Sample records for normal entry students

  1. Medical student satisfaction, coping and burnout in direct-entry versus graduate-entry programmes. (United States)

    DeWitt, Dawn; Canny, Benedict J; Nitzberg, Michael; Choudri, Jennifer; Porter, Sarah


    There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal length of medical training, with concern about the cost of prolonged training. Two simultaneous tracks currently exist in Australia: direct entry from high school and graduate entry for students with a bachelor degree. Medical schools are switching to graduate entry based on maturity, academic preparedness and career-choice surety. We tested the assumption that graduate entry is better by exploring student preferences, coping, burnout, empathy and alcohol use. From a potential pool of 2188 participants, enrolled at five Australian medical schools, a convenience sample of 688 (31%) first and second year students completed a survey in the middle of the academic year. Participants answered questions about demographics, satisfaction and coping and completed three validated instruments. Over 90% of students preferred their own entry-type, though more graduate-entry students were satisfied with their programme (82.4% versus 65.3%, p students in self-reported coping or in the proportion of students meeting criteria for burnout (50.7% versus 51.2%). Direct-entry students rated significantly higher for empathy (concern, p = 0.022; personal distress, p = 0.031). Graduate-entry students reported significantly more alcohol use and hazardous drinking (30.0% versus 22.8%; p = 0.017). Our multi-institution data confirm that students are generally satisfied with their choice of entry pathway and do not confirm significant psychosocial benefits of graduate entry. Overall, our data suggest that direct-entry students cope with the workload and psychosocial challenges of medical school, in the first 2 years, as well as graduate-entry students. Burnout and alcohol use should be addressed in both pathways. Despite studies showing similar academic outcomes, and higher total costs, more programmes in Australia are becoming graduate entry. Further research on non-cognitive issues and outcomes is needed so that universities, government

  2. Predictors of student success in entry-level science courses (United States)

    Singh, Mamta K.

    Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and their relationships to student achievement. However, the literature contains little information that specifically addresses student biology content knowledge skills (basics and higher order thinking skills) and identifies factors that affect students' success in entry-level college science courses. These gate-keeping courses require detailed evaluation if the goal of an institution is to increase students' performance and success in these courses. These factors are, in fact, a stepping stone for increasing the number of graduates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors. The present study measured students' biology content knowledge and investigated students' performance and success in college biology, chemistry, and physics entry-level courses. Seven variables---gender, ethnicity, high school Grade Point Average (GPA), high school science, college major, school financial aid support, and work hours were used as independent variables and course final performance as a dichotomous dependent variable. The sample comprised voluntary student participants in entry-level science courses. The study attempted to explore eight research questions. Content knowledge assessments, demographic information analysis, multiple regression analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis were used to address research questions. The results suggested that high school GPA was a consistently good predictor of students' performance and success in entry-level science courses. Additionally, high school chemistry was a significant predictor variable for student success in entry-level biology and chemistry courses

  3. 31 CFR 585.520 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... account; and (2) Make book entries against any foreign currency account maintained by it with a financial... charges in connection therewith. (b) As used in this section, the term normal service charge shall include...

  4. 31 CFR 538.504 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) U.S. financial institutions are... reimbursement for normal service charges owed to such U.S. financial institution by the owner of such blocked account. (b) As used in this section, the term normal service charge shall include charges in payment or...

  5. 31 CFR 597.504 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... Licensing Policy § 597.504 Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) U.S... institution in payment or reimbursement for normal service charges owed to such U.S. financial institution by the owner of such blocked account. (b) As used in this section, the term normal service charge shall...

  6. 31 CFR 595.505 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) U.S. financial institutions are... reimbursement for normal service charges owed to such U.S. financial institution by the owner of such blocked account. (b) As used in this section, the term normal service charge shall include charges in payment or...

  7. 31 CFR 536.505 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... § 536.505 Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) U.S. financial... or reimbursement for normal service charges owed to such U.S. financial institution by the owner of such blocked account. (b) As used in this section, the term normal service charge shall include charges...

  8. 31 CFR 598.506 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... Policy § 598.506 Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) U.S. financial... reimbursement for normal service charges owed to such U.S. financial institution by the owner of such blocked account. (b) As used in this section, the term normal service charges includes but is not limited to...

  9. 31 CFR 544.505 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... payment or reimbursement for normal service charges owed it by the owner of that blocked account. (b) As... Licensing Policy § 544.505 Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) A U.S... adjustment charges to correct bookkeeping errors; and, but not by way of limitation, minimum balance charges...

  10. 31 CFR 593.505 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... payment or reimbursement for normal service charges owed it by the owner of that blocked account. (b) As... Licensing Policy § 593.505 Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) A U.S... adjustment charges to correct bookkeeping errors; and, but not by way of limitation, minimum balance charges...

  11. 31 CFR 543.505 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... reimbursement for normal service charges owed it by the owner of that blocked account. (b) As used in this....505 Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) A U.S. financial... charges to correct bookkeeping errors; and, but not by way of limitation, minimum balance charges, notary...

  12. 31 CFR 547.505 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... reimbursement for normal service charges owed it by the owner of that blocked account. (b) As used in this... Policy § 547.505 Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) A U.S. financial... charges to correct bookkeeping errors; and, but not by way of limitation, minimum balance charges, notary...

  13. 31 CFR 537.505 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... normal service charges owed it by the owner of that blocked account. (b) As used in this section, the... Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) A U.S. financial institution is... bookkeeping errors; and, but not by way of limitation, minimum balance charges, notary and protest fees, and...

  14. 31 CFR 594.505 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... reimbursement for normal service charges owed it by the owner of that blocked account. (b) As used in this....505 Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) A U.S. financial... to correct bookkeeping errors; and, but not by way of limitation, minimum balance charges, notary and...

  15. 31 CFR 541.505 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... normal service charges owed it by the owner of that blocked account. (b) As used in this section, the... Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) A U.S. financial institution is... bookkeeping errors; and, but not by way of limitation, minimum balance charges, notary and protest fees, and...

  16. 31 CFR 586.508 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... institution by the owner of such blocked account. (b) As used in this section, the term normal service charge..., and Statements of Licensing Policy § 586.508 Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges... by way of limitation, minimum balance charges, notary and protest fees, and charges for reference...

  17. 31 CFR 548.505 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... normal service charges owed it by the owner of that blocked account. (b) As used in this section, the... Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) A U.S. financial institution is... bookkeeping errors; and, but not by way of limitation, minimum balance charges, notary and protest fees, and...

  18. 31 CFR 588.505 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... reimbursement for normal service charges owed it by the owner of that blocked account. (b) As used in this... § 588.505 Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) A U.S. financial... to correct bookkeeping errors; and, but not by way of limitation, minimum balance charges, notary and...

  19. 31 CFR 546.505 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... normal service charges owed it by the owner of that blocked account. (b) As used in this section, the... Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) A U.S. financial institution is... bookkeeping errors; and, but not by way of limitation, minimum balance charges, notary and protest fees, and...

  20. 31 CFR 540.504 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... Statements of Licensing Policy § 540.504 Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) A U.S. financial institution is authorized to debit any blocked account held by that financial institution in payment or reimbursement for normal service charges owed to it by the owner of the blocked...

  1. 31 CFR 542.505 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... normal service charges owed it by the owner of that blocked account. (b) As used in this section, the... Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) A U.S. financial institution is... bookkeeping errors; and, but not by way of limitation, minimum balance charges, notary and protest fees, and...

  2. 31 CFR 545.504 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... reimbursement for normal service charges owed it by the owner of that blocked account. (b) As used in this... § 545.504 Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) A U.S. financial... to correct bookkeeping errors; and, but not by way of limitation, minimum balance charges, notary and...

  3. 31 CFR 551.505 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... normal service charges owed it by the owner of that blocked account. (b) As used in this section, the... Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (a) A U.S. financial institution is... bookkeeping errors; and, but not by way of limitation, minimum balance charges, notary and protest fees, and...

  4. Attainment of gross motor milestones by preterm children with normal development upon school entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dokkum, Nienke H; de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Kerstjens, Jorien M

    BACKGROUND: Little is known on the motor development of moderately preterm born (MPT) children, in comparison with early preterm born (EPT) children and fullterm born (FT), for children with normal motor outcomes at school entry. AIMS: To compare attainment rates of gross motor milestones reached

  5. Entry knowledge and situational feedback of MBBS students. (United States)

    Sharma, S C; Maharjan, S


    A need has been felt to acquire knowledge of students at Kathmandu Medical College (KMC) who have decided to take up a medical career and have enrolled at KMC after completing two years of basic sciences. The intent was to (i) find out the entering status with regard to general knowledge, (ii) get feedback from the students about the facilities provided by the management both at basic sciences complex at Duwakot and clinical sciences at Sinamangal and (iii) get feedback regarding the teaching learning activities provided by various departments in KMC. This attempt at getting their point of view was for trying to improve upon the facilities by taking up their suggestions and doing away with the weaknesses. Preference was given to hostel students as they would be able to comment on living conditions. A total of 150 students from three consecutive batches from basic and clinical sciences were included in the study. Survey questionnaires were distributed and all the forms were returned. The obtained data was analyzed using SPSS 11.5 version for Windows. It was found that the entry knowledge on general issue was better in 6th batch of students (87.08+/-17.41) than 5th batch (82.19+/-17.43) and 7th batch (78.93+/-20.60), but not significant (p=0.164>0.05). The students in different batches differed in their rating of various facilities provided by KMCTH. The most liked departments in terms of teaching learning activities were departments of Anatomy and Pathology. Entry knowledge of the students of three batches was found to differ but not significant, correlating with the amount of teaching and learning received at KMC. The facilities provided by KMC were perceived as more satisfactory by the students who enrolled at KMC in later years. The earlier students had to cope with more difficulties as KMC was trying to improve on various facilities it provided to its students. Level of entry knowledge got better as the students attained more and more years of teaching and

  6. Externally studentized normal midrange distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Dêivide de Oliveira Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of externally studentized midrange was created based on the original studentization procedures of Student and was inspired in the distribution of the externally studentized range. The large use of the externally studentized range in multiple comparisons was also a motivation for developing this new distribution. This work aimed to derive analytic equations to distribution of the externally studentized midrange, obtaining the cumulative distribution, probability density and quantile functions and generating random values. This is a new distribution that the authors could not find any report in the literature. A second objective was to build an R package for obtaining numerically the probability density, cumulative distribution and quantile functions and make it available to the scientific community. The algorithms were proposed and implemented using Gauss-Legendre quadrature and the Newton-Raphson method in R software, resulting in the SMR package, available for download in the CRAN site. The implemented routines showed high accuracy proved by using Monte Carlo simulations and by comparing results with different number of quadrature points. Regarding to the precision to obtain the quantiles for cases where the degrees of freedom are close to 1 and the percentiles are close to 100%, it is recommended to use more than 64 quadrature points.

  7. A case study of non-traditional students re-entry into college physics and engineering (United States)

    Langton, Stewart Gordon

    Two groups of students in introductory physics courses of an Access Program for engineering technologies were the subjects of this study. Students with a wide range of academic histories and abilities were enrolled in the program; many of the students were re-entry and academically unprepared for post-secondary education. Five years of historical data were evaluated to use as a benchmark for revised instruction. Data were gathered to describe the pre-course academic state of the students and their academic progress during two physics courses. Additional information was used to search for factors that might constrain academic success and as feedback for the instructional methods. The data were interpreted to regulate constructivist design features for the physics courses. The Engineering Technology Access Program was introduced to meet the demand from non-traditional students for admission to two-year engineering' technology programs, but who did not meet normal academic requirements. The duration of the Access Program was two terms for electronic and computer engineering students and three terms for civil and mechanical engineering students. The sequence of mathematics and physics courses was different for the two groups. The Civil/Mechanical students enrolled in their first mathematics course before undertaking their first physics course. The first mathematics and physics courses for the Electronics students were concurrent. Academic success in the two groups was affected by this difference. Over a five-year period the success rate of students graduating with a technology diploma was approximately twenty-five percent. Results from this study indicate that it was possible to reduce the very high attrition in the combined Access/Technology Programs. While the success rate for the Electronics students increased to 38% the rate for the Civil/Mechanical students increased dramatically to 77%. It is likely that several factors, related to the extra term in the Access

  8. Students' Understanding of Dictionary Entries: A Study with Respect to Four Learners' Dictionaries. (United States)

    Jana, Abhra; Amritavalli, Vijaya; Amritavalli, R.


    Investigates the effects of definitional information in the form of dictionary entries, on second language learners' vocabulary learning in an instructed setting. Indian students (Native Hindi speakers) of English received monolingual English dictionary entries of five previously unknown words from four different learner's dictionaries. Results…

  9. Exploring Efficacy in Negotiating Support: Women Re-Entry Students in Higher Education (United States)

    Filipponi-Berardinelli, Josephine Oriana


    The existing literature on women re-entry students reveals that women students concurrently struggle with family, work, and sometimes health issues. Women students often do not receive adequate support from their partners or from other sources in helping manage the multiple roles that compete for their time, and often face constraints that affect…

  10. Predictors of Student Success in Entry-Level Science Courses (United States)

    Singh, Mamta K.


    Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and…

  11. Which Tier? Effects of Linear Assessment and Student Characteristics on GCSE Entry Decisions (United States)

    Vitello, Sylvia; Crawford, Cara


    In England, students obtain General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) qualifications, typically at age 16. Certain GCSEs are tiered; students take either higher-level (higher tier) or lower-level (foundation tier) exams, which may have different educational, career and psychological consequences. In particular, foundation tier entry, if…

  12. Entry-Level Employment Prospects for Women in College-Student Personnel Work. (United States)

    Kuh, George D.


    Women are no longer underrepresented in student personnel preparation programs. However, an increased number of female master's degree graduates are seeking a limited number of entry-level positions. Women (and men) should be made aware of the inherent free-market employment risks when contemplating a career in student personnel work. (Author)

  13. Exploring Self-Efficacy among Entry-Level and Advanced BSW Students (United States)

    Simmons, Christopher; Fisher, Amy Killen; Barnard, Marie; Allen, Susan C.


    This study compared a sample of entry-level and advanced BSW students, who completed pretest and posttest self-efficacy measures, to assess their level of confidence in performing social work tasks after 15 weeks of instruction. By the end of the semester, only advanced students made significant gains in self-efficacy beliefs, and they showed a…

  14. Change between Entry and Graduation in MSW Student Views on Social Work's Traditional Mission, Career Motivations, and Practice Preferences: Caucasian, Student of Color, and American Indian Group Comparisons (United States)

    Limb, Gordon E.; Organista, Kurt C.


    The current study builds on a previous study that examined change in student views on social work's traditional mission, career motivations, and practice preferences between entry into and graduation from master of social work programs. Results from 6,987 students at entry and 3,451 students at graduation showed that students at graduation…

  15. 31 CFR 587.505 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges authorized. (United States)


    ... charges authorized. (a) A U.S. financial institution is authorized to debit any blocked account held at that financial institution in payment or reimbursement for normal service charges owed it by the owner of that blocked account. (b) As used in this section, the term normal service charge shall include...

  16. Retail Merchandising Competencies: A Comparison of Perceptions among Entry-Level Managers, Educators, Recruiters, and Students. (United States)

    McCuaig, Shauna; And Others


    Responses from 38 of 184 retailing graduates, 24 of 111 recruiters in the apparel field, 58 of 200 retail merchandising educators, and 45 of 47 current students found that differences in their ratings of the importance of 53 competencies for entry workers centered on three factors: merchandising, leadership, and monitoring. (SK)

  17. The Relationship between Entry Motivation and Professional Satisfaction of No-Fee Preservice Students (United States)

    Li, Ling; Huang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Xingchun; Han, Yumei


    This study used expectancy-value theory to better understand no-fee teacher education and improve the relevant educational methods and policies. It applies a self-developed scale, derived from the theory, to identify entry motivation and professional satisfaction levels among no-fee teacher education students (N = 700) at Southwest University. The…

  18. 31 CFR 515.509 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges. (United States)


    ... against any foreign currency account maintained by it with a banking institution in a designated foreign... therewith. (b) As used in this section, the term normal service charge shall include charges in payment or...

  19. 31 CFR 500.509 - Entries in certain accounts for normal service charges. (United States)


    ... against any foreign currency account maintained by it with a banking institution in any designated foreign... therewith. (b) As used in this section, the term normal service charge shall include charges in payment or...

  20. Demographic attributes and knowledge acquisition among graduate-entry medical students. (United States)

    Finucane, Paul; Flannery, Denise; McGrath, Deirdre; Saunders, Jean


    Recent changes to undergraduate (basic) medical education in Ireland have linked an expansion of student numbers with wide-ranging reforms. Medical schools have broadened access by admitting more mature students from diverse backgrounds and have increased their international student numbers. This has resulted in major changes to the demographic profile of students at Irish medical schools. To determine whether the demographic characteristics of students impact on their academic performance and specifically on their rate of knowledge acquisition. As a formative assessment exercise, we administered a progress test to all students twice each year during a 4 year graduate-entry medical programme. We compared scores over time between students from different age cohorts, of different gender, of different nationalities and from different academic backgrounds. In the 1143 tests taken by 285 students to date, there were no significant differences in the rate of knowledge acquisition between the various groups. Early in the course, students from a non-biological science background performed less well than others but outperformed their peers by the time of graduation. Neither age, gender, nationality nor academic background impacts on the rate of knowledge acquisition among graduate-entry medical students.

  1. Improving secondary prevention screening in clinical encounters using mhealth among prelicensure master's entry clinical nursing students. (United States)

    FitzGerald, Leah Z; Rorie, Anne; Salem, Benissa E


    To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a mHealth application among nursing students for health promotion and secondary prevention health recommendations for hospitalized adult patients. A pretest-posttest design with a convenience sample of 169 prelicensure master's entry clinical nursing students in a large urban public university. Survey questions assessed intention to use, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, subjective norm, voluntariness, clinical area relevance, output quality, and result demonstrability of the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) evidence-based practice guidelines via the mHealth application. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were used to explore sociodemographics; paired t-tests were used to evaluate pre- and posttest differences. Pre- and posttest significant differences (p technology among prelicensure master's entry clinical nursing students in order to engage and foster translational learning and improve dissemination of secondary prevention screening guidelines among hospitalized patients. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  2. Clinical instructors' perceptions of behaviors that comprise entry-level clinical performance in physical therapist students: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Jette, Diane U; Bertoni, Alicia; Coots, Renee; Johnson, Heidi; McLaughlin, Catherine; Weisbach, Cody


    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore clinical instructors' (CIs) perceptions of students' behaviors that comprise entry-level clinical performance, as well as how those perceptions were integrated into their decision making. The participants were 21 physical therapists who were CIs for physical therapist students. Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted interviews, asking the question, "What is it about students' performance that makes you see them as entry-level therapists?" We determined common themes among the interviews and developed a schema to explain the decision-making process. Participants identified 7 attributes that, when demonstrated to a sufficient degree, illustrated to them students' ability to practice at the entry level. Those attributes were knowledge, clinical skills, safety, clinical decision making, self-directed learning, interpersonal communication, and professional demeanor. Participants viewed these attributes in concert to form a subjective "gut feeling" that a student demonstrated entry-level performance. A final theme emerged suggesting a definition of entry-level performance as "mentored independence." Participants reported evaluating students' performance based on attributes similar to those suggested by the American Physical Therapy Association's Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument and previous research. However, subjectivity also was involved in their decision about whether students were able to practice at the entry level. Participants also concluded that entry-level students need not be independent in all clinical situations.

  3. An investigation on normal school students’ learning burnout – A case study of English normal students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjing Xu


    Full Text Available Learning burnout is a phenomenon in which students hold a negative attitude to curriculum learning, which manifests in aspects of physiology, psychology, behavior and interpersonal communication. China attaches great importance to higher education, colleges and universities shoulder the important task of training national modernization personnel. The problem of university students’ learning burnout has become a social phenomenon that cannot be ignored. Normal university students are one of the important groups of college students, and this phenomenon of learning burnout may also occur among them. English majors are the backbone of English teachers in primary and secondary schools in the future. The learning status of these groups affects the overall quality of teaching in normal colleges and universities and, more importantly, the quality of teachers in primary and secondary schools in the future. This paper first reviews the definition of learning burnout and the research methods of measurement. Subsequently, it investigates the learning burnout of English matriculation students by taking the first-year English majors of Jiangxi Normal University as an example. In this way, this research is hoped to promote the study on learning burnout not only among English normal students but also other normal students.

  4. Students' experiences of embedded academic literacy support in a graduate entry nursing program: A qualitative study. (United States)

    Ramjan, Lucie M; Maneze, Della; Everett, Bronwyn; Glew, Paul; Trajkovski, Suza; Lynch, Joan; Salamonson, Yenna


    Graduate entry nursing (GEN) programs were designed to address the predicted nursing shortfall. In Australia, although these programs attract students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds, the workload is compounded by cultural differences and a new academic learning environment which presents additional challenges. This qualitative descriptive study explored the experiences of GEN students enrolled in the introductory unit of their nursing program with embedded academic literacy support in Sydney, Australia. Twenty-four commencing GEN students were interviewed in January 2016. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Three main themes emerged which illustrated that GEN students were 'diamonds in the rough'. They possessed a raw natural beauty that required some shaping and polishing to ensure academic needs were met. To ensure retention is high, institutions need to evaluate how best to support and harness the potential of these unique students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using Competencies to Assess Entry-Level Knowledge of Students Graduating from Parks and Recreation Academic Programs (United States)

    Hurd, Amy R.; Elkins, Daniel J.; Beggs, Brent A.


    To address the Council on Accreditation of Parks, Recreation, Tourism, and Related Professions accreditation standard 7.01.01, the Entry Level Competency Assessment was developed to measure 46 competencies in four categories needed by entry level professionals. Students rated their competence prior to beginning their senior internship. The results…

  6. Normal Haematological Values Of Nigerian Students As Seen In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the normal haematological values of secondary school students. Age range 11 – 22 years. Design: Venous blood samples were collected from students of three secondary schools at Anambra State. Settings: The samples were collected with sterile syringes and needles into haeparinized bottles and ...

  7. A case study exploring the experience of graduate entry nursing students when learning in practice. (United States)

    Stacey, Gemma; Pollock, Kristian; Crawford, Paul


    To explore how Graduate Entry Nursing students present and position themselves in practice in response to anti-intellectualist stereotypes and assessment structures. A complex background turbulence exists in nurse education which incorporates both pro- and anti-intellectualist positions. This represents a potentially challenging learning environment for students who are recruited onto pre-registration programmes designed to attract graduates into the nursing profession on the basis of the specific attributes they bring known as 'graduateness'. A longitudinal qualitative case study conducted over 2 years. Data were collected from eight Graduate Entry Nursing students at 6 monthly points between 2009-2011 via diaries, clinical assessment documentation and interviews. Forty interviews took place over 2 years. Additionally, three focus groups involving 12 practice assessors were conducted at the end of the study period. Data were analysed through a social constructivist lens and compared with a set of suppositions informed by existing empirical and theoretical debates. Demonstrated the interplay of performance strategies adopted by Graduate Entry Nursing students to challenge or pre-empt actual or perceived negative stereotypes held by established practitioners to gain acceptance, reduce threat and be judged as appropriately competent. Students interpreted and responded to, perceived stereotypes of nursing practice they encountered in ways which facilitated the most advantageous outcome for themselves as individuals. The data present the creative and self-affirming strategies which students adopted in response to the expectations generated by these stereotypes. They also depict how such strategies commonly involved suppression of the attributes associated with 'graduateness'. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prior academic background and student performance in assessment in a graduate entry programme. (United States)

    Craig, P L; Gordon, J J; Clark, R M; Langendyk, V


    This study aims to identify whether non-science graduates perform as well as science graduates in Basic and Clinical Sciences (B & CS) assessments during Years 1-3 of a four-year graduate-entry programme at the University of Sydney (the 'USydMP'). Students were grouped into five categories: Health Professions (HP), Biomedical Sciences (BMS), Other Biology (BIOL), Physical Sciences (PHYS) or Non-Science (NONS). We examined the performance rank of students in each of the five groups for single best answer (SBA) and modified essay (MEQ) assessments separately, and also calculated the relative risk of failure in the summative assessments in Years 2 and 3. Students with science-based prior degrees performed better in the SBA assessments. The same occurred initially in the MEQs, but the effect diminished with time. The HP students performed consistently better but converged with other groups over time, particularly in the MEQs. Relative performance by the NONS students improved with time in both assessment formats. Overall, differences between the highest and lowest groups were small and very few students failed to meet the overall standard for the summative assessments. HP and BMS students had the lowest failure rate. NONS students were more likely to fail the assessments in Year 2 and 3, but their pass rates were still high. Female students performed significantly better overall at the end of Year 2 and in Year 3. There were only minor differences between Australian resident and International students. While there are small differences in performance in B & CS early in the programme, these lessen with time. The study results will inform decisions regarding timing of summative assessments, selection policy and for providing additional support to students who need it to minimize their risk of failure. Readers should note that this paper refers to student performance in only one of the four curriculum themes, where health professional and science graduates would be

  9. Re-Entry Women Students in Higher Education: A Model for Non-Traditional Support Programs in Counseling and Career Advisement. (United States)

    Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    A model program of support for non-traditional women students has been developed at Texas Woman's University (TWU). Based on a pilot study, several steps were taken to assist these re-entry students at TWU. For example, in spring semester of 1983, a committee for re-entry students was established, with a student organization--Women in…

  10. Looking is not seeing and listening is not hearing: effect of an intervention to enhance auditory skills of graduate-entry nursing students. (United States)

    Pellico, Linda Honan; Duffy, Thomas C; Fennie, Kristopher P; Swan, Katharine A


    Inspection/observation and listening/auscultation are essential skills for health care providers. Given that observational and auditory skills take time to perfect, there is concern about accelerated students' ability to attain proficiency in a timely manner. This article describes the impact of music auditory training (MAT) for nursing students in an accelerated master's entry program on their competence in detecting heart, lung, and bowel sounds. During the first semester, a two-hour MAT session with focused attention on pitch, timbre, rhythm, and masking was held for the intervention group; a control group received traditional instruction only. Students in the music intervention group demonstrated significant improvement in hearing bowel, heart, and lung sounds (p < .0001). The ability to label normal and abnormal heart sounds doubled; interpretation of normal and abnormal lung sounds improved by 50 percent; and bowel sounds interpretation improved threefold, demonstrating the effect of an adult-oriented, creative, yet practical method for teaching auscultation.

  11. Accuracy and readability of cardiovascular entries on Wikipedia: are they reliable learning resources for medical students? (United States)

    Azer, Samy A; AlSwaidan, Nourah M; Alshwairikh, Lama A; AlShammari, Jumana M


    To evaluate accuracy of content and readability level of English Wikipedia articles on cardiovascular diseases, using quality and readability tools. Wikipedia was searched on the 6 October 2013 for articles on cardiovascular diseases. Using a modified DISCERN (DISCERN is an instrument widely used in assessing online resources), articles were independently scored by three assessors. The readability was calculated using Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. The inter-rater agreement between evaluators was calculated using the Fleiss κ scale. This study was based on 47 English Wikipedia entries on cardiovascular diseases. The DISCERN scores had a median=33 (IQR=6). Four articles (8.5%) were of good quality (DISCERN score 40-50), 39 (83%) moderate (DISCERN 30-39) and 4 (8.5%) were poor (DISCERN 10-29). Although the entries covered the aetiology and the clinical picture, there were deficiencies in the pathophysiology of diseases, signs and symptoms, diagnostic approaches and treatment. The number of references varied from 1 to 127 references; 25.9±29.4 (mean±SD). Several problems were identified in the list of references and citations made in the articles. The readability of articles was 14.3±1.7 (mean±SD); consistent with the readability level for college students. In comparison, Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 18th edition had more tables, less references and no significant difference in number of graphs, images, illustrations or readability level. The overall agreement between the evaluators was good (Fleiss κ 0.718 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.83). The Wikipedia entries are not aimed at a medical audience and should not be used as a substitute to recommended medical resources. Course designers and students should be aware that Wikipedia entries on cardiovascular diseases lack accuracy, predominantly due to errors of omission. Further improvement of the Wikipedia content of cardiovascular entries would be needed before they could be considered a supplementary resource

  12. Measuring What High-Achieving Students Know and Can Do on Entry to School: PIPS 2002-2008 (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Styles, Irene


    Anecdotal evidence from teachers in Western Australia suggested that increasing numbers of on-entry students have been performing at high levels over recent years on the Performance Indicators in Primary Schools Baseline Assessment (PIPS-BLA). This paper reports the results of an investigation into the performance of high-scoring students. Data…

  13. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for the Market Economy: An Investigation of Student Perceptions before and after China's WTO Entry (United States)

    Stivers, Bonnie P.; Veliyath, Raj; Joyce, Teresa; Adams, Janet S.


    This exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China sought to determine the managerial knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are perceived as important for the Chinese market economy. Questionnaire responses were collected from 145 business students in 2001 (before China's WTO entry) and 141 business students in 2006 (after…

  14. Academic performance of students admitted with different entry certificate in Nigeria certificate in education programme in federal college of education (technical, Omoku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japo Oweikeye Morto Amasuomo


    Full Text Available The study was an attempt to determine the levels of academic performance of two groups of students admitted with different entry certificates in the Nigeria certificate in Education (NCE Technical Programme and to find out whether both groups differ significantly in performance. Seventy (70 first year Technical students of the Federal College of Education (Technical, Omoku during the 2011/2012 academic session were used for the study. The data consisted of raw scores obtained by these students in five (5 courses. The Arithmetic Means and t-test were used to analyze the data. Reliability of t-test results were ascertained by the use of f-test of group variances. The study established that the secondary school certificate students performed significantly better than their City and Guilds certificate counterparts, and the both groups differed significantly in other academic performance. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  15. Diagnosing and treating Enquiry Based Learning fatigue in Graduate Entry Nursing students. (United States)

    Stacey, Gemma; Wilson, Claire; Reddy, Helen; Palmer, Chris; Henderson, James; Little, Hannah; Bull, Heather


    The use of student directed study approaches such as Enquiry Based Learning (EBL) in the design and implementation of Graduate Entry Nursing Circular is well established. The rational relates to the maximisation of graduate attributes such as motivation to learn, the ability to identify, search and assimilate relevant literature and the desire to take ownership of the direction and pace of learning. Existing alongside this however, is the observation that students remain under confident in the application of knowledge to a clinical context and frustrated with learning approaches which do not appear directly related to improving their competence in this area. We suggest the result of this is a gradual disengagement and dissatisfaction the learning forum amongst students and faculty, which we have defined as EBL fatigue. The symptoms and consequences of EBL fatigue amongst students and faculty are discussed alongside strategies which we suggest may act as preventative measures in reducing the risk of a local epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Data Entry Skills in a Computer-based Spread Sheet Amongst Postgraduate Medical Students: A Simulation Based Descriptive Assessment. (United States)

    Khan, Amir Maroof; Shah, Dheeraj; Chatterjee, Pranab


    In India, research work in the form of a thesis is a mandatory requirement for the postgraduate (PG) medical students. Data entry in a computer-based spread sheet is one of the important basic skills for research, which has not yet been studied. This study was conducted to assess the data entry skills of the 2(nd) year PG medical students of a medical college of North India. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among 111 second year PG students by using four simulated filled case record forms and a computer-based spread sheet in which data entry was to be carried out. On a scale of 0-10, only 17.1% of the students scored more than seven. The specific sub-skills that were found to be lacking in more than half of the respondents were as follows: Inappropriate coding (93.7%), long variable names (51.4%), coding not being done for all the variables (76.6%), missing values entered in a non-uniform manner (84.7%) and two variables entered in the same column in the case of blood pressure reading (80.2%). PG medical students were not found to be proficient in data entry skill and this can act as a barrier to do research. This being a first of its kind study in India, more research is needed to understand this issue and then include this yet neglected aspect in teaching research methodology to the medical students.

  17. Assessing Learning Styles of Graduate Entry Nursing Students as a Classroom Research Activity: A quantitative research study. (United States)

    Gonzales, Lucia K; Glaser, Dale; Howland, Lois; Clark, Mary Jo; Hutchins, Susie; Macauley, Karen; Close, Jacqueline F; Leveque, Noelle Lipkin; Failla, Kim Reina; Brooks, Raelene; Ward, Jillian


    A number of studies across different disciplines have investigated students' learning styles. Differences are known to exist between graduate and baccalaureate nursing students. However, few studies have investigated the learning styles of students in graduate entry nursing programs. . Study objective was to describe graduate entry nursing students' learning styles. A descriptive design was used for this study. The Index of Learning Styles (ILS) was administered to 202 graduate entry nursing student volunteers at a southwestern university. Descriptive statistics, tests of association, reliability, and validity were performed. Graduate nursing students and faculty participated in data collection, analysis, and dissemination of the results. Predominant learning styles were: sensing - 82.7%, visual - 78.7%, sequential - 65.8%, and active - 59.9%. Inter-item reliabilities for the postulated subscales were: sensing/intuitive (α=0.70), visual/verbal (α=0.694), sequential/global (α=0.599), and active/reflective (α=0.572). Confirmatory factor analysis for results of validity were: χ 2 (896)=1110.25, pnursing students. This study provided faculty with numerous opportunities for actively engaging students in data collection, analysis, and dissemination of results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The importance, impact and influence of group clinical supervision for graduate entry nursing students. (United States)

    Sheppard, Fiona; Stacey, Gemma; Aubeeluck, Aimee


    This paper will report on an evaluation of group clinical supervision (CS) facilitated for graduate entry nursing (GEN) students whilst on clinical placement. The literature suggests educational forums which enable GEN students to engage in critical dialogue, promote reflective practice and ongoing support are an essential element of GEN curricula. The model of supervision employed was informed by Proctor's three function interactive CS model and Inskipp and Proctor's Supervision Alliance. Both emphasise the normative, formative and restorative functions of CS as task areas within an overarching humanistic supervisory approach. The three-function model informed the design of a questionnaire which intended to measure their importance, impact and influence through both structured and open-ended questions. Findings suggest the restorative function of supervision is most valued and is facilitated in an environment where humanistic principles of non-judgement, empathy and trust are clearly present. Also the opportunity to learn from others, consider alternative perspectives and question personal assumptions regarding capability and confidence are a priority for this student group. It is suggested that the restorative function of CS should be prioritised within future developments and models which view this function as a key purpose of CS should be explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of graduate-entry and direct school leaver student performance on an applied dental knowledge test. (United States)

    Ali, K; Zahra, D; Tredwin, C


    To compare the academic performance of graduate-entry and direct school leavers in an undergraduate dental programme. This study examined the results of students in applied dental knowledge (ADK) progress tests conducted during two academic years. A mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the performance of graduate-entry and direct school leavers. ADK was treated as a repeated measures variable, and the outcome variable of interest was percentage score on the ADK. The results show statistically significant main effects for ADK [F (1,113) = 61.58, P < 0.001, η 2 p = 0.35], Cohort [F (1,113) = 88.57, P < 0.001, η 2 p = 0.44] and Entry [F (1,113) = 11.31, P = 0.001, η 2 p = 0.09]. That is, students do better on each subsequent test (main effect of ADK), students in later years of the programme perform better than those in earlier years (main effect of cohort), and graduate-entry students outperform direct school leavers. This is the first study to explore the differences in the academic performance of graduate-entry and direct school leavers in an undergraduate dental programme. The results show that the academic performance of graduate students was better than the direct school leavers in years 2 and 3. Further research is required to compare the performance of students longitudinally across the entire duration of undergraduate dental programmes and evaluate whether this difference persists throughout. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Intrinsic component of resilience among entry level medical students in the United Arab Emirates

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    Mehzabin Ahmed


    Full Text Available BackgroundResilience is the capacity to recover and to cope successfullywith everyday challenges. Resilience has intrinsic andextrinsic components and an effort has been made to studythe intrinsic component and its association with sociodemographicfactors, among the entry level students of theIntegrated Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery(MBBS course.MethodThe present study was conducted in Gulf MedicalUniversity, using a self-administered questionnaire,comprising of two parts, distributed to all the students whoconsented to participate. The first part contained questionson socio-demographic details while the second partcontained questions on the intrinsic and extrinsiccomponents of resilience of the students. The datacollected was analysed using Predictive Analytic Software(PASW 18.0 using frequency, mean, SD and median.ResultsAmong the 58 students who participated 24 (41.4% weremales and 34 (58.6% females, of which 70.7% were 20years. The mean score for the intrinsiccomponent of resilience was 48.9 (SD, 5 and range 35–60.The median scores showed no significant variation (p<0.05with age, gender, religion, nationality, family structure,highest education among parents, the person they sharetheir feelings with or the number of friends. However,minimally higher scores were noted in the median scores ofstudents from nuclear families, with Western nationalityand those whose parents had a university level education,who shared their feelings with people of their owngeneration or outside their family and who have 5–9friends.ConclusionThe intrinsic component of resilience was found to bealmost uniform for the study group and the level is high. Astudy has to further look into its effect on coping with thestresses encountered during the academic year.

  1. Project-based fieldwork: perspectives of graduate entry students and project sponsors. (United States)

    Fortune, Tracy; McKinstry, Carol


    This article builds on an earlier viewpoint regarding the need for project-focussed fieldwork. It presents the findings of an evaluative study into the value of project placements undertaken by final year graduate entry master's students as part of a capstone subject. The authors argue that provision of project placements enable impending graduates to develop and implement macro level strategies to develop prevention, resource and service development skills often required of contemporary occupational therapy practitioners. A qualitative approach is adopted. Student cohorts from 2005 and 2006 completed open-ended, written questionnaires, and agency project sponsors were interviewed to obtain their perspectives of the project placement experience. Despite some concern that project placements might be undertaken at the expense of 'clinical' placements these findings reveal that projects managed by students were perceived by services to add great value enabling them to advance important priorities. Students and sponsors highlighted a range of positive learning outcomes, including the ability to work collaboratively with supervisors and develop advanced communication skills and political acumen. The success of such placements depends on supportive supervision from academic staff. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: The findings promote project placements as a highly authentic aspect of work integrated learning enabling learners to draw together a range of attributes that support the ability to manage complex issues that have occupational relevance at a macro level. In addition, such experiences help learners to develop agency and political acumen both increasingly important capabilities for the contemporary workplace. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  2. Comparing the Social Skills of Students Addicted to Computer Games with Normal Students


    Zamani, Eshrat; Kheradmand, Ali; Cheshmi, Maliheh; Abedi, Ahmad; Hedayati, Nasim


    Background This study aimed to investigate and compare the social skills of studentsaddicted to computer games with normal students. The dependentvariable in the present study is the social skills. Methods The study population included all the students in the second grade ofpublic secondary school in the city of Isfahan at the educational year of2009-2010. The sample size included 564 students selected using thecluster random sampling method. Data collection was conducted usingQuestionnaire o...

  3. Data entry skills in a computer-based spread sheet amongst postgraduate medical students: A simulation based descriptive assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Maroof Khan


    Full Text Available Background: In India, research work in the form of a thesis is a mandatory requirement for the postgraduate (PG medical students. Data entry in a computer-based spread sheet is one of the important basic skills for research, which has not yet been studied. This study was conducted to assess the data entry skills of the 2 nd year PG medical students of a medical college of North India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among 111 second year PG students by using four simulated filled case record forms and a computer-based spread sheet in which data entry was to be carried out. Results: On a scale of 0-10, only 17.1% of the students scored more than seven. The specific sub-skills that were found to be lacking in more than half of the respondents were as follows: Inappropriate coding (93.7%, long variable names (51.4%, coding not being done for all the variables (76.6%, missing values entered in a non-uniform manner (84.7% and two variables entered in the same column in the case of blood pressure reading (80.2%. Conclusion: PG medical students were not found to be proficient in data entry skill and this can act as a barrier to do research. This being a first of its kind study in India, more research is needed to understand this issue and then include this yet neglected aspect in teaching research methodology to the medical students.

