WorldWideScience

Sample records for normal downward movement

  1. Downward Movement of Potentially Toxic Elements in Biosolids Amended Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Irene Torri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentially toxic elements (PTEs in soils are mainly associated with the solid phase, bound to the surface of solid components, or precipitated as minerals. For most PTEs, only a small portion is dissolved in the soil solution. However, there is an interest in following the fate of mobile PTEs in the environment, for a growing amount of evidence indicates that downward movement of PTEs may occur in biosolids amended soils, leading to groundwater contamination. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the factors that control the release of these elements after land application of biosolids, in order to overcome problems related to downward movement of PTEs in the soil profile.

  2. Distribution and Downward Movement of Pasteuria penetrans in Field Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetintas, R; Dickson, D W

    2005-06-01

    Endospores of Pasteuria penetrans were evaluated for their vertical distribution in field soil and their downward movement through soil in the laboratory. In the field trial, the number of endospores attached to second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 varied greatly in different soil depths. There were higher percentages of J2 with endospores attached in former weed fallow plots during the first 3 years of growing peanut than in former bahiagrass and rhizomal peanut plots (P 0.05). In laboratory trials, P. penetrans endospores were observed to move throughout the soil through the percolation of water. After one application of water, some endospores were detected 25 to 37.5 cm deep. Endospores were present at the greatest depth, 37.5 to 50 cm, after the third application of water. These results indicate that rain or water applications by irrigation are likely to move endospores to deeper levels of the soil, but the majority of endospores remain in the upper 0-to-30-cm depth.

  3. Normal movement selectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J

    2010-05-13

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Movement selectivity is a defining characteristic of neurons involved in movement perception, including mirror neurons, and, as such, these findings argue against a mirror system dysfunction in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Normal Movement Selectivity in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements, but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Moveme...

  5. The normal range of condylar movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Han Up; Park, Tae Won

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of condylar movement of normal adults. The author gas observed roentgenographic images of four serial positions of condylar head taken by modified transcranial lateral oblique projection. The serial positions are centric occlusion, rest position, 1 inch open position and maximal open position. The results were obtained as follow; 1. Inter-incisal distance was 46.85 mm in maximal open position. 2. The length between the deepest point of glenoid fossa and summit of condylar head in rest position was wider than that in centric occlusion by 0.8 mm. 3. In 1 inch open position, condylar head moved forward from the standard line in 12.64 mm of horizontal direction and moved downwards from the standard line in 1.84 mm of vertical direction. 4. In maximal open position, condylar head moved forward from the standard line in 19.06 mm of horizontal direction and moved downwards from the standard line in 0.4 mm of vertical direction. 5. In centric occlusion, the width between glenoid fossa and margin of condylar head was greater in the posterior portion than in the anterior portion by 0.4 mm. 6. Except for estimated figures of 1 inch open position, all of the estimated figures was greater in male than in female.

  6. Radiographic normal range of condylar movement of mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Myung Jin

    1981-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to determine various normal anatomic measurements of temporomandibular joint and normal range of condylar movement using relatively simple X-ray equipment and radiographic technique in consideration of popular clinical application. Author's cases consisted of 100 clinically normal adult males and temporomandibular joint radiographs of 3 serial positions of condylar head were taken by transcranial oblique lateral projection in each case. The serial positions are centric occlusion, 1 inch opening and maximal opening position. The results were as follows; 1. In centric occlusion, the length between the condylar head and glenoid fossa was 2.23 ± 0.58 mm in anterior part, 3.55 ± 0.80 mm in upper part and 2.76 ± 0.72 mm in posterior part. 2. In centric occlusion, the angle (α) between the horizontal standard line (AB) and anterior slope (BC) was 37.22 ± 3.87 .deg. . 3. In 1 inch opening position, the distance between the summit of condylar head from the standard point of articular eminence (B) was -0.64 ± 3.53 mm in horizontal direction and -1.07 ± 1.00 mm in vertical direction. 4. In maximal opening position, the distance between the summit of condylar head from the standard point of articular eminence (B) was 5.83 ± 3.05 mm in horizontal direction and +0.29 ± 1.58 mm in vertical direction. 5. In positional relationship between the condylar head and the standard point of articular eminence (B), the condyles were found to be at the eminences or anterior to them in 51% with 1 inch opening and 95% with maximal opening

  7. A Strange Case of Downward Displacement of a Deep Brain Stimulation Electrode 10 Years Following Implantation: The Gliding Movement of Snakes Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Maugeri, Rosario; Giugno, Antonella; Giller, Cole A

    2015-08-01

    Despite the best efforts to ensure stereotactic precision, deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes can wander from their intended position after implantation. We report a case of downward electrode migration 10 years following successful implantation in a patient with Parkinson disease. A 53-year-old man with Parkinson disease underwent bilateral implantation of DBS electrodes connected to a subclavicular 2-channel pulse generator. The generator was replaced 7 years later, and a computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the correct position of both leads. The patient developed a gradual worsening affecting his right side 3 years later, 10 years after the original implantation. A CT scan revealed displacement of the left electrode inferiorly into the pons. The new CT scans and the CT scans obtained immediately after the implantation were merged within a stereotactic planning workstation (Brainlab). Comparing the CT scans, the distal end of the electrode was in the same position, the proximal tip being significantly more inferior. The size and configuration of the coiled portions of the electrode had not changed. At implantation, the length was 27.7 cm; after 10 years, the length was 30.6 cm. These data suggests that the electrode had been stretched into its new position rather than pushed. Clinicians evaluating patients with a delayed worsening should be aware of this rare event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinematics and dynamics of salt movement driven by sub-salt normal faulting and supra-salt sediment accumulation - combined analogue experiments and analytical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsitzka, Michael; Kukowski, Nina; Kley, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    In extensional sedimentary basins, the movement of ductile salt is mainly controlled by the vertical displacement of the salt layer, differential loading due to syn-kinematic deposition, and tectonic shearing at the top and the base of the salt layer. During basement normal faulting, salt either tends to flow downward to the basin centre driven by its own weight or it is squeezed upward due to differential loading. In analogue experiments and analytical models, we address the interplay between normal faulting of the sub-salt basement, compaction and density inversion of the supra-salt cover and the kinematic response of the ductile salt layer. The analogue experiments consist of a ductile substratum (silicone putty) beneath a denser cover layer (sand mixture). Both layers are displaced by normal faults mimicked through a downward moving block within the rigid base of the experimental apparatus and the resulting flow patterns in the ductile layer are monitored and analysed. In the computational models using an analytical approximative solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, the steady-state flow velocity in an idealized natural salt layer is calculated in order to evaluate how flow patterns observed in the analogue experiments can be translated to nature. The analytical calculations provide estimations of the prevailing direction and velocity of salt flow above a sub-salt normal fault. The results of both modelling approaches show that under most geological conditions salt moves downwards to the hanging wall side as long as vertical offset and compaction of the cover layer are small. As soon as an effective average density of the cover is exceeded, the direction of the flow velocity reverses and the viscous material is squeezed towards the elevated footwall side. The analytical models reveal that upward flow occurs even if the average density of the overburden does not exceed the density of salt. By testing various scenarios with different layer thicknesses

  9. Screw-Home Movement of the Tibiofemoral Joint during Normal Gait: Three-Dimensional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Yong; Kim, Kap Jung; Yang, Dae Suk; Jeung, Sang Wook; Choi, Han Gyeol; Choy, Won Sik

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the screw-home movement at the tibiofemoral joint during normal gait by utilizing the 3-dimensional motion capture technique. Fifteen young males and fifteen young females (total 60 knee joints) who had no history of musculoskeletal disease or a particular gait problem were included in this study. Two more markers were attached to the subject in addition to the Helen-Hayes marker set. Thus, two virtual planes, femoral coronal plane (P f ) and tibial coronal plane (P t ), were created by Skeletal Builder software. This study measured the 3-dimensional knee joint movement in the sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes of these two virtual planes (P f and P t ) during normal gait. With respect to kinematics and kinetics, both males and females showed normal adult gait patterns, and the mean difference in the temporal gait parameters was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In the transverse plane, the screw-home movement occurred as expected during the pre-swing phase and the late-swing phase at an angle of about 17°. However, the tibia rotated externally with respect to the femur, rather than internally, while the knee joint started to flex during the loading response (paradoxical screw-home movement), and the angle was 6°. Paradoxical screw-home movement may be an important mechanism that provides stability to the knee joint during the remaining stance phase. Obtaining the kinematic values of the knee joint during gait can be useful in diagnosing and treating the pathological knee joints.

  10. DETERMINANT OF DOWNWARD AUDITOR SWITCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totok Budisantoso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Determinant of Downward Auditor Switching. This study examines the factors that influence downward auditor switching in five ASEAN countries. Fixed effect logistic regression was used as analytical method. This study found that opinion shopping occurred in ASEAN, especially in distress companies. Companies with complex businesses will retain the Big Four auditors to reduce complexity and audit costs. Audit and public committees serve as guardians of auditor quality. On the other hand, shareholders failed to maintain audit quality. It indicates that there is entrenchment effect in auditor switching.

  11. Experimental measurement of flexion-extension movement in normal and corpse prosthetic elbow joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TarniŢă, Daniela; TarniŢă, DănuŢ Nicolae

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative experimental study of flexion-extension movement in healthy elbow and in the prosthetic elbow joint fixed on an original experimental bench. Measurements were carried out in order to validate the functional morphology and a new elbow prosthesis type ball head. The three-dimensional (3D) model and the physical prototype of our experimental bench used to test elbow endoprosthesis at flexion-extension and pronation-supination movements is presented. The measurements were carried out on a group of nine healthy subjects and on the prosthetic corpse elbow, the experimental data being obtained for flexion-extension movement cycles. Experimental data for the two different flexion-extension tests for the nine subjects and for the corpse prosthetic elbow were acquired using SimiMotion video system. Experimental data were processed statistically. The corresponding graphs were obtained for all subjects in the experimental group, and for corpse prosthetic elbow for both flexion-extension tests. The statistical analysis has proved that the flexion angles of healthy elbows were significantly close to the values measured at the prosthetic elbow fixed on the experimental bench. The studied elbow prosthesis manages to re-establish the mobility for the elbow joint as close to the normal one.

  12. Analysis of knee movement with low-field MR equipment. A normal volunteer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo; Aoki, Ikuo; Yamada, Takashi.

    1994-01-01

    This study was performed to make a normal standard by analyzing knee movement in detail. An open low-field unit was used for 23 healthy knee joints. With three-dimensional Fourier transformation (3DFT) gradient echo sequence, 50 sagittal slices of 4.5 mm in thickness were obtained at four flexion angles: 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees (lateral position). Although the tension ratio of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL, PCL) increased during knee flexion, the change in the tension ratio was significantly different between the ACL and PCL. The femur-ACL angle and femur-PCL angle were parallel with the knee flexion angle, but the tibia-ACL angle and tibia-PCL angle changed complexly. The lateral and medial condyles rolled and slid during knee flexion, and the medial side moved more than the lateral side, consistent with rotation of the lower thigh. The difference in backward movement distance on the tibia between the two condyles was significantly larger in females than in males. This might explain the dominance of knee osteoarthritis in women. Although the lateral position is not completely physiological, we could show initial cinematic data of up to 90 degrees of knee flexion using open-type MRI, which is impossible with high- and middle-field machines. (author)

  13. Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonism Normalizes Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael R.; Olmstead, Richard; Valladares, Edwin M.; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    Background In alcohol dependence, markers of inflammation are associated with increases in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is thought to be a prognostic indicator of alcohol relapse. This study was undertaken to test whether blockade of biologically active tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) normalizes REM sleep in alcohol-dependent adults. Methods In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 18 abstinent alcohol-dependent male adults received a single dose of etanercept (25 mg) versus placebo in a counterbalanced order. Polysomnographic sleep was measured at baseline and for 3 nights after the acute dose of etanercept or placebo. Results Compared with placebo, administration of etanercept produced significant decreases in the amount and percentage of REM sleep. Decreases in REM sleep were robust and approached low levels typically found in age-comparable control subjects. Individual differences in biologically active drug as indexed by circulating levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II negatively correlated with the percentage of REM sleep. Conclusions Pharmacologic neutralization of TNF-α activity is associated with significant reductions in REM sleep in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. These data suggest that circulating levels of TNF-α may have a physiologic role in the regulation of REM sleep in humans. PMID:19185287

  14. An fMRI study during finger movement tasks and recalling finger movement tasks in normal subjects and schizophrenia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Takefumi

    2003-01-01

    Using fMRI, we investigated the region of the brain, which was activated by the finger movement tasks (F1) and the recalling finger movement tasks (F2). Six right-handed age-matched healthy controls and six Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) Schizophrenia patients were included in the study. In healthy controls, contralateral motor area, supplementary motor area and somatosensory area were all activated during F1 and F2. However the contralateral parietal lobe (supramarginal gyrus etc) and ipsilateral cerebellum were also activated during F2. In schizophrenia patients, the contralateral motor area was activated during F1, but the activated region was smaller than that observed in healthy subjects. During F2, the bilateral parietal lobes (sensorimotor cortices, association cortex) were activated, while the activated regions were smaller than those seen in healthy controls and no laterality was observed. In addition, no laterality of the activated regions was clearly observed. These results suggest that the function of recalling motor tasks can be mapped onto the contralateral motor area, somatosensory area, supplementary motor area, parietal association cortices, and ipsilateral cerebellum. In schizophrenia patients, the activated regions are smaller than those observed in healthy controls, and parietal regions are also activated bilaterally during recalling motor tasks. Schizophrenia patients may therefore process to recall motor task differently from healthy subjects while also demonstrate less laterality of the brain. (author)

  15. A Developmental Study of Static Postural Control and Superimposed Arm Movements in Normal and Slowly Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Janet M.

    Selected electromyographic parameters underlying static postural control in 4, 6, and 8 year old normally and slowly developing children during performance of selected arm movements were studied. Developmental delays in balance control were assessed by the Cashin Test of Motor Development (1974) and/or the Williams Gross Motor Coordination Test…

  16. Study of downward movement of soil water in unsaturated zones using isotopic techniques. Part of a coordinated programme on studying physical and isotopic behaviour of soil moisture in the zones of aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.

    1984-08-01

    Experiments carried out to study the relative contribution from canal system, precipitation and irrigated fields to water table are described. The normal delta of irrigation water does not seem to have any appreciable effect on the water table through heavy textured soil. The contribution from irrigated fields and rains through sandy soils is significant. However, the groundwater rise (water logging) is mainly due to the infiltration from the canal system. Flow velocities at 1 m depth and 20 vol. % moisture are of the order of 16 m/a and 1.6 m/a for sandy and loamy soils respectively. The contribution from irrigated fields and rains to groundwater recharge is considered to be less than 30%

  17. Cover Art: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonee Kulman Brigham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Artist's Statement for the cover art of IJPS volume 4, issue 3: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward, 2015. Mixed Media: photograph, inkjet printed on presentation matte of colored pencil over photograph.

  18. Bowel Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...

  19. Self-reflection Orients Visual Attention Downward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Tong, Yu; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated abstract concepts associated with spatial location (e.g., God in the Heavens) could direct visual attention upward or downward, because thinking about the abstract concepts activates the corresponding vertical perceptual symbols. For self-concept, there are similar metaphors (e.g., "I am above others"). However, whether thinking about the self can induce visual attention orientation is still unknown. Therefore, the current study tested whether self-reflection can direct visual attention. Individuals often display the tendency of self-enhancement in social comparison, which reminds the individual of the higher position one possesses relative to others within the social environment. As the individual is the agent of the attention orientation, and high status tends to make an individual look down upon others to obtain a sense of pride, it was hypothesized that thinking about the self would lead to a downward attention orientation. Using reflection of personality traits and a target discrimination task, Study 1 found that, after self-reflection, visual attention was directed downward. Similar effects were also found after friend-reflection, with the level of downward attention being correlated with the likability rating scores of the friend. Thus, in Study 2, a disliked other was used as a control and the positive self-view was measured with above-average judgment task. We found downward attention orientation after self-reflection, but not after reflection upon the disliked other. Moreover, the attentional bias after self-reflection was correlated with above-average self-view. The current findings provide the first evidence that thinking about the self could direct visual-spatial attention downward, and suggest that this effect is probably derived from a positive self-view within the social context.

