurocranial and neural development in these disorders. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of malformations of the basicranium of a holoprosencephalic (HPE) trisomy 18 (T18; Edwards' syndrome) fetus with synophthalmic cyclopia and alobar HPE. With a combination of traditional gross dissection and state-of-the-art computed tomography, we demonstrate the deleterious effects of T18 caused by a translocation at 18p11.31. Bony features included a single developmentally unseparated frontal bone, and complete dual absence of the anterior cranial fossa and ethmoid bone. From a superior view with the calvarium plates removed, there was direct visual access to the orbital foramen and hard palate. Both the eyes and the pituitary gland, normally protected by bony structures, were exposed in the cranial cavity and in direct contact with the brain. The middle cranial fossa was shifted anteriorly, and foramina were either missing or displaced to an abnormal location due to the absence or misplacement of its respective cranial nerve (CN). When CN development was conserved in its induction and placement, the respective foramen developed in its normal location albeit with abnormal gross anatomical features, as seen in the facial nerve (CNVII) and the internal acoustic meatus. More anteriorly localized CNs and their foramina were absent or heavily disrupted compared with posterior ones. The severe malformations exhibited in the cranial fossae, orbital region, pituitary gland and sella turcica highlight the crucial involvement of transcription factors such as TGIF, which is located on chromosome 18 and contributes

  3. Understanding pink eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  4. Cosmetics Europe compilation of historical serious eye damage/eye irritation in vivo data analysed by drivers of classification to support the selection of chemicals for development and evaluation of alternative methods/strategies: the Draize eye test Reference Database (DRD)

    OpenAIRE

    Barroso, Jo?o; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Adriaens, Els; Al?p?e, Nathalie; Cluzel, Magalie; De Smedt, Ann; Hibatallah, Jalila; Klaric, Martina; Mewes, Karsten R.; Millet, Marion; Templier, Marie; McNamee, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of which of the effects assessed in the in vivo Draize eye test are responsible for driving UN GHS/EU CLP classification is critical for an adequate selection of chemicals to be used in the development and/or evaluation of alternative methods/strategies and for properly assessing their predictive capacity and limitations. For this reason, Cosmetics Europe has compiled a database of Draize data (Draize eye test Reference Database, DRD) from external lists that were cre...

  5. mTOR signaling and its roles in normal and abnormal brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki eTakei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Target of rapamycin (TOR was first identified in yeast as a target molecule of rapamycin, an anti-fugal and immunosuppressant macrolide compound. In mammals, its orthologue is called mTOR (mammalian TOR. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that converges different extracellular stimuli, such as nutrients and growth factors, and diverges into several biochemical reactions, including translation, autophagy, transcription, and lipid synthesis among others. These biochemical reactions govern cell growth and cause cells to attain an anabolic state. Thus, the disruption of mTOR signaling is implicated in a wide array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. In the central nervous system (CNS, the mTOR signaling cascade is activated by nutrients, neurotrophic factors, and neurotransmitters that enhances protein (and possibly lipid synthesis and suppresses autophagy. These processes contribute to normal neuronal growth by promoting their differentiation, neurite elongation and branching, and synaptic formation during development. Therefore, disruption of mTOR signaling may cause neuronal degeneration and abnormal neural development. While reduced mTOR signaling is associated with neurodegeneration, excess activation of mTOR signaling causes abnormal development of neurons and glia, leading to brain malformation. In this review, we first introduce the current state of molecular knowledge of mTOR complexes and signaling in general. We then describe mTOR activation in neurons, which leads to translational enhancement, and finally discuss the link between mTOR and normal/abnormal neuronal growth during development.

  6. The role of ephrins' receptors and ephrins' ligands in normal placental development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzizacharias, Nikolaos A; Giaginis, Constantinos T; Agapitos, Emmanuel; Theocharis, Stamatios E

    2014-03-01

    Ephrin (Eph) receptors and their membrane-anchored ligands, the ephrins, participate in a wide spectrum of pathophysiological processes, regulating cellular adhesion, migration or chemo-repulsion and tissue/cell boundary formation. Recent evidence has further extended the role of Eph receptors and their ligands as critical regulators of vascular remodelling during embryogenesis. The role of Ephs/ephrins signalling in the angiogenic development of murine placentas and in the invasion of the maternal tissues and the development of the placental vasculature in humans has currently attracted considerable interest. A literature review summarising the most recent data in terms of the role of Ephs/ephrins in normal placental development and disease, highlighting on their expression status in the different cellular populations of the placental vascularity. Despite the fact that the role of Eph/ephrins signalling in normal placental development is still unclear, some studies tried to investigate their potential implication in placental pathologies, such as preeclampsia and placenta accreta. Even though no evidence for their direct implication occurred, their role is an interesting field for future research.

  7. Stromal Androgen Receptor Roles in the Development of Normal Prostate, Benign Prostate Hyperplasia, and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Simeng; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Tian, Jing; Shang, Zhiqun; Niu, Yuanjie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2016-01-01

    The prostate is an androgen-sensitive organ that needs proper androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals for normal development. The progression of prostate diseases, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), also needs proper androgen/AR signals. Tissue recombination studies report that stromal, but not epithelial, AR plays more critical roles via the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions to influence the early process of prostate development. However, in BPH and PCa, much more attention has been focused on epithelial AR roles. However, accumulating evidence indicates that stromal AR is also irreplaceable and plays critical roles in prostate disease progression. Herein, we summarize the roles of stromal AR in the development of normal prostate, BPH, and PCa, with evidence from the recent results of in vitro cell line studies, tissue recombination experiments, and AR knockout animal models. Current evidence suggests that stromal AR may play positive roles to promote BPH and PCa progression, and targeting stromal AR selectively with AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, may allow development of better therapies with fewer adverse effects to battle BPH and PCa. PMID:25432062

  8. Poly(ADP-ribose) Glycohydrolase and Poly(ADP-ribose)-interacting Protein Hrp38 Regulate Pattern Formation during Drosophila Eye Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yingbiao; Jarnik, Michael; Tulin, Alexei V.

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila Hrp38, a homolog of human hnRNP A1, has been shown to regulate splicing, but its function can be modified by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Notwithstanding such findings, our understanding of the roles of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated Hrp38 on development is limited. Here, we have demonstrated that Hrp38 is essential for fly eye development based on a rough-eye phenotype with disorganized ommatidia observed in adult escapers of the hrp38 mutant. We also observed that Poly(ADP-ribose) Glycohydrolase (Parg) loss-of-function, which caused increased Hrp38 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, also resulted in the rough-eye phenotype with disrupted ommatidial lattice and reduced number of photoreceptor cells. In addition, ectopic expression of DE-cadherin, which is required for retinal morphogenesis, fully rescued the rough-eye phenotype of the hrp38 mutant. Similarly, Parg mutant eye clones had decreased expression level of DE-cadherin with orientation defects, which is reminiscent of DE-cadherin mutant eye phenotype. Therefore, our results suggest that Hrp38 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation controls eye pattern formation via regulation of DE-cadherin expression, a finding which has implications for understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of Hrp38-related Fragile X syndrome and PARP1-related retinal degeneration diseases. PMID:23711619

  9. Generation of functional eyes from pluripotent cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Viczian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are the starting point from which to generate organ specific cell types. For example, converting pluripotent cells to retinal cells could provide an opportunity to treat retinal injuries and degenerations. In this study, we used an in vivo strategy to determine if functional retinas could be generated from a defined population of pluripotent Xenopus laevis cells. Animal pole cells isolated from blastula stage embryos are pluripotent. Untreated, these cells formed only epidermis, when transplanted to either the flank or eye field. In contrast, misexpression of seven transcription factors induced the formation of retinal cell types. Induced retinal cells were committed to a retinal lineage as they formed eyes when transplanted to the flanks of developing embryos. When the endogenous eye field was replaced with induced retinal cells, they formed eyes that were molecularly, anatomically, and electrophysiologically similar to normal eyes. Importantly, induced eyes could guide a vision-based behavior. These results suggest the fate of pluripotent cells may be purposely altered to generate multipotent retinal progenitor cells, which differentiate into functional retinal cell classes and form a neural circuitry sufficient for vision.

  10. Psychological and emotional development, intellectual capabilities, and body image in short normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, E; Sartori, A; Ceccarelli, A; Marchi, S

    2002-04-01

    It is well established that children with short stature frequently have problems in cognitive development, personality, self-esteem and social relations. This is partly due to the fact that many parents view them as more vulnerable than other children of normal stature and do not allow them to face the normal experiences that correspond to their actual age. The aim of the present study was to assess, through the administration of appropriate psychological tools, a series of psychological and cognitive characteristics [i.e. anxiety, depression, good adjustment, social functioning, feeling of guilt, interpersonal relationship, intelligence quotient (IQ)], as well as variables linked to development of body image, in a group of children suffering from normal growth variants [familial short stature (FSS), no. 10, 4 males/6 females; with constitutional growth delay (CGD), no. 4,4 males; height standard deviation score (HSDS) ranging between -2.4 and -1.9] and in a control group children of normal stature (HSDS between -0.1 and +0.1). Children with short stature significantly differed from normal statured controls as far as Colored Progressive Matrices (CPMs, centiles), IQ (IQ, obtained using the Goodenough test), "Good Adjustment" (Draw-a-Person index, DAP), "Feelings of Guilt" (DAP index), "Height" (as emerges from drawings of the body) are concerned. Significant relationships were found between the height of the subjects (in centiles) and cognitive skills, measured both using CPMs (r=0.408; p=0.017) and Draw-a-Man (DAM) (r=0.359; p=0.037) and between height and feelings of guilt (r=0.325; p=0.027), measured using DAP. CPM scores correlated positively with the "Good Adjustment" index of DAP (r=0.354; p=0.05) and negatively with Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) (r=-0.609; p=0.01), "School Anxiety" index (r=-0.427; p=0.05) and "Total Anxiety" index (r=-0.436; p=0.05) of the Anxiety Scale Questionnaire for the Age of Development, and with 2 indices of DAP, namely

  11. Olhar e contato ocular: desenvolvimento típico e comparação na Síndrome de Down Gaze and eye contact: typical development and comparison in Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Elise Gerbelli Belini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar o desenvolvimento do olhar e do contato ocular em bebê portadora de síndrome de Down, comparando a freqüência de seu olhar para diferentes alvos ao comportamento visual de bebês em desenvolvimento típico. MÉTODOS: Um bebê, do gênero feminino, portador de Síndrome de Down, sem distúrbios visuais diagnosticados até a conclusão da coleta, e 17 bebês em desenvolvimento típico, foram filmados mensal e domiciliarmente, em interação livre com suas mães, do primeiro ao quinto mês de vida. Foi contabilizada a freqüência do olhar dirigido a 11 alvos, entre eles "olhar para os olhos da mãe". RESULTADOS: Os bebês em desenvolvimento típico apresentaram evolução estatisticamente significante, ao longo do período, nas freqüências de "olhos fechados" e de seu olhar para "objetos", "a pesquisadora", "o ambiente", "o próprio corpo", "o rosto da mãe" e "os olhos da mãe". Houve estabilidade estatística da amostra em "olhar para outra pessoa", "olhar para o corpo da mãe" e "abrir e fechar os olhos". O desenvolvimento do olhar e do contato ocular ocorreu de forma estatisticamente muito semelhante no bebê com síndrome de Down, em comparação com as médias dos demais bebês (teste qui-quadrado e com sua variabilidade individual (análise por aglomerados significativos. CONCLUSÕES: A interação precoce entre o bebê e sua mãe parece interferir mais na comunicação não-verbal da dupla do que limitações geneticamente influenciadas. Isto pode ter refletido nas semelhanças encontradas entre o desenvolvimento do comportamento e do contato visuais no bebê com síndrome de Down e nas crianças sem alterações de desenvolvimento.PURPOSE: To assess gaze and eye contact development of a baby girl with Down syndrome and to compare the frequency of gaze directed to different targets to that of babies with normal development. METHODS: A female baby with Down syndrome, without any detected eye conditions and 17

  12. [Chromatin in diapause of the silkworm Bombyx mori L.: thermal parthenogenesis and normal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, V V; Khaoiuan', Lian

    2012-01-01

    Having used hematoxylin as a stain, some features of silkworm embryo chromatin in diapause have been studied in normal and parthenogenetic development. With found direct correlation between the number of interphase chromatin grains and the number of chromosomes in the nucleus, we examined cell polyploidization in the embryo at diapause stage. Polyploidization by parthenogenesis is not reducible to endomitotic doubling of the chromosome set because it comprises 6n-nuclei. Explanation of more diverse range of polyploid cells in parthenogenesis needs to consider the fusion of cleavage nuclei that is carried out by the cytoplasmic karyogamic mechanism in the absence of fertilization. For the first time on squash preparations, in diapausing embryo, we have identified primary germ cells (PGC) that are characterized by less compact chromatin, especially in the zygotic form of development, a larger size of the nucleus and cytoplasm, and irregular number and size of nucleoli. Evaluation of PGC ploidy in parthenogenesis by calculation of "loose" chromatin grains in diapause is possible and testifies polyploidization in embryo germ-line. This explains the inevitable admixture of tetraploid eggs in diploid parthenoclone grain and its absence in normal development. Cytological method used has revealed a spiral arrangement of chromatin grains on the inner surface of the nucleus at different levels of ploidy.

  13. Comprehension of reversible relative clauses in specifically language impaired and normally developing Greek children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakaki, S

    2001-06-01

    This paper aims to investigate the syntactic comprehension of reversible relative clauses in a group of eight Greek children with specific language impairment (SLI) and two control groups of normally developing children matched on chronological and language age, respectively. An experiment using an acting out procedure was undertaken. Group analysis revealed that SLI children's performance is qualitatively different than that of both control groups. Interpreting the data, processes involved in syntactic comprehension are taken into consideration. It is claimed that processing demands impede SLI children's performance due to a deficit in their competence grammar. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. Development of dose assessment code for release of tritium during normal operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, J.; Malatova, I.

    2009-01-01

    A computer code PTM H TO has been developed to assess tritium doses to the general public. The code enables to simulate the behavior of tritium in the environment released into the atmosphere under normal operation of nuclear power plants. Code can calculate the doses for the three chemical and physical forms: tritium gas (HT), tritiated water vapor and water drops (HTO). The models in this code consist of the tritium transfer model including oxidation of HT to HTO and reemission of HTO from soil to the atmosphere, and the dose calculation model

  15. The PK-Eye: A Novel In Vitro Ocular Flow Model for Use in Preclinical Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Sahar; Lockwood, Alastair; Brocchini, Steve; Khaw, Peng T

    2015-10-01

    A 2-compartment in vitro eye flow model has been developed to estimate ocular drug clearance by the anterior aqueous outflow pathway. The model is designed to accelerate the development of longer-acting ophthalmic therapeutics. Dye studies show aqueous flow is necessary for a molecule injected into the vitreous cavity to clear from the model. The clearance times of proteins can be estimated by collecting the aqueous outflow, which was first conducted with bevacizumab using phosphate-buffered saline in the vitreous cavity. A simulated vitreous solution was then used and ranibizumab (0.5 mg) displayed a clearance time of 8.1 ± 3.1 days, which is comparable to that observed in humans. The model can estimate drug release from implants or the dissolution of suspensions as a first step in their clearance mechanism, which will be the rate-limiting step for the overall resident time of a candidate dosage form in the vitreous. A suspension of triamcinolone acetonide (Kenalog®) (4.0 mg) displayed clearance times spanning 26-28 days. These results indicate that the model can be used to determine in vitro-in vivo correlations in preclinical studies to develop long-lasting therapeutics to treat blinding diseases at the back of the eye. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Disease-related amyloidogenic variants of human lysozyme trigger the unfolded protein response and disturb eye development in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumita, Janet R.; Helmfors, Linda; Williams, Jocy; Luheshi, Leila M.; Menzer, Linda; Dumoulin, Mireille; Lomas, David A.; Crowther, Damian C.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Brorsson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    We have created a Drosophila model of lysozyme amyloidosis to investigate the in vivo behavior of disease-associated variants. To achieve this objective, wild-type (WT) protein and the amyloidogenic variants F57I and D67H were expressed in Drosophila melanogaster using the UAS-gal4 system and both the ubiquitous and retinal expression drivers Act5C-gal4 and gmr-gal4. The nontransgenic w1118 Drosophila line was used as a control throughout. We utilized ELISA experiments to probe lysozyme protein levels, scanning electron microscopy for eye phenotype classification, and immunohistochemistry to detect the unfolded protein response (UPR) activation. We observed that expressing the destabilized F57I and D67H lysozymes triggers UPR activation, resulting in degradation of these variants, whereas the WT lysozyme is secreted into the fly hemolymph. Indeed, the level of WT was up to 17 times more abundant than the variant proteins. In addition, the F57I variant gave rise to a significant disruption of the eye development, and this correlated to pronounced UPR activation. These results support the concept that the onset of familial amyloid disease is linked to an inability of the UPR to degrade completely the amyloidogenic lysozymes prior to secretion, resulting in secretion of these destabilized variants, thereby leading to deposition and associated organ damage.—Kumita, J. R., Helmfors, L., Williams, J., Luheshi, L. M., Menzer, L., Dumoulin, M., Lomas, D. A., Crowther, D. C., Dobson, C. M., Brorsson, A.-C. Disease-related amyloidogenic variants of human lysozyme trigger the unfolded protein response and disturb eye development in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:21965601

  17. Diagnosis of the human fetal age based on the development of the normal kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizardo-Daudt Helena Maria

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: The diagnosis of human fetal age is usually estimated based on the measurement of crown-rump length or crown-heel length and the weight of the fetus. However, this estimate is not totally accurate and sometimes is necessary to combine other data to determine the fetal age. An analysis of the normal embryological development of the kidney may assist in this determination. The histology of this process, although well described, lacks photographic documentation. We intend to fill this gap by providing histologists and pathologists, especially inexperienced ones, with information about the staging of the renal development through microphotography. The objective of the present study was to achieve greater accuracy for the diagnosis of human fetal age through the proposed classification and the photographic documentation presented. Material and methods: Normal embryological development of the human kidney was studied by light microscopy. The fetal period from 6 to 40 weeks of gestation was observed according the stage of maturity of glomeruli and tubules; localization of glomeruli, occurrence of nephrogenic tissue and cortico-medullary differentiation. At least 5 different exams were observed from each week of development. Two hundred four exams were analyzed in the whole study. The histological characteristics were quantified and the process was documented by microphotography. Results and final considerations: The fetal development of the kidney was divided into 8 stages, which was documented through microphotography. Nephron structural formation occurred until the 34th week of prenatal development. From the 35th week on, tubules and glomeruli continued to mature without the formation of new nephrons. The proposed classification intends to improve the accuracy of the fetal age diagnosis.

  18. Evidence for substantial maintenance of membrane integrity and cell viability in normally developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries throughout development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Mark; Matthews, Mark; Shackel, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was used as a vital stain to assay membrane integrity (cell viability) in mesocarp tissue of the developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry in order to test the hypothesis that there is a substantial loss of compartmentation in these cells during ripening. This technique was also used to determine whether loss of viability was associated with symptoms of a ripening disorder known as berry shrivel. FDA fluorescence of berry cells was rapid, bright, and stable for over 1 h at room temperature. Confocal microscopy detected FDA staining through two to three intact surface cell layers (300-400 mum) of bisected berries, and showed that the fluorescence was confined to the cytoplasm, indicating the maintenance of integrity in both cytoplasmic as well as vacuolar membranes, and the presence of active cytoplasmic esterases. FDA clearly discriminated between living cells and freeze-killed cells, and exhibited little, if any, non-specific staining. Propidium iodide and DAPI, both widely used to assess cell viability, were unable to discriminate between living and freeze-killed cells, and did not specifically stain the nuclei of dead cells. For normally developing berries under field conditions there was no evidence of viability loss until about 40 d after veraison, and the majority (80%) of mesocarp cells remained viable past commercial harvest (26 degrees Brix). These results are inconsistent with current models of grape berry development which hypothesize that veraison is associated with a general loss of compartmentation in mesocarp cells. The observed viability loss was primarily in the locule area around the seeds, suggesting that a localized loss of viability and compartmentation may occur as part of normal fruit development. The cell viability of berry shrivel-affected berries was similar to that of normally developing berries until the onset of visible symptoms (i.e. shrivelling), at which time viability declined in visibly shrivelled

  19. Looking at Eye Gaze Processing and Its Neural Correlates in Infancy--Implications for Social Development and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Stefanie; Reid, Vincent M.; Parise, Eugenio; Handl, Andrea; Palumbo, Letizia; Striano, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    The importance of eye gaze as a means of communication is indisputable. However, there is debate about whether there is a dedicated neural module, which functions as an eye gaze detector and when infants are able to use eye gaze cues in a referential way. The application of neuroscience methodologies to developmental psychology has provided new…

  20. Toward an Understanding of Divergent Compound Eye Development in Drones and Workers of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.): A Correlative Analysis of Morphology and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Antonio, David S; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Eye development in insects is best understood in Drosophila melanogaster, but little is known for other holometabolous insects. Combining a morphological with a gene expression analysis, we investigated eye development in the honeybee, putting emphasis on the sex-specific differences in eye size. Optic lobe development starts from an optic lobe anlage in the larval brain, which sequentially gives rise to the lobula, medulla, and lamina. The lamina differentiates in the last larval instar, when it receives optic nerve projections from the developing retina. The expression analysis focused on seven genes important for Drosophila eye development: eyes absent, sine oculis, embryonic lethal abnormal vision, minibrain, small optic lobes, epidermal growth factor receptor, and roughest. All except small optic lobes were more highly expressed in third-instar drone larvae, but then, in the fourth and fifth instar, their expression was sex-specifically modulated, showing shifts in temporal dynamics. The clearest differences were seen for small optic lobes, which is highly expressed in the developing eye of workers, and minibrain and roughest, which showed a strong expression peak coinciding with retina differentiation. A microarray analysis for optic lobe/retina complexes revealed the differential expression of several metabolism-related genes, as well as of two micro-RNAs. While we could not see major morphological differences in the developing eye structures before the pupal stage, the expression differences observed for the seven candidate genes and in the transcriptional microarray profiles indicate that molecular signatures underlying sex-specific optic lobe and retina development become established throughout the larval stages. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Neural correlates of deception in social contexts in normally developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu eYokota

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Deception is related to the ability to inhibit prepotent responses and to engage in mental tasks such as anticipating responses and inferring what another person knows, especially in social contexts. However, the neural correlates of deception processing, which requires mentalizing, remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we examined the neural correlates of deception, including mentalization, in social contexts in normally developing children. Healthy right-handed children (aged 8–9 years were scanned while performing interactive games involving deception. The games varied along two dimensions: the type of reply (deception and truth and the type of context (social and less social. Participants were instructed to deceive a witch and to tell the truth to a girl. Under the social-context conditions, participants were asked to consider what they inferred about protagonists’ preferences from their facial expressions when responding to questions. Under the less-social-context conditions, participants did not need to consider others’ preferences. We found a significantly greater response in the right precuneus under the social-context than under less-social-context conditions. Additionally, we found substantially greater activation in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL under the deception than under the truth condition. These results suggest that deception in a social context requires not only inhibition of prepotent responses but also engagement in mentalizing processes. This study provides the first evidence of the neural correlates of the mentalizing processes involved in deception in normally developing children.

  2. [14C]sucrose uptake and labeling of starch in developing grains of normal segl barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, F.C.; Peterson, D.M.; Nelson, O.E.