  4. The graduate entry generation: a qualitative study exploring the factors influencing the career expectations and aspirations of a graduating cohort of graduate entry dental students in one London institution (United States)


    Background Dentistry in the UK has a number of new graduate-entry programmes. The aim of the study was to explore the motivation, career expectations and experiences of final year students who chose to pursue a dental career through the graduate entry programme route in one institution; and to explore if, and how, their intended career expectations and aspirations were informed by this choice. Method In-depth interviews of 14 graduate entry students in their final year of study. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. Results There were three categories of factors influencing students' choice to study dentistry through graduate entry: 'push', 'pull' and 'mediating'. Mediating factors related to students' personal concerns and circumstances, whereas push and pull factors related to features of their previous and future careers and wider social factors. Routes to Graduate Entry study comprised: 'early career changers', 'established career changers' and those pursuing 'routes to specialisation'. These routes also influenced the students' practice of dentistry, as students integrated skills in their dental studies, and encountered new challenges. Factors which students believed would influence their future careers included: vocational training; opportunities for specialisation or developing special interests and policy-related issues, together with wider professional and social concerns. The graduate entry programme was considered 'hard work' but a quick route to a professional career which had much to offer. Students' felt more could have been made of their pre-dental studies and/or experience during the programme. Factors perceived as influencing students' future contribution to dentistry included personal and social influences. Overall there was strong support for the values of the NHS and 'giving back' to the system in their future career. Conclusion Graduate entry students appear to be motivated to enter dentistry by a range of

  5. The graduate entry generation: a qualitative study exploring the factors influencing the career expectations and aspirations of a graduating cohort of graduate entry dental students in one London institution. (United States)

    Newton, Paul; Cabot, Lyndon; Wilson, Nairn H F; Gallagher, Jennifer E


    Dentistry in the UK has a number of new graduate-entry programmes. The aim of the study was to explore the motivation, career expectations and experiences of final year students who chose to pursue a dental career through the graduate entry programme route in one institution; and to explore if, and how, their intended career expectations and aspirations were informed by this choice. In-depth interviews of 14 graduate entry students in their final year of study. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. There were three categories of factors influencing students' choice to study dentistry through graduate entry: 'push', 'pull' and 'mediating'. Mediating factors related to students' personal concerns and circumstances, whereas push and pull factors related to features of their previous and future careers and wider social factors. Routes to Graduate Entry study comprised: 'early career changers', 'established career changers' and those pursuing 'routes to specialisation'. These routes also influenced the students' practice of dentistry, as students integrated skills in their dental studies, and encountered new challenges.Factors which students believed would influence their future careers included: vocational training; opportunities for specialisation or developing special interests and policy-related issues, together with wider professional and social concerns.The graduate entry programme was considered 'hard work' but a quick route to a professional career which had much to offer. Students' felt more could have been made of their pre-dental studies and/or experience during the programme. Factors perceived as influencing students' future contribution to dentistry included personal and social influences. Overall there was strong support for the values of the NHS and 'giving back' to the system in their future career. Graduate entry students appear to be motivated to enter dentistry by a range of factors which suit their preferences and

  6. The graduate entry generation: a qualitative study exploring the factors influencing the career expectations and aspirations of a graduating cohort of graduate entry dental students in one London institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nairn HF


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentistry in the UK has a number of new graduate-entry programmes. The aim of the study was to explore the motivation, career expectations and experiences of final year students who chose to pursue a dental career through the graduate entry programme route in one institution; and to explore if, and how, their intended career expectations and aspirations were informed by this choice. Method In-depth interviews of 14 graduate entry students in their final year of study. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. Results There were three categories of factors influencing students' choice to study dentistry through graduate entry: 'push', 'pull' and 'mediating'. Mediating factors related to students' personal concerns and circumstances, whereas push and pull factors related to features of their previous and future careers and wider social factors. Routes to Graduate Entry study comprised: 'early career changers', 'established career changers' and those pursuing 'routes to specialisation'. These routes also influenced the students' practice of dentistry, as students integrated skills in their dental studies, and encountered new challenges. Factors which students believed would influence their future careers included: vocational training; opportunities for specialisation or developing special interests and policy-related issues, together with wider professional and social concerns. The graduate entry programme was considered 'hard work' but a quick route to a professional career which had much to offer. Students' felt more could have been made of their pre-dental studies and/or experience during the programme. Factors perceived as influencing students' future contribution to dentistry included personal and social influences. Overall there was strong support for the values of the NHS and 'giving back' to the system in their future career. Conclusion Graduate entry students appear to be motivated to enter

  7. Comparing the social skills of students addicted to computer games with normal students. (United States)

    Zamani, Eshrat; Kheradmand, Ali; Cheshmi, Maliheh; Abedi, Ahmad; Hedayati, Nasim


    This study aimed to investigate and compare the social skills of studentsaddicted to computer games with normal students. The dependentvariable in the present study is the social skills. The study population included all the students in the second grade ofpublic secondary school in the city of Isfahan at the educational year of2009-2010. The sample size included 564 students selected using thecluster random sampling method. Data collection was conducted usingQuestionnaire of Addiction to Computer Games and Social SkillsQuestionnaire (The Teenage Inventory of Social Skill or TISS). The results of the study showed that generally, there was a significantdifference between the social skills of students addicted to computer gamesand normal students. In addition, the results indicated that normal studentshad a higher level of social skills in comparison with students addicted tocomputer games. As the study results showed, addiction to computer games may affectthe quality and quantity of social skills. In other words, the higher theaddiction to computer games, the less the social skills. The individualsaddicted to computer games have less social skills.).

  8. Association between learning style preferences and anatomy assessment outcomes in graduate-entry and undergraduate medical students. (United States)

    O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Sbayeh, Amgad; Horgan, Mary; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P


    An improved understanding of the relationship between anatomy learning performance and approaches to learning can lead to the development of a more tailored approach to delivering anatomy teaching to medical students. This study investigated the relationship between learning style preferences, as measured by Visual, Aural, Read/write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) inventory style questionnaire and Honey and Mumford's learning style questionnaire (LSQ), and anatomy and clinical skills assessment performance at an Irish medical school. Additionally, mode of entry to medical school [undergraduate/direct-entry (DEM) vs. graduate-entry (GEM)], was examined in relation to individual learning style, and assessment results. The VARK and LSQ were distributed to first and second year DEM, and first year GEM students. DEM students achieved higher clinical skills marks than GEM students, but anatomy marks did not differ between each group. Several LSQ style preferences were shown to be weakly correlated with anatomy assessment performance in a program- and year-specific manner. Specifically, the "Activist" style was negatively correlated with anatomy scores in DEM Year 2 students (rs = -0.45, P = 0.002). The "Theorist" style demonstrated a weak correlation with anatomy performance in DEM Year 2 (rs = 0.18, P = 0.003). Regression analysis revealed that, among the LSQ styles, the "Activist" was associated with poorer anatomy assessment performance (P learning styles contribute little to variation in academic performance in medical students. Anat Sci Educ 9: 391-399. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Comparison of Quality of Life and Social Skills between Students with Visual Problems (Blind and Partially Blind) and Normal Students


    Fereshteh Kordestani; Azam Daneshfar; Davood Roustaee


    This study aimed to compare the quality of life and social skills between students who are visually impaired (blind and partially blind) and normal students. The population consisted of all students with visual problems (blind and partially blind) and normal students in secondary schools in Tehran in the academic year 2013-2014. Using a multi-stage random sampling method, 40 students were selected from each group. The SF-36s quality of life questionnaire and Foster and Inderbitzen social skil...

  10. Exploring the acquisition of entry-to-practice competencies by second-degree nursing students during a preceptorship experience. (United States)

    Sedgwick, Monique; Kellett, Peter; Kalischuck, Ruth Grant


    Nursing programs across Canada have begun to implement at an unprecedented rate second-degree nursing programs in response to consumer demands and a nursing shortage. While these types of programs are enjoying considerable popularity among prospective students and employers, it is imperative that nursing programs assess their graduates' ability to meet Registered Nursing entry-to-practice competencies (ETCs). This study sought to determine if second-degree undergraduate nursing students achieved the entry-to-practice competencies established by the provincial regulatory body for registered nurses of Alberta, Canada. The study took place in southern Alberta, Canada as the first cohort of second-degree undergraduate nursing students were completing the final practice course for the program. In this exploratory study, quantitative and qualitative data generation approaches were used. Quantitative data were collected using the nursing program's standardized Clinical Evaluation Tool which is mapped to the 119 ETCs established by the regulatory body. Qualitative data were generated by conducting focus group interviews with students, faculty advisors, and preceptors. A convenience sample consisting of both male and female students (n=14) submitted their mid-term and final clinical evaluations for inclusion in the dataset. Thirteen preceptors submitted mid-term and final clinical evaluations. Three students, three faculty advisors, and two preceptors participated in focus group interviews. At mid-term, statistically significant differences were noted on 31% of the indicators within the clinical evaluation tool between students and preceptors with preceptors consistently ranking students higher than the students' ratings of their performance. Student and preceptor ratings of students' clinical performance were more consistent on the final evaluation. However, where there were differences, preceptors rated students higher than student ratings. Qualitative data analysis

  11. An analysis of science conceptual knowledge in journals of students with disabilities and normally achieving students (United States)

    Grigg, Gail S.

    Science education reforms of the last two decades have focused on raising the bar for ALL students which includes students with mild to moderate disabilities. Formative assessment can be used to assess the progress of these students to inquire, understand scientific concepts, reason scientifically, make decisions, and communicate effectively in science. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of science journals as a formative assessment in a guided inquiry unit of study for students with learning disabilities. Two normally achieving students (NA) and five students with learning disabilities (SLD) participated in a study of mammals that utilized journals to record the development of student knowledge through the course of study. Students were interviewed after the lessons were complete using the same prompts required in the journals. Themes were developed from the student writings and their verbal discourse using Grounded Theory. Journals and verbal discourse were rated following the themes of Knowledge Telling (KT) and Knowledge Transformation (KTR). Concept maps were developed for the Pre and Post test lessons (written and verbal discourses) by the raters in an attempt to further explain the knowledge that the students conveyed. The results of this study suggest that SLD are able to demonstrate knowledge about mammals better through verbal discourse than written discourse. While the NA students wrote more and used more technical discourse than did their SLD peers, the conceptual understanding of the topic by the SLD was no less inclusive than their NA peers when accessed verbally. The journals demonstrated limited conceptual growth for the SLD. Further, while lexical density is important to the development of knowledge in science, this study suggests the "conceptual density" may be another important indicator to examine.

  12. Answering the question, "what is a clinical nurse leader?": transition experience of four direct-entry master's students. (United States)

    Bombard, Emily; Chapman, Kimberly; Doyle, Marcy; Wright, Danielle K; Shippee-Rice, Raelene V; Kasik, Dot Radius


    Understanding the experience of students learning the clinical nurse leader (CNL) role can be useful for faculty, preceptors, staff nurses, and interdisciplinary team members who guide them. This article analyzes the experience of four direct-entry master's students in the first cohort to complete the CNL curriculum and to sit for the pilot CNL certification examination. Using action research methodology, the students worked with the clinical immersion practicum faculty and a writing consultant to develop the study purpose, collect and analyze data, and prepare a manuscript. The main theme that emerged was, answering the question, "what is a CNL?" Subthemes supporting the main theme involved coming to the edge, trusting the process, rounding the corner, and valuing becoming. The analysis confirmed the value the CNL offers as a new vision to nursing education and practice. The students offered suggestions for the CNL curriculum and practicum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The New Normal: Social Networking and Student Affairs (United States)

    Kruger, Kevin


    This article explores both the potential and challenges associated with the widespread use of social networking among college students and the implications for civic engagement, equity and inclusion, and student success.

  14. Information literacy during entry to practice: information-seeking behaviors in student nurses and recent nurse graduates. (United States)

    Wahoush, Olive; Banfield, Laura


    The ability to locate information pertinent to guide clinical practice is important for quality nursing care and patient safety. To date, little is known about the transfer of information literacy skills as student nurses transition to clinical practice as new graduates. This study begins to address this gap from the perspective of student nurses, recent nurse graduates (RNs), nurse leaders and library staff. To describe the information-seeking behaviors of student nurses and RNs within their clinical settings. This is a descriptive study that included both cross-sectional surveys and key informant interviews. Participants were senior-level undergraduate students and recently graduated RNs (graduated since 2008), and nurse leaders and library staff employed in one of the clinical sites accepting undergraduate students from the McMaster Mohawk and Conestoga BScN program. The study was completed in two large hospital corporations in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Student nurses and RNs were invited to complete online surveys to assess their access to and use of information sources and resources within clinical practice. Students completed a survey comprised of five open-ended questions, while RNs completed a survey comprised of 13 fixed choice and open-ended questions. Nurse leaders and library staff participated in qualitative interviews to verify the extent and availability of information resources. Eighteen RNs and 62 students completed their respective surveys. Three categories of information sources and resources were identified: electronic, print and interpersonal. Electronic sources of information were the most used resource by both students and RNs. More RNs reported using interpersonal sources, while students reported using more print sources of information. Recent RN graduates meet the Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing performance indicators related to information access for the entry to practice Nursing Informatics competencies. Crown Copyright

  15. Construct validity test of evaluation tool for professional behaviors of entry-level occupational therapy students in the United States

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    Hon K. Yuen


    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to test the construct validity of an instrument to measure student professional behaviors in entry-level occupational therapy (OT students in the academic setting. Methods: A total of 718 students from 37 OT programs across the United States answered a self-assessment survey of professional behavior that we developed. The survey consisted of ranking 28 attributes, each on a 5-point Likert scale. A split-sample approach was used for exploratory and then confirmatory factor analysis. Results: A three-factor solution with nine items was extracted using exploratory factor analysis [EFA] (n=430, 60%. The factors were ‘Commitment to Learning’ (2 items, ‘Skills for Learning’ (4 items, and ‘Cultural Competence’ (3 items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA on the validation split (n=288, 40% indicated fair fit for this three-factor model (fit indices: CFI=0.96, RMSEA=0.06, and SRMR=0.05. Internal consistency reliability estimates of each factor and the instrument ranged from 0.63 to 0.79. Conclusion: Results of the CFA in a separate validation dataset provided robust measures of goodness-of-fit for the three-factor solution developed in the EFA, and indicated that the three-factor model fitted the data well enough. Therefore, we can conclude that this student professional behavior evaluation instrument is a structurally validated tool to measure professional behaviors reported by entry-level OT students. The internal consistency reliability of each individual factor and the whole instrument was considered to be adequate to good.

  16. Normal and student´s t distributions and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad; Shakil, Mohammad


    The most important properties of normal and Student t-distributions are presented. A number of applications of these properties are demonstrated. New related results dealing with the distributions of the sum, product and ratio of the independent normal and Student distributions are presented. The materials will be useful to the advanced undergraduate and graduate students and practitioners in the various fields of science and engineering.

  17. Financing physical therapy doctoral education: methods used by entry-level students and the financial impact after graduation. (United States)

    Thompson, Kris; Coon, Jill; Handford, Leandrea


    With the move to the doctor of physical therapy (DPT) degree and increasing tuition costs, there is concern about financing entry-level education. The purposes of this study were to identify how students finance their DPT education and to describe the financial impact after graduation. A written survey was used to collect data on financing DPT education, student debt, and the financial impact on graduates. There were 92 subjects who had graduated from one program. Frequencies as well as nonparametric statistics using cross-tabulations and chi-squared statistics were calculated. The response rate was 55%. Of the respondents, 86% had student loans, 66% worked during school, 57% received some family assistance, and 21% had some scholarship support. The amount of monthly loan repayment was not statistically related to the ability to save for a house, the ability to obtain a loan for a house or car, or the decision to have children. Saving for the future (p = 0.016) and lifestyle choices (p = 0.035) were related to the amount of monthly loan repayment. Major sources of funding were student loans, employment income, and/or family assistance. Respondent's ability to save for the future and lifestyle choices were negatively impacted when loan debt increased. Physical therapist education programs should consider offering debt planning and counseling.

  18. Multi-stage gene normalization for full-text articles with context-based species filtering for dynamic dictionary entry selection. (United States)

    Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Lai, Po-Ting


    Gene normalization (GN) is the task of identifying the unique database IDs of genes and proteins in literature. The best-known public competition of GN systems is the GN task of the BioCreative challenge, which has been held four times since 2003. The last two BioCreatives, II.5 & III, had two significant differences from earlier tasks: firstly, they provided full-length articles in addition to abstracts; and secondly, they included multiple species without providing species ID information. Full papers introduce more complex targets for GN processing, while the inclusion of multiple species vastly increases the potential size of dictionaries needed for GN. BioCreative III GN uses Threshold Average Precision at a median of k errors per query (TAP-k), a new measure closely related to the well-known average precision, but also reflecting the reliability of the score provided by each GN system. To use full-paper text, we employed a multi-stage GN algorithm and a ranking method which exploit information in different sections and parts of a paper. To handle the inclusion of multiple unknown species, we developed two context-based dynamic strategies to select dictionary entries related to the species that appear in the paper-section-wide and article-wide context. Our originally submitted BioCreative III system uses a static dictionary containing only the most common species entries. It already exceeds the BioCreative III average team performance by at least 24% in every evaluation. However, using our proposed dynamic dictionary strategies, we were able to further improve TAP-5, TAP-10, and TAP-20 by 16.47%, 13.57% and 6.01%, respectively in the Gold 50 test set. Our best dynamic strategy outperforms the best BioCreative III systems in TAP-10 on the Silver 50 test set and in TAP-5 on the Silver 507 set. Our experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our proposed dynamic dictionary selection strategies over our original static strategy and most BioCreative III

  19. An Approach to Supervision for Doctoral and Entry-Level Group Counseling Students (United States)

    Walsh, Robyn; Bambacus, Elizabeth; Gibson, Donna


    The purpose of this article is to provide a supervision approach to experiential groups that replaces professors with doctoral students in the chain of supervision, enlists a faculty member to provide supervision of supervision to the doctoral students, and translates supervision theory to meet the unique needs of group counseling supervision.…

  20. Test Score Gaps between Private and Government Sector Students at School Entry Age in India (United States)

    Singh, Abhijeet


    Various studies have noted that students enrolled in private schools in India perform better on average than students in government schools. In this paper, I show that large gaps in the test scores of children in private and public sector education are evident even at the point of initial enrollment in formal schooling and are associated with…

  1. Drinking game participation, gender performance and normalization of intoxication among Nigerian university students

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    Emeka Dumbili


    Conclusion: DGs appear to normalize heavy drinking and the culture of intoxication on this campus. Measures to monitor alcohol sales outlets around campuses and interventions that target students' leisure spaces should be developed.

  2. Comparability of Self-Concept among Learning Disabled, Normal, and Gifted Students. (United States)

    Winne, Phillip H.; And Others


    Using 60 fourth- to seventh-grade learning disabled (LD), normal, and gifted students, the comparability of representations of self-concept across groups was analyzed for the Sears and Coopersmith inventories. (Author/SW)

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Mentoring Role in Three Different Clinical Settings: Student Teaching, Early Field Experiences, and Entry Year Teaching (United States)

    Gut, Dianne M.; Beam, Pamela C.; Henning, John E.; Cochran, Deborah C.; Knight, Rhonda Talford


    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in mentoring across three different clinical settings: student teaching, early field experiences, and entry year teachers. Eighteen teachers with mentoring experience in all three clinical settings were selected and interviewed. The teachers' expectations for teacher development,…

  4. The Use of Blended Learning to Facilitate Critical Thinking in Entry Level Occupational Therapy Students (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eva L.


    The popularity of using online instruction (both in blended and complete distance learning) in higher education settings is increasing (Appana, 2008; Newton, 2006; Oh, 2006). Occupational therapy educators are using blended learning methods under the assumption that this learning platform will facilitate in their students the required level of…

  5. Comparison of Attachment Styles and Personality Characteristics in Mothers of Normal and ADHD Students

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    Shima Ghalamzan


    Full Text Available Background: The present study has done with the purpose of comparing secure attachment styles and personality characteristics in normal boy student mothers and ADHD students mothers in Isfahan city. Materials and Methods: The present study has done with ex-Post facto method. Two groups of mothers (30 normal students mothers and 30 ADHD students mothers, were selected using cluster sampling method for normal group and simple sampling method for ADHD group. Participants completed the attachment styles of Hazan and Shaver, NEO five-factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, and conners questionnaire. Data was analyzed using multi variance analysis (MANOVA. Results: The results of this study showed that significant differences were evident between normal group and ADHD group in ambivalent insecure and secure (p<0.01; also the results showed that there was a meaningful difference among the neuroticism and conscientiousness in these 2 groups. Conclusion: The results were indicating that in comparison with normal group mothers the ADHD student mothers were more endangered with insecure attachment. It was also important to mention that the ambivalent insecure attachment style was more in the groups with ADHD. The results were also indicating that neuroticism was more in the group with ADHD, and conscientiousness was more the normal group.

  6. Assessment the Plasticity of Cortical Brain Theory through Visual Memory in Deaf and Normal Students

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    Ali Ghanaee-Chamanabad


    Full Text Available Background: The main aim of this research was to assess the differences of visual memory in deaf and normal students according to plasticity of cortical brain.Materials and Methods: This is an ex-post factor research. Benton visual test was performed by two different ways on 46 students of primary school. (22 deaf and 24 normal students. The t-student was used to analysis the data. Results: The visual memory in deaf students was significantly higher than the similar normal students (not deaf.While the action of visual memory in deaf girls was risen in comparison to normal girls in both ways, the deaf boys presented the better action in just one way of the two performances of Benton visual memory test.Conclusion: The action of plasticity of brain shows that the brain of an adult is dynamic and there are some changes in it. This brain plasticity has not limited to sensory somatic systems. Therefore according to plasticity of cortical brain theory, the deaf students due to the defect of hearing have increased the visual the visual inputs which developed the procedural visual memory.

  7. Comparison of Reading Literacy in Hearing Impaired and Normal Hearing Students

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    Dr. Ali Asghar Kakojoibari


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: listening, speaking, reading and writing are considered the lingual skills. These skills are in direct relation with each other. Listening is the first skill learnt by the individual through development. If damaged by hearing impairment, listening can cause serious defect to lingual skills. The goal of our research was to study the effect of hearing loss on reading literacy in hearing impairment students in comparison with normal hearing students.Methods: Study was performed using the examination booklets of Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS 2001. 119 hearing impairment students of 4th grade primary school, last year guidance school, and last year high school levels in schools providing exceptional student education were included. These individuals were compared to 46 normal hearing students of 4th grade primary school of ordinary schools. Comparative statistical analysis was performed using t-test.Results: Reading literacy and literal contents understanding was shown to have a significant difference between normal hearing and whole hearing impaired student (p<0.05, except the ones in high school level with moderate hearing loss. There was also seen a significant difference between normal hearing and hearing impairment students in understanding of information contents (p=0.03.Conclusion: Hearing loss has a negative effect on reading literacy. Consequently, curriculum change and evolution of educational programs in exceptional centers is needed, in order to promote reading literacy and to enhance rest hearing

  8. Knowledge regarding risk factors of hypertension among entry year students of a medical university

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    Rizwana B Shaikh


    Full Text Available Context: Hypertension in youth is increasing, but there is a dearth of data about the knowledge of risk factors in this age group. Aims: To assess the knowledge of risk factors of hypertension among university students and associate it with the blood pressure, physical activity, family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and sociodemographic variables. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey among students enrolled in the first year, in the four academic programs, with the use of a validated, self-administered questionnaire on physical activity in the past 30 days and knowledge of risk factors of hypertension. A score of 6 on 11 was considered as good knowledge for modifiable risk factors. Blood pressure was also measured. The data was analyzed using PASW-17, Chi square test, and binary logistic regression analysis was done. Results: Of the 110 participants, 69.2% were < 20 years of age, 76.4% were females, and 40% were Arabs. Stress, high cholesterol, obesity, and smoking were identified as risk factors by 75.5, 73.6, 77.6, and 71.8%, respectively; 69.1% considered high salt intake and 62.7% considered high calorie diet as risk factors. Energy drink was considered as a risk factor by 64.5%, coffee consumption 35.5%, physical inactivity 47%, and oral contraceptives 13.6%. Half the group did not consider a family history of CVD as a risk factor, 60% did not consider older age as a risk factor, and 88% did not think male gender was a risk factor. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors was better than that of non-modifiable risk factors. Although nationality, course of study, raised blood pressure, and history of diabetes showed significant association with good knowledge, their net effect was not significant by the Adjusted Odd′s Ratio. Conclusions: The study identified some gaps in knowledge regarding both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors of hypertension among students. A larger study would enable health promotion activities

  9. Association of gender and specialty interest with video-gaming, three-dimensional spatial analysis, and entry-level laparoscopic skills in third-year veterinary students. (United States)

    Bragg, Heather R; Towle Millard, Heather A; Millard, Ralph P; Constable, Peter D; Freeman, Lyn J


    OBJECTIVE To determine whether gender or interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery was associated with video-gaming, 3-D spatial analysis, or entry-level laparoscopic skills in third-year veterinary students. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE A convenience sample of 68 (42 female and 26 male) third-year veterinary students. PROCEDURES Participants completed a survey asking about their interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery. Subsequently, participants' entry-level laparoscopic skills were assessed with 3 procedures performed in box trainers, their video-gaming skills were tested with 3 video games, and their 3-D spatial analysis skills were evaluated with the Purdue University Visualization of Rotations Spatial Test. Scores were assigned for laparoscopic, video-gaming, and 3-D spatial analysis skills. RESULTS Significantly more female than male students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine (23/42 vs 7/26), and significantly more male than female students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery (19/26 vs 19/42). Males had significantly higher video-gaming skills scores than did females, but spatial analysis and laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between males and females. Students interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery had higher video-gaming and spatial analysis skills scores than did students interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine, but laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between these 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For this group of students, neither gender nor interest in specialty certification in internal medicine versus surgery was associated with entry-level laparoscopy skills.

  10. Ginsenoside Rb1 Attenuates Agonist-Induced Contractile Response via Inhibition of Store-Operated Calcium Entry in Pulmonary Arteries of Normal and Pulmonary Hypertensive Rats

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    Rui-Xing Wang


    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH is characterized by sustained vasoconstriction, enhanced vasoreactivity and vascular remodeling, which leads to right heart failure and death. Despite several treatments are available, many forms of PH are still incurable. Ginsenoside Rb1, a principle active ingredient of Panax ginseng, exhibits multiple pharmacological effects on cardiovascular system, and suppresses monocrotaline (MCT-induced right heart hypertrophy. However, its effect on the pulmonary vascular functions related to PH is unknown. Methods: We examined the vasorelaxing effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on endothelin-1 (ET-1 induced contraction of pulmonary arteries (PAs and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs from chronic hypoxia (CH and MCT-induced PH. Results: Ginsenoside Rb1 elicited concentration-dependent relaxation of ET-1-induced PA contraction. The vasorelaxing effect was unaffected by nifedipine, but abolished by the SOCE blocker Gd3+. Ginsenoside Rb1 suppressed cyclopiazonic acid (CPA-induced PA contraction, and CPA-activated cation entry and Ca2+ transient in PASMCs. ET-1 and CPA-induced contraction, and CPA-activated cation entry and Ca2+ transients were enhanced in PA and PASMCs of CH and MCT-treated rats; the enhanced responses were abolished by ginsenoside Rb1. Conclusion: Ginsenoside Rb1 attenuates ET-1-induced contractile response via inhibition of SOCE, and it can effectively antagonize the enhanced pulmonary vasoreactivity in PH.

  11. Postural control assessment in students with normal hearing and sensorineural hearing loss. (United States)

    Melo, Renato de Souza; Lemos, Andrea; Macky, Carla Fabiana da Silva Toscano; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão; Ferraz, Karla Mônica


    Children with sensorineural hearing loss can present with instabilities in postural control, possibly as a consequence of hypoactivity of their vestibular system due to internal ear injury. To assess postural control stability in students with normal hearing (i.e., listeners) and with sensorineural hearing loss, and to compare data between groups, considering gender and age. This cross-sectional study evaluated the postural control of 96 students, 48 listeners and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, aged between 7 and 18 years, of both genders, through the Balance Error Scoring Systems scale. This tool assesses postural control in two sensory conditions: stable surface and unstable surface. For statistical data analysis between groups, the Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used. Students with hearing loss showed more instability in postural control than those with normal hearing, with significant differences between groups (stable surface, unstable surface) (ppostural control compared to normal hearing students of the same gender and age. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Entry-Control Systems Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The function of an entry-control system in a total Physical Protection System is to allow the movement of authorized personnel and material through normal access routes, yet detect and delay unauthorized movement of personnel and material from uncontrolled areas. The ten chapters of this handbook cover: introduction, credentials, personnel identity verification systems, special nuclear materials monitors, metal detectors, explosives sensors, package search systems, criteria for selection of entry-control equipment, machine-aided manual entry-control systems, and automated entry-control systems. A system example and its cost are included as an appendix

  13. Communication between hearing impaired and normal hearing students: a facilitative proposal of learning in higher education

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    Krysne Kelly de França Oliveira


    Full Text Available Introduction: There has been an increase in the number of hearing impaired people with access to higher education. Most of them are young people from a different culture who present difficulties in communication, inter-relationship, and learning in a culture of normal hearing people, because they use a different language, the Brazilian Sign Language - LIBRAS. Objective: The present study aimed to identify the forms of communication used between hearing impaired and normal hearing students, verifying how they can interfere with the learning process of the first. Methods: A qualitative study that used the space of a private university in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil, from February to April 2009. We carried out semi-structured interviews with three hearing impaired students, three teachers, three interpreters, and three normal hearing students. The content of the speeches was categorized and organized by the method of thematic analysis. Results: We verified that the forms of communication used ranged from mime and gestures to writing and drawing, but the most accepted by the hearing impaired students was LIBRAS. As a method of communication, it supports the learning of hearing impaired students, and with the mediation of interpreters, it gives them conditions to settle in their zones of development, according to the precepts of Vygotsky. Conclusion: Thus, we recognize the importance of LIBRAS as predominant language, essential to the full academic achievement of hearing impaired students; however, their efforts and dedication, as well as the interest of institutions and teachers on the deaf culture, are also important for preparing future professionals.

  14. [Nutritional analysis of dietary patterns in students of primary education with normal nutritional status]. (United States)

    Durá-Gúrpide, Beatriz; Durá-Travé, Teodoro


    To perform a nutritional assessment of the dietary model in a group of primary school students (9-12 years) with a normal nutritional status. Recording of food consumption of two consecutive school days in a sample of 353 primary school students (188 boys and 165 girls) with normal nutritional situation. The intake of energy, macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins was calculated and compared with the recommended intakes. The mean value of daily caloric intake was 2,066.9 kcal. Grains (33%), dairy products (19%) and meats (17%) represented 70% of the total caloric intake. Proteins contributed with 20.3% of the caloric intake, sugars 48.8%, lipids 30.9%, and saturated fats 12.6%. Cholesterol intake was excessive and 2/3 of the caloric intake was of animal origin. The mean intake of calcium, iodine and A, D and E vitamins were lower than de recommended dietary intakes. The dietary model of the primary school students with normal nutritional status varies from the Mediterranean prototype, with an excessive intake of meats, limited intake of grains and dairy products, and deficient intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, and fishes. This leads to an increase in the intake of proteins and fats from animals with a detriment of complex carbohydrates and a deficient intake of calcium, iodine, and vitamins A, D y E. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Simulation based medical education; teaching normal delivery on intermediate fidelity simulator to medical students. (United States)

    Shah, Nighat; Baig, Lubna; Shah, Nusrat; Hussain, Riffat; Aly, Syed Moyn


    To assess the effectiveness of medium fidelity simulator in teaching normal vaginal delivery to medical students. The quasi-experimental study was conducted at the professional development centre of the Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, from June to December 2015, and comprised medical students. Third-year medical students were included. They were divided into two groups. Group A was taught normal delivery through traditional PowerPoint and group B through simulator. The instruments used for assessing knowledge were pre-test and post-test, for skills of labour/delivery checklist of performance was used, and perception forms were filled to evaluate workshops/learning environment by students. Of the 76 participants, there were 36(47.4%) in group A and 40(52.6%) in group B. The overall mean age of the participants was 20.86±0.76 years in group B and 20.60±0.95 years in group A (p=0.19). The mean grade point average of the participants was 2.89±0.47 in group A and 2.87±0.48 in group B (p=0.81).Group B performed much better in skill of delivery having a mean score of 8.91±3.20compared to group A which had mean of 5.67±1.84 (pSimulation-based skill learning showed significantly better results.

  16. Exam Success at Undergraduate and Graduate-Entry Medical Schools: Is Learning Style or Learning Approach More Important? A Critical Review Exploring Links Between Academic Success, Learning Styles, and Learning Approaches Among School-Leaver Entry ("Traditional") and Graduate-Entry ("Nontraditional") Medical Students. (United States)

    Feeley, Anne-Marie; Biggerstaff, Deborah L


    PHENOMENON: The literature on learning styles over many years has been replete with debate and disagreement. Researchers have yet to elucidate exactly which underlying constructs are measured by the many learning styles questionnaires available. Some academics question whether learning styles exist at all. When it comes to establishing the value of learning styles for medical students, a further issue emerges. The demographics of medical students in the United Kingdom have changed in recent years, so past studies may not be applicable to students today. We wanted to answer a very simple, practical question: what can the literature on learning styles tell us that we can use to help today's medical students succeed academically at medical school? We conducted a literature review to synthesise the available evidence on how two different aspects of learning-the way in which students like to receive information in a learning environment (termed learning "styles") and the motivations that drive their learning (termed learning "approaches")-can impact on medical students' academic achievement. Our review confirms that although learning "styles" do not correlate with exam performance, learning "approaches" do: those with "strategic" and "deep" approaches to learning (i.e., motivated to do well and motivated to learn deeply respectively) perform consistently better in medical school examinations. Changes in medical school entrant demographics in the past decade have not altered these correlations. Optimistically, our review reveals that students' learning approaches can change and more adaptive approaches may be learned. Insights: For educators wishing to help medical students succeed academically, current evidence demonstrates that helping students develop their own positive learning approach using "growth mind-set" is a more effective (and more feasible) than attempting to alter students' learning styles. This conclusion holds true for both "traditional" and graduate-entry

  17. The Influence of Supplementary Multimedia Instruction on Students' Knowledge of Normal Swallowing: An Authentic Investigation Over Time. (United States)

    Scholten, Ingrid

    This paper describes the effect of supplementary multimedia instruction on the pattern of growth of student learning of normal swallowing. On four occasions, up to 190 speech pathology students from four Australian universities completed a free-response task designed to assess students' learning of core information. Scripts were scored using a…

  18. Pre-entry Characteristics, Perceived Social Support, Adjustment and Academic Achievement in First-Year Spanish University Students: A Path Model. (United States)

    Rodríguez, María Soledad; Tinajero, Carolina; Páramo, María Fernanda


    Transition to university is a multifactorial process to which scarce consideration has been given in Spain, despite this being one of the countries with the highest rates of academic failure and attrition within the European Union. The present study proposes an empirical model for predicting Spanish students' academic achievement at university by considering pre-entry characteristics, perceived social support and adaptation to university, in a sample of 300 traditional first-year university students. The findings of the path analysis showed that pre-university achievement and academic and personal-emotional adjustment were direct predictors of academic achievement. Furthermore, gender, parents' education and family support were indirect predictors of academic achievement, mediated by pre-university grades and adjustment to university. The current findings supporting evidence that academic achievement in first-year Spanish students is the cumulative effect of pre-entry characteristics and process variables, key factors that should be taken into account in designing intervention strategies involving families and that establish stronger links between research findings and university policies.

  19. Do action learning sets facilitate collaborative, deliberative learning?: A focus group evaluation of Graduate Entry Pre-registration Nursing (GEN) students' experience. (United States)

    Maddison, Charlotte; Strang, Gus


    The aim of this study was to investigate if by participating in action learning sets, Graduate Entry Pre-registration Nursing (GEN) students were able to engage in collaborative and deliberative learning. A single focus group interview involving eleven participants was used to collect data. Data analysis identified five themes; collaborative learning; reflection; learning through case study and problem-solving; communication, and rejection of codified learning. The themes are discussed and further analysed in the context of collaborative and deliberative learning. The evidence from this small scale study suggests that action learning sets do provide an environment where collaborative and deliberative learning can occur. However, students perceived some of them, particularly during year one, to be too 'teacher lead', which stifled learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences in Learning Strategies, Goal Orientations, and Self-Concept between Overachieving, Normal-Achieving, and Underachieving Secondary Students (United States)

    Castejón, Juan L.; Gilar, Raquel; Veas, Alejandro; Miñano, Pablo


    The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students. The students were assigned to each group depending on the residual punctuations obtained from a multiple regression analysis in which the punctuation of an IQ test was the predictor and a measure composed of the school grades of nine subjects was the criteria. The results of one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test showed that underachieving students had significantly lower punctuations in all of the measures of learning strategies and learning goals, as well as all of the academic self-concept, personal self-concept, parental relationship, honesty, and personal stability factors. In contrast, overachieving students had higher punctuations than underachieving students in the same variables and higher punctuations than normal-achieving students in most of the variables in which significant differences were detected. These results have clear educational implications. PMID:27729879

  1. Effectiveness of a computer-aided neuroanatomy program for entry-level physical therapy students: anatomy and clinical examination of the dorsal column-medial lemniscal system. (United States)

    McKeough, D Michael; Mattern-Baxter, Katrin; Barakatt, Edward


    The purpose of this study was to determine if a computer-aided instruction learning module improves students' knowledge of the neuroanatomy/physiology and clinical examination of the dorsal column-medial lemniscal (DCML) system. Sixty-one physical therapy students enrolled in a clinical neurology course in entry-level PT educational programs at two universities participated in the study. Students from University-1 (U1;) had not had a previous neuroanatomy course, while students from University-2 (U2;) had taken a neuroanatomy course in the previous semester. Before and after working with the learning module, students took a paper-and-pencil test on the neuroanatomy/physiology and clinical examination of the DCML system. Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine if differences existed between neuroanatomy/physiology examination scores and clinical examination scores before and after taking the learning module, and between student groups based on university attended. For students from U1, neuroanatomy/physiology post-test scores improved significantly over pre-test scores (p Neuroanatomy/physiology pre-test scores from U2 were significantly better than those from U1 (p < 0.001); there was no significant difference in post-test scores (p = 0.062). Clinical examination pre-test and post-test scores from U2 were significantly better than those from U1 (p < 0.001). Clinical examination post-test scores improved significantly from the pre-test scores for both U1 (p < 0.001) and U2 (p < 0.001).