  20. Kinematic evaluation of movement smoothness in golf: relationship between the normalized jerk cost of body joints and the clubhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Joo, Su-Bin; Oh, Euichaul; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2014-02-26

    When the human body is introduced to a new motion or movement, it learns the placement of different body parts, sequential muscle control, and coordination between muscles to achieve necessary positions, and it hones this new skill over time and repetition. Previous studies have demonstrated definite differences in the smoothness of body movements with different levels of training, i.e., amateurs compared with professionals. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that skilled golfers swing a driver with a smoother motion than do unskilled golfers. In addition, the relationship between the smoothness of body joints and that of the clubhead was evaluated to provide further insight into the mechanism of smooth golf swing. Two subject groups (skilled and unskilled) participated in the experiment. The skilled group comprised 20 male professional golfers registered with the Korea Professional Golf Association, and the unskilled group comprised 19 amateur golfers who enjoy golf as a hobby. Six infrared cameras (VICON460 system) were used to record the 3D trajectories of markers attached to the clubhead and body segments, and the resulting data was evaluated with kinematic analysis. A physical quantity called jerk was calculated to investigate differences in smoothness during downswing between the two study groups. The hypothesis that skilled golfers swing a driver with a smoother motion than do unskilled golfers was supported. The normalized jerk of the clubhead of skilled golfers was lower than that of unskilled golfers in the anterior/posterior, medial/lateral, and proximal/distal directions. Most human joints, especially in the lower body, had statistically significant lower normalized jerk values in the skilled group. In addition, the normalized jerk of the skilled group's lower body joints had a distinct positive correlation with the normalized jerk of the clubhead with r = 0.657 (p golf swings and, eventually, to improve golf performance.

  1. Coronal View Ultrasound Imaging of Movement in Different Segments of the Tongue during Paced Recital: Findings from Four Normal Speakers and a Speaker with Partial Glossectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressmann, Tim; Flowers, Heather; Wong, Willy; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to quantitatively describe aspects of coronal tongue movement in different anatomical regions of the tongue. Four normal speakers and a speaker with partial glossectomy read four repetitions of a metronome-paced poem. Their tongue movement was recorded in four coronal planes using two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound…

  2. Air pocket removal from downward sloping pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in water pipelines and hydropower tunnels. Water pipelines and wastewater pressure mains in particular are subject to air pocket accumulation in downward sloping reaches, such as inverted siphons or terrain slopes. Air pockets cause energy losses and an

  3. SIMULATION OF ANALYTICAL TRANSIENT WAVE DUE TO DOWNWARD BOTTOM THRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugih Sudharma Tjandra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Generation process is an important part of understanding waves, especially tsunami. Large earthquake under the sea is one major cause of tsunamis. The sea surface deforms as a response from the sea bottom motion caused by the earthquake. Analytical description of surface wave generated by bottom motion can be obtained from the linearized dispersive model. For a bottom motion in the form of a downward motion, the result is expressed in terms of improper integral. Here, we focus on analyzing the convergence of this integral, and then the improper integral is approximated into a finite integral so that the integral can be evaluated numerically. Further, we simulate free surface elevation for three different type of bottom motions, classified as impulsive, intermediate, and slow  movements. We demonstrate that the wave propagating to the right, with a depression as the leading wave, followed with subsequent wave crests. This phenomena is often observed in most tsunami events.

  4. Normal Morning Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Levels and No Association with Rapid Eye Movement or Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Parameters in Narcolepsy Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrölkamp, Maren; Jennum, Poul J; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2017-01-01

    in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid...... MCH levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that MCH levels in CSF collected in the morning are normal in narcolepsy and not associated with the clinical symptoms, REM sleep abnormalities, nor number of muscle movements during REM or NREM sleep of the patients. We conclude that morning lumbar CSF MCH......STUDY OBJECTIVES: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved...

  5. DOWNWARD CATASTROPHE OF SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, Yuming; Hu, Youqiu; Liu, Rui, E-mail: zhangqh@mail.ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-07-10

    2.5-dimensional time-dependent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models in Cartesian coordinates were used in previous studies to seek MHD equilibria involving a magnetic flux rope embedded in a bipolar, partially open background field. As demonstrated by these studies, the equilibrium solutions of the system are separated into two branches: the flux rope sticks to the photosphere for solutions at the lower branch but is suspended in the corona for those at the upper branch. Moreover, a solution originally at the lower branch jumps to the upper, as the related control parameter increases and reaches a critical value, and the associated jump is here referred to as an upward catastrophe. The present paper advances these studies in three aspects. First, the magnetic field is changed to be force-free; the system still experiences an upward catastrophe with an increase in each control parameter. Second, under the force-free approximation, there also exists a downward catastrophe, characterized by the jump of a solution from the upper branch to the lower. Both catastrophes are irreversible processes connecting the two branches of equilibrium solutions so as to form a cycle. Finally, the magnetic energy in the numerical domain is calculated. It is found that there exists a magnetic energy release for both catastrophes. The Ampère's force, which vanishes everywhere for force-free fields, appears only during the catastrophes and does positive work, which serves as a major mechanism for the energy release. The implications of the downward catastrophe and its relevance to solar activities are briefly discussed.

  6. DOWNWARD CATASTROPHE OF SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, Yuming; Hu, Youqiu; Liu, Rui

    2016-01-01

    2.5-dimensional time-dependent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models in Cartesian coordinates were used in previous studies to seek MHD equilibria involving a magnetic flux rope embedded in a bipolar, partially open background field. As demonstrated by these studies, the equilibrium solutions of the system are separated into two branches: the flux rope sticks to the photosphere for solutions at the lower branch but is suspended in the corona for those at the upper branch. Moreover, a solution originally at the lower branch jumps to the upper, as the related control parameter increases and reaches a critical value, and the associated jump is here referred to as an upward catastrophe. The present paper advances these studies in three aspects. First, the magnetic field is changed to be force-free; the system still experiences an upward catastrophe with an increase in each control parameter. Second, under the force-free approximation, there also exists a downward catastrophe, characterized by the jump of a solution from the upper branch to the lower. Both catastrophes are irreversible processes connecting the two branches of equilibrium solutions so as to form a cycle. Finally, the magnetic energy in the numerical domain is calculated. It is found that there exists a magnetic energy release for both catastrophes. The Ampère's force, which vanishes everywhere for force-free fields, appears only during the catastrophes and does positive work, which serves as a major mechanism for the energy release. The implications of the downward catastrophe and its relevance to solar activities are briefly discussed.

  7. Quantum reflection in the linearly downward potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamnan, N.; Krunavakarn, B.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the motion of a particle in one dimension under the influence of the linearly downward potential well is studied within the context of the non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The attention is paid on the paradoxical phenomenon of the reflection of a particle that is in contrast between classical and quantum physics. Classically, the reflection effect occurs only at a potential barrier. To demonstrate such counter-intuitive phenomenon, the Schrödinger equation is solved to obtain the reflection coefficient in the scattering state by considering an incident particle that is represented by a monochromatic plane wave having an energy E > 0, propagates freely from left to right, pass through the potential well. The continuity conditions at boundaries give the desired result that is expressed in terms of the Airy functions which depends on the incident energy E, the strength jV 0 j and the range L of the well. The value of the reflection coefficient R lies in the interval 0 < R < 1, and its behavior is the decreasing function with respect to the range L.

  8. Cycling downwards - dissolved organic matter in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, K.; Kalbitz, K.

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter has been recognized as mobile, thus crucial to translocation of metals, pollutants but also of nutrients in soil. We present a conceptual model of the vertical movement of dissolved organic matter with soil water, which deviates from the view of a chromatographic stripping

  9. Neural circuits of eye movements during performance of the visual exploration task, which is similar to the responsive search score task, in schizophrenia patients and normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Yasundo; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Matsuura, Masato

    2004-01-01

    Abnormal exploratory eye movements have been studied as a biological marker for schizophrenia. Using functional MRI (fMRI), we investigated brain activations of 12 healthy and 8 schizophrenic subjects during performance of a visual exploration task that is similar to the responsive search score task to clarify the neural basis of the abnormal exploratory eye movement. Performance data, such as the number of eye movements, the reaction time, and the percentage of correct answers showed no significant differences between the two groups. Only the normal subjects showed activations at the bilateral thalamus and the left anterior medial frontal cortex during the visual exploration tasks. In contrast, only the schizophrenic subjects showed activations at the right anterior cingulate gyms during the same tasks. The activation at the different locations between the two groups, the left anterior medial frontal cortex in normal subjects and the right anterior cingulate gyrus in schizophrenia subjects, was explained by the feature of the visual tasks. Hypoactivation at the bilateral thalamus supports a dysfunctional filtering theory of schizophrenia. (author)

  10. Pilot study on quantitative assessment of muscle imbalance: differences of muscle synergies, equilibrium-point trajectories, and endpoint stiffness in normal and pathological upper-limb movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Takanori; Uno, Kanna; Nishi, Tomoki; Kageyama, Masayuki; Phatiwuttipat, Pipatthana; Koba, Keitaro; Yamashita, Yuto; Murakami, Kenta; Uemura, Mitsunori; Hirai, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Fumio; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for assessment of muscle imbalance based on muscle synergy hypothesis and equilibrium point (EP) hypothesis of motor control. We explain in detail the method for extracting muscle synergies under the concept of agonist-antagonist (AA) muscle pairs and for estimating EP trajectories and endpoint stiffness of human upper limbs in a horizontal plane using an electromyogram. The results of applying this method to the reaching movement of one normal subject and one hemiplegic subject suggest that (1) muscle synergies (the balance among coactivation of AA muscle pairs), particularly the synergies that contributes to the angular directional kinematics of EP and the limb stiffness, are quite different between the normal subject and the hemiplegic subject; (2) the concomitant EP trajectory is also different between the normal and hemiplegic subjects, corresponding to the difference of muscle synergies; and (3) the endpoint (hand) stiffness ellipse of the hemiplegic subject becomes more elongated and orientation of the major axis rotates clockwise more than that of the normal subject. The level of motor impairment would be expected to be assessed from a comparison of these differences of muscle synergies, EP trajectories, and endpoint stiffness among normal and pathological subjects using the method.

  11. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Pal

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... Downward continuation; tilt derivative; magnetic data; coal fire mapping; Jharia coal field;. India. 1. .... of seams are thin and not suitable for mining but have the ...... Theory and Application; McGraw Hill Education (India).

  12. Coarse-graining as a downward causation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Jessica C.

    2017-11-01

    Downward causation is the controversial idea that `higher' levels of organization can causally influence behaviour at `lower' levels of organization. Here I propose that we can gain traction on downward causation by being operational and examining how adaptive systems identify regularities in evolutionary or learning time and use these regularities to guide behaviour. I suggest that in many adaptive systems components collectively compute their macroscopic worlds through coarse-graining. I further suggest we move from simple feedback to downward causation when components tune behaviour in response to estimates of collectively computed macroscopic properties. I introduce a weak and strong notion of downward causation and discuss the role the strong form plays in the origins of new organizational levels. I illustrate these points with examples from the study of biological and social systems and deep neural networks. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  13. The Aggregate Supply Curve: Keynes and Downwardly Sticky Money Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Keynes's explanation of both the rationale underlying downwardly sticky money wages and the consequences this phenomenon has for macroeconomic theory are reviewed. An aggregate supply curve appropriate to today's economy is then interpreted. (Author/RM)

  14. Flexible Consumers Reserving Electricity and Offering Profitable Downward Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Höning, Nicolas; La Poutré, Han; Strunz, K.

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractPrevious work on demand response in smart grids considers dynamic real-time prices, but has so far neglected to consider how consumers can also be involved in planning ahead, both for scheduling of consumption and reserving their ability to regulate downward during balancing. This work models a flexible consumer in a novel two-settlement electricity auction. The consumer buys electricity on an ahead market and offers downward regulation on the balancing market. Bidding in two- set...

  15. Acute administration of fluoxetine normalizes rapid eye movement sleep abnormality, but not depressive behaviors in olfactory bulbectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Tu, Zhi-Cai; Xu, Xing-Yuan; Li, Rui; Qu, Wei-Min; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2012-01-01

    In humans, depression is associated with altered rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, the exact nature of the relationship between depressive behaviors and sleep abnormalities is debated. In this study, bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) was carried out to create a model of depression in rats. The sleep-wake profiles were assayed using a cutting-edge sleep bioassay system, and depressive behaviors were evaluated by open field and forced swimming tests. The monoamine content and monoamine metabolite levels in the brain were determined by a HPLC-electrochemical detection system. OBX rats exhibited a significant increase in REM sleep, especially between 15:00 and 18:00 hours during the light period. Acute treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) immediately abolished the OBX-induced increase in REM sleep, but hyperactivity in the open field test and the time spent immobile in the forced swimming test remained unchanged. Neurochemistry studies revealed that acute administration of fluoxetine increased serotonin (5-HT) levels in the hippocampus, thalamus, and midbrain and decreased levels of the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The ratio of 5-HIAA to 5-HT decreased in almost all regions of the brain. These results indicate that acute administration of fluoxetine can reduce the increase in REM sleep but does not change the depressive behaviors in OBX rats, suggesting that there was no causality between REM sleep abnormalities and depressive behaviors in OBX rats. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. Monomeric adiponectin modulates nitric oxide release and calcium movements in porcine aortic endothelial cells in normal/high glucose conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossini, Elena; Farruggio, Serena; Qoqaiche, Fatima; Raina, Giulia; Camillo, Lara; Sigaudo, Lorenzo; Mary, David; Surico, Nicola; Surico, Daniela

    2016-09-15

    Perivascular adipose tissue can be involved in the process of cardiovascular pathology through the release of adipokines, namely adiponectins. Monomeric adiponectin has been shown to increase coronary blood flow in anesthetized pigs through increased nitric oxide (NO) release and the involvement of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1). The present study was therefore planned to examine the effects of monomeric adiponectin on NO release and Ca(2+) transients in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEs) in normal/high glucose conditions and the related mechanisms. PAEs were treated with monomeric adiponectin alone or in the presence of intracellular kinases blocker, AdipoR1 and Ca(2+)-ATPase pump inhibitors. The role of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger was examined in experiments performed in zero Na(+) medium. NO release and intracellular Ca(2+) were measured through specific probes. In PAE cultured in normal glucose conditions, monomeric adiponectin elevated NO production and [Ca(2+)]c. Similar effects were observed in high glucose conditions, although the response was lower and not transient. The Ca(2+) mobilized by monomeric adiponectin originated from an intracellular pool thapsigargin- and ATP-sensitive and from the extracellular space. Moreover, the effects of monomeric adiponectin were prevented by kinase blockers and AdipoR1 inhibitor. Finally, in normal glucose condition, a role for Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and Ca(2+)-ATPase pump in restoring Ca(2+) was found. Our results add new information about the control of endothelial function elicited by monomeric adiponectin, which would be achieved by modulation of NO release and Ca(2+) transients. A signalling related to Akt, ERK1/2 and p38MAPK downstream AdipoR1 would be involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of body position on cerebrospinal fluid pressure gradient and movement in cats with normal and impaired craniospinal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarica, Marijan; Radoš, Milan; Erceg, Gorislav; Petošić, Antonio; Jurjević, Ivana; Orešković, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension is a severe therapeutic problem, as there is insufficient knowledge about the physiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. In this paper a new CSF pressure regulation hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the CSF pressure depends on the laws of fluid mechanics and on the anatomical characteristics inside the cranial and spinal space, and not, as is today generally believed, on CSF secretion, circulation and absorption. The volume and pressure changes in the newly developed CSF model, which by its anatomical dimensions and basic biophysical features imitates the craniospinal system in cats, are compared to those obtained on cats with and without the blockade of craniospinal communication in different body positions. During verticalization, a long-lasting occurrence of negative CSF pressure inside the cranium in animals with normal cranio-spinal communication was observed. CSF pressure gradients change depending on the body position, but those gradients do not enable unidirectional CSF circulation from the hypothetical site of secretion to the site of absorption in any of them. Thus, our results indicate the existence of new physiological/pathophysiological correlations between intracranial fluids, which opens up the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to intracranial hypertension.