    1984-01-01

    Previous work showed that the segl mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare o Betzes) did not differ from normal Betzes in plant growth, photosynthesis, or fertility, but it produced only shrunken seeds regardless of pollen source. To determine whether defects in sucrose uptake or starch synthesis resulted in the shrunken condition, developing grains of Betzes and segl were cultured in [ 14 C]sucrose solutions after slicing transversely to expose the endosperm cavity and free space. In both young grains (before genotypes differed in dry weight) and older grains (17 days after anthesis, when segl grains were smaller than Betzes), sucrose uptake and starch synthesis were similar in both genotypes on a dry weight basis. To determine if sucrose was hydrolyzed during uptake, spikes of Betzes and segl were allowed to take up [fructose-U- 14 C]sucrose 14 days after anthesis and the radioactivity of endosperm sugars was examined during 3 hours of incubation. Whereas less total radioactivity entered the endosperm and the endosperm cavity (free space) of segl, in both genotypes over 96% of the label of endosperm sugars was in sucrose, and there was no apparent initial or progressive randomization of label among hexose moieties of sucrose as compared to the free space sampled after 1 hour of incubation. The authors conclude that segl endosperms are capable of normal sucrose uptake and starch synthesis and that hydrolysis of sucrose is not required for uptake in either genotype. Evidence suggests abnormal development of grain tissue of maternal origin during growth of segl grains

  3. Effect of transforming growth factor-beta1 on embryonic and posthatch muscle growth and development in normal and low score normal chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Velleman, S G

    2009-02-01

    During skeletal muscle development, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent inhibitor of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The TGF-beta1 signal is carried by Smad proteins into the cell nucleus, inhibiting the expression of key myogenic regulatory factors including MyoD and myogenin. However, the molecular mechanism by which TGF-beta1 inhibits muscle cell proliferation and differentiation has not been well documented in vivo. The present study investigated the effect of TGF-beta1 on in vivo skeletal muscle growth and development. A chicken line, Low Score Normal (LSN) with reduced muscling and upregulated TGF-beta1 expression, was used and compared to a normal chicken line. The injection of TGF-beta1 at embryonic day (ED) 3 significantly reduced the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle weight in the normal birds at 1 wk posthatch, whereas no significant difference was observed in the LSN birds. The difference between normal and LSN birds in response to TGF-beta1 is likely due to different levels of endogenous TGF-beta1 where the LSN birds have increased TGF-beta1 expression in their p. major muscle at both 17 ED and 6 wk posthatch. Smad3 expression was reduced by TGF-beta1 from 10 ED to 1 wk posthatch in normal p. major muscle. Unlike Smad3, Smad7 expression was not significantly affected by TGF-beta1 until posthatch in both normal and LSN p. major muscle. Expression of MyoD was reduced 35% by TGF-beta1 during embryonic development in normal p. major muscle, whereas LSN p. major muscle showed a delayed decrease at 1 d posthatch in MyoD expression in response to the TGF-beta1 treatment. Myogenin expression was reduced 29% by TGF-beta1 after hatch in normal p. major muscle. In LSN p. major muscle, TGF-beta1 treatment significantly decreased myogenin expression by 43% at 1 d posthatch and 32% at 1 wk posthatch. These data suggested that TGF-beta1 reduced p. major muscle growth by inhibiting MyoD and myogenin expression during both embryonic

  4. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  5. The development of hepatic stellate cells in normal and abnormal human fetuses – an immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Christine K C; Pereira, Tamara N; Pozniak, Katarzyna N; Ramsing, Mette; Vogel, Ida; Ramm, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    The precise embryological origin and development of hepatic stellate cells is not established. Animal studies and observations on human fetuses suggest that they derive from posterior mesodermal cells that migrate via the septum transversum and developing diaphragm to form submesothelial cells beneath the liver capsule, which give rise to mesenchymal cells including hepatic stellate cells. However, it is unclear if these are similar to hepatic stellate cells in adults or if this is the only source of stellate cells. We have studied hepatic stellate cells by immunohistochemistry, in developing human liver from autopsies of fetuses with and without malformations and growth restriction, using cellular Retinol Binding Protein-1 (cRBP-1), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), and α-Smooth Muscle Actin (αSMA) antibodies, to identify factors that influence their development. We found that hepatic stellate cells expressing cRBP-1 are present from the end of the first trimester of gestation and reduce in density throughout gestation. They appear abnormally formed and variably reduced in number in fetuses with abnormal mesothelial Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) function, diaphragmatic hernia and in ectopic liver nodules without mesothelium. Stellate cells showed similarities to intravascular cells and their presence in a fetus with diaphragm agenesis suggests they may be derived from circulating stem cells. Our observations suggest circulating stem cells as well as mesothelium can give rise to hepatic stellate cells, and that they require normal mesothelial function for their development. PMID:26265759

  6. The Maestro (Mro gene is dispensable for normal sexual development and fertility in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Smith

    Full Text Available The mammalian gonad arises as a bipotential primordium from which a testis or ovary develops depending on the chromosomal sex of the individual. We have previously used DNA microarrays to screen for novel genes controlling the developmental fate of the indifferent embryonic mouse gonad. Maestro (Mro, which encodes a HEAT-repeat protein, was originally identified as a gene exhibiting sexually dimorphic expression during mouse gonad development. Wholemount in situ hybridisation analysis revealed Mro to be expressed in the embryonic male gonad from approximately 11.5 days post coitum, prior to overt sexual differentiation. No significant expression was detected in female gonads at the same developmental stage. In order to address its physiological function, we have generated mice lacking Maestro using gene targeting. Male and female mice homozygous for a Mro null allele are viable and fertile. We examined gonad development in homozygous male embryos in detail and observed no differences when compared to wild-type controls. Immunohistochemical analysis of homozygous mutant testes of adult mice revealed no overt abnormalities. Expression profiling using DNA microarrays also indicated no significant differences between homozygote embryonic male gonads and controls. We conclude that Maestro is dispensable for normal male sexual development and fertility in laboratory mice; however, the Mro locus itself does have utility as a site for insertion of transgenes for future studies in the fields of sexual development and Sertoli cell function.

  7. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiusheng Kong

    Full Text Available Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC, β-actin (ClACT, and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5 as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1, a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology.

  8. E-cadherin promotes incorporation of mouse epiblast stem cells into normal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ohtsuka

    Full Text Available Mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs are pluripotent stem cells derived from epiblasts of postimplantation mouse embryos. Their pluripotency is distinct from that of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs in several cell biological criteria. One of the distinctions is that mEpiSCs contribute either not at all or at much lower efficiency to chimeric embryos after blastocyst injection compared to mESCs. However, here we showed that mEpiSCs can be incorporated into normal development after blastocyst injection by forced expression of the E-cadherin transgene for 2 days in culture. Using this strategy, mEpiSCs gave rise to live-born chimeras from 5% of the manipulated blastocysts. There were no obvious signs of reprogramming of mEpiSCs toward the mESC-like state during the 2 days after induction of the E-cadherin transgene, suggesting that mEpiSCs possess latent ability to integrate into the normal developmental process as its origin, epiblasts.

  9. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Liqiang; Cheng, Fei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC), β-actin (ClACT), and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5) as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND) was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1), a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology.

  10. Survival of motor neurone protein is required for normal postnatal development of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alison K; Somers, Eilidh; Powis, Rachael A; Shorrock, Hannah K; Murphy, Kelley; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Parson, Simon H

    2017-02-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), traditionally described as a predominantly childhood form of motor neurone disease, is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. Although motor neurones are undoubtedly the primary affected cell type, the severe infantile form of SMA (Type I SMA) is now widely recognised to represent a multisystem disorder where a variety of organs and systems in the body are also affected. Here, we report that the spleen is disproportionately small in the 'Taiwanese' murine model of severe SMA (Smn -/- ;SMN2 tg/0 ), correlated to low levels of cell proliferation and increased cell death. Spleen lacks its distinctive red appearance and presents with a degenerated capsule and a disorganised fibrotic architecture. Histologically distinct white pulp failed to form and this was reflected in an almost complete absence of B lymphocytes necessary for normal immune function. In addition, megakaryoctyes persisted in the red pulp. However, the vascular density remained unchanged in SMA spleen. Assessment of the spleen in SMA patients with the infantile form of the disease indicated a range of pathologies. We conclude that development of the spleen fails to occur normally in SMA mouse models and human patients. Thus, further analysis of immune function is likely to be required to fully understand the full extent of systemic disease pathology in SMA. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  11. Development of a model of machine hand eye coordination and program specifications for a topological machine vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A unified approach to computer vision and manipulation is developed which is called choreographic vision. In the model, objects to be viewed by a projected robot in the Viking missions to Mars are seen as objects to be manipulated within choreographic contexts controlled by a multimoded remote, supervisory control system on Earth. A new theory of context relations is introduced as a basis for choreographic programming languages. A topological vision model is developed for recognizing objects by shape and contour. This model is integrated with a projected vision system consisting of a multiaperture image dissector TV camera and a ranging laser system. System program specifications integrate eye-hand coordination and topological vision functions and an aerospace multiprocessor implementation is described.

  12. Schirmer tear test type I readings and intraocular pressure values assessed by applanation tonometry (Tonopen® XL) in normal eyes of four European species of birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Giovanni; Briganti, Angela; Spratte, Johanna R; Ceccherelli, Renato; Breghi, Gloria

    2013-09-01

    To determine normal values for Schirmer tear test I and intraocular pressure in four European species of birds of prey. Twenty birds from each of the following species: Eurasian Tawny owl (Strix aluco), Little owl (Athene noctua), Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), and European kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Both eyes of all birds (80 eyes) underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, which included a Schirmer tear test type I (STT-I) performed with commercially available strips and the assessment of the intraocular pressure (IOP) by applanation tonometry, employing the Tonopen-XL(®) device. The animals, which had been taken to a rescue center, were examined for ocular lesions prior to their eventual release into the wild. STT-I readings and IOP values were expressed as means ± standard deviation. Schirmer tear test type I readings were as follows: Eurasian Tawny owls: 3.12 ± 1.92 mm/min; Little owls: 3.5 ± 1.96 mm/min; Common buzzards: 12.47 ± 2.66 mm/min; European kestrels: 6.20 ± 3.67 mm/min. IOP values were as follows: Eurasian Tawny owls: 11.21 ± 3.12 mmHg; Little owls: 9.83 ± 3.41 mmHg; Common buzzards: 17.2 ± 3.53 mmHg; European kestrels: 8.53 ± 1.59 mmHg. The results of this study give representative values for STT-I and IOP in four of the most common species of birds of prey in Europe. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. [Development of an ophthalmological clinical information system for inpatient eye clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortüm, K U; Müller, M; Babenko, A; Kampik, A; Kreutzer, T C

    2015-12-01

    In times of increased digitalization in healthcare, departments of ophthalmology are faced with the challenge of introducing electronic clinical health records (EHR); however, specialized software for ophthalmology is not available with most major EHR sytems. The aim of this project was to create specific ophthalmological user interfaces for large inpatient eye care providers within a hospitalwide EHR. Additionally the integration of ophthalmic imaging systems, scheduling and surgical documentation should be achieved. The existing EHR i.s.h.med (Siemens, Germany) was modified using advanced business application programming (ABAP) language to create specific ophthalmological user interfaces for reproduction and moreover optimization of the clinical workflow. A user interface for documentation of ambulatory patients with eight tabs was designed. From June 2013 to October 2014 a total of 61,551 patient contact details were documented. For surgical documentation a separate user interface was set up. Digital clinical orders for documentation of registration and scheduling of operations user interfaces were also set up. A direct integration of ophthalmic imaging modalities could be established. An ophthalmologist-orientated EHR for outpatient and surgical documentation for inpatient clinics was created and successfully implemented. By incorporation of imaging procedures the foundation of future smart/big data analyses was created.

  14. Visual and linguistic determinants of the eyes' initial fixation position in reading development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Stéphanie; Pynte, Joël; Ghio, Alain; Lété, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Two eye-movement experiments with one hundred and seven first- through fifth-grade children were conducted to examine the effects of visuomotor and linguistic factors on the recognition of words and pseudowords presented in central vision (using a variable-viewing-position technique) and in parafoveal vision (shifted to the left or right of a central fixation point). For all groups of children, we found a strong effect of stimulus location, in both central and parafoveal vision. This effect corresponds to the children's apparent tendency, for peripherally located targets, to reach a position located halfway between the middle and the left edge of the stimulus (preferred viewing location, PVL), whether saccading to the right or left. For centrally presented targets, refixation probability and lexical-decision time were the lowest near the word's center, suggesting an optimal viewing position (OVP). The viewing-position effects found here were modulated (1) by print exposure, both in central and parafoveal vision; and (2) by the intrinsic qualities of the stimulus (lexicality and word frequency) for targets in central vision but not for parafoveally presented targets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Galnt1 Is Required for Normal Heart Valve Development and Cardiac Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, E; Stevens, Sharon R.; Guan, Yu; Springer, Danielle A.; Anderson, Stasia A.; Starost, Matthew F.; Patel, Vyomesh; Ten Hagen, Kelly G.; Tabak, Lawrence A.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart valve defects in humans occur in approximately 2% of live births and are a major source of compromised cardiac function. In this study we demonstrate that normal heart valve development and cardiac function are dependent upon Galnt1, the gene that encodes a member of the family of glycosyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) responsible for the initiation of mucin-type O-glycosylation. In the adult mouse, compromised cardiac function that mimics human congenital heart disease, including aortic and pulmonary valve stenosis and regurgitation; altered ejection fraction; and cardiac dilation, was observed in Galnt1 null animals. The underlying phenotype is aberrant valve formation caused by increased cell proliferation within the outflow tract cushion of developing hearts, which is first detected at developmental stage E11.5. Developing valves from Galnt1 deficient animals displayed reduced levels of the proteases ADAMTS1 and ADAMTS5, decreased cleavage of the proteoglycan versican and increased levels of other extracellular matrix proteins. We also observed increased BMP and MAPK signaling. Taken together, the ablation of Galnt1 appears to disrupt the formation/remodeling of the extracellular matrix and alters conserved signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation. Our study provides insight into the role of this conserved protein modification in cardiac valve development and may represent a new model for idiopathic valve disease. PMID:25615642

  16. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... 66. CME FEBRUARY 2011 Vol.29 No.2. Eye trauma. To a clinician without experience, a person with an eye injury presents a dilemma. This article should reassure you that methodical assessment and treatment of most injuries is simple and within the ambit of every doctor. JONatHaN PONs, MB ChB, Dip ...

  17. Development of Normalization Factors for Canada and the United States and Comparison with European Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautier, Anne; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Margni, Manuele

    2010-01-01

    In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), normalization calculates the magnitude of an impact (midpoint or endpoint) relative to the total effect of a given reference. The goal of this work is to calculate normalization factors for Canada and the US and to compare them with existing European normalization ...

  18. Cug2 is essential for normal mitotic control and CNS development in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Nam-Soon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently identified a novel oncogene, Cancer-upregulated gene 2 (CUG2, which is essential for kinetochore formation and promotes tumorigenesis in mammalian cells. However, the in vivo function of CUG2 has not been studied in animal models. Results To study the function of CUG2 in vivo, we isolated a zebrafish homologue that is expressed specifically in the proliferating cells of the central nervous system (CNS. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of cug2 resulted in apoptosis throughout the CNS and the development of neurodegenerative phenotypes. In addition, cug2-deficient embryos contained mitotically arrested cells displaying abnormal spindle formation and chromosome misalignment in the neural plate. Conclusions Therefore, our findings suggest that Cug2 is required for normal mitosis during early neurogenesis and has functions in neuronal cell maintenance, thus demonstrating that the cug2 deficient embryos may provide a model system for human neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of the brain: technical considerations and normal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Kubik-Huch, Rahel; Marincek, Borut [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Martin, Ernst [Department of Neuroradiology and Magnetic Resonance, University Children' s Hospital, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-08-01

    Fetal MRI examines non-invasively the unborn fetus. Ultrafast MRI sequences effectively suppress fetal motion. Multiple case reports and studies have shown that fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the central nervous system. The high contrast-to-noise ratio, the high spatial resolution, the multiplanar capabilities, the large field of view and the simultaneous visualisation of fetal and maternal structures have proven to be advantageous. Fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the normal and pathological development of the brain. Despite the fact that no side effects have been reported or are to be expected, the use of MRI during pregnancy is still limited to the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast media are not to be used as it passes the placenta. Ultrasound remains the primary screening modality for fetal pathology; fetal MRI can serve as an adjunct or second-line imaging modality. (orig.)

  20. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of the brain: technical considerations and normal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Kubik-Huch, Rahel; Marincek, Borut; Martin, Ernst

    2002-01-01

    Fetal MRI examines non-invasively the unborn fetus. Ultrafast MRI sequences effectively suppress fetal motion. Multiple case reports and studies have shown that fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the central nervous system. The high contrast-to-noise ratio, the high spatial resolution, the multiplanar capabilities, the large field of view and the simultaneous visualisation of fetal and maternal structures have proven to be advantageous. Fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the normal and pathological development of the brain. Despite the fact that no side effects have been reported or are to be expected, the use of MRI during pregnancy is still limited to the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast media are not to be used as it passes the placenta. Ultrasound remains the primary screening modality for fetal pathology; fetal MRI can serve as an adjunct or second-line imaging modality. (orig.)

  1. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of the brain: technical considerations and normal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Thierry A G M; Martin, Ernst; Kubik-Huch, Rahel; Marincek, Borut

    2002-08-01

    Fetal MRI examines non-invasively the unborn fetus. Ultrafast MRI sequences effectively suppress fetal motion. Multiple case reports and studies have shown that fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the central nervous system. The high contrast-to-noise ratio, the high spatial resolution, the multiplanar capabilities, the large field of view and the simultaneous visualisation of fetal and maternal structures have proven to be advantageous. Fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the normal and pathological development of the brain. Despite the fact that no side effects have been reported or are to be expected, the use of MRI during pregnancy is still limited to the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast media are not to be used as it passes the placenta. Ultrasound remains the primary screening modality for fetal pathology; fetal MRI can serve as an adjunct or second-line imaging modality.

  2. Fetal lung development on MRI. Normal course and impairment due to premature rupture of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprian, G.; Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie der Medizinischen Universitaet Wien; Brugger, P.C.; Helmer, H.; Langer, M.; Balassy, C.; Prayer, D.

    2006-01-01

    A well-organized interplay between many molecular factors as well as mechanical forces influence fetal lung development. At the end of this complex process a sufficiently sized and structurally mature organ should ensure the postnatal survival of the newborn. Besides prenatal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can now be used to investigate normal and pathological human lung growth in utero. Oligohydramnios, due to premature rupture of membranes (PROM), is an important risk factor for compromised fetal lung growth. In these situations MR volumetry can be used to measure the size of the fetal lung quite accurately. Together with the evaluation of lung signal intensities on T2-weighted sequences, fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia can be readily detected. (orig.) [de

  3. Effects of attachment and rearing behavior on anxiety in normal developing youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have examined the relative contribution of insecure attachment and negative parental rearing behaviors on childhood anxiety, but none have examined if insecure attachment mediates the association between negative parental rearing behavior and anxiety. The present study investigated...... the direct, as well as the indirect, relation between attachment to parents, parental rearing behaviors and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 1134 normal developing children and adolescent. Attachment relation was measured by the Security Scale (SEC), negative parental rearing behavior was measured...... by the Rearing Behavior Questionnaire (RBQ), and anxiety was assessed using the Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R). We found, in accordance with previous research, that insecure attachment, maternal rejection and overprotection, each accounted for a significant proportion...

  4. NORMAL VALUES AND FACTORS AFFECTING FUNCTIONAL REACH TEST IN SAUDI ARABIA SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A. Emara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most critical feature of motor development is the ability to balance the body in sitting or standing. Impaired balance limits a child’s ability to recover from unexpected threats to stability. The functional reach test (FRT defines the maximal distance an individual is able to reach forward beyond arm’s length in a standing position without loss of balance, taking a step, or touching the wall. The Purpose of this study was to establish the normal values for FRT in Saudi Arabia school children with typical development and to study the correlation of anthropometric measures with FRT values. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Almadinah Almonawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 280 children without disabilities aged 6 to 12 years were randomly selected. Functional reach was assessed by having subjects extend their arms to 90 degrees and reach as far forward as they could without taking a step. Reach distance was recorded by noting the beginning and final position of the subject's extended arm parallel to a yard stick attached to the wall. Three successive trials of FRT were performed and the mean of the three trials was calculated. Pearson product moment correlation was used to examine the association of FR to age, and anthropometric measures. Results: Normal mean values of FR ranged from 24.2cm to 33.95cm. Age, height and weight significantly correlate with FRT. Conclusion: The FRT is a feasible test to examine the balance of 6-12 year-old children. FRT may be useful for detecting balance impairment, change in balance performance over time.

  5. Estimation of fetal lung development using quantitative analysis of ultrasonographic images in normal canine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, T; Zovi, G; Milani, C

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the quantitative analysis of sonographic images to predict fetal lung maturity of the canine foetus in normal pregnancy. Twelve bitches were recruited in the present study. Serial ultrasonographic exams were performed at three pre-determined time periods corresponding to the pseudoglandular (40-48 days of pregnancy), canalicular (49-56 days of pregnancy) and saccular phase (57-63 days of pregnancy) of lung development. Mean grey level (MGL) and the standard deviation of the histogram (SDH) of fetal lung and liver sonographic images were measured with dedicated software. The lung-to-liver ratio (LLR) for both parameters was also calculated. Measurements were taken on the two caudal-most foetuses and then averaged. SDH did not show any statistically significant difference between the three time periods in the lungs or in the liver. MGL measured in the lungs significantly increased in the first period and reached a plateau during the last two periods. Liver echogenicity was constant during the first two periods and significantly increased during the last week of gestation. The LLR of MGL significantly decreased during the last week of pregnancy. The LLR was a very good test to detect fetal lung maturity (area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC) = 0.875); using a cut-off value of LLR < 1.541, sensitivity was 83.33% and specificity was 83.33%, positive likelihood ratio = 5. LLR of MGL is an accurate test to estimate lung development in normal canine pregnancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PDX:PBX complexes are required for normal proliferation of pancreatic cells during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sanjoy; Gannon, Maureen; Peers, Bernard; Wright, Chris; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Montminy, Marc

    2001-01-01

    The homeobox factor PDX-1 is a key regulator of pancreatic morphogenesis and glucose homeostasis; targeted disruption of the PDX-1 gene leads to pancreatic agenesis in pdx-1(−/−) homozygotes. Pdx-1 heterozygotes develop normally, but they display glucose intolerance in adulthood. Like certain other homeobox proteins, PDX-1 contains a consensus FPWMK motif that promotes heterodimer formation with the ubiquitous homeodomain protein PBX. To evaluate the importance of PDX-1:PBX complexes in pancreatic morphogenesis and glucose homeostasis, we expressed either wild-type or PBX interaction defective PDX-1 transgenes under control of the PDX-1 promoter. Both wild-type and mutant PDX-1 transgenes corrected glucose intolerance in pdx-1 heterozygotes. The wild-type PDX-1 transgene rescued the development of all pancreatic lineages in pdx-1(−/−) animals, and these mice survived to adulthood. In contrast, pancreata from pdx-1(−/−) mice expressing the mutant PDX-1 transgene were hypoplastic, and these mice died within 3 weeks of birth from pancreatic insufficiency. All pancreatic cell types were observed in pdx-1(−/−) mice expressing the mutant PDX-1 transgene; but the islets were smaller, and increased numbers of islet hormone-positive cells were noted within the ductal epithelium. These results indicate that PDX-1:PBX complexes are dispensable for glucose homeostasis and for differentiation of stem cells into ductal, endocrine, and acinar lineages; but they are essential for expansion of these populations during development. PMID:11158595

  7. Eye-Hand Coordination in Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder Using a Gap-Overlap Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, Alessandro; Forti, Sara; Perego, Paolo; Molteni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated eye-hand coordination in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in comparison with age-matched normally developing peers. The eye-hand correlation was measured by putting fixation latencies in relation with pointing and key pressing responses in visual detection tasks where a gap-overlap paradigm was used and compared to…

  8. The role of tissue factor in normal pregnancy and in the development of preeclampsia: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazkova, Jana; Slavik, Ludek; Ulehlova, Jana; Prochazka, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a key element for normal gestation, especially in the first trimester. TF levels are hence raised in pregnancy, producing an adaptive hypercoagulable state. Potentiated hypercoagulability however, is associated with disorders of pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia but the results of TF and its inhibitor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), measurement, in pre eclampsic women are ambiguous and the data conflicting. This review covers the current knowledge status of the role of TF assessment in pregnancy with a focus on its diagnostic utility. A review of the literature using the following key words: tissue factor, thrombosis, inflammation, pregnancy, preeclampsia. The published literature shows raised and unchanged TF levels in various studies of pre-eclampsia along with equally conflicting data for TFPI. The various study designs and methods used in these studies makes valid comparison difficult. Meta analysis of 34 randomized trials showed that low-dose aspirin in early phases of gravidity (starting from the 16th week or earlier) significantly reduces the incidence of preeclampsia. Overall, the results of the literature search together with knowledge of the structure and biological effects of TF, suggest that measuring the level of plasma TF/TFPI is not ideal for determining the actual levels of TF in the uteroplacental circulation. The current view that endothelial dysfunction is the trigger for preeclampsia, suggests that aspirin may be an effective prophylaxis. Further research will be necessary: measuring the expression of tissue factor on monocytes using flowcytometry and comparing the development of this expression during normal pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia, for example. Another possibility is immunohistochemical determination of the level of TF expression directly in placental tissue.