  2. Employability Skills, Personal Qualities, and Early Employment Problems of Entry-Level Auditors: Perspectives from Employers, Lecturers, Auditors, and Students (United States)

    Lim, Yet-Mee; Lee, Teck Heang; Yap, Ching Seng; Ling, Chui Ching


    The authors examine the issue of employability of university accounting students from the perspectives of accounting firm employers, junior auditors, accounting lecturers, and accounting students. Areas of investigation include perceived importance of employability skills and desirable personal qualities; and early employment problems encountered…

  3. Comparison of Reading Comprehension Skill of Students with Severe to Profound Hearing Impairment from Second up to Fifth Grade of Exceptional Schools with Normal Hearing Students

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    Maryam Jalalipour


    Full Text Available Background: Reading is known as one of the most important learning tools. Research results consistently have shown that even a mild hearing impairment could affect the reading skills. Due to the reported differences in reading comprehension skills between hearing impaired students and their normal hearing peers, this research was conducted to compare the differences between the two groups. The other aim was to find any changes in the reading ability of hearing impaired group during elementary school. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional (descriptive–analytic one in which reading comprehension ability of 91 students with severe and profound hearing impairment (33 girls and 58 boys from 2nd up to 5th grade of exceptional schools were compared with 50 2nd grade normal hearing students in Ahvaz, Iran. The first section of Diagnostic Reading Test (Shirazi – Nilipour, 2004 was used in this study. Then the mean reading scores of hearing impaired students in each grade was compared with control group using SPSS 13 with Mann Whitney test. Results: There was a significant difference between average scores of hearing impaired students (boys and girls in 2nd to 5th grade with normal hearing students of 2nd grade (P<0.001. Reading comprehension scores of students with hearing impairment in higher grades had improved slightly, but it was still lower than that of the normal hearing students in the 2nd grade. Conclusion: It appears that reading comprehension skill of students with significant hearing impairment near the end of elementary school years becomes weaker than normal hearing students in the second grade. Therefore, it is essential to find and resolve the underlying reasons of this condition by all professionals who work in the field of education and rehabilitation of these students.

  4. An acoustic analysis of laughter produced by congenitally deaf and normally hearing college students1 (United States)

    Makagon, Maja M.; Funayama, E. Sumie; Owren, Michael J.


    Relatively few empirical data are available concerning the role of auditory experience in nonverbal human vocal behavior, such as laughter production. This study compared the acoustic properties of laughter in 19 congenitally, bilaterally, and profoundly deaf college students and in 23 normally hearing control participants. Analyses focused on degree of voicing, mouth position, air-flow direction, temporal features, relative amplitude, fundamental frequency, and formant frequencies. Results showed that laughter produced by the deaf participants was fundamentally similar to that produced by the normally hearing individuals, which in turn was consistent with previously reported findings. Finding comparable acoustic properties in the sounds produced by deaf and hearing vocalizers confirms the presumption that laughter is importantly grounded in human biology, and that auditory experience with this vocalization is not necessary for it to emerge in species-typical form. Some differences were found between the laughter of deaf and hearing groups; the most important being that the deaf participants produced lower-amplitude and longer-duration laughs. These discrepancies are likely due to a combination of the physiological and social factors that routinely affect profoundly deaf individuals, including low overall rates of vocal fold use and pressure from the hearing world to suppress spontaneous vocalizations. PMID:18646991

  5. Drinking game participation, gender performance and normalization of intoxication among Nigerian university students. (United States)

    Dumbili, Emeka; Williams, Clare


    Most research on drinking games (DGs) and the associated risks focuses on Western countries. In the Nigerian context, DGs activity has not attracted scholarly attention but growing media reports indicate that Nigerian youths play DGs, and that a number of gamers have died during or immediately after game-playing. Drawing on gender performance scripts, we explored the performance of gender through DGs practices and the factors that motivate DGs participation. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with male and female college students (aged 19-23 years) at a university in south-eastern Nigeria. The participants discussed the popularity of the DGs that students play on this campus, identifying the spaces where each game is played and the motivations for game-playing. Collective, contextual constructions of gender identities through 'Fastest-Drinker' DG were identified, and the participants also performed gender through 'Truth-or-Dare' and 'Endurance' DGs. Men dominated 'First-to-Finish' DGs, which are played at parties and bars, and consumed beer or stout, while women, who mainly played Truth-or-Dare games, drank spirits or sweetened alcoholic beverages. Boredom and fun seeking provoked game-playing among women while adherence to masculinity norms, which engendered the public performance of masculinity and gambling activities, motivated men to play DGs. To avoid 'collective shame', men's friendship groups provided support/care for inebriated game-playing members, but the immediacy of this support/care varied according to DGs type. DGs appear to normalize heavy drinking and the culture of intoxication on this campus. Measures to monitor alcohol sales outlets around campuses and interventions that target students' leisure spaces should be developed.

  6. Snakes and Eels and Dogs! Oh, My! Evaluating High School Students' Tree-Thinking Skills: An Entry Point to Understanding Evolution (United States)

    Catley, Kefyn M.; Phillips, Brenda C.; Novick, Laura R.


    The biological community is currently undertaking one its greatest scientific endeavours, that of constructing the Tree of Life, a phylogeny intended to be an evidenced-based, predictive road map of evolutionary relationships among Earth's biota. Unfortunately, we know very little about how such diagrams are understood, interpreted, or used as inferential tools by students—collectively referred to as tree thinking. The present study provides the first in-depth look at US high school students' competence at tree thinking and reports how they engage cognitively with tree representations as a precursor to developing curricula that will provide an entry point into macroevolution. Sixty tenth graders completed a 12-question instrument that assessed five basic tree-thinking skills. We present data that show patterns of misunderstandings are largely congruent between tenth graders and undergraduates and identify competences that are pivotal to address during instruction. Two general principles that emerge from this study are: (a) Students need to be taught that cladograms are an authoritative source of evidence that should be weighted more than other superficial or ecological similarities; (b) students need to understand the vital importance and critical difference between most recent common ancestry and common ancestry. Further, we show how the objectives of this study are closely aligned with US and International Standards and argue that scientifically-literate citizens need at least a basic understanding of the science behind the Tree of Life to understand and engage in twenty-first century societal issues such as human health, agriculture, and biotechnology.

  7. Emotional intelligence as a predictor of academic performance in first-year accelerated graduate entry nursing students. (United States)

    Fernandez, Ritin; Salamonson, Yenna; Griffiths, Rhonda


    To examine the association between trait emotional intelligence and learning strategies and their influence on academic performance among first-year accelerated nursing students. The study used a prospective survey design. A sample size of 81 students (100% response rate) who undertook the accelerated nursing course at a large university in Sydney participated in the study. Emotional intelligence was measured using the adapted version of the 144-item Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. Four subscales of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were used to measure extrinsic goal motivation, peer learning, help seeking and critical thinking among the students. The grade point average score obtained at the end of six months was used to measure academic achievement. The results demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between emotional intelligence scores and critical thinking (r = 0.41; p peer learning (r = 0.32; p academic achievement (β = 0.25; p = 0.023). In addition to their learning styles, higher levels of awareness and understanding of their own emotions have a positive impact on students' academic achievement. Higher emotional intelligence may lead students to pursue their interests more vigorously and think more expansively about subjects of interest, which could be an explanatory factor for higher academic performance in this group of nursing students. The concepts of emotional intelligence are central to clinical practice as nurses need to know how to deal with their own emotions as well as provide emotional support to patients and their families. It is therefore essential that these skills are developed among student nurses to enhance the quality of their clinical practice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse as a theoretical framework for educators studying student radiographers' interpretation of normality vs. abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Peter D.; Linehan, Mark J.


    Purpose: To acknowledge the tacit rules underpinning academic practice of undergraduate radiographers in determining normality vs. abnormality when appraising skeletal images. Methodology: Twelve students were interviewed (individually) using in-depth semi-structured questions. Interviews were mediated through a PowerPoint presentation containing two digital X-ray images. Each image was based on a level of expertise; the elementary (Case 1) and the complicated (Case 2). The questions were based on regular ‘frames’ created from observing tutor–student contact in class, and then validated through a group interview. Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse was then utilised as a data analysis instrument to determine how third year diagnostic radiography students interpreted X-ray images, in relation to the ‘recognition’ and ‘realisation’ rules of the Educational Theoretical Framework. Conclusion: Bernstein's framework has made it possible to specify, in detail, how issues and difficulties are formed at the level of the acquirer during interpretation. The recognition rules enabled students to meaningfully recognise what trauma characteristics can be associated with the image and the demands of a detailed scrutiny so as to enact a competent interpretation. Realisation rules, made it possible for students to establish their own systematic approach and realise legitimate meanings of normality and abnormality. Whereas obvious or visible trauma generated realisation rules (represented via homogenous terminology), latent trauma authorised students to deviate from legitimate meanings. The latter rule, in this context, has directed attention to the student issue of visioning abnormality when images are normal

  9. US Ports of Entry (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HSIP Non-Crossing Ports-of-Entry A Port of Entry is any designated place at which a CBP officer is authorized to accept entries of merchandise to collect duties, and...

  10. Clarifying Normalization (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.


    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  11. Chinese Writing of Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students and Normal-Hearing Peers from Complex Network Approach. (United States)

    Jin, Huiyuan; Liu, Haitao


    Deaf or hard-of-hearing individuals usually face a greater challenge to learn to write than their normal-hearing counterparts. Due to the limitations of traditional research methods focusing on microscopic linguistic features, a holistic characterization of the writing linguistic features of these language users is lacking. This study attempts to fill this gap by adopting the methodology of linguistic complex networks. Two syntactic dependency networks are built in order to compare the macroscopic linguistic features of deaf or hard-of-hearing students and those of their normal-hearing peers. One is transformed from a treebank of writing produced by Chinese deaf or hard-of-hearing students, and the other from a treebank of writing produced by their Chinese normal-hearing counterparts. Two major findings are obtained through comparison of the statistical features of the two networks. On the one hand, both linguistic networks display small-world and scale-free network structures, but the network of the normal-hearing students' exhibits a more power-law-like degree distribution. Relevant network measures show significant differences between the two linguistic networks. On the other hand, deaf or hard-of-hearing students tend to have a lower language proficiency level in both syntactic and lexical aspects. The rigid use of function words and a lower vocabulary richness of the deaf or hard-of-hearing students may partially account for the observed differences.

  12. Comparison of Different Levels of Reading Comprehension between Hearing-Impaired Loss and Normal-Hearing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Sharifi


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading skill is one of the most important necessities of students' learning in everyday life. This skill is referred to the ability of comprehension, comment and conclusion from texts and receiving the meaning of the massage which is composed. Educational development in any student has a direct relation with the ability of the comprehension. This study is designed to investigate the effects of hearing loss on reading comprehension in hearing-impaired students compared to normal-hearing ones.Methods: Seventeen hearing-impaired students in 4th year of primary exceptional schools in Karaj, Robatkarim and Shahriyar, Iran, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Seventeen normal-hearing students were randomly selected from ordinary schools next to exceptional ones as control group. They were compared for different levels of reading comprehension using the international standard booklet (PIRLS 2001. Results: There was a significant difference in performance between hearing-impaired and normal- hearing students in different levels of reading comprehension (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hearing loss has negative effects on different levels of reading comprehension, so in exceptional centers, reconsideration in educational planning in order to direct education from memorizing to comprehension and deeper layers of learning seems necessary.

  13. Comparison of Reversal Test Pictures among Three Groups of Students: Normal, Education Mental Retarded and Students with Learning Disabilities in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Koushesh


    Full Text Available Objective: Riversal visual perception discrimination test is one of the dyslexia diagnostic tests in children which can be performed in the group (group-based and it is reliable to detect these disorders in students of the primary schools especially those who spend their first educational weeks or months. The aim of this survey is comparison of Riversal test pictures among three groups of students: normal, educable mental retarded students and students with learning disabilities, aged 8-12 years old that were under coverage of Tehran Welfare Department. Materials & Methods: This Comparative cross – sectional study has performed on 150 girls and boys of mentioned groups that were selected by simple randomize selection. Results: The findings suggested that there was significant difference between surveyed groups (P=0.001. The highest scores were related to normal students and the lowest scores to educable mental retarded. The interval of negative scores of educable mental retarded from normal students was more than that of between educable mental retarded and learning disabilities. Conclusion: This survey indicates that students with learning disabilities (dyslexia have problems in their visual perception and this test can help to diagnose and determine abnormal children as soon as possible in order to better treatment.

  14. Weight, the Normal Force and Newton's Third Law: Dislodging a Deeply Embedded Misconception (United States)

    Low, David; Wilson, Kate


    On entry to university, high-achieving physics students from all across Australia struggle to identify Newton's third law force pairs. In particular, less than one in ten can correctly identify the Newton's third law reaction pair to the weight of (gravitational force acting on) an object. Most students incorrectly identify the normal force on the…

  15. Heber D. Curtis: The Re-entry Graduate Student at UVa Who Became an Outstanding Dynamical Astronomer (United States)

    Osterbrock, D. E.


    Heber D. Curtis, the great pioneer of nebular and galactic research, later observatory director at Allegheny and then at the University of Michigan, was a dynamical astronomer in the earliest days of photographic radial-velocity measurements. He did his undergraduate work in classical languages at Michigan, where as a student he showed no apparent interest in astronomy. Curtis's first jobs were teaching Latin and Greek at Napa College, then at the College of the Pacific. Both had small Clark refractors and he began observing, then measuring, visual double stars. He decided to become an astronomer, and spent the summers of 1897 and 1898 as a special student at Lick Observatory, and of 1899 at Ann Arbor. In 1900, at the age of 28, married and with two small children, Curtis entered the University of Virginia as a full-time graduate student. Both Yerkes and Lick Observatories had declined to accept him. At Charlottesville Curtis did his Ph.D. thesis on the orbit of Comet 1898 I, received his degree in 1902, and immediately joined the Lick staff. His work on spectroscopic binaries and high-velocity stars at Mount Hamilton and at the Lick Southern Hemisphere Observatory, will be described in this paper. W. W. Campbell and Curtis published the First Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binaries in 1905; it listed all 140 of these objects then known. In 1909, Curtis was recalled to Lick to take over the Crossley reflector and thus left the field of dynamical astronomy. At Santiago, his assistant was George F. Paddock, a UVa M.A. in astronomy who based his Ph.D. thesis on Chile observational data. When Ormond Stone, UVa professor of astronomy and Leander McCormick Observatory director, retired in 1912, Curtis was the first choice to succeed him, but declined the post to remain at Lick.

  16. Opinion of the Ministry of Education on Vigorously Promoting Educational Aid Work by Normal University Students during Teaching Internships (2007) (United States)

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008


    This is a policy that aims at improving teaching practices in rural schools in China. Normal university students are encouraged to participate in educational aid work in disadvantaged schools as a fulfillment of their teaching internship. The policy supports the policies of free compulsory education for rural school issued in the past. In…

  17. Cutting through - open entries require proper support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.S. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Mining Engineering Dept.


    The paper explains the applications of open entries in mining and different roof techniques to relieve longwall abutment pressures. The primary support for the open (or cut-through) entries and recovery rooms are normally similar to other development entries in the same mines. The supplementary supports installed can be divided into the following three types: complete backfill of open entries, supplemental roof and/or rib-bolt reinforcement only - no standing support and rows of standing support with or without supplemental roof and/or rib-bolt reinforcement. 3 figs.

  18. "When You See a Normal Person …": Social Class and Friendship Networks among Teenage Students (United States)

    Papapolydorou, Maria


    This paper draws on social capital theory to discuss the way social class plays out in the friendships of teenage students. Based on data from individual interviews and focus groups with 75 students in four London secondary schools, it is suggested that students tend to form friendships with people who belong to the same social-class background as…

  19. Wellbeing of professionals at entry into the labour market: a follow up survey of medicine and architecture students. (United States)

    Virtanen, P; Koivisto, A M


    Knowledge about changes in wellbeing during the passage from professional studies to working life is scarce and controversial. This study examined these changes among university graduates with good and poor employment prospects. A longitudinal study with four postal questionnaire surveys of a closed cohort. Cohorts of graduating Finnish physicians and architects were followed up from 1994 to 1998. In 1994 Finland's national economy was still struggling to break loose from a period of severe recession, and unemployment rates were high even among educated professionals. As economic growth eventually got under way the unemployment situation began to ease for physicians but not for architects. Architecture students (n = 189) from Finland's three technical universities and medical students (n = 638) from Finland's five medical faculties. Both had started their studies in 1989. In the first questionnaire survey there were no differences between the professions in strain resistance resources, as indicated by Sense of Coherence (SOC), or in psychological distress, as indicated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Profession emerged as a significant between subject factor in analysis of variance for repeated measures of both SOC and GHQ. Physicians' scores on the 13 item SOC questionnaire improved during the follow up from 62.6 to 67.5 and on the 12 item GHQ questionnaire from 24.2 to 22.2. Among architects the corresponding scores remained unchanged (62.5-62.2 and 23.1-22.6). The significance of profession remained unchanged when gender and individuals' graduation and total work experience were introduced to the statistical models as between subject factors. Improved SOC in physicians but not in architects supports the hypothesis that good employment prospects are important to employee wellbeing. Although less consistent, indicating fluctuations in day to day psychological distress, GHQ findings are also in line with the hypothesis. In both professions the indicators

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 50: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the role of language and written communications in the reacculturation of aerospace engineering students (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Keene, Michael L.; Kennedy, John M.; Hecht, Laura F.


    When students graduate and enter the world of work, they must make the transition from an academic to a professional knowledge community. Kenneth Bruffee's model of the social construction of knowledge suggests that language and written communication play a critical role in the reacculturation process that enables successful movement from one knowledge community to another. We present the results of a national (mail) survey that examined the technical communications abilities, skills, and competencies of 1,673 aerospace engineering students, who represent an academic knowledge community. These results are examined within the context of the technical communications behaviors and practices reported by 2,355 aerospace engineers and scientists employed in government and industry, who represent a professional knowledge community that the students expect to join. Bruffee's claim of the importance of language and written communication in the successful transition from an academic to a professional knowledge community is supported by the responses from the two communities we surveyed. Implications are offered for facilitating the reacculturation process of students to entry-level engineering professionals.

  1. Chinese Writing of Deaf or Hard-of-hearing Students and Normal-hearing Peers from Complex Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Jin


    Full Text Available Deaf or hard-of-hearing individuals usually face a greater challenge to learn to write than their normal-hearing counterparts, because sign language is the primary communicative skills for many deaf people. The current body of research only covers the detailed linguistic features of deaf or hard-of-hearing students. Due to the limitations of traditional research methods focusing on microscopic linguistic features, a holistic characterization of the writing linguistic features of these language users is lacking. This study attempts to fill this gap by adopting the methodology of linguistic complex networks. Two syntactic dependency networks in order to compare the macroscopic linguistic features of deaf or hard-of-hearing students and those of their normal-hearing peers. One is transformed from a treebank of writing produced by Chinese deaf or hard-of-hearing students, and the other from a treebank of writing produced by their Chinese normal-hearing counterparts. Two major findings are obtained through comparison of the statistical features of the two networks. On the one hand, both linguistic networks display small-world and scale-free network structures, but the network of the normal-hearing students’ exhibits a more power-law-like degree distribution. Relevant network measures show significant differences between the two linguistic networks. On the other hand, deaf or hard-of-hearing students tend to have a lower language proficiency level in both syntactic and lexical aspects. The rigid use of function words and a lower vocabulary richness of the deaf or hard-of-hearing students may partially account for the observed differences.

  2. Head repositioning errors in normal student volunteers: a possible tool to assess the neck's neuromuscular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudavalli M Ram


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A challenge for practitioners using spinal manipulation is identifying when an intervention is required. It has been recognized that joint pain can interfere with the ability to position body parts accurately and that the recent history of muscle contraction can play a part in that interference. In this study, we tested whether repositioning errors could be induced in a normal population by contraction or shortening of the neck muscles. Methods In the experimental protocol, volunteers free of neck problems first found a comfortable neutral head posture with eyes closed. They deconditioned their cervical muscles by moving their heads 5 times in either flexion/extension or lateral flexion and then attempted to return to the same starting position. Two conditioning sequences were interspersed within the task: hold the head in an extended or laterally flexed position for 10 seconds; or hold a 70% maximum voluntary contraction in the same position for 10 seconds. A computer-interfaced electrogoniometer was used to measure head position while a force transducer coupled to an auditory alarm signaled the force of isometric contraction. The difference between the initial and final head orientation was calculated in 3 orthogonal planes. Analysis of variance (1-way ANOVA with a blocking factor (participants was used to detect differences in proprioceptive error among the conditioning sequences while controlling for variation between participants. Results Forty-eight chiropractic students participated: 36 males and 12 females, aged 28.2 ± 4.8 yrs. During the neck extension test, actively contracting the posterior neck muscles evoked an undershoot of the target position by 2.1° (p Conclusion The results suggest that the recent history of cervical paraspinal muscle contraction can influence head repositioning in flexion/extension. To our knowledge this is the first time that muscle mechanical history has been shown to influence

  3. From Student to Entry-Level Professional: Examining the Role of Language and Written Communications in the Reacculturation of Aerospace Engineering Students. (United States)

    Pinelli, T. E.; And Others


    Argues that language and written communication play a critical role in the reacculturation process that enables individuals to make a successful transition from the academic world to a professional environment. Reports results of a mail survey examining the technical communications abilities of aerospace engineering students and the technical…

  4. Normal Science and the Paranormal: The Effect of a Scientific Method Course on Students' Beliefs. (United States)

    Morier, Dean; Keeports, David


    A study investigated the effects of an interdisciplinary course on the scientific method on the attitudes of 34 college students toward the paranormal. Results indicated that the course substantially reduced belief in the paranormal, relative to a control group. Student beliefs in their own paranormal powers, however, did not change. (Author/MSE)

  5. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students (United States)

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud


    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  6. Jesus' Entry into Jerusalem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Sankamo


    Full Text Available This article intends to contribute to the understanding of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem. The author studies the entry, which is found in all the Gospels, in its Jewish context. The author argues that Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem on an ass is to be understood as a prophetic sign which was primarily meant to convey a message to the Jews.

  7. Comparison of Normal Resident Flora on the Face of Medical Students who use and who do not use Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayalaxmi Jeppu


    Full Text Available Introduction: Normal flora of the skin plays a beneficial role in preventing the pathogenic organisms from colonizing the skin and causing infection. It is possible that the facial cosmetics may cause a change in the normal flora disrupting its protective function. Aim: To find out the effect of cosmetics, those that are applied on to the face on resident normal flora of the face. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving medical students aged 19 to 25 years, of whom 42 were regular cosmetic users and another 42 were non cosmetic users. Swabs were taken from the face of the subjects after a face wash with soap and water and eluted in 1 ml sterile peptone water. Tenfold dilutions of the sample were made and 100 ìl of the diluted sample was spread over the surface of Trypticase soy agar, Mac Conkey’s agar and blood agar. The colonies were counted and also identified. Statistical evaluation was done by Chi-square test using SPSS version 16. Results: We isolated Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS, Micrococcus spp. and methicillin sensitive S.aureus, non-fermenting oxidase negative gram negative bacilli and diphtheroids from both the groups. We found that most of the students who were regular cosmetic users 22 (52.38% yielded negligent growth in comparison with non-cosmetic users (16, 38%. CoNS was less frequently isolated from regular cosmetic users 10 (23.8% in comparison with those who do not use cosmetics 17 (40.47%. Conclusion: It is possible that regular use of cosmetics does reduce the normal flora but further studies with larger sample size are required to prove and confirm this finding.

  8. The comparison of attentional control deficits in the three group of normal, with social anxiety disorder and with comorbidity (social anxiety disorder and depression) students of Lorestan University


    Ghadampour E; Rezaei F; Hosseini Ramaghani NA; Moradi M


    Background and aims: One of the mechanisms that thought to underlie social anxiety disorder is dysfunction in attentional control. The current study was designed to compare attentional control deficits in the three group: normal, with social anxiety disorder and with comorbidity (social anxiety disorder and depression) students. Methods: The design of present study was causal-comparative. Statistical population of this study contained all normal female students, with social anxiety disorde...

  9. Examining Summer Laboratory Research Apprenticeships for High School Students as a Factor in Entry to MD/PhD Programs at Matriculation (United States)

    Tai, Robert H.; Kong, Xiaoqing; Mitchell, Claire E.; Dabney, Katherine P.; Read, Daniel M.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Andriole, Dorothy A.; Wathington, Heather D.


    Do summer laboratory research apprenticeships during high school have an impact on entry into MD/PhD programs? Apart from the nearly decade-long span of time between high school and matriculation into an MD/PhD program, young people have many life-shaping experiences that presumably impact their education and career trajectories. This quantitative…

  10. Double entry bookkeeping vs single entry bookkeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Andreica


    Full Text Available Abstract: A financial management eficiently begin, primarily, with an accounting record kept in the best possible conditions, this being conditioned on the adoption of a uniform forms, rational, clear and simple accounting. Throughout history, there have been known two forms of accounting: the simple and double entry. Romanian society after 1990 underwent a substantial change in social structure, the sector on which put a great emphasis being private, that of small manufacturers, peddler, freelance, who work independently and authorized or as associative form (family enterprises, various associations (owners, tenants, etc., liberal professions, etc.. They are obliged to keep a simple bookkeeping, because they have no juridical personality. Companies with legal personality are required to keep double entry bookkeeping; therefore, knowledge and border demarcation between the two forms of organisation of accounting is an essential. The material used for this work is mainly represented by the financial and accounting documents, by the analysis of the economic, by legislative updated sources, and as the method was used the comparison method, using hypothetical data, in case of an authorized individual and a legal entity. Based on the chosen material, an authorized individual (who perform single entry accounting system and a juridical entity (who perform double entry accounting system were selected comparative case studies, using hypothetical data, were analysed advantages and disadvantages in term of fiscal, if using two accounting systems, then were highlighted some conclusion that result.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Selvaganapathy


    Full Text Available Background: The most important trunk stabilizers are the trunk flexors and extensors. The isometric endurance of the trunk muscles is an essential element for mechanical support of the spine in all positions. The study objectives were to find out the trunk flexors and extensors endurance, its relationship with normal BMI and to find out the ratio of trunk flexors to extensors endurance. Methods: In this correlation study, 50 subjects were selected by convenience sampling method on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria from Asia metropolitan university, Malaysia. The trunk flexors and extensors endurance were assessed by Kraus- Weber and Sorenson test respectively. Paired 't' test and Spearman correlation test were used for data analysis. Results: There was a significant difference (p 0.01 and TEE, rs (50 = -0.162, p >0.01 but there was a significant strong positive relationship between TFE and TEE, rs (50 = 0.68, p < 0.01. The ratio of trunk flexors to extensors was 0.61. Conclusion: The trunk extensors endurance is higher than trunk flexors endurance and BMI has no relationship with trunk flexors and extensors muscle endurance. The ratio of trunk flexors to extensors endurance value is low

  12. Double entry bookkeeping vs single entry bookkeeping


    Ileana Andreica


    Abstract: A financial management eficiently begin, primarily, with an accounting record kept in the best possible conditions, this being conditioned on the adoption of a uniform forms, rational, clear and simple accounting. Throughout history, there have been known two forms of accounting: the simple and double entry. Romanian society after 1990 underwent a substantial change in social structure, the sector on which put a great emphasis being private, that of small manufacturers, ped...

  13. Border Crossing Entry Data (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  14. Entry and Exit. (United States)


    1. Introduction R Analyses of industrial competition have attained a new vigor with the application of game -theoretic methods. The process of... competition is represented in models that reflect genuine struggles for entry, market power, and continuing survival. Dynamics and informational effects are...presents a few of the models developed recently to study competitive processes that affect a firm’s entry into a market , and the decision to exit. The

  15. Correlation Between Entry Requirements and Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the investigator examines the correlation between entry requirements and academic performance of undergraduate students at the University of Buea. The quality of performance on the Cameroon General Certificate Examination at the Advanced Level is the predictor while the criterion is the cumulative grade ...

  16. Sentence Writing and Perception of Written Sentences in Hearing-Impaired and Normal-Hearing Primary School Students in Hamadan, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Yaghobi


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Learning language is acquired in early childhood and gradually developed by new words and new structures. Hearing sense is the most important acquisition for learning this skill. Hearing disorders are barriers for natural language learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between writing sentences and perception of written sentences in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing students.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among thirty hearing-impaired students with hearing loss of 70-90 dB and thirty normal hearing students. They were selected from 3rd grade primary school students in Hamadan, a large city in Western Iran. The language skills and non language information was assessed by questionnaire, Action Picture Test, and Sentence Perception Test.Results: Results showed that there was a significant relation between writing sentences and perception of written sentences in hearing impaired students (p<0.001, (r=0.8. This significant relation was seen in normal-hearing students as well (p<0.001, (r=0.7.Conclusion: Disability of hearing-impaired students in verbal communication is not only related to articulation and voice disorders but also is related to their disability to explore and use of language rules. They suffer lack of perception of written sentences, and they are not skilled to convey their feelings and thoughts in order to presenting themselves by using language structures.

  17. Entry: direct control or regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Vorage, M.


    We model a setting in which citizens form coalitions to seek preferential entry to a given market. The lower entry the higher firm profits and political contributions, but the lower social welfare. Politicians choose to either control entry directly and be illegally bribed, or regulate entry using a

  18. Effects of an integrated geriatric group balance class within an entry-level Doctorate of Physical Therapy program on students' perceptions of geriatrics and geriatric education in the United States. (United States)

    Reneker, Jennifer C; Weems, Kyra; Scaia, Vincent


    This study was aimed at determining the effect of an integrated group balance class for community-dwelling older adults within entry-level physical therapist coursework on student perceptions of geriatric physical therapy and geriatric physical therapy education. Twenty-nine Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students, 21-33 years old, in their second year of coursework in 2012, participated in an integrated clinical experience with exposure to geriatric patients at an outpatient facility at the Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Akron, Ohio, USA. Student perceptions were collected before and after participation in the 8-week balance class. The Wilcoxon sign-ranked test was used to identify differences in perceptions after participation in the group balance class. Cohen's d values were calculated to measure the size of the pre-participation to post-participation effect for each measure. At the conclusion of the group class, the DPT students demonstrated an increase in positive perceptions of geriatric physical therapy in 8 measures, with small effect sizes (d=0.15-0.30). Two perceptions of geriatric physical therapy demonstrated a significant positive increase (Pgeriatric education in the curriculum demonstrated a large positive effect for quality (d=1.68) and enjoyment (d=1.96). Positive changes were found in most of the perceptions of geriatrics and geriatric education after participation, suggesting that integrated clinical experiences with geriatric patients are an effective way to positively influence perceptions of physical therapist practice with older adults.

  19. Ghrelin gene: identification of missense variants and a frameshift mutation in extremely obese children and adolescents and healthy normal weight students. (United States)

    Hinney, Anke; Hoch, Anne; Geller, Frank; Schäfer, Helmut; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Goldschmidt, Hanspeter; Remschmidt, Helmut; Hebebrand, Johannes


    Ghrelin induces obesity via central and peripheral mechanisms. Administration of ghrelin leads to increased food intake and decreased fat utilisation in rodents. Ghrelin levels are decreased in obese individuals. Recently, a polymorphism (Arg-51-Gln) within the ghrelin gene (GHRL) was described to be associated with obesity. We screened the GHRL coding region in 215 extremely obese German Children and adolescents (study group 1) and 93 normal weight students (study group 2) by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP). We found the two previously described single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP: Arg-51-Gln and Leu-72-Met) in similar frequencies in study groups 1 and 2 (allele frequencies were: 0.019 and 0.016 for the 51-Gln allele and 0.091 and 0.086 for the 72-Met allele, respectively). Hence, we could not confirm the previous finding. Additionally, two novel variants were identified within the coding region: (1) We detected one healthy normal weight individual with a frameshift mutation (2bp deletion at codon 34). This frameshift mutation affects the coding region of the mature ghrelin. Hence, it is highly likely that the normal weight student is haplo-insufficient for ghrelin. (2) An A to T transversion leads to an amino acid exchange from Gln to Leu at amino acid position 90. The frequency of the 90-Leu allele was significantly higher in the extremely obese children and adolescents (0.063) than in the normal weight students (0.016; nominal p = 0.011). Additionally, we genotyped 134 underweight students and 44 normal weight adults for this SNP. Genotype frequencies were similar in extremely obese children and adolescents, underweight students and normal weight adults (p > 0.8). In conclusion, we identified four sequence variants in the coding region of the ghrelin gene in individuals belonging to different weight extremes. A frameshift mutation was detected in a normal weight individual. None of the variants seem to influence weight regulation.

  20. Entry-Level Technical Skills that Agricultural Industry Experts Expected Students to Learn through Their Supervised Agricultural Experiences: A Modified Delphi Study (United States)

    Ramsey, Jon W.; Edwards, M. Craig


    The National Research Council's (NRC) Report (1988), Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education, called on secondary agricultural education to shift its scope and purpose, including students' supervised agricultural experiences (SAEs). The NRC asserted that this shift should create opportunities for students to acquire supervised…

  1. Comparing the Prevalence of Handedness between Normal and Congenitally Deaf Students in Age Intervals of 12 to 18 Years in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari


    Full Text Available Objective: Handedness is the most prominent behavioral asymmetry in human. The term of hand preference points to prefer hand or functional asymmetry in manual tasks. The items were considered in this study were: the comparison of handedness between normal and congenitally deaf students the effects of age, sex, and pressure on using right hand for unimanual tasks on handedness the frequency of left-handers among student’s families, the influence of hand preference on English language capabilities, and the point of view of people rather to left-handers have been investigated. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 760 students including 380 normal students and 380 deaf students with congenital severe or profound sensory-neural hearing loss from 12 to 18 years of age by that were selected purposefully, completing Edinburg handedness inventory in Tehran. The students didn’t have any confirmed diseases or neurological disorders, except hearing loss in deaf student. Data were gathered through the completion of the Edinburg Handedness Inventory by the students. The student’s aural records and also the confirmation of the audiologist in the deaf schools were considered in order to determine the kind and degree of hearing loss. Results: The prevalence of left-handedness among normal (9.7% and deaf (10.3% students were near to each other, and there was no significant difference between them (P=0.901, z=-1.24. The prevalence of left-handedness was higher in boys rather than girls, but there was no significant influence of sex and age on results (P>0.05. The family and/or teacher pressure for using right hand was 16.0% in normal students and 5.0% in deaf students, and they didn’t report any strict pressure or severity regard this mater. The frequency of left-handers was higher among family of normal students (22.6% than deaf students (13.2%, and the difference between them was significant statistically (P=0

  2. Exclusive Dealing and Entry


    João Leão


    This paper examines the use of exclusive dealing agreements to prevent the entry of rival firms. An exclusive dealing agreement is a contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer commits to buy a good exclusively from the seller. One main concern of the literature is to explain how an incumbent seller is able to persuade the buyers to sign an exclusive dealing agreement that deters the entry of a more efficient rival seller. We propose a new explanation when the buyers are downstream ...

  3. Lobbying on entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Volpin, P.


    We develop a model of endogenous lobby formation in which wealth inequality and political accountability undermine entry and financial development. Incumbents seek a low level of effective investor protection to prevent potential entrants from raising capital. They succeed because they can promise

  4. A brief report on the relationship between self-control, video game addiction and academic achievement in normal and ADHD students. (United States)

    Haghbin, Maryam; Shaterian, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Davood; Griffiths, Mark D


    Over the last two decades, research into video game addiction has grown increasingly. The present research aimed to examine the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, and academic achievement of normal and ADHD high school students. Based on previous research it was hypothesized that (i) there would be a relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement (ii) video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would differ between male and female students, and (iii) the relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would differ between normal students and ADHD students. The research population comprised first grade high school students of Khomeini-Shahr (a city in the central part of Iran). From this population, a sample group of 339 students participated in the study. The survey included the Game Addiction Scale (Lemmens, Valkenburg & Peter, 2009), the Self-Control Scale (Tangney, Baumeister & Boone, 2004) and the ADHD Diagnostic checklist (Kessler et al., 2007). In addition to questions relating to basic demographic information, students' Grade Point Average (GPA) for two terms was used for measuring their academic achievement. These hypotheses were examined using a regression analysis. Among Iranian students, the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, and academic achievement differed between male and female students. However, the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, academic achievement, and type of student was not statistically significant. Although the results cannot demonstrate a causal relationship between video game use, video game addiction, and academic achievement, they suggest that high involvement in playing video games leaves less time for engaging in academic work.

  5. Comparison of visual working memory in deaf and hearing-impaired students with normal counterparts: A research in people without sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Tangestani Zadeh


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The hearing defects in deaf and hearing-impaired students also affect their cognitive skills such as memory in addition to communication skills. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare visual working memory in deaf and hearing-impaired students with that in normal counterparts.Method: In the present study, which was a causal-comparative study using the André Rey test, 30 deaf and 30 hearing-impaired students were compared with 30 students in a normal group, and they were matched based on gender, intelligence, educational grade, and socioeconomic status.Findings: Findings show that there is significant difference between the three groups’ subjects (p0.05.Conclusion: Function of deaf or hard-of-hearing students in the visual working memory task was weaker in comparison with the normal counterparts, while the two deaf and hard-of-hearing groups have similar functions. With a better identification and understanding of the factors that affect the development of this cognitive ability, we can offer new methods of teaching and reduce many of the disadvantages of this group of people in the different fields of cognitive science.

  6. Use of Admission Criteria to Predict Performance of Students in an Entry-Level Master's Program on Fieldwork Placements and in Academic Courses. (United States)

    Kirchner, G L; Stone, R G; Holm, M B


    The relationships among clinical outcomes, academic success, and predictors used to screen applicants for entrance into a Master in Occupational Therapy Program (MOT) were examined. The dependent variables were grade point average in occupational therapy courses (OT-GPA), client therapy outcomes at the clinic, and ratings of MOT students by Level II Fieldwork supervisors. Predictor variables included undergraduate GPA, scores on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), and an essay. Both undergraduate GPA and scores on the GRE were found to predict OT-GPA. The analytical section of the GRE was also positively correlated with fieldwork supervisors' ratings of students.

  7. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Uranus (United States)

    Agrawal, P.; Allen, G. A.; Hwang, H. H.; Marley, M. S.; McGuire, M. K.; Garcia, J. A.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Huynh, L. C.; Moses, R. W.


    To better understand the technology requirements for Uranus atmospheric entry probe, Entry Vehicle Technology project funded an internal study with a multidisciplinary team from NASA Ames, Langley and JPL. The results of this study are communicated.

  8. Border Crossing/Entry Data (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  9. News Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events (United States)


    Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

  10. How Well Does High School Grade Point Average Predict College Performance by Student Urbanicity and Timing of College Entry? REL 2017-250 (United States)

    Hodara, Michelle; Lewis, Karyn


    This report is a companion to a study that found that high school grade point average was a stronger predictor of performance in college-level English and math than were standardized exam scores among first-time students at the University of Alaska who enrolled directly in college-level courses. This report examines how well high school grade…

  11. 师范生师德培养与思想政治理论课%Teachers' Professional Ethics and Ideological Political Theory Courses for Normal University Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉静; 王京强; 冯晋


    在思想政治理论课多元化的教育功能之中,道德教育是较为突出的功能之一。思想政治理论课在属性、目标和过程等方面与师范生师德培养存在密切的关联性,对师范生师德培养起着积极而有效的推动和促进作用。文章阐释了师范生师德培养的意义,并着重论述了思想政治理论课在师范生师德培养中的作用。%In the pluralism of educational function for t he Ideological and Political Theory Courses, Teachers' professional ethics is one of the prominent functions. The course is closely related to students’ morality cultivation in the aspects of attribution,goals and process,which greatly promotes normal university students’ professional ethics. And it plays a positive and effective role in promoting and facilitating teachers' professional ethics of normal university students. This article expounds the significance of the cultivating teachers' professional ethics of normal university students,and mainly discusses the role the ideological and political theory course plays in cultivating normal university students' professional ethics.