  18. The influence of body position on cerebrospinal fluid pressure gradient and movement in cats with normal and impaired craniospinal communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Klarica

    Full Text Available Intracranial hypertension is a severe therapeutic problem, as there is insufficient knowledge about the physiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure. In this paper a new CSF pressure regulation hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the CSF pressure depends on the laws of fluid mechanics and on the anatomical characteristics inside the cranial and spinal space, and not, as is today generally believed, on CSF secretion, circulation and absorption. The volume and pressure changes in the newly developed CSF model, which by its anatomical dimensions and basic biophysical features imitates the craniospinal system in cats, are compared to those obtained on cats with and without the blockade of craniospinal communication in different body positions. During verticalization, a long-lasting occurrence of negative CSF pressure inside the cranium in animals with normal cranio-spinal communication was observed. CSF pressure gradients change depending on the body position, but those gradients do not enable unidirectional CSF circulation from the hypothetical site of secretion to the site of absorption in any of them. Thus, our results indicate the existence of new physiological/pathophysiological correlations between intracranial fluids, which opens up the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to intracranial hypertension.

  19. Software for determining the direction of movement, shear and normal stresses of a fault under a determined stress state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez del Castillo, Alejandra; Alaniz-Álvarez, Susana Alicia; Nieto-Samaniego, Angel Francisco; Xu, Shunshan; Ochoa-González, Gil Humberto; Velasquillo-Martínez, Luis Germán

    2017-07-01

    In the oil, gas and geothermal industry, the extraction or the input of fluids induces changes in the stress field of the reservoir, if the in-situ stress state of a fault plane is sufficiently disturbed, a fault may slip and can trigger fluid leakage or the reservoir might fracture and become damaged. The goal of the SSLIPO 1.0 software is to obtain data that can reduce the risk of affecting the stability of wellbores. The input data are the magnitudes of the three principal stresses and their orientation in geographic coordinates. The output data are the slip direction of a fracture in geographic coordinates, and its normal (σn) and shear (τ) stresses resolved on a single or multiple fracture planes. With this information, it is possible to calculate the slip tendency (τ/σn) and the propensity to open a fracture that is inversely proportional to σn. This software could analyze any compressional stress system, even non-Andersonian. An example is given from an oilfield in southern Mexico, in a region that contains fractures formed in three events of deformation. In the example SSLIPO 1.0 was used to determine in which deformation event the oil migrated. SSLIPO 1.0 is an open code application developed in MATLAB. The URL to obtain the source code and to download SSLIPO 1.0 are: http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/ alaniz/main_code.txt, http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/ alaniz/ SSLIPO_pkg.exe.

  20. Asymmetrical trunk movement during walking improved to normal range at 3 months after corrective posterior spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Chung, Daniel A C F; Schimmel, Janneke J P; de Kleuver, Marinus; Keijsers, Noël L W

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of posterior spinal fusion (PSF) and curve type on upper body movements in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) patients during gait. Twenty-four girls (12-18 years) with AIS underwent PSF. 3D-Gait-analyses were performed preoperatively, at 3 months and 1 year postoperatively. Mean position (0° represents symmetry) and range of motion (ROM) of the trunk (thorax-relative-to-pelvis) in all planes were assessed. Lower body kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters were also evaluated. Mean trunk position improved from 7.0° to 2.9° in transversal plane and from 5.0° to - 0.8° in frontal plane at 3 months postoperative (p maintenance of normal gait can explain the rapid recovery and well functioning in daily life of AIS patients, despite undergoing a fusion of large parts of their spine.

  1. Measurements of the eigenfunction of reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes that sweep downward in frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Austin, M. E.; Spong, D. A.; Tobias, B. J.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAEs) usually sweep upward in frequency when the minimum value of the safety factor q min decreases in time. On rare occasions, RSAEs sweep downward prior to the upward sweep. Electron cyclotron emission measurements show that the radial eigenfunction during the downsweeping phase is similar to the eigenfunction of normal, upsweeping RSAEs

  2. Flexible Consumers Reserving Electricity and Offering Profitable Downward Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F. Höning (Nicolas); J.A. La Poutré (Han); K. Strunz

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractPrevious work on demand response in smart grids considers dynamic real-time prices, but has so far neglected to consider how consumers can also be involved in planning ahead, both for scheduling of consumption and reserving their ability to regulate downward during balancing. This work

  3. Efecto de la espiral normal en el movimiento vortiginoso con partículas de bagazo de caña//Effect of normal spiral in the vortex movement with small sugar cane bagasse particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Francisco Bombino-Matos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la importancia que adquiere cada vez más el bagazo de caña, se estudia el movimiento vortiginoso de sus partículas transportadas por un gas y se comparan los resultados obtenidos experimentalmente con los simulados mediante un modelo matemático. La formación de la espiral se clasificó de tres formas, obteniéndose la velocidad y caída de presión en cada caso a través de un diseño de experimentos factorial multinivel con una réplica. Como variable dependiente cualitativa se tomó la formación de la espiral normal y como variables independientes cuantitativas la velocidad del gas, el tamaño de partículas y la concentración de la mezcla, obteniéndose una correlación que ajustó con84.64%. Se determinó el tamaño de muestra para comparar los valores de velocidades del gas y caídas de presión obtenidos experimentalmente con los simulados, los resultados experimentales cumplen una distribución normal y el modelo simula el proceso con error aceptable ingenierilmente.Palabras claves: movimiento de vórtice, secado neumático de bagazo, modelo matemático.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe vortex movement of sugar cane bagasse carry by a gas is study and the results obtained in the laboratory are compared with the ones simulated through a mathematical model. The formation of the hairspring was classified in three ways, being obtained the speed and fall of pressure in each case througha design of multilevel factorial experiments with a replica. The formation of the normal hairspring was taken as qualitative dependent variable, and as quantitative independent variables, the gas speed, particles sizeand the mixture concentration were taken, being obtained a correlation that adjusted with 84.64%. The sample size was determined to compare the values of gas speed and the falls of pressure experimentally obtained with those obtained by the simulation, the experimental results

  4. An Experimental Study on the Onset of Nucleate Boiling in Narrow Rectangular Channels for Downward Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Juhyung; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2014-01-01

    As the research reactors operates with downward flow, they have some advantages; downward flow can reduce the radioisotopes in the upper part of research reactor and simplify the locking mechanism as countervailing the buoyancy force on the nuclear fuel. However, as the research reactor operates under the low pressure condition, the premature critical heat flux (CHF) can occur during the onset of flow instability (OFI) according to circumstances as the pressure fluctuates significantly. For that reason, it is important to know and set the margin for the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) which is the preceding phenomena of OFI and CHF to predict and handle with OFI. In addition, research reactor is the nuclear reactor serves neutron source for many research fields such as neutron scattering, non-destructive testing, radioisotope treatment and so on, it is important to avoid ONB to get stable neutron source. IAEA also recommends for research reactors to have enough ONB margin to maintain the normal operation state in 'IAEA-TECDOC-233' (1980). Though the ONB in research reactor is emphasized for these reasons, there isn't sufficient ONB data under downward flow condition and no ONB prediction correlation for downward flow as well. In addition, in many researches; Mosyak et al., Hapke et al., Wu et al. and Hong et al., the existing ONB correlations are not suitable for narrow rectangular channel. In the present work, not only a new ONB prediction correlation would be developed, but also comparison between new correlation with several ONB correlations would be shown. In this paper, ONB data would be analyzed to develop new ONB prediction correlation

  5. Film Boiling on Downward Quenching Hemisphere of Varying Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan S. Kim; Kune Y. Suh; Joy L. Rempe; Fan-Bill Cheung; Sang B. Kim

    2004-04-01

    Film boiling heat transfer coefficients for a downward-facing hemispherical surface are measured from the quenching tests in DELTA (Downward-boiling Experimental Laminar Transition Apparatus). Two test sections are made of copper to maintain low Biot numbers. The outer diameters of the hemispheres are 120 mm and 294 mm, respectively. The thickness of all the test sections is 30 mm. The effect of diameter on film boiling heat transfer is quantified utilizing results obtained from the test sections. The measured data are compared with the numerical predictions from laminar film boiling analysis. The measured heat transfer coefficients are found to be greater than those predicted by the conventional laminar flow theory on account of the interfacial wavy motion incurred by the Helmholtz instability. Incorporation of the wavy motion model considerably improves the agreement between the experimental and numerical results in terms of heat transfer coefficient. In addition, the interfacial wavy motion and the quenching process are visualized through a digital camera.

  6. Liquid velocity in upward and downward air-water flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaodong; Paranjape, Sidharth; Kim, Seungjin; Ozar, Basar; Ishii, Mamoru

    2004-01-01

    Local characteristics of the liquid phase in upward and downward air-water two-phase flows were experimentally investigated in a 50.8-mm inner-diameter round pipe. An integral laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system was used to measure the axial liquid velocity and its fluctuations. No effect of the flow direction on the liquid velocity radial profile was observed in single-phase liquid benchmark experiments. Local multi-sensor conductivity probes were used to measure the radial profiles of the bubble velocity and the void fraction. The measurement results in the upward and downward two-phase flows are compared and discussed. The results in the downward flow demonstrated that the presence of the bubbles tended to flatten the liquid velocity radial profile, and the maximum liquid velocity could occur off the pipe centerline, in particular at relatively low flow rates. However, the maximum liquid velocity always occurred at the pipe center in the upward flow. Also, noticeable turbulence enhancement due to the bubbles in the two-phase flows was observed in the current experimental flow conditions. Furthermore, the distribution parameter and the void-weighted area-averaged drift velocity were obtained based on the definitions

  7. The concurrent use of three implicit measures (eye movements, pupillometry, and event-related potentials) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Kerry; Coderre, Emily; Bosley, Laura; Buz, Esteban; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Gordon, Barry

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen the advent and proliferation of the use of implicit techniques to study learning and cognition. One such application is the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge. Other implicit assessment techniques that may be well-suited to other testing situations or to use with varied participant groups have not been used as widely to study receptive vocabulary knowledge. We sought to develop additional implicit techniques to study receptive vocabulary knowledge that could augment the knowledge gained from the use of the ERP technique. Specifically, we used a simple forced-choice paradigm to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adult participants using eye movement monitoring (EM) and pupillometry. In the same group of participants, we also used an N400 semantic incongruity ERP paradigm to assess their knowledge of two groups of words: those expected to be known to the participants (high-frequency, familiar words) and those expected to be unknown (low-frequency, unfamiliar words). All three measures showed reliable differences between the known and unknown words. EM and pupillometry thus may provide insight into receptive vocabulary knowledge similar to that from ERPs. The development of additional implicit assessment techniques may increase the feasibility of receptive vocabulary testing across a wider range of participant groups and testing situations, and may make the conduct of such testing more accessible to a wider range of researchers, clinicians, and educators.

  8. Interfacial structures in downward two-phase bubbly flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjape, S.S.; Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Kelly, J.

    2003-01-01

    Downward two-phase flow was studied considering its significance in view of Light Water Reactor Accidents (LWR) such as Loss of Heat Sink (LOHS) by feed water loss or secondary pipe break. The flow studied, was an adiabatic, air-water, co-current, vertically downward two-phase flow. The experimental test sections had internal hydraulic diameters of 25.4 mm and 50.8 mm. Flow regime map was obtained using the characteristic signals obtained from an impedance void meter, employing neural network based identification methodology to minimize the subjective judgment in determining the flow regimes. A four sensor conductivity probe was used to measure the local two phase flow parameters, which characterize the interfacial structures. The local time averaged two-phase flow parameters measured were: void fraction (α), interfacial area concentration (a i ), bubble velocity (v g ), and Sauter mean diameter (D Sm ). The flow conditions were from the bubbly flow regime. The local profiles of these parameters as well as their axial development revealed the nature of the interfacial structures and the bubble interaction mechanisms occurring in the flow. Furthermore, this study provided a good database for the development of the interfacial area transport equation, which dynamically models the changes in the interfacial area along the flow field. An interfacial area transport equation was developed for downward flow based on that developed for the upward flow, with certain modifications in the bubble interaction terms. The area averaged values of the interfacial area concentration were compared with those predicted by the interfacial area transport model. (author)

  9. Normal aging affects movement execution but not visual motion working memory and decision-making delay during cue-dependent memory-based smooth-pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kikuro; Barnes, Graham R; Ito, Norie; Olley, Peter M; Warabi, Tateo

    2014-07-01

    Aging affects virtually all functions including sensory/motor and cognitive activities. While retinal image motion is the primary input for smooth-pursuit, its efficiency/accuracy depends on cognitive processes. Elderly subjects exhibit gain decrease during initial and steady-state pursuit, but reports on latencies are conflicting. Using a cue-dependent memory-based smooth-pursuit task, we identified important extra-retinal mechanisms for initial pursuit in young adults including cue information priming and extra-retinal drive components (Ito et al. in Exp Brain Res 229:23-35, 2013). We examined aging effects on parameters for smooth-pursuit using the same tasks. Elderly subjects were tested during three task conditions as previously described: memory-based pursuit, simple ramp-pursuit just to follow motion of a single spot, and popping-out of the correct spot during memory-based pursuit to enhance retinal image motion. Simple ramp-pursuit was used as a task that did not require visual motion working memory. To clarify aging effects, we then compared the results with the previous young subject data. During memory-based pursuit, elderly subjects exhibited normal working memory of cue information. Most movement-parameters including pursuit latencies differed significantly between memory-based pursuit and simple ramp-pursuit and also between young and elderly subjects. Popping-out of the correct spot motion was ineffective for enhancing initial pursuit in elderly subjects. However, the latency difference between memory-based pursuit and simple ramp-pursuit in individual subjects, which includes decision-making delay in the memory task, was similar between the two groups. Our results suggest that smooth-pursuit latencies depend on task conditions and that, although the extra-retinal mechanisms were functional for initial pursuit in elderly subjects, they were less effective.

  10. DOWNWARD SLOPING DEMAND CURVES FOR STOCK AND LEVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Pei Fun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to investigate the effect of downward sloping demand curves for stock on firms' financing decisions. For the same size of equity issuance, firms with steeper slope of demand curves for their stocks experience a larger price drop in their share price compare to their counterparts. As a consequence, firms with a steeper slope of demand curves are less likely to issue equity and hence they have higher leverage ratios. This research finds that the steeper the slope of demand curve for firm's stock, the higher the actual leverage of the firm. Furthermore, firms with a steeper slope of demand curves have higher target leverage ratios, signifying that these firms prefer debt to equity financing in order to avoid the adverse price impact of equity issuance on their share price.