  9. Microvolt T wave alternans inducibility in normal newborn puppies: effects of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, Salim F; Van Hare, George F; Fink, Daniel; Rosenbaum, David S

    2002-06-01

    The cause of sudden infant death syndrome is unknown, but increased cardiac vulnerability due to repolarization instability may be a contributing factor. The QT interval normally is long at birth and increases further during the first few postnatal months. Although excessive QT intervals indicate increased cardiac vulnerability in the long QT syndrome, the impact of less pronounced QT prolongation during this developmental period is unclear. In adults and older children, the ease of inducing microvolt-level T wave alternans (TWA) is used as a measure of repolarization instability and arrhythmia vulnerability. The aim of this study was to determine if TWA is inducible in normal newborn puppies. Atrial pacing was performed in 15 anesthetized beagle puppies 7 to 35 days old. The pacing drive cycle length was systematically decreased in 20-msec steps from baseline until AV conduction blocked. Pacing was performed for 8 minutes at each cycle length. Three-lead ECGs were recorded continuously during the last 5 minutes of pacing at each cycle length. The recordings were analyzed off-line for the presence of microvolt-level TWA using a sensitive spectral analysis technique. Microvolt-level TWA was present in all puppies. TWA was not present at baseline but developed and increased in amplitude as heart rate increased. The threshold heart rate for TWA did not correlate with age. However, due to age-dependent changes in baseline heart rate, the 7- to 14-day-old animals needed a 50% to 78% increase in heart rate to reach threshold heart rate, whereas the oldest animals needed only a 5% to 25% increase. These data suggest that developmentally dependent dynamic repolarization instability exists in puppies as manifest by the inducibility of TWA.

  10. Primary Angle Closure and Sequence Variants within MicroRNA Binding Sites of Genes Involved in Eye Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Shi

    Full Text Available The formation of primary angle closure (PAC and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG is regulated by a tissue remodeling pathway that plays a critical role in eye development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are powerful gene expression regulators and may exert their effects on tissue remodeling genes. This study investigated the associations between gene variants (single-nucleotide polymorphism, SNP in miRNA binding sites in the 3'-UTR region of genes involved in eye development and PAC.The sample consisted of 232 PAC subjects and 306 controls obtained from a population-based cohort in the Funing District of Jiangsu, China. The markers include 9 SNPs in the COL11A1, PCMTD1, ZNRF3, MTHFR, and ALPPL2 genes respectively. SNP genotyping was performed with a TaqMan-MGB probe using an RT-PCR system.Of the 9 SNPs studied, the frequency of the minor A allele of COL11A1 rs1031820 was higher in the PAC group than in the control group in allele analysis (p = 0.047. The genotype analysis indicated that MTHFR rs1537514 is marginally associated with PAC (p = 0.014. The CC genotype of rs1537514 was present solely in the PAC group. However, the differences lost significance after Bonferroni correction.Our study reveals a possible association of COL11A1 and MTHFR with PAC in the Han Chinese population. These results will contribute to an improved understanding of the genetic basis of PACG.

  11. Differentiating os acromiale from normally developing acromial ossification centers using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfeld, Matthew; Rosenberg, Zehava Sadka; Wang, Annie; Bencardino, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Acromial fusion may not be complete until age 18-25, making it questionable to diagnose os acromiale in adolescents. Os acromiale may exist in adolescents and can be differentiated from a developing acromial ossification center based on MRI findings. A total of 128 MRIs of the shoulder were randomly and blindly reviewed retrospectively by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The MRIs consisted of two groups: (1) 56 of os acromiale in adults (25-74 years old, mean, 50) and (2) 72 consecutive of adolescents (12-17 years old, mean, 14.5). The following were assessed at the interface between the distal acromion and os acromiale/developing ossification center(s): presence of os acromiale vs. developing acromion, orientation, margins, and edema within and adjacent to it. Fifty-one adults and 49 adolescents were included. Exclusions were due to poor image quality or confounding findings (n = 7) or complete acromial fusion (n = 21 adolescents). Utilizing accepted definitions of os acromiale, all adult cases (100 %) were accurately diagnosed as os acromiale, with transverse interface orientation and irregular margins (94 %, R = 0.86, p < 0.00001). Forty-five (92 %) adolescent cases were accurately diagnosed as normally developing acromion with arched interface and lobulated margins (92 %, R = 0.92, p < 0.000001). Four (8 %) adolescent cases were diagnosed as having os acromiale, with transverse orientation and irregular margins. Thirty-five (69 %) and 46 (90 %) adults had marrow and interface edema, respectively. Six (12 %) and eight (16 %) adolescents had marrow and interface edema, respectively, including the four concluded to be os acromiale. Adolescents may have imaging findings consistent with os acromiale. The diagnosis of os acromiale should be based on imaging features and not limited by age. (orig.)

  12. Differentiating os acromiale from normally developing acromial ossification centers using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfeld, Matthew [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Rosenberg, Zehava Sadka; Wang, Annie; Bencardino, Jenny [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Acromial fusion may not be complete until age 18-25, making it questionable to diagnose os acromiale in adolescents. Os acromiale may exist in adolescents and can be differentiated from a developing acromial ossification center based on MRI findings. A total of 128 MRIs of the shoulder were randomly and blindly reviewed retrospectively by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The MRIs consisted of two groups: (1) 56 of os acromiale in adults (25-74 years old, mean, 50) and (2) 72 consecutive of adolescents (12-17 years old, mean, 14.5). The following were assessed at the interface between the distal acromion and os acromiale/developing ossification center(s): presence of os acromiale vs. developing acromion, orientation, margins, and edema within and adjacent to it. Fifty-one adults and 49 adolescents were included. Exclusions were due to poor image quality or confounding findings (n = 7) or complete acromial fusion (n = 21 adolescents). Utilizing accepted definitions of os acromiale, all adult cases (100 %) were accurately diagnosed as os acromiale, with transverse interface orientation and irregular margins (94 %, R = 0.86, p < 0.00001). Forty-five (92 %) adolescent cases were accurately diagnosed as normally developing acromion with arched interface and lobulated margins (92 %, R = 0.92, p < 0.000001). Four (8 %) adolescent cases were diagnosed as having os acromiale, with transverse orientation and irregular margins. Thirty-five (69 %) and 46 (90 %) adults had marrow and interface edema, respectively. Six (12 %) and eight (16 %) adolescents had marrow and interface edema, respectively, including the four concluded to be os acromiale. Adolescents may have imaging findings consistent with os acromiale. The diagnosis of os acromiale should be based on imaging features and not limited by age. (orig.)

  13. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Narrative Abilities in a Group of Italian Normally Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzanica, Francesco; Ambrogi, Federico; Salvadorini, Renata; Sai, Elena; Pozzoli, Raffaella; Barillari, Maria Rosaria; Scarponi, Letizia; Schindler, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Only limited and conflicting information is available regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and narrative abilities. Besides, the role fathers' SES plays in the development of their children's narrative abilities has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between fathers' and mothers' SES and narrative abilities of their children assessed with the Italian version of the Bus Story Test (I-BST). A total of 505 normally developing Italian children were enrolled in the study. Information regarding parents' educational level and employment was collected for each child. Narrative abilities were evaluated using the I-BST. The relationships between parents' employment, educational level, and I-BST scores were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. In univariate analysis, both fathers' and mothers' education and employment were associated with most I-BST subscale scores, especially when higher educational and employment levels were contrasted with the lowest educational and employment levels. In multiple regression analysis, significant associations were found only between the fathers' working status and educational level and I-BST subscale scores. Parental education and employment might impact narrative abilities of children. When both fathers' and mothers' SES variables are considered together, only fathers' education and working status seemed to be associated with I-BST scores. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Role of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in normal cerebellar development and medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Patricia Midori Murobushi; Ariza, Carolina Batista; Ishibashi, Cintya Mayumi; Fujita, Thiago Cezar; Banin-Hirata, Bruna Karina; Oda, Julie Massayo Maeda; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2016-01-01

    Chemokines and its receptors have significant impact on physiological and pathological processes and studies concerning their association with tumor biology are subject of great interest in scientific community. CXCL12/CXCR4 axis has been widely studied due to its significant role in tumor microenvironment, but it is also important to development and maintenance of tissues and organs, for example, in the brain and cerebellum. Studies have demonstrated that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are required for normal cerebellar development and that dysfunction in this pathway may be involved with medulloblastoma pathogenesis. In this context, a new molecular subgroup has been suggested based on the importance of the association between CXCR4 overexpression and sonic hedgehog subgroup. Treatment using CXCR4 antagonists showed significant results, evidencing the important role and possible therapeutic capacity of CXCR4 in MB. This review summarizes studies on MB cell biology, focusing on a chemokine-receptor axis, CXCL12/CXCR4, that may have implications for treatment strategies once it can improve life expectancy and reduce neurocognitive sequelae of patients with this neoplasia. © 2014 UICC.

  15. [Eye contact effects: A therapeutic issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, M; Conty, L

    2016-12-01

    The perception of a direct gaze - that is, of another individual's gaze directed at the observer that leads to eye contact - is known to influence a wide range of cognitive processes and behaviors. We stress that these effects mainly reflect positive impacts on human cognition and may thus be used as relevant tools for therapeutic purposes. In this review, we aim (1) to provide an exhaustive review of eye contact effects while discussing the limits of the dominant models used to explain these effects, (2) to illustrate the therapeutic potential of eye contact by targeting those pathologies that show both preserved gaze processing and deficits in one or several functions that are targeted by the eye contact effects, and (3) to propose concrete ways in which eye contact could be employed as a therapeutic tool. (1) We regroup the variety of eye contact effects into four categories, including memory effects, activation of prosocial behavior, positive appraisals of self and others and the enhancement of self-awareness. We emphasize that the models proposed to account for these effects have a poor predictive value and that further descriptions of these effects is needed. (2) We then emphasize that people with pathologies that affect memory, social behavior, and self and/or other appraisal, and self-awareness could benefit from eye contact effects. We focus on depression, autism and Alzheimer's disease to illustrate our proposal. To our knowledge, no anomaly of eye contact has been reported in depression. Patients suffering from Alzheimer disease, at the early and moderate stage, have been shown to maintain a normal amount of eye contact with their interlocutor. We take into account that autism is controversial regarding whether gaze processing is preserved or altered. In the first view, individuals are thought to elude or omit gazing at another's eyes while in the second, individuals are considered to not be able to process the gaze of others. We adopt the first stance

  16. Advocacy for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasiraj D Ravilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

  17. Krüppel-like factor 2 is required for normal mouse cardiac development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi R Chiplunkar

    Full Text Available Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2 is expressed in endothelial cells in the developing heart, particularly in areas of high shear stress, such as the atrioventricular (AV canal. KLF2 ablation leads to myocardial thinning, high output cardiac failure and death by mouse embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5 in a mixed genetic background. This work identifies an earlier and more fundamental role for KLF2 in mouse cardiac development in FVB/N mice. FVB/N KLF2-/- embryos die earlier, by E11.5. E9.5 FVB/N KLF2-/- hearts have multiple, disorganized cell layers lining the AV cushions, the primordia of the AV valves, rather than the normal single layer. By E10.5, traditional and endothelial-specific FVB/N KLF2-/- AV cushions are hypocellular, suggesting that the cells accumulating at the AV canal have a defect in endothelial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT. E10.5 FVB/N KLF2-/- hearts have reduced glycosaminoglycans in the cardiac jelly, correlating with the reduced EMT. However, the number of mesenchymal cells migrating from FVB/N KLF2-/- AV explants into a collagen matrix is reduced considerably compared to wild-type, suggesting that the EMT defect is not due solely to abnormal cardiac jelly. Echocardiography of E10.5 FVB/N KLF2-/- embryos indicates that they have abnormal heart function compared to wild-type. E10.5 C57BL/6 KLF2-/- hearts have largely normal AV cushions. However, E10.5 FVB/N and C57BL/6 KLF2-/- embryos have a delay in the formation of the atrial septum that is not observed in a defined mixed background. KLF2 ablation results in reduced Sox9, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (Ugdh, Gata4 and Tbx5 mRNA in FVB/N AV canals. KLF2 binds to the Gata4, Tbx5 and Ugdh promoters in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, indicating that KLF2 could directly regulate these genes. In conclusion, KLF2-/- heart phenotypes are genetic background-dependent. KLF2 plays a role in EMT through its regulation of important cardiovascular genes.

  18. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of Ophthalmology 2018 Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery * Required * First Name: * Last Name: ...

  19. Eye Twitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affecting all aspects of life. Hemifacial spasm involves twitches of muscles on one side of the face, ... few weeks Your eyelid completely closes with each twitch or you have difficulty opening the eye Twitching ...

  20. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lamp examination may be done. Blood testing for thyroid disease may be done. Treatments depend on the cause. ... team. Eye Diseases Read more Hyperthyroidism Read more Thyroid Diseases Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  1. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This is often referred to as "pink eye." Corneal ulcers : sores on the cornea most often caused by a serious bacterial or viral infection. Uveitis : inflammation of the ... Corneal scratches: injuries caused by sand, dust, or overuse ...

  2. Normal skeletal development and imaging pitfalls of the calcaneal apophysis: MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Ignacio; Rosenberg, Zehava; Zember, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Heel pain in children and secondary MR imaging (MRI) of the hindfoot have been increasing in incidence. Our purpose is to illustrate the, previously unreported, MRI stages in development of the posterior calcaneal apophysis, with attention to imaging pitfalls. This should aid in distinguishing normal growth from true disease. Consecutive ankle MRIs in children <18 years, from 2008-2014, were subdivided into 0≤5, 5≤10, 10≤15 and 15≤18 age groups and retrospectively reviewed for development of the calcaneal apophysis. 204 ankle MRI studies in 188 children were identified. 40 studies were excluded with final cohort of 164 studies in 154 patients (82 boys, 72 girls). The calcaneal apophysis was cartilaginous until age 5. Foci of decreased as well as increased signal were embedded in cartilage, prior to ossification. Early, secondary ossification centers appeared in plantar third of the apophysis in 100 % of children by age 7. Increased T2 signal in the ossifications was seen in 30 % of children. Apohyseal fusion began at 12 and was complete in 78 % of 14≤15 year olds and in 88 % of 15≤18 year olds. Curvilinear low signal in the ossification centers, paralleling, but distinguished from growth plate, and not be confused with fracture line, was common. Development of the posterior calcaneus follows a unique sequence. Apophyseal fusion occurs earlier than reported in the literature. Familiarity with this maturation pattern, in particular the apophyseal increased T2 signal and the linear low signal paralleling the growth plate, will avoid misinterpreting it for pathology. (orig.)

  3. Normal skeletal development and imaging pitfalls of the calcaneal apophysis: MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Ignacio [Musculoskeletal Research Fellow at NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Centro de Diagnostico Dr. Enrique Rossi, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosenberg, Zehava [NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Zember, Jonathan [Albert Einstein College of Medicine Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Heel pain in children and secondary MR imaging (MRI) of the hindfoot have been increasing in incidence. Our purpose is to illustrate the, previously unreported, MRI stages in development of the posterior calcaneal apophysis, with attention to imaging pitfalls. This should aid in distinguishing normal growth from true disease. Consecutive ankle MRIs in children <18 years, from 2008-2014, were subdivided into 0≤5, 5≤10, 10≤15 and 15≤18 age groups and retrospectively reviewed for development of the calcaneal apophysis. 204 ankle MRI studies in 188 children were identified. 40 studies were excluded with final cohort of 164 studies in 154 patients (82 boys, 72 girls). The calcaneal apophysis was cartilaginous until age 5. Foci of decreased as well as increased signal were embedded in cartilage, prior to ossification. Early, secondary ossification centers appeared in plantar third of the apophysis in 100 % of children by age 7. Increased T2 signal in the ossifications was seen in 30 % of children. Apohyseal fusion began at 12 and was complete in 78 % of 14≤15 year olds and in 88 % of 15≤18 year olds. Curvilinear low signal in the ossification centers, paralleling, but distinguished from growth plate, and not be confused with fracture line, was common. Development of the posterior calcaneus follows a unique sequence. Apophyseal fusion occurs earlier than reported in the literature. Familiarity with this maturation pattern, in particular the apophyseal increased T2 signal and the linear low signal paralleling the growth plate, will avoid misinterpreting it for pathology. (orig.)

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  5. Development of the EpiOcular(TM) eye irritation test for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals in response to the requirements of the EU cosmetics directive and REACH legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; Hayden, Patrick; Kubilus, Joseph; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Klausner, Mitchell

    2011-09-01

    The recently implemented 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and the EU REACH legislation have heightened the need for in vitro ocular test methods. To address this need, the EpiOcular(TM) eye irritation test (EpiOcular-EIT), which utilises the normal (non-transformed) human cell-based EpiOcular tissue model, has been developed. The EpiOcular-EIT prediction model is based on an initial training set of 39 liquid and 21 solid test substances and uses a single exposure period and a single cut-off in tissue viability, as determined by the MTT assay. A chemical is classified as an irritant (GHS Category 1 or 2), if the tissue viability is ≤ 60%, and as a non-irritant (GHS unclassified), if the viability is > 60%. EpiOcular-EIT results for the training set, along with results for an additional 52 substances, which included a range of alcohols, hydrocarbons, amines, esters, and ketones, discriminated between ocular irritants and non-irritants with 98.1% sensitivity, 72.9% specificity, and 84.8% accuracy. To ensure the long-term commercial viability of the assay, EpiOcular tissues produced by using three alternative cell culture inserts were evaluated in the EpiOcular-EIT with 94 chemicals. The assay results obtained with the initial insert and the three alternative inserts were very similar, as judged by correlation coefficients (r²) that ranged from 0.82 to 0.96. The EpiOcular-EIT was pre-validated in 2007/2008, and is currently involved in a formal, multi-laboratory validation study sponsored by the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA) under the auspices of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). The EpiOcular-EIT, together with EpiOcular's long history of reproducibility and proven utility for ultra-mildness testing, make EpiOcular a useful model for addressing current legislation related to animal use in the testing of potential ocular irritants. 2011 FRAME.

  6. Metacognition and Reading: Comparing Three Forms of Metacognition in Normally Developing Readers and Readers with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Norman, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Metacognition refers to 'cognition about cognition' and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) versus normally developing readers (N = 22). Participants read two factual texts, with learning outcome measured by a memory task. Metacognitive knowledge and skills were assessed by self-report. Metacognitive experiences were measured by predictions of performance and judgments of learning. Individuals with dyslexia showed insight into their reading problems, but less general knowledge of how to approach text reading. They more often reported lack of available reading strategies, but groups did not differ in the use of deep and surface strategies. Learning outcome and mean ratings of predictions of performance and judgments of learning were lower in dyslexic readers, but not the accuracy with which metacognitive experiences predicted learning. Overall, the results indicate that dyslexic reading and spelling problems are not generally associated with lower levels of metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive strategies or sensitivity to metacognitive experiences in reading situations. 2015 The Authors. Dyslexia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Effect of Executive Function on Science Achievement Among Normally Developing 10-Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Sheri G.

    Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term used to identify a set of discrete but interrelated cognitive abilities that enable individuals to engage in goal-directed, future-oriented action in response to a novel context. Developmental studies indicate that EF is predictive of reading and math achievement in middle childhood. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between EF and science achievement among normally developing 10 year olds. A sample of fifth grade students from a Northeastern suburban community participated in tests of EF, science, and intelligence. Consistent with adult models of EF, principal components analysis identified a three-factor model of EF organization in middle childhood, including cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition. Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function processes of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibition were all predictive of science performance. Post hoc analyses revealed that high-performing science students differed significantly from low-performing students in both cognitive flexibility and working memory. These findings suggest that complex academic demands specific to science achievement rely on the emergence and maturation of EF components.

  8. PRUNE is crucial for normal brain development and mutated in microcephaly with neurodevelopmental impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollo, Massimo; Ahmed, Mustafa; Ferrucci, Veronica; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asadzadeh, Fatemeh; Carotenuto, Marianeve; Maroofian, Reza; Al-Amri, Ahmed; Singh, Royana; Scognamiglio, Iolanda; Mojarrad, Majid; Musella, Luca; Duilio, Angela; Di Somma, Angela; Karaca, Ender; Rajab, Anna; Al-Khayat, Aisha; Mohan Mohapatra, Tribhuvan; Eslahi, Atieh; Ashrafzadeh, Farah; Rawlins, Lettie E; Prasad, Rajniti; Gupta, Rashmi; Kumari, Preeti; Srivastava, Mona; Cozzolino, Flora; Kumar Rai, Sunil; Monti, Maria; Harlalka, Gaurav V; Simpson, Michael A; Rich, Philip; Al-Salmi, Fatema; Patton, Michael A; Chioza, Barry A; Efthymiou, Stephanie; Granata, Francesca; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Wiethoff, Sarah; Borgione, Eugenia; Scuderi, Carmela; Mankad, Kshitij; Hanna, Michael G; Pucci, Piero; Houlden, Henry; Lupski, James R; Crosby, Andrew H; Baple, Emma L

    2017-04-01

    PRUNE is a member of the DHH (Asp-His-His) phosphoesterase protein superfamily of molecules important for cell motility, and implicated in cancer progression. Here we investigated multiple families from Oman, India, Iran and Italy with individuals affected by a new autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and degenerative disorder in which the cardinal features include primary microcephaly and profound global developmental delay. Our genetic studies identified biallelic mutations of PRUNE1 as responsible. Our functional assays of disease-associated variant alleles revealed impaired microtubule polymerization, as well as cell migration and proliferation properties, of mutant PRUNE. Additionally, our studies also highlight a potential new role for PRUNE during microtubule polymerization, which is essential for the cytoskeletal rearrangements that occur during cellular division and proliferation. Together these studies define PRUNE as a molecule fundamental for normal human cortical development and define cellular and clinical consequences associated with PRUNE mutation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  9. Facts About Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conjunctivitis) >> Facts About Pink Eye Listen Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of the most ... treatment depends on the underlying cause. What is pink eye? Pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis, involves ...

  10. Development of a new family of normalized modulus reduction and material damping curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darendeli, Mehmet Baris

    2001-12-01

    As part of various research projects [including the SRS (Savannah River Site) Project AA891070, EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) Project 3302, and ROSRINE (Resolution of Site Response Issues from the Northridge Earthquake) Project], numerous geotechnical sites were drilled and sampled. Intact soil samples over a depth range of several hundred meters were recovered from 20 of these sites. These soil samples were tested in the laboratory at The University of Texas at Austin (UTA) to characterize the materials dynamically. The presence of a database accumulated from testing these intact specimens motivated a re-evaluation of empirical curves employed in the state of practice. The weaknesses of empirical curves reported in the literature were identified and the necessity of developing an improved set of empirical curves was recognized. This study focused on developing the empirical framework that can be used to generate normalized modulus reduction and material damping curves. This framework is composed of simple equations, which incorporate the key parameters that control nonlinear soil behavior. The data collected over the past decade at The University of Texas at Austin are statistically analyzed using First-order, Second-moment Bayesian Method (FSBM). The effects of various parameters (such as confining pressure and soil plasticity) on dynamic soil properties are evaluated and quantified within this framework. One of the most important aspects of this study is estimating not only the mean values of the empirical curves but also estimating the uncertainty associated with these values. This study provides the opportunity to handle uncertainty in the empirical estimates of dynamic soil properties within the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis framework. A refinement in site-specific probabilistic seismic hazard assessment is expected to materialize in the near future by incorporating the results of this study into state of practice.