  12. L'impact de l'enseignement de la biologie sur la construction de la distinction entre normal et pathologique chez les eleves du secondaire Marocain (The Impact of Teaching Biology on the Way Moroccan High School Students Construe the Difference between Normal and Pathological). (United States)

    Khzami, Salah-Eddine; Favre, Daniel


    Study of the distinction between the notions of the normal and the pathological among Moroccan high school students and their teachers of biology found that students confused the registers of the normal/abnormal with the healthy/pathological, a fact that is at odds with current teaching in biology. It also found a possible link to the values held…

  13. Access, entry and researcher-participant position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louw, Arnt Vestergaard


    This article reports on methodological experiences obtained in an anthropologically inspired qualitative study among students of carpentry in Denmark. On the one hand the article deals with methodological issues of doing anthropological research among students of carpentry, while on the other...... it deals with the research findings that such a research design produced. As well as the methodological issues of researcher access, entry and participant position in the field, this article reports on the following questions: What kinds of implicit expectations of the students are embedded in the way...... the school introduces and initiates the programme? What kinds of effects does this have on the motivation of the students? How do the terms and professional language of the profession work on the individual students in including and excluding ways? These specific descriptions of classroom pedagogy, inspired...

  14. What Is Normal, True, and Right: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Students' Written Resistance Strategies on LGBTQ Topics (United States)

    Jaekel, Kathryn


    This study examines how students perform resistance to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer topics in their written reflections in a higher education diversity course. Using a three-tiered critical discourse analysis , this article maps students' resistant textual devices in their written reflections, analyzes the institutional setting…

  15. A brief report on the relationship between self-control, video game addiction and academic achievement in normal and ADHD students


    Haghbin, Maryam; Shaterian, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Davood; Griffiths, Mark D.


    Background and aims: Over the last two decades, research into video game addiction has grown increasingly. The present research aimed to examine the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, and academic achievement of normal and ADHD high school students. Based on previous research it was hypothesized that (i) there would be a relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement (ii) video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would ...

  16. Widening Participation and Contextual Entry Policy in Accounting and Finance (United States)

    Rowbottom, N.


    The paper examines the performance of accounting and finance students entering university via a "widening participation" scheme that seeks to attract students who have been historically under-represented in higher education. Focus is placed on the policy of providing contextual entry offers that recognise that academic qualifications be…

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 53: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the technical communications practices of early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.


    Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information-use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that early career-stage aerospace engineers and scientists must possess to be successful. Feedback from industry rates communications and information-use skills high in terms of their importance to engineering practice; however, this same feedback rates the communications and information-use skills of early career-stage engineers low. To gather adequate and generalizable data about the communications and information-related activities of entry-level aerospace engineers and scientists, we surveyed 264 members of the AIAA who have no more than 1-5 years of aerospace engineering work experience. To learn more about the concomitant communications norms, we compared the results of this study with data (1,673 responses) we collected from student members of the AIAA and with data (341 responses) we collected from a study of aerospace engineering professionals. In this paper, we report selected results from these studies that focused on the communications practices and information-related activities of early career-stage U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists in the workplace.

  18. Advertising and generic market entry. (United States)

    Königbauer, Ingrid


    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  19. Journal entries facilitating preprofessional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships (United States)

    Vander Vliet, Valerie J.

    This study explored journal writing as an alternative assessment to promote the development of pre-professional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The larger context of this study is an action reaction project of the attempted transformation of a traditional first year undergraduate pre-professional biology class to sociocultural constructivist principles. The participants were commuter and residential, full and part-time students ranging in age from 18 to 27 and 18/21 were female. The backgrounds of the students varied considerably, ranging from low to upper middle income, including students of Black and Asian heritage. The setting was a medium-sized Midwestern university. The instructor has twenty years of experience teaching Biology at the college level. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and the development of grounded theory. The journal entries were analyzed as to their function and form in relationship to the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The perceptions of the students as to the significance of the use of journal entries were also determined through the analysis of their use of journal entries in their portfolios and statements in surveys and portfolios. The analysis revealed that journal entries promoted multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy in both students and the instructor and facilitated the development of mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The function analysis revealed that the journal entries fulfilled the functions intended for the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The complexity of journal writing emerged from the form analysis, which revealed the multiple form elements inherent in journal entries. Students perceived journal

  20. Entry Threat and Entry Deterrence: The Timing of Broadband Rollout


    Mo Xiao; Peter F. Orazem


    Past empirical literature provides strong evidence that competition increases when new firms enter a market. However, rarely have economists been able to examine how competition changes with the threat of entry. This paper uses the evolution of the zip code level market structure of facilities-based broadband providers from 1999 to 2004 to investigate how a firm adjusts its entry strategy when facing the threat of additional entrants. We identify the potential entrant into a local market as t...

  1. Corporate Author Entries. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.


    This reference authority has been created and is maintained to provide standard forms for recording the names of organizations consistently in bibliographic citations. This revision includes approximately 42,000 entries established since 1973

  2. Network Competition and Entry Deterrence


    Calzada, Joan; Valletti, Tommaso


    We develop a model of logit demand that extends to a multi-firm industry the traditional duopoly framework of network competition with access charges. Firstly, we show that, when incumbents do not face the threat of entry and compete in prices, they inefficiently establish the reciprocal access charge below cost. This inefficiency disappears if incumbents compete in utilities instead of prices. Secondly, we study how incumbents change their choices under the threat of entry when they determin...

  3. Currency union entries and trade


    Nitsch, Volker


    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  4. Mexican immigration and the port-of-entry school. (United States)

    Baca, R; Bryan, D; Mclean-bardwell, C; Gomez, F


    The results of an immigrant student census in a California port-of-entry school district are used to describe the educational backgrounds of Mexican immigrant students and to distinguish types of Mexican immigrant students by school entry patterns. Interviews with recently arrived Mexican immigrant parents reveal the educational and occupational expectations they hold for their children in the US. The study findings are used as a basis for raising policy questions and generating research issues. The most notable observation from the study is that the children of Mexican immigrants in La Entrada do not migrate once they are in school. Parents may be migrating back and forth between the US and Mexico, but children once in La Entrada do not leave the school to return to school in Mexico. The study suggests that the parents of immigrant students do not know how the US educational system works but they are interested in helping teachers educate their children.

  5. Alaska Wilderness: A Bibliography for Secondary Students on Marine Vertebrates, Birds, Small or Fur Bearing Mammals and Game Animals of Alaska. (United States)

    Symons, Ann

    This is an annotated bibliography for secondary school students. It contains fourteen entries on marine vertebrates, nine entries on birds, twenty-nine entries on mammals, and one on amphibians and reptiles. Some of the entries are fiction. (BB)

  6. Guidelines for Preparing Psychological Specialists: An Entry-Level Course on Intellectual Assessment (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Wechsler, Solange Muglia


    This article provides guidelines for an entry-level course that prepares psychology students and practitioners to acquire entry-level skills, abilities, knowledge, and attitudes important to the individual assessment of intellectual abilities of children and youth. The article reviews prominent international, regional, and national policies,…

  7. Normalization and normativity practices: the subjectivization of the hyperactive student within the social media - doi: 10.4025/actascilangcult.v35i4.19879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Franceschini


    Full Text Available Current research verifies media discourse practices which objectify and subjectify the hyperactive student. Discourse processes that constitute the subject of education are analyzed. They verify the occurrence of discursive regularities between the medical and the school discourses within social media discourse. The theoretical and methodological concepts developed by Michel Foucault are employed, with special reference to topics related to enunciation modalities, disciplinary power, normalization and normativity which make possible the analysis of the effects of truth of enunciations in the corpus of current project. The latter comprise articles published in Brazilian newspapers and magazines and other educational texts on Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Research investigates the discursive formations that deal with the identity of the subjects and tries to understand how knowledge-power and history-memory relationships produce truth effects on hyperactive students’ identity. Likewise, it also discusses how truth effects establish meaning effects that marginalize the subjects and label them as restless, non-attentive, disquiet and others furnished by authorized subjects who intend to normatize and discipline the hyperactive student within social environments.

  8. Port entry arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken, J.C.; King, M.A.


    The objective of the paper is to describe the safety scheme port authorities should establish to deal with any contingency that may result from the visit of a nuclear powered ship. The safety scheme should be devised to cover both normal operation and any accident conditions that could arise while the ship is in port. The paper is divided into three parts. The three parts being: background information, general instructions, and emergency procedures. The background information will describe the nature of the hazards a port authority has to be prepared to deal with, and the philosophical basis for a berthing policy. In the part dealing with general instructions the objective of the safety scheme will be described. Also this part will describe the composition of the Port Safety Panel, allocation of responsibilities, passage and berthing arrangements, general safety precautions, records required, and rescue arrangements. In the part dealing with emergency procedures the role of: the Ship's Master, Harbour Authorities, Local Police, and local Health Services are discussed. As an Appendix to the paper a copy of the safety scheme that has been devised for visits of nuclear merchant ships to Southampton is given

  9. Self-regulation of eating and physical activity is lower in obese female college students as compared to their normal weight counterparts. (United States)

    Campos-Uscanga, Yolanda; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Romo-González, Tania


    Obesity is characterized, among other features, by overeating, reduced physical activity and an abnormal accumulation of body fat. These features are thought to result, at least in part, from the individual's inability to self-regulate their eating and physical activity behaviors (E&PaB). Self-regulation of the E&PaB is a three-step sequential process: self-observation, self-evaluation and self-reaction. However, it is yet unclear whether deficient self-regulation of E&PaB could predispose, facilitate and/or consolidate obesity. Unraveling this issue is fundamental in order to more precisely define the role of self-regulation of E&PaB in the management of obesity. This research was focused on the question of whether or not self-regulation of E&PaB is related to obesity in female undergraduate students. This population segment seems especially vulnerable to developing obesity since they undergo a significant shift of their E&PaB upon their university enrollment. To address this question, a cross-sectional study with 108 female undergraduate students with normal weight (n = 80) or obesity (n = 28) was performed, in which self-regulation of eating habits and physical activity was measured by two validated scales and a personal data questionnaire. Female undergraduate students displaying lower E&PaB self-reactions were consistently overweight or obese. In addition, a multivariate analysis identified high levels of self-reaction towards eating habits related to a minor presence of overweight issues or obesity. Self-regulation should be an essential component in the strategies for obesity prevention as an integral approach that must include orientation about healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. In addition, further studies on the effect of self-regulation in the treatment of the obesity are needed.

  10. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.


    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  11. Medical school clinical placements - the optimal method for assessing the clinical educational environment from a graduate entry perspective. (United States)

    Hyde, Sarah; Hannigan, Ailish; Dornan, Tim; McGrath, Deirdre


    Educational environment is a strong determinant of student satisfaction and achievement. The learning environments of medical students on clinical placements are busy workplaces, composed of many variables. There is no universally accepted method of evaluating the clinical learning environment, nor is there consensus on what concepts or aspects should be measured. The aims of this study were to compare the Dundee ready educational environment measure (DREEM - the current de facto standard) and the more recently developed Manchester clinical placement index (MCPI) for the assessment of the clinical learning environment in a graduate entry medical student cohort by correlating the scores of each and analysing free text comments. This study also explored student perceptionof how the clinical educational environment is assessed. An online, anonymous survey comprising of both the DREEM and MCPI instruments was delivered to students on clinical placement in a graduate entry medical school. Additional questions explored students' perceptions of instruments for giving feedback. Numeric variables (DREEM score, MCPI score, ratings) were tested for normality and summarised. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to measure the strength of the association between total DREEM score and total MCPI scores. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the free text comments. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 67% (n = 180), with a completed response rate for the MCPI of 60% (n = 161) and for the DREEM of 58% (n = 154). There was a strong, positive correlation between total DREEM and MCPI scores (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). On a scale of 0 to 7, the mean rating for how worthwhile students found completing the DREEM was 3.27 (SD 1.41) and for the MCPI was 3.49 (SD 1.57). 'Finding balance' and 'learning at work' were among the themes to emerge from analysis of free text comments. The present study confirms that DREEM and MCPI total scores are strongly correlated

  12. Entry Facilitation by Environmental Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, Allard; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    We consider a model of vertical product differentiation where consumers care about the environmental damage their consumption causes. An environmental group is capable of increasing consumers' environmental concern via a costly campaign. We show that the prospect of such a campaign can induce entry

  13. Ebola virus host cell entry. (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuteru


    Ebola virus is an enveloped virus with filamentous structure and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. Host cell entry is the first essential step in the viral life cycle, which has been extensively studied as one of the therapeutic targets. A virus factor of cell entry is a surface glycoprotein (GP), which is an only essential viral protein in the step, as well as the unique particle structure. The virus also interacts with a lot of host factors to successfully enter host cells. Ebola virus at first binds to cell surface proteins and internalizes into cells, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles to intracellular acidic compartments. There, host proteases process GPs, which can interact with an intracellular receptor. Then, under an appropriate circumstance, viral and endosomal membranes are fused, which is enhanced by major structural changes of GPs, to complete host cell entry. Recently the basic research of Ebola virus infection mechanism has markedly progressed, largely contributed by identification of host factors and detailed structural analyses of GPs. This article highlights the mechanism of Ebola virus host cell entry, including recent findings.

  14. Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perera-Lecoin


    Full Text Available Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM. Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth.

  15. Malware Normalization


    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut


    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  16. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashai, Niron; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Benito, Gabriel


    diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more......This paper expands entry mode literature by referring to multiple modes exerted in different value chain activities within and across host markets, rather than to a single entry mode at the host market level. Scale of operations and knowledge intensity are argued to affect firms' entry mode...... diversity in firms' entry modes across both dimensions....

  17. Entry decisions in the generic pharmaceutical industry. (United States)

    Morton, F M


    Data on all generic drug entries in the period 1984-1994 are used to estimate which markets heterogeneous potential entrants will decide to enter. I find that organizational experience predicts entry. Firms tend to enter markets with supply and demand characteristics similar to the firm's existing drugs. Larger revenue markets, markets with more hospital sales, and products that treat chronic conditions attract more entry. The simultaneous nature of entry leads to an additional interpretation: specialization is profitable because of the severe risk to profits when a market is "overentered." However, I am unable to make any conclusions about the efficiency of entry decisions.

  18. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.


    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  19. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.


    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Investigating Relationships between and within Entry Pathways on a Sport Related Programme and the Degree Outcome Obtained (United States)

    Huntley, Tabo; Whitehead, Amy; Cullinane, Danny; Nixon, Sarah; Huntley, Emma


    Research within Higher Education in the United Kingdom has reported conflicting findings when investigating the relationship between undergraduate entry routes and gender, with successful performances across the degree cycle. This paper adds to this body of knowledge and examines the relationship between entry routes and gender on student outcomes…

  1. One-year transitional programme increases knowledge to level sufficient for entry into the fourth year of the medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Bouwkamp-Timmer, Tineke; van Scheltinga, Gerard R. Terwisscha; Kuks, Jan B. M.


    Background: To cope with a lack of doctors and in anticipation of the Bachelor-Master structure for Medicine, several Dutch universities offer graduate entry programmes for students with degrees in areas related to Medicine. The graduate entry programme is a four-year programme: after a transition

  2. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov


    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  3. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte


    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  4. NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, M Analisa [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uribe, Eva C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Marisa N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stevens, Rebecca S [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  5. Academic Feedback in Veterinary Medicine: A comparison of School Leaver and Graduate Entry cohorts (United States)

    Hughes, Kirsty Jean; McCune, Velda; Rhind, Susan


    This study analysed the expectations and experiences of students on a five-year undergraduate ("n"?=?91) and four-year graduate entry ("n"?=?47) veterinary medicine degree programme relating to academic feedback. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to explore new students' expectations and prior experiences of…

  6. Go! Pasia. Asian market entry and development strategy of Poznan University of Economics


    Das, Swajan


    Master Thesis: Go! Pasia. Asian market entry and development strategy of Poznan University of Economics. Temat pracy magisterskiej: Go! Pasia. Strategia wejścia i działania Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Poznaniu na rynku azjatyckim. In his thesis, the author presents a market entry and development strategy for Poznan University of Economics in order to enter into 15 Asian markets, divided into 5 identical markets, for attracting students at its campus. After identifying the importance...

  7. Automated entry control system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ream, W.K.; Espinoza, J.


    An entry control system to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. The design uses a centrally located console, integrated into the regular security system, to monitor the computer-controlled passage into and out of sensitive areas. Four types of entry control points are used: an unmanned enclosed portal with metal and SNM detectors for contraband detection with positive personnel identification, a bypass portal for contraband search after a contraband alarm in a regular portal also with positive personnel identification, a single door entry point with positive personnel identification, and a single door entry point with only a magnetic card-type identification. Security force action is required only as a response to an alarm. The integration of the entry control function into the security system computer is also described. The interface between the entry control system and the monitoring security personnel utilizing a color graphics display with touch screen input is emphasized. 2 refs., 7 figs

  8. The Structure and Contents of the English Written Entry Examination as a Major Subject at the Department of Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Евгеньевна Боброва


    Full Text Available The author of the article has been writing English entry examinations for PFUR for over a decade. In this article she analyses the structure and contents of the English language entry examination for prospective students of Linguistics at the Faculty of Philology. The requirements for the entry written test are set by the State standards of complete secondary education for foreign languages at the level of a major subject. The PFUR entry examination has always been written in accordance with recommendations of the Education and Science Ministry and the Federal Institute of Pedagogical Assessment.

  9. Entry Mode Choice in Emerging Markets


    Gundersen, Anne Kathrine Navestad


    As the mature markets of developed economies have become increasingly saturated, firms are turning their attention towards emerging markets for further enterprise growth. However, these countries often present significant challenges for foreign entrants, forcing firms to adapt their strategies to the new context. While MNEs? entry mode choice is an extensively studied field, there is a deficit in the entry mode research on SMEs, and even more so when it comes to entry into emerging markets in...

  10. Optimal firm growth under the threat of entry (United States)

    Kort, Peter M.; Wrzaczek, Stefan


    The paper studies the incumbent-entrant problem in a fully dynamic setting. We find that under an open-loop information structure the incumbent anticipates entry by overinvesting, whereas in the Markov perfect equilibrium the incumbent slightly underinvests in the period before the entry. The entry cost level where entry accommodation passes into entry deterrence is lower in the Markov perfect equilibrium. Further we find that the incumbent’s capital stock level needed to deter entry is hump shaped as a function of the entry time, whereas the corresponding entry cost, where the entrant is indifferent between entry and non-entry, is U-shaped. PMID:26435573

  11. Strategic Entry Deterrence Modeling: Literature Review


    D. A. Seliverstov


    The prime focus in this article is on key findings concerning theoretical aspects of strategic behavior by incumbents to deter market entry of new firms. The author summarizes main lines of scientific research in the topic which give an insight into the patterns of the incumbent’s impact on the behavior of the entrants, the entry deterrence instruments and the consequences of these actions. Today the free entry markets are considered to be a rare phenomenon. The market entry of new firms is a...

  12. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    One of the controls for information entered into the data bases created and maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center is the standardized name for the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of Energy Information Data Base: Corporate Author Entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. These entries serve as guides for users of the DOE/RECON computerized data bases who want to locate information originating in particular organizations. The entries in this revision include the corporate entries used in report bibliographic citations since 1973 and list approximately 28,000 corporate sources

  13. Gene Therapy Targeting HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuka Didigu


    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in the treatment of HIV infection, the cost, need for daily adherence, and HIV-associated morbidities that persist despite ART all underscore the need to develop a cure for HIV. The cure achieved following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT using HIV-resistant cells, and more recently, the report of short-term but sustained, ART-free control of HIV replication following allogeneic HSCT, using HIV susceptible cells, have served to both reignite interest in HIV cure research, and suggest potential mechanisms for a cure. In this review, we highlight some of the obstacles facing HIV cure research today, and explore the roles of gene therapy targeting HIV entry, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the development of strategies to cure HIV infection.

  14. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  15. Energy Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.


    Corporate author entries provide a means for consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records in the data bases of the DOE Technical Information Center. These entries serve as guides for users of the DOE/RECON computerized data bases who want to locate information originating in particular organizations

  16. Strategic Entry Deterrence Modeling: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Seliverstov


    Full Text Available The prime focus in this article is on key findings concerning theoretical aspects of strategic behavior by incumbents to deter market entry of new firms. The author summarizes main lines of scientific research in the topic which give an insight into the patterns of the incumbent’s impact on the behavior of the entrants, the entry deterrence instruments and the consequences of these actions. Today the free entry markets are considered to be a rare phenomenon. The market entry of new firms is associated with significant entry costs, which allow the incumbents to take advantage of their dominant position and derive positive economic profits. In case of entry threat by potential competitors the incumbents take strategic actions aimed at deterring entry and preserving their dominant position. Among the most efficient strategic actions one can emphasize the erection of additional barriers to entry for the newcomers through producing the limit output and price, investments in sunk assets, capacity expansion and product differentiation. Meanwhile by taking strategic actions the incumbents are not always trying to affect the entrant’s costs and profit directly, they often aim at changing the entrant’s expectations regarding future intentions of the incumbents to preserve dominant position.

  17. 40 CFR 170.112 - Entry restrictions. (United States)


    ...-entry interval applies, including, but not limited to, soil, water, air, or surfaces of plants; and (2...-entry activity, the agricultural employer shall provide a decontamination site in accordance with § 170... running water for routine and emergency decontamination and mechanical devices that would reduce the...

  18. Entry and Competition in Differentiated Products Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumans, C.B.C.; Verboven, F.L.


    We propose a methodology for estimating the competition effects from entry when firms sell differentiated products. We first derive precise conditions under which Bres- nahan and Reiss'entry threshold ratios (ETRs) can be used to test for the presence and to measure the magnitude of competition

  19. On Entry Deterrence and Imperfectly Observable Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders


    We analyse a simple entry-deterrence game, where a `Potential Intruder' only imperfectly observes the decision of an `Incumbent' to commit or to not commit to fight any entry by the Potential Intruder. Our game generalises the one studied in Bonanno (1992) by allowing for a richer information tec...

  20. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technologic...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms.......We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technological...... distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...

  1. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    The reduced size of many mobile devices makes it difficult to enter text with them. The text entry methods are often slow or complicated to use. This affects the performance and user experience of all applications and services on the device. This work introduces new easy-to-use text entry methods...... for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input. It can...... be touch sensitive wheels, sliders or similar input devices. The interaction design of TUP is done with a combination of high level task models and low level models of human motor behaviour. Three prototypes of TUP are designed and evaluated by more than 30 users. Observations from the evaluations are used...

  2. Computerized provider order entry systems. (United States)


    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to replace a hospital's paper-based ordering system. They allow users to electronically write the full range of orders, maintain an online medication administration record, and review changes made to an order by successive personnel. They also offer safety alerts that are triggered when an unsafe order (such as for a duplicate drug therapy) is entered, as well as clinical decision support to guide caregivers to less expensive alternatives or to choices that better fit established hospital protocols. CPOE systems can, when correctly configured, markedly increase efficiency and improve patient safety and patient care. However, facilities need to recognize that currently available CPOE systems require a tremendous amount of time and effort to be spent in customization before their safety and clinical support features can be effectively implemented. What's more, even after they've been customized, the systems may still allow certain unsafe orders to be entered. Thus, CPOE systems are not currently a quick or easy remedy for medical errors. ECRI's Evaluation of CPOE systems--conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)--discusses these and other related issues. It also examines and compares CPOE systems from three suppliers: Eclipsys Corp., IDX Systems Corp., and Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp. Our testing focuses primarily on the systems' interfacing capabilities, patient safeguards, and ease of use.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintya Arely Hernández-López


    Full Text Available The Rural School “Ricardo Flores Magon” is concerned about providing an education that contributes to the integral formation of its students, with the intention that they will graduate with the skills needed to enter the labor and social world, for it is required to acquire values that contribute of the significantly way to consolidate the graduate profile. The quantitative method was used in this research; It focuses on the type of non-experimental design; the sample was probabilistic, 90 students of the Bachelor's degree in Elementary Education. Among the results it highlighted that students who practice more often the values of responsibility, solidarity and tolerance obtain higher academic achievement than those of their classmates.

  4. Effects of Low- Versus High-Fidelity Simulations on the Cognitive Burden and Performance of Entry-Level Paramedicine Students: A Mixed-Methods Comparison Trial Using Eye-Tracking, Continuous Heart Rate, Difficulty Rating Scales, Video Observation and Interviews. (United States)

    Mills, Brennen W; Carter, Owen B-J; Rudd, Cobie J; Claxton, Louise A; Ross, Nathan P; Strobel, Natalie A


    High-fidelity simulation-based training is often avoided for early-stage students because of the assumption that while practicing newly learned skills, they are ill suited to processing multiple demands, which can lead to "cognitive overload" and poorer learning outcomes. We tested this assumption using a mixed-methods experimental design manipulating psychological immersion. Thirty-nine randomly assigned first-year paramedicine students completed low- or high-environmental fidelity simulations [low-environmental fidelity simulations (LF(en)S) vs. high-environmental fidelity simulation (HF(en)S)] involving a manikin with obstructed airway (SimMan3G). Psychological immersion and cognitive burden were determined via continuous heart rate, eye tracking, self-report questionnaire (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index), independent observation, and postsimulation interviews. Performance was assessed by successful location of obstruction and time-to-termination. Eye tracking confirmed that students attended to multiple, concurrent stimuli in HF(en)S and interviews consistently suggested that they experienced greater psychological immersion and cognitive burden than their LF(en)S counterparts. This was confirmed by significantly higher mean heart rate (P cognitive burden but this has considerable educational merit.

  5. Conceptual shape optimization of entry vehicles applied to capsules and winged fuselage vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Dirkx, Dominic


    This book covers the parameterization of entry capsules, including Apollo capsules and planetary probes, and winged entry vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and lifting bodies. The aerodynamic modelling is based on a variety of panel methods that take shadowing into account, and it has been validated with flight and wind tunnel data of Apollo and the Space Shuttle. The shape optimization is combined with constrained trajectory analysis, and the multi-objective approach provides the engineer with a Pareto front of optimal shapes. The method detailed in Conceptual Shape Optimization of Entry Vehicles is straightforward, and the output gives the engineer insight in the effect of shape variations on trajectory performance. All applied models and algorithms used are explained in detail, allowing for reconstructing the design tool to the researcher’s requirements. Conceptual Shape Optimization of Entry Vehicles will be of interest to both researchers and graduate students in the field of aerospace engineering, an...

  6. Entry, Descent, and Landing With Propulsive Deceleration (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan


    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet s moons atmospheres for entry, descent, and landing can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions.

  7. Technical Area 55 Entry Control System (ECS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, A.; Brundige, E.; DesJardin, R.; Rivera, R.


    The exchange badge system which was used at the Plutonium Facility located in Technical Area 55 was replaced on a trial basis with an automated Entry Control System. As a result of the success of the trial system, a new system incorporating expanded features and increased reliability is being implemented. The new Entry Control System incorporates several features not previously available in relatively inexpensive entry systems. The reliability of the system is enhanced by redundant microprocessors incorporating bubble memory for nonvolatile storage of the system data base. The badge readers incorporate dual communication lines to two different controllers to further increase the total system reliability

  8. Physical security workshop summary: entry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.


    Entry control hardware has been used extensively in the past to assist security forces in separating the authorized from the unauthorized at the plant perimeter. As more attention is being focused on the insider threat, these entry control elements are being used to extend the security inspectors' presence into the plant by compartmentalizing access and monitoring vital components. This paper summarizes the experiences expressed by the participants at the March 16 to 19, 1982 INMM Physical Protection Workshop in utilizing access control and contraband detection hardware for plant wide entry control applications

  9. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry? (United States)

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S


    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Causes of The occurrence of Obstacles in The Implementation of “Normal Labor Attendance” Skills Lab for Midwifery Students at Institute of Health Science "Surya Mitra Husada Kediri"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Palupi Yonni Siwi


    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence the occurrence of obstacles in the skills lab about Normal Labor Attendance for the students in midwifery school of Institute of Health Sciences "Surya Mitra Husada" Kediri, with cross sectional design. The subjects were 37 students of Semester IV, selected using total sampling technique. Factors studied were mentor roles, interest in learning, and tool limitations. Data were collected through questionnaires and observation sheets, then analyzed using ordinal regression test. The p-value of the ordinal regression test was 0.000; so it was concluded that the mentor roles, interest in learning and tool limitations affected the occurrence of obstacles in the skills lab.

  11. Entry Mode and Performance of Nordic Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper


    including the proposed moderating effect, on average, yield higher post-entry performance. This study sheds light on inconsistent results found in previous research investigating the impact of international experience and has practical implications for managerial decision-making.......This study investigates whether the relationship between mode of international market entry and non-location bound international experience is weaker for firms that are large or have a high foreign to total sales ratio, labeled multinational experience. Empirical evidence based on 250 foreign...... market entries made by Norwegian, Danish and Swedish firms suggests that the association between equity mode choice and non-location bound international experience diminishes in the presence of higher levels of multinational experience. Furthermore, firms whose entry mode choice is predicted by the model...

  12. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  13. Market entry strategies into the BRIC countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie


    Based on a sample of 177 exporting SMEs, this study investigates what market entry strategy is used by Danish family and non-family businesses. From a resource-based view, three critical internal factors (risk, flexibility and control) affecting the entry mode choice into the BRIC markets...... are analysed. The effective management of firms’ resources and capabilities is influenced by the perception of these internal factors when expanding into foreign markets. Our results confirmed that family firms build up longer lasting relationships in the host country by choosing high commitment entry modes...... when entering the BRIC markets. In contrast, family firms choose high commitment entry modes which involve high risk and low flexibility when entering the BRIC markets. Further implications discuss the suitability of export strategies to BRIC markets for managers of Danish family and non-family firms....

  14. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    One of the controls for information entered into the data bases created and maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center is the standardized name for the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of Energy Information Data Base: Corporate Author Entries (TID-4585-R1) and this supplemental list of authorized or standardized corporate entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. In general, an entry in Corporate Author Entries consists of the seven-digit code number assigned to the particular corporate entity, the two-letter country code, the largest element of the corporate name, the location of the corporate entity, and the smallest element of the corporate name (if provided). This supplement [DOE/TIC-4585-R1(Suppl.5)] contains additions to the base document (TID-4585-R1) and is intended to be used with that publication

  15. Tactile Data Entry System, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on our successful Phase I Tactile Data Entry program, Barron Associates proposes development of a Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system to permit...

  16. "Exclusive Dealing Contract and Inefficient Entry Threat"


    Noriyuki Yanagawa; Ryoko Oki


    This paper examines the effects of exclusive dealing contracts in a simple model with manufacturers-distributors relations. We consider entrants in both manufacturing and distribution sectors. It is well-known that a potential entry threat is welfare increasing under homogenous price competition, even though the potential entrant is less productive. This paper reexamines this intuition by employing the above model. We show that the entry threat of a less-productive manufacturer is welfare dec...

  17. Entry and exit decisions under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hans Christian


    This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result......This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result...

  18. Nipah virus entry can occur by macropinocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernet, Olivier; Pohl, Christine; Ainouze, Michelle; Kweder, Hasan; Buckland, Robin


    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic biosafety level 4 paramyxovirus that emerged recently in Asia with high mortality in man. NiV is a member, with Hendra virus (HeV), of the Henipavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although NiV entry, like that of other paramyxoviruses, is believed to occur via pH-independent fusion with the host cell's plasma membrane we present evidence that entry can occur by an endocytic pathway. The NiV receptor ephrinB2 has receptor kinase activity and we find that ephrinB2's cytoplasmic domain is required for entry but is dispensable for post-entry viral spread. The mutation of a single tyrosine residue (Y304F) in ephrinB2's cytoplasmic tail abrogates NiV entry. Moreover, our results show that NiV entry is inhibited by constructions and drugs specific for the endocytic pathway of macropinocytosis. Our findings could potentially permit the rapid development of novel low-cost antiviral treatments not only for NiV but also HeV.

  19. Models of radon entry: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadgil, A.J.


    This paper reviews existing models of radon entry into houses. The primary mechanism of radon entry in houses with high indoor concentrations is, in most cases, convective entry of radon bearing soil-gas from the surrounding soil. The driving force for this convective entry is the small indoor-outdoor pressure difference arising from the stack effect and other causes. Entry points for the soil-gas generally are the cracks or gaps in the building substructure, or though other parts of the building shell in direct contact with the soil, although entry may also occur by flow though permeable concrete or cinder block walls of the substructure. Models using analytical solutions to idealized geometrical configurations with simplified boundary conditions obtain analytical tractability of equations to be solved at the cost of severe approximations; their strength is in the insights they offer with their solutions. Models based on lumped parameters attempt to characterize the significant physical behavioral characteristics of the soil-gas and radon flow. When realistic approximations are desired for the boundary conditions and terms in the governing equations, numerical models must be used; these are usually based on finite difference or finite element solutions to the governing equations. Limited data are now available for experimental verification of model predictions. The models are briefly reviewed and their strengths and limitations are discussed

  20. Columbia: The first five flights entry heating data series. Volume 2: The OMS Pod (United States)

    Williams, S. D.


    Entry heating flight data and wind tunnel data on the OMS Pod are presented for the first five flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The heating rate data are presented in terms of normalized film heat transfer coefficients as a function of angle-of-attack, Mach number, and normal shock Reynolds number. The surface heating rates and temperatures were obtained via the JSC NONLIN/INVERSE computer program. Time history plots of the surface heating rates and temperatures are also presented.

  1. A social work study for comparison of thought action–fusion and anxiety sensitivity among normal student versus obsessive compulsive symptom in high school Esfahan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Niknejadi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare thought – action fusion and anxiety sensitivity among girls and boys adolescents having obsessive–compulsive symptoms in clinical and nonclinical extent. The survey selects 384 high school students in city of Esfahan, Iran and distributes a questionnaire among them. All questions are designed in Likert scale and participants are divided into two groups of with and without OCD. The results show that there is a significant and positive difference in thought – action fusion and anxiety sensitivity among girls and boys adolescents having or symptoms in clinical and nonclinical l extent (P<0.01.

  2. Cellular expression of gH confers resistance to herpes simplex virus type-1 entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, Perry M.; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Bommireddy, Susmita; Shukla, Deepak


    Entry of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) into cells requires a concerted action of four viral glycoproteins gB, gD, and gH-gL. Previously, cell surface expression of gD had been shown to confer resistance to HSV-1 entry. To investigate any similar effects caused by other entry glycoproteins, gB and gH-gL were coexpressed with Nectin-1 in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Interestingly, cellular expression of gB had no effect on HSV-1(KOS) entry. In contrast, entry was significantly reduced in cells expressing gH-gL. This effect was further analyzed by expressing gH and gL separately. Cells expressing gL were normally susceptible, whereas gH-expressing cells were significantly resistant. Further experiments suggested that the gH-mediated interference phenomenon was not specific to any particular gD receptor and was also observed in gH-expressing HeLa cells. Moreover, contrary to a previous report, gL-independent cell surface expression of gH was detected in stably transfected CHO cells, possibly implicating cell surface gH in the interference phenomenon. Thus, taken together these findings indicate that cellular expression of gH interferes with HSV-1 entry

  3. Entry Points When Undergraduate Research Mentors Reflect on Their Role: A Qualitative Case Study (United States)

    Wallin, Patric; Adawi, Tom


    Graduate students and postdoctoral researchers are increasingly taking on mentoring roles in undergraduate research (UR). There is, however, a paucity of research focusing on how they conceptualize their mentoring role. In this qualitative interview study, we identified three entry points that mentors reflect on to define their role: (1) What are…

  4. Entry Level Skills for the Event Management Profession: Implications for Curriculum Development (United States)

    Fletcher, Donna; Dunn, Julie; Prince, Rosemary


    The rapid growth of the event industry has resulted in a world-wide demand for education and training programs in event management. While the professional associations in event management have provided providing quality training and credentialing for their members, the 140 colleges and universities preparing students for entry level positions in…

  5. Entry-Level Placement Scores for the 1996-97 Academic Year. (United States)

    Padron, Eduardo J.

    This memorandum reviews the implementation of new, state-mandated placement criteria at Florida's Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC). The first section focuses on placement criteria for degree-seeking students, indicating that MDCC uses scores on the Florida College Entry-Level Placement Test for making placement decisions in reading, writing,…

  6. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  7. Theory of normal metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.


    The organizers requested that I give eight lectures on the theory of normal metals, ''with an eye on superconductivity.'' My job was to cover the general properties of metals. The topics were selected according to what the students would need to known for the following lectures on superconductivity. My role was to prepare the ground work for the later lectures. The problem is that there is not yet a widely accepted theory for the mechanism which pairs the electrons. Many mechanisms have been proposed, with those of phonons and spin fluctuations having the most followers. So I tried to discuss both topics. I also introduced the tight-binding model for metals, which forms the basis for most of the work on the cuprate superconductors

  8. Awareness and Use of Electronic Health Records in Entry-Level Occupational Therapy and Occupational Therapy Assistant Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis F. Dmytryk


    Full Text Available The Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE requires programs to instruct entrylevel occupational therapy (OT and occupational therapy assistant (OTA students in technology that may include electronic documentation systems, distance communication, virtual environments, and telehealth (standard B1.8. At this time, there are no publications describing if and how electronic health record (EHR instruction is implemented in entry-level OT and OTA programs. The purpose of this study is to investigate awareness and use of EHRs in entry-level OT and OTA curricula. Respondents from 76 nationally accredited entry-level programs (two OT doctoral, 24 OT masters, two OT combined bachelors/masters, and 48 OTA completed a survey. The findings showed inconsistent and incomplete EHR instruction in entry-level OT and OTA education. This study provides a baseline for investigating best practices in EHR education for entrylevel OT and OTA students

  9. 19 CFR 151.41 - Information on entry summary. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on entry summary. 151.41 Section 151... Products § 151.41 Information on entry summary. On the entry summary for petroleum or petroleum products in.... If the exact volumetric quantity cannot be determined in advance, the entry summary may be made for...

  10. Entry control system for large populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merillat, P.D.


    An Entry Control System has been developed which is appropriate for use at an installation with a large population requiring access over a large area. This is accomplished by centralizing the data base management and enrollment functions and decentralizing the guard-assisted, positive personnel identification and access functions. Current information pertaining to all enrollees is maintained through user-friendly enrollment stations. These stations may be used to enroll individuals, alter their area access authorizations, change expiration dates, and other similar functions. An audit trail of data base alterations is provided to the System Manager. Decentrailized systems exist at each area to which access is controlled. The central system provides these systems with the necessary entry control information to allow them to operate microprocessor-driven entry control devices. The system is comprised of commercially available entry control components and is structured such that it will be able to incorporate improved devices as technology porogresses. Currently, access is granted to individuals who possess a valid credential, have current access authorization, can supply a memorized personal identification number, and whose physical hand dimensions match their profile obtained during enrollment. The entry control devices report misuses as security violations to a Guard Alarm Display and Assessment System

  11. Financial Performance of Entry Mode Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend


    Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step ...... and implications are provided for companies willing to invest more into foreign markets in order to achieve a higher degree of control and better financial results.......Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step 2......: To determine the relationship between the choice of entry mode and export performance, measured in terms of financial outcome. Drawing from transaction cost theory the authors develop and test a model where different factors affect the level of control chosen by the parent company. This study contributes...

  12. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Hwang, Helen H.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Moses, Robert W.


    The present study considers direct ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and heatshield diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30deg is explored with a 3DoF trajectory code, TRAJ. From these trajectories, the viable entry flight path angle space is determined through the use of mechanical and thermal performance limits on the thermal protection material and science payload; the thermal protection material of choice is entry-grade carbon phenolic, for which a material thermal response model is available. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load experienced by the science instruments, and 10 bar is assumed as the pressure limit for entry-grade carbon-phenolic material. For thermal performance, inflection points in the total heat load distribution are used as cut off criteria. Analysis of the results shows the existence of a range of critical ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of the material rather than the deceleration load limit.