  11. Numerical simulations of downward convective overshooting in giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chun-Lin; Deng, Li-Cai; Chan, Kwing-Lam

    2009-09-01

    An attempt at understanding downward overshooting in the convective envelopes of post-main-sequence stars has been made on the basis of three-dimensional large-eddy simulations, using artificially modified OPAL opacity and taking into account radiation and ionization in the equation of state. Two types of star, an intermediate-mass star and a massive star, were considered. To avoid a long thermal relaxation time of the intermediate-mass star, we increased the stellar energy flux artificially while trying to maintain a structure close to the one given by a 1D stellar model. A parametric study of the flux factor was performed. For the massive star, no such process was necessary. Numerical results were analysed when the system reached the statistical steady state. It was shown that the penetration distance in pressure scaleheights is of the order of unity. The scaling relations between penetration distance, input flux and vertical velocity fluctuations studied by Singh et al. were checked. The anisotropy of the turbulent convection and the diffusion models of the third-order moments representing the non-local transport were also investigated. These models are dramatically affected by the velocity fields and no universal constant parameters seem to exist. The limitations of the numerical results were also discussed.

  12. Downward Causation and the Neurobiology of Free Will

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Nancey; O’Connor, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    How is free will possible in the light of the physical and chemical underpinnings of brain activity and recent neurobiological experiments? How can the emergence of complexity in hierarchical systems such as the brain, based at the lower levels in physical interactions, lead to something like genuine free will? The nature of our understanding of free will in the light of present-day neuroscience is becoming increasingly important because of remarkable discoveries on the topic being made by neuroscientists at the present time, on the one hand, and its crucial importance for the way we view ourselves as human beings, on the other. A key tool in understanding how free will may arise in this context is the idea of downward causation in complex systems, happening coterminously with bottom up causation, to form an integral whole. Top-down causation is usually neglected, and is therefore emphasized in the other part of the book’s title. The concept is explored in depth, as are the ethical and legal implications of...

  13. Practices and attitudes of doctors and patients to downward referral in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenya; Li, Meina; Nong, Xin; Ding, Tao; Ye, Feng; Liu, Jiazhen; Dai, Zhixing; Zhang, Lulu

    2017-04-03

    In China, the rate of downward referral is relatively low, as most people are unwilling to be referred from hospitals to community health systems (CHSs). The aim of this study was to explore the effect of doctors' and patients' practices and attitudes on their willingness for downward referral and the relationship between downward referral and sociodemographic characteristics. Doctors and patients of 13 tertiary hospitals in Shanghai were stratified through random sampling. The questionnaire surveyed their sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes towards CHSs and hospitals, understanding of downward referral, recognition of the community first treatment system, and downward referral practices and willingness. Descriptive statistics, χ 2 test and stepwise logistic regression analysis were employed for statistical analysis. Only 20.8% (161/773) of doctors were willing to accept downward referrals, although this proportion was higher among patients (37.6%, 326/866). Doctors' willingness was influenced by education, understanding of downward referral, and perception of health resources in hospitals. Patients' willingness was influenced by marital status, economic factors and recognition of the community first treatment system. Well-educated doctors who do not consider downward referral would increase their workloads and those with a more comprehensive understanding of hospitals and downward referral process were more likely to make a downward referral decision. Single-injury patients fully recognising the community first treatment system were more willing to accept downward referral. Patients' willingness was significantly increased if downward referral was cost-saving. A better medical insurance system was another key factor for patients to accept downward referral decisions, especially for the floating population. To increase the rate of downward referral, the Chinese government should optimise the current referral system and conduct universal publicity for

  14. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  15. Macrokinetic determination of isopropanol removal using a downward flow biofilter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vissanu Meeyoo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofiltration is a process for eliminating contaminants in air using microorganisms immobilized on a surface of solid support media. This technique has been used successfully to control a number of air contaminants such as odors, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs, and Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs due to its economic attraction.Microorganisms obtained from local activated sludge (Huay-Kwang wastewater treatment plant (Bangkok, Thailand were selectively enriched and inoculated to the biofilter. The downward flow biofilterwas chosen, due to the ease of water compensation at the dry zone, to operate continuously for more than 3 months under various concentrations of isopropanol alcohol (IPA input at a constant filtered air flow rate of 3 L/min. The maximum IPA elimination capacity of 276 g/m3-h was achieved at the IPA inlet of 342 g/m3-h with acetone production rate of 56 g/m3-h as the intermediate. It was also found that the acetone vapour was partly degraded by the acetone-utilizing microorganisms before leaving the bed. In order to understand the transport phenomena of biofiltration, it is necessary to consider the kinetic behavior of the bioreaction. Therefore, this paper introduces Wani’s method of macrokinetic determination based on the simple Monod kinetic (Wani, Lau and Branion, 1999. In this study, the maximum reaction rate per unit volume (Rm and the Monod constant (KM were found to be 0.12 g/m3 -s and 2.72 g/m3 respectively.

  16. Chewing cycles in 4- and 5-year-old normal children: an index of eating efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J L; Niman, C W; Gisel, E G

    1984-03-01

    Eating movements in the preschool child undergo change between the ages of 2 and 5 years. There is a lack of objective clinical data from normal children against which eating movements of feeding-impaired children can be compared. In this study, chewing movements were measured to complement tongue movements described in an earlier study. The movements were monitored in 40 children: 20 were four years old and 20 were five years old. Each group had ten boys and ten girls. Chewing movements were measured by time (sec), number of cycles, and a time/cycle ratio. A chewing cycle was defined as an upward and downward movement of the chin. Total time from the moment food was placed in the mouth until the final swallow occurred was divided by the number of cycles counted for the same period. Age and sex did not affect time, cycles, or the time/cycle ratio. However, the measures were strongly affected by the type of food eaten. These findings suggest that the texture of food strongly influences both the number of chewing cycles performed and the time used for chewing. The occupational therapist administering eating evaluations to children should carefully choose the foods offered for initial evaluations and use the same food consistently during re-evaluations.

  17. Downward velocity distribution of free surface vortex in a cylindrical vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohguri, Youhei; Monji, Hideaki; Kamide, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the basic flow characteristics, especially downward velocity, of the free surface vortex. The flow field at the vertical cross section in a cylindrical vessel was measured by using PIV. The measurement results showed the inclined vortex center due to the un-axisymmetric structure of the vessel. Therefore, the maximum downward velocity on the cross section was discussed with the depth. The relation between the maximum downward velocity and the depth showed the tendency where the downward velocity increased with the depth non-linearly. By using dye, the downward velocity was also measured but its results showed a little difference from that by PIV. (author)

  18. Independence of Movement Preparation and Movement Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haith, Adrian M; Pakpoor, Jina; Krakauer, John W

    2016-03-09

    Initiating a movement in response to a visual stimulus takes significantly longer than might be expected on the basis of neural transmission delays, but it is unclear why. In a visually guided reaching task, we forced human participants to move at lower-than-normal reaction times to test whether normal reaction times are strictly necessary for accurate movement. We found that participants were, in fact, capable of moving accurately ∼80 ms earlier than their reaction times would suggest. Reaction times thus include a seemingly unnecessary delay that accounts for approximately one-third of their duration. Close examination of participants' behavior in conventional reaction-time conditions revealed that they generated occasional, spontaneous errors in trials in which their reaction time was unusually short. The pattern of these errors could be well accounted for by a simple model in which the timing of movement initiation is independent of the timing of movement preparation. This independence provides an explanation for why reaction times are usually so sluggish: delaying the mean time of movement initiation relative to preparation reduces the risk that a movement will be initiated before it has been appropriately prepared. Our results suggest that preparation and initiation of movement are mechanistically independent and may have a distinct neural basis. The results also demonstrate that, even in strongly stimulus-driven tasks, presentation of a stimulus does not directly trigger a movement. Rather, the stimulus appears to trigger an internal decision whether to make a movement, reflecting a volitional rather than reactive mode of control. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363007-10$15.00/0.

  19. Movement - uncoordinated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... Smooth graceful movement requires a balance between different muscle groups. A part of the brain called the cerebellum manages this balance.

  20. Slope movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    2009-01-01

    On this poster some reasons of slope movements on the territory of the Slovak Republic are presented. Slope movements induced deterioration of land and forests, endangering of towns villages, and communications as well as hydro-engineering structures. Methods of preventing and stabilisation of slope movements are presented.

  1. Analysis of steady state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of steady-state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines is described. Steady-state flow patterns maps are presented using Freon-113 as the working fluid to provide new high density vapors. These flow maps with high density vapor serve to significantly extend the investigations of steady-state downward two-phase flow patterns. Physical models developed which successfully predicted the onset or location of various flow pattern transitions. A new simplified criterion that would be useful to designers and experimenters is offered for the onset of dispersed flow. A new empirical holdup correlation and a new bubble diameter/flow rate correlation are also proposed. Flow transients in vertical downward lines were studied to investigate the possible formation of intermediate or spurious flow patterns that would not be seen at steady-state conditions. Void fraction behavior during the transients was modeled by using the dynamic slip equation from the transient analysis code RETRAN. Physical models of interfacial area were developed and compared with models and data from literature. There was satisfactory agreement between the models of the present study and the literature models and data. The concentration parameter of the drift flux model was evaluated for vertical downward flow. These new values of the flow dependent parameter were different from those previously proposed in the literature for use in upward flows, and made the drift flux model suitable for use in upward or downward flow lines

  2. New data on two-phase water-air hydrodynamics in vertical upward and downward tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, V [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Rezkallah, K S [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon (Canada). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The three key parameters involved in the analysis of the hydrodynamic characteristics of a two-phase system (i.e. pressure drop, void fraction, and flow pattern associated with the flow) are taken in vertical upward and downward tubes, using water-air mixture at atmospheric pressure. The acquired data set covers a wide range of liquid and gas flow rates, as well as void fractions. Using the acquired data set, two sets of flow pattern maps, for both upward and downward flows, are developed in the present study. Furthermore, a set of correlations for predicting the frictional pressure drop in both upward and downward flow were also developed. (author). 16 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Numerical Solutions of the Mean-Value Theorem: New Methods for Downward Continuation of Potential Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Lü, Qingtian; Yan, Jiayong; Qi, Guang

    2018-04-01

    Downward continuation can enhance small-scale sources and improve resolution. Nevertheless, the common methods have disadvantages in obtaining optimal results because of divergence and instability. We derive the mean-value theorem for potential fields, which could be the theoretical basis of some data processing and interpretation. Based on numerical solutions of the mean-value theorem, we present the convergent and stable downward continuation methods by using the first-order vertical derivatives and their upward continuation. By applying one of our methods to both the synthetic and real cases, we show that our method is stable, convergent and accurate. Meanwhile, compared with the fast Fourier transform Taylor series method and the integrated second vertical derivative Taylor series method, our process has very little boundary effect and is still stable in noise. We find that the characters of the fading anomalies emerge properly in our downward continuation with respect to the original fields at the lower heights.

  4. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  5. Experimental study on downward two-phase flow in narrow rectangular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.H.; Jeong, J.H. [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Adiabatic vertical two-phase flow of air and water through narrow rectangular channels was investigated. This study involved the observation of flow using a high speed camera and flow regimes were determined by image processing program using a MATLAB. The flows regimes in channel with downward flow are similar to those found by previous studies with upward flow. The flow regimes in downward flow at low liquid velocity are different from the previous studies in upward flow. The flow regimes can be classified into bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug and churn flow. (author)

  6. Inter-relationship between CSF dynamics and CSF to-and-fro movement in the cervical region as assessed by MR velocity imaging with phase encoding in hydrocephalic and normal patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Sumio; Wachi, Akihiko; Sato, Kiyoshi; Sumie, Hirotoshi.

    1992-01-01

    The to-and-fro velocity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at C-1 and C-2 spinal-cord levels was measured by means of MR velocity-imaging technique, and the correlation of changes in velocity and various biophysical factors influencing the intracranial pressure environment were analyzed. Eight hydrocephalic patients, male and female, of different ages (both infants and adults), and 11 normal volunteers with a similar age range were investigated. The to-and-fro CSF movement was measured by means of phase-shift techniques with a bipolar gradient pulse. The cerebrospinal opening pressure was also recorded in 6 of the 8 hydrocephalic patients, either through a ventricular catheter reservoir or a spinal catheter inserted in the lumbosacral subarachnoid space; the CSF pulse amplitude, the pressure volume index (PVI), and the CSF outflow resistance (Ro) were also evaluated during the procedure. CSF flowed towards caudally in the early systolic phase of a cardiac stroke, but the flow direction was reversed in the early diastolic phase when the maximum flow rate was reached. Although such a flow pattern was commonly observed in all normal and hydrocephalic subjects, whatever the age, there was a marked difference in flow rate between the infants and the pediatric-adults groups, -i.e., it was 5-10 mm/sec for the former and 10-20 mm/sec for the latter. An abnormally high flow rate (33.0 mm/sec) was observed in the hydrocephalic patients when there was a malfunction of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt. A close correlation was found to exist among the changes in the CSF flow velocity, the CSF pressure amplitude, and the CSF outflow resistance (Ro), but not in the PVI. The measurement of the CSF flow velocity by MR velocity imaging appears to have an important role not only in the investigation of CSF dynamics, but also in the diagnosis and treatment of such pathologies as hydrocephalus and ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction. (author)

  7. Doing worse, but feeling happy : Social comparison and identification in response to upward and downward targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothof, H.; Siero, F.W.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    2007-01-01

    We investigated people's responses to exposure to downward and upward targets. In Study 1, among 197 participants, it was predicted and found that such exposure led to a contrast effect on self-evaluation, and to an assimilation effect on affect. In Study 2, among 148 participants, it was predicted

  8. Feeling bad, but satisfied : the effects of upward and downward comparison upon mood and marital satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, B.P.; Ybema, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    In a sample of 135 women from rural areas, the effects of social comparison with the marriage of another woman upon mood, identification and relationship evaluation were examined. Upward targets evoked a more positive mood, and a less negative mood than downward targets, while, in contrast, the

  9. An analytic model of pool boiling critical heat flux on an immerged downward facing curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Hui; Pan, Liang-ming; Wu, Yao; Chen, De-qi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin liquid film and supplement of liquid contribute to the CHF. • CHF increases from the bottom to the upper of the lowerhead. • Evaporation of thin liquid film is dominant nearby bottom region. • The subcooling has significant effects on the CHF. - Abstract: In this paper, an analytical model of the critical heat flux (CHF) on the downward facing curved surface for pool boiling has been proposed, which hypothesizes that the CHF on the downward facing curved is composed of two parts, i.e. the evaporation of the thin liquid film underneath the elongated bubble adhering to the lower head outer surface and the depletion of supplement of liquid due to the relative motion of vapor bubbles along with the downward facing curved. The former adopts the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability analysis of vapor–liquid interface of the vapor jets which penetrating in the thin liquid film. When the heat flux closing to the CHF point, the vapor–liquid interface becomes highly distorted, which block liquid to feed the thin liquid film and the thin liquid film will dry out gradually. While the latter considers that the vapor bubbles move along with the downward facing curved surface, and the liquid in two-phase boundary layer enter the liquid film that will be exhausted when the CHF occurs. Based on the aforementioned mechanism and the energy balance between the thin liquid film evaporation and water feeding, and taking the subcooling of the bulk water into account, the mathematic model about the downward facing curved surface CHF has been proposed. The CHF of the downward facing curved surface for pool boiling increases along with the downward facing orientation except in the vicinity of bottom center region, because in this region the vapor bubble almost stagnates and the evaporation of the thin liquid film is dominant. In addition, the subcooling has significant effect on the CHF. Comparing the result of this model with the published experimental results show

  10. Identification of retinal ganglion cells and their projections involved in central transmission of information about upward and downward image motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Yonehara

    Full Text Available The direction of image motion is coded by direction-selective (DS ganglion cells in the retina. Particularly, the ON DS ganglion cells project their axons specifically to terminal nuclei of the accessory optic system (AOS responsible for optokinetic reflex (OKR. We recently generated a knock-in mouse in which SPIG1 (SPARC-related protein containing immunoglobulin domains 1-expressing cells are visualized with GFP, and found that retinal ganglion cells projecting to the medial terminal nucleus (MTN, the principal nucleus of the AOS, are comprised of SPIG1+ and SPIG1(- ganglion cells distributed in distinct mosaic patterns in the retina. Here we examined light responses of these two subtypes of MTN-projecting cells by targeted electrophysiological recordings. SPIG1+ and SPIG1(- ganglion cells respond preferentially to upward motion and downward motion, respectively, in the visual field. The direction selectivity of SPIG1+ ganglion cells develops normally in dark-reared mice. The MTN neurons are activated by optokinetic stimuli only of the vertical motion as shown by Fos expression analysis. Combination of genetic labeling and conventional retrograde labeling revealed that axons of SPIG1+ and SPIG1(- ganglion cells project to the MTN via different pathways. The axon terminals of the two subtypes are organized into discrete clusters in the MTN. These results suggest that information about upward and downward image motion transmitted by distinct ON DS cells is separately processed in the MTN, if not independently. Our findings provide insights into the neural mechanisms of OKR, how information about the direction of image motion is deciphered by the AOS.