  11. Normal Development of the Corpus Callosum and Evolution of Corpus Callosum Sexual Dimorphism in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chaw-Liang; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Yang, Yi-Chen; Ho, Che-Sheng; Hung, Kun-Long

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference ranges for the corpus callosum in infancy and to clarify how sexual dimorphism evolves between the fetal stage and infancy. Normal sonograms from cerebral ultrasonographic examinations of 1- to 6-month-old healthy full-term infants were selected. The length and thickness of the corpus callosum were determined, and the effect of sex on these values was analyzed. Studies on corpus callosum sexual dimorphism were reviewed. In total, sonograms from 236 1- to 6-month-old infants (120 male and 116 female) were collected, and the typical values (5th-95th percentiles) of the corpus callosum were determined for each group. During the first 2 months, with and without brain size adjustment, the corpus callosum in female infants was significantly thicker than that in male infants (mean thickness ± SD: 1 month, male infant, 1.8 ± 0.3 mm; female infant, 2.1 ± 0.3 mm; P = .005; 2 months, male infant, 1.8 ± 0.2 mm; female infant, 2.0 ± 0.3 mm; P = .002). The corpus callosum thickness of male and female infants had no significant differences after 2 months of age. Sexual dimorphism was not detected in corpus callosum length. Our study provides reference data on typical corpus callosum development in infants. In the fetal period and early infancy, the corpus callosum in female infants is thicker than that in male infants. From 3 months onward, the corpus callosum sexual dimorphism becomes insignificant throughout childhood. The evolvement of corpus callosum sexual dimorphism suggests that maternal factors may influence brain development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Directional eye fixation sensor using birefringence-based foveal detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris I.; Zalloum, Othman H. Y.; Wu, Yi Kai; Hunter, David G.; Guyton, David L.

    2007-04-01

    We recently developed and reported an eye fixation monitor that detects the fovea by its radial orientation of birefringent nerve fibers. The instrument used a four-quadrant photodetector and a normalized difference function to check for a best match between the detector quadrants and the arms of the bow-tie pattern of polarization states surrounding the fovea. This function had a maximum during central fixation but could not tell where the subject was looking relative to the center. We propose a linear transformation to obtain horizontal and vertical eye position coordinates from the four photodetector signals, followed by correction based on a priori calibration information. The method was verified on both a computer model and on human eyes. The major advantage of this new eye-tracking method is that it uses true information coming from the fovea, rather than reflections from other structures, to identify the direction of foveal gaze.

  13. Matrix metalloproteinase 14 in the zebrafish: an eye on retinal and retinotectal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Janssens

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are members of the metzincin superfamily of proteinases that cleave structural elements of the extracellular matrix and many molecules involved in signal transduction. Although there is evidence that MMPs promote the proper development of retinotectal projections, the nature and working mechanisms of specific MMPs in retinal development remain to be elucidated. Here, we report a role for zebrafish Mmp14a, one of the two zebrafish paralogs of human MMP14, in retinal neurogenesis and retinotectal development.Whole mount in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical stainings for Mmp14a in developing zebrafish embryos reveal expression in the optic tectum, in the optic nerve and in defined retinal cell populations, including retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Furthermore, Mmp14a loss-of-function results in perturbed retinoblast cell cycle kinetics and consequently, in a delayed retinal neurogenesis, differentiation and lamination. These Mmp14a-dependent retinal defects lead to microphthalmia and a significantly reduced innervation of the optic tectum (OT by RGC axons. Mmp14b, on the contrary, does not appear to alter retinal neurogenesis or OT innervation. As mammalian MMP14 is known to act as an efficient MMP2-activator, we also explored and found a functional link and a possible co-involvement of Mmp2 and Mmp14a in zebrafish retinotectal development.Both the Mmp14a expression in the developing visual system and the Mmp14a loss-of-function phenotype illustrate a critical role for Mmp14a activity in retinal and retinotectal development.

  14. A boundary element model for investigating the effects of eye tumor on the temperature distribution inside the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, E H; Ang, W T; Ng, E Y K

    2009-08-01

    A three-dimensional boundary element model of the human eye is developed to investigate the thermal effects of eye tumor on the ocular temperature distribution. The human eye is modeled as comprising several regions which have different thermal properties. The tumor is one of these regions. The thermal effects of the tumor are simulated by taking it to have a very high metabolic heat generation and blood perfusion rate. Inside the tumor, the steady state temperature is governed by the Pennes bioheat equation. Elsewhere, in normal tissues of the eye, the temperature satisfies the Laplace's equation. To compute the temperature on the corneal surface, the surface boundary of each region is divided into triangular elements.

  15. Maximizing your wind farm development value in the eyes of the investor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarrigle, P.

    2010-01-01

    While there are now a significant number of wind power projects on the market, few buyers have access to sufficient capital funds to build. This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of maximizing the value of wind farm development projects in order to attract investors. The poor investment climate was attributed to low power and natural gas prices, as well as to the high cost of wind farms and a shortage of capital. Factors that influence the value of a wind power project included the quality of the asset, project risks, project size, and the stage of development. Developers must demonstrate to investors that transmission access is ensured, that there is sufficient stakeholder support and adequate wind resources. The ability to develop and expand on an initial project should also be demonstrated. Investors require documentation in relation to transmission information, stakeholder consultation work, and constraint maps with industry standard setbacks. Information must be consistent and credible. The use of qualified, experienced consultants was recommended. tabs., figs.

  16. An eye for possibilities in the development of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Taking children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) as an example, the article seeks an understanding of children with disabilities that connects neuropsychological theories of neural development with the situated cognition perspective and the child as an active participant in its social practices. The early...

  17. Developments in the field of allergy mechanisms in 2015 through the eyes of Clinical & Experimental Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G; Boyle, R; Bryce, P J; Crane, J; Hogan, S P; Saglani, S; Wickman, M; Woodfolk, J A

    2016-10-01

    In the first of two papers we described the development in the field of allergy mechanisms as described by Clinical and Experimental Allergy in 2015. Experimental models of allergic disease, basic mechanisms, clinical mechanisms and allergens are all covered. A second paper will cover clinical aspects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The mind’s eye on personal identity profiles: Design and development of a personal identity profile to inform initial trustworthiness assessments in virtual project teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Rusman, E., Van Bruggen, J., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2010, 15 June). The mind’s eye on personal identity profiles: Design and development of a personal identity profile to inform initial trustworthiness assessments in virtual project teams. Presentation of PhD research at LN PhD session.

  19. Inactivation of ether lipid biosynthesis causes male infertility, defects in eye development and optic nerve hypoplasia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodemer, Claus; Thai, Thanh-Phuong; Brugger, Britta; Kaercher, Thomas; Werner, Hauke; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Wieland, Felix; Gorgas, Karin; Just, Wilhelm W

    2003-08-01

    Although known for almost 80 years, the physiological role of plasmalogens (PLs), the major mammalian ether lipids (ELs), is still enigmatic. Humans that lack ELs suffer from rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP), a peroxisomal disorder usually resulting in death in early childhood. In order to learn more about the functions of ELs, we generated a mouse model for RCDP by a targeted disruption of the dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase gene. The mutant mice revealed multiple abnormalities, such as male infertility, defects in eye development, cataract and optic nerve hypoplasia, some of which were also observed in RCDP. Mass spectroscopic analysis demonstrated the presence of highly unsaturated fatty acids including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in brain PLs and the occurrence of PLs in lipid raft microdomains (LRMs) isolated from brain myelin. In mutants, PLs were completely absent and the concentration of brain DHA was reduced. The marker proteins flotillin-1 and F3/contactin were found in brain LRMs in reduced concentrations. In addition, the gap junctional protein connexin 43, known to be recruited to LRMs and essential for lens development and spermatogenesis, was down-regulated in embryonic fibroblasts of the EL-deficient mice. Free cholesterol, an important constituent of LRMs, was found in these fibroblasts to be accumulated in a perinuclear compartment. These data suggest that the EL-deficient mice allow the identification of new phenotypes not related so far to EL-deficiency (male sterility, defects in myelination and optic nerve hypoplasia) and indicate that PLs are required for the correct assembly and function of LRMs.

  20. Identification and characterization of two zebrafish nectin-1 genes that are differentially expressed in the developing eye and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvik, Jon Vidar; Rødahl, Eyvind; Drivenes, Øyvind; Haarr, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Nectins are cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin type that play important roles in the development of the nervous system. We have characterized two paralogous zebrafish nectin-1 genes, nectin-1a and nectin-1b, that differ in expression. Nectin-1a expression is first found in the anterior neural keel and later in the optic cup. In the retina, nectin-1a appears in the outer part and extends inwards, while nectin-1b starts in the inner part and spreads outwards. Only nectin-1a was detected in the cornea, the lens, and in the region of photoreceptor cell differentiation in the retina. Both genes were expressed in ganglion cells and inner nuclear neurons. In the brain, nectin-1a was restricted to the epiphysis and a cluster of cells in the posterior hindbrain, whereas nectin-1b was found in several brain areas. Zebrafish may, therefore, be a useful model for identifying different functions of nectin-1 in the developing eye and nervous system. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Developing the Adult Male ICRP Phantom and Evaluation the Absorbed Dose Received By Critical Organs in Head and Neck Region during the Radiotherapy of Eye Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Vejdani-Noghreiyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Accurate estimation of the absorbed dose in radiosensitive organs, located away from the target volume during radiotherapy, is one of the main reasons for the development of reference phantoms. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP reference phantoms can provide a more realistic view of the human anatomy in comparison with the previously used mathematical phantoms. However, the ICRP reference phantoms seem to have certain limitations, resulting in the inaccurate eye simulation due to the absence of super-high-resolution CT scan images. Materials and Methods In this study, we developed a modified version of the ICRP reference phantom by inserting a realistic eye phantom into the voxelized phantom. In addition, by using the developed model, the absorbed dose received by sensitive organs (e.g., thyroid, brain, and different parts of the eye during radiotherapy of a common ocular surface tumor was determined. The results were compared with those obtained by the modified phantom developed by the University of Florida-Oak Ridge National Laboratory (UF-ORNL. Results Based on the results, the relative difference between the equivalent doses calculated by the developed phantom and UF-ORNL phantom was nearly 75-95% and 3% for thyroid and eye substructures, respectively. Conclusion Despite of many advantageous of voxel phantoms, they have considerable limitation in providing accurate model of the eye. In the present study, a detailed stylized model was developed and incorporated into the Adult Male (AM reference and UF-ORNL phantoms. These phantoms were then used for the dosimetric calculations during eyelid cancer therapy.

  2. Immunohistochemical markers for corneal stem cells in the early developing human eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngholm, Mikkel; Høyer, Poul E; Vorum, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    markers and potential markers for LSCs and early transient amplifying cells in human adults. In this study, we describe the development of the ectodermally derived LSCs and the mesodermally derived niche cells from the time at which the cornea is defined (week 6) until the formation of the early limbal...... niche (week 14) in human embryos and fetuses. The expression of SOD2 and CK15 was investigated together with other recently identified limbal proteins. Previously suggested LSC and differentiation markers (PAX6, aquaporin-1 and nestin) were also investigated. Both SOD2 and CK15 were present...

  3. Development of an Automatic Combination System of Clothing Parts for Blind People: MyEyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rocha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Blind people have been, over time, a reason for motivation in the development of solutions to improve their quality of life. The aim of this work is to propose a solution for one of such problems, namely, the selection and combination of clothing for the blind. Thus, this paper describes the whole project developed, in agreement with the Portuguese Association of the Blind and Amblyopic of Portugal (ACAPO, for the creation of a Web platform to aid the blind in selecting combinations of clothing. Near Field Communication (NFC technology is the basis of this project in the identification of garments. The features of the garments are inserted manually, and a combination of features is possible. There is also the possibility to automatically identify the color of the garment. The system has been tested by the ACAPO organization and preliminary feedback is positive, which are a good starting point for the future. This solution helps promote an increased autonomy for blind people.

  4. Developing a tool to preserve eye contact with patients undergoing colonoscopy for pain monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niv Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yaron Niv, Yossi TalDepartment of Gastroenterology, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, IsraelAbstract: Colonoscopy has become the leading procedure for early detection and prevention of colorectal cancer. Patients’ experience of colonic endoscopic procedures is scarcely reported, even though it is considered a major factor in colorectal cancer screening participation. Pain due to air inflation or stretching the colon with an endoscope is not rare during examination and may be the main obstacle to cooperation and participation in a screening program. We propose a four-stage study for developing a tool dedicated to pain monitoring during colonoscopy, as follows: (1 comparison of patient, nurse, and endoscopist questionnaire responses about patient pain and technical details of the procedure using the PAINAD tool during colonoscopy; (2 observation of the correlation between patients’ facial expressions and other parameters (using the short PAINAD; (3 development of a device for continuous monitoring of the patient’s facial expression during the procedure; (4 assessment of the usability of such a tool and its contribution to the outcomes of colonoscopy procedures. Early intervention by the staff performing the procedure, in reaction to alerts encoded by this tool, may prevent adverse events during the procedure.Keywords: pain scoring, colonoscopy, pain monitoring, facial expression

  5. Nanotechnology in the public eye: the case of Iran, as a developing country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, Parvin; Sadrnezhaad, Seyed Khatiboleslam; Nejad, Naser Moharram; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Ibrahimi Ghavam Abadi, Leila

    2011-08-01

    Using survey data, public awareness of and attitudes toward nanotechnology are examined in Iran ( N = 759). Iran is a developing country with a national nanotechnology action plan for a ten year period starting from 2003 and has been active in the field of research and development of nanotechnology meanwhile. First, the results show that majority of people are still not familiar with nanotechnology and perceived risks posed by this technology are not considered to be a lot and most people feel its benefits outweigh the risks. The emotions toward this technology are of a hopeful and positive nature and this technology is looked upon favorably in Iran. In particular, our results reveals that although the level of trust is high specially in scientists to communicate the risks with the public, there are a great number who just have some trust not quite a lot of it. Knowing that it is a hard and time-consuming effort to manage a nation's view on nanotechnology, extensive research as well as collaboration with other countries is needed to effectively communicate the risks in time.

  6. Normal tissue damage in radiotherapy development of a clinical audit tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    Radiotherapy treatments are evaluated by two main outcomes, rates of cure or local tumour control and normal tissue complication rates. Many excellent schemes have been devised for recording the late effects of radiotherapy treatments including the RTOG and LENT SOMA Scales. These have proved invaluable in documenting the outcome of clinical trials, but have proved too complex and time consuming for routine daily use in busy departments. A group in Eindhoven led by Professor Lybeert undertook a pilot study of a potential way of auditing late radiation complications. Using a simplified form derived from the LENT SOMA scales, they collected data on grade 3 and 4 complications in a total of 675 patients and were able to correlate a number of particular complications with specific protocols, ICD codes and physician practice. Further review of the case records made it possible to identify specific factors which may have led to toxicity and could be taken into account to modify treatment protocols. From September 1999 clinicians in participating centres undertaking normal follow-up procedures were asked to identify patients who showed evidence of grade 3 or 4 toxicity as defined in the pro-forma. Date of radiotherapy was recorded so that a temporal correlation of complication with treatment could be made, but this study did not attempt to assess the incidence of complications, but to provide a cross-sectional study of prevalence. Centres participating in the study have been Eindhoven, Koeln, Gent, Brussels, Glasgow, Mount Vernon, Madrid, Geneva and Lyon. In Eindhoven 651 reports were collected between January 1995 and December 1999. 89 reports had to be discarded because complications were not validated by the reviewing radiotherapists. Dr Lybeert noticed that individual radiotherapists appeared to have different thresholds for reporting specific complications. 13 patients deaths appeared to be related to radiation problems. An overall level of detection of morbidity was

  7. From the Eye to the Brain: Development of the Drosophila Visual System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nériec, Nathalie; Desplan, Claude

    2016-01-01

    How stem cells produce the huge diversity of neurons that form the visual system, and how these cells are assembled in neural circuits are a critical question in developmental neurobiology. Investigations in Drosophila have led to the discovery of several basic principles of neural patterning. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the field by describing the development of the Drosophila visual system, from the embryo to the adult and from the gross anatomy to the cellular level. We then explore the general molecular mechanisms identified that might apply to other neural structures in flies or in vertebrates. Finally, we discuss the major challenges that remain to be addressed in the field. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Attentional Drift: An Exploratory Study into the Development of an Attention Level Monitoring System Based on Human Eye Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    participate. Additionally, in order to avoid confounding effects from fatigue and nutrition , participants were screened to ensure that proper... nutrition and adequate rest were achieved prior to executing the experiment. All participants had a minimum of at least seven hours of sleep and had eaten...feature called Gazetrailtm, which enables the experimenter to see a snake -like trail of a preset number of eye-fixation points. The eye-tracking

  9. Oncospheres of Taenia solium and T. saginata asiatica develop into metacestodes in normal and immunosuppressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I C; Ma, Y X; Guo, J X; Chung, W C; Lu, S C; Ito, A; Fan, P C

    1999-06-01

    Normal and immunosuppressed mice were infected with oncospheres of Taenia saginata asiatica and T. solium. Although normal ICR mice were not susceptible to these two parasites, cysticerci were recovered from the immunosuppressed ones following venous injection. For T. s. asiatica, immunosuppressed ICR mice had an infection rate of 12.5% and six cysticerci of this parasite were recovered from three males. After injection of T. solium oncospheres, a high infection rate of 57% was obtained and 23 cysticerci were collected from 13 male immunosuppressed ICR mice. The immunosuppressed C57 mice had the highest infection rate (100%) and cysticercus recovery rate (2.4%) for T. solium. The infection rate and cysticercus recovery rate in six normal C57 mice were 40% and 3% respectively. The immunosuppressed ICR, Balb/c and C3H mice were also susceptible to T. s. asiatica.

  10. Developing TOPSIS method using statistical normalization for selecting knowledge management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Zadeh Sarraf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Numerous companies are expecting their knowledge management (KM to be performed effectively in order to leverage and transform the knowledge into competitive advantages. However, here raises a critical issue of how companies can better evaluate and select a favorable KM strategy prior to a successful KM implementation. Design/methodology/approach: An extension of TOPSIS, a multi-attribute decision making (MADM technique, to a group decision environment is investigated. TOPSIS is a practical and useful technique for ranking and selection of a number of externally determined alternatives through distance measures. The entropy method is often used for assessing weights in the TOPSIS method. Entropy in information theory is a criterion uses for measuring the amount of disorder represented by a discrete probability distribution. According to decrease resistance degree of employees opposite of implementing a new strategy, it seems necessary to spot all managers’ opinion. The normal distribution considered the most prominent probability distribution in statistics is used to normalize gathered data. Findings: The results of this study show that by considering 6 criteria for alternatives Evaluation, the most appropriate KM strategy to implement  in our company was ‘‘Personalization’’. Research limitations/implications: In this research, there are some assumptions that might affect the accuracy of the approach such as normal distribution of sample and community. These assumptions can be changed in future work. Originality/value: This paper proposes an effective solution based on combined entropy and TOPSIS approach to help companies that need to evaluate and select KM strategies. In represented solution, opinions of all managers is gathered and normalized by using standard normal distribution and central limit theorem. Keywords: Knowledge management; strategy; TOPSIS; Normal distribution; entropy

  11. The development of a human eye model for ophthalmic iodine-125 brachytherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, A.P.; Campos, T.P.R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiotherapy is used to treat malign tumors. Radiotherapy is an alternative to enucleation in ocular tumors. However, the irradiation of ocular region can bring damages due high doses, mainly in the crystalline lens and in the bone tissue in growth phase. Brachytherapy instead of teletherapy looks for reducing doses in the crystalline lens and the adjacent tissues of the ocular globe (orbital region), minimizing side effects. Herein, some encapsulated radioisotopes in radioactive seeds applied to the ocular brachytherapy are available. Thus, a three-dimensional computational voxel model of the ocular region with its heterogeneous tissues, globe and adjacent tissues is developed. This computational model is used to simulate orbital irradiation with radioactive seeds positioned on the sclera surface through the MCNP5 code. The computational simulation allows evaluating how doses are spatially distributed in the orbital volume in treatments with the radioactive seeds of iodine-125. Therefore, the results allow comparing the spatial doses distribution obtained through the MCNP5 simulation for those two distinct types of radioactive seeds. Bench markets from literature validates the proposed simulations. (author)

  12. Child readers' eye movements in reading Thai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasisopa, Benjawan; Reilly, Ronan G; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn; Burnham, Denis

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been found that adult native readers of Thai, an alphabetic scriptio continua language, engage similar oculomotor patterns as readers of languages written with spaces between words; despite the lack of inter-word spaces, first and last characters of a word appear to guide optimal placement of Thai readers' eye movements, just to the left of word-centre. The issue addressed by the research described here is whether eye movements of Thai children also show these oculomotor patterns. Here the effect of first and last character frequency and word frequency on the eye movements of 18 Thai children when silently reading normal unspaced and spaced text was investigated. Linear mixed-effects model analyses of viewing time measures (first fixation duration, single fixation duration, and gaze duration) and of landing site location revealed that Thai children's eye movement patterns were similar to their adult counterparts. Both first character frequency and word frequency played important roles in Thai children's landing sites; children tended to land their eyes further into words, close to the word centre, if the word began with higher frequency first characters, and this effect was facilitated in higher frequency words. Spacing also facilitated more effective use of first character frequency and it also assisted in decreasing children's viewing time. The use of last-character frequency appeared to be a later development, affecting mainly single fixation duration and gaze duration. In general, Thai children use the same oculomotor control mechanisms in reading spaced and unspaced texts as Thai adults, who in turn have similar oculomotor control as readers of spaced texts. Thus, it appears that eye movements in reading converge on the optimal landing site using whatever cues are available to guide such placement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pitx2 is a critical early regulatory gene in normal cecal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Peter F; Saijoh, Yukio

    2011-09-01

    The murine cecum is a critical digestive structure. Morphogenesis of the cecum involves several key genes, including Homeobox (Hox) d12. Ectopic expression of Hoxd12 has been shown to result in cecal agenesis and a down-regulation of both Fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) and the Pituitary homeobox 2 gene (Pitx2). Homozygous null mutation of Fgf10 or its cognate receptor Fgfr2IIIb results in severe cecal defects where there is the initiation of mesodermal budding, but a failure of the endoderm to grow and extend into this structure. We examined the expression of Pitx2 in the cecum and hypothesized that homozygous null mutation of Pitx2 would result in cecal agenesis. IACUC approval was obtained for these studies. Whole mount in situ hybridizations for Pitx2 were performed on wild-type embryos between embryonic d (E)11.0 and E12.5. Pitx2 -/- and Fgfr2IIIb -/- embryos were generated from n/+ heterozygote breedings and harvested at E10.5, E11.5, and E13.5. Genotypes were confirmed by PCR. Morphology of Pitx2 -/- cecae were compared with those of wild-type littermates and Fgfr2IIIb -/- embryos at identical stages. Embryos were fixed overnight and photographed the following day. Pitx2 is expressed in the cecal mesoderm and endoderm as early as E11.0. Expression becomes increasingly more robust by E12.5. Homozygous null mutation of Pitx2 results in agenesis of the cecum. In contrast to Fgfr2IIIb -/- embryos, which demonstrate a persistent mesodermal bud as late as E18.5, no mesodermal bud is present in Pitx2 -/- embryos. Our findings demonstrate that Pitx2 is a critical regulatory gene in cecal morphogenesis and suggest that Pitx2 is required for initiation of mesodermal budding and likely resides upstream of Fgf10-Fgfr2IIIb signaling in the normal development of this structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. False Belief Development in Children Who Are Hard of Hearing Compared with Peers with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; Ambrose, Sophie E.; Oleson, Jacob; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates false belief (FB) understanding in children who are hard of hearing (CHH) compared with children with normal hearing (CNH) at ages 5 and 6 years and at 2nd grade. Research with this population has theoretical significance, given that the early auditory-linguistic experiences of CHH are less restricted compared with…

  15. Psychosocial Adaptation of Fathers of Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, and Normal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study compared fathers of 20 autistic, 20 Down's syndrome, and 20 developmentally normal children on measures of psychosocial adaptation. Groups differed on measures of intrapersonal and family functioning but not on social-ecological variables. There were few differences between fathers of children with autism and those of children with…

  16. The effects of environmental deuterium on normal and neoplastic cultured cell development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bild, W.; Schuller, T.; Zhihai, Qin; Blankenstein, T.; Nastasa, V.; Haulica, I.