  13. Entry into motherhood in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available On the background of the dramatic swings in the Swedish TFR since the mid-1980s we present a first attempt at assessing the impact of labor-market trends on the timing of the first birth based on individual-level register data covering all Swedish women born in 1950 or later. Among our covariates we have each woman's income, partitioned into any income earned from work, any unemployment benefits, and any public support for educational activities. We also have employment trends in her home municipality. The latter variables are included for every relevant year. We find that first-birth rates rose and fell in step with municipal employment levels. The effect is especially strong for young women, and the decline in first birth during the 1990s was concentrated primarily among women aged below 30. First-birth rates increased with a woman's earned income. Unemployed women did not have particularly low first-birth rates, but students did.

  14. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage


    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar


    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  15. Modes and orders of market entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm


    (first-mover or follower). Invention is understood as the conversion of human creativity, time and financial resources into new ideas. Innovation in turn reflects the practical and financial return on such investments. While there is little disagreement about what an innovator strategy is, imitative......This paper focuses on the initial questions of how and when to enter a market from the perspective of a firm. By entry mode is meant a firm’s strategy (innovation or imitation) for entering the market in response to environmental changes. Entry order refers to the related issue of market timing...... strategies are more ambiguous. Based on a corporate technology and innovation strategy perspective, the paper reconceptualises and extends existing modes and orders of market entry, and in particular clarifies the ambiguity associated with imitative strategies. Four distinct imitator strategies...

  16. Form, its meaning, and dictionary entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa


    It is worth stressing that distinguishing between the form and its meaning in comparing the material 6 languages belonging to three different groups of Slavic languages (as is the case in the MONDILEX Project will allow us to avoid numeorus substantiva mistakes and erroneous conclusions. Hence dictionary entries should be verified and made uniform in that respect before they are “digitalized”... Distinction between the form and its meaning in a dictionary entry is fully possible, as shown by works of Z. Saloni (2002 and A.Przepiórkowski (2008.

  17. Automated Re-Entry System using FNPEG (United States)

    Johnson, Wyatt R.; Lu, Ping; Stachowiak, Susan J.


    This paper discusses the implementation and simulated performance of the FNPEG (Fully Numerical Predictor-corrector Entry Guidance) algorithm into GNC FSW (Guidance, Navigation, and Control Flight Software) for use in an autonomous re-entry vehicle. A few modifications to FNPEG are discussed that result in computational savings -- a change to the state propagator, and a modification to cross-range lateral logic. Finally, some Monte Carlo results are presented using a representative vehicle in both a high-fidelity 6-DOF (degree-of-freedom) sim as well as in a 3-DOF sim for independent validation.

  18. Experimental Economics on Firm’s Behavior: Entry Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sukadana


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes subject’s behavior in evolutionary process of entry game. The experiment is designed to analyze the behavior of the subject. The experiment is set in sequential entry games. Process of the game was conducted under asymmetric information, uncertainty, payoff perturbation and random matching. The subjects of the experiment were students of the Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia. Subjects who play as new-entrance firms tend to choose “stay-out” strategy when the uncertainty and the amount of loss increase. Meanwhile, the subjects who play as an incumbent firm, which set to have more information about the game (market rather than the new-entrances, most of the time abuse their position by choose “threat” strategy, which not a credible strategy for some of them. Experimental studies shows that New-entrance tend to weight more on lost when the risk increase (from risk averse setting to risk seeking setting, and tend to choose sure value over a lotteries although the expected value from lotteries is higher or the same. These findings support the reason that Indonesian youngsters tend to choose a job as a PNS or employee of existing firms. The results also support the reason that Indonesian businessman is more willing to open a new business if they have a guarantee for their losses.

  19. Foreign entry, cultural barriers and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Barkema (Harry); J.H.J. Bell (John); J.M.E. Pennings


    textabstractThis paper examines the longevity of foreign entries. Hypotheses are developed on the mode (start-ups vs. acquisitions) and ownership structure (wholly owned vs. joint ventures) in relation to cultural distance. The hypotheses are tested within a framework of organizational learning,

  20. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  1. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan


    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent

  2. Women's Entry into Teaching: Myths and Realities. (United States)

    Russell, Dorothy S.


    The author reviews the entry of women into the teaching profession in nineteenth-century America, noting that, while the primary motivation for encouraging women to teach was that they could be paid less than men, this economic justification was obscured by sentimental pronouncements about women's superior moral and nurturant power. (SJL)

  3. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, C.H.M.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Dijkstra, S.G.


    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  4. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens H. M.; Kemp, Ron G. M.; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  5. Infectious Entry Pathway of Enterovirus B Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varpu Marjomäki


    Full Text Available Enterovirus B species (EV-B are responsible for a vast number of mild and serious acute infections. They are also suspected of remaining in the body, where they cause persistent infections contributing to chronic diseases such as type I diabetes. Recent studies of the infectious entry pathway of these viruses revealed remarkable similarities, including non-clathrin entry of large endosomes originating from the plasma membrane invaginations. Many cellular factors regulating the efficient entry have recently been associated with macropinocytic uptake, such as Rac1, serine/threonine p21-activated kinase (Pak1, actin, Na/H exchanger, phospholipace C (PLC and protein kinase Cα (PKCα. Another characteristic feature is the entry of these viruses to neutral endosomes, independence of endosomal acidification and low association with acidic lysosomes. The biogenesis of neutral multivesicular bodies is crucial for their infection, at least for echovirus 1 (E1 and coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9. These pathways are triggered by the virus binding to their receptors on the plasma membrane, and they are not efficiently recycled like other cellular pathways used by circulating receptors. Therefore, the best “markers” of these pathways may be the viruses and often their receptors. A deeper understanding of this pathway and associated endosomes is crucial in elucidating the mechanisms of enterovirus uncoating and genome release from the endosomes to start efficient replication.

  6. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The DOE Energy Information Data Base has been created and is maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center. One of the controls for information entered into the base is the standardized name of the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of this list of authorized or standardized corporate entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. It also serves as a guide for users who retrieve information from a bibliographic data base and who want to locate information originating in particular organizations. This authority is a combination of entries established by the Technical Information Center and the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The format calls, in general, for the name of the organization represented by the literature being cataloged to be cited as follows: the largest element, the place, the smallest element, e.g., Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah (USA), Dept. of Chemical Engineering. Code numbers are assigned to each entry to provide manipulation by computer. Cross references are used to reflect name changes and invalid entries

  7. Radiation Database for Earth and Mars Entry (United States)


    state which mainly determines its polarizability . ∆r2 = r2u− r2l is the difference between Radiation Database for Earth and Mars Entry RTO-EN-AVT...NO A← X (0,0) band in the presence of argon and nitrogen. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 47:375–390, 1992. Radiation

  8. 76 FR 15841 - Entry of Merchandise (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Bureau of Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Part 141 Entry of Merchandise CFR Correction In Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 141 to 199, revised as of April 1, 2010, on page 6, the second general authority citation for part...

  9. Anthropologists and Broadcasting: Roles and Entry Strategies (United States)

    Eiselein, E. B.; Topper, Martin


    The article describes some of the roles open to anthropologists in radio and television. Entry strategies for occupying these roles include taking the first step in approaching the broadcast station, learning about broadcasting, and communicating anthropology to the broadcasters. (Author/NQ)

  10. Phosphoinositide-3 kinase-Akt pathway controls cellular entry of Ebola virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad F Saeed


    Full Text Available The phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K pathway regulates diverse cellular activities related to cell growth, migration, survival, and vesicular trafficking. It is known that Ebola virus requires endocytosis to establish an infection. However, the cellular signals that mediate this uptake were unknown for Ebola virus as well as many other viruses. Here, the involvement of PI3K in Ebola virus entry was studied. A novel and critical role of the PI3K signaling pathway was demonstrated in cell entry of Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV. Inhibitors of PI3K and Akt significantly reduced infection by ZEBOV at an early step during the replication cycle. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Akt-1 was induced shortly after exposure of cells to radiation-inactivated ZEBOV, indicating that the virus actively induces the PI3K pathway and that replication was not required for this induction. Subsequent use of pseudotyped Ebola virus and/or Ebola virus-like particles, in a novel virus entry assay, provided evidence that activity of PI3K/Akt is required at the virus entry step. Class 1A PI3Ks appear to play a predominant role in regulating ZEBOV entry, and Rac1 is a key downstream effector in this regulatory cascade. Confocal imaging of fluorescently labeled ZEBOV indicated that inhibition of PI3K, Akt, or Rac1 disrupted normal uptake of virus particles into cells and resulted in aberrant accumulation of virus into a cytosolic compartment that was non-permissive for membrane fusion. We conclude that PI3K-mediated signaling plays an important role in regulating vesicular trafficking of ZEBOV necessary for cell entry. Disruption of this signaling leads to inappropriate trafficking within the cell and a block in steps leading to membrane fusion. These findings extend our current understanding of Ebola virus entry mechanism and may help in devising useful new strategies for treatment of Ebola virus infection.

  11. Verbal Processing Reaction Times in "Normal" and "Poor" Readers. (United States)

    Culbertson, Jack; And Others

    After it had been determined that reaction time (RT) was a sensitive measure of hemispheric dominance in a verbal task performed by normal adult readers, the reaction times of three groups of subjects (20 normal reading college students, 12 normal reading third graders and 11 poor reading grade school students) were compared. Ss were exposed to…

  12. The New Normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas


    -and-defend strategies to protect market position, or in offensive battering-ram strategies for ecosystem entry or position improvement. Successful strategies can lead to: (1) Ricardian rents, based on operational efficiency advantages traceable to the firm’s position relative to suppliers and monopoly power; and (2...

  13. College Student Concerns: Perceptions of Student Affairs Practitioners (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy L.


    The purpose of this study was to increase awareness of the perceptions of student affairs professionals regarding the most frequent and challenging concerns facing college students today. Using the Delphi method, 159 entry-level and mid-level student affairs administrators from institutions across the country were surveyed about their perceptions…

  14. An Analysis of the Feasible Entry Mode for Tottenham Hotspur’s Entry into China


    Zhang, Lei


    An increasing number of European football clubs has developed global strategies with an emphasis on the Chinese market, which seems to be a shortcut to their global success. In order to achieve an effective expansion, the selection of appropriate entry modes should be conducted cautiously. This paper aims to select feasible entry modes for Tottenham Hotspur F.C., an emerging power in the Premier League, to enter into the Chinese market. A framework that combines different theories based ...

  15. Market Entry Strategies : Case: McDonald's entry on the Russian market


    Karataev, Oleg


    The thesis considers the entry strategy and development of the company McDonald's into international markets. The theoretical aspects of the entry strategy of the company into the international markets. Analyzes the key features of the development of McDonald's in Russia. Investigated the prospects of the company in international markets. In theoretic part there was regarded some important aspects of international strategic management, such as: strategic alternatives, elements and levels o...

  16. Variable Entry Biased Paracentric Hemispherical Deflector: Experimental results on energy resolution for different entry positions (United States)

    Dogan, Mevlut; Ulu, Melike; Gennerakis, Giannis; Zouros, Theo J. M.


    A new hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) which is designed for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions has been constructed and tested. Using the crossed beam technique at the electron spectrometer, test measurements were performed for electron beam (200 eV) - Helium atoms interactions. These first experimental results show that the paracentric entries give almost twice as good resolution as that for the conventional entry. Supporting simulations of the entire lens+HDA spectrometer are found in relatively good agreement with experiment.

  17. CT and MRI normal findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.


    This book gives answers to questions frequently heard especially from trainees and doctors not specialising in the field of radiology: Is that a normal finding? How do I decide? What are the objective criteria? The information presented is three-fold. The normal findings of the usual CT and MRI examinations are shown with high-quality pictures serving as a reference, with inscribed important additional information on measures, angles and other criteria describing the normal conditions. These criteria are further explained and evaluated in accompanying texts which also teach the systematic approach for individual picture analysis, and include a check list of major aspects, as a didactic guide for learning. The book is primarily intended for students, radiographers, radiology trainees and doctors from other medical fields, but radiology specialists will also find useful details of help in special cases. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Accounting for the Benefits of Database Normalization (United States)

    Wang, Ting J.; Du, Hui; Lehmann, Constance M.


    This paper proposes a teaching approach to reinforce accounting students' understanding of the concept of database normalization. Unlike a conceptual approach shown in most of the AIS textbooks, this approach involves with calculations and reconciliations with which accounting students are familiar because the methods are frequently used in…

  19. The entry-level physical therapist: a case for COMFORT communication training. (United States)

    Goldsmith, Joy; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Frisby, Brandi N; Platt, Christine Small


    Entry-level physical therapists provide clinical care for patients with functional mobility limitations. Their care spans the continuum of settings, disease processes, and diagnoses. Although effective communication skills are required to conduct physical therapy work, there is limited instruction provided in physical therapy education and students receive little exposure to seriously or chronically ill patients. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of communication training for the entry-level physical therapist facing palliative and end-of-life communication with patients/families. A pre-post survey design and narrative writing were used to assess the effect of the COMFORT communication training curriculum provided to doctorally trained, graduating physical therapists. The study demonstrated decreased student apprehension about communicating with dying patients and their families, and a comparison of mean scores reflecting the students' communication knowledge, confidence, and behaviors increased in a positive direction. As students became more willing to communicate, they were also more adept at integrating task and relational messages, as well as assimilating emotional support messages for patients and families. This study shows promise for the feasibility and utilization of the COMFORT curriculum for entry-level physical therapists. Further research should address the integration of COMFORT earlier into physical therapy education, as well as assess evidence of COMFORT communication skills in the clinical context.

  20. In Situ Magnetohydrodynamic Energy Generation for Planetary Entry Vehicles (United States)

    Ali, H. K.; Braun, R. D.


    This work aims to study the suitability of multi-pass entry trajectories for harnessing of vehicle kinetic energy through magnetohydrodynamic power generation from the high temperature entry plasma. Potential mission configurations are analyzed.

  1. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars. (United States)


    ... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND... present a certificate to the appropriate customs official at the date of entry of specialty sugars. Entry...

  2. Dependency of radon entry on pressure difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokotti, H.; Kalliokoski, P.


    Radon levels, ventilation rate and pressure differences were monitored continuously in four apartment houses with different ventilation systems. Two of them were ventilated by mechanical exhaust, one by mechanical supply and exhaust, and one by natural ventilation. The two-storey houses were constructed from concrete elements on a slab and located on a gravel esker. It was surprising to find that increasing the ventilation rate increased levels of radon in the apartments. Increased ventilation caused increased outdoor-indoor pressure difference, which in turn increased the entry rate of radon and counteracted the diluting effect of ventilation. The increase was significant when the outdoor-indoor pressure difference exceeded 5 Pa. Especially in the houses with mechanical exhaust ventilation the pressure difference was the most important factor of radon entry rate, and contributed up to several hundred Bq m -3 h -1 . (Author)

  3. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics (United States)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.


    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  4. Lunar Entry Downmode Options for Orion (United States)

    Smith, Kelly M.; Rea, Jeremy


    For Exploration Missions 1 and 2, the Orion capsules will be entering the Earth's atmosphere with speeds in excess of 11 km/s. In the event of a degraded Guidance, Navigation, and Control system, attempting the nominal guided entry may be inadvisable due to the potential for failures that result in a loss of vehicle (or crew, when crew are aboard). In such a case, a method of assuring Earth capture, water landing, and observence of trajectory constraints (heating, loads) is desired. Such a method should also be robust to large state uncertainty and variations in entry interface states. This document will explore four approaches evaluated and their performance in ensuring a safe return of the Orion capsule in the event of onboard system degradation.

  5. Available hardware for automated entry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.P.


    Automated entry control has become an increasingly important issue at facilities where budget constraints are limiting options for manned entry control points. Ongoing work at Sandia National Laboratories is attempting to establish a data base for use by facility security managers working the problem of how to maintain security on a limited budget. Sandia National Laboratories conducted a performance test of the following biometric verifiers: (1) voice verifier by Alpha Microsystems of Santa Ana, California; (2) signature dynamics verifier by Autosig Systems of Irving, Texas; (3) voice verifier by Ecco Industries of Danvers, Massachusetts (now International Electronics); (4) retinal pattern verifier by EyeDentify of Portland, Oregon; (5) fingerprint verifier by Identix of Sunnyvale, California; and (6) hand geometry verifier by Recognition Systems of San Jose, California

  6. Cell entry of hepatitis C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosch, Birke; Cosset, Francois-Loic


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), an important human pathogen, is an enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus classified in the hepacivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Cell attachment of flaviviruses generally leads to endocytosis of bound virions. Systems that support HCV replication and particle formation in vitro are emerging only now, 16 years after the discovery of the virus. Albeit this limitation, the route of HCV cell entry as well as 'capture' molecules involved in low-affinity interactions for the initial contact of HCV with target cells and potential high-affinity receptor candidates that may mediate HCV trafficking and fusion has been described. The objective of this review is to summarize the contribution of different HCV model systems to our current knowledge about structure of the HCV GPs E1 and E2 and their roles in cell entry comprising cell attachment, interactions with cellular receptors, endocytosis, and fusion

  7. Guessing lexicon entries using finite-state methods


    Koskenniemi, Kimmo Matti


    A practical method for interactive guessing of LEXC lexicon entries is presented. The method is based on describing groups of similarly inflected words using regular expressions. The patterns are compiled into a finite-state transducer (FST) which maps any word form into the possible LEXC lexicon entries which could generate it. The same FST can be used (1) for converting conventional headword lists into LEXC entries, (2) for interactive guessing of entries, (3) for corpus-assisted interactiv...

  8. RITD - Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development in Russian Collaboration (United States)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.


    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses on the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry.

  9. Entry Regulations, Product Differentiation and Determinants of Market Structure


    Maican, Florin; Orth, ´Matilda


    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability and market structure in retail. The model incorporates demand and store-level heterogeneity. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we find that the average entry costs for small and large stores are 10 and 18 percent lower, respectively, in markets with liberal compared with restrictive regulations. Counterfactual simulations show that lower entry costs in restrictive...

  10. Entry regulations, welfare and determinants of market structure


    Maican, Florin; Orth, Matilda


    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit with store-type differentiation to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability, market structure and welfare. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we estimate demand, recover variable profits, and estimate entry costs and fixed costs by store type. Counterfactual policy experiments show that welfare increases when competition is enhanced by lower entry costs. Protecting small stores by imposing licensing fees on ...

  11. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo


    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  12. Incumbent innovation and entry by spinoff


    Falck, Oliver; Heblich, Stephan


    This paper takes a different perspective toward the escape entry incentive of incumbent firms to innovate. New entrants spawned from incumbents are not necessarily a threat; they can complement incumbents' production by commercializing knowledge incumbents are not willing or able to exploit. Accordingly, incumbent innovation determines exploitable knowledge externalities for spinoffs while, at the same time, spinoffs are expected to influence incumbent innovation. To overcome this problem of ...

  13. Advertising, Competition and Entry in Media Industries


    Crampes, Claude; Haritchabalet, Carole; Jullien, Bruno


    This paper presents a model of media competition with free entry when media operators are financed both from advertisers and customers. The relation between advertising receipts and sales receipts, which are both complementary and antagonist, is different if media operators impose a price or a quantity to advertisers. When consumers dislike advertising, media operators are better off setting an advertising price than an advertising quantity. We establish a relationship between the equilibrium...

  14. System for histogram entry, retrieval, and plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Gallup, J.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.


    This manual describes the systems for producing histograms and dot plots that were designed for use in connection with the Q general-purpose data-acquisition system. These systems allow for the creation of histograms; the entry, retrieval, and plotting of data in the form of histograms; and the dynamic display of scatter plots as data are acquired. Although the systems are designed for use with Q, they can also be used as a part of other applications. 3 figures

  15. EntrySat: A 3U CubeStat to study the reentry atmospheric environment (United States)

    Anthony, Sournac; Raphael, Garcia; David, Mimoun; Jeremie, Chaix


    ISAE France Entrysat has for main scientific objective the study of uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry. This project, is developed by ISAE in collaboration with ONERA and University of Toulouse, is funded by CNES, in the overall frame of the QB50 project. This nano-satellite is a 3U Cubesat measuring 34*10*10 cm3, similar to secondary debris produced during the break up of a spacecraft. EntrySat will collect the external and internal temperatures, pressure, heat flux, attitude variations and drag force of the satellite between ≈150 and 90 km before its destruction in the atmosphere, and transmit them during the re-entry using the IRIDIUM satellite network. The result will be compared with the computations of MUSIC/FAST, a new 6-degree of freedom code developed by ONERA to predict the trajectory of space debris. In order to fulfil the scientific objectives, the satellite will acquire 18 re-entry sensors signals, convert them and compress them, thanks to an electronic board developed by ISAE students in cooperation with EREMS. In order to transmit these data every second during the re-entry phase, the satellite will use an IRIDIUM connection. In order to keep a stable enough attitudes during this phase, a simple attitude orbit and control system using magnetotorquers and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is developed at ISAE by students. A commercial GPS board is also integrated in the satellite into Entry Sat to determine its position and velocity which are necessary during the re-entry phase. This GPS will also be used to synchronize the on-board clock with the real-time UTC data. During the orbital phase (≈2 year) EntrySat measurements will be recorded transmitted through a more classical "UHF/VHF" connection. Preference for presentation: Poster Most suitable session: Author for correspondence: Dr Raphael F. Garcia ISAE 10, ave E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France +33 5 61 33 81 14

  16. Filovirus tropism: Cellular molecules for viral entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayato eTakada


    Full Text Available In human and nonhuman primates, filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever.Recently, other animals such as pigs and some species of fruit bats have also been shown to be susceptible to these viruses. While having a preference for some cell types such as hepatocytes, endothelial cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages, filoviruses are known to be pantropic in infection of primates. The envelope glycoprotein (GP is responsible for both receptor binding and fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. It has been demonstrated that filovirus GP interacts with multiple molecules for entry into host cells, whereas none of the cellular molecules so far identified as a receptor/coreceptor fully explains filovirus tissue tropism and host range. Available data suggest that the mucin-like region (MLR on GP plays an important role in attachment to the preferred target cells, whose infection is likely involved in filovirus pathogenesis, whereas the MLR is not essential for the fundamental function of the GP in viral entry into cells in vitro. Further studies elucidating the mechanisms of cellular entry of filoviruses may shed light on the development of strategies for prophylaxis and treatment of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers.

  17. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all new...

  18. 32 CFR 643.11 - Rights of entry. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rights of entry. 643.11 Section 643.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE General § 643.11 Rights of entry. Pending the signing of the formal instrument, no right of entry will be...

  19. 19 CFR 141.18 - Entry by nonresident corporation. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry by nonresident corporation. 141.18 Section....18 Entry by nonresident corporation. A nonresident corporation (i.e., one which is not incorporated... entry is located who is authorized to accept service of process against that corporation or, in the case...

  20. 19 CFR 151.63 - Information on entry summary. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on entry summary. 151.63 Section 151.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... Information on entry summary. Each entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per clean...

  1. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 deg Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries (United States)

    Prabu, Dinesh K.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Spilker, Thomas R.; Hwang, Helen H.; Moses, Robert W.


    The present study considers ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and capsule diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30 is explored with a 3DOF trajectory code, TRAJ. Assuming that the thermal protection material of choice is carbon phenolic of flight heritage, the entry flight path angle space is constrained a posteriori by the mechanical and thermal performance parameters of the material. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load and 10 bar is assumed as the limit for heritage carbon-phenolic material. It is shown that both constraints cannot be active simultaneously. For thermal performance, a heat flux 2.5 kW/sq cm is utilized as a threshold below which the heritage carbon phenolic is considered mass inefficient. Using these constraints, viable entry flight path angle corridors are determined. Analysis of the results also hints at the existence of a range of "critical" ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of 10 bar. The results are verified against known performance of the various probes used in the Pioneer Venus mission. It is anticipated that the results presented here will serve as a baseline in the development of a new class of ablative materials for future Venus missions.

  2. Attacking 22 entries in rugby union: running demands and differences between successful and unsuccessful entries. (United States)

    Tierney, P; Tobin, D P; Blake, C; Delahunt, E


    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is commonly utilized in team sports, including rugby union. It has been used to describe the average running demands of rugby union. This has afforded an enhanced understanding of the physical fitness requirements for players. However, research in team sports has suggested that training players relative to average demands may underprepare them for certain scenarios within the game. To date, no research has investigated the running demands of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Additionally, no research has been undertaken to determine whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries in rugby union. The first aim of this study was to describe the running intensity of attacking 22 entries. The second aim of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries. Running intensity was measured using meters per minute (m min -1 ) for (a) total distance, (b) running distance, (c) high-speed running distance, and (d) very high-speed running distance. This study provides normative data for the running intensity of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Forwards achieved greater high-speed running intensity in successful (3.6 m min -1 ) compared to unsuccessful (1.8 m min -1 ) attacking 22 entries. Forwards should try and achieve greater high-speed running intensity in attacking 22 entries to increase the likelihood of successful outcomes during this period of gameplay. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.


    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  4. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten


    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: Virtual export channel are generally understood as the entry mode fo...... for digital product providers. However other types of entry modes like what wee call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and after-sales complexity....

  5. Impact of a Graduate Entry Programme on a medical school library service. (United States)

    Martin, Sam


    The aim of this study was to compare the use of library facilities by first year undergraduate medical students and Graduate Entry Programme students (GEP). More specifically it tried to determine which library services (if any) were more frequently used by GEP so that this could be taken into account in future Information Services planning. A questionnaire on the use of Library and Information Services was posted to all first year GEP students and undergraduates on the 5-year course. In addition, user statistics of library entry and borrowing were collated from gate readings and the library Unicorn management system. Overall, GEP students were found to make a greater daily/weekly use of library facilities than undergraduates on the 5-year course. The facilities most used by both sets of students were essential texts, e-mail, PCs and study facilities. Computer Aided Learning packages, journals and video facilities were least used. However, on a daily/weekly basis GEP students made 74% more use of journals (P difference in use should be taken into account by LIS providers as there is expected to be an increase in fast-track graduate courses offered by medical schools throughout the UK.

  6. Mechanism of H. pylori intracellular entry: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eLiu


    Full Text Available The majority of H. pylori reside on gastric epithelial cell surfaces and in the overlying mucus, but a small fraction of H. pylori enter host epithelial and immune cells. To explore the role of the nudA invasin in host cell entry, a ΔnudA deletion derivative of strain J99 was constructed and transformants were verified by PCR and by fluorescence in situ hybridization. AGS cells were inoculated with either wild type (WT strain J99 or its ΔnudA mutant to determine the fraction of bacteria that were bound to the cells and inside these cells using the gentamicin protection assay. We observed no significant difference between either the density of H. pylori bound to AGS cell membranes or the density of intracellular H. pylori. To further explore this finding, separate chambers of each culture were fixed in glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopy (TEM and immunogold TEM. This addition to the classical gentamicin assay demonstrated that there were significantly more intracellular, and fewer membrane-bound, H. pylori in WT-infected AGS cells than in ΔnudA allele infected cells. Thus, the sum of intracellular and membrane-bound H. pylori was similar in the two groups. Since no other similar TEM study has been performed, it is at present unknown whether our observations can be reproduced by others Taken together however, our observations suggest that the classical gentamicin protection assay is not sufficiently sensitive to analyze H. pylori cell entry and that the addition of TEM to the test demonstrate that nudA plays a role in H. pylori entry into AGS cells in vitro. In addition, deletion of the invasin gene appears to limit H. pylori to the AGS cell surface, where it may be partly protected against gentamicin. In contrast, this specific environment may render H. pylori more vulnerable to host defense and therapeutic intervention, and less prone to trigger normal immune, carcinogenic, and other developmental response pathways.

  7. Analysis and Optimization of Entry Stability in Underground Longwall Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubing Gao


    Full Text Available For sustainable utilization of limited coal resources, it is important to increase the coal recovery rate and reduce mine accidents, especially those occurring in the entry (gateroad. Entry stabilities are vital for ventilation, transportation and other essential services in underground coal mining. In the present study, a finite difference model was built to investigate stress evolutions around the entry, and true triaxial tests were carried out at the laboratory to explore entry wall stabilities under different mining conditions. The modeling and experimental results indicated that a wide coal pillar was favorable for entry stabilities, but oversize pillars caused a serious waste of coal resources. As the width of the entry wall decreased, the integrated vertical stress, induced by two adjacent mining panels, coupled with each other and experienced an increase on the entry wall, which inevitably weakened the stability of the entry. Therefore, mining with coal pillars always involves a tradeoff between economy and safety. To address this problem, an innovative non-pillar mining technique by optimizing the entry surrounding structures was proposed. Numerical simulation showed that the deformation of the entry roof decreased by approximately 66% after adopting the new approach, compared with that using the conventional mining method. Field monitoring indicated that the stress condition of the entry was significantly improved and the average roof pressure decreased by appropriately 60.33% after adopting the new technique. This work provides an economical and effective approach to achieve sustainable exploitation of underground coal resources.

  8. Competitive Dynamics of Market Entry: Scale and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. UPSON


    Full Text Available Market entry is the essence of strategy and is largely viewed as a dichotomous event: entry or no entry. What has not been acknowledged is the uniqueness of each market entry. Our study highlights the scale of market entry in the context of multipoint competition. We assert that entry scale varies based on the risk of market incumbent retaliation. Theory suggests that when risk associated with retaliation are low, firms enter with large scale and when associated risks are high, firms enter with low scale. Further, survival is viewed as dependent on following theory. We argue and find supporting evidence that firms behave in the opposite manner and do so to their own benefit, thereby revealing a unique discrepancy between theory and practice among 75 product market entries by 27 firms.

  9. Hepatitis C virus utilizes VLDLR as a novel entry pathway. (United States)

    Ujino, Saneyuki; Nishitsuji, Hironori; Hishiki, Takayuki; Sugiyama, Kazuo; Takaku, Hiroshi; Shimotohno, Kunitada


    Various host factors are involved in the cellular entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV). In addition to the factors previously reported, we discovered that the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) mediates HCV entry independent of CD81. Culturing Huh7.5 cells under hypoxic conditions significantly increased HCV entry as a result of the expression of VLDLR, which was not expressed under normoxic conditions in this cell line. Ectopic VLDLR expression conferred susceptibility to HCV entry of CD81-deficient Huh7.5 cells. Additionally, VLDLR-mediated HCV entry was not affected by the knockdown of cellular factors known to act as HCV receptors or HCV entry factors. Because VLDLR is expressed in primary human hepatocytes, our results suggest that VLDLR functions in vivo as an HCV receptor independent of canonical CD81-mediated HCV entry.

  10. Vocational Preference Inventory High Point Codes Versus Expressed Choices as Predictors of College Major and Career Entry (United States)

    Gade, Eldon M.; Soliah, David


    For 151 male graduates of the University of North Dakota, expressed choices measured by preferences made as high school seniors on the ACT Student Profile Section were significantly more accurate predictors of graduating college major and of career entry occupation than were their Vocational Preference Inventory high point codes. (Author)

  11. Competencies of Career-Entry Medical Technology Graduates of Lyceum of Batangas: Basis for Enhancement of the Internship Training Program (United States)

    Valdez, Anacleta P.


    The role of medical technologists in the years due to changes in the laboratory environment. curriculum is needed to prepare graduates for changes in laboratory medicine. It is the ultimate goal of the College to prepare students for career entry positions as medical technology professionals. The curriculum should be designed to prepare the…

  12. Adolescent Decision-Making Processes regarding University Entry: A Model Incorporating Cultural Orientation, Motivation and Occupational Variables (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup


    This study tested a newly developed model of the cognitive decision-making processes of senior high school students related to university entry. The model incorporated variables derived from motivation theory (i.e. expectancy-value theory and the theory of reasoned action), literature on cultural orientation and occupational considerations. A…

  13. Aerothermodynamics of blunt body entry vehicles (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Borrelli, Salvatore


    In this chapter, the aerothermodynamic phenomena of blunt body entry vehicles are discussed. Four topics will be considered that present challenges to current computational modeling techniques for blunt body environments: turbulent flow, non-equilibrium flow, rarefied flow, and radiation transport. Examples of comparisons between computational tools to ground and flight-test data will be presented in order to illustrate the challenges existing in the numerical modeling of each of these phenomena and to provide test cases for evaluation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code predictions.

  14. PDBsum: Structural summaries of PDB entries


    Laskowski, Roman A.; Jabłońska, Jagoda; Pravda, Lukáš; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Thornton, Janet M.


    Abstract PDBsum is a web server providing structural information on the entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The analyses are primarily image‐based and include protein secondary structure, protein‐ligand and protein‐DNA interactions, PROCHECK analyses of structural quality, and many others. The 3D structures can be viewed interactively in RasMol, PyMOL, and a JavaScript viewer called 3Dmol.js. Users can upload their own PDB files and obtain a set of password‐protected PDBsum analyses for e...

  15. The Timing of Entry into New Markets


    Debra J. Aron


    Under what circumstances will a successful incumbent in a related market be the first to enter a new market? We present a model in which the order of entry into new markets has long run effects on the firms' profits. We assume that a firm that is successfully producing in a related market has valuable information about the demand in the new market. By his choice of location in product space in the new market the incumbent reveals information about the demand to the potential entrant. Thus, th...

  16. PDBsum: Structural summaries of PDB entries. (United States)

    Laskowski, Roman A; Jabłońska, Jagoda; Pravda, Lukáš; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Thornton, Janet M


    PDBsum is a web server providing structural information on the entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The analyses are primarily image-based and include protein secondary structure, protein-ligand and protein-DNA interactions, PROCHECK analyses of structural quality, and many others. The 3D structures can be viewed interactively in RasMol, PyMOL, and a JavaScript viewer called 3Dmol.js. Users can upload their own PDB files and obtain a set of password-protected PDBsum analyses for each. The server is freely accessible to all at: © 2017 The Protein Society.

  17. Business entry and window of opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Silke; Kurczewska, Agnieszka


    with a positive influence, namely having an entrepreneurial role model and having attended seminars about starting a business. In our model, these factors support waiting longer before starting a business. In light of these results, we call for a more experimental approach in entrepreneurship education.......This paper explores the nascence period - the time between idea generation and business entry -among women entrepreneurs with a graduate degree. To address this research problem and to better understand the specifics of a window of opportunity, we combine selected theories of human and social...

  18. Text Entry by Gazing and Smiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Tuisku


    Full Text Available Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n=10 to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n=12 was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.

  19. Energy Data Base corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.


    The US Department of Energy is one of three agencies funding the major portion of government-supported research. One of the ways to locate the results of this research is to find reports in the Energy Data Base (EDB), the comprehensive data base of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Technical Information Center, and in publications derived therefrom by referring to the corporate organization performing the research. This information field has been established as an index point retrievable in on-line searching and is included as an index in printed publications. To provide consistent citing of names in bibliographic entries, this authority has been created and maintained as a means of entry of corporate names into the EDB. To locate such information, one can (1) use the seven-digit code number assigned to the corporate entity of interest (enter, for example, IC=9506086) or (2) use one word at a time from the corporate name given (enter, for example, CS=Dominion)

  20. 75 FR 82241 - Technical Correction: Completion of Entry and Entry Summary-Declaration of Value (United States)


    ... Entry Summary-- Declaration of Value AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... manner by which the declared transaction value on imported merchandise was determined. This requirement... whether the transaction value of imported merchandise is determined on the basis of the price paid by the...

  1. Analytic Development of a Reference Profile for the First Entry in a Skip Atmospheric Entry (United States)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo


    This note shows that a feasible reference drag profile for the first entry portion of a skip entry can be generated as a polynomial expression of the velocity. The coefficients of that polynomial are found through the resolution of a system composed of m + 1 equations, where m is the degree of the drag polynomial. It has been shown that a minimum of five equations (m = 4) are required to establish the range and the initial and final conditions on velocity and flight path angle. It has been shown that at least one constraint on the trajectory can be imposed through the addition of one extra equation in the system, which must be accompanied by the increase in the degree of the drag polynomial. In order to simplify the resolution of the system of equations, the drag was considered as being a probability density function of the velocity, with the velocity as a distribution function of the drag. Combining this notion with the introduction of empirically derived constants, it has been shown that the system of equations required to generate the drag profile can be successfully reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations. For completeness, the resulting drag profiles have been flown using the feedback linearization method of differential geometric control as a guidance law with the error dynamics of a second order homogeneous equation in the form of a damped oscillator. Satisfactory results were achieved when the gains in the error dynamics were changed at a certain point along the trajectory that is dependent on the velocity and the curvature of the drag as a function of the velocity. Future work should study the capacity to update the drag profile in flight when dispersions are introduced. Also, future studies should attempt to link the first entry, as presented and controlled in this note, with a more standard control concept for the second entry, such as the Apollo entry guidance, to try to assess the overall skip entry performance. A guidance law that includes

  2. Report on an Investigation into an Entry Level Clinical Doctorate for the Genetic Counseling Profession and a Survey of the Association of Genetic Counseling Program Directors. (United States)

    Reiser, Catherine; LeRoy, Bonnie; Grubs, Robin; Walton, Carol


    The master's degree is the required entry-level degree for the genetic counseling profession in the US and Canada. In 2012 the Association of Genetic Counseling Program Directors (AGCPD) passed resolutions supporting retention of the master's as the entry-level and terminal degree and opposing introduction of an entry-level clinical doctorate (CD) degree. An AGCPD workgroup surveyed directors of all 34 accredited training programs with the objective of providing the Genetic Counseling Advanced Degrees Task Force (GCADTF) with information regarding potential challenges if master's programs were required to transition to an entry-level CD. Program demographics, projected ability to transition to an entry-level CD, factors influencing ability to transition, and potential effects of transition on programs, students and the genetic counseling workforce were characterized. Two programs would definitely be able to transition, four programs would close, thirteen programs would be at risk to close and fourteen programs would probably be able to transition with varying degrees of difficulty. The most frequently cited limiting factors were economic, stress on clinical sites, and administrative approval of a new degree/program. Student enrollment under an entry-level CD model was projected to decrease by 26.2 %, negatively impacting the workforce pipeline. The results further illuminate and justify AGCPD's position to maintain the master's as the entry-level degree.

  3. Developing Visualization Support System for Teaching/Learning Database Normalization (United States)

    Folorunso, Olusegun; Akinwale, AdioTaofeek


    Purpose: In tertiary institution, some students find it hard to learn database design theory, in particular, database normalization. The purpose of this paper is to develop a visualization tool to give students an interactive hands-on experience in database normalization process. Design/methodology/approach: The model-view-controller architecture…

  4. An automated entry control system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ream, W.K.; Espinoza, J.


    An entry control system to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. The design uses a centrally located console, integrated into the regular security system, to monitor the computer-controlled passage into and out of sensitive areas. Four types of entry control points are used: an unmanned enclosed portal with metal and SNM detectors for contraband detection with positive personnel identification, a bypass portal for contraband search after a contraband alarm in a regular portal also with positive personnel identification, a single door entry point with positive personnel identification, and a single door entry point with only a magnetic card-type identification. Security force action is required only as a response to an alarm. The integration of the entry control function into the security system computer is also described. The interface between the entry control system and the monitoring security personnel utilizing a color graphics display with touch screen input is emphasized

  5. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengali, Zain; Satheshkumar, P.S. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States); Moss, Bernard, E-mail: [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States)


    Vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by a low pH endosomal route or by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. We previously found differences in entry properties of several VACV strains: entry of WR was enhanced by low pH, reduced by bafilomycin A1 and relatively unaffected by heparin, whereas entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree were oppositely affected. Since binding and entry modes may have been selected by specific conditions of in vitro propagation, we now examined the properties of three distinct, recently isolated cowpox viruses and a monkeypox virus as well as additional VACV and cowpox virus strains. The recent isolates were more similar to WR than to other VACV strains, underscoring the biological importance of endosomal entry by orthopoxviruses. Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 'fusion-suppressor' proteins, impact entry properties.