  11. An Experimental Study on the Convective Heat Transfer in Narrow Rectangular Channels for Downward Flow to Predict Onset of Nucleate Boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junghyun; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Lee, Juhyung; Chang, Soon Heung

    2014-01-01

    Research reactor is the nuclear reactor serves neutron source for many research fields such as neutron scattering, non-destructive testing, radioisotope treatment and so on. Due to that characteristic of research reactor, as many people work around the research reactor, research reactor should be designed to have much more conservative margin for normal operation. Boiling heat transfer is the one of the most efficient type in heat transfer modes, however, research reactor needs to avoid onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) in normal operation as IAEA recommend for research reactors to have enough ONB margin to maintain the normal operation state in 'IAEA-TECDOC-233' (1980) for the same reason explained above. Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) operates under downward flow in narrow rectangular channel in fuel assembly. There isn't sufficient heat transfer data under downward flow condition and only few ONB prediction correlation as well. In the present work, not only a new ONB prediction model would be developed, but also comparison between heat transfer data with several heat transfer correlations could be shown. In addition, as Sudo and Omar S. proposed differently about the Nusselt number behaviors in upward and downward convective heat transfer, the study of convective heat transfer should be conducted continuously to determine it exactly. In this paper, single-phase heat transfer data is analyzed by several heat transfer correlations before developing ONB prediction correlation. In this study, an experiment on the single-phase heat transfer was conducted. As shown in Fig. 5, comparison between experimental data and existing correlations shows quite huge difference as about 40%. Additional experiments on single-phase heat transfer at low heat flux are necessary to clarify the tendency of Nusselt number among heat flux and to develop new correlation for single-phase heat transfer

  12. Protest movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucht, D.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.) [de

  13. Inlet effects on vertical-downward air–water two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Shouxu; Mena, Daniel; Kim, Seungjin, E-mail: skim@psu.edu

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Inlet effects on two-phase flow parameters in vertical-downward flow are studied. • Flow regimes in the vertical-downward two-phase flow are defined. • Vertical-downward flow regime maps for three inlet configurations are developed. • Frictional pressure loss analysis for three different inlets is performed. • Database of local two-phase flow parameters for each inlet configuration. - Abstract: This paper focuses on investigating the geometric effects of inlets on global and local two-phase flow parameters in vertical-downward air–water two-phase flow. Flow visualization, frictional pressure loss analysis, and local experiments are performed in a test facility constructed from 50.8 mm inner diameter acrylic pipes. Three types of inlets of interest are studied: (1) two-phase flow injector without a flow straightener (Type A), (2) two-phase flow injector with a flow straightener (Type B), and (3) injection through a horizontal-to-vertical-downward 90° vertical elbow (Type C). A detailed flow visualization study is performed to characterize flow regimes including bubbly, slug, churn-turbulent, and annular flow. Flow regime maps for each inlet are developed and compared to identify the effects of each inlet. Frictional pressure loss analysis shows that the Lockhart–Martinelli method is capable of correlating the frictional loss data acquired for Type B and Type C inlets with a coefficient value of C = 25, but additional data may be needed to model the Type A inlet. Local two-phase flow parameters measured by a four-sensor conductivity probe in four bubbly and near bubbly flow conditions are analyzed. It is observed that vertical-downward two-phase flow has a characteristic center-peaked void profile as opposed to a wall-peaked profile as seen in vertical-upward flow. Furthermore, it is shown that the Type A inlet results in the most pronounced center-peaked void fraction profile, due to the coring phenomenon. Type B and Type C inlets

  14. Measurement of the rate of droplet deposition in vertical upward and downward annular flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Toshihiro; Okawa, Tomio; Takei, Rei

    2008-01-01

    The deposition rate of droplets was measured for vertical annular two-phase flows in a small diameter tube by means of the double film extraction technique. The test section was a round tube of 5 mm in inside diameter, air and water were used as test fluids, and the flow direction was set to upward and downward; the system pressure and the flow rates of gas and liquid phases were changed parametrically. If the droplet velocity relative to the continuous gas phase is in the equilibrium state, the shear induced lift force acting on droplets is directed toward the tube centerline in upflow while toward the tube wall in downflow. Particular attention was therefore paid to the effect of flow direction. It was shown experimentally that the deposition rate of droplets in downward flow is greater than that in upward flow. The difference in the measured deposition rate may be attributed to the direction of lift force acting on droplets. (author)

  15. Experimental investigation of pool boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux on a downward facing surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocmanac, M.; Luxat, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    A separate effects experimental study of heat transfer and Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a downward facing plate in subcooled water pool boiling is described. Two geometries of downwards facing surfaces are studied. The first is termed the 'confined' study in which bubble motion is restricted to the heated surface. The second is termed the 'unconfined' study where individual bubbles are free to move along the heated surface and vent in any direction. The method used in the confined study is novel and involves the placement of a lip surrounding the heated surface. The CHF as a function of angle of inclination of the surface is presented and is in good agreement with other experimental data from somewhat different test geometries. (author)

  16. Downward Slope Driving Control for Electric Powered Wheelchair Based on Capacitor Regenerative Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yoshiaki

    This paper describes a novel capacitor regenerative braking control scheme of electric powered wheelchairs for efficient driving on downward slopes. An electric powered wheelchair, which generates the driving force by electric motors, is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people; however the energy efficiency has to be further improved because it is driven only by battery energy. This study proposes a capacitor regenerative braking circuit and two types of velocity control schemes with variable duty ratio. The proposed regenerative braking circuit is based on the step-up/down circuit with additional resistance and connects right and left motors in series in order to obtain a larger braking power. Some driving experiments on a practical downward slope show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  17. Dispersion of Exhalation Pollutants in a Two-bed Hospital Ward with a Downward Ventilation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, Hua; Nielsen, Peter V.; Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended the use of downward ventilation systems in isolation rooms to reduce the risk of cross-infection from airborne transmissible diseases. The expected airflow pattern of a downward ventilation design would supply cooler and slightly...... to investigate the airflow pattern and pollutant dispersion in the test ward. Based on both experimental and numerical results, the laminar airflow pattern was shown to be impossible to achieve due to turbulent flow mixing and flow entrainment into the supply air stream. The thermal plumes produced above people...... were found to induce flow mixing. We also studied the effects of the locations of the supply and extraction openings on both the flow pattern and pollutant exposure level in the occupied zone. A number of practical recommendations are suggested....

  18. Vertical downward subcooled bubbly flow modelling with RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristevski, R.; Parzer, I.; Markov, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The presented paper will consider the correlation for void fraction distribution in the subcooled boiling flow regime of downward liquid flow at low velocities. More specifically, it will focus on the choice of the most appropriate heat and mass transfer correlation. The experimental findings and theoretical consideration of these processes and phenomena will be compared with RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 Gamma predictions. (author)

  19. Fixing the Phillips curve: The case of downward nominal wage rigidity in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Reitz, Stefan; Slopek, Ulf D.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas microeconomic studies point to pronounced downward rigidity of nominal wages in the US economy, the standard Phillips curve neglects such a feature. Using a stochastic frontier model we find macroeconomic evidence of a strictly nonnegative error in an otherwise standard Phillips curve in post-war data on the US nonfinancial corporate sector. This error depends on growth in the profit ratio, output, and trend productivity, which should all determine the flexibility of wage adjustments....

  20. Downward continuation of airborne gravity data by means of the change of boundary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, A. H.; Capponi, M.; Sampietro, D.

    2018-03-01

    Within the modelling of gravity data, a common practice is the upward/downward continuation of the signal, i.e. the process of continuing the gravitational signal in the vertical direction away or closer to the sources, respectively. The gravity field, being a potential field, satisfies the Laplace's equation outside the masses and this means that it allows to unambiguously perform this analytical continuation only in a source-free domain. The analytical continuation problem has been solved both in the space and spectral domains by exploiting different algorithms. As well known, the downward continuation operator, differently from the upward one, is an unstable operator, due to its spectral characteristics similar to those of a high-pass filter, and several regularization methods have been proposed in order to stabilize it. In this work, an iterative procedure to downward/upward continue the gravity field observations, acquired at different altitudes, is proposed. This methodology is based on the change of boundary principle and it has been expressively thought for aerogravimetric observations for geophysical exploration purposes. Within this field of application, usually several simplifications can be applied, basically due to the specific characteristics of the airborne surveys which are usually flown at almost constant altitude as close as possible to the terrain. For instance, these characteristics, as shown in the present work, allow to perform the downward continuation without the need of any regularization. The goodness of the proposed methodology has been evaluated by means of a numerical test on real data, acquired in the South of Australia. The test shows that it is possible to move the aerogravimetric data, acquired along tracks with a maximum height difference of about 250 m, with accuracies of the order of 10^{-3} mGal.

  1. Iterative Spherical Downward Continuation Applied to Magnetic and Gravitational Data from Satellite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sebera, J.; Šprlák, M.; Novák, P.; Bezděk, Aleš; Valko, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2014), s. 941-958 ISSN 0169-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13071 Grant - others:ESA(XE) AO/1-6367/10/NL/AF Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : downward continuation * Earth's gravitational and magnetic field * poisson integral equation Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 3.447, year: 2014

  2. Optical progression characteristics of an interesting natural downward bipolar lightning flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luwen; Lu, Weitao; Zhang, Yijun; Wang, Daohong

    2015-01-01

    high-speed cameras, Lightning Attachment Process Observation Systems, and fast and slow electrical antennas, we documented a downward bipolar lightning flash that contained one first positive stroke with a peak current of 142 kA and five subsequent negative strokes hitting on a 90 m tall structure on 29 July 2010 in Guangzhou City, China. All the six strokes propagated along the same viewed channel established by the first positive return stroke. The leader which preceded the positive return stroke propagated downward without any branches at a two-dimensional (2-D) speed of 2.5 × 106 m/s. An upward connecting leader with a length of about 80 m was observed in response to the downward positive leader. The 10-90% risetimes of the return strokes' optical pulses ranged from 2.2 µs to 3.2 µs, while the widths from the 10% wavefront to the 50% wave tail ranged from 56.5 µs to 83.1 µs, and the half peak widths ranged from 53.4 µs to 81.6 µs. All the return strokes exhibited similar speeds, ranging from 1.0 × 108 m/s to 1.3 × 108 m/s. Each of the return strokes was followed by a continuing current stage (CC). The first positive stroke CC lasted more than 150 ms, much larger than all the subsequent negative stroke CC, ranging from 13 ms to 70 ms.

  3. Observations of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Processes in Jupiter's Downward Auroral Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G. B.; Mauk, B.; Allegrini, F.; Bagenal, F.; Bolton, S. J.; Bunce, E. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Ebert, R. W.; Gershman, D. J.; Gladstone, R.; Haggerty, D. K.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kotsiaros, S.; Kollmann, P.; Kurth, W. S.; Levin, S.; McComas, D. J.; Paranicas, C.; Rymer, A. M.; Saur, J.; Szalay, J. R.; Tetrick, S.; Valek, P. W.

    2017-12-01

    Our view and understanding of Jupiter's auroral regions are ever-changing as Juno continues to map out this region with every auroral pass. For example, since last year's Fall AGU and the release of publications regarding the first perijove orbit, the Juno particles and fields teams have found direct evidence of parallel potential drops in addition to the stochastic broad energy distributions associated with the downward current auroral acceleration region. In this region, which appears to exist in an altitude range of 1.5-3 Jovian radii, the potential drops can reach as high as several megavolts. Associated with these potentials are anti-planetward electron angle beams, energetic ion conics and precipitating protons, oxygen and sulfur. Sometimes the potentials within the downward current region are structured such that they look like the inverted-V type distributions typically found in Earth's upward current region. This is true for both the ion and electron energy distributions. Other times, the parallel potentials appear to be intermittent or spatially structured in a way such that they do not look like the canonical diverging electrostatic potential structure. Furthermore, the parallel potentials vary grossly in spatial/temporal scale, peak voltage and associated parallel current density. Here, we present a comprehensive study of these structures in Jupiter's downward current region focusing on energetic particle measurements from Juno-JEDI.

  4. Experimental study on liquid velocity in upward and downward two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, X.; Paranjape, S.; Kim, S.; Ozar, B.; Ishii, M.