    2000-01-01

    The powdered culture media (RPMI - 1640) were reconstituted either with normal distilled water (150 ppm deuterium) either with deuterium - depleted water (DDW) in various concentrations (30, 60, 90 ppm) and sterilized by filtration with 0.2 μm filters. The cell lines used were NIH (normal mouse fibroblasts), RAG (mouse renal carcinoma) and TS/A (mouse mammary adenocarcinoma). In auxiliary tests, BAIBC mouse splenocytes in direct culture were used, stimulated for growth with concanavalin A or LPS (bacterial lipopolysaccharide). The estimation of the growth was made using the MTT assay or direct counting with trypan blue exclusion. The following results were obtained: Deuterium - depleted water had a stimulating effect on cell growth, the most important stimulating action being from the 90 ppm deuterium-water. The growth curves show, in a first phase, a stimulation of the rapid -growing neoplastic cells, followed by a slower growth of the normal cells. Amiloride 100 mM blocking of the Na + /K + membrane pump did not affect the cell growth curves, while the lansoprazole 100 mM blocking of the K + /H + ATP-ase brought the growth curves at the level of those with normal water. This might show an eventual involvement of the K + /H + antiport in the stimulating effects of the DDW. (authors)

  17. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome, and normal vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background/aims: To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Methods: Interocular acuity

  18. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome and normal vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background/aims: To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Methods: Interocular acuity differences and

  19. Development of Planning Abilities in Normal Aging: Differential Effects of Specific Cognitive Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köstering, Lena; Stahl, Christoph; Leonhart, Rainer; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2014-01-01

    In line with the frontal hypothesis of aging, the ability to plan ahead undergoes substantial change during normal aging. Although impairments on the Tower of London planning task were reported earlier, associations between age-related declines and specific cognitive demands on planning have not been studied. Here we investigated the impact of…

  20. Histological versus stereological methods applied at spermatogonia during normal human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina

    1990-01-01

    The number of spermatogonia per tubular transverse section (S/T), and the percentage of seminiferous tubulus containing spermatogonia (the fertility index (FI] were measured in 40 pairs of normal autopsy testes aged 28 weeks of gestation-40 years. S/T and FI showed similar changes during the whol...

  1. Development of a theory of implementation and integration: Normalization Process Theory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, C.R.; Mair, F.; Finch, T.; Macfarlane, A.; Dowrick, C.; Treweek, S.; Rapley, T.; Ballini, L.; Ong, B.N.; Rogers, A.; Murray, E.; Elwyn, G.; Legare, F.; Gunn, J.; Montori, V.M.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Theories are important tools in the social and natural sciences. The methods by which they are derived are rarely described and discussed. Normalization Process Theory explains how new technologies, ways of acting, and ways of working become routinely embedded in everyday

  2. Smoking cessation and development of respiratory health in smokers screened with normal spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Daniel; Wesseling, Geertjan; Aveyard, Paul; van Schayck, Onno C P

    2011-02-01

    Case-finding of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using spirometry may deter people with normal lung function from stopping smoking. The objective of this study was to observe the percentage of smokers screened with normal lung function that quit smoking. As part of a study on early detection of COPD, 518 smokers were screened with normal lung function (post-bronchodilator FEV(1)/FVC ≥ 70%). They were invited for a follow-up measurement after an average of 2.4 years. Non-smoking was validated by carbon monoxide (smokers. This rate was not lower than the expected rate of quitting in the Dutch population (8-9%) and primary "care as usual" in smokers screened with abnormal lung function (10%; p > 0.05 for all comparisons). The average decline in post-bronchodilator FEV(1) was 26 mL/year, which was unrelated to smoking status at follow-up. Non-smokers showed a clinically meaningful and statistically significant (p smokers shown to have normal lung function. Such smokers should be advised to quit smoking on the grounds that they are likely to improve their respiratory health in the short term and reduce their risk for smoking related diseases in the long term. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Eye absence does not regulate planarian stem cells during eye regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    LoCascio, Samuel A.; Lapan, Sylvain W.; Reddien, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    Dividing cells called neoblasts contain pluripotent stem cells and drive planarian flatworm regeneration from diverse injuries. A long-standing question is whether neoblasts directly sense and respond to the identity of missing tissues during regeneration. We used the eye to investigate this question. Surprisingly, eye removal was neither sufficient nor necessary for neoblasts to increase eye progenitor production. Neoblasts normally increase eye progenitor production following decapitation, ...

  4. Tuberculosis; Eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Through an internet search and review of current literature on tuberculosis and its ocular complications, the information relevant to the objectives was obtained. ' Conclusions: TB can affect any structure in the eye and adnexae. Ocular TB is not easy to diagnose because most times there is no concurrent active ...

  5. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... things up close or far away. Most older people you know — like your grandparents — probably wear glasses. To the Brain! Think of the optic nerve as the great messenger in the back of your eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes you see into millions of nerve ...

  6. Eye Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is very important to read the product safety materials before using any new chemicals. The appropriate personal protective equipment for eye protection will be listed. This is particularly important for applying and handling pesticides, working with caustics such as lime fertilizer, ...

  7. Developments in the field of allergy in 2010 through the eyes of Clinical and Experimental Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katelaris, C H; Linneberg, A; Magnan, A; Thomas, W R; Wardlaw, A J; Wark, P

    2011-12-01

    In 2010 over 200 articles were published in Clinical and Experimental Allergy including editorials, reviews, opinion articles, letters, book reviews and of course at the heart of the journal, papers containing original data which have moved the field of allergy forward on a number of fronts. For the third year running the editors felt it would be of value to summarize the key messages contained in these papers as a snapshot of where the cutting edge of research into allergic disease is leading. We have broadly followed the sections of the journal, although this year the mechanistic articles are grouped together and the studies involving experimental models of disease are discussed throughout the paper. In the field of asthma and rhinitis phenotypes and biomarkers continue to a major pre-occupation of our authors. There is continued interest in mechanisms of inflammation and disordered lung function with the mouse model of asthma continuing to offer new insights. There is also a steady flow of papers investigating new therapies, including those derived from plants and herbs, although many are mechanistic with too few high quality clinical trials. The mechanisms involved in allergic disease are well covered with many strong papers using clinical material to ask relevant questions. Pro-pre and snybiotics continue to be of major interest to our authors and this remains a controversial and complicated field. The discipline of epidemiology has retained its interest in risk factors for the development of allergic disease with a view to refining and debating the reasons for the allergy epidemic. There is continued interest in the relationship between helminthic disease and allergy with a new twist in 2010 involving studies using infection with helminths as a potential treatment. The genetics of allergic disease continues to be very productive, although the field has moved on from only investigating single nucleotide polymorphisms of candidate genes to Genome Wide

  8. Model-based dose calculations for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy using an anatomically realistic eye phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesperance, Marielle; Inglis-Whalen, M; Thomson, R M

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the effects of the composition and geometry of ocular media and tissues surrounding the eye on dose distributions for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy with(125)I, (103)Pd, or (131)Cs seeds, and to investigate doses to ocular structures. An anatomically and compositionally realistic voxelized eye model with a medial tumor is developed based on a literature review. Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients for ocular media are calculated. Radiation transport and dose deposition are simulated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo user-code BrachyDose for a fully loaded COMS eye plaque within a water phantom and our full eye model for the three radionuclides. A TG-43 simulation with the same seed configuration in a water phantom neglecting the plaque and interseed effects is also performed. The impact on dose distributions of varying tumor position, as well as tumor and surrounding tissue media is investigated. Each simulation and radionuclide is compared using isodose contours, dose volume histograms for the lens and tumor, maximum, minimum, and average doses to structures of interest, and doses to voxels of interest within the eye. Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients of the ocular media differ from those of water by as much as 12% within the 20-30 keV photon energy range. For all radionuclides studied, average doses to the tumor and lens regions in the full eye model differ from those for the plaque in water by 8%-10% and 13%-14%, respectively; the average doses to the tumor and lens regions differ between the full eye model and the TG-43 simulation by 2%-17% and 29%-34%, respectively. Replacing the surrounding tissues in the eye model with water increases the maximum and average doses to the lens by 2% and 3%, respectively. Substituting the tumor medium in the eye model for water, soft tissue, or an alternate melanoma composition affects tumor dose compared to the default eye model simulation by up to 16%. In the full eye model

  9. Model-based dose calculations for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy using an anatomically realistic eye phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, Marielle; Inglis-Whalen, M.; Thomson, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : To investigate the effects of the composition and geometry of ocular media and tissues surrounding the eye on dose distributions for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy with 125 I, 103 Pd, or 131 Cs seeds, and to investigate doses to ocular structures. Methods : An anatomically and compositionally realistic voxelized eye model with a medial tumor is developed based on a literature review. Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients for ocular media are calculated. Radiation transport and dose deposition are simulated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo user-code BrachyDose for a fully loaded COMS eye plaque within a water phantom and our full eye model for the three radionuclides. A TG-43 simulation with the same seed configuration in a water phantom neglecting the plaque and interseed effects is also performed. The impact on dose distributions of varying tumor position, as well as tumor and surrounding tissue media is investigated. Each simulation and radionuclide is compared using isodose contours, dose volume histograms for the lens and tumor, maximum, minimum, and average doses to structures of interest, and doses to voxels of interest within the eye. Results : Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients of the ocular media differ from those of water by as much as 12% within the 20–30 keV photon energy range. For all radionuclides studied, average doses to the tumor and lens regions in the full eye model differ from those for the plaque in water by 8%–10% and 13%–14%, respectively; the average doses to the tumor and lens regions differ between the full eye model and the TG-43 simulation by 2%–17% and 29%–34%, respectively. Replacing the surrounding tissues in the eye model with water increases the maximum and average doses to the lens by 2% and 3%, respectively. Substituting the tumor medium in the eye model for water, soft tissue, or an alternate melanoma composition affects tumor dose compared to the default eye model simulation by up

  10. Model-based dose calculations for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy using an anatomically realistic eye phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Marielle; Inglis-Whalen, M.; Thomson, R. M., E-mail: rthomson@physics.carleton.ca [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose : To investigate the effects of the composition and geometry of ocular media and tissues surrounding the eye on dose distributions for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy with{sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, or {sup 131}Cs seeds, and to investigate doses to ocular structures. Methods : An anatomically and compositionally realistic voxelized eye model with a medial tumor is developed based on a literature review. Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients for ocular media are calculated. Radiation transport and dose deposition are simulated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo user-code BrachyDose for a fully loaded COMS eye plaque within a water phantom and our full eye model for the three radionuclides. A TG-43 simulation with the same seed configuration in a water phantom neglecting the plaque and interseed effects is also performed. The impact on dose distributions of varying tumor position, as well as tumor and surrounding tissue media is investigated. Each simulation and radionuclide is compared using isodose contours, dose volume histograms for the lens and tumor, maximum, minimum, and average doses to structures of interest, and doses to voxels of interest within the eye. Results : Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients of the ocular media differ from those of water by as much as 12% within the 20–30 keV photon energy range. For all radionuclides studied, average doses to the tumor and lens regions in the full eye model differ from those for the plaque in water by 8%–10% and 13%–14%, respectively; the average doses to the tumor and lens regions differ between the full eye model and the TG-43 simulation by 2%–17% and 29%–34%, respectively. Replacing the surrounding tissues in the eye model with water increases the maximum and average doses to the lens by 2% and 3%, respectively. Substituting the tumor medium in the eye model for water, soft tissue, or an alternate melanoma composition affects tumor dose compared to the default eye model

  11. Compound developmental eye disorders following inactivation of TGFβ signaling in neural-crest stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suter Ueli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of the eye depends partly on the periocular mesenchyme derived from the neural crest (NC, but the fate of NC cells in mammalian eye development and the signals coordinating the formation of ocular structures are poorly understood. Results Here we reveal distinct NC contributions to both anterior and posterior mesenchymal eye structures and show that TGFβ signaling in these cells is crucial for normal eye development. In the anterior eye, TGFβ2 released from the lens is required for the expression of transcription factors Pitx2 and Foxc1 in the NC-derived cornea and in the chamber-angle structures of the eye that control intraocular pressure. TGFβ enhances Foxc1 and induces Pitx2 expression in cell cultures. As in patients carrying mutations in PITX2 and FOXC1, TGFβ signal inactivation in NC cells leads to ocular defects characteristic of the human disorder Axenfeld-Rieger's anomaly. In the posterior eye, NC cell-specific inactivation of TGFβ signaling results in a condition reminiscent of the human disorder persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. As a secondary effect, retinal patterning is also disturbed in mutant mice. Conclusion In the developing eye the lens acts as a TGFβ signaling center that controls the development of eye structures derived from the NC. Defective TGFβ signal transduction interferes with NC-cell differentiation and survival anterior to the lens and with normal tissue morphogenesis and patterning posterior to the lens. The similarity to developmental eye disorders in humans suggests that defective TGFβ signal modulation in ocular NC derivatives contributes to the pathophysiology of these diseases.

  12. Molecular Inflammation in the Contralateral Eye After Cataract Surgery in the First Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-Jia; Wolff, Don; Zhang, Ke-Ke; He, Wen-Wen; Sun, Xing-Huai; Lu, Yi; Zhou, Peng

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the inflammatory status of the aqueous humor in the fellow eye after uneventful cataract surgery in the first eye. At the screening stage, aqueous humor samples from 15 first-eye and 15 second-eye cataract patients were collected just before cataract surgery and assayed using human cytokine antibody array. Screened cytokines were then verified using a suspension array system with aqueous humor samples obtained from 35 first-eye and 36 second-eye cataract patients. The cytokine antibody array revealed that interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Il-1ra) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1a and MIP-1b were expressed at high levels in first-eye patients and were lower in second-eye patients, whereas opposite trends were found for monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and for regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES) (all, P eye patients than in that of first-eye patients (P = 0.0067, Student's t-test). This study revealed that expression of MCP-1, a pain-related inflammatory chemokine, was significantly increased in aqueous humor in the contralateral eye after first-eye cataract surgery. This suggests there may be a sympathetic ophthalmic type uveitis in the contralateral eye after first-eye cataract surgery and that may help to explain why second-eye phacoemulsification is often more painful. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01824927.)

  13. Early Monocular Defocus Disrupts the Normal Development of Receptive-Field Structure in V2 Neurons of Macaque Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Bin; Shen, Guofu; Wensveen, Janice; Smith, Earl L.; Nishimoto, Shinji; Ohzawa, Izumi

    2014-01-01

    Experiencing different quality images in the two eyes soon after birth can cause amblyopia, a developmental vision disorder. Amblyopic humans show the reduced capacity for judging the relative position of a visual target in reference to nearby stimulus elements (position uncertainty) and often experience visual image distortion. Although abnormal pooling of local stimulus information by neurons beyond striate cortex (V1) is often suggested as a neural basis of these deficits, extrastriate neurons in the amblyopic brain have rarely been studied using microelectrode recording methods. The receptive field (RF) of neurons in visual area V2 in normal monkeys is made up of multiple subfields that are thought to reflect V1 inputs and are capable of encoding the spatial relationship between local stimulus features. We created primate models of anisometropic amblyopia and analyzed the RF subfield maps for multiple nearby V2 neurons of anesthetized monkeys by using dynamic two-dimensional noise stimuli and reverse correlation methods. Unlike in normal monkeys, the subfield maps of V2 neurons in amblyopic monkeys were severely disorganized: subfield maps showed higher heterogeneity within each neuron as well as across nearby neurons. Amblyopic V2 neurons exhibited robust binocular suppression and the strength of the suppression was positively correlated with the degree of hereogeneity and the severity of amblyopia in individual monkeys. Our results suggest that the disorganized subfield maps and robust binocular suppression of amblyopic V2 neurons are likely to adversely affect the higher stages of cortical processing resulting in position uncertainty and image distortion. PMID:25297110

  14. Exogenous orienting of attention depends upon the ability to execute eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel T; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R

    2004-05-04

    Shifts of attention can be made overtly by moving the eyes or covertly with attention being allocated to a region of space that does not correspond to the current direction of gaze. However, the precise relationship between eye movements and the covert orienting of attention remains controversial. The influential premotor theory proposes that the covert orienting of attention is produced by the programming of (unexecuted) eye movements and thus predicts a strong relationship between the ability to execute eye movements and the operation of spatial attention. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that impaired spatial attention is observed in an individual (AI) who is neurologically healthy but who cannot execute eye movements as a result of a congenital impairment in the elasticity of her eye muscles. This finding provides direct support for the role of the eye-movement system in the covert orienting of attention and suggests that whereas intact cortical structures may be necessary for normal attentional reflexes, they are not sufficient. The ability to move our eyes is essential for the development of normal patterns of spatial attention.

  15. Corneal ectasia after LASIK in a patient with normal scheimpflug evaluation but a high Ectasia Risk Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Fauze Abdulmassih; Goncalves, José Marcos Santos

    2013-11-01

    To present a case of ectasia after LASIK that developed in a patient with normal Scheimpflug imaging but a high Ectasia Risk Score System (ERSS) score. Case report. A 24-year-old woman with no preoperative abnormalities on Scheimpflug evaluation but a cumulative ERSS risk of 4 (high risk) in the right eye and 3 (medium risk) in the left eye developed ectasia in both eyes 27 months after LASIK. She underwent ultraviolet-A corneal collagen cross-linking, with no signs of further progression. In this case, the ERSS was effective at predicting ectasia risk despite normal Scheimpflug imaging and only mild asymmetry on Placido topography. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Bi-iliac distance and iliac bone position compared to the vertebral column in normal fetal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, U B; Fischer Hansen, B; Skovgaard, L T

    2001-01-01

    caliper. The caudo-cranial position of the iliac bones was evaluated. The present study shows that in normal fetal development there is a continuous linear enlargement of the pelvic region in the transverse and vertical planes. The upper iliac contour stays at the level of the first sacral vertebral body...

  17. Normal development of the pulmonary veins in human embryos and formulation of a morphogenetic concept for sinus venosus defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, N. A.; Gittenberger-de Groot, A. C.; Jongeneel, T. H.; DeRuiter, M. C.; Poelmann, R. E.; Ottenkamp, J.

    2001-01-01

    A sinus venosus defect is a form of interatrial communication associated with abnormal drainage of the right pulmonary veins. Its morphogenesis still remains unclear. We therefore studied the normal development of pulmonary veins in human embryos in relation to the sinus venosus and the dorsal

  18. Differences in assertive speech acts produced by children with autism, Asperger syndrome, specific language impairment, and normal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziatas, Kathryn; Durkin, Kevin; Pratt, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The assertive speech acts of children with autism (n = 12) and Asperger syndrome (n = 12), individually matched to children with specific language impairment (SLI; n = 24) and children with normal development (n = 24) were studied in the context of gently structured conversation. These children also completed the false belief test of theory of mind. The children with autism used significantly lower proportions of assertions involving explanations and descriptions than the children with SLI or normal development and significantly lower proportions of assertions involving internal state and explanations than the children with Asperger syndrome. The children with autism used a higher proportion of assertions involving identifications than any other group. The assertions of the children with Asperger syndrome were generally not different than those of the children with SLI or normal development except for a higher proportion of assertions involving own internal state. Further analysis of the mental assertions revealed that the children with autism and Asperger syndrome predominantly referred to desire and made few references to thought and belief, whereas the children with SLI and those with normal development used a higher proportion of references to thought and belief.

  19. Implicit Attitudes towards Children with Autism versus Normally Developing Children as Predictors of Professional Burnout and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Amanda; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Tutors trained in applied behaviour analysis (n = 16) and mainstream school teachers (n = 16) were exposed to an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) designed to assess implicit attitudes towards individuals with autism versus normally developing individuals. Participants also completed a range of explicit measures, including measures…

  20. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  1. Conjunctivitis or pink eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammation - conjunctiva; Pink eye; Chemical conjunctivitis, Pinkeye; Pink-eye ... Tears most often protect the eyes by washing away the germs and irritants. Tears contain proteins and antibodies that kill germs. Pink eye is most often caused ...

  2. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  3. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreation Eye Injuries at Work Fireworks Eye Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Five ... Edited By: Shirley Dang Feb. 22, 2016 The personal and economic toll of eye injuries at work is alarming. ...

  4. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  5. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you can put on your web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... protect yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, ...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ALGORITHM TO ESTIMATE EYE LENS DOSE IN TERMS OF OPERATIONAL QUANTITY Hp(3) USING HEAD TLD BADGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhumita, B; Sneha, C; Dipali, V; Pradhan, S M; Bakshi, A K; Datta, D; Tripathi, S M; Singh, S K

    2018-03-01

    In view of the recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection for reduction of the occupational annual dose limit for eye lens from 150 mSv to 20 mSv/y, questions have been raised on the adequacy of monitoring for the quantities Hp(10) and Hp(0.07). As an immediate requirement, in the present situation, where there is no exclusive eye lens dosemeter in India, the existing chest TLD badge was modified to be used as head badge (head dosemeter) by including a strap to enable wearing on the forehead. In order to estimate the eye lens dose in terms of the operational quantity Hp(3), the prevalent algorithm of chest badge was also modified. The modified algorithm was applied to estimate Hp(3) for dosemeters irradiated to various beta and photon radiations including mixtures. The Q values (estimated/delivered dose equivalent) were found to be within ±20% for most of the photon beams.

  7. Time-of-night variations in the story-like organization of dream experience developed during rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, Carlo; Guazzelli, Mario; Bellucci, Claudia; Mazzetti, Michela; Palagini, Laura; Rosenlicht, Nicholas; Feinberg, Irwin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the cycles (2nd/4th) and duration-related (5/10 min) variations in the story-like organization of dream experience elaborated during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dream reports were analysed using story grammar rules. Reports were provided by those subjects (14 of 22) capable of reporting a dream after each of the four awakenings provoked in 2 consecutive nights during REM sleep of the 2nd and 4th cycles, after periods of either 5 or 10 min, counterbalanced across the nights. Two researchers who were blind as to the sleep condition scored the dream reports independently. The values of the indicators of report length (measured as value of total word count) and of story-like organization of dream reports were matched taking time-of-night (2nd and 4th cycles) and REM duration (5 versus 10 min) as factors. Two-way analyses of variance showed that report length increased significantly in 4th-cycle REM sleep and nearly significantly for longer REM duration, whereas the number of dream-stories per report did not vary. The indices of sequential (number of statements describing the event structure developed in the story) and hierarchical (number of episodes per story) organization increased significantly only in dream-stories reported after 10 min of 4th-cycle REM sleep. These findings indicate that the characteristics of structural organization of dream-stories vary along with time of night, and suggest that the elaboration of a long and complex dream-story requires a fairly long time and the availability of a great amount of cognitive resources to maintain its continuity and coherence. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Sumoylation activates the transcriptional activity of Pax-6, an important transcription factor for eye and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qin; Gong, Lili; Deng, Mi; Zhang, Lan; Sun, Shuming; Liu, Jiao; Ma, Haili; Yuan, Dan; Chen, Pei-Chao; Hu, Xiaohui; Liu, Jinping; Qin, Jichao; Xiao, Ling; Huang, Xiao-Qin; Zhang, Jian; Li, David Wan-Cheng

    2010-12-07

    Pax-6 is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor regulating brain and eye development. Four Pax-6 isoforms have been reported previously. Although the longer Pax-6 isoforms (p46 and p48) bear two DNA-binding domains, the paired domain (PD) and the homeodomain (HD), the shorter Pax-6 isoform p32 contains only the HD for DNA binding. Although a third domain, the proline-, serine- and threonine-enriched activation (PST) domain, in the C termini of all Pax-6 isoforms mediates their transcriptional modulation via phosphorylation, how p32 Pax-6 could regulate target genes remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we show that sumoylation at K91 is required for p32 Pax-6 to bind to a HD-specific site and regulate expression of target genes. First, in vitro-synthesized p32 Pax-6 alone cannot bind the P3 sequence, which contains the HD recognition site, unless it is preincubated with nuclear extracts precleared by anti-Pax-6 but not by anti-small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (anti-SUMO1) antibody. Second, in vitro-synthesized p32 Pax-6 can be sumoylated by SUMO1, and the sumoylated p32 Pax-6 then can bind to the P3 sequence. Third, Pax-6 and SUMO1 are colocalized in the embryonic optic and lens vesicles and can be coimmunoprecipitated. Finally, SUMO1-conjugated p32 Pax-6 exists in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, and sumoylation significantly enhances the DNA-binding ability of p32 Pax-6 and positively regulates gene expression. Together, our results demonstrate that sumoylation activates p32 Pax-6 in both DNA-binding and transcriptional activities. In addition, our studies demonstrate that p32 and p46 Pax-6 possess differential DNA-binding and regulatory activities.

  9. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Wade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons?

  10. Histological versus stereological methods applied at spermatogonia during normal human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina

    1990-01-01

    The number of spermatogonia per tubular transverse section (S/T), and the percentage of seminiferous tubulus containing spermatogonia (the fertility index (FI] were measured in 40 pairs of normal autopsy testes aged 28 weeks of gestation-40 years. S/T and FI showed similar changes during the whole...... period, and were minimal between 1 and 4 years. The number of spermatogonia per testis (S/testis) and the number of spermatogonia per cm3 testis tissue (S/cm3) were estimated by stereological methods in the same testes. S/T and FI respectively were significantly correlated both to S/testis and S/cm3. So...