  6. Baby Poop: What's Normal? (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  7. Denying Foreign Bank Entry: Implications For Bank Interest Margins


    Ross Levine


    This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...

  8. The Internationalization of Chinese Firms: Entry Mode Choice


    Zhang, Xu


    Chinese firms and other emerging markets firms aim to select a favourable entry mode to start or expand their international business, thus this is significant issue for research. This study demonstrates that the Chinese firms’ choice of entry mode is determined by internal-factors, external-factors and transaction cost factors. This is illustrated through the investigation of a case study of the Haier Group’s choice of entry mode and internationalization. Therefore, four processes of choice o...

  9. Entry Restrictions, Corruption and Extortion in the Context of Transition


    Inna Cabelkova


    This paper argues that even temporary barriers to entry present at the very beginning of transition may lead to permanent extortion development. Entry restrictions, if binding, lead to excess profits, which create an incentive to extort. The emergence of extortionists reduces the expected profit from production, making producers expect extortion in the future. If, after this adaptation of expectations, the government removes the barriers to entry, only a few new firms will enter the market. H...

  10. The efficacy of self-directed modules for clinical learning: advanced competencies in entry-level physical therapy education. (United States)

    Peck, Kirk; Paschal, Karen; Black, Lisa; Nelson, Kelly


    Prior to graduation, students often express an interest to advance clinical and professional skills in teaching, research, administration, and various niche practice areas. The acquisition of advanced education in selected areas of practice is believed to improve employment opportunities, accelerate career advancement including eligibility for professional certifications, and contribute to personal satisfaction in the profession. The purpose of this paper is to (1) describe an innovative model of education, the Directed Practice Experience (DPE) elective, that incorporates a student-initiated learning process designed to achieve student-identified professional goals, and (2) report the outcomes for graduates who have completed the DPE in an entry-level program in physical therapy education. Students who met select criteria were eligible to complete a DPE. Applicants designed a 4- to 6-week clinical education experience consisting of stated rationale for personal and professional growth, examples of leadership and service, and self-directed objectives that are beyond entry-level expectations as measured by the revised Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument, version 2006. Twenty-six students have completed DPEs since 2005. Fifty percent resulted in new academic partnerships. At least 25% of graduates now serve as clinical instructors for the entry-level program. Those who participated in DPEs have also completed post-graduate residencies, attained ABPTS Board certifications, authored peer-reviewed publications, and taught in both PT and residency programs. The DPE model allows qualified students to acquire advanced personal skills and knowledge prior to graduation in areas of professional practice that exceed entry-level expectations. The model is applicable to all CAPTE accredited physical therapy education programs and is especially beneficial for academic programs desiring to form new community partnerships for student clinical education.

  11. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization. (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam


    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  12. Free Entry and Social Inefficiency under Co-opetition


    Hattori, Keisuke; Yoshikawa, Takeshi


    We investigate the social desirability of free entry in the co-opetition model in which firms compete in a homogeneous product market while sharing common property resources that affect market size or consumers' willingness to pay for products. We show that free entry leads to socially excessive or insufficient entry into the market in the case of non-commitment co-opetition, depending on the magnitude of "business stealing" and "common property" effects of entry. On the other hand, in the ca...

  13. The choice of foreign entry modes in a control perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Boyd, Britta; Hollensen, Svend

    The aim of this article is to investigate the choice of entry modes for international markets in a control perspective. A survey from The Confederation of Danish Industry with 234 Danish small- and medium sized enterprises served as a data base. The entry modes are categorized into three groups...... depending on the control that the company has over its activities abroad. The paper examines selected factors that influence the ‘entry modes’ of Danish SMEs in different strategic settings. Results show that the most deciding factor for the choice of high control entry mode (subsidiary) was the factor...

  14. Methodological aspects of journaling a dynamic adjusting entry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Kašparovská


    Full Text Available This paper expands the discussion of the importance and function of adjusting entries for loan receivables. Discussion of the cyclical development of adjusting entries, their negative impact on the business cycle and potential solutions has intensified during the financial crisis. These discussions are still ongoing and continue to be relevant to members of the professional public, banking regulators and representatives of international accounting institutions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a method of journaling dynamic adjusting entries under current accounting law. It also expresses the authors’ opinions on the potential for consistently implementing basic accounting principles in journaling adjusting entries for loan receivables under a dynamic model.

  15. Regulated portals of entry into the cell (United States)

    Conner, Sean D.; Schmid, Sandra L.


    The plasma membrane is the interface between cells and their harsh environment. Uptake of nutrients and all communication among cells and between cells and their environment occurs through this interface. `Endocytosis' encompasses several diverse mechanisms by which cells internalize macromolecules and particles into transport vesicles derived from the plasma membrane. It controls entry into the cell and has a crucial role in development, the immune response, neurotransmission, intercellular communication, signal transduction, and cellular and organismal homeostasis. As the complexity of molecular interactions governing endocytosis are revealed, it has become increasingly clear that it is tightly coordinated and coupled with overall cell physiology and thus, must be viewed in a broader context than simple vesicular trafficking.

  16. Radon entry into a simple test structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.


    A simple test structure for studies of radon entry into houses has been constructed at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. It consists of a 40 1, stainless-steel cylinder placed in a 0.52 m deep quadratic excavation with a side length of 2.4 m. The excavation is lined with an airtight...... membrane, and soil gas enters the cylinder through a changeable interface in the bottom. The depressurisation of the cylinder is controlled by a mass-flow controller, thereby limiting the influence of natural driving forces. Pressures, temperatures and radon concentrations are measured continuously...... in the cylinder and in selected locations in the soil. In this paper, the test structure is described, and initial results concerning the transport of soil gas and radon under steady-state conditions are reported. It is found that the soil in the vicinity of the structure is partially depleted with respect...

  17. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno


    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  18. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Landing Test (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris


    Two full-scale passive Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV) with realistic structure, surrogate sample container, and surrogate Thermal Protection System (TPS) were built at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and tested at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). The main test objective was to demonstrate structural integrity and investigate possible impact response deviations of the realistic vehicle as compared to rigid penetrometer responses. With the exception of the surrogate TPS and minor structural differences in the back shell construction, the two test vehicles were identical in geometry and both utilized the Integrated Composite Stiffener Structure (ICoSS) structural concept in the forward shell. The ICoSS concept is a lightweight and highly adaptable composite concept developed at NASA LaRC specifically for entry vehicle TPS carrier structures. The instrumented test vehicles were released from a helicopter approximately 400 m above ground. The drop height was selected such that at least 98% of the vehicles terminal velocity would be achieved. While drop tests of spherical penetrometers and a low fidelity aerodynamic EEV model were conducted at UTTR in 1998 and 2000, this was the first time a passive EEV with flight-like structure, surrogate TPS, and sample container was tested at UTTR for the purpose of complete structural system validation. Test results showed that at a landing vertical speed of approximately 30 m/s, the test vehicle maintained structural integrity and enough rigidity to penetrate the sandy clay surface thus attenuating the landing load, as measured at the vehicle CG, to less than 600 g. This measured deceleration was found to be in family with rigid penetrometer test data from the 1998 and 2000 test campaigns. Design implications of vehicle structure/soil interaction with respect to sample container and sample survivability are briefly discussed.

  19. Two Bistable Switches Govern M Phase Entry. (United States)

    Mochida, Satoru; Rata, Scott; Hino, Hirotsugu; Nagai, Takeharu; Novák, Béla


    The abrupt and irreversible transition from interphase to M phase is essential to separate DNA replication from chromosome segregation. This transition requires the switch-like phosphorylation of hundreds of proteins by the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1):cyclin B (CycB) complex. Previous studies have ascribed these switch-like phosphorylations to the auto-activation of Cdk1:CycB through the removal of inhibitory phosphorylations on Cdk1-Tyr15 [1, 2]. The positive feedback in Cdk1 activation creates a bistable switch that makes mitotic commitment irreversible [2-4]. Here, we surprisingly find that Cdk1 auto-activation is dispensable for irreversible, switch-like mitotic entry due to a second mechanism, whereby Cdk1:CycB inhibits its counteracting phosphatase (PP2A:B55). We show that the PP2A:B55-inhibiting Greatwall (Gwl)-endosulfine (ENSA) pathway is both necessary and sufficient for switch-like phosphorylations of mitotic substrates. Using purified components of the Gwl-ENSA pathway in a reconstituted system, we found a sharp Cdk1 threshold for phosphorylation of a luminescent mitotic substrate. The Cdk1 threshold to induce mitotic phosphorylation is distinctly higher than the Cdk1 threshold required to maintain these phosphorylations-evidence for bistability. A combination of mathematical modeling and biochemical reconstitution show that the bistable behavior of the Gwl-ENSA pathway emerges from its mutual antagonism with PP2A:B55. Our results demonstrate that two interlinked bistable mechanisms provide a robust solution for irreversible and switch-like mitotic entry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Robinson, Maxine F; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Merlin, Tracy; Roughead, Elizabeth


    Australia relies on managed entry agreements (MEAs) for many medicines added to the national Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). Previous studies of Australian MEAs examined public domain documents and were not able to provide a comprehensive assessment of the types and operation of MEAs. This study used government documents approved for release to examine the implementation and administration of MEAs implemented January 2012 to May 2016. We accessed documents for medicines with MEAs on the PBS between January 2012 and May 2016. Data were extracted on Anatomical Therapeutic Classification (ATC), type of MEA (financial, financial with outcomes, outcomes, and subcategories within each group), implementation and administration methods, source of MEA recommendation, and type of economic analysis. Of all medication indication pairs (MIPs) recommended for listing, one-third had MEAs implemented. Our study of eighty-seven MIPs had 170 MEAs in place. The Government's expert health technology assessment (HTA) committee recommended MEAs for 90 percent of the eighty-seven MIPs. A total of 81 percent of MEAs were simple financial agreements: the majority either discounts (32 percent) or reimbursement caps (43 percent). Outcome-based MEAs were least common (5 percent). Ninety-two percent of MEAs were implemented and operated through legal agreements. Approximately half of the MIPs were listed on the basis of accepted claims of cost-minimization. Forty-nine percent of medicines were in ATC L group. Advice from HTA evaluations strongly influences the implementation of ways to manage uncertainties while providing access to medicines. The government relied primarily on simple financial agreements for the managed entry of medicines for which there were perceived risks.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics exploration through normal forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Peter B


    Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this exposition covers the method of normal forms and its application to ordinary differential equations through perturbation analysis. In addition to its emphasis on the freedom inherent in the normal form expansion, the text features numerous examples of equations, the kind of which are encountered in many areas of science and engineering. The treatment begins with an introduction to the basic concepts underlying the normal forms. Coverage then shifts to an investigation of systems with one degree of freedom that model oscillations

  2. Central projections and entries of capsaicin-sensitive muscle afferents. (United States)

    Della Torre, G; Lucchi, M L; Brunetti, O; Pettorossi, V E; Clavenzani, P; Bortolami, R


    The entry pathway and central distribution of A delta and C muscle afferents within the central nervous system (CNS) were investigated by combining electron microscopy and electrophysiological analysis after intramuscular injection of capsaicin. The drug was injected into the rat lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and extraocular (EO) muscles. The compound action potentials of LG nerve and the evoked field potentials recorded in semilunar ganglion showed an immediate and permanent reduction in A delta and C components. The morphological data revealed degenerating unmyelinated axons and terminals in the inner sublamina II and in the border of laminae I-II of the dorsal horn at L4-L5 and C1-C2 (subnucleus caudalis trigemini) spinal cord segments. Most degenerating terminals were the central bouton (C) of type I and II synaptic glomeruli. Furthermore, degenerating peripheral axonal endings (V2) presynaptic to normal C were found. Since V2 were previously found degenerated after cutting the oculomotor nerve (ON) or L4 ventral root, we conclude that some A delta and C afferents from LG and EO muscles entering the CNS by ON or ventral roots make axoaxonic synapses on other primary afferents to promote an afferent control of sensory input.

  3. Students' Motivation in Class. (United States)

    Cretu, Daniela


    Presents an approach that teachers can use to promote and investigate students' motivation to learn in the classroom. Notes that the strategies used are from Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking courses. Explains the following motivational devices: dual-entry diary; clusters; know/want to know/learned; think/pair/share; discussion web;…

  4. Entry to medical schools with 'A' level in mathematics rather than biology. (United States)

    Spurgin, C B


    The majority of British medical schools now accept for their shortest courses students who have mathematics at A level in place of the former requirement of biology A level. Only a small fraction of the entry, less than one-fifth, enters this way, in spite of statements by most medical schools that they make no distinction between those with mathematics and those with biology when making conditional offers of places. There is no evidence that those without biology are at a disadvantage in the courses. If the prospects of entry without A level biology were better publicized medical schools would have a wider field of possibly abler entrants, and pupils entering sixth forms could defer for a year a choice between a medical (or dental) career and one involving physical science, engineering, or other mathematics-based university education.

  5. Use of Simulation Learning Experiences in Physical Therapy Entry-to-Practice Curricula: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Carnahan, Heather; Herold, Jodi


    ABSTRACT Purpose: To review the literature on simulation-based learning experiences and to examine their potential to have a positive impact on physiotherapy (PT) learners' knowledge, skills, and attitudes in entry-to-practice curricula. Method: A systematic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase Classic+Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, using keywords such as physical therapy, simulation, education, and students. Results: A total of 820 abstracts were screened, and 23 articles were included in the systematic review. While there were few randomized controlled trials with validated outcome measures, some discoveries about simulation can positively affect the design of the PT entry-to-practice curricula. Using simulators to provide specific output feedback can help students learn specific skills. Computer simulations can also augment students' learning experience. Human simulation experiences in managing the acute patient in the ICU are well received by students, positively influence their confidence, and decrease their anxiety. There is evidence that simulated learning environments can replace a portion of a full-time 4-week clinical rotation without impairing learning. Conclusions: Simulation-based learning activities are being effectively incorporated into PT curricula. More rigorously designed experimental studies that include a cost–benefit analysis are necessary to help curriculum developers make informed choices in curriculum design. PMID:25931672

  6. Instructions for preparation of data entry sheets for Licensee Event Report (LER) file. Revision 1. Instruction manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The manual provides instructions for the preparation of data entry sheets for the licensee event report (LER) file. It is a revision to an interim manual published in October 1974 in 00E-SS-001. The LER file is a computer-based data bank of information using the data entry sheets as input. These data entry sheets contain pertinent information in regard to those occurrences required to be reported to the NRC. The computer-based data bank provides a centralized source of data that may be used for qualitative assessment of the nature and extent of off-normal events in the nuclear industry and as an index of source information to which users may refer for more detail

  7. An Examination of Market Entry Perspectives in Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin O. Bates


    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this article is to describe the marketing-oriented market entry approaches that businesses are currently using across the three levels of the world economic pyramid (i.e., WEP. These levels are the Top-tier, the Middle-tier, and the Base of the Pyramid-tier (i.e., BoP-tier. Methodology – The literature of the BoP was reviewed, and market entry approaches were itemized across the three WEP levels. Secondly, BoP strategic theorists including Prahalad identified the need for a BoP marketing focus replacing the traditional 4Ps marketing approach (i.e., Product, Price, Place and Promotion with the BoP-specific 4As marketing approach (i.e., Awareness, Affordability, Access and Availability. This 4As marketing approach is discussed. Findings – New marketing-oriented market-entry approaches are proposed for each of the three WEP levels. These approaches are based on where in the WEP the firm currently exists, and where in the WEP the firm desires to refocus market-entry activities; identified approaches include: inter-country expansion, intra-country entry, adjacent market entry, and extended market entry. Secondly, the absence of a clearly articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets was observed. Practical implications – This article has two specific applications. First, it summarizes the evolving market entry perspectives to provide a context for future market research in both emerging markets and the pre-emerging BoP markets. Second, the future requirement for an articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets is suggested. Originality – This article examined existing market entry approaches across all three levels of the WEP, inclusive of the BoP economic level. The language used to clarify market entry movements was extended, providing a specificity of description not previously found in either the existing market entry or BoP literature.



    Kaplan, Tugba


    Firms, whichhave to compete with global firms in domestic market, try to internationalizefor gaining competitive advantage. The aim of this study is to recommend a conceptual framework to explain thedynamics of internationalization process of leader and follower firms thatinternationalize from an emerging country. In this study, author tries tofigure out the determinants of entrymode decisions of follower firms. In addition, bandwagon effect of leaders'entry mode strategies on followers&...

  9. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  10. Normality in Analytical Psychology (United States)

    Myers, Steve


    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  11. Normal pressure hydrocephalus (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  12. Normal Functioning Family (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  13. Normal growth and development (United States)

    ... page: // Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  14. Bridging the gap between informatics and medicine upon medical school entry: Implementing a course on the Applicative Use of ICT. (United States)

    Milic, Natasa M; Ilic, Nikola; Stanisavljevic, Dejana M; Cirkovic, Andja M; Milin, Jelena S; Bukumiric, Zoran M; Milic, Nikola V; Savic, Marko D; Ristic, Sara M; Trajkovic, Goran Z


    Education is undergoing profound changes due to permanent technological innovations. This paper reports the results of a pilot study aimed at developing, implementing and evaluating the course, "Applicative Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Medicine," upon medical school entry. The Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, introduced a curriculum reform in 2014 that included the implementation of the course, "Applicative Use of ICT in Medicine" for first year medical students. The course was designed using a blended learning format to introduce the concepts of Web-based learning environments. Data regarding student knowledge, use and attitudes towards ICT were prospectively collected for the classes of 2015/16 and 2016/17. The teaching approach was supported by multimedia didactic materials using Moodle LMS. The overall quality of the course was also assessed. The five level Likert scale was used to measure attitudes related to ICT. In total, 1110 students were assessed upon medical school entry. A small number of students (19%) had previous experience with e-learning. Students were largely in agreement that informatics is needed in medical education, and that it is also useful for doctors (4.1±1.0 and 4.1±0.9, respectively). Ability in informatics and use of the Internet in education in the adjusted multivariate regression model were significantly associated with positive student attitudes toward ICT. More than 80% of students stated that they had learned to evaluate medical information and would use the Internet to search medical literature as an additional source for education. The majority of students (77%) agreed that a blended learning approach facilitates access to learning materials and enables time independent learning (72%). Implementing the blended learning course, "Applicative Use of ICT in Medicine," may bridge the gap between medicine and informatics upon medical school entry. Students displayed positive attitudes towards

  15. 18 CFR 33.5 - Proposed accounting entries. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed accounting... § 33.5 Proposed accounting entries. If the applicant is required to maintain its books of account in... present proposed accounting entries showing the effect of the transaction with sufficient detail to...

  16. 36 CFR 228.54 - Single entry sales or permits. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Single entry sales or permits... MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.54 Single entry sales or permits. The... plan which describes operating procedures and reclamation measures, unless the requirement is waived by...

  17. 9 CFR 93.220 - Inspection at port of entry. (United States)


    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry Mexico 8 § 93.220 Inspection at port of entry. (a) All poultry offered for entry from Mexico, including such poultry intended for movement through...

  18. 9 CFR 93.426 - Inspection at port of entry. (United States)


    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.426 Inspection at port of entry. (a) All ruminants offered for entry from Mexico, including such ruminants intended for movement...

  19. Foreign Bank Entry and Credit Allocation in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Havrylchyk, O.; Jurzyk, E.; Kozak, S.


    We employ a unique data set containing bank-specific information to explore how foreign bank entry determines credit allocation in emerging markets. We investigate the impact of the mode of foreign entry (greenfield or takeover) on banks’ portfolio allocation to borrowers with different degrees of

  20. 19 CFR 12.99 - Procedures for permitted entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for permitted entry. 12.99 Section 12.99 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.99 Procedures for permitted entry...

  1. Welfare Effects of Entry into International Markets with Licensing (United States)

    Ferreira, F. A.; Ferreira, Fl.


    We study the effects of entry of a foreign firm on domestic welfare in the presence of licensing, when the entrant is technologically inferior to the incumbent. We show that foreign entry increases domestic welfare for intermediate (respectively, sufficiently large) technological differences between the firms under licensing with fixed fee (respectively, output royalty).

  2. 27 CFR 478.23 - Right of entry and examination. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.23 Right of entry and examination. (a) Except as provided in... of a criminal investigation of a person or persons other than the licensee, (2) For insuring...

  3. 19 CFR 146.63 - Entry for consumption. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for consumption. 146.63 Section 146.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Transfer of Merchandise From a Zone § 146.63 Entry for consumption... status may be entered for consumption from a zone. (b) Zone-restricted merchandise. Merchandise in a zone...

  4. The Importance of Prior Probabilities for Entry Page Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Westerveld, T.H.W.; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    An important class of searches on the world-wide-web has the goal to find an entry page (homepage) of an organisation. Entry page search is quite different from Ad Hoc search. Indeed a plain Ad Hoc system performs disappointingly. We explored three non-content features of web pages: page length,

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Submission of repair entries. (United States)


    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY GENERAL AGENT'S RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH FOREIGN REPAIR CUSTOM'S ENTRIES Sec. 2 Submission of repair entries. At the... with the District Director of Customs as defined in 19 CFR 1.1(d) an affidavit on Custom's Form 3417...

  6. Smooth quantile normalization. (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada


    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from

  7. The entry of free radicals into polystyrene latex particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.E.; Trau, M.; Gilbert, R.C.; Napper, D.R.


    Mechanistic understanding of the processes governing the kinetics of emulsion polymerization has both scientific and technical interest. One component of this process that is poorly understood at present is that of free radical entry into latex particles. Measurements were made of the entry rate coefficient as a function of temperature for free radicals entering polystyrene latex particles in seeded emulsion polymerizations initiated by γ-rays. The activation energy for entry was found to be less than 24 ± 3 kJ mol -1 , consistent with entry being controlled by a physical (e.g. diffusional) rather than a chemical process. Measurement of the entry rate coefficient as a function of the γ-ray dose rate suggested that the factors that determine the entry rate when the primary free radicals are uncharged are similar to those that determine the entry rate for charged free radicals derived from chemical initiation by peroxydisulfate. This result was consistent with measurements of the entry rate coefficient of charged free radicals derived from peroxydisulfate; these data were found to be virtually independent of both the extent of the latex surface coverage by the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate and the ionic strength of the continuous phase. The data refute several proposals given in the literature for the rate-determining step for entry, being inconsistent with control by collision of free radicals with the latex particles, surfactant desorption, and an electrostatic barrier arising from the colloidal nature of the entering free radical. The origin of the activation energy for entry remains obscure

  8. Improving Eleventh Graders’ Reading Comprehension Through Text Coding and Double Entry Organizer Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Mahecha


    Full Text Available In this article we report on an innovation project developed with a group of eleventh graders at a public school in Bogotá. Its aim was to encourage students to improve reading comprehension of texts in English. It was conducted taking into account students' needs, interests and level of English. To do it, we implemented two reading strategies: text coding and double entry organizer. We observed the students' attitudes during two lesson plans, compared their level of comprehension before and after using the reading strategies and asked them to self-evaluate their performance. At the end, we could see their improvement, how they enjoyed doing the activities and became more confident.

  9. Comparison of single-entry and double-entry two-step couple screening for cystic fibrosis carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    tenKate, LP; Verheij, JBGM; Wildhagen, MF; Hilderink, HBM; Kooij, L; Verzijl, JG; Habbema, JDF


    Both single-entry two-step (SETS) couple screening and double-entry two-step (DETS) couple screening have been recommended as methods to screen for cystic fibrosis gene carriers. In this paper we compare the expected results from both types of screening. In general, DETS results in a higher

  10. Swiss Army Pathogen: The Salmonella Entry Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Hume


    Full Text Available Salmonella causes disease in humans and animals ranging from mild self-limiting gastroenteritis to potentially life-threatening typhoid fever. Salmonellosis remains a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and hence imposes a huge socio-economic burden worldwide. A key property of all pathogenic Salmonella strains is the ability to invade non-phagocytic host cells. The major determinant of this invasiveness is a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS, a molecular syringe that injects virulence effector proteins directly into target host cells. These effectors cooperatively manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to drive pathogen internalization. Salmonella does not only rely on these injected effectors, but also uses several other T3SS-independent mechanisms to gain entry into host cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the methods used by Salmonella for cell invasion, with a focus on the host signaling networks that must be coordinately exploited for the pathogen to achieve its goal.

  11. HTCC: Broad Range Inhibitor of Coronavirus Entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Milewska

    Full Text Available To date, six human coronaviruses have been known, all of which are associated with respiratory infections in humans. With the exception of the highly pathogenic SARS and MERS coronaviruses, human coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-HKU1 circulate worldwide and typically cause the common cold. In most cases, infection with these viruses does not lead to severe disease, although acute infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients may progress to severe disease requiring hospitalization. Importantly, no drugs against human coronaviruses exist, and only supportive therapy is available. Previously, we proposed the cationically modified chitosan, N-(2-hydroxypropyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC, and its hydrophobically-modified derivative (HM-HTCC as potent inhibitors of the coronavirus HCoV-NL63. Here, we show that HTCC inhibits interaction of a virus with its receptor and thus blocks the entry. Further, we demonstrate that HTCC polymers with different degrees of substitution act as effective inhibitors of all low-pathogenic human coronaviruses.

  12. Intracellular Route of Canine Parvovirus Entry (United States)

    Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti


    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290

  13. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte


    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  14. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.


    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  15. Normalization of satellite imagery (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.


    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  16. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.


    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  17. Rhythm production at school entry as a predictor of poor reading and spelling at the end of first grade. (United States)

    Lundetræ, Kjersti; Thomson, Jenny M


    Rhythm plays an organisational role in the prosody and phonology of language, and children with literacy difficulties have been found to demonstrate poor rhythmic perception. This study explored whether students' performance on a simple rhythm task at school entry could serve as a predictor of whether they would face difficulties in word reading and spelling at the end of grade 1. The participants were 479 Norwegian 6-year-old first graders randomized as controls in the longitudinal RCT on track (n = 1171). Rhythmic timing and pre-reading skills were tested individually at school entry on a digital tablet. On the rhythm task, the students were told to tap a drum appearing on the screen to two different rhythms (2 Hz paced and 1.5 Hz paced). Children's responses were recorded as they tapped on the screen with their index finger. Significant group differences were found in rhythm tapping ability measured at school entry, when groups were defined upon whether children went on to score above or below the 20th percentile reading and spelling thresholds in national assessment tests at the end of grade one. Inclusion of the school-entry rhythmic tapping measure into a model of classification accuracy for above or below threshold reading and spelling improved accuracy of classification by 6.2 and 9.2% respectively.

  18. Effect of nifedipine on gastric emptying in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, M.; Lange, R.C.; McAllister, R.G.; McCallum, R.W.


    Nifedipine (N) inhibits calcium entry into smooth muscle cells and relaxes esophageal smooth muscle. The authors studied N's effect on gastric emptying of liquids and solids. Ten normal subjects underwent radionuclide (In-111-DTPA in water and Tc-99m-sulfur colloid tagged to chicken liver) emptying tests with and without 30 mg N given orally 20 min prior to meal ingestion. Peak plasma N levels were either 30 or 60 min after drug dosing and showed a 3-fold variation (low 145 ng/ml, high 434 ng/ml). Both mean N levels and integral concentration time values were twice as high as those obtained after 30 mg sublingual dosing in normals previously studied in our lab. The authors conclude that plasma N levels which are associated with significant esophageal motility effects do not change gastric emptying in normal subjects. The data also show that N levels are greater after oral than sublingual dosing of 30 mg in normal subjects

  19. Universal School Readiness Screening at Kindergarten Entry (United States)

    Quirk, Matthew; Dowdy, Erin; Dever, Bridget; Carnazzo, Katherine; Bolton, Courtney


    Researchers examined the concurrent and predictive validity of a brief (12-item) teacher-rated school readiness screener, the Kindergarten Student Entrance Profile (KSEP), using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to examine associations between (N = 78) children's social-emotional (SE) and cognitive (COG) readiness with…

  20. Normalization of emotion control scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatoolah Tahmasebian


    Full Text Available Background: Emotion control skill teaches the individuals how to identify their emotions and how to express and control them in various situations. The aim of this study was to normalize and measure the internal and external validity and reliability of emotion control test. Methods: This standardization study was carried out on a statistical society, including all pupils, students, teachers, nurses and university professors in Kermanshah in 2012, using Williams’ emotion control scale. The subjects included 1,500 (810 females and 690 males people who were selected by stratified random sampling. Williams (1997 emotion control scale, was used to collect the required data. Emotional Control Scale is a tool for measuring the degree of control people have over their emotions. This scale has four subscales, including anger, depressed mood, anxiety and positive affect. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using correlation and Cronbach's alpha tests. Results: The results of internal consistency of the questionnaire reported by Cronbach's alpha indicated an acceptable internal consistency for emotional control scale, and the correlation between the subscales of the test and between the items of the questionnaire was significant at 0.01 confidence level. Conclusion: The validity of emotion control scale among the pupils, students, teachers, nurses and teachers in Iran has an acceptable range, and the test itemswere correlated with each other, thereby making them appropriate for measuring emotion control.

  1. The effects of foreign banks entry in emerging market economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Florida Veljanoska


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of foreign bank entry in emerging markets. We developed a picture of a multinational bank in an emerging markets by combining statistics from several sources, in order to explore broad range of effects that brings foreign bank entry in the developing countries. Some impacts of foreign bank entry have been thoroughly studied, while others are hardly mention. Entry of foreign bank brings large benefits to host country’s financial system and economies at large. This paper is studying those benefits very carefully, by analyzing the impact of foreign bank entry on economy, government, monetary policy, large enterprises, small and medium size enterprises, domestic bank etc. But, we also consider the fact that at the same time, foreign investment in the financial sector, rises some concerns, and therefore we analyze the negative effects as well. At the end we must admit that although there are some negative consequences from foreign bank entry in emerging markets, the benefits that arise from foreign banks penetration are much more, and this trend of foreign bank entry has brought new positive economic impulse in developing world.

  2. Macrophage sphingolipids are essential for the entry of mycobacteria. (United States)

    Viswanathan, Gopinath; Jafurulla, Md; Kumar, G Aditya; Raghunand, Tirumalai R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha


    Mycobacteria are intracellular pathogens that can invade and survive within host macrophages. Mycobacterial infections remain a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with serious concerns of emergence of multi and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. While significant advances have been made in identifying mycobacterial virulence determinants, the detailed molecular mechanism of internalization of mycobacteria into host cells remains poorly understood. Although several studies have highlighted the crucial role of sphingolipids in mycobacterial growth, persistence and establishment of infection, the role of sphingolipids in the entry of mycobacteria into host cells is not known. In this work, we explored the role of host membrane sphingolipids in the entry of Mycobacterium smegmatis into J774A.1 macrophages. Our results show that metabolic depletion of sphingolipids in host macrophages results in a significant reduction in the entry of M. smegmatis. Importantly, the entry of Escherichia coli into host macrophages under similar conditions remained invariant, implying the specificity of the requirement of sphingolipids in mycobacterial entry. To the best of our knowledge, our results constitute the first report demonstrating the role of host macrophage sphingolipids in the entry of mycobacteria. Our results could help in the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting sphingolipid-mediated entry of mycobacteria into host cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers


    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  4. Medically-enhanced normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Claus; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna


    Objective: To consider public perspectives on the use of medicines for non-medical purposes, a usage called medically-enhanced normality (MEN). Method: Examples from the literature were combined with empirical data derived from two Danish research projects: a Delphi internet study and a Telebus...

  5. The Normal Fetal Pancreas. (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon


    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  6. Landing and Population Hazard Analysis for Stardust Entry in Operations and Entry Planning (United States)

    Tooley, Jeffrey; Desai, Prasun N.; Lynos, Daniel T.; Hirst, Edward A.; Wahl, Tom E.; Wawrzyniak, Georffery G.


    Stardust is a comet sample return mission that successfully returned to Earth on January 15, 2006. Stardust's targeted landing area was the Utah Test and Training Range in the Northwest corner of Utah. Requirements for the risks associated with landing were levied on Stardust by the Utah Test and Training Range and NASA. This paper describes the analysis to verify that these requirements were met and and includes calculation of debris survivability, generation of landing site selection plots, and identification of keep-out zones, as well as appropriate selection of the landing site. Operationally the risk requirements were all met for both of the GOMO-GO polls, so entry was authorized.

  7. Planetary entry, descent, and landing technologies (United States)

    Pichkhadze, K.; Vorontsov, V.; Polyakov, A.; Ivankov, A.; Taalas, P.; Pellinen, R.; Harri, A.-M.; Linkin, V.


    Martian meteorological lander (MML) is intended for landing on the Martian surface in order to monitor the atmosphere at landing point for one Martian year. MMLs shall become the basic elements of a global network of meteorological mini-landers, observing the dynamics of changes of the atmospheric parameters on the Red Planet. The MML main scientific tasks are as follows: (1) Study of vertical structure of the Martian atmosphere throughout the MML descent; (2) On-surface meteorological observations for one Martian year. One of the essential factors influencing the lander's design is its entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequence. During Phase A of the MML development, five different options for the lander's design were carefully analyzed. All of these options ensure the accomplishment of the above-mentioned scientific tasks with high effectiveness. CONCEPT A (conventional approach): Two lander options (with a parachute system + airbag and an inflatable airbrake + airbag) were analyzed. They are similar in terms of fulfilling braking phases and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. CONCEPT B (innovative approach): Three lander options were analyzed. The distinguishing feature is the presence of inflatable braking units (IBU) in their configurations. SELECTED OPTION (innovative approach): Incorporating a unique design approach and modern technologies, the selected option of the lander represents a combination of the options analyzed in the framework of Concept B study. Currently, the selected lander option undergoes systems testing (Phase D1). Several MMLs can be delivered to Mars in frameworks of various missions as primary or piggybacking payload: (1) USA-led "Mars Scout" (2007); (2) France-led "NetLander" (2007/2009); (3) Russia-led "Mars-Deimos-Phobos sample return" (2007); (4) Independent mission (currently under preliminary study); etc.

  8. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  9. Japanese subsidiaries in the European Union: Entry modes and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tanganelli


    Full Text Available Japanese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the European Union and its performance were analysed in this work. Three different FDI or entry modes used by Japanese companies to enter the European market were compared, and the presence of a relationship between the selected entry mode and the performance of the subsidiary was investigated. We found that more than half of the Japanese investments in Europe took the form of new ventures, approximately 40% were joint ventures and less than 6% were acquisitions. We found that no specific entry mode performed better than another.

  10. Development of the alternate entry port for the ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.


    We discussed a second entry port for the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) injection system at Brookhaven National Laboratory, which consists of a photocathode rf gun and a straight - ahead beamline directly into the 50 MeV linac. The proposed second entry port should improve the beam quality and lower the emittance needed for FEL (Free Electron Laser), and laser - acceleration experiments. A discussion on the laser driven high brightness photoelectrons through the primary entry port (a low energy 180 degrees achromatic double bend transport line) now in operation, and a beam analysis for the proposed secondary port is also given

  11. Predictive Modeling for NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Missions (United States)

    Wright, Michael


    Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Modeling and Simulation (MS) is an enabling capability for complex NASA entry missions such as MSL and Orion. MS is used in every mission phase to define mission concepts, select appropriate architectures, design EDL systems, quantify margin and risk, ensure correct system operation, and analyze data returned from the entry. In an environment where it is impossible to fully test EDL concepts on the ground prior to use, accurate MS capability is required to extrapolate ground test results to expected flight performance.

  12. Physics-Based Modeling of Meteor Entry and Breakup (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Agrawal, Parul; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Brandis, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Kang; Jaffe, Richard L.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.; Stern, Eric C.; hide


    A new research effort at NASA Ames Research Center has been initiated in Planetary Defense, which integrates the disciplines of planetary science, atmospheric entry physics, and physics-based risk assessment. This paper describes work within the new program and is focused on meteor entry and breakup.Over the last six decades significant effort was expended in the US and in Europe to understand meteor entry including ablation, fragmentation and airburst (if any) for various types of meteors ranging from stony to iron spectral types. These efforts have produced primarily empirical mathematical models based on observations. Weaknesses of these models, apart from their empiricism, are reliance on idealized shapes (spheres, cylinders, etc.) and simplified models for thermal response of meteoritic materials to aerodynamic and radiative heating. Furthermore, the fragmentation and energy release of meteors (airburst) is poorly understood.On the other hand, flight of human-made atmospheric entry capsules is well understood. The capsules and their requisite heatshields are designed and margined to survive entry. However, the highest speed Earth entry for capsules is 13 kms (Stardust). Furthermore, Earth entry capsules have never exceeded diameters of 5 m, nor have their peak aerothermal environments exceeded 0.3 atm and 1 kW/sq cm. The aims of the current work are: (i) to define the aerothermal environments for objects with entry velocities from 13 to 20 kms; (ii) to explore various hypotheses of fragmentation and airburst of stony meteors in the near term; (iii) to explore the possibility of performing relevant ground-based tests to verify candidate hypotheses; and (iv) to quantify the energy released in airbursts. The results of the new simulations will be used to anchor said risk assessment analyses. With these aims in mind, state-of-the-art entry capsule design tools are being extended for meteor entries. We describe: (i) applications of current simulation tools to

  13. Food entries in a large allergy data repository. (United States)

    Plasek, Joseph M; Goss, Foster R; Lai, Kenneth H; Lau, Jason J; Seger, Diane L; Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Wickner, Paige G; Slight, Sarah P; Chang, Frank Y; Topaz, Maxim; Bates, David W; Zhou, Li


    Accurate food adverse sensitivity documentation in electronic health records (EHRs) is crucial to patient safety. This study examined, encoded, and grouped foods that caused any adverse sensitivity in a large allergy repository using natural language processing and standard terminologies. Using the Medical Text Extraction, Reasoning, and Mapping System (MTERMS), we processed both structured and free-text entries stored in an enterprise-wide allergy repository (Partners' Enterprise-wide Allergy Repository), normalized diverse food allergen terms into concepts, and encoded these concepts using the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) and Unique Ingredient Identifiers (UNII) terminologies. Concept coverage also was assessed for these two terminologies. We further categorized allergen concepts into groups and calculated the frequencies of these concepts by group. Finally, we conducted an external validation of MTERMS's performance when identifying food allergen terms, using a randomized sample from a different institution. We identified 158 552 food allergen records (2140 unique terms) in the Partners repository, corresponding to 672 food allergen concepts. High-frequency groups included shellfish (19.3%), fruits or vegetables (18.4%), dairy (9.0%), peanuts (8.5%), tree nuts (8.5%), eggs (6.0%), grains (5.1%), and additives (4.7%). Ambiguous, generic concepts such as "nuts" and "seafood" accounted for 8.8% of the records. SNOMED-CT covered more concepts than UNII in terms of exact (81.7% vs 68.0%) and partial (14.3% vs 9.7%) matches. Adverse sensitivities to food are diverse, and existing standard terminologies have gaps in their coverage of the breadth of allergy concepts. New strategies are needed to represent and standardize food adverse sensitivity concepts, to improve documentation in EHRs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For

  14. The structure of an entry in the National corpus of Tuvan language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengi V. Ondar


    Full Text Available Contemporary information technologies and mathematical modelling has made creating corpora of natural languages significantly easier. A corpus is an information and reference system based on a collection of digitally processed texts. A corpus includes various written and oral texts in the given language, a set of dictionaries and markup – information on the properties of the text. It is the presence of the markup which distinguishes a corpus from an electronic library. At the moment, national corpora are being set up for many languages of the Russian Federation, including those of the Turkic peoples. Faculty members, postgraduate and undergraduate students at Tuvan State University and Siberian Federal University are working on the National corpus of Tuvan language. This article describes the structure of a dictionary entry in the National corpus of Tuvan language. The corpus database comprises the following tables: MAIN – the headword table, RUS, ENG, GER — translations of the headword into three languages, MORPHOLOGY — the table containing morphological data on the headword. The database is built in Microsoft Office Access. Working with the corpus dictionary includes the following functions: adding, editing and removing an entry, entry search (with transcription, setting and visualizing morphological features of a headword. The project allows us to view the corpus dictionary as a multi-structure entity with a complex hierarchical structure and a dictionary entry as its key component. The corpus dictionary we developed can be used for studying Tuvan language in its pronunciation, orthography and word analysis, as well as for searching for words and collocations in the texts included into the corpus.