    2003-01-01

    Local characteristics of the liquid phase in upward and downward air-water two-phase flows were experimentally investigated in a 50.8-mm inner-diameter round pipe. An integral Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) system was used to measure the axial liquid velocity and its fluctuations. No effect of the flow direction on the liquid velocity radial profile was observed in single-phase liquid benchmark experiments. Local multi-sensor conductivity probes were used to measure the radial profiles of the bubble velocity and the void fraction. The measurement results in the upward and downward two-phase flows are compared and discussed. The results in the downward flow demonstrated that the presence of the bubbles tended to flatten the liquid velocity radial profile, and the maximum liquid velocity could occur off the pipe centerline, in particular at relatively low flow rates. However, the maximum liquid velocity always occurred at the pipe center in the upward flow. Also, noticeable turbulence enhancement due to the bubbles in the two-phase flows was observed in the current experimental flow conditions. Furthermore, the distribution parameter and the void weighted area-averaged drift velocity were obtained based on the definitions

  5. Interfacial structures and area transport in upward and downward two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjape, S. S.; Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Kelly, J.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out for upward and downward two-phase flow to study local interfacial structures and interfacial area transport. The flow studied, is an adiabatic, air-water, co-current, two-phase flow, in 25.4 mm and 50.8 mm ID test sections. Flow regime map is obtained using the characteristic signals obtained from an impedance void meter, employing neural network based identification methodology. A four sensor conductivity probe is used to measure the local two phase flow parameters, in bubbly flow regime. The local profiles of these parameters as well as their axial development reveal the nature of the interfacial structures and the bubble interaction mechanisms occurring in the flow. Furthermore, this study provides a good database for the development of the interfacial area transport equation, which dynamically models the changes in the interfacial area along a flow field. An interfacial area transport equation is used for downward flow based on that developed for the upward flow, with certain modifications in the bubble interaction terms. The area averaged values of the interfacial area concentration are compared with those predicted by the interfacial area transport model. The differences in the interfacial structures and interfacial area transport in co-current downward and upward two-phase flows are studied

  6. The onset of flow instability for a downward flow of a non-boiling heated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babelli, Ibrahim; Ishii, Mamoru

    1999-01-01

    A procedure for predicting the onset of flow instability (OFI) in downward flows at low-pressure and low-flow conditions without boiling is presented in this paper. It is generally accepted that the onset of significant void in subcooled boiling precedes, and is a precondition to, the occurrence of static flow instability. A detailed analysis of the pressure drop components for a downward flow in a heated channel reveals the possibility of unstable transition from single-phase flow to high-quality two-phase flow, i.e., flow excursion. Low flow rate and high subcooling are the two important conditions for the occurrence of this type of instability. The unstable transition occurs when the resistance to the downward flow caused by local (orifice), frictional, and thermal expansion pressure drops equalizes the driving force of the gravitational pressure drop. The inclusion of the thermal expansion pressure drop is essential to account for this type of transition. Experimental data are yet to be produced to verify the prediction of the present analysis. (author)

  7. Premature and stable critical heat flux for downward flow in a narrow rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Juhyung; Chang, Soon Heung; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Jo, Daeseong

    2014-01-01

    It has been recommended that RRs and MTRs be designed to have sufficient margins for CHF and the onset of FI as well, since unstable flow could leads to premature CHF under very low wall heat flux in comparison to stable CHF. Even the fact and previous studies, however, the understanding of relationship among FI, premature CHF and stable CHF is not sufficient to date. In this regards, subcooled flow boiling in a vertical rectangular channel was experimentally investigated to enhance the understanding of the CHF and the effect of the two-phase flow instability on it under low pressure conditions, especially for downward flow which was adopted for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) and Kijang research reactor (KJRR) to achieve easier fuel and irradiation rig loading. In this study, CHF for downward flow of water under low pressure in narrow rectangular channel was experimentally investigated. For conditions such as downward flow, narrow rectangular channel and low pressure, it has been deduced from literature that flow instability could largely influence on triggering CHF at lower heat flux, i. e. premature CHF. Total 54 CHF data, which includes premature and stable data was obtained for various fluid conditions and system configurations including inlet stiffness. The upper and lower boundaries of CHF were newly proposed based on the experiment

  8. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...... note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...

  9. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenders, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  10. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  11. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  12. Experimental study for flow regime of downward air-water two-phase flow in a vertical narrow rectangular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. H.; Yun, B. J.; Jeong, J. H. [Pusan National University, Geunjeong-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Studies were mostly about flow in upward flow in medium size circular tube. Although there are great differences between upward and downward flow, studies on vertical upward flow are much more active than those on vertical downward flow in a channel. In addition, due to the increase of surface forces and friction pressure drop, the pattern of gas-liquid two-phase flow bounded to the gap of inside the rectangular channel is different from that in a tube. The downward flow in a rectangular channel is universally applicable to cool the plate type nuclear fuel in research reactor. The sub-channel of the plate type nuclear fuel is designed with a few millimeters. Downward air-water two-phase flow in vertical rectangular channel was experimentally observed. The depth, width, and length of the rectangular channel is 2.35 mm, 66.7 mm, and 780 mm, respectively. The test section consists of transparent acrylic plates confined within a stainless steel frame. The flow patterns of the downward flow in high liquid velocity appeared to be similar to those observed in previous studies with upward flow. In downward flow, the transition lines for bubbly-slug and slug-churn flow shift to left in the flow regime map constructed with abscissa of the superficial gas velocity and ordinate of the superficial liquid velocity. The flow patterns observed with downward flow at low liquid velocity are different from those with upward flow.

  13. Effect of the Aligned Flow Obstacles on Downward-Facing CHF in an Inclined Rectangular Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ui ju; Son, Hong Hyun; Seo, Gwang Hyeok; Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The cooling channel consists of the inclined (10 .deg. ) portion of the downward facing heating channel and vertical portion of the heating channel. Features unique to flow boiling with the downward-facing heater surface in the inclined cooling channel where the studs are installed have drawn a considerable attention. That's because prior studies on boiling crisis indicate the orientation of the heated wall can exert substantial influence on CHF. Especially, the concentration of the vapor near the downward facing heater surface makes this region susceptible to premature boiling crisis when compared to vertical or upward-facing heated wall. Also, the installed studs could cause a partial flow blockage, and distort the flow streamline. Due to the distortion, stagnation points may occur in the cooling channel, promoting the concentration of the vapor near the heated wall. Then, the locally degraded heat transfer around the points may result in the formation of vapor pocket. The primary objective of this study is to make available experimental data on the CHF values varying the shape of studs and to improve understanding of the mechanism of flow boiling crisis associated with the aligned flow obstructions by means of visual experimental study. This study presents experimental data for subcooled flow boiling of water at atmospheric pressure and low mass flux conditions. The major outcomes from this investigation can be summarized as follows: (1) The CHF value from bare test section is -320kW/m{sup 2} , significantly lower than the values from the existing correlations even considering the uncertainty in the experiments. (2) The CHF value is remarkably decreased as columnar structures are installed in the channel. It is confirmed that formation and extinction of local dryout occurs repeatedly just behind the first stud at heat flux of -160 kW/m{sup 2}.

  14. RELAP5 analysis of subcooled boiling appearance and disappearance in downward flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristevski, R.; Parzer, I.; Spasojevic, D.

    1999-01-01

    The presented paper will mainly consider heat and mass transfer phenomenology in the subcooled boiling regime of downward liquid flow at low velocities. More specifically, it will focus on the effects of appearance and disappearance of two-phase flow at low liquid velocities, in the area where gravity force has significant influence. Two among a series of tests performed on a high-pressure circulation loop, installed in Vinca, will be analyzed. The experimental findings and theoretical consideration of these processes and phenomena will be compared with RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 predictions.(author)

  15. Flow Boiling on a Downward-Facing Inclined Plane Wall of Core Catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Tak; Bang, Kwang Hyun; Suh, Jung Soo

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate boiling behavior on downward-facing inclined heated wall prior to the CHF condition, an experiment was carried out with 1.2 m long rectangular channel, inclined by 10 .deg. from the horizontal plane. High speed video images showed that the bubbles were sliding along the heated wall, continuing to grow and combining with the bubbles growing at their nucleation sites in the downstream. These large bubbles continued to slide along the heated wall and formed elongated slug bubbles. Under this slug bubble thin liquid film layer on the heated wall was observed and this liquid film prevents the wall from dryout. The length, velocity and frequency of slug bubbles sliding on the heated wall were measured as a function of wall heat flux and these parameters were used to develop wall boiling model for inclined, downward-facing heated wall. One approach to achieve coolable state of molten core in a PWR-like reactor cavity during a severe accident is to retain the core melt on a so-called core catcher residing on the reactor cavity floor after its relocation from the reactor pressure vessel. The core melt retained in the core catcher is cooled by water coolant flowing in an inclined cooling channel underneath as well as the water pool overlaid on the melt layer. Two-phase flow boiling with downward-facing heated wall such as this core catcher cooling channel has drawn a special attention because this orientation of heated wall may reach boiling crisis at lower heat flux than that of a vertical or upward-facing heated wall. Nishikawa and Fujita, Howard and Mudawar, Qiu and Dhir have conducted experiments to study the effect of heater orientation on boiling heat transfer and CHF. SULTAN experiment was conducted to study inclined large-scale structure coolability by water in boiling natural convection. In this paper, high-speed visualization of boiling behavior on downward-facing heated wall inclined by 10 .deg. is presented and wall boiling model for the

  16. Downward Price-Based Brand Line Extensions Effects on Luxury Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Royo-Vela, Marcelo; Voss, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    This study tries to examine the brand concept consistency, the self-concept congruence and the resulting loyalty status of the consumers in order to evaluate whether a downward price-based line extensions in the luxury goods market has any negative or positive effect on them. By conducting focus group and in-depth interviews it was tried to filter out how brand concepts of luxury brands are perceived before and after a line extension. Results revealed that a crucial aspect for the evaluation ...

  17. Eye movement perimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trope, G E; Eizenman, M; Coyle, E

    1989-08-01

    Present-day computerized perimetry is often inaccurate and unreliable owing to the need to maintain central fixation over long periods while repressing the normal response to presentation of peripheral stimuli. We tested a new method of perimetry that does not require prolonged central fixation. During this test eye movements were encouraged on presentation of a peripheral target. Twenty-three eyes were studied with an Octopus perimeter, with a technician monitoring eye movements. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 23%. The low specificity was due to the technician's inability to accurately monitor small eye movements in the central 6 degrees field. If small eye movements are monitored accurately with an eye tracker, eye movement perimetry could become an alternative method to standard perimetry.

  18. "The only way is up" : Location and movement in product packaging as predictors of sensorial impressions and brand identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas J.L.; Fransen, M.L.; Borgelink, B.; Brassett, J.; McDonnell, J.; Malpass, M.; Hekkert, P.P.M.; Ludden, G.D.S.

    2012-01-01

    Based on embodiment research linking visual-spatial design parameters to symbolic meaning portrayal, this study investigates to what extent location of imagery on product packaging and visual devices portraying movement (i.e., an arrow indicating movement along an upward-headed or downward-headed

  19. Study of natural energy system and downward atmospheric radiation. Part 1. Outline on measurement and result on downward atmospheric radiation; Shizen energy system to tenku hosharyo no kansoku kenkyu. 1. Kisho kansoku gaiyo to tenku hosharyo no kansoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, K [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan); Masuoka, Y [Yokogawa Architects and Engineers, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the study of a natural energy system taking advantage of radiation cooling, a simplified method for estimating downward atmospheric radiation quantities was examined, using observation records supplied from Hachioji City, Aerological Observatory in Tsukuba City, and four other locations. Downward atmospheric radiation quantities are closely related to partial vapor pressure in the atmosphere. Because partial vapor pressure changes according to the season, it was classified into two, for summer and for winter, and was referred to downward atmospheric radiation quantities for the establishment of their correlationships. Downward atmospheric radiation quantities were predicted on the basis of meteorological factors such as partial vapor pressure and free air temperature. Accuracy was examined of the simplified estimation equation for downward atmospheric radiation that had been proposed. A multiple regression analysis was carried out for calculating constants for the estimation equation, using partial vapor pressure, Stefan-Boltzmann constant, and free air dry-bulb absolute temperature, all closely correlated with atmospheric downward radiation quantities. Accuracy improved by time-based classification. At night, use of SAT (equivalent free air temperature) produced more accurate estimation. Though dependent upon local characteristics of the observation spot, the estimation equation works effectively. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Presbycusis: a human temporal bone study of individuals with downward sloping audiometric patterns of hearing loss and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik G; Hinojosa, Raul

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case review was to identify patterns of cochlear element degeneration in individuals with presbycusis exhibiting downward sloping audiometric patterns of hearing loss and to correlate these findings with those reported in the literature to clarify conflicting concepts regarding the association between hearing loss and morphologic abnormalities. Archival human temporal bones from individuals with presbycusis were selected on the basis of strict audiometric criteria for downward-sloping audiometric thresholds. Twenty-one temporal bones that met these criteria were identified and compared with 10 temporal bones from individuals with normal hearing. The stria vascularis volumes, spiral ganglion cell populations, inner hair cells, and outer hair cells were quantitatively evaluated. The relationship between the severity of hearing loss and the degeneration of cochlear elements was analyzed using univariate linear regression models. Outer hair cell loss and ganglion cell loss was observed in all individuals with presbycusis. Inner hair cell loss was observed in 18 of the 21 individuals with presbycusis and stria vascularis loss was observed in 10 of the 21 individuals with presbycusis. The extent of degeneration of all four of the cochlear elements evaluated was highly associated with the severity of hearing loss based on audiometric thresholds at 8,000 Hz and the pure-tone average at 500, 1,000, and 2,000 Hz. The extent of ganglion cell degeneration was associated with the slope of the audiogram. Individuals with downward-sloping audiometric patterns of presbycusis exhibit degeneration of the stria vascularis, spiral ganglion cells, inner hair cells, and outer hair cells that is associated with the severity of hearing loss. This association has not been previously reported in studies that did not use quantitative methodologies for evaluating the cochlear elements and strict audiometric criteria for selecting cases.

  1. Development of a Convective Heat Transfer Correlation of a Supercritical CO2 with Vertical Downward Flow in Circular Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Tae Ho; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Bae, Yoon Yeong

    2009-01-01

    Pressure of coolant flowing through a SCWR core subchannel is supercritical and the heat transfer behavior is known to be quite different from those at a subcritical pressure. Therefore the heat transfer study in a supercritical pressure is required for the acquisition of a reliable heat transfer correlation. A downward flow as well as an upward flow occurs in a multi-pass reactor core. The heat transfer at a supercritical pressure in downward channel has been known to result in a quite different behavior from an upward flow. An experiment for a supercritical CO 2 flowing vertically downward in circular tubes with inner diameters of 6.32 mm and 9 mm was performed by using SPHINX(Supercritical Pressure Heat transfer Investigation for NeXt generation) at KAERI. The obtained test results are compared with the estimations from the existing correlations and an empirical formula for a downward flow is suggested

  2. Removal of NAPLs from the unsaturated zone using steam: prevention of downward migration by injecting mixtures of steam and air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, R.; Gudbjerg, Jacob; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel

    2002-01-01

    injection technology is presented, where a mixture of steam and air was injected. In twodimensional experiments with unsaturated porous medium contaminated with nonaqueous phase liquids, it was demonstrated how injection of pure steam lead to severe downward migration. Similar experiments, where steam......Steam injection for remediation of porous media contaminated by nonaqueous phase liquids has been shown to be a potentially efficient technology. There is, however, concern that the technique may lead to downward migration of separate phase contaminant. In this work, a modification of the steam...... and air were injected simultaneously, resulted in practically no downward migration and still rapid cleanup was achieved. The processes responsible for the prevention of downward migration when injecting steam–air mixtures were analyzed using a nonisothermal multiphase flow and transport model. Hereby...