  11. Environmental stimulation and use of a children's baby walkers by infants with normal development

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Karolina Alves de; Mancini, Marisa Cotta; Drummond, Adriana de França; Megale, Luis; Chagas, Paula Silva de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: avaliar a quantidade e qualidade de estímulos ambientais disponíveis para lactentes com desenvolvimento normal que fizeram uso do andador infantil anteriormente à aquisição da marcha independente. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, com 24 lactentes distribuídos em dois grupos, sendo 12 do grupo exposto ao andador infantil (AI) e 12 do grupo não-exposto (C), mantendo-se equivalência entre grupos em idade, sexo e nível sócio econômico da família. O teste Observation for Measurement of the ...

  12. Development of a normal incidence multilayer, imaging X-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shealy, D.L.; Hoover, R.B.; Walker, A.B.C. Jr.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the design, analysis, and fabrication of a normal-incidence multilayer 20x Schwarzschild imaging X-ray microscope. The microscope is being fabricated using much of the technology implemented in the Multispectral Solar Telescope Array. Results of diffraction analysis show that better than 400 A spatial resolution in the object plane up to a 1-mm field of view can be achieved with 125 A radiation. Other microscope systems for use in conjunction with X-ray telescopes are analyzed and designed. 18 refs

  13. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this development is largely complete by age three years. However, children who have eye conditions such as amblyopia (an imbalance in visual strength between the two eyes), strabismus (misaligned eyes), or other conditions that ...

  14. Tractography of the corticospinal tracts in infants with focal perinatal injury: comparison with normal controls and to motor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roze, Elise; Harris, Polly A.; Ball, Gareth; Braga, Rodrigo M.; Allsop, Joanna M.; Counsell, Serena J.; Elorza, Leire Zubiaurre; Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, A.D.; Cowan, Frances M.; Porter, Emma; Rutherford, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Our aims were to (1) assess the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in infants with focal injury and healthy term controls using probabilistic tractography and (2) to correlate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography findings in infants with focal injury with their later motor function. We studied 20 infants with focal lesions and 23 controls using MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Tract volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (RD) of the CSTs were determined. Asymmetry indices (AIs) were calculated by comparing ipsilateral to contralateral CSTs. Motor outcome was assessed using a standardized neurological examination. Conventional MRI was able to predict normal motor development (n = 9) or hemiplegia (n = 6). In children who developed a mild motor asymmetry (n = 5), conventional MRI predicted a hemiplegia in two and normal motor development in three infants. The AIs for tract volume, FA, ADC and RD showed a significant difference between controls and infants who developed a hemiplegia, and RD also showed a significant difference in AI between controls and infants who developed a mild asymmetry. Conventional MRI was able to predict subsequent normal motor development or hemiplegia following focal injury in newborn infants. Measures of RD obtained from diffusion tractography may offer additional information for predicting a subsequent asymmetry in motor function. (orig.)

  15. Tractography of the corticospinal tracts in infants with focal perinatal injury: comparison with normal controls and to motor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roze, Elise [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); University Medical Center Groningen, Division of Neonatology, Beatrix Children' s Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Harris, Polly A.; Ball, Gareth; Braga, Rodrigo M.; Allsop, Joanna M.; Counsell, Serena J. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Elorza, Leire Zubiaurre [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); University of Barcelona, Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, A.D.; Cowan, Frances M. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Porter, Emma [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Rutherford, Mary A. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Our aims were to (1) assess the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in infants with focal injury and healthy term controls using probabilistic tractography and (2) to correlate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography findings in infants with focal injury with their later motor function. We studied 20 infants with focal lesions and 23 controls using MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Tract volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (RD) of the CSTs were determined. Asymmetry indices (AIs) were calculated by comparing ipsilateral to contralateral CSTs. Motor outcome was assessed using a standardized neurological examination. Conventional MRI was able to predict normal motor development (n = 9) or hemiplegia (n = 6). In children who developed a mild motor asymmetry (n = 5), conventional MRI predicted a hemiplegia in two and normal motor development in three infants. The AIs for tract volume, FA, ADC and RD showed a significant difference between controls and infants who developed a hemiplegia, and RD also showed a significant difference in AI between controls and infants who developed a mild asymmetry. Conventional MRI was able to predict subsequent normal motor development or hemiplegia following focal injury in newborn infants. Measures of RD obtained from diffusion tractography may offer additional information for predicting a subsequent asymmetry in motor function. (orig.)

  16. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Amblyopia Sections Amblyopia: What Is Lazy Eye? Amblyopia: What ... Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Leer en Español: Ambliopía: Tratamiento ...

  17. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Amblyopia Sections Amblyopia: What Is Lazy Eye? Amblyopia: What ... Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis Leer en Español: Ambliopía: Diagnóstico ...

  18. Penetrance of eye defects in mice heterozygous for mutation of Gli3 is enhanced by heterozygous mutation of Pax6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price David J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the consequences of heterozygous mutations of developmentally important genes is important for understanding human genetic disorders. The Gli3 gene encodes a zinc finger transcription factor and homozygous loss-of-function mutations of Gli3 are lethal. Humans heterozygous for mutations in this gene suffer Greig cephalopolysyndactyly or Pallister-Hall syndromes, in which limb defects are prominent, and mice heterozygous for similar mutations have extra digits. Here we examined whether eye development, which is abnormal in mice lacking functional Gli3, is defective in Gli3+/- mice. Results We showed that Gli3 is expressed in the developing eye but that Gli3+/- mice have only very subtle eye defects. We then generated mice compound heterozygous for mutations in both Gli3 and Pax6, which encodes another developmentally important transcription factor known to be crucial for eye development. Pax6+/-; Gli3+/- eyes were compared to the eyes of wild-type, Pax6+/- or Gli3+/- siblings. They exhibited a range of abnormalities of the retina, iris, lens and cornea that was more extensive than in single Gli3+/- or Pax6+/- mutants or than would be predicted by addition of their phenotypes. Conclusion These findings indicate that heterozygous mutations of Gli3 can impact on eye development. The importance of a normal Gli3 gene dosage becomes greater in the absence of a normal Pax6 gene dosage, suggesting that the two genes co-operate during eye morphogenesis.

  19. The effect of slag addition on strength development of Class C fly ash geopolymer concrete at normal temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhono, Arie; Law, David W.; Sutikno, Dani, Hasan

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the effect of slag addition on strength development and workability of fly ash/slag based geopolymer (FASLG) concrete cured at normal temperature. Class C fly ash with high ferrite (Fe) content was used as the primary material. The proportions of fly ash (FA) to slag (SL) are: 1 FA : 0 SL, 0.9 FA : 0.1 SL, 0.7 FA : 0.3 SL, and 0.5 FA : 0.5 SL. The workability and strength properties were determined by slump, vikat, and compressive strength tests. The result shows that the highest compressive strength was achieved by FASLG-3 concrete with 30% slag addition and exhibited a comparable strength to that normal concrete at 28 days. The 30% slag addition also improve the workability and increase the setting time of FASLG concrete specimens. It can be concluded that the slag inclusion on fly ash will improve the performance of geopolymer concrete at normal temperature.

  20. Normal development of brainstem in childhood. Measurement of the area on mid-sagittal MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutomi, Kimiko

    2005-01-01

    Developmental abnormality of brainstem is shown in pediatric patients with mental retardation, autism, periventricular leukomalacia, neurodegenerative disease, and so on. Our purpose here is to clarify the normal developmental pattern of the brainstem. We measured the area of tectum, midbrain tegmentum, pons, basis pontis and pontine tegmentum on mid-sagittal MR images in 111 children (newborn to 20 year old). Different growth patterns were shown in all parts of the brainstem. Tectum showed a subtle increase in area from the newborn to adult period, while midbrain tegmentum and pontine tegmenturn showed a mild and gradual increase in area. Pons and pontine tegmentum showed a rapid and prominent increase in area from newborn to infant period and gradual increase in area until the adult period. These different growth patterns seemed to be consistent with differences in the myelination cycles of the neuronal fibers, maturation of the nuclei and proliferation of glial cells in each part of the brainstem. Mid-sagittal MR imaging of the head is accurate and reproducible and is used conveniently in routine head MR study, making it very useful for the diagnosis of many central nervous diseases and anomalies. We believe that this new milestone provided in this study will be helpful in distinguishing normal children from those that have neurodegenerative disorders. (author)

  1. Design, Sensing and Control of a Robotic Prosthetic Eye for Natural Eye Movement

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Gu; M. Meng; A. Cook; P. X. Liu

    2006-01-01

    Loss of an eye is a tragedy for a person, who may suffer psychologically and physically. This paper is concerned with the design, sensing and control of a robotic prosthetic eye that moves horizontally in synchronization with the movement of the natural eye. Two generations of robotic prosthetic eye models have been developed. The first generation model uses an external infrared sensor array mounted on the frame of a pair of eyeglasses to detect the natural eye movement and to feed the contro...

  2. Development of the Parent Form of the Preschool Children's Communication Skills Scale and Comparison of the Communication Skills of Children with Normal Development and with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Aydan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at developing an assessment scale for identifying preschool children's communication skills, at distinguishing children with communication deficiencies and at comparing the communication skills of children with normal development (ND) and those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 427 children of up to 6 years of…

  3. Low-Skilled Adult Readers Look Like Typically Developing Child Readers: A Comparison of Reading Skills and Eye Movement Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Adrienne E.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Adults enrolled in basic education exhibit poor academic performance, often reading at elementary and middle-school levels. The current study investigated the similarities and differences of reading skills and eye movement behavior between a sample of 25 low-skilled adult readers and 25 first grade students matched on word reading skill. t tests…

  4. Development of a 10-day chorioallantoic membrane vascular assay as an alternative to the Draize rabbit eye irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, D M; Waters, D; Kong, B M

    1994-12-01

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a fertilized hen's egg has been studied extensively as a promising alternative model for predicting eye irritation potential. The specific methodology used with this model has varied among investigators but the basic premise of applying test material to the membrane surface and evaluating changes in the vasculature is relatively consistent. The CAM vascular assay (CAMVA) has shown high correlation with in vivo rabbit eye irritation data. This method uses the CAM of a 14-day-old egg and the response at 30 min after treatment as the endpoint. The primary CAM methods being evaluated in Europe use 9-10-day-old eggs because older eggs are considered 'live animals'; the possibility of using 10-day-old eggs to make the method more globally acceptable as a non-animal test was therefore investigated. By keeping the original CAMVA dosing and evaluation procedures the same, and only altering the age of the eggs from 14-day to 10-day, the results were found to be nearly identical for the two methods and both produce equivalent correlations to the in vivo eye irritation test results. Maintaining the original CAMVA methodology but using a younger egg, therefore, provides a good alternative method for predicting eye irritation potential that is more globally acceptable as a non-animal test.

  5. Decreased perfusion in myocardial region of normal donor artery secondary to collateral development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Kojima, A.; Takaki, Y.; Tomiguchi, S.; Hirota, Y.; Kugiyama, K.; Yasue, H.; Hayasaki, K.; Kumamoto Saiseikai Hospital

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-one patients suffering from single vessel exertional angina with collaterals (Group A) were evaluated by stress 201 Tl myocardial emission CT (Tl-SPECT) with 16 controls of severely stenotic single vessel exertional angina without collaterals (Group B). Group A included 21 patients (68%) who showed an extensive perfusion defect in double artery myocardial regions, including the normal donor artery myocardial region (DMR). However, there were no such cases in Group B, giving a significant difference between these 2 groups (p < 0.001). Four patients in Group A, having a perfusion defect both in DMR and in the collateral dependent myocardial region (CMR) underwent a successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with disappearance of collaterals. Tl-SPECT findings after PTCA showed no perfusion defect either in CMR or in DMR. This has been explained on the basis that the coronary collaterals stole blood and produced perfusion defect in DMR. (orig.)

  6. The role of bed-parallel slip in the development of complex normal fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogkos, Efstratios; Childs, Conrad; Manzocchi, Tom; Walsh, John J.; Pavlides, Spyros

    2017-04-01

    Normal faults exposed in Kardia lignite mine, Ptolemais Basin, NW Greece formed at the same time as bed-parallel slip-surfaces, so that while the normal faults grew they were intermittently offset by bed-parallel slip. Following offset by a bed-parallel slip-surface, further fault growth is accommodated by reactivation on one or both of the offset fault segments. Where one fault is reactivated the site of bed-parallel slip is a bypassed asperity. Where both faults are reactivated, they propagate past each other to form a volume between overlapping fault segments that displays many of the characteristics of relay zones, including elevated strains and transfer of displacement between segments. Unlike conventional relay zones, however, these structures contain either a repeated or a missing section of stratigraphy which has a thickness equal to the throw of the fault at the time of the bed-parallel slip event, and the displacement profiles along the relay-bounding fault segments have discrete steps at their intersections with bed-parallel slip-surfaces. With further increase in displacement, the overlapping fault segments connect to form a fault-bound lens. Conventional relay zones form during initial fault propagation, but with coeval bed-parallel slip, relay-like structures can form later in the growth of a fault. Geometrical restoration of cross-sections through selected faults shows that repeated bed-parallel slip events during fault growth can lead to complex internal fault zone structure that masks its origin. Bed-parallel slip, in this case, is attributed to flexural-slip arising from hanging-wall rollover associated with a basin-bounding fault outside the study area.

  7. FT overexpression induces precocious flowering and normal reproductive development in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocko, Amy L; Ma, Cathleen; Robertson, Sarah; Esfandiari, Elahe; Nilsson, Ove; Strauss, Steven H

    2016-02-01

    Eucalyptus trees are among the most important species for industrial forestry worldwide. However, as with most forest trees, flowering does not begin for one to several years after planting which can limit the rate of conventional and molecular breeding. To speed flowering, we transformed a Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla hybrid (SP7) with a variety of constructs that enable overexpression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). We found that FT expression led to very early flowering, with events showing floral buds within 1-5 months of transplanting to the glasshouse. The most rapid flowering was observed when the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was used to drive the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (AtFT). Early flowering was also observed with AtFT overexpression from a 409S ubiquitin promoter and under heat induction conditions with Populus trichocarpa FT1 (PtFT1) under control of a heat-shock promoter. Early flowering trees grew robustly, but exhibited a highly branched phenotype compared to the strong apical dominance of nonflowering transgenic and control trees. AtFT-induced flowers were morphologically normal and produced viable pollen grains and viable self- and cross-pollinated seeds. Many self-seedlings inherited AtFT and flowered early. FT overexpression-induced flowering in Eucalyptus may be a valuable means for accelerating breeding and genetic studies as the transgene can be easily segregated away in progeny, restoring normal growth and form. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A reciprocal translocation dissects roles of Pax6 alternative promoters and upstream regulatory elements in the development of pancreas, brain, and eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elso, Colleen; Lu, Xiaochen; Weisner, Patricia A; Thompson, Heather L; Skinner, Andrea; Carver, Ethan; Stubbs, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    Pax6 encodes a transcription factor with key roles in the development of the pancreas, central nervous system, and eye. Gene expression is orchestrated by several alternative promoters and enhancer elements that are distributed over several hundred kilobases. Here, we describe a reciprocal translocation, called 1Gso, which disrupts the integrity of transcripts arising from the 5'-most promoter, P0, and separates downstream promoters from enhancers active in pancreas and eye. Despite this fact, 1Gso animals exhibit none of the dominant Pax6 phenotypes, and the translocation complements recessive brain and craniofacial phenotypes. However, 1Gso fails to complement Pax6 recessive effects in lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, lens, and pancreas. The 1Gso animals also express a corneal phenotype that is related to but distinct from that expressed by Pax6 null mutants, and an abnormal density and organization of retinal ganglion cell axons; these phenotypes may be related to a modest upregulation of Pax6 expression from downstream promoters that we observed during development. Our investigation maps the activities of Pax6 alternative promoters including a novel one in developing tissues, confirms the phenotypic consequences of upstream enhancer disruption, and limits the likely effects of the P0 transcript null mutation to recessive abnormalities in the pancreas and specific structures of the eye. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Role of percent tissue altered on ectasia after LASIK in eyes with suspicious topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Smadja, David; Wilson, Steven E; Krueger, Ronald R; Monteiro, Mario L R; Randleman, J Bradley

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the association of the percent tissue altered (PTA) with the occurrence of ectasia after LASIK in eyes with suspicious preoperative corneal topography. This retrospective comparative case-control study compared associations of reported ectasia risk factors in 129 eyes, including 57 eyes with suspicious preoperative Placido-based corneal topography that developed ectasia after LASIK (suspect ectasia group), 32 eyes with suspicious topography that remained stable for at least 3 years after LASIK (suspect control group), and 30 eyes that developed ectasia with bilateral normal topography (normal topography ectasia group). Groups were subdivided based on topographic asymmetry into high- or low-suspect groups. The PTA, preoperative central corneal thickness (CCT), residual stromal bed (RSB), and age (years) were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. Average PTA values for normal topography ectasia (45), low-suspect ectasia (39), high-suspect ectasia (36), low-suspect control (32), and high-suspect control (29) were significantly different from one another in all comparisons (P topography ectasia groups, and CCT was not significantly different between any groups. Stepwise logistic regression revealed the PTA as the most significant independent variable (P topography. Less tissue alteration, or a lower PTA value, was necessary to induce ectasia in eyes with more remarkable signs of topographic abnormality, and PTA provided better discriminative capabilities than RSB for all study populations. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Embryonic development of the cornea in the eye of the clearnose skate, Raja eglanteria: I. Stromal development in the absence of an endothelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, G. W.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Luer, C. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Embryos of the clearnose skate, Raja eglanteria, develop in sea water at 20-22 degrees C, hatching after 82 +/- 4 days (Luer and Gilbert, Environ. Biol. Fishes, 13:161-171, 1985). Eyes develop as steadily enlarging spheres whose corneas have the same radius of curvature as the sclera. The cornea begins development as a 2-cell thick epithelium beneath which by Day 12 there is only a basal lamina and a wispy matrix separating it from the underlying lens. This matrix, modified by Day 16, is displaced on Day 22 by a few orthogonal plies of fibrillar primary stroma. Ply number increases to at least 13 by Day 30, reaching the final number of 20 +/- 2 by Day 42. Stromal fibroblasts (keratocytes) appear at the corneal periphery by Day 22, and in increased numbers by Day 30, a time at which no keratocytes are seen in the central stroma. However, by Day 40, many fibroblasts are present at the corneal periphery, invading the primary stroma between plies, occasionally reaching even the central cornea. By Day 53, keratocytes are present between all plies, from corneal periphery to center. Thickness of each ply in this secondary stroma increases, but the number of plies remains the same as in the primary stroma. Bowman's layer, non-invaded matrix beneath the epithelial basal lamina, is not evident until Day 53. Sutural fibers, first seen on Day 22, originate in the corneal epithelial basal lamina, traversing perpendicularly the plies of the primary stroma. Sutural fibers persist throughout development of the secondary stroma and into adulthood. In contrast to chicks, skate corneas remain transparent throughout development, and never form an endothelium.

  11. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  12. Eye tracking detects disconjugate eye movements associated with structural traumatic brain injury and concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadani, Uzma; Ritlop, Robert; Reyes, Marleen; Nehrbass, Elena; Li, Meng; Lamm, Elizabeth; Schneider, Julia; Shimunov, David; Sava, Maria; Kolecki, Radek; Burris, Paige; Altomare, Lindsey; Mehmood, Talha; Smith, Theodore; Huang, Jason H; McStay, Christopher; Todd, S Rob; Qian, Meng; Kondziolka, Douglas; Wall, Stephen; Huang, Paul

    2015-04-15

    Disconjugate eye movements have been associated with traumatic brain injury since ancient times. Ocular motility dysfunction may be present in up to 90% of patients with concussion or blast injury. We developed an algorithm for eye tracking in which the Cartesian coordinates of the right and left pupils are tracked over 200 sec and compared to each other as a subject watches a short film clip moving inside an aperture on a computer screen. We prospectively eye tracked 64 normal healthy noninjured control subjects and compared findings to 75 trauma subjects with either a positive head computed tomography (CT) scan (n=13), negative head CT (n=39), or nonhead injury (n=23) to determine whether eye tracking would reveal the disconjugate gaze associated with both structural brain injury and concussion. Tracking metrics were then correlated to the clinical concussion measure Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) in trauma patients. Five out of five measures of horizontal disconjugacy were increased in positive and negative head CT patients relative to noninjured control subjects. Only one of five vertical disconjugacy measures was significantly increased in brain-injured patients relative to controls. Linear regression analysis of all 75 trauma patients demonstrated that three metrics for horizontal disconjugacy negatively correlated with SCAT3 symptom severity score and positively correlated with total Standardized Assessment of Concussion score. Abnormal eye-tracking metrics improved over time toward baseline in brain-injured subjects observed in follow-up. Eye tracking may help quantify the severity of ocular motility disruption associated with concussion and structural brain injury.

  13. Normal values in growth and development. Base for diagnostics and therapy. 2. tot. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, G.U.

    2003-01-01

    This compendium provides reference values and probability distributions on the following parameters: clinical and radiological measured values relating to the growing skeleton including: growth; hand skeleton development stages with Central European deviations; hip sonography; psychomotor development; performance physiology; and lung function. Newly incorporated in this edition are, amongst other features, explanations on the clinical significance of the measured values

  14. Prenatal exposure to thyroid hormone is necessary for normal postnatal development of murine heart and lungs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tuyl, Minke; Blommaart, Pietjan E.; de Boer, Piet A. J.; Wert, Susan E.; Ruijter, Jan M.; Islam, Saleem; Schnitzer, Jay; Ellison, Aaron R.; Tibboel, Dick; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2004-01-01

    Maternal hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy poses an increased risk for poor neuropsychological development of the fetus. We tested the hypothesis that maternal hypothyroidism before the onset of fetal thyroid function also affects postnatal development of heart and lungs. This question was

  15. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.

  16. Towards an Explanation of Overeating Patterns Among Normal Weight College Women: Development and Validation of a Structural Equation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Russ, Christine Runyan II

    1998-01-01

    Although research describing relationships between psychosocial factors and various eating patterns is growing, a model which explains the mechanisms through which these factors may operate is lacking. A model to explain overeating patterns among normal weight college females was developed and tested. The model contained the following variables: global adjustment, eating and weight cognitions, emotional eating, and self-efficacy. Three hundred ninety-o...

  17. High-normal levels of hs-CRP predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Lee

    Full Text Available We performed a follow-up study to address whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels within the normal range can predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in healthy male subjects. Among15347 male workers between 30 and 59 years old who received annual health check-ups in 2002, a NAFLD-free cohort of 4,138 was followed through December 2009. Alcohol consumption was assessed with a questionnaire. At each visit, abdominal ultrasonography was performed to identify fatty liver disease. The COX proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the relationship between hs-CRP and incident NAFLD. During the follow-up period, 28.8% (1191 of 4138 of participants developed NAFLD. The hazard ratios of NAFLD were increased by hs-CRP categories within the normal range in the non-adjusted model and age-adjusted model. After adjusting for age, exercise, smoking, BMI, systolic BP, triglyceride, and fasting glucose, these incidences were only increased between the lowest and the highest hs-CRP categories. The risk for NAFLD increased as the hs-CRP level increased (p< 0.001. As the hs-CRP level increased within the healthy cohort, the risk of developing NAFLD increased. This trend remained true even if the hs-CRP level remained within the normal range. hs-CRP can be used as a predictor of NAFLD, as well as other obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, individuals with higher hs-CRP levels (even within the normal range may require appropriate follow-up and management to prevent NAFLD development.

  18. Structural and functional MRI of normal and compromised rat brain development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Marel, K.