  15. Entry-to-practice public health nursing competencies: A Delphi method and knowledge translation strategy. (United States)

    Schofield, Ruth; Chircop, Andrea; Baker, Cynthia; Dietrich Leurer, Marie; Duncan, Susan; Wotton, Donalda


    Sustaining and strengthening nurses 'contributions to public and population health in the 21st century depends in part on nursing education. Clearly articulated entry-to-practice competencies will contribute to the capacity of undergraduate nursing education programs to prepare graduates to promote local, national and global population health. The Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing created the Public Health Task Force to develop consensus on core, national entry-to-practice competencies in public health nursing for undergraduate nursing students and to support these competencies with corresponding online teaching strategies. Delphi approach. Nurses with public health experience in education and practice, and representatives from other public health professional organizations across Canada. The three-phased competency development included: 1) an environmental scan; 2) an iterative process to draft competencies; and 3) a modified Delphi process to confirm the final competency framework using face to face consultations and a survey. The knowledge translation strategy involved soliciting submissions of teaching strategies for peer-review and subsequent inclusion in an interactive online resource. 242 public health educators and practitioners participated in the consensus consultation. The final document outlined five competency statements with 19 accompanying indicators. A total of 123 teaching strategies were submitted for the online resource, of which 50 were accepted as exemplary teaching strategies. This competency development process can provide guidance for the development of competencies in other countries, thus strengthening public health nursing education globally. The decision to intentionally level the competencies to entry-to-practice, as opposed to an advanced level, enhanced their application to undergraduate nursing education. The development of the additional inventory of teaching strategies created a sustainable innovative resource for public

  16. Morbidity at elementary school entry differs by sex and level of residence urbanization: a comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Kuan-Chia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health is vital to a child's learning in school and success in life. Therefore, early physical examination, and follow-up if necessary, would bring parents' attention to their child's health and would likely improve outcomes. The purposes of this study are twofold: to assess the health status of first-graders and to examine the health status differences between sexes, levels of residence urbanization, and quantity of available medical resources. Methods This is a comparative descriptive study. Data from the 2002 Student Entry Physical Examination (SEPE and Student Medical History Inventory (SMHI were obtained from 203 public and private elementary schools in northern Taiwan where a population of 53,053 students was included. Frequencies, independent sample t test, one-way ANOVA along with Scheff's post hoc test, and Pearson's correlation were conducted using SPSS. Results This study showed that 13.7% of students had at least one diagnosed disease from the SMHI reported by parents. Moreover, the SEPE indicated that 79.5% students had at least one health concern. Dental caries, myopia, and obesity were the most prevalent health problems among the first-graders (69.6%, 27.1%, and 9.5%, respectively. Research results show that there were significant differences in the prevalence of dental caries, myopia, and obesity between different sexes and among levels of urbanization. However, the quantity of available medical resources made no significant difference. Conclusion Elementary school entry physical examination is an important way to detect students' health problems. It is suggested that school health interventions consider students' health profiles along with their sex and level of urbanization in planning. More research is needed to find the risk factors of the health problems. Additionally, the creation of a school health committee is suggested to implement and evaluate the entry health examination program.

  17. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS


    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  18. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens


    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  19. Ethics and "normal birth". (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin


    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Game Changing Transformable Entry System Technology Applicability to Robotic Venus Science Missions (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative adpative deployable entry and placement technology (ADEPT), also known as transformable entry system technology (TEST) concept, akin to an umbrella,...

  1. Overview of the Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle (United States)

    Dillman, Robert; Corliss, James


    NASA's Mars Sample Return (MSR) project will bring Mars surface and atmosphere samples back to Earth for detailed examination. Langley Research Center's MSR Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) is a core part of the mission, protecting the sample container during atmospheric entry, descent, and landing. Planetary protection requirements demand a higher reliability from the EEV than for any previous planetary entry vehicle. An overview of the EEV design and preliminary analysis is presented, with a follow-on discussion of recommended future design trade studies to be performed over the next several years in support of an MSR launch in 2018 or 2020. Planned topics include vehicle size for impact protection of a range of sample container sizes, outer mold line changes to achieve surface sterilization during re-entry, micrometeoroid protection, aerodynamic stability, thermal protection, and structural materials selection.

  2. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance. (United States)


    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone...

  3. Ordering the Senses in a Monolingual Dictionary Entry. (United States)

    Gold, David L.


    Reviews issues to be considered in determining the order of meanings for a lexeme in a dictionary entry and compares techniques for deciding order. Types of ordering include importance, frequency, logical ordering, dominant meaning, syntactic, and historical. (MSE)

  4. Electronic Chemotherapy Order Entry: A Major Cancer Center's Implementation


    Sklarin, Nancy T.; Granovsky, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Eileen M.; Zelenetz, Andrew D.


    Implementation of computerized provider order entry for complex chemotherapy regimens supported Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's strategic plan to successfully establish a distributive, networked health care delivery system.

  5. 9 CFR 590.430 - Limitation on entry of material. (United States)


    ... conditions as he may prescribe to assure that allowing the entry of such articles will be consistent with the... inventory controls are maintained at all times. Inedible egg products may be processed in official plants...

  6. The Significance of Barriers to Entry in the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard de Valence


    Full Text Available This research looks at the significance of barriers that firms considering entry into the construction industry might face. Drawing on the microeconomic characteristics of imperfectly competitive and oligopolistic markets the analysis finds that there are a dozen barriers to entry that affect the industry, but their significance depends on the product type. The discussion covers the question of product homogeneity in construction and evidence for the existence of barriers to entry in concentration levels. Barriers to entry specific to construction are then identified, which leads to an analysis of how they operate and their significance (high, medium or low in different market types, thus increasing our understanding of construction industry dynamics.

  7. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, B.


    The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.

  8. Effects of Varying Entry Points and Trendelenburg Positioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 4, 2018 ... ... made in superior and inferior entry points at supine position at 0° .... Trendelenburg degree, taking all risks into consideration. As a result of our .... patient's position influences the incidence of dysrhythmias during pulmonary.

  9. 19 CFR 141.19 - Declaration of entry. (United States)


    ... of consignee—(1) Authorized agent with knowledge of the facts. When entry is made in a consignee's name by an agent who has knowledge of the facts and who is authorized under a proper power of attorney...

  10. Mechanism of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus entry into cells. (United States)

    Borrow, P; Oldstone, M B


    The path that the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) uses to enter rodent fibroblastic cell lines was dissected by infectivity and inhibition studies and immunoelectron microscopy. Lysosomotropic weak bases (chloroquine and ammonium chloride) and carboxylic ionophores (monensin and nigericin) inhibited virus entry, assessed as virus nucleoprotein expression at early times post-infection, indicating that the entry process involved a pH-dependent fusion step in intracellular vesicles. That entry occurred in vesicles rather than by direct fusion of virions with the plasma membrane was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. The vesicles involved were large (150-300 nm diameter), smooth-walled, and not associated with clathrin. Unlike classical phagocytosis, virus uptake in these vesicles was a microfilament-independent process, as it was not blocked by cytochalasins. LCMV entry into rodent fibroblast cell lines thus involves viropexis in large smooth-walled vesicles, followed by a pH-dependent fusion event inside the cell.

  11. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth (United States)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Arruego, I.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.


    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behavior of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyze and test the transonic behavior of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere [1]. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favorable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.


    A selected list of references in the fields of astronautics and re-entry mechanics is classified and discussed, and a comprehensive subject and author index is included for ease in locating the references. (Author)

  13. AIRLINE COMPETITION: Barriers to Entry Continue in Some Domestic Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Airline deregulation has led to lower fares and better service for most air travelers largely because of increased competition spurred by the entry of new airlines into the industry and established...

  14. 77 FR 5681 - Establishment of Global Entry Program (United States)


    ...) of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA), 118 Stat. 3638, as amended... major airport authority printed its own signs for Global Entry and strategically placed them throughout...

  15. Learning analytics: Dataset for empirical evaluation of entry requirements into engineering undergraduate programs in a Nigerian university. (United States)

    Odukoya, Jonathan A; Popoola, Segun I; Atayero, Aderemi A; Omole, David O; Badejo, Joke A; John, Temitope M; Olowo, Olalekan O


    In Nigerian universities, enrolment into any engineering undergraduate program requires that the minimum entry criteria established by the National Universities Commission (NUC) must be satisfied. Candidates seeking admission to study engineering discipline must have reached a predetermined entry age and met the cut-off marks set for Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE), Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME), and the post-UTME screening. However, limited effort has been made to show that these entry requirements eventually guarantee successful academic performance in engineering programs because the data required for such validation are not readily available. In this data article, a comprehensive dataset for empirical evaluation of entry requirements into engineering undergraduate programs in a Nigerian university is presented and carefully analyzed. A total sample of 1445 undergraduates that were admitted between 2005 and 2009 to study Chemical Engineering (CHE), Civil Engineering (CVE), Computer Engineering (CEN), Electrical and Electronics Engineering (EEE), Information and Communication Engineering (ICE), Mechanical Engineering (MEE), and Petroleum Engineering (PET) at Covenant University, Nigeria were randomly selected. Entry age, SSCE aggregate, UTME score, Covenant University Scholastic Aptitude Screening (CUSAS) score, and the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of the undergraduates were obtained from the Student Records and Academic Affairs unit. In order to facilitate evidence-based evaluation, the robust dataset is made publicly available in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet file. On yearly basis, first-order descriptive statistics of the dataset are presented in tables. Box plot representations, frequency distribution plots, and scatter plots of the dataset are provided to enrich its value. Furthermore, correlation and linear regression analyses are performed to understand the relationship between the entry requirements and the

  16. Simulation of the ATV Re-Entry Obsrvations (United States)

    Bastida Virgili, B.; Krag, H.; Lips, T.; De Pasquale, E.


    The first ATV was launched on 9th March 2008 and, after a successful mission, the last phase was a controlled destructive re-entry on 29th September 2008, shortly after 13:30 UTC, in which the remains of the ATV and its load fell into the South Pacific Ocean. In order to better understand the re-entry processes, an insitu optical observation campaign was launched to record and analyze the ATV controlled re-entry with several instruments on board of two airplanes and also from the ISS. This observation campaign was successful and triggered several different still-ongoing studies on the extraction and analysis of data to draw conclusions on the adequacy of the re-entry break-up and explosion models used for the safety analysis of the ATV re-entry. This paper addresses the validation process for ESA’s model for re-entry survivability and on-ground risk assessment for explosive re-entry events using the observation data. The underlying rationale is to improve the models for the benefit of planning and execution of future controlled re-entries and in risk calculation in case of uncontrolled ones. The re-entry trajectory of the ATV, the explosive event and the trajectories of the fragments are simulated with the existing ESA tools and the EVOLVE explosion model. Additional software has been developed to simulate airborne sensor field of view(FOV) crossings based on the aircraft trajectories, attitude profile, sensor mounts and FOVs. Sensor performance and object radiation are modeled in order to generate synthetic images for the different sensors in the ISS and the two airplanes. These synthetic images and synthetic videos are compared with the available reentry observations of the ATV. This paper will present the software and techniques to generate synthetic imagery. It will give results of the comparison between the simulated and the real trajectories and fragmentation and explain the subsequent validation process of the ESA re-entry tools and the potential

  17. Franchising as a method of entry to the market


    Vargovčíková, Lucie


    The subject of presented bachelor thesis is Franchising as a method of entry to the market. The first part of this thesis deals with characteristics of franchising such as the definition of franchising and its advantages and disadvantages for both parties involved. Then there is also provided the current situation of franchising in the Czech Republic. The second part deals with entry into the market by franchising. In this section franchise agreement is mainly mentioned, how to start a franch...

  18. ExoMars entry, descent and landing science


    Ferri, F.; Lewis, S. R.; Withers, P.; Aboudan, A.; Bettanini, C.; Colombatti, G.; Debei, S.; Golombek, M.; Harri, A. M.; Komatsu, G.; Leese, M. R.; Mäkinen, T.; Müller-Wodarg, I.; Ori, G. G.; Patel, M. R.


    The entry, descent and landing of ExoMars offer a rare (once-per-mission) opportunity to perform in situ investigation of the martian environment over a wide altitude range. Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) measurements can provide essential data for atmospheric scientific investigations.\\ud \\ud We intend to perform atmospheric science measurements by exploiting data from EDLS engineering sensors and exploiting their readings beyond the expected engineering information.

  19. Double Entry Bookkeeping and Kitab-us Siyakat


    Örten, Remzi; Kurt, Ganite; Torun, Salih


    It is known that accounting is applied since the existence of human being. When historical development of accounting is examined, recording methods may be summarized as single sided and double sided. The first method used in accounting is the single entry bookkeeping. According to this entry, not all of information related to financial events but important part of them are recorded in a single way. We can specify follow-up of receivable, payable, incomes and expenses as single sided recording...

  20. Finnish market entry planning of franchising Kungfu catering


    Liu, Yun


    The purpose of this thesis was to carry out a market entry planning by franchising Kungfu catering in Finland. Kungfu catering was a typical Chinese fast food restaurant, of which there was a gap in Finnish fast food market. McDonald’s and Hesburger were succesful examples of franchise business, experiences of those 2 restaurants were used for reference to create a suitable franchise strategy for Kungfu Finland. Finnish market entry planning of Kungfu Finland has been explained from several a...

  1. Multinationals’ mode of entry with presence of vertical spillovers


    Balsvik, Ragnhild


    Multinationals’ mode of foreign expansion may depend on whether or not they expect technological externalities or spillovers to generate new competition. Existing models where ex-post spillovers affect the ex-ante entry choice usually study the choice between exporting and FDI with horizontal spillovers. I consider a monopoly firm with a vertical production structure that has four possible modes of entry, one of which includes outsourcing of intermediate input production to a h...

  2. Response to Competitive Entry: A Rationale for Delayed Defensive Reaction


    Ajay Kalra; Surendra Rajiv; Kannan Srinivasan


    Empirical studies examining responses to new product entries come to the puzzling conclusion that, in general, an incumbent reacts to a new entrant after a significant delay. Even easy-to-implement price cuts are observed after significant lag following entry. These findings seem to contradict the existing literature that either implicitly assumes or strongly advocates immediate defensive responses to limit competitive encroachment. When a competing firm enters the market, consumers may be un...

  3. Design features of an automated entry control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.


    Features of an entry control system designed to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. Control independent of variable human factors is stressed, but security force action is required for assessment and response as a result of an alarm. A design based on a distributed processing capability is utilized. Flexibility and generality are emphasized in an effort to maximize applicability to the entry-control problem faced by nuclear facilities upgrading security as a result of the Safeguards Program

  4. Gender Differences in Entry Wages and Early Career Wages


    Astrid KUNZE


    This paper investigates the gender wage gap in entry wages and in the early career for German skilled workers in the period 1975-1990. We use a new administrative longitudinal data source that allows to observe complete work and skill accumulation histories from the beginning for up to 13 years in the labour market. Descriptives show an entry wage differential of 22 percent between male and female full-time workers. Furthermore, the differential stays almost constant throughout the first 8 ei...

  5. A note on oblique water entry

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, M. R.


    A minor error in Howison et al. (J. Eng. Math. 48:321-337, 2004) obscured the fact that the points at which the free surface turns over in the solution of the Wagner model for the oblique impact of a two-dimensional body are directly related to the turnover points in the equivalent normal impact problem. This note corrects some of the earlier results given in Howison et al. (J. Eng. Math. 48:321-337, 2004) and discusses the implications for the applicability of the Wagner model. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. Acceptions of the "death"entry in language dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Camara Siqueira


    Full Text Available Language dictionaries present the meaning of an entry in a way not restricted to linguistic information, since we also have interdisciplinary and contextual aspects that dialogue with socio-cultural issues in which the entry is inserted. Considering the potential character of the study of contextual meanings, the “death” entry was chosen to carry out a comparative analysis among language dictionaries. The choice was motivated by the recurrence of this entry in ancient and contemporary dictionaries, and the fact of its having a concept that allows various historical, social and ideological discussions. The goal is to reveal the different nuances of the “death” entry in language dictionaries, observing four main aspects: etymology, diachrony, synonymic construction and meaning of “death” in school dictionaries. Based on lexicographical studies of classical authors, we did a comparative analysis of meanings of “death” in different types of language dictionaries. We found that in each group dictionary we may find traces of ideological choices in the construction of the contextual meaning of the “death” entry.

  7. Three-stage entry game: The strategic effects of advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Marija


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of investment in advertising in the three-stage entry game model with one incumbent and one potential entrant firm. It is shown that if a game theory is applied, under particular conditions, advertising can be used as a strategic weapon in the market entry game. Depending on the level of the advertising interaction factor, conditions for over-investment in advertising for strategic purposes are given. Furthermore, three specific cases are analyzed: strictly predatory advertising, informative advertising and the case when one firm’s advertising cannot directly influence the other firm's profit. For each of them, depending on the costs of advertising and marginal costs, equilibrium is determined, and conditions under which it is possible to deter the entry are given. It is shown that if the value of the advertising interaction factor increases, power of using advertising as a weapon to deter entry into the market decreases. Thus, in the case of informative advertising, advertising cannot be used as a tool for deterring entry into the market, while in the case of predatory advertising, it can. Also, we have proved that in the case of strictly informative advertising an over-investment never occurs, while in the two other cases, there is always over-investment either to deter or to accommodate the entry.

  8. Effects ok ikea's entry into a furniture production cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Eiriz


    Full Text Available The entry of a multinational into a cluster, a geographic agglomeration in a given place or region of predominantly small and medium enterprises specialized in a given industry or related industries, impacts the incumbent in the cluster. Aiming to identify the main effects of a multinational entry on the firms’ strategy in a cluster, it was analyzed the entry of IKEA, a Swedish multinational, into the cluster of furniture production in Paços de Ferreira and Paredes, in Portugal. In this study, the data collection technique to access primary data was a survey. The sample has small enterprises, which is similar to the structure of firms in the studied cluster. Results show that more than half the sample thinks that the entry of the multinational had not affected them. However, the firms that acknowledge a significant impact, assess that impact as negative. The competitiveness factors that have improved more significantly after IKEA’s entry were new product development and exporting strategies. The main responses of incumbent firms to the multinational entry were internationalization and the development of generic strategies of differentiation and focus based on differentiation.

  9. Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Shukla


    Full Text Available Herpes Simplex virus (HSV is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms.

  10. An Entry Flight Controls Analysis for a Reusable Launch Vehicle (United States)

    Calhoun, Philip


    The NASA Langley Research Center has been performing studies to address the feasibility of various single-stage to orbit concepts for use by NASA and the commercial launch industry to provide a lower cost access to space. Some work on the conceptual design of a typical lifting body concept vehicle, designated VentureStar(sup TM) has been conducted in cooperation with the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. This paper will address the results of a preliminary flight controls assessment of this vehicle concept during the atmospheric entry phase of flight. The work includes control analysis from hypersonic flight at the atmospheric entry through supersonic speeds to final approach and landing at subsonic conditions. The requirements of the flight control effectors are determined over the full range of entry vehicle Mach number conditions. The analysis was performed for a typical maximum crossrange entry trajectory utilizing angle of attack to limit entry heating and providing for energy management, and bank angle to modulation of the lift vector to provide downrange and crossrange capability to fly the vehicle to a specified landing site. Sensitivity of the vehicle open and closed loop characteristics to CG location, control surface mixing strategy and wind gusts are included in the results. An alternative control surface mixing strategy utilizing a reverse aileron technique demonstrated a significant reduction in RCS torque and fuel required to perform bank maneuvers during entry. The results of the control analysis revealed challenges for an early vehicle configuration in the areas of hypersonic pitch trim and subsonic longitudinal controllability.

  11. Graduate entry to medicine: widening psychological diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munro Don


    Full Text Available Abstract Background At Nottingham University more than 95% of entrants to the traditional 5-year medical course are school leavers. Since 2003 we have admitted graduate entrants (GEM to a shortened (4-year course to 'widen access to students from more disadvantaged backgrounds'. We have recently shown that the GEM course widens academic and socio-demographic diversity of the medical student population. This study explored whether GEM students also bring psychological diversity and whether this could be beneficial. Methods We studied: a 217 and 96 applicants to the Nottingham 5- and 4-year courses respectively, applying in the 2002-3 UCAS cycle, and, b 246 school leavers starting the 5-year course and 39 graduate entrants to the 4-year course in October 2003. The psychological profiles of the two groups of applicants and two groups of entrants were compared using their performance in the Goldberg 'Big 5' Personality test, the Personal Qualities Assessment (PQA; measuring interpersonal traits and interpersonal values, and the Lovibond and Lovibond measure of depression, anxiety and stress. For the comparison of the Entrants we excluded the 33 school leavers and seven graduates who took the tests as Applicants. Statistical analyses were undertaken using SPSS software (version 16.0. Results Graduate applicants compared to school leaver applicants were significantly more conscientious, more confident, more self controlled, more communitarian in moral orientation and less anxious. Only one of these differences was preserved in the entrants with graduates being less anxious. However, the graduate entrants were significantly less empathetic and conscientious than the school leavers. Conclusion This study has shown that school leaver and graduate entrants to medical school differ in some psychological characteristics. However, if confirmed in other studies and if they were manifest in the extreme, not all the traits brought by graduates would be

  12. Difference in membrane repair capacity between cancer cell lines and a normal cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; McNeil, Anna K.; Novak, Ivana


    repair was investigated by disrupting the plasma membrane using laser followed by monitoring fluorescent dye entry over time in seven cancer cell lines, an immortalized cell line, and a normal primary cell line. The kinetics of repair in living cells can be directly recorded using this technique...... cancer cell lines (p immortalized cell line (p

  13. Phlebotomy skills expected of career entry CLS/CLT graduates: a Missouri hospital perspective. (United States)

    Millstead, C


    To determine how much, what type, and what proficiency of phlebotomy experience CLS/CLT students should have during the training program to be prepared to meet the needs of the majority of Missouri hospital employers. Survey to determine the role healthcare professionals, inside and outside the laboratory, play in today's blood collection patterns and phlebotomy management. The Missouri Organization of Clinical Laboratory Science mailed 204 surveys to the Missouri Hospital Association member laboratories. MAIN OUTCOMES/CONCLUSIONS: This research examined the need for modifying phlebotomy skills of clinical laboratory science students. Data gathered from employers support the premise that entry-level competencies of CLS/CLT graduates will vary according to clinical facility size. CLS/CLT programs may use data from this study to plan phlebotomy practicums. It can be extrapolated that Missouri employers who are most likely to employ career entry graduates expect them to draw blood from 9.3 patients within one hour. Fifty-three percent of 40 to 400 bed hospitals expect graduates to perform difficult draws in at least eight types of hospital units. Laboratories are the major managers of hospital wide phlebotomy services; thus, CLS/CLT curricula should include phlebotomy management methods.

  14. Correlations between Academic Achievement and Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students Experiencing Integrated Curriculum Reform


    Yi-Chun Yeh; Cheng-Fang Yen; Chung-Sheng Lai; Chun-Hsiung Huang; Keh-Min Liu; In-Ting Huang


    This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program ...

  15. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satheshkumar, P.S.; Chavre, James; Moss, Bernard, E-mail:


    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopoxviruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. - Highlights: • The 35 amino acid O3 protein is required for efficient vaccinia virus entry. • The transmembrane domain of O3 is necessary and sufficient for entry. • Mutagenesis demonstrated extreme sequence flexibility compatible with function.

  16. Quality of data entry using single entry, double entry and automated forms processing--an example based on a study of patient-reported outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel; Overgaard, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens Martin


    The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious. Automated...

  17. An audit of aerodynamic loss in a double entry turbine under full and partial admission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, Peter, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Copeland, Colin, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Martinez-Botas, Ricardo, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Seiler, Martin, E-mail: [ABB Turbo Systems Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A study of the loss inside a mixed flow, double entry turbocharger turbine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both full and partial admission conditions are discussed and compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under partial admission the rotor wheel was found to act in a fully unsteady manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inter-space region was a major area of loss generation under partial admission. - Abstract: The current study investigates the sources of loss inside a mixed flow, double entry turbocharger turbine under steady inlet conditions in both full and partial admission. Under normal on-engine operation, it is likely that both limbs in a double entry device will be fed by exhaust pulsations which are out of phase meaning that the turbine will spend most or all of the time with unbalanced flow through each limb. In the extreme case one limb will be flowing whilst the other is stagnant, this is the partial admission condition. Even under steady state inlet conditions, unequal admission is an important effect to study on the way to fully understanding pulsed operation of a double entry device. This paper presents 3D computational analyses of the flow inside a double entry turbine under both full and partial admission. The computational results are compared to experimental results of and . The distribution of loss within the turbine is evaluated for each computational condition by means of entropy production. In the full admission case the most significant area of loss was found to be in the tip region. Under the partial admission condition the flow regime is very different. In this case the rotor wheel was found to be acting in a fully unsteady manner, with the flow being unable to reach a fully developed state throughout the flowing section of the volute. The most significant area of entropy generation in the partial admission case was associated with interaction of the flows in each sector of the volute, this

  18. Using surveillance data to simulate the impact of a hypothetical pre-entry tuberculosis screening programme in Japan. (United States)

    Kawatsu, L; Uchimura, K; Izumi, K; Ohkado, A; Kato, S


    Despite a growing burden of foreign-born tuberculosis (TB) patients, Japan does not currently practise pre-entry tuberculosis (TB) screening among foreign-born entrants. To evaluate the impact of a hypothetical pre-entry TB screening programme among new foreign-born entrants into Japan. Using publicly available sources, we estimated 1) the number of prevalent TB cases, defined as bacteriologically or clinically confirmed cases among new foreign-born entrants into Japan in 2015, and 2) the yield from a hypothetical pre-entry TB screening programme under three scenarios: Scenario A, in which screening would be required of all applicants intending to stay for 3 months; Scenario B, screening among applicants for visas for settlement purposes; and Scenario C, screening among student and technical intern visa applicants. The numbers of prevalent TB cases under Scenarios A, B and C were respectively 492, 54 and 248 out of a total of 328 791, 21 554 and 182 879 applicants, respectively 276, 29 and 137 of whom would be detected via the pre-entry screening programme, giving an yield of respectively 83.9, 134.5 and 74.9 per 100 000 screened under each scenario. The yield was the highest under Scenario B; however, the impact was greatest under Scenario A, in that it detected the greatest number of patients and thus contributed the most in reducing the burden of foreign-born TB cases in Japan.

  19. An Experiential Learning Activity Demonstrating Normal and Phobic Anxiety (United States)

    Canu, Will H.


    This article describes an activity for an undergraduate abnormal psychology course that used student-generated data to illustrate normal versus clinically significant anxiety responses related to specific phobias. Students (N = 37) viewed 14 images of low- or high-anxiety valence and rated their subjective response to each. Discussion in a…

  20. Identity Work at a Normal University in Shanghai (United States)

    Cockain, Alex


    Based upon ethnographic research, this article explores undergraduate students' experiences at a normal university in Shanghai focusing on the types of identities and forms of sociality emerging therein. Although students' symptoms of disappointment seem to indicate the power of university experiences to extinguish purposeful action, this article…

  1. Improving laboratory data entry quality using Six Sigma. (United States)

    Elbireer, Ali; Le Chasseur, Julie; Jackson, Brooks


    The Uganda Makerere University provides clinical laboratory support to over 70 clients in Uganda. With increased volume, manual data entry errors have steadily increased, prompting laboratory managers to employ the Six Sigma method to evaluate and reduce their problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe how laboratory data entry quality was improved by using Six Sigma. The Six Sigma Quality Improvement (QI) project team followed a sequence of steps, starting with defining project goals, measuring data entry errors to assess current performance, analyzing data and determining data-entry error root causes. Finally the team implemented changes and control measures to address the root causes and to maintain improvements. Establishing the Six Sigma project required considerable resources and maintaining the gains requires additional personnel time and dedicated resources. After initiating the Six Sigma project, there was a 60.5 percent reduction in data entry errors from 423 errors a month (i.e. 4.34 Six Sigma) in the first month, down to an average 166 errors/month (i.e. 4.65 Six Sigma) over 12 months. The team estimated the average cost of identifying and fixing a data entry error to be $16.25 per error. Thus, reducing errors by an average of 257 errors per month over one year has saved the laboratory an estimated $50,115 a year. The Six Sigma QI project provides a replicable framework for Ugandan laboratory staff and other resource-limited organizations to promote quality environment. Laboratory staff can deliver excellent care at a lower cost, by applying QI principles. This innovative QI method of reducing data entry errors in medical laboratories may improve the clinical workflow processes and make cost savings across the health care continuum.

  2. Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediate viral entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims B


    Full Text Available Brian Sims,1,2,* Linlin Gu,3,* Alexandre Krendelchtchikov,3 Qiana L Matthews3,4 1Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Cell, Developmental, and Integrative Biology, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 4Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Viruses enter host cells through interactions of viral ligands with cellular receptors. Viruses can also enter cells in a receptor-independent fashion. Mechanisms regarding the receptor-independent viral entry into cells have not been fully elucidated. Exosomal trafficking between cells may offer a mechanism by which viruses can enter cells.Methods: To investigate the role of exosomes on cellular viral entry, we employed neural stem cell-derived exosomes and adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 for the proof-of-principle study. Results: Exosomes significantly enhanced Ad5 entry in Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR-deficient cells, in which Ad5 only had very limited entry. The exosomes were shown to contain T-cell immunoglobulin mucin protein 4 (TIM-4, which binds phosphatidylserine. Treatment with anti-TIM-4 antibody significantly blocked the exosome-mediated Ad5 entry.Conclusion: Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediated significant cellular entry of Ad5 in a receptor-independent fashion. This mediation may be hampered by an antibody specifically targeting TIM-4 on exosomes. This set of results will benefit further elucidation of virus/exosome pathways, which would contribute to reducing natural viral infection by developing therapeutic agents or vaccines. Keywords: neural stem cell-derived exosomes, adenovirus type 5, TIM-4, viral entry, phospholipids

  3. Infra-renal angles, entry into inferior vena cava and vertebral levels of renal veins. (United States)

    Satyapal, K S


    Current norms for renal vasculature hold true in only half the population. Standard textbooks perpetuate old misconceptions regarding renal venous anatomy. This study is aimed to determine left and right infra-renal angles (L-IRA, R-IRA); entry level of renal veins into the inferior vena cava (IVC), and height of IVC under renal vein influence; and their vertebral level. One hundred morphologically normal en-bloc renal specimens randomly selected from post-mortem examinations were dissected and resin casted. IRA were also measured from venograms of 32 adult and 11 foetal cadavers, as were vertebral entry levels. IRA measurements (degrees) were as follows: left, 55 degrees +/- 16 degrees (20 degrees -102 degrees ); right, 60 degrees +/- 17 degrees (10 degrees -93 degrees ). Left vein entered IVC higher than right 54%, lower 36%, and opposite each other 10%. Vertical distance between lower borders of veins was 1.0 +/- 0.9 cm. Vertical distance of IVC under renal vein influence was 2.3 +/- 1.0 cm. Vertebral level of veins in adults lies between TI2-L2. In foetuses, IRA was as follows: left, 65 degrees +/- 12 degrees (45 degrees -90 degrees ); right, 58 degrees +/- 7 degrees (40 degrees -70 degrees ); vertebral level between T12 and L3. Similar IRA values from literature noted on right, 51 degrees (26 degrees -100 degrees ); differences on left, 77 degrees (43 degrees -94 degrees ), clearly differing from Williams et al. (Gray's Anatomy, 37(th) ed, 1989) statement that renal veins "open into the inferior vena cava almost at right angles." Large variations of IRA are not surprising since kidneys are considered normally "floating viscera," varying position with posture and respiratory movement as well as in live vs. cadaveric subjects. The entry level into the IVC also differs from Williams et al. This study uniquely quantitated actual height difference between lower borders of left and right veins. The data presented appears to be the first documentation of vertebral

  4. Nursing Student Teachers' experiences during teaching practice:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    STUDENTS: A COMPARISON BETWEEN DIRECT ENTRY ... clinical decision making in nursing practice using a mixed research design. ... Quantitative analysis revealed significant (**p<0.001) chi square rejecting the null .... that many students during this exercise report .... face opportunity to give the consent letters. A.

  5. Coping in the World of Work. Practice in Problem Solving. Presentation Scripts. Filmstrip No. 1: Problems on the Job; and Filmstrip No. 2: Work Entry and Job Adjustment Problems. (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational Education.

    Presentation scripts for two sound filmstrips are contained in this document, which accompanies a career development unit on coping in the world of work designed to assist students in developing coping strategies to deal with work entry and job adjustment problems. (Other components of the unit--instructor's handbook, student guide, and…

  6. Characterizing Functional Domains for TIM-Mediated Enveloped Virus Entry (United States)

    Moller-Tank, Sven; Albritton, Lorraine M.; Rennert, Paul D.


    ABSTRACT T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members were recently identified as phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance entry of Ebola virus (EBOV) and other viruses by binding PtdSer on the viral envelope, concentrating virus on the cell surface, and promoting subsequent internalization. The PtdSer-binding activity of the immunoglobulin-like variable (IgV) domain is essential for both virus binding and internalization by TIM-1. However, TIM-3, whose IgV domain also binds PtdSer, does not effectively enhance virus entry, indicating that other domains of TIM proteins are functionally important. Here, we investigate the domains supporting enhancement of enveloped virus entry, thereby defining the features necessary for a functional PVEER. Using a variety of chimeras and deletion mutants, we found that in addition to a functional PtdSer-binding domain PVEERs require a stalk domain of sufficient length, containing sequences that promote an extended structure. Neither the cytoplasmic nor the transmembrane domain of TIM-1 is essential for enhancing virus entry, provided the protein is still plasma membrane bound. Based on these defined characteristics, we generated a mimic lacking TIM sequences and composed of annexin V, the mucin-like domain of α-dystroglycan, and a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor that functioned as a PVEER to enhance transduction of virions displaying Ebola, Chikungunya, Ross River, or Sindbis virus glycoproteins. This identification of the key features necessary for PtdSer-mediated enhancement of virus entry provides a basis for more effective recognition of unknown PVEERs. IMPORTANCE T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members are recently identified phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance virus entry by binding the phospholipid, PtdSer, present on the viral

  7. Advanced entry guidance algorithm with landing footprint computation (United States)

    Leavitt, James Aaron

    The design and performance evaluation of an entry guidance algorithm for future space transportation vehicles is presented. The algorithm performs two functions: on-board trajectory planning and trajectory tracking. The planned longitudinal path is followed by tracking drag acceleration, as is done by the Space Shuttle entry guidance. Unlike the Shuttle entry guidance, lateral path curvature is also planned and followed. A new trajectory planning function for the guidance algorithm is developed that is suitable for suborbital entry and that significantly enhances the overall performance of the algorithm for both orbital and suborbital entry. In comparison with the previous trajectory planner, the new planner produces trajectories that are easier to track, especially near the upper and lower drag boundaries and for suborbital entry. The new planner accomplishes this by matching the vehicle's initial flight path angle and bank angle, and by enforcing the full three-degree-of-freedom equations of motion with control derivative limits. Insights gained from trajectory optimization results contribute to the design of the new planner, giving it near-optimal downrange and crossrange capabilities. Planned trajectories and guidance simulation results are presented that demonstrate the improved performance. Based on the new planner, a method is developed for approximating the landing footprint for entry vehicles in near real-time, as would be needed for an on-board flight management system. The boundary of the footprint is constructed from the endpoints of extreme downrange and crossrange trajectories generated by the new trajectory planner. The footprint algorithm inherently possesses many of the qualities of the new planner, including quick execution, the ability to accurately approximate the vehicle's glide capabilities, and applicability to a wide range of entry conditions. Footprints can be generated for orbital and suborbital entry conditions using a pre

  8. Structural and mechanistic studies of measles virus illuminate paramyxovirus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Plemper


    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a member of the paramyxovirus family of enveloped RNA viruses and one of the most infectious viral pathogens identified, accounts for major pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide although coordinated efforts to achieve global measles control are in place. Target cell entry is mediated by two viral envelope glycoproteins, the attachment (H and fusion (F proteins, which form a complex that achieves merger of the envelope with target cell membranes. Despite continually expanding knowledge of the entry strategies employed by enveloped viruses, our molecular insight into the organization of functional paramyxovirus fusion complexes and the mechanisms by which the receptor binding by the attachment protein triggers the required conformational rearrangements of the fusion protein remain incomplete. Recently reported crystal structures of the MeV attachment protein in complex with its cellular receptors CD46 or SLAM and newly developed functional assays have now illuminated some of the fundamental principles that govern cell entry by this archetype member of the paramyxovirus family. Here, we review these advances in our molecular understanding of MeV entry in the context of diverse entry strategies employed by other members of the paramyxovirus family.

  9. Trading Robustness Requirements in Mars Entry Trajectory Design (United States)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.


    One of the most important metrics characterizing an atmospheric entry trajectory in preliminary design is the size of its predicted landing ellipse. Often, requirements for this ellipse are set early in design and significantly influence both the expected scientific return from a particular mission and the cost of development. Requirements typically specify a certain probability level (6-level) for the prescribed ellipse, and frequently this latter requirement is taken at 36. However, searches for the justification of 36 as a robustness requirement suggest it is an empirical rule of thumb borrowed from non-aerospace fields. This paper presents an investigation into the sensitivity of trajectory performance to varying robustness (6-level) requirements. The treatment of robustness as a distinct objective is discussed, and an analysis framework is presented involving the manipulation of design variables to effect trades between performance and robustness objectives. The scenario for which this method is illustrated is the ballistic entry of an MSL-class Mars entry vehicle. Here, the design variable is entry flight path angle, and objectives are parachute deploy altitude performance and error ellipse robustness. Resulting plots show the sensitivities between these objectives and trends in the entry flight path angles required to design to these objectives. Relevance to the trajectory designer is discussed, as are potential steps for further development and use of this type of analysis.

  10. BST2/Tetherin enhances entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan


    Full Text Available Interferon-induced BST2/Tetherin prevents budding of vpu-deficient HIV-1 by tethering mature viral particles to the plasma membrane. BST2 also inhibits release of other enveloped viruses including Ebola virus and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV, indicating that BST2 is a broadly acting antiviral host protein. Unexpectedly however, recovery of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV from supernatants of BST2-expressing human fibroblasts was increased rather than decreased. Furthermore, BST2 seemed to enhance viral entry into cells since more virion proteins were released into BST2-expressing cells and subsequent viral gene expression was elevated. A significant increase in viral entry was also observed upon induction of endogenous BST2 during differentiation of the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. Moreover, treatment of primary human monocytes with siRNA to BST2 reduced HCMV infection, suggesting that BST2 facilitates entry of HCMV into cells expressing high levels of BST2 either constitutively or in response to exogenous stimuli. Since BST2 is present in HCMV particles we propose that HCMV entry is enhanced via a reverse-tethering mechanism with BST2 in the viral envelope interacting with BST2 in the target cell membrane. Our data suggest that HCMV not only counteracts the well-established function of BST2 as inhibitor of viral egress but also employs this anti-viral protein to gain entry into BST2-expressing hematopoietic cells, a process that might play a role in hematogenous dissemination of HCMV.