  3. The downward spiral of chronic pain, prescription opioid misuse, and addiction: cognitive, affective, and neuropsychopharmacologic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Froeliger, Brett; Zeidan, Fadel; Partin, Kaitlyn; Howard, Matthew O

    2013-12-01

    Prescription opioid misuse and addiction among chronic pain patients are emerging public health concerns of considerable significance. Estimates suggest that more than 10% of chronic pain patients misuse opioid analgesics, and the number of fatalities related to nonmedical or inappropriate use of prescription opioids is climbing. Because the prevalence and adverse consequences of this threat are increasing, there is a pressing need for research that identifies the biobehavioral risk chain linking chronic pain, opioid analgesia, and addictive behaviors. To that end, the current manuscript draws upon current neuropsychopharmacologic research to provide a conceptual framework of the downward spiral leading to prescription opioid misuse and addiction among chronic pain patients receiving opioid analgesic pharmacotherapy. Addictive use of opioids is described as the outcome of a cycle initiated by chronic pain and negative affect and reinforced by opioidergic-dopamingeric interactions, leading to attentional hypervigilance for pain and drug cues, dysfunctional connectivity between self-referential and cognitive control networks in the brain, and allostatic dysregulation of stress and reward circuitry. Implications for clinical practice are discussed; multimodal, mindfulness-oriented treatment is introduced as a potentially effective approach to disrupting the downward spiral and facilitating recovery from chronic pain and opioid addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Void fraction in steam-water mixture downward motion in tubes and intertubular spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miropol'skij, Z.L.; Shneerova, R.I.; Karamysheva, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out with a view to determining the averaged cross-section virtual steam contents for downward steam-air mixture flows in a pipe (diameter 40 mm, length 600 mm) and in a 400 mm-long cylindrical channel, which accomodated 19 cylindrical tubes. Equivalent channel diameter was 9.2 mm. The tests were carried out both under adiabatic flow conditions and in the presence of heat transfer through pipes, which were electrically heated. The p pressure was 3 mPa, specific heat fluxes g=0-0.27 MW/m 2 , mass rates wsub(p)=110-395 kg/m 2 xs in the tube bunch and 95-345 kg/m 2 xs in the pipe. The test results indicate that: the virtual volumetric steam contents in a downward flow of a steam-air mixture are higher than those in an upward flow; x in a tube bunch is substantially smaller than that in a pipe

  5. Satellite Based Downward Long Wave Radiation by Various Models in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyang Sur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based downward long wave radiation measurement under clear sky conditions in Northeast Asia was conducted using five well-known physical models (Brunt 1932, Idso and Jackson 1969, Brutsaert 1975, Satterlund 1979, Prata 1996 with a newly proposed global Rld model (Abramowitz et al. 2012. Data from two flux towers in South Korea were used to validate downward long wave radiation. Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS atmospheric profile products were used to develop the Rld models. The overall root mean square error (RMSE of MODIS Rld with respect to two ecosystem-type flux towers was determined to be ≈ 20 W m-2. Based on the statistical analyses, MODIS Rld estimates with Brutsaert (1975 and Abramowitz et al. (2012 models were the most applicable for evaluating Rld for clear sky conditions in Northeast Asia. The Abramowitz Rld maps with MODIS Ta and ea showed reasonable seasonal patterns, which were well-aligned with other biophysical variables reported by previous studies. The MODIS Rld map developed in this study will be very useful for identifying spatial patterns that are not detectable from ground-based Rld measurement sites.

  6. A unified engineering model of the first stroke in downward negative lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Amitabh; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2016-03-01

    Each stroke in a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash is composed of downward leader and upward return stroke processes, which are usually modeled individually. The first stroke leader is stepped and starts with preliminary breakdown (PB) which is often viewed as a separate process. We present the first unified engineering model for computing the electric field produced by a sequence of PB, stepped leader, and return stroke processes, serving to transport negative charge to ground. We assume that a negatively charged channel extends downward in a stepped fashion during both the PB and leader stages. Each step involves a current wave that propagates upward along the newly formed channel section. Once the leader attaches to ground, an upward propagating return stroke neutralizes the charge deposited along the channel. Model-predicted electric fields are in reasonably good agreement with simultaneous measurements at both near (hundreds of meters, electrostatic field component is dominant) and far (tens of kilometers, radiation field component is dominant) distances from the lightning channel. Relations between the features of computed electric field waveforms and model input parameters are examined. It appears that peak currents associated with PB pulses are similar to return stroke peak currents, and the observed variation of electric radiation field peaks produced by leader steps at different heights above ground is influenced by the ground corona space charge.

  7. Design of Hemispherical Downward-Facing Vessel for Critical Heat Flux Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, J. S.; Suh, K. Y.

    2009-01-01

    The in-vessel retention (IVR) is one of major severe accident management strategies adopted by some operating nuclear power plants during a severe accident. The recent Shin-Gori Units 3 and 4 of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe (APR1400) have adopted the external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) by reactor cavity flooding as major severe accident management strategy. The ERVC in the APR1400 design resorts to active flooding system using thermal insulator. The Corium Attack Stopper Apparatus Spherical Channel (CASA SC) tests are conducted to measure the critical power and critical heat flux (CHF) on a downward hemispherical vessel scaled down from the APR1400 lower head by 1/10 on a linear scale. CASA is designed through scaling and thermal analysis to simulate the APR1400 vessel and thermal insulator. The heated vessel of CASA SC represents the external surface of a hemisphere submerged vessel in water. The heated vessel plays an important role in the ERVC experiment depending on the configuration of oxide pool and metallic layer. Hand calculation and computational analysis are performed to produce high heat flux from the downward facing hemisphere in excess of 1 MW/m 2

  8. Effects of fuel properties on the natural downward smoldering of piled biomass powder: Experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Fang; Yi, Weiming; Li, Yongjun; Zha, Jianwen; Luo, Bin

    2014-01-01

    To validate the modeling of one-dimensional biomass smoldering and combustion, the effects of fuel type, moisture content and particle size on the natural downward smoldering of biomass powder have been investigated experimentally. A cylindrical reactor (inner size Φ26 cm × 22 cm) was constructed, and corn stalk, pine trunk, pyrolysis char and activated char from corn stalk were prepared as powders. The smoldering characteristics were examined for each of the four materials and for different moisture contents and particle sizes. The results revealed the following: 1) The maximum temperature in the fuel bed is only slightly affected by the fuel type and particle size. It increases gradually for original biomass and decreases slowly for chars with the development of the process. 2) The propagation velocity of the char oxidation front is significantly affected by the carbon density and ash content and nearly unaffected by moisture content and particle size. 3) The propagation velocity of the drying front is significantly affected by the moisture content, decreasing from over 10 times the propagation velocity of char oxidation front to about 3 times as the moisture content increased from 3 to 21%. - Highlights: • Natural downward smoldering of four materials, different moisture contents, and different particle sizes were investigated. • Propagation velocity of the char oxidation front differs significantly from that of the drying front. • Carbon density and ash content of fuel significantly affect propagation velocity of the char oxidation front

  9. Impacts of Saharan dust on downward irradiance and photosynthetically available radiation in the water column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ohde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A semi-empirical approach was used to quantify the modification of the underwater light field in amplitude (magnitude effect and spectral distribution (spectral effect by different atmospheric conditions altering the incident light. The approach based on an optical model in connection with radiation measurements in the area off Northwest Africa. Key inputs of the model were parameterized magnitude and spectral effects. Various atmospheric conditions were considered: clear sky, dusty sky without clouds, cloudy sky without dust and skies with different ratios of dust and clouds. Their impacts were investigated concerning the modification of the downward irradiance and photosynthetically available radiation in the water column. The impact on downward irradiance depended on the wavelength, the water depth, the optical water properties, the dust and cloud properties, and the ratio of clouds to dust. The influence of clouds on the amplitude can be much higher than that of dust. Saharan dust reduced the photosynthetically available radiation in the water column. Ocean regions were more influenced than coastal areas. Compensations of the magnitude and spectral effects were observed at special water depths in ocean regions and at atmospheric conditions with definite cloud to dust ratios.

  10. Numerical analysis of transient heat conduction in downward-facing curved sections during quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, C.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Pool boiling from downward-facing surfaces is of interest in many applications such as cooling of electric cables, handling of containers of hazardous liquids and external cooling of nuclear reactor vessels. Here, a two-dimensional numerical analysis was performed to determine pool boiling curves from downward-facing curved stainless-steel and copper surfaces during quenching in saturated water. To ensure stability and accuracy of the numerical solution, the alternating direction implicit (ADI) method based on finite control volume representations was employed. A time dependent boundary condition was provided by the measured temperature at nine interior locations near the boiling surface. Best results were obtained using a grid of 20x20 CVs and a non-iterative approach. Calculated temperatures near the top surface of the metal sections agreed with measured values to within 0.5 K and 2.5 K for the copper and stainless-steel sections, respectively. The running time on a Pentium 90 MHz PC for the entire boiling curve was 7% of the real transient time and 4% of that of a simplified Gaussian elimination (SGE) method for the Crank-Nicolson scheme

  11. Heating limits of boiling downward two-phase flow in parallel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kenji; Kondoh, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Shu; Sakai, Takaaki.

    1989-01-01

    Flow characteristics and heating limits of downward two-phase flow in single or parallel multi-channels are investigated experimentally and analytically. The heating section used is made of glass tube, in which the heater tube is inserted, and the flow regime inside it is observed. In single channel experiments with low flow rate conditions, it is found that, initially, gas phase which flows upward against the downward liquid phase flow condenses and diminishes as it flows up being cooled by inflowing liquid. However, as the heating power is increased, some portion of the gas phase reaches the top and accumulates to form an liquid level, which eventually causes the dryout. On the other hand, for high flow rate condition, the flooding at the bottom of the heated section is the cause of the dryout. In parallel multi-channels experiments, reversed (upward) flow which leads to the dryout is observed in some of these channels for low flow rate conditions, while the situation is the same to the single channel case for high flow rate conditions. Analyses are carried out to predict the onset of dryout in single channel using the drift flux model as well as the Wallis' flooding correlation. Above-mentioned two types of the dryout and their boundary are predicted which agree well with the experimental results. (author)

  12. Wavefield extrapolation in caustic-free normal ray coordinates

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2012-11-04

    Normal ray coordinates are conventionally constructed from ray tracing, which inherently requires smooth velocity profiles. To use rays as coordinates, the velocities have to be smoothed further to avoid caustics, which is detrimental to the mapping process. Solving the eikonal equation numerically for a line source at the surface provides a platform to map normal rays in complex unsmoothed velocity models and avoid caustics. We implement reverse-time migration (RTM) and downward continuation in the new ray coordinate system, which allows us to obtain efficient images and avoid some of the dip limitations of downward continuation.

  13. Head and pelvic movement asymmetry during lungeing in horses with symmetrical movement on the straight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodin, M; Roepstorff, L; French, A; Keegan, K G; Pfau, T; Egenvall, A

    2016-05-01

    Lungeing is commonly used as part of standard lameness examinations in horses. Knowledge of how lungeing influences motion symmetry in sound horses is needed. The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the symmetry of vertical head and pelvic motion during lungeing in a large number of horses with symmetric motion during straight line evaluation. Cross-sectional prospective study. A pool of 201 riding horses, all functioning well and considered sound by their owners, were evaluated in trot on a straight line and during lungeing to the left and right. From this pool, horses with symmetric vertical head and pelvic movement during the straight line trot (n = 94) were retained for analysis. Vertical head and pelvic movements were measured with body mounted uniaxial accelerometers. Differences between vertical maximum and minimum head (HDmax, HDmin) and pelvic (PDmax, PDmin) heights between left and right forelimb and hindlimb stances were compared between straight line trot and lungeing in either direction. Vertical head and pelvic movements during lungeing were more asymmetric than during trot on a straight line. Common asymmetric patterns seen in the head were more upward movement during push-off of the outside forelimb and less downward movement during impact of the inside limb. Common asymmetric patterns seen in the pelvis were less upward movement during push-off of the outside hindlimb and less downward movement of the pelvis during impact of the inside hindlimb. Asymmetric patterns in one lunge direction were frequently not the same as in the opposite direction. Lungeing induces systematic asymmetries in vertical head and pelvic motion patterns in horses that may not be the same in both directions. These asymmetries may mask or mimic fore- or hindlimb lameness. © 2015 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd.

  14. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  15. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  16. Characteristics of downward leaders in a cloud-to-ground lightning strike on a lightning rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caixia; Sun, Zhuling; Jiang, Rubin; Tian, Yangmeng; Qie, Xiushu

    2018-05-01

    A natural downward negative cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning was observed at a close distance of 370 m by using electric field change measurements and a high-speed camera at 5400 frames per second (fps). Two subsequent leader-return strokes of the lightning hit a lightning rod installed on the top of a seven-story building in Beijing city, while the grounding point for the stepped leader-first return stroke was 12 m away, on the roof of the building. The 2-D average speed of the downward stepped leader (L1) before the first return stroke (R1) was approximately 5.1 × 104 m/s during its propagation over the 306 m above the building, and those before the subsequent strokes (R2 and R3) ranged from 1.1 × 106 m/s to 2.2 × 106 m/s. An attempted leader (AL) occurred 201 ms after R1 and 10 ms before R2 reached approximately 99 m above the roof and failed to connect to the ground. The 2-D average speed of the AL was approximately 7.4 × 104 m/s. The luminosity at tip of the leader was brighter than the channel behind it. The leader inducing the R2 with an alteration of terminating point was a dart-stepped leader (DSL), which propagated through the channel of AL and continued to develop downward with new branches at about 17 m above the roof. The 2-D speed of the DSL at the bottom 99 m was 6.6 × 105 m/s. The average time interval between the stepped pulses of the DSL was approximately 10 μs, smaller than that of L1 with value of about 17 μs. The average step lengths of the DSL were approximately 6.6 m. The study shows that the stepped leader-first return stroke of lightning will not always hit the tip of a tall metal rod due to the significant branching property of the leader. However, under certain conditions, the subsequent return strokes may alter the grounding point to the tip of a tall metal rod. For the lightning rod, the protection against subsequent return strokes may be better than that against the first return stroke.

  17. [Scenes in movement. Movement disorders on film].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Romero, J

    2010-03-01

    There are publications in which various neurological diseases are analysed on film. However, no references have been found on movement disorders in this medium. A total of 104 documents were collected and reviewed using the internet movie data base (IMDb). The majority were associated with dystonia, Parkinson's and tics, were American commercial productions, and the most common genre was drama. The cinema usually depicts old men with developed Parkinson's disease. However, motor complications only appear in 19% and non-motor symptoms in 14%. The image of dystonia is generally that of a young man, with disabling dystonia secondary to childhood cerebral palsy. Tics appear associated with Tourette's syndrome, with the excessive use of obscene expressions and with very few references to other important aspects of this syndrome, such as mood and behavioural changes. The majority of tremors portrayed on film are associated with Parkinsonism and are not pathological. Myoclonus appears anecdotically and is normally symptomatic. Parkinson's disease is the type of movement disorder that the cinema portrays with greater neurological honesty and in a more dignified manner.

  18. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Far-zone contributions of airborne gravity anomalies' upward/downward continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyang Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Airborne gravimetry has become a vital technique in local gravity field approximation, and upward/downward continuation of gravity data is a key process of airborne gravimetry. In these procedures, the integral domain is divided into two parts, namely the near-zone and the far-zone. The far-zone contributions are approximated by the truncation coefficients and a global geo-potential model, and their values are controlled by several issues. This paper investigates the effects of flight height, the size of near-zone cap, and Remove-Compute-Restore (RCR technique upon far-zone contributions. Results show that at mountainous area the far-zone contributions can be ignored when EIGEN-6C of 360 degree is removed from the gravity data, together with a near-zone cap of 1° and a flight height less than 10 km, while at flat area EIGEN-6C of 180 degree is feasible.

  20. Collector Efficiency in Downward-Type Internal-Recycle Solar Air Heaters with Attached Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Dong Ho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The internal-recycle operation effect on collector efficiency in downward-type rectangular solar air heaters with attached fins is theoretically investigated. It is found that considerable collector efficiency is obtainable if the collector has attached fins and the operation is carried out with internal recycling. The recycling operation increases the fluid velocity to decrease the heat transfer resistance, compensating for the undesirable effect of decreasing the heat transfer driving force (temperature difference due to remixing. The attached fins provide an enlarged heat transfer area. The order of performance in a device of same size is: double pass with recycle and fins > double pass with recycle but without fins > single pass without recycle and fins.

  1. Heavy mineral sorting in downwards injected Palaeocene sandstone, Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Svendsen, Johan Byskov

    2011-01-01

    Post-depositional remobilization and injection of sand are often seen in deep-water clastic systems and has been recently recognised as a significant modifier of deep-water sandstone geometry. Large-scale injectite complexes have been interpreted from borehole data in the Palaeocene Siri Canyon...... of depositional structures in deep-water sandstones, the distinction between "in situ" and injected or remobilised sandstones is often ambiguous. Large scale heavy mineral sorting (in 10 m thick units) is observed in several reservoir units in the Siri Canyon and has been interpreted to represent the depositional...... sorting. In this study we describe an example of effective shear-zone sorting of heavy minerals in a thin downward injected sandstone dyke which was encountered in one of the cores in the Cecilie Field, Siri Canyon. Differences in sorting pattern of heavy minerals are suggested as a tool for petrographic...