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric illness constitutes a major disease burden worldwide, yet its neurobiological substrates remain elusive. It is increasingly believed that early disturbances during critical and sensitive periods of brain development contribute to a delayed manifestation of psychiatric disease. This

  19. Adverse event reporting and developments in radiation biology after normal tissue injury: International Atomic Energy Agency consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuhchyau; Trotti, Andy; Coleman, C. Norman; Machtay, Mitchell; Mirimanoff, Rene O.; Hay, John; O'Brien, Peter C.; El-Gueddari, Brahim; Salvajoli, Joao V.; Jeremic, Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent research has enhanced our understanding of radiation injury at the molecular-cellular and tissue levels; significant strides have occurred in standardization of adverse event reporting in clinical trials. In response, the International Atomic Energy Agency, through its Division of Human Health and its section for Applied Radiation Biology and Radiotherapy, organized a consultation meeting in Atlanta (October 2, 2004) to discuss developments in radiobiology, normal tissue reactions, and adverse event reporting. Methods and Materials: Representatives from cooperative groups of African Radiation Oncology Group, Curriculo Radioterapeutica Ibero Latino Americana, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, and Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group held the meeting discussion. Results: Representatives of major radiotherapy groups/organizations and prominent leaders in radiotherapy discussed current understanding of normal tissue radiobiologic effects, the design and implementation of future clinical and translational projects for normal tissue injury, and the standardization of adverse-event reporting worldwide. Conclusions: The consensus was to adopt NCI comprehensive adverse event reporting terminology and grading system (CTCAE v3.0) as the new standard for all cooperative group trials. Future plans included the implementation of coordinated research projects focusing on normal tissue biomarkers and data collection methods

  20. Development of Geometry Normalized Electromagnetic System (GNES) instrument for metal defect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zakaria; Surbakti, Muhammad Syukri; Syahreza, Saumi; Mat Jafri, Mohd. Zubir; Tan, Kok Chooi

    2017-10-01

    It has been already made, calibrated and tested a geometry normalized electromagnetic system (GNES) for metal defect examination. The GNES has an automatic data acquisition system which supporting the efficiency and accuracy of the measurement. The data will be displayed on the computer monitor as a graphic display then saved automatically in the Microsoft Excel format. The transmitter will transmit the frequency pair (FP) signals i.e. 112.5 Hz and 337.5 Hz; 112.5 Hz and 1012.5 Hz; 112.5 Hz and 3037.5 Hz; 337.5 Hz and 1012.5 Hz; 337.5 Hz and 3037.5 Hz. Simultaneous transmissions of two electromagnetic waves without distortions by the transmitter will induce an eddy current in the metal. This current, in turn, will produce secondary electromagnetic fields which are measured by the receiver together with the primary fields. Measurement of percent change of a vertical component of the fields will give the percent response caused by the metal or the defect. The response examinations were performed by the models with various type of defect for the master curves. The materials of samples as a plate were using Aluminum, Brass, and Copper. The more of the defects is the more reduction of the eddy current response. The defect contrasts were tended to decrease when the more depth of the defect position. The magnitude and phase of the eddy currents will affect the loading on the coil thus its impedance. The defect must interrupt the surface eddy current flow to be detected. Defect lying parallel to the current path will not cause any significant interruption and may not be detected. The main factors which affect the eddy current response are metal conductivity, permeability, frequency, and geometry.

  1. Prevalence of dry eye in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviana S Kamel

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic patients are more prone to suffering from dry eye than normal subjects. These abnormalities can result in severe complications. Early examination of the diabetic patients for the detection of the ocular surface disorders is indicated.

  2. 'Is my child developing normally?': a critical review of web-based resources for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nia; Mughal, Sabena; Blair, Mitch

    2008-12-01

    Early detection of developmental problems improves outcomes for parents and children. Parents want to be involved in assessment and need high-quality, accurate, and reliable data on child development to help monitor progress and inform decisions on referral. The aim of this paper is to review which websites are readily accessible to parents on child development and to assess their quality. An internet search (on Google and Yahoo) was conducted using the search terms 'child development', 'parenting', and 'developmental milestones'. Criteria were agreed for evaluating web-based resources, adapted from and based on previously reported methods. Data were collected on site content, diagrams and layout, readability (Flesch Reading Ease Scale), design, navigability, overall design, and interactive features. Forty-four relevant websites were identified for further analysis: six government, three university, 15 health-care professional, four American Academy of Pediatrics, 10 by journalists, and six undisclosed. The best websites are presented, with justification for their choice. Overall, information available for parents about child development is accurate but much of it is incomplete, unclear, or difficult to access. There is a need to develop an easily accessible, clear, and authoritative resource for parents with illustrations. Focus groups are being held to inform this research further.

  3. Dicer Is Required for Normal Cerebellar Development and to Restrain Medulloblastoma Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Zindy

    Full Text Available Dicer, a ribonuclease III enzyme, is required for the maturation of microRNAs. To assess its role in cerebellar and medulloblastoma development, we genetically deleted Dicer in Nestin-positive neural progenitors and in mice lacking one copy for the Sonic Hedgehog receptor, Patched 1. We found that conditional loss of Dicer in mouse neural progenitors induced massive Trp53-independent apoptosis in all proliferative zones of the brain and decreased proliferation of cerebellar granule progenitors at embryonic day 15.5 leading to abnormal cerebellar development and perinatal lethality. Loss of one copy of Dicer significantly accelerated the formation of mouse medulloblastoma of the Sonic Hedgehog subgroup in Patched1-heterozygous mice. We conclude that Dicer is required for proper cerebellar development, and to restrain medulloblastoma formation.

  4. The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) component of the NIH MRI study of normal brain development (PedsDTI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lindsay; Chang, Lin-Ching; Nayak, Amritha; Irfanoglu, M Okan; Botteron, Kelly N; McCracken, James; McKinstry, Robert C; Rivkin, Michael J; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Rumsey, Judith; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The NIH MRI Study of normal brain development sought to characterize typical brain development in a population of infants, toddlers, children and adolescents/young adults, covering the socio-economic and ethnic diversity of the population of the United States. The study began in 1999 with data collection commencing in 2001 and concluding in 2007. The study was designed with the final goal of providing a controlled-access database; open to qualified researchers and clinicians, which could serve as a powerful tool for elucidating typical brain development and identifying deviations associated with brain-based disorders and diseases, and as a resource for developing computational methods and image processing tools. This paper focuses on the DTI component of the NIH MRI study of normal brain development. In this work, we describe the DTI data acquisition protocols, data processing steps, quality assessment procedures, and data included in the database, along with database access requirements. For more details, visit http://www.pediatricmri.nih.gov. This longitudinal DTI dataset includes raw and processed diffusion data from 498 low resolution (3 mm) DTI datasets from 274 unique subjects, and 193 high resolution (2.5 mm) DTI datasets from 152 unique subjects. Subjects range in age from 10 days (from date of birth) through 22 years. Additionally, a set of age-specific DTI templates are included. This forms one component of the larger NIH MRI study of normal brain development which also includes T1-, T2-, proton density-weighted, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) imaging data, and demographic, clinical and behavioral data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Adenomatous polyposis coli is required for early events in the normal growth and differentiation of the developing cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price David J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc is a large multifunctional protein known to be important for Wnt/β-catenin signalling, cytoskeletal dynamics, and cell polarity. In the developing cerebral cortex, Apc is expressed in proliferating cells and its expression increases as cells migrate to the cortical plate. We examined the consequences of loss of Apc function for the early development of the cerebral cortex. Results We used Emx1Cre to inactivate Apc specifically in proliferating cerebral cortical cells and their descendents starting from embryonic day 9.5. We observed reduction in the size of the mutant cerebral cortex, disruption to its organisation, and changes in the molecular identity of its cells. Loss of Apc leads to a decrease in the size of the proliferative pool, disrupted interkinetic nuclear migration, and increased apoptosis. β-Catenin, pericentrin, and N-cadherin proteins no longer adopt their normal high concentration at the apical surface of the cerebral cortical ventricular zone, indicating that cell polarity is disrupted. Consistent with enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signalling resulting from loss of Apc we found increased levels of TCF/LEF-dependent transcription and expression of endogenous Wnt/β-catenin target genes (Axin2 (conductin, Lef1, and c-myc in the mutant cerebral cortex. In the Apc mutant cerebral cortex the expression of transcription factors Foxg1, Pax6, Tbr1, and Tbr2 is drastically reduced compared to normal and many cells ectopically express Pax3, Wnt1, and Wt1 (but not Wnt2b, Wnt8b, Ptc, Gli1, Mash1, Olig2, or Islet1. This indicates that loss of Apc function causes cerebral cortical cells to lose their normal identity and redirect to fates normally found in more posterior-dorsal regions of the central nervous system. Conclusion Apc is required for multiple aspects of early cerebral cortical development, including the regulation of cell number, interkinetic nuclear migration, cell polarity, and

  6. Eye/Brain/Task Testbed And Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, Thomas; Mainland, Nora; Roden, Joseph C.; Rothenheber, Edward H.; Ryan, Arthur M.; Stokes, James M.

    1994-01-01

    Eye/brain/task (EBT) testbed records electroencephalograms, movements of eyes, and structures of tasks to provide comprehensive data on neurophysiological experiments. Intended to serve continuing effort to develop means for interactions between human brain waves and computers. Software library associated with testbed provides capabilities to recall collected data, to process data on movements of eyes, to correlate eye-movement data with electroencephalographic data, and to present data graphically. Cognitive processes investigated in ways not previously possible.

  7. Roles of microRNA-15 family in normal and pathological late lung development

    OpenAIRE

    Sakkas, Elpidoforos

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are key regulators of organogenesis and during the last years many studies focused on microRNA expression during embryonic development. To date, there is no study to report possible roles of microRNAs in late lung development and especially during the alveolarization process. The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs that are deregulated under hyperoxic conditions and to assess whether microRNA expression can be modulated in vivo. Lung microRNA expression screening wa...

  8. A new Approach to the Study of Russian Language Acquisition in Preschool Children with Normal and Abnormal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva T.V

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibilities of using a standardized method of psychological evaluation of the Russian language development in preschool children. We provide a rationale for the relevance of timely differentiation of children with language and speech difficulties in modern educational practice. We present the results of comparative analysis of language and speech development in the two groups of children 5-6 years old: normally developing (N=92 and with language and speech disorders (N=59. We describe the diagnostic potential of this research tool for clinical sample of children with speech and language disorders, reveal differences in the development of Russian language between the two groups of children. The data obtained can be used in solving the problems of differentiated correctional help to pre-school children with impaired language and speech development.

  9. A case of bilateral self-induced keratoconus in a patient with tourette syndrome associated with compulsive eye rubbing: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandarakis Stylianos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette syndrome is a neurologic disorder that is characterized by repetitive muscle contractions that produce stereotyped movements or sounds. Approximately 50% of individuals with TS also exhibit obsessive-compulsive behaviors including eye rubbing. We report a case of bilateral self-induced keratoconus in a patient with TS, associated with compulsive eye rubbing. Case presentation A 35-year-old man was first seen in our clinic as an outpatient due to rapid deterioration of vision in his right eye associated with pain and tearing, over a period of one month. Slit lamp biomicroscopy of the right eye showed a central stromal scar due to corneal hydrops. Clinical examination and corneal topography of the left eye were normal. Six months later the patient developed corneal hydrops of his left eye. During the following examinations his vision continued to deteriorate in both eyes, while a central stromal scar was forming in his left cornea. Four years after the initial examination the patient's visual acuity was no light perception in the right eye and counting fingers at 33 cm in the left eye. His right eye was phthisic. Conclusions Our patient developed a rapidly progressing bilateral corneal ectasia and phthisis of his right eye during a time period of 4 years. This unusual pattern suggests that the patient's compulsive behavior compromised both of his corneas and led to bilateral keratoconus.

  10. BMI Development of Normal Weight and Overweight Children in the PIAMA Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, Saskia M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; van der Beek, Eline M.; Gehring, Ulrike; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that rapid weight gain during the first year of life is associated with overweight later in life. However, results from studies exploring other critical periods for the development of overweight are inconsistent. Objective: The objective was to investigate BMI

  11. In vivo modelling of normal and pathological human T-cell development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiekmeijer, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes novel insights in human T-cell development by transplanting human HSPCs in severe immunodeficient NSG mice. First, an in vivo model was optimized to allow engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells derived from human bone marrow. This model was used to study aberrant human T-cell

  12. Blood-borne stem cells differentiate into vascular and cardiac lineages during normal development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, N.; Mustin, D.; Reardon, M. W.; Dealmeida, A.; Mozdziak, P.; Mrug, M.; Eisenberg, L. M.; Sedmera, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1 (2006), s. 17-28 ISSN 1547-3287 Grant - others:March of Dimes 5-FY02-269; NIH RR16434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : stem cells * embryonic development * circulation Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.076, year: 2006

  13. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Leer en Español: Lesiones de los ojos ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  17. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...

  18. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  19. Black Eye: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Black eye Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a ... 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-black-eye/basics/ART-20056675 . Mayo ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pagan-Duran MD Sep. 01, 2017 Our eyes need tears to stay healthy and comfortable. If your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears ...

  1. 'Beyond Milestones': a randomised controlled trial evaluating an innovative digital resource teaching quality observation of normal child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Anne M; Cunningham, Clare; Sinclair, Adriane J; Rao, Arjun; Lonergan, Amy; Bye, Ann M E

    2014-05-01

    The study aimed to create and evaluate the educational effectiveness of a digital resource instructing paediatric trainees in a systematic approach to critical and quality observation of normal child development. A digital educational resource was developed utilising the skills of an expert developmental paediatrician who was videoed assessing normal early child development at a series of critical stages. Videos illustrated aspects of language, sophistication of play and socialisation, cognition, and motor progress. Expert commentary, teaching text and summaries were used. A randomised controlled trial evaluated the resource. Paediatric trainees were recruited from The Sydney Children's Hospitals Network. Outcome measures were repeated at three time points (pre-teaching, immediate-post and 1 month) and included self-rated attitudes, knowledge of markers of development and observational expertise. Qualitative data on teaching usefulness were obtained through open-ended questions. Fifty-six paediatric trainees (registrar 79%, women 82%; mean age 31 years) completed the pre-assessment, 46 the immediate-post and 45 the 1-month follow-up (20% attrition). Compared with the Control group, the Teaching group scored higher over time on markers of development (P = 0.006), observational expertise (P improves knowledge, increases confidence and is useful, providing a structured approach to developmental assessment. The techniques taught can be applied to every paediatric consultation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Extent of corneal injury as a biomarker for hazard assessment and the development of alternative models to the Draize rabbit eye test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, James V

    2006-01-01

    We have characterized 22 ocular irritants differing in type (surfactants, acid, alkali, bleaches, alcohol, aldehyde, acetone) and severity (slight to severe) by using the low-volume rabbit eye test. Ocular irritation was evaluated by 1) light microscopy to assess pathological changes, 2) in vivo confocal microscopy (CM) to quantify 4-dimensionally (x, y, z, and t) initial corneal injury and later responses in the same eye, and 3) laser scanning CM to quantify initial cell death. These studies revealed that regardless of the processes leading to injury, slight irritants injure the corneal epithelium, mild irritants injure the corneal epithelium and the superficial stroma, and moderate/severe irritants injure the epithelium, deep stroma, and at times the corneal endothelium. Furthermore, extent of initial corneal injury was shown to predict subsequent responses and final outcomes. These findings suggest that extent of corneal injury may be used as a basis for the development of alternative ocular irritation tests. To test the validity of this approach, we have used an ex vivo, rabbit cornea culture model to measure extent of corneal injury following exposure to ocular irritants. Data indicate that the extent of ex vivo corneal injury significantly correlate with the extent of initial injury measured previously in live animals. Overall, these findings indicate that extent of initial corneal injury can be used as a new "gold standard" for the continued refinement and ultimate replacement of the Draize rabbit eye Ocular Irritation Test.

  3. [Great vesicovaginal fistula after normal vaginal delivery in a developed country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carpintero, Nayara; de la Fuente-Valero, Jesús; Salazar-Arquero, Francisco Javier; Hernández-Aguado, Juan José

    2015-12-01

    Obstetric fistulas in developed countries are infrequent and have been associated with instrumental vaginal delivery, manual removal of placenta and surgical complications during caesarean section. We present the diagnosis and treatment of an obstetric fistula of patient without clear risk factors in a developed country. The case presented is of a 37 weeks pregnant with history of previous cesarean section. A male of 2,600 g was born after a not prolonged vaginal delivery. In the immediate postpartum period, appeared evident hematuria and in the exploration a defect was detected in the vaginal anterior face at 3 cm from the urethral meatus. Cystoscopy showed a torn in bladder of 8 cm at the bottom. Reparation of vesicovaginal fistula was carried out with omentoplasty. Postoperative course was uneventful. A vesicovaginal fistula must be considered in any patient with hematuria. Early repair is essential for a favorable outcome.

  4. The pivotal role of insulin-like growth factor I in normal mammary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, David L; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2011-09-01

    Mammary development begins in puberty in response to an estrogen (E(2)) surge. E(2) does not act alone. It relies on pituitary growth hormone (GH) to induce insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) production in the mammary stromal compartment. In turn, IGF-I permits E(2) (and progesterone) action. During puberty, E(2) and IGF-I synergize for ductal morphogenesis. During pregnancy, progesterone joins IGF-I and E(2) to stimulate secretory differentiation necessary to produce milk. Prolactin stimulates milk production, while transforming growth factor-β inhibits proliferation. The orchestrated action of hormones, growth factors, and receptors necessary for mammary development and function are also critical in breast cancer. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The Roles of PDGF in Development and During Neurogenesis in the Normal and Diseased Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Funa, Keiko; Sasahara, Masakiyo

    2013-01-01

    The four platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) ligands and PDGF receptors (PDGFRs), α and β (PDGFRA, PDGFRB), are essential proteins that are expressed during embryonic and mature nervous systems, i.e., in neural progenitors, neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and vascular cells. PDGF exerts essential roles from the gastrulation period to adult neuronal maintenance by contributing to the regulation of development of preplacodal progenitors, placodal ectoderm, and neural crest cells to adu...

  6. Normal Development and Function of T Cells in Proline Rich 7 (Prr7) Deficient Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdinka, M.; Sudan, K.; Just, S.; Drobek, Aleš; Štěpánek, Ondřej; Schlueter, D.; Reinhold, D.; Jordan, B.A.; Gintschel, P.; Schraven, B.; Kreutz, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 9 (2016), č. článku e0162863. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-09208Y Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : transmembrane adapter proteins * experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis * multiple-sclerosis * listeria-monocytogenes * lymphocyte development * negative regulation * activation * receptor * neurodegeneration * apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  7. The Role of BRCA1 in Normal Mammary Epithelial Development and Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    submandibular and sublingual glands . While the coagulated and vesicular glands of the male Brcal’l’p53𔃻’ did not differ from control mice, a rare benign...distribution unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words! Breast cancer is the most common serious malignancy affecting women...developing breast cancer . Despite extensive study since 1994, the function of BRCA1 has not yet been established. Numerous studies have suggested an

  8. The roles of PDGF in development and during neurogenesis in the normal and diseased nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funa, Keiko; Sasahara, Masakiyo

    2014-03-01

    The four platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) ligands and PDGF receptors (PDGFRs), α and β (PDGFRA, PDGFRB), are essential proteins that are expressed during embryonic and mature nervous systems, i.e., in neural progenitors, neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and vascular cells. PDGF exerts essential roles from the gastrulation period to adult neuronal maintenance by contributing to the regulation of development of preplacodal progenitors, placodal ectoderm, and neural crest cells to adult neural progenitors, in coordinating with other factors. In adulthood, PDGF plays critical roles for maintenance of many specific cell types in the nervous system together with vascular cells through controlling the blood brain barrier homeostasis. At injury or various stresses, PDGF modulates neuronal excitability through adjusting various ion channels, and affecting synaptic plasticity and function. Furthermore, PDGF stimulates survival signals, majorly PI3-K/Akt pathway but also other ways, rescuing cells from apoptosis. Studies imply an involvement of PDGF in dendrite spine morphology, being critical for memory in the developing brain. Recent studies suggest association of PDGF genes with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we will describe the roles of PDGF in the nervous system, from the discovery to recent findings, in order to understand the broad spectrum of PDGF in the nervous system. Recent development of pharmacological and replacement therapies targeting the PDGF system is discussed.

  9. Prenatal exposure to thyroid hormone is necessary for normal postnatal development of murine heart and lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tuyl, Minke; Blommaart, Pietjan E; de Boer, Piet A J; Wert, Susan E; Ruijter, Jan M; Islam, Saleem; Schnitzer, Jay; Ellison, Aaron R; Tibboel, Dick; Moorman, Antoon F M; Lamers, Wouter H

    2004-08-01

    Maternal hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy poses an increased risk for poor neuropsychological development of the fetus. We tested the hypothesis that maternal hypothyroidism before the onset of fetal thyroid function also affects postnatal development of heart and lungs. This question was addressed in transgenic mice that express herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase in their thyroidal follicle cells. Treatment with ganciclovir rendered these mice severely hypothyroid because viral thymidine kinase converts ganciclovir into a cytotoxic nucleoside analog. Since ganciclovir crosses the placenta, it also destroyed the thyroid of transgenic embryos while leaving the thyroids of nontransgenic littermates unaffected. Hypothyroidism of both mother and fetus did not affect prenatal heart and lung development. However, the postnatal switch from beta- to alpha-myosin heavy chain (beta- and alpha-MHC, respectively) gene expression and the increase of SERCA-2a mRNA expression did not occur in the ventricular myocardium of either the transgenic (thyroid destroyed) or nontransgenic (intact thyroid) offspring of hypothyroid mothers. Similarly, postnatal animals of the latter two groups retained elevated surfactant protein (SP) A, B, and C mRNA levels in their alveolar epithelium. In hypothyroid pups from hypothyroid mothers, these changes were accompanied by decreased alveolar septation. Our study shows that these effects of maternal hypothyroidism become manifest after birth and are aggravated by the concomitant existence of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  10. Overlapping Requirements for Tet2 and Tet3 in Normal Development and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tet family of methylcytosine dioxygenases (Tet1, Tet2, and Tet3 convert 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. To date, functional overlap among Tet family members has not been examined systematically in the context of embryonic development. To clarify the potential for overlap among Tet enzymes during development, we mutated the zebrafish orthologs of Tet1, Tet2, and Tet3 and examined single-, double-, and triple-mutant genotypes. Here, we identify Tet2 and Tet3 as the major 5-methylcytosine dioxygenases in the zebrafish embryo and uncover a combined requirement for Tet2 and Tet3 in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC emergence. We demonstrate that Notch signaling in the hemogenic endothelium is regulated by Tet2/3 prior to HSC emergence and show that restoring expression of the downstream gata2b/scl/runx1 transcriptional network can rescue HSCs in tet2/3 double mutant larvae. Our results reveal essential, overlapping functions for tet genes during embryonic development and uncover a requirement for 5hmC in regulating HSC production.

  11. Biochemical composition of fetal fluids in at term, normal developed, healthy, viable dogs and preliminary data from pathologic littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Bolis, B; Faustini, M; Rota, A; Mollo, A

    2018-03-01

    A proper canine neonatal assistance, required to reduce the high perinatal loss rate, imply a full knowledge about the fetal-to-neonatal physiology. Because fetal fluids play an important role throughout mammals pregnancy, influencing fetal growth and development, fetal well being, and contributing to guarantee the most suitable environment for the fetus, the knowledge about fetal fluids biochemical composition is of major importance. At first, the biochemical composition of fetal fluids collected by normal developed, healthy and viable newborns, is necessary to depict the normal features, and represent the first step for the further detection of abnormalities associated to fetal/neonatal distress and useful for the early identification of newborns needing special attention, immediately after birth. The present study was aimed to define the biochemical composition of amniotic and allantoic fluids collected from fetus delivered by caesarean section at term of pregnancy. To reduce the possible confounding effect of maternal labor or troubles at parturition, fetal fluids were collected only from puppies born by elective caesaeran section, at term of normal pregnancies. Fetal fluids from 76 puppies, 70 normal and six pathologic newborns, born by elective caesarean section were collected and analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine-kinase (CK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, amylase, lipase, gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), triglycerides, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, globulins, glucose, magnesium, potassium, chloride, sodium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolarity. No significant differences were found between biochemical composition of amniotic or allantoic fluid in normal and pathologic newborns, maybe due to the small number of the pathologic puppies. Although some correlations between the two fluids were found (albumin, phosphorus, glucose and

  12. Eyes on the Solar System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eyes on the Solar System is a software package developed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the California Institute of Technology using data provided by NASA's...