  11. Dopamine receptor activation increases HIV entry into primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Gaskill

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers.

  12. Bovine parvovirus uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis for cell entry. (United States)

    Dudleenamjil, Enkhmart; Lin, Chin-Yo; Dredge, Devin; Murray, Byron K; Robison, Richard A; Johnson, F Brent


    Entry events of bovine parvovirus (BPV) were studied. Transmission electron micrographs of infected cells showed virus particles in cytoplasmic vesicles. Chemical inhibitors that block certain aspects of the cellular machinery were employed to assess viral dependency upon those cellular processes. Chlorpromazine, ammonium chloride, chloroquine and bafilamicin A1 were used to inhibit acidification of endosomes and clathrin-associated endocytosis. Nystatin was used as an inhibitor of the caveolae pathway. Cytochalasin D and ML-7 were used to inhibit actin and myosin functions, respectively. Nocodazole and colchicine were employed to inhibit microtubule activity. Virus entry was assessed by measuring viral transcription using real-time PCR, synthesis of capsid protein and assembly of infectious progeny virus in the presence of inhibitor blockage. The results indicated that BPV entry into embryonic bovine trachael cells utilizes endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles, is dependent upon acidification, and appears to be associated with actin and microtubule dependency. Evidence for viral entry through caveolae was not obtained. These findings provide a fuller understanding of the early cell-entry events of the replication cycle for members of the genus Bocavirus.

  13. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages (United States)

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.


    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  14. Entry into the electricity market: Uncertainty, competition, and mothballing options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Ryuta [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)], E-mail:; Goto, Makoto [Department of Industrial and Management Systems Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kimura, Hiroshi; Madarame, Haruki [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1188 (Japan)


    The present paper analyzes the entry strategies into the electricity market of two firms that have power plants under price uncertainty and competition. We consider the symmetric and asymmetric two firms, which have either a thermal power plant or a nuclear power plant. The differences between the thermal power plant and the nuclear power plant, such as the cost structure and operational flexibility are modeled. The threshold values of market entry are calculated for each firm with either the thermal power plant or the nuclear power plant as the leader or the follower. We show the dependence of cost structures on entry thresholds of the leader and the follower into the electricity market. For various market and cost conditions, the diagrams of the leader are also shown.

  15. Entry into the electricity market: Uncertainty, competition, and mothballing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Ryuta; Goto, Makoto; Kimura, Hiroshi; Madarame, Haruki


    The present paper analyzes the entry strategies into the electricity market of two firms that have power plants under price uncertainty and competition. We consider the symmetric and asymmetric two firms, which have either a thermal power plant or a nuclear power plant. The differences between the thermal power plant and the nuclear power plant, such as the cost structure and operational flexibility are modeled. The threshold values of market entry are calculated for each firm with either the thermal power plant or the nuclear power plant as the leader or the follower. We show the dependence of cost structures on entry thresholds of the leader and the follower into the electricity market. For various market and cost conditions, the diagrams of the leader are also shown

  16. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Guidance Improvements for Mars 2018 (DRAFT) (United States)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo; Winski, Richard G.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Grover, Myron R.; Prakash, Ravi


    In 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will be launched in a mission to deliver the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. A follow on MSL-derived mission, referred to as Mars 2018, is planned for 2018. Mars 2018 goals include performance enhancements of the Entry, Descent and Landing over that of its predecessor MSL mission of 2011. This paper will discuss the main elements of the modified 2018 EDL preliminary design that will increase performance on the entry phase of the mission. In particular, these elements will increase the parachute deploy altitude to allow for more time margin during the subsequent descent and landing phases and reduce the delivery ellipse size at parachute deploy through modifications in the entry reference trajectory design, guidance trigger logic design, and the effect of additional navigation hardware.

  17. Soil and gas and radon entry potentials for substructure surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.; Sextro, R.G.


    This paper reports on measurement techniques and parameters that describe the potential for areas of a building substructure to have high soil gas and radon entry rates which have been developed. Flows and pressures measured at test holes in substructure surfaces while the substructure was intentionally depressurized were used in a highly simplified electrical circuit to model the substructure/soil network. Data from four New Jersey houses indicate that the soil was a factor of two to six times more resistant to soil gas flow than substructure surfaces, concrete slab floors, including perimeter gaps, cracks, and other penetrations, were approximately five times more resistant to soil gas movement than hollow block walls, and radon entry potentials were highest for slab floors. These indices of entry potential may be useful for characterizing the relative leakiness of below-grade substructure surfaces and for determining the selection and placement of radon control systems

  18. Towards a Market Entry Framework for Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan


    This study presents a framework to understand and explain the design and configuration of digital payment platforms and how these platforms create conditions for market entries. By embracing the theoretical lens of platform envelopment, we employed a multiple and comparative-case study...... in a European setting by using our framework as an analytical lens to assess market-entry conditions. We found that digital payment platforms have acquired market entry capabilities, which is achieved through strategic platform design (i.e., platform development and service distribution) and technology design...... (i.e., issuing evolutionary and revolutionary payment instruments). The studied cases reveal that digital platforms leverage payment services as a mean to bridge and converge core and adjacent platform markets. In so doing, platform envelopment strengthens firms’ market position in their respective...

  19. Mars Atmospheric Entry Integrated Navigation with Partial Intermittent Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-shan Lou


    Full Text Available Signal degradation suffered by the vehicle is a combination brownout and blackout during Mars atmospheric entry. The communications brownout means that signal fades and blackout means that the signal is lost completely. The communications brownout and blackout periods are analyzed and predicted with an altitude and velocity profiles. In the brownout period, the range measurements between the vehicle and the orbiters are modeled as intermittent measurements with the radio signal arrival probabilities, which are distributed as a Rayleigh distribution of the electron number density around the entry vehicle. A new integrated navigation strategy during the Mars atmospheric entry phase is proposed to consider the probabilities of the radio measurements in the communications brownout and blackout periods under the IMU/beacon scenario based on the information filter with intermittent measurements. Numerical navigation simulations are designed to show the performance of the proposed navigation strategy under the integrated navigation scenario.

  20. Entry and Exit Dynamics of Nascent Business Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste


    results suggest that different exit modes can be predicted by business owners’ entry route. Furthermore, different exit modes exhibit different duration dependence patterns according to the entry mode. Additionally, the paper shows that businesses started after a displacement episode are not necessarily......This paper reports a comprehensive study on the dynamics of nascent business owners using a unique longitudinal matched employer–employee dataset. We follow over 157,000 individuals who leave paid employment and become business owners during the period 1992–2007. The contributions of this paper...... are twofold. First, we analyze both entry and exit, identifying and characterizing different profiles of individuals leaving paid employment to become business owners, and distinguishing exits by dissolution from exits by ownership transfer. Second, we provide new evidence on how particular experiences...

  1. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.


    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface.

  2. Newcomer innovation during entry in a changing organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    ” of the organizational culture. Although acknowledging that organizational socialization is about continuity and change in the employing organization (Van Maanen & Schein, 1979), and realizing that the entry of newcomers holds the potential for innovation to the employing organization (Feldman, 2012), the discourse...... values and beliefs” (Feldman, 2012:215). Thus, the “workgroup”, “work processes”, “patterns of social interaction” and “core values” are considered stable units of analysis, which entries of organizational newcomers might affect. This gives rise to a dichotomy of newcomer assimilation versus...... organizational accommodation to organize much of the research on organizational socialization and innovation. The case study presented in this paper investigates organizational entry in a changing organization raising the question of how to understand organizational socialization and newcomer innovation when...

  3. Optometry Australia Entry-level Competency Standards for Optometry 2014. (United States)

    Kiely, Patricia M; Slater, Jared


    Competency standards for entry-level to the profession of optometry in Australia were first developed in 1993, revised in 1997 and 2000, and again in 2008, when therapeutic competency standards were introduced but differentiated from the entry-level competencies. Therapeutic competencies were an additional requirement for the purpose of endorsing optometric registration to allow prescription of medicines for conditions of the eye. Recent changes to educational and registration requirements mean that therapeutic competencies are now required at entry-level. To address this and to ensure the standards reflect current best practice, a full revision of the standards was undertaken. A steering committee oversaw the review of the standards, which involved a literature review, workshops with optometrists and broad consultation with stakeholders, including the Optometry Board of Australia, individual optometrists and employers of optometrists, to identify changes needed. Representatives of the profession from Australia and New Zealand and from academia in Australia were involved. A modified document based on the feedback received was circulated to the State Divisions and the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia. The updated standards reflect the state of entry to the optometric profession in 2014; competencies for prescribing of scheduled medicines are included, new material has been added, other areas have been modified. The updated entry-level competency standards were adopted on behalf of the profession by the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia in March 2014. Competency standards have been updated so that they continue to be current and useful for the profession, individual optometrists and Australian and New Zealand registration authorities for the purposes of accreditation of optometric programs and assessment of overseas-trained optometrists. This paper details the revision process and presents the 2014 version of

  4. Entry of soil gas and radon into houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.E.


    Entry of soil gas and radon into houses has been investigated by experiments conducted at radon test structures and numerical or analytical modelling. The numerical model solves the steady-state equations for Darcy flow of soil-gas and combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. Model calculations were compared with results from field experiments conducted at Risoe National Laboratory, and it was found that there was good agreement between measured and modelled pressure coupling and radon concentration profiles. Discrepancies regarding absolute values of soil-gas entry rates and radon concentrations were observed. The numerical model has been used to study the importance of soil and building related factors on radon entry rates into slab-on-grade houses. It was found that, for a house with a 3 mm perimeter crack along the floor-wall joint, the entry was mainly determined by the soil permeability and building related factors such as house depressurization and presence of a capillary breaking layer of gravel below the slab. In a house with a bare soil floor, the diffusivity of the soil was found to be of principal importance for the entry rate even for moderate permeabilities. An analytical model was developed for the purpose of studying soil-gas entry rates into houses in response to non-static driving forces. It is based on the analogy between a 'buried drain' and a basement house with a perimeter crack. The structure was depressurized sinusoidally in time and the frequency dependent pressure couplings were measured. There was fairly good agreement between theoretical and experimental results. (LN) (26 tabs., 30 ills., 66 refs.)

  5. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring. (United States)

    Brammer, Jeremy R; Brunet, Nicolas D; Burton, A Cole; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M


    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of stakeholder participation, from nonscientists collecting field data to nonscientists administering every step of a monitoring program, remains unclear. We reviewed the successes, in terms of management interventions and sustainability, of 107 monitoring programs described in the literature (hereafter programs) and compared these with case studies from our PM experiences in Australia, Canada, Ethiopia, Ghana, Greenland, and Vietnam (hereafter cases). Our literature review showed that participatory programs were less likely to use digital devices, and 2 of our 3 more participatory cases were also slow to adopt digital data entry. Programs that were participatory and used digital devices were more likely to report management actions, which was consistent with cases in Ethiopia, Greenland, and Australia. Programs engaging volunteers were more frequently reported as ongoing, but those involving digital data entry were less often sustained when data collectors were volunteers. For the Vietnamese and Canadian cases, sustainability was undermined by a mismatch in stakeholder objectives. In the Ghanaian case, complex field protocols diminished monitoring sustainability. Innovative technologies attract interest, but the foundation of effective participatory adaptive monitoring depends more on collaboratively defined questions, objectives, conceptual models, and monitoring approaches. When this foundation is built through effective partnerships, digital data entry can enable the collection of more data of higher quality. Without this foundation, or when implemented ineffectively or unnecessarily, digital data entry can be an additional expense that distracts from core monitoring objectives

  6. Molecular time-course and the metabolic basis of entry into dauer in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Young Jeong

    Full Text Available When Caenorhabditis elegans senses dauer pheromone (daumone, signaling inadequate growth conditions, it enters the dauer state, which is capable of long-term survival. However, the molecular pathway of dauer entry in C. elegans has remained elusive. To systematically monitor changes in gene expression in dauer paths, we used a DNA microarray containing 22,625 gene probes corresponding to 22,150 unique genes from C. elegans. We employed two different paths: direct exposure to daumone (Path 1 and normal growth media plus liquid culture (Path 2. Our data reveal that entry into dauer is accomplished through the multi-step process, which appears to be compartmentalized in time and according to metabolic flux. That is, a time-course of dauer entry in Path 1 shows that dauer larvae formation begins at post-embryonic stage S4 (48 h and is complete at S6 (72 h. Our results also suggest the presence of a unique adaptive metabolic control mechanism that requires both stage-specific expression of specific genes and tight regulation of different modes of fuel metabolite utilization to sustain the energy balance in the context of prolonged survival under adverse growth conditions. It is apparent that worms entering dauer stage may rely heavily on carbohydrate-based energy reserves, whereas dauer larvae utilize fat or glyoxylate cycle-based energy sources. We created a comprehensive web-based dauer metabolic database for C. elegans ( that makes it possible to search any gene and compare its relative expression at a specific stage, or evaluate overall patterns of gene expression in both paths. This database can be accessed by the research community and could be widely applicable to other related nematodes as a molecular atlas.

  7. Why Are Students Not Majoring in Information Systems? (United States)

    Walstrom, Kent A.; Schambach, Thomas P.; Jones, Keith T.; Crampton, William J.


    The purpose of this study was to examine some of the factors that influence and impact business students when they select their major and, more particularly, to examine why students are not majoring in information systems. Students in an entry level business class responded that they were more knowledgeable about careers in management, marketing,…

  8. A Model for Forecasting Enlisted Student IA Billet Requirements (United States)


    IA execution ........................................... 4   Figure 2.   Learning center to resource sponsor alignment...initial entry training” [3]. 4 Figure 1. Training that counts as student IA execution The second type of chargeable training is the...Reference [ 4 ] describes the process the Navy uses to build the student IA program. It comprises three steps. The first is to forecast student IA E

  9. Fostering Student Engagement through a Multi-Day Industry Tour (United States)

    Taylor, Lorraine L.; Hartman, Cindy L.; Baldwin, Elizabeth D.


    Student engagement may be enhanced by providing educationally purposeful activities outside of the classroom. This study considers the influence of a multi-day industry tour on student engagement for undergraduates majoring in Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management. Data were collected from students' reflections in journal entries focused on an…

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury and Its Effect on Students (United States)

    Rosenthal, Stacy B.


    Over one million people suffer a traumatic brain injury every year, many of whom are students between the ages of 5 and 18. Using a qualitative case study approach, I wanted to discover the specific factors that both impede and help the school re-entry process for students in grades kindergarten through twelve so that these students can return to…

  11. Making Economic Principles Personal: Student Journals and Reflection Papers (United States)

    Brewer, Stephanie M.; Jozefowicz, James J.


    The authors address two informal writing assignments implemented in introductory economics classes. One assignment involves students writing short reflection papers, and the other assignment involves students writing short journal entries for a designated period of time. Both assignments are designed to help students realize that economics is…

  12. Helping Competencies of Student Affairs Professionals: A Delphi Study (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy L.


    The purpose of this study was to gather student affairs professionals' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed to effectively help students. Using the Delphi method, 159 entry-level and mid-level student affairs administrators from institutions across the United States were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the helping skills they use…

  13. Technology Investments in the NASA Entry Systems Modeling Project (United States)

    Barnhardt, Michael; Wright, Michael; Hughes, Monica


    The Entry Systems Modeling (ESM) technology development project, initiated in 2012 under NASAs Game Changing Development (GCD) Program, is engaged in maturation of fundamental research developing aerosciences, materials, and integrated systems products for entry, descent, and landing(EDL)technologies [1]. To date, the ESM project has published over 200 papers in these areas, comprising the bulk of NASAs research program for EDL modeling. This presentation will provide an overview of the projects successes and challenges, and an assessment of future investments in EDL modeling and simulation relevant to NASAs mission

  14. Electronic Chemotherapy Order Entry: A Major Cancer Center's Implementation. (United States)

    Sklarin, Nancy T; Granovsky, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Eileen M; Zelenetz, Andrew D


    Implementation of a computerized provider order entry system for complex chemotherapy regimens at a large cancer center required intense effort from a multidisciplinary team of clinical and systems experts with experience in all facets of the chemotherapy process. The online tools had to resemble the paper forms used at the time and parallel the successful established process as well as add new functionality. Close collaboration between the institution and the vendor was necessary. This article summarizes the institutional efforts, challenges, and collaborative processes that facilitated universal chemotherapy computerized electronic order entry across multiple sites during a period of several years.

  15. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report (United States)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; hide


    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

  16. The Secret of Guided Missile Re-Entry, (United States)


    I RD-PAI169 598 THE SECRET OF GUIDED MISSILE RE-ENTRY(U) FOREIGN / I TECHNOLOGY DIV NRIGHT-PATTERSON RFB OH J CHEN ET AL. I 25 JUN 96 FTD-ID(RS)T...TECHNOLOGY DIVISION THE SECRET OF GUIDED MISSILE RE-ENTRY by Chen Jingzhong, An Sehua J L 0 7 ’:;85’ ’ 0 *Approved for public release; Distribution...unlimite t d. :. 86 7 034.. FTD- ID(RS)T-0459-86 HUMAN TRANSLATION FTD-ID(RS)T-0459-86 25 June 1986 MICROFICHE NR: F - - 0Q 9? THE SECRET OF GUIDED

  17. A Systematic Assessment of Empirical Research on Foreign Entry Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper


    of dimensions. Findings Findings question the frequent use of commonly used measures (e.g. advertising intensity) and control variables (e.g. firm size) and suggest that statements about the importance of mode choice for subsidiary performance may be premature. Methodologically, this study identifies critical...... issues with regard to interpretation of interactions and the entry mode choice set. Research limitations/implications This study limits itself to study the direction of relationships and does not analyze effect sizes. Further, future research may benefit from broadening the entry mode choice by extending...

  18. Focusing accounting curricula on students' long-run careers: recommendations for an integrated competency-based framework for accounting education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, R.A.; Blocher, E.J.; Brewer, P.C.; Cokins, G.; Sorensen, J.E.; Stout, D.E.; Sundem, G.L.; Wolcott, S.K.; Wouters, M.J.F.


    Professional organizations, accrediting bodies, and accounting educators have defined the competencies that accounting students need for entry-level success in public accounting. However, definitions of the competencies required by all accounting students for long-term career requirements are

  19. Assessment of Knowledge of Critical Cardiovascular Risk Indicators among College Students: Does Stage of Education Matter? (United States)

    Sarpong, Daniel F.; Curry, India Y.; Williams, Melinda


    The health risk of college students in the United States (US) is on the rise, with a significant increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the US, costing approximately $475.3 billion yearly. The goals of this “Know Your Numbers” study were to: (1) estimate the awareness of college students of their critical health numbers (CHN); and (2) compare a college of pharmacy entry class (IP1) with second semester non-commuter freshman college students (FCS) in knowing their numbers. A cross-sectional 15-item pre-test survey was conducted among a convenience sample of IP1 and FCS. All statistical tests were performed at α = 0.05. Awareness of their: cholesterol (7%), blood pressure (BP) (35%), glucose (8%), and body mass index (BMI) (42%) were low. The IP1, compared to FCS, were more knowledgeable of: (1) their BP (46% vs. 28%, p = 0.01); (2) BP normal range (74% vs. 63%, p = 0.02); and (3) BMI normal range (39% vs. 23%, p = 0.04). The IP1s maintained a healthier diet than the FCS (64% vs. 36%, p Knowledge of one’s CHN was significantly associated with knowledge of normal reference values for BP, glucose, and BMI. PMID:28257080

  20. Entry of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state. (United States)

    Ramaiah, N; Ravel, J; Straube, W L; Hill, R T; Colwell, R R


    Physiological responses of marine luminous bacteria, Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 14216) and V. fischeri (UM1373) to nutrient-limited normal strength (35 ppt iso-osmolarity) and low (10 ppt hypo-osmolarity) salinity conditions were determined. Plate counts, direct viable counts, actively respiring cell counts, nucleoid-containing cell counts, and total counts were determined. Vibrio harveyi incubated at 22 degrees C in nutrient-limited artificial seawater (ASW) became nonculturable after approximately 62 and 45 d in microcosms of 35 ppt and 10 ppt ASW, respectively. In contrast, V. fischeri became nonculturable at approximately 55 and 31 d in similar microcosms. Recovery of both culturability and luminescence of cells in the viable but nonculturable state was achieved by addition of nutrient broth or nutrient broth supplemented with a carbon source, including luminescence-stimulating compounds. Temperature upshift from 22 degrees C to 30 degrees C or 37 degrees C did not result in recovery from nonculturability. The study confirms entry of V. harveyi and V. fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state under low-nutrient conditions and demonstrates nutrient-dependent resuscitation from this state. This study confirms loss of luminescence of V. harveyi and V. fischeri on entry into the viable but nonculturable state and suggests that enumeration of luminescent cells in water samples may be a rapid method to deduce the nutrient status of a water sample.

  1. Short proofs of strong normalization


    Wojdyga, Aleksander


    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  2. Measuring Longitudinal Student Performance on Student Learning Outcomes in Sustainability Education (United States)

    Jarchow, Meghann E.; Formisano, Paul; Nordyke, Shane; Sayre, Matthew


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the student learning outcomes (SLOs) for a sustainability major, evaluate faculty incorporation of the SLOs into the courses in the sustainability major curriculum and measure student performance on the SLOs from entry into the major to the senior capstone course. Design/methodology/approach:…

  3. Is graduate entry education a solution to increasing numbers of men in nursing? (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Vanderheide, Rebecca; Brooks, Ingrid


    Males have traditionally constituted a very small proportion of the nursing workforce in many countries, including Australia. Together with a need to address the gender imbalance, nursing workforce shortages require strategies for recruiting new nurses, including males. This study examined characteristics of males entering one accelerated graduate entry masters pre-registration nursing program in Victoria, Australia. A quantitative survey gathered a variety of demographic data and factors relating to participants' decisions to undertake nursing. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics including frequencies and distributions. Forty-three male nursing students from four cohorts of the Master of Nursing Practice (MNP) course from 2009 to 2011 completed the survey. The proportion of males (30%) was considerably greater than traditional nursing courses and the profession generally. Participants demonstrated wide distributions in age ranges, professional backgrounds and previous years in the workforce. Graduate entry appears attractive to males of varying ages, personal and professional backgrounds. More research is needed to examine this phenomenon on a larger scale. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Essays on empirical industrial organization : Entry and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Machado, Roxana


    The dissertation contains three essays on empirical industrial organization devoted to studying firms' strategic interaction in different settings. The first essay develops an entry model to address an important matter in the area of urban economics: the development of cities. In particular, it

  5. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.


    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs

  6. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry. (United States)


    ... Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7714 and 7731). Neither the Department of Agriculture nor the inspector... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  7. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Morozova


    Full Text Available A company must have distinctly described alternatives for taking strategically correct decisions. For this reason the purpose of the paper is to provide comparative characteristics and systematize strategies on entry to foreign market. It is necessary to select the required criteria and carry out multi-criterion analysis in order to arrange systematization and comparative characteristics of  numerous institutional forms being established within the framework of export, cooperation or integration, main strategies on entry to foreign market. The paper contains an analysis and systematization prepared in accordance with the following criteria: strategic purpose of entry to foreign market, time factor in respect of entry to foreign market, distribution of  company’s business-cycle stages among countries, level of investments, form of investments, distribution of investment and management level among countries, risk level, market involvement, legal grounds for foreign activity, status of a subject entering foreign market. The paper makes it possible to give comparative characteristics of the analyzed strategies.

  9. Assessing welfare impact of entry into power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, In-Koo; Kim, Hyunsook


    This paper calculates the welfare impact of a new entrant based on the location of entry in the Korean electricity market. We use two different models. One is the optimal fuel mix model to estimate the effect of a new entry in the long run. The other is the variable cost minimization model to assess the contribution of an existing installed private generator in the short run. A specific private generator, which has a cost advantage, saves a substantial amount of system-wide variable costs. We show that the right location for a new entrant can save power generation costs significantly, even if a new entrant does not have a cost advantage. - Highlights: • This paper calculates the welfare impact of a new entrant based on the location of entry. • We use two different models to estimate the entry effect. • The minimum and maximum cost savings of a new entrant are about 0.3% and 0.84% of total generation cost. • Even if a new entrant has no cost advantage, its choice of location could save money

  10. Determining Data Entry Points For Javascript-rich Web applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maksimovich Noseevich


    Full Text Available The paper is devoted the task of automatic crawling of javascript-rich web applications for data entry points. A new technique is proposed, which combines dynamic and static javascript code analysis. Testing the proposed technique on real world web applications such as Twitter, Youtube and Reddit has confirmed its applicability for analysis of modern web applications.

  11. On Double-Entry Bookkeeping: The Mathematical Treatment (United States)

    Ellerman, David


    Double-entry bookkeeping (DEB) implicitly uses a specific mathematical construction, the group of differences using pairs of unsigned numbers ("T-accounts"). That construction was only formulated abstractly in mathematics in the nineteenth century, even though DEB had been used in the business world for over five centuries. Yet the…

  12. 30 CFR 840.12 - Right of entry. (United States)


    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM... of entry. (a) Within its jurisdiction, the State regulatory authority shall have authority that... mining and reclamation operation without advance notice upon presentation of appropriate credentials. No...

  13. Late entry to antenatal care in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin George


    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to assess the prevalence of women who entered antenatal care (ANC late and to identify factors related to the late entry to ANC in New South Wales (NSW in 2004. Methods The NSW Midwives Data Collection contained data of 85,034 women who gave birth in 2004. Data were downloaded using SAS and transferred to STATA 8.0. Entering ANC after 12 weeks of gestation was classified as late. The Andersen Health Seeking Behaviour Model was used for selection and analyses of related factors. Regression and hierarchical analyses were used to identify significant factors and their relative contributions to the variation of pregnancy duration at entry to ANC. Results 41% of women commenced ANC after 12 weeks of gestation. Inequality existed between groups of women with predisposing characteristics and enabling resources contributed more to the variation in pregnancy duration at entry to ANC than needs. The groups of women with highest risk were teenagers, migrants from developing countries, women living in Western Sydney, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, women with three or more previous pregnancies and heavy smokers. The high risk groups with largest number of women were migrants from developing countries and women living in Western Sydney. Conclusion A large number of women in NSW entered ANC late in their pregnancies. Efforts to increase early entry to ANC should be targeted on identified high risk groups of women.

  14. 46 CFR 14.305 - Entries in continuous discharge book. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entries in continuous discharge book. 14.305 Section 14.305 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN SHIPMENT... discharge book. If the merchant mariner holds a continuous discharge book, the master or individual in...

  15. Recent Health Care Use and Medicaid Entry of Medicare Beneficiaries. (United States)

    Keohane, Laura M; Trivedi, Amal N; Mor, Vincent


    To examine the relationship between Medicaid entry and recent health care use among Medicare beneficiaries. We identified Medicare beneficiaries without full Medicaid or use of hospital or nursing home services in 2008 (N = 2,163,387). A discrete survival analysis estimated beneficiaries' monthly likelihood of entry into the full Medicaid program between January 2009 and June 2010. During the 18-month study period, Medicaid entry occurred for 1.1% and 3.7% of beneficiaries who aged into Medicare or originally qualified for Medicare due to disability, respectively. Among beneficiaries who aged into Medicare, 49% of new Medicaid participants had no use of inpatient, skilled nursing facility, or nursing home services during the study period. Individuals who recently used inpatient, skilled nursing facility or nursing home services had monthly rates of 1.9, 14.0, and 38.1 new Medicaid participants per 1,000 beneficiaries, respectively, compared with 0.4 new Medicaid participants per 1,000 beneficiaries with no recent use of these services. Although recent health care use predicted greater likelihood of Medicaid entry, half of new Medicaid participants used no hospital or nursing home care during the study period. These patterns should be considered when designing and evaluating interventions to reform health care delivery for dual-eligible beneficiaries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  16. SME's perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens; Kemp, Ron; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard


    Abstract Extant literature discusses a large number of different entry barriers that may hamper market efficiency or entrepreneurial activity. In practice several of these barriers cohere and stem from the same root. Factor analysis is used to identify the underlying dimensions of these barriers. 7

  17. Childhood cancer survivors' school (re)entry: Australian parents' perceptions. (United States)

    McLoone, J K; Wakefield, C E; Cohn, R J


    Starting or returning to school after intense medical treatment can be academically and socially challenging for childhood cancer survivors. This study aimed to evaluate the school (re)entry experience of children who had recently completed cancer treatment. Forty-two semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore parents' perceptions of their child's (re)entry to school after completing treatment (23 mothers, 19 fathers, parent mean age 39.5 years; child mean age 7.76 years). Interviews were analysed using the framework of Miles and Huberman and emergent themes were organised using QSR NVivo8. Parents closely monitored their child's school (re)entry and fostered close relationships with their child's teacher to ensure swift communication of concerns should they arise. The most commonly reported difficulty related to aspects of peer socialisation; survivors either displayed a limited understanding of social rules such as turn taking, or related more to older children or teachers relative to their peers. Additionally, parents placed a strong emphasis on their child's overall personal development, above academic achievement alone. Improved parent, clinician and teacher awareness of the importance of continued peer socialisation during the treatment period is recommended in order to limit the ongoing ramifications this may have on school (re)entry post-treatment completion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Competition and entry in banking: implications for capital regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.


    We assess how capital regulation interacts with the degree of competitiveness of the banking industry. We particularly ask two questions: i) how does capital regulation affect (endogenous) entry; and ii) how do (exogenous) changes in the competitive environment affect bank monitoring choices and the

  19. Love me tender: new entry in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.; Chiu, M.M.; Wijnberg, N.


    The purpose of this paper is to investigate new entry as a process of organizational change against the background of the digital revolution in the music industry. The study analyzes questionnaire data gathered from 131 companies active in the Dutch music industry that collectively engaged in 215

  20. Partial Acquistion as an Entry Mode in Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian; Meyer, Klaus E.


    Multinational enterprises often acquire stakes in an existing enterprise when entering emerging economies. This paper examines the determinants of entry mode choices with a special focus on these partial acquisitions, which have received little attention in the scholarly literature. We show...... negotiations are subject to significant stakeholder interference. (For more information, please contact: Kristian Jakobsen, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark:

  1. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  2. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, M.; Dekimpe, de M.G.; Leeflang, P.S.H.


    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in keymarketingmetrics? New players may just be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  3. Powdery Mildew Resistance in 268 Entries of Hordeum vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, W.M.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Torp, J


    A collection of 24 'Spontaneum' barley [H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum] entries and one comprising 244 Ethiopian barleys [H. vulgare ssp. vulgare] were tested for resistance to 4 powdery mildew [used by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei] cultures that carried genes for virulence corresponding to most...

  4. 31 CFR 357.0 - Book-entry systems. (United States)


    ... AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT General Information § 357.0 Book-entry systems. (a) Treasury... securities are held in a tiered system through securities intermediaries such as financial institutions or... securities are held directly by the Department of the Treasury in accounts maintained in the investor's name...

  5. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brammer, Jeremy R.; Brunet, Nicolas D.; Burton, A.C.; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V.; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M.


    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of

  6. 45 CFR 670.34 - Entry and exit ports. (United States)


    ... ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Import Into and Export From the United States § 670.34 Entry and exit ports. (a) Any native mammal, native bird, or native plants taken within Antarctica that are imported into or... Orleans, Louisiana. (7) New York, New York. (8) Seattle, Washington. (9) Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. (10...

  7. Entry Level Systems Analysts: What Does the Industry Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Grant


    Full Text Available This study investigates the skill sets necessary for entry level systems analysts. Towards this end, the study combines two sources of data, namely, a content analysis of 200 systems analysts’ online job advertisements and a survey of 20 senior Information Systems (IS professionals. Based on Chi-square tests, the results reveal that most employers prefer entry level systems analysts with an undergraduate Computer Science degree. Furthermore, most of the employers prefer entry level systems analysts to have some years of experience as well as industry certifications. The results also reveal that there is a higher preference for entry level systems analysts who have non-technical and people skills (e.g., problem solving and oral communication. The empirical results from this study will inform IS educators as they develop future systems analysts. Additionally, the results will be useful to the aspiring systems analysts who need to make sure that they have the necessary job skills before graduating and entering the labor market.

  8. Infectious Entry and Neutralization of Pathogenic JC Polyomaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M. Geoghegan


    Full Text Available Summary: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML is a lethal brain disease caused by uncontrolled replication of JC polyomavirus (JCV. JCV strains recovered from the brains of PML patients carry mutations that prevent the engagement of sialylated glycans, which are thought to serve as receptors for the infectious entry of wild-type JCV. In this report, we show that non-sialylated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs can serve as alternative attachment receptors for the infectious entry of both wild-type and PML mutant JCV strains. After GAG-mediated attachment, PML mutant strains engage non-sialylated non-GAG co-receptor glycans, such as asialo-GM1. JCV-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies isolated from patients who recovered from PML appear to block infection by preventing the docking of post-attachment co-receptor glycans in an apical pocket of the JCV major capsid protein. Identification of the GAG-dependent/sialylated glycan-independent alternative entry pathway should facilitate the development of infection inhibitors, including recombinant neutralizing antibodies. : Geoghegan et al. show that JC polyomavirus strains that cause brain disease infect cells via a pathway involving a heparin-like attachment receptor and a non-sialylated co-receptor. Candidate therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies neutralize by blocking co-receptor engagement. Keywords: polyomavirus, JC, BK, SV40, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, PML, monoclonal antibody, mAb, virus entry, receptor

  9. Studies on endogenous circulating calcium entry blocker and stimulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, P.K.T.; Yang, M.C.M.


    Several synthetic compounds have been studied extensively for their calcium entry blockade and stimulation in smooth muscles. It is hypothesized that there should be endogenous substances which control calcium entry into cells. We recently investigated the effect of some vasoactive hormones on calcium entry. Our studies on rat tail artery helical strip showed that the in vitro vasoconstriction produced by arginine vasopressin (AVP) decreased stepwise with decreasing concentration of both calcium. After exposure of the tail artery to calcium-free Ringer's solution for 1 minute or longer, the tissue lost its ability to respond to AVP. Subsequent addition of calcium to the medium produced immediate contraction. Measurements of low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium with 45 Ca showed that AVP increased calcium uptake by tail artery in a dose-dependent manner. In another study rat tail artery helical strip indicated that the vasorelaxing action of parathyroid hormone (PTH) was related to an inhibition of calcium uptake. AVP or 60 mM potassium chloride increased the low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium in rate tail artery and PTH inhibited the increase. In conclusion, AVP and PTH may behave like endogenous calcium entry stimulator and inhibitor respectively in vascular tissues

  10. Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Khammanithong, P.; Kaul, S.; Sananikhom, P.; Luthi, R.; Hill, N.; Brey, P.T.; Lindsay, S.W.


    Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared

  11. Becoming Counselors through Growth and Learning: The Entry Transition Process (United States)

    Wagner, Holly H.; Hill, Nicole R.


    This article explored counselor development within the entry transition into counselor education programs using 4 interviews and interpretive dialogues with 8 beginning counselors. Six categories resulted from the authors' grounded theory analysis: Anticipation, Evolving Identity, Growth and Learning, Coping, Choosing to Trust the Process, and…

  12. Orbiter Entry Aerothermodynamics Practical Engineering and Applied Research (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.


    The contents include: 1) Organization of the Orbiter Entry Aeroheating Working Group; 2) Overview of the Principal RTF Aeroheating Tools Utilized for Tile Damage Assessment; 3) Description of the Integrated Tile Damage Assessment Team Analyses Process; 4) Space Shuttle Flight Support Process; and 5) JSC Applied Aerosciences and CFD Branch Applied Research Interests.

  13. 19 CFR 147.43 - Entry under the Customs laws. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry under the Customs laws. 147.43 Section 147.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... the Customs laws. (a) Payment of duties and taxes. Any applicable duties and internal revenue taxes on...

  14. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, J.E.


    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building's Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal

  15. From nascent to actual entrepreneurship: the effect of entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); D. Storey (David); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThis exploratory study focuses on the conversion from nascent to actual entrepreneurship and the role of entry barriers in this process. Using data for a sample of countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor between 2002 and 2004, we estimate a twoequation model

  16. Oblique water entry of a three dimensional body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scolan Yves-Marie


    Full Text Available The problem of the oblique water entry of a three dimensional body is considered. Wagner theory is the theoretical framework. Applications are discussed for an elliptic paraboloid entering an initially flat free surface. A dedicated experimental campaign yields a data base for comparisons. In the present analysis, pressure, force and dynamics of the wetted surface expansion are assessed.

  17. Crown sealing and buckling instability during water entry of spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Truscott, T. T.; Speirs, N. B.; Mansoor, Mohammad M.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T


    . Furthermore, a comparison between the entry of room-temperature spheres, where the contact line pins around the equator, and Leidenfrost spheres (i.e. an immersed superheated sphere encompassed by a vapour layer), where there is no contact line, indicates

  18. Instrument Formatting with Computer Data Entry in Mind. (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; And Others

    Different formats for four types of research items were studied for ease of computer data entry. The types were: (1) numeric response items; (2) individual multiple choice items; (3) multiple choice items with the same response items; and (4) card column indicator placement. Each of the 13 experienced staff members of a major university's Data…

  19. Atmosphere-entry behavior of a modular, disk-shaped, isotope heat source. (United States)

    Vorreiter, J. W.; Pitts, W. C.; Stine, H. A.; Burns, J. J.


    The authors have studied the entry and impact behavior of an isotope heat source for space nuclear power that disassembles into a number of modules which would enter the earth's atmosphere separately if a flight aborted. These modules are disk-shaped units, each with its own reentry heat shield and protective impact container. In normal operation, the disk modules are stacked inside the generator, but during a reentry abort they separate and fly as individual units of low ballistic coefficient. Flight tests at hypersonic speeds have confirmed that a stack of disks will separate and assume a flat-forward mode of flight. Free-fall tests of single disks have demonstrated a nominal impact velocity of 30 m/sec at sea level for a practical range of ballistic coefficients.

  20. A novel small molecule inhibitor of hepatitis C virus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J Baldick

    Full Text Available Small molecule inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV are being developed to complement or replace treatments with pegylated interferons and ribavirin, which have poor response rates and significant side effects. Resistance to these inhibitors emerges rapidly in the clinic, suggesting that successful therapy will involve combination therapy with multiple inhibitors of different targets. The entry process of HCV into hepatocytes represents another series of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, involving viral structural proteins that have not been extensively explored due to experimental limitations. To discover HCV entry inhibitors, we utilized HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp incorporating E1-E2 envelope proteins from a genotype 1b clinical isolate. Screening of a small molecule library identified a potent HCV-specific triazine inhibitor, EI-1. A series of HCVpp with E1-E2 sequences from various HCV isolates was used to show activity against all genotype 1a and 1b HCVpp tested, with median EC50 values of 0.134 and 0.027 µM, respectively. Time-of-addition experiments demonstrated a block in HCVpp entry, downstream of initial attachment to the cell surface, and prior to or concomitant with bafilomycin inhibition of endosomal acidification. EI-1 was equally active against cell-culture adapted HCV (HCVcc, blocking both cell-free entry and cell-to-cell transmission of virus. HCVcc with high-level resistance to EI-1 was selected by sequential passage in the presence of inhibitor, and resistance was shown to be conferred by changes to residue 719 in the carboxy-terminal transmembrane anchor region of E2, implicating this envelope protein in EI-1 susceptibility. Combinations of EI-1 with interferon, or inhibitors of NS3 or NS5A, resulted in additive to synergistic activity. These results suggest that inhibitors of HCV entry could be added to replication inhibitors and interferons already in development.