  13. Differentiating os acromiale from normally developing acromial ossification centers using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfeld, Matthew; Rosenberg, Zehava Sadka; Wang, Annie; Bencardino, Jenny

    2015-05-01

    Acromial fusion may not be complete until age 18-25, making it questionable to diagnose os acromiale in adolescents. Os acromiale may exist in adolescents and can be differentiated from a developing acromial ossification center based on MRI findings. A total of 128 MRIs of the shoulder were randomly and blindly reviewed retrospectively by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The MRIs consisted of two groups: (1) 56 of os acromiale in adults (25-74 years old, mean, 50) and (2) 72 consecutive of adolescents (12-17 years old, mean, 14.5). The following were assessed at the interface between the distal acromion and os acromiale/developing ossification center(s): presence of os acromiale vs. developing acromion, orientation, margins, and edema within and adjacent to it. Fifty-one adults and 49 adolescents were included. Exclusions were due to poor image quality or confounding findings (n = 7) or complete acromial fusion (n = 21 adolescents). Utilizing accepted definitions of os acromiale, all adult cases (100 %) were accurately diagnosed as os acromiale, with transverse interface orientation and irregular margins (94 %, R = 0.86, p os acromiale, with transverse orientation and irregular margins. Thirty-five (69 %) and 46 (90 %) adults had marrow and interface edema, respectively. Six (12 %) and eight (16 %) adolescents had marrow and interface edema, respectively, including the four concluded to be os acromiale. Adolescents may have imaging findings consistent with os acromiale. The diagnosis of os acromiale should be based on imaging features and not limited by age.

  14. Ubiquitin specific protease 21 is dispensable for normal development, hematopoiesis and lymphocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Pannu

    Full Text Available USP21 is a ubiquitin specific protease that catalyzes protein deubiquitination, however the identification of its physiological substrates remains challenging. USP21 is known to deubiquitinate transcription factor GATA3 and death-domain kinase RIPK1 in vitro, however the in vivo settings where this regulation plays a biologically significant role remain unknown. In order to determine whether USP21 is an essential and non-redundant regulator of GATA3 or RIPK1 activity in vivo, we characterized Usp21-deficient mice, focusing on mouse viability and development, hematopoietic stem cell function, and lymphocyte differentiation. The Usp21-knockout mice were found to be viable and fertile, with no significant dysmorphology, in contrast to the GATA3 and RIPK1 knockout lines that exhibit embryonic or perinatal lethality. Loss of USP21 also had no effect on hematopoietic stem cell function, lymphocyte development, or the responses of antigen presenting cells to TLR and TNFR stimulation. GATA3 levels in hematopoietic stem cells or T lymphocytes remained unchanged. We observed that aged Usp21-knockout mice exhibited spontaneous T cell activation, however this was not linked to altered GATA3 levels in the affected cells. The contrast in the phenotype of the Usp21-knockout line with the previously characterized GATA3 and RIPK1 knockout mice strongly indicates that USP21 is redundant for the regulation of GATA3 and RIPK1 activity during mouse development, in hematopoietic stem cells, and in lymphocyte differentiation. The Usp21-deficient mouse line characterized in this study may serve as a useful tool for the future characterization of USP21 physiological functions.

  15. Hippocampal shape is predictive for the development of dementia in a normal, elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achterberg, Hakim C.; van der Lijn, Fedde; den Heijer, Tom

    2014-01-01

    assessed whether hippocampal shape provides additional predictive value independent of hippocampal volume. Five hundred eleven brain MRI scans from elderly nondemented participants of a prospective population-based imaging study were used. During the 10-year follow-up period, 52 of these subjects developed...... dementia. For training and evaluation independent of age and gender, a subset of 50 cases and 150 matched controls was selected. The hippocampus was segmented using an automated method. From the segmentation, the volume was determined and a statistical shape model was constructed. We trained a classifier...

  16. Normal and abnormal cerebrovascular development: gene-environment interactions during early life with later life consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    A greater understanding of cerebrovascular health and disease requires the consideration of recent neuroscience advances concerning neuroplasticity in the context of classical developmental neurology principles. Consideration of the ontogenetic interplay of nature and nurture influencing brain development during prenatal and early postnatal time periods should consider the concept of the developmental origins of neurological health and disease. Adaptive and maladaptive effects of neuroplasticity require a systems biology approach integrating molecular, receptor, cellular, neural network, and behavioral perspectives, culminating in the structural and functional cerebrovascular phenotypes that express health or disease across the lifespan. Cognizance of the interrelationships among maternal, placental, fetal, and neonatal factors requires an interdisciplinary appreciation of genetic/epigenetic forces of neuroplasticity during early life that incrementally influence cerebrovascular health or disease throughout childhood and adulthood. Knowledge of the systemic effects of multiorgan function on cerebrovascular development further broadens the systems biology approach to general plasticity of the individual as a whole organism. Short- and long-term consequences of the positive and negative effects of neuroplasticity must consider ongoing gene-environment interactions with maturation and aging, superimposed on earlier fetal/neonatal experiences that sustain neurological health or contribute to disease during childhood and adulthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear reprogramming: the strategy used in normal development is also used in somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianlong; Zheng, Junke; Xing, Fengying; Fang, Haiyan; Sun, Feng; Yan, Ayong; Gong, Xun; Ding, Hui; Tang, Fan; Sheng, Hui Z

    2007-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenesis are alternative forms of reproduction and development, building new life cycles on differentiated somatic cell nuclei and duplicated maternal chromatin, respectively. In the preceding paper (Sun F, et al., Cell Res 2007; 17:117-134.), we showed that an "erase-and-rebuild" strategy is used in normal development to transform the maternal gene expression profile to a zygotic one. Here, we investigate if the same strategy also applies to SCNT and parthenogenesis. The relationship between chromatin and chromatin factors (CFs) during SCNT and parthenogenesis was examined using immunochemical and GFP-fusion protein assays. Results from these studies indicated that soon after nuclear transfer, a majority of CFs dissociated from somatic nuclei and were redistributed to the cytoplasm of the egg. The erasure process in oogenesis is recaptured during the initial phase in SCNT. Most CFs entered pseudo-pronuclei shortly after their formation. In parthenogenesis, all parthenogenotes underwent normal oogenesis, and thus had removed most CFs from chromosomes before the initiation of development. The CFs were subsequently re-associated with female pronuclei in time and sequence similar to that in fertilized embryos. Based on these data, we conclude that the "erase-and-rebuild" process observed in normal development also occurs in SCNT and in parthenogenesis, albeit in altered fashions. The process is responsible for transcription reprogramming in these procedures. The "erase" process in SCNT is compressed and the efficiency is compromised, which likely contribute to the developmental defects often observed in nuclear transfer (nt) embryos. Furthermore, results from this study indicated that the cytoplasm of an egg contains most, if not all, essential components for assembling the zygotic program and can assemble them onto appropriate diploid chromatin of distinct origins.

  18. Associations between the size of the amygdala in infancy and language abilities during the preschool years in normally developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Choe, Myong-sun; Flax, Judy; Grant, P Ellen; Benasich, April A

    2010-02-01

    Recently, structural MRI studies in children have been used to examine relations between brain volume and behavioral measures. However, most of these studies have been done in children older than 2 years of age. Obtaining volumetric measures in infants is considerably more difficult, as structures are less well defined and largely unmyelinated, making segmentation challenging. Moreover, it is still unclear whether individual anatomic variation across development, in healthy, normally developing infants, is reflected in the configuration and function of the mature brain and, as importantly, whether variation in infant brain structure might be related to later cognitive and linguistic abilities. In this longitudinal study, using T1 structural MRI, we identified links between amygdala volume in normally developing, naturally sleeping, 6-month infants and their subsequent language abilities at 2, 3 and 4 years. The images were processed and manually segmented using Cardviews to extract volumetric measures. Intra-rater reliability for repeated segmentation was 87.73% of common voxel agreement. Standardized language assessments were administered at 6 and 12 months and at 2, 3 and 4 years. Significant and consistent correlations were found between amygdala size and language abilities. Children with larger right amygdalae at 6 months had lower scores on expressive and receptive language measures at 2, 3, and 4 years. Associations between amygdala size and language outcomes have been reported in children with autism. The findings presented here extend this association to normally developing children, supporting the idea that the amygdalae might play an important but as yet unspecified role in mediating language acquisition. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a radioreceptor assay for human chorion gonadotropin: Application in normal and pathological pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.

    1978-01-01

    Rats testes were homogenised, and the binding capacity of several dilutions of these were tested with iodine 125 -labelled human choriongonadotropin. Investigations about binding over a period of 36 hrs. with 3 different temperatures, inhibition tests and cross reaction analyses for determining the specificity were carried out. 2 assay systems could be developed. The highly sensitive assay was applied at early pregnancy, at suspected disturbed or ectopic gravidity and allowed to measure the hCG-serum concentration above the physiological basal secretion of hLH. The less sensitive assay was used for measuring hCG in later stages of pregnancy, chorionepitheliomas and other hCG producing tumours. With the highly sensitive and specific assay, hCG was determinable 8 to 10 days post conceptionem. (orig.) [de

  20. Oral epithelial stem cells – implications in normal development and cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagerakis, Silvana; Pannone, Giuseppe; Zheng, Li; About, Imad; Taqi, Nawar; Nguyen, Nghia P.T.; Matossian, Margarite; McAlpin, Blake; Santoro, Angela; McHugh, Jonathan; Prince, Mark E.; Papagerakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa is continuously exposed to environmental forces and has to be constantly renewed. Accordingly, the oral mucosa epithelium contains a large reservoir of epithelial stem cells necessary for tissue homeostasis. Despite considerable scientific advances in stem cell behavior in a number of tissues, fewer studies have been devoted to the stem cells in the oral epithelium. Most of oral mucosa stem cells studies are focused on identifying cancer stem cells (CSC) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) among other head and neck cancers. OSCCs are the most prevalent epithelial tumors of the head and neck region, marked by their aggressiveness and invasiveness. Due to their highly tumorigenic properties, it has been suggested that CSC may be the critical population of cancer cells in the development of OSCC metastasis. This review presents a brief overview of epithelium stem cells with implications in oral health, and the clinical implications of the CSC concept in OSCC metastatic dissemination. PMID:24803391

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  2. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Eye Injuries KidsHealth / For Parents / Eye Injuries What's in ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  3. Dilating Eye Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  4. About the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  5. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. ... to the brain. Watch now! Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you ...

  7. Fluorescein eye stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test that uses orange dye (fluorescein) and a blue light to detect foreign bodies in the eye. This ... eye. The health care provider then shines a blue light at your eye. Any problems on the surface ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...

  10. Development and validation of an adjective check list to assess the Millon personality types in a normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, S

    1987-01-01

    A 405-item experimental Personality Adjective Check List (PACL) was refined into a 153-item form to assess the personality types outlined by Millon (1969, 1981) in a normal population. Scale construction and validation followed a method outlined by Loevinger (1957, 1972). Nine scales were developed based on the responses of 459 men and women, one for each of Millon's eight basic personalities plus an Experimental scale measuring aspects of his three more severe types. Extensive reliability and validity analyses were conducted involving over 2,200 men and women from across the United States, including a factor analysis of scales. These revealed good internal consistency for each scale, good test-retest reliability over a 3-month period, adequate factor structure, and good convergent and discriminant validity based on self-report data. Results indicated that Millon's basic types exist in normal form much as they are postulated to exist as disorders. Research efforts focusing on Millon's theory as it applies to normals may bring a more complete understanding of the entire spectrum of personality.

  11. CRISPR disruption of TCTP gene impaired normal development in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zu-Lian; Xu, Jun; Ling, Lin; Zhang, Ru; Shang, Peng; Huang, Yong-Ping

    2018-01-09

    The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved and multifunctional protein with activities ranging from cytoskeletal regulation to transcription regulation in numerous organisms. In insects, TCTP is essential for cell growth and proliferation. Recently, TCTP has been reported to affect the innate intestinal immune pathway in the Bombyx mori silkworm, a lepidopteran model insect. However, the comprehensive physiological roles of TCTP in the silkworm remain poorly understood. Here, we performed functional analysis of BmTCTP by using a binary transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/RNA-guided CRISPER-associated protein 9 nucleases) system. Disruption of BmTCTP led to developmental arrestment and subsequent lethality in third instar larvae. Histological analysis revealed that growth impairment originated from decreased cell size, and the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells were also affected. RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and digestive system pathways were significantly affected by BmTCTP depletion. Together, the results demonstrated that BmTCTP plays a key role in controlling larval growth and development. © 2018 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Beyond Normal Competencies: Understanding Organisation Designs to Develop and Sustain IT-Related Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acklesh Prasad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is apparent that IT resources are important for organisations. It is also clear that organisations unique competencies, their IT-related capabilities, leverage the IT resources uniquely to create and sustain competitive advantage. However, IT resources are dynamic, and evolve at an exponential rate. This means that organisations will need to sustain their competencies to leverage opportunities offered by new IT resources. Research on ways to sustain IT-related capabilities is limited and a deeper understanding of this situation is important. Amongst other factors, a possible reason for this lack of progress in this area could be due to the lack of validated measurement items of the theoretical constructs to conduct such studies. We suggest an environment in which organisations could build new and sustain their existing IT-related capabilities. We then report on the development of valid and reliable measures for this environment. The validated measures would be useful in extending our understanding on how firms could sustain their IT-related capabilities. This effort will provide a deeper understanding of how firms can secure sustainable IT-related business value from their acquired IT resources.

  13. Non-nuclear Pool of Splicing Factor SFPQ Regulates Axonal Transcripts Required for Normal Motor Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Jinu, Swapna; Gordon, Patricia M; Fielding, Triona; Taylor, Richard; Smith, Bradley N; Snowden, Victoria; Blanc, Eric; Vance, Caroline; Topp, Simon; Wong, Chun-Hao; Bielen, Holger; Williams, Kelly L; McCann, Emily P; Nicholson, Garth A; Pan-Vazquez, Alejandro; Fox, Archa H; Bond, Charles S; Talbot, William S; Blair, Ian P; Shaw, Christopher E; Houart, Corinne

    2017-04-19

    Recent progress revealed the complexity of RNA processing and its association to human disorders. Here, we unveil a new facet of this complexity. Complete loss of function of the ubiquitous splicing factor SFPQ affects zebrafish motoneuron differentiation cell autonomously. In addition to its nuclear localization, the protein unexpectedly localizes to motor axons. The cytosolic version of SFPQ abolishes motor axonal defects, rescuing key transcripts, and restores motility in the paralyzed sfpq null mutants, indicating a non-nuclear processing role in motor axons. Novel variants affecting the conserved coiled-coil domain, so far exclusively found in fALS exomes, specifically affect the ability of SFPQ to localize in axons. They broadly rescue morphology and motility in the zebrafish mutant, but alter motor axon morphology, demonstrating functional requirement for axonal SFPQ. Altogether, we uncover the axonal function of the splicing factor SFPQ in motor development and highlight the importance of the coiled-coil domain in this process. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pkd1 and Pkd2 are required for normal placental development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Garcia-Gonzalez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is a common cause of inherited renal failure that results from mutations in PKD1 and PKD2. The disorder is characterized by focal cyst formation that involves somatic mutation of the wild type allele in a large fraction of cysts. Consistent with a two-hit mechanism, mice that are homozygous for inactivating mutations of either Pkd1 or Pkd2 develop cystic kidneys, edema and hemorrhage and typically die in midgestation. Cystic kidney disease is unlikely to be the cause of fetal loss since renal function is not required to complete gestation. One hypothesis is that embryonic demise is due to leaky vessels or cardiac pathology.In these studies we used a series of genetically modified Pkd1 and Pkd2 murine models to investigate the cause of embryonic lethality in mutant embryos. Since placental defects are a frequent cause of fetal loss, we conducted histopathologic analyses of placentas from Pkd1 null mice and detected abnormalities of the labyrinth layer beginning at E12.5. We performed placental rescue experiments using tetraploid aggregation and conditional inactivation of Pkd1 with the Meox2 Cre recombinase. We found that both strategies improved the viability of Pkd1 null embryos. Selective inactivation of Pkd1 and Pkd2 in endothelial cells resulted in polyhydramnios and abnormalities similar to those observed in Pkd1(-/- placentas. However, endothelial cell specific deletion of Pkd1 or Pkd2 did not yield the dramatic vascular phenotypes observed in null animals.Placental abnormalities contribute to the fetal demise of Pkd(-/- embryos. Endothelial cell specific deletion of Pkd1 or Pkd2 recapitulates a subset of findings seen in Pkd null animals. Our studies reveal a complex role for polycystins in maintaining vascular integrity.

  15. Working memory span in Persian-speaking children with speech sound disorders and normal speech development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Mohamad Reza; Ghorbani, Ali; Rashedi, Vahid; Jalilevand, Nahid; Kamali, Mohamad

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare working memory span in Persian-speaking preschool children with speech sound disorder (SSD) and their typically speaking peers. Additionally, the study aimed to examine Non-Word Repetition (NWR), Forward Digit Span (FDS) and Backward Digit Span (BDS) in four groups of children with varying severity levels of SSD. The participants in this study comprised 35 children with SSD and 35 typically developing (TD) children -matched for age and sex-as a control group. The participants were between the age range of 48 and 72 months. Two components of working memory including phonological loop and central executive were compared between two groups. We used two tasks (NWR and FDS) to assess phonological loop component, and one task (BDS) to assess central executive component. Percentage of correct consonants (PCC) was used to calculate the severity of SSD. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in all tasks that assess working memory (p memory between the various severity groups indicated significant differences between different severities of both NWR and FDS tasks among the SSD children (p  0.05). The result showed that PCC scores in TD children were associated with NWR (p  0.05). The working memory skills were weaker in SSD children, in comparison to TD children. In addition, children with varying levels of severity of SSD differed in terms of NWR and FSD, but not BDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cosmetics Europe compilation of historical serious eye damage/eye irritation in vivo data analysed by drivers of classification to support the selection of chemicals for development and evaluation of alternative methods/strategies: the Draize eye test Reference Database (DRD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, João; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Adriaens, Els; Alépée, Nathalie; Cluzel, Magalie; De Smedt, Ann; Hibatallah, Jalila; Klaric, Martina; Mewes, Karsten R; Millet, Marion; Templier, Marie; McNamee, Pauline

    2017-02-01

    A thorough understanding of which of the effects assessed in the in vivo Draize eye test are responsible for driving UN GHS/EU CLP classification is critical for an adequate selection of chemicals to be used in the development and/or evaluation of alternative methods/strategies and for properly assessing their predictive capacity and limitations. For this reason, Cosmetics Europe has compiled a database of Draize data (Draize eye test Reference Database, DRD) from external lists that were created to support past validation activities. This database contains 681 independent in vivo studies on 634 individual chemicals representing a wide range of chemical classes. A description of all the ocular effects observed in vivo, i.e. degree of severity and persistence of corneal opacity (CO), iritis, and/or conjunctiva effects, was added for each individual study in the database, and the studies were categorised according to their UN GHS/EU CLP classification and the main effect driving the classification. An evaluation of the various in vivo drivers of classification compiled in the database was performed to establish which of these are most important from a regulatory point of view. These analyses established that the most important drivers for Cat 1 Classification are (1) CO mean ≥ 3 (days 1-3) (severity) and (2) CO persistence on day 21 in the absence of severity, and those for Cat 2 classification are (3) CO mean ≥ 1 and (4) conjunctival redness mean ≥ 2. Moreover, it is shown that all classifiable effects (including persistence and CO = 4) should be present in ≥60 % of the animals to drive a classification. As a consequence, our analyses suggest the need for a critical revision of the UN GHS/EU CLP decision criteria for the Cat 1 classification of chemicals. Finally, a number of key criteria are identified that should be taken into consideration when selecting reference chemicals for the development, evaluation and/or validation of alternative methods and

  17. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser coagulation; Laser eye surgery; Photocoagulation; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic eye disease; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic retinopathy; Focal photocoagulation; Scatter (or pan retinal) photocoagulation; Proliferative ...

  18. Diurnal intraocular pressure changes in eyes affected with acute primary angle closure and fellow eyes after laser peripheral iridotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han Seok; Kim, Joon Mo; Shim, Seong Hee; Kim, Hyun Tae; Bae, Jeong Hun; Choi, Chul Young; Park, Ki Ho

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate diurnal curves of intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes affected with unilateral acute primary angle closure (APAC) after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI), and fellow eyes. The medical records of 22 female patients (44 eyes) with unilateral APAC and LPI performed OU were reviewed along with those of 48 normal control subjects (48 eyes). None of the subjects used glaucoma medications after LPI. IOP was measured with a Goldman applanation tonometer during waking hours and in a sitting position every 2 h between 09:00 and 23:00. IOP profiles were compared including the means, peaks, trough IOPs, and IOP fluctuations of the affected, fellow, and normal eyes. The IOPs of the affected eyes were significantly higher than those of normal eyes at every time point measured, including peak and trough IOPs. The diurnal IOPs of fellow eyes were higher than those of normal eyes, though not significantly. There were no significant differences in IOP fluctuation between the affected, fellow, and normal eyes. IOP diurnal curves for APAC affected, fellow, and normal eyes were not statistically different (repeated measures ANOVA, p = 0.865). The mean coefficient of IOP in affected and fellow eyes ranged from 0.486 to 0.604. There were no clinically significant differences among the three groups in terms of IOP diurnal curves, and thus LPI did not have a significant effect on diurnal patterns of IOP. Though the diurnal IOPs of affected eyes after LPI was significantly higher than those of normal eyes, the IOP range was not acute.

  19. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor actions in the embryonic testis influences normal cord development and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzumcu, Mehmet; Dirks, Kristen A; Skinner, Michael K

    2002-03-01

    Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are paracrine factors with roles in mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during normal and pathologic processes. Previously, PDGF and its receptor (PDGFR) have been shown to be present in perinatal, peripubertal, and adult rat testes. The role of PDGF in embryonic testicular cord formation is not known. The hypothesis tested is that PDGFs and PDGFRs are expressed during cord formation and that inhibition of their action influences normal cord formation during embryonic testis development. Embryonic Day (E) 13 gonadal organ cultures were used. Organs were cultured for 3 days and treated daily with vehicle or a PDGFR-specific tyrosine phosphorylation inhibitor (i.e., the tyrphostin AG1295 or AG1296). Vehicle-treated testes formed normal cords, whereas tyrphostin-treated testes formed "swollen cords," a phenomenon characterized by a significant decrease in the number of cords per testis area and increased cord diameter due to fusion of cords. Expression of PDGF and PDGFR in E13, E14, E16, Postnatal Day (P) 0, and P20 testes was examined. Messenger RNAs for PDGF-A and -B and PDGF alpha- and beta-receptors were expressed in isolated testes during all developmental periods examined. Immunoreactivity for PDGF was present throughout the testicular compartment at E14, restricted primarily to testicular cords at E16, and present in cells of the testicular cords with a stronger immunoreactivity in certain interstitial cell types of P0 testis. PDGFR beta-receptor immunoreactivity was primarily localized to the mesonephros of E14 organs and the testicular interstitium of E16 and P0 testes. Tyrphostins did not affect apoptotic cell number in the testis. PDGF had no effect on cell growth in P0 testis cultures. The results show that PDGFs and PDGFRs are expressed in embryonic testis during cord formation in a tissue-specific manner. Inhibition of PDGF actions does not inhibit cord formation but does alter normal cord development and

  20. Assessment of gait in toddlers with normal motor development and in hemiplegic children with mild motor impairment: a validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla R. P. Figueiredo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The optimization of gait performance is an important goal in the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy (CP who present a prognosis associated with locomotion. Gait analysis using videos captured by digital cameras requires validation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of a method that involves the analysis of videos captured using a digital camera for quantifying the temporal parameters of gait in toddlers with normal motor development and children with CP. METHOD: Eleven toddlers with normal motor development and eight children with spastic hemiplegia who were able to walk without assistive devices were asked to walk through a space contained in the visual field of two instruments: a digital camera and a three-dimensional motion analysis system, Qualisys Pro-Reflex. The duration of the stance and swing phases of gait and of the entire gait cycle were calculated by analyzing videos captured by a digital camera and compared to those obtained by Qualisys Pro-Reflex, which is considered a highly accurate system. RESULTS: The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC demonstrated excellent agreement (ICC>0.90 between the two procedures for all measurements, except for the swing phase of the normal toddlers (ICC=0.35. The standard error of measurement was less than 0.02 seconds for all measures. CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal similarities between the two instruments, suggesting that digital cameras can be valid instruments for quantifying two temporal parameters of gait. This congruence is of clinical and scientific relevance and validates the use of digital cameras as a resource for helping the assessment and documentation of the therapeutic effects of interventions targeted at the gait of children with CP.