  2. Research on the Flow Field and Structure Optimization in Cyclone Separator with Downward Exhaust Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical software analysis of the turbulent and strongly swirling flow field of a cyclone separator with downward exhaust gas and its performances is described. The ANSYS 14.0 simulations based on DPM model are also used in the investigation. A new set of geometrical design has been optimized to achieve minimum pressure drop and maximum separation efficiency. A comparison of numerical simulation of the new design confirm the superior performance of the new design compared to the conventional design. The influence of the structure parameters such as the length of the guide pipe, the shape of the guide, the inlet shape on the separation performance was analyzed in this research. This research result has certain reference value for cyclone separator design and performance optimization.

  3. Concepts of self-acting circulation loops for downward heat transfer (reverse thermosiphons)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobriansky, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific and technical knowledge related to general self-acting flow loops (thermosiphons and heat pipes) that transmit heat upwards and self-acting reverse flow loops that transmit heat downwards. This paper classifies the heat and mass transfer processes that take place in general flow loops and analyses the nomenclature applied in the literature. It also presents the principles of operation of sixteen reverse flow loops; four of the loops are powered by an external source of energy, while the remaining loops are self-acting. Of the self-acting loops, vapor was used for heat transfer in seven of them and liquid was used in the remaining ones. Based on the available research results, a list of the advantages and disadvantages of both types of loops is presented.

  4. Downward economic mobility and preterm birth: an exploratory study of Chicago-born upper class White mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Rankin, Kristin M; David, Richard J

    2015-07-01

    A paucity of published data exists on the factors underlying the relatively poor birth outcome of non-Hispanic White women in the United States. To determine whether downward economic mobility is a risk factor for preterm birth (births of Chicago-born upper-class (defined by early-life residence in affluent neighborhoods) non-Hispanic White women. Upper class-born White women (n = 4,891) who did not experience downward economic mobility by the time of delivery had a PTB rate of 5.4 %. Those women who experienced slight (n = 5,112), moderate (n = 2,158), or extreme (n = 339) downward economic mobility had PTB rates of 6.5, 8.5, and 10.1 %, respectively; RR (95 % CI) = 1.2 (1.0-4.0), 1.6 (1.3-1.9), and 1.9 (1.3-2.6), respectively. Maternal downward economic mobility was also associated with an increased prevalence of biologic, medical, and behavioral risk factors. Interestingly, the relationship between moderate to extreme downward mobility and preterm birth was stronger among former low birth weight (birth for former LBW and non-LBW women who experienced any downward mobility (compared to those women with lifelong upper class status) equaled 2.4 (1.1-5.3) and 1.1 (1.0-1.1), respectively. Downward economic mobility is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth among upper class-born White urban women; this phenomenon is strongest among former low birth weight women.

  5. Experimental study on interfacial area transport in downward two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanyi

    In view of the importance of two group interfacial area transport equations and lack of corresponding accurate downward flow database that can reveal two group interfacial area transport, a systematic database for adiabatic, air-water, vertically downward two-phase flow in a round pipe with inner diameter of 25.4 mm was collected to gain an insight of interfacial structure and provide benchmarking data for two-group interfacial area transport models. A four-sensor conductivity probe was used to measure the local two phase flow parameters and data was collected with data sampling frequency much higher than conventional data sampling frequency to ensure the accuracy. Axial development of local flow parameter profiles including void fraction, interfacial area concentration, and Sauter mean diameter were presented. Drastic inter-group transfer of void fraction and interfacial area was observed at bubbly to slug transition flow. And the wall peaked interfacial area concentration profiles were observed in churn-turbulent flow. The importance of local data about these phenomenon on flow structure prediction and interfacial area transport equation benchmark was analyzed. Bedsides, in order to investigate the effect of inlet conditions, all experiments were repeated after installing the flow straightening facility, and the results were briefly analyzed. In order to check the accuracy of current data, the experiment results were cross-checked with rotameter measurement as well as drift-flux model prediction, the averaged error is less than 15%. Current models for two-group interfacial area transport equation were evaluated using these data. The results show that two-group interfacial area transport equations with current models can predict most flow conditions with error less than 20%, except some bubbly to slug transition flow conditions and some churn-turbulent flow conditions. The disagreement between models and experiments could result from underestimate of inter

  6. Tropospheric weather influenced by solar wind through atmospheric vertical coupling downward control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Paul; Bruntz, Robert; Tsukijihara, Takumi; Iwao, Koki; Muldrew, Donald B.; Rušin, Vojto; Rybanský, Milan; Turňa, Maroš; Šťastný, Pavel

    2018-06-01

    Occurrence of severe weather in the context of solar wind coupling to the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere (MIA) system is investigated. It is observed that significant snowfall, wind and heavy rain, particularly if caused by low pressure systems in winter, tend to follow arrivals of high-speed solar wind. Previously published statistical evidence that explosive extratropical cyclones in the northern hemisphere tend to occur within a few days after arrivals of high-speed solar wind streams from coronal holes (Prikryl et al., 2009, 2016) is corroborated for the southern hemisphere. Cases of severe weather events are examined in the context of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere (MIA) coupling. Physical mechanism to explain these observations is proposed. The leading edge of high-speed solar wind streams is a locus of large-amplitude magneto-hydrodynamic waves that modulate Joule heating and/or Lorentz forcing of the high-latitude lower thermosphere generating medium-scale atmospheric gravity waves that propagate upward and downward through the atmosphere. Simulations of gravity wave propagation in a model atmosphere using the Transfer Function Model (Mayr et al., 1990) reveal that propagating waves originating in the lower thermosphere can excite a spectrum of gravity waves in the lower atmosphere. In spite of significantly reduced amplitudes but subject to amplification upon reflection in the upper troposphere, these gravity waves can provide a lift of unstable air to release instabilities in the troposphere and initiate convection to form cloud/precipitation bands. It is primarily the energy provided by release of latent heat that leads to intensification of storms. These results indicate that vertical coupling in the atmosphere exerts downward control from solar wind to the lower atmospheric levels influencing tropospheric weather development.

  7. Heat transfer effect of an extended surface in downward-facing subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Abdul R., E-mail: khan@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Erkan, Nejdet, E-mail: erkan@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1188 (Japan); Okamoto, Koji, E-mail: okamoto@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1188 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Compare downward-facing flow boiling results from bare and extended surfaces. • Upstream and downstream temperatures were measured on the extended surface. • Downstream temperatures exceed upstream temperatures for all flow rates. • Bubble accumulation occurs downstream on extended surface. • Extended surface heat transfer lower than bare surface as flow rate reduced. - Abstract: New BWR containment designs are considering cavity flooding as an accident management strategy. Unlike the PWR, the BWR has many Control Rod Guide Tube (CRGT) penetrations in the lower head. During a severe accident scenario with core melt in the lower plenum along with cavity flooding, the penetrations may affect the heat transfer on the ex-vessel surface and disrupt fluid flow during the boiling process. A small-scale experiment was performed to investigate the issues existing in downward-facing boiling phenomenon with an extended surface. The results were compared with a bare (flat) surface. The mass flux of 244 kg/m{sup 2} s, 215 kg/m{sup 2} s, and 177 kg/m{sup 2} s were applied in this study. CHF conditions were observed only for the 177 kg/m{sup 2} s case. The boiling curves for both types of surfaces and all flow rates were obtained. The boiling curves for the highest flow rate showed lower surface temperatures for the extended surface experiments when compared to the bare surface. The downstream location on the extended surface yielded the highest surface temperatures as the flow rate was reduced. The bubble accumulation and low velocity in the wake produced by flow around the extended surface was believed to have caused the elevated temperatures in the downstream location. Although an extended surface may enhance the overall heat transfer, a reduction in the local heat transfer was observed in the current experiments.

  8. Kinematic differences exist between transtibial amputee fallers and non-fallers during downwards step transitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanicek, Natalie; Strike, Siobhán C; Polman, Remco

    2015-08-01

    Stair negotiation is biomechanically more challenging than level gait. There are few biomechanical assessments of transtibial amputees descending stairs and none specifically related to falls. Stair descent may elicit more differences than level gait in amputees with and without a previous falls history. The aim of this study was to compare the gait kinematics of fallers and non-fallers during downwards step transitioning in transtibial amputees. Cross-sectional study. Six fallers and five non-fallers completed step transition trials on a three-step staircase at their self-selected pace. Nine participants exhibited a clear preference to lead with the affected limb, while two had no preference. Four participants self-selected a step-to rather than a reciprocal stair descent strategy. The fallers who used a reciprocal strategy walked 44% more quickly than the non-fallers. To compensate for the lack of active plantar flexion of the prosthetic foot, exaggerated range of motion occurred proximally at the pelvis during swing. The step-to group was more reliant on the handrails than the reciprocal group and walked more slowly. As anticipated, the fallers walked faster than the non-fallers despite employing the more difficult 'roll-over' technique. Handrail use could help to improve dynamic control during downwards step transitions. Transtibial amputees are advised to descend steps using external support, such as handrails, for enhanced dynamic control. Hip abductor and knee extensor eccentric strength should be improved through targeted exercise. Prosthetic socket fit should be checked to allow adequate knee range of motion on the affected side. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  9. Downwards Vertical Attention Bias in Conversion Disorder vs Controls: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Sivan; Elkana, Odelia; Dawidowicz, Liraz; Yeshayahu, Liel; Biran, Iftah

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a largely enigmatic disorder, one that requires a thorough ruling-out process. Prior research suggests that metaphors and conceptualization are rooted in physical experience, and that we interpret our affective world through metaphors. Spatial metaphors (interaction of affect and vertical space) are a prominent example of the grounding of metaphors. This is a relatively unpaved direction of research of CD. The present pilot study sought to explore this view by investigating the "healthy is up, sick is down" spatial metaphors (e.g., "fell ill" and "top shape") in patients with CD, examining the correlation between the processing of bodily-related words, CD, and vertical space. We hypothesized that patients with CD, who experience their bodies as ill, will demonstrate a downwards bias when processing bodily-related words; corresponding to the "healthy is up, sick is down" spatial metaphor. A total of 8 female patients (ages M-38.13 SD-10.44) and 42 female controls (ages M-36.4 SD-14.57) performed a visual attention task. Participants were asked to identify a spatial probe at the top or the bottom of a screen, following either a bodily related (e.g., arm) or non-bodily related (e.g., clock) prime word. As predicted, when processing bodily-related words, patients with CD demonstrated a downwards attention bias. Moreover, the higher the patient's level of somatization, the faster the patient detected lower (vs upper) spatial targets. This study suggests that the changed health paradigm of patients with CD is grounded in sensorimotor perception. Further research could propose new diagnostic and treatment options for CD. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Head movements and postures as pain behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2018-01-01

    Pain assessment can benefit from observation of pain behaviors, such as guarding or facial expression, and observational pain scales are widely used in clinical practice with nonverbal patients. However, little is known about head movements and postures in the context of pain. In this regard, we analyze videos of three publically available datasets. The BioVid dataset was recorded with healthy participants subjected to painful heat stimuli. In the BP4D dataset, healthy participants performed a cold-pressor test and several other tasks (meant to elicit emotion). The UNBC dataset videos show shoulder pain patients during range-of-motion tests to their affected and unaffected limbs. In all videos, participants were sitting in an upright position. We studied head movements and postures that occurred during the painful and control trials by measuring head orientation from video over time, followed by analyzing posture and movement summary statistics and occurrence frequencies of typical postures and movements. We found significant differences between pain and control trials with analyses of variance and binomial tests. In BioVid and BP4D, pain was accompanied by head movements and postures that tend to be oriented downwards or towards the pain site. We also found differences in movement range and speed in all three datasets. The results suggest that head movements and postures should be considered for pain assessment and research. As additional pain indicators, they possibly might improve pain management whenever behavior is assessed, especially in nonverbal individuals such as infants or patients with dementia. However, in advance more research is needed to identify specific head movements and postures in pain patients. PMID:29444153

  11. Kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the normal shoulder: assessment of the shapes and signals of the superior and inferior labra with abductive movement using an open-type imager.

    OpenAIRE

    Togami, Izumi; Sasai, Nobuya; Tsunoda, Masatoshi; Sei, Tetsuro; Yabuki, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Takahiro; Mitani, Masahiko; Akaki, Shiro; Kuroda, Masahiro; Hiraki, Yoshio

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the superior and inferior glenoid labra with abductive movement using an open-type MR unit in asymptomatic healthy volunteers. Both fast low angle shot (FLASH) and turbo spin echo (TSE) images were obtained to evaluate the shapes of both the superior and inferior labra, as well as to assess changes in signal at these sites. As the abduction angle was increased, the shape of the superior labrum changed from round or triangular to crescentic and a h...

  12. Correlations between gravitropic curvature and auxin movement across gravistimulated roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.; Hertel, R.

    1990-01-01

    We compared the kinetics of auxin redistribution across the caps of primary roots of 2-day-old maize (Zea mays, cv Merit) seedlings with the time course of gravitropic curvature. [3H] indoleacetic acid was applied to one side of the cap in an agar donor and radioactivity moving across the cap was collected in an agar receiver applied to the opposite side. Upon gravistimulation the roots first curved upward slightly, then returned to the horizontal and began curving downward, reaching a final angle of about 67 degrees. Movement of label across the caps of gravistimulated roots was asymmetric with preferential downward movement (ratio downward/upward = ca. 1.6, radioactivity collected during the 90 min following beginning of gravistimulation). There was a close correlation between the development of asymmetric auxin movement across the root cap and the rate of curvature, with both values increasing to a maximum and then declining as the roots approached the final angle of curvature. In roots preadapted to gravity (alternate brief stimulation on opposite flanks over a period of 1 hour) the initial phase of upward curvature was eliminated and downward bending began earlier than for controls. The correlation between asymmetric auxin movement and the kinetics of curvature also held in comparisons between control and preadapted roots. Both downward auxin transport asymmetry and downward curvature occurred earlier in preadapted roots than in controls. These findings are consistent with suggestions that the root cap is not only the site of perception but also the location of the initial redistribution of effectors that ultimately leads to curvature.

  13. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  14. Comparison of several databases of downward solar daily irradiation data at ocean surface with PIRATA measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolliet, Mélodie; Wald, Lucien

    2017-04-01

    The solar radiation impinging at sea surface is an essential variable in climate system. There are several means to assess the daily irradiation at surface, such as pyranometers aboard ship or on buoys, meteorological re-analyses and satellite-derived databases. Among the latter, assessments made from the series of geostationary Meteosat satellites offer synoptic views of the tropical and equatorial Atlantic Ocean every 15 min with a spatial resolution of approximately 5 km. Such Meteosat-derived databases are fairly recent and the quality of the estimates of the daily irradiation must be established. Efforts have been made for the land masses and must be repeated for the Atlantic Ocean. The Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) network of moorings in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean is considered as a reference for oceanographic data. It consists in 17 long-term Autonomous Temperature Line Acquisition System (ATLAS) buoys equipped with sensors to measure near-surface meteorological and subsurface oceanic parameters, including downward solar irradiation. Corrected downward solar daily irradiation from PIRATA were downloaded from the NOAA web site and were compared to several databases: CAMS RAD, HelioClim-1, HelioClim-3 v4 and HelioClim-3 v5. CAMS-RAD, the CAMS radiation service, combines products of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) on gaseous content and aerosols in the atmosphere together with cloud optical properties deduced every 15 min from Meteosat imagery to supply estimates of the solar irradiation. Part of this service is the McClear clear sky model that provides estimates of the solar irradiation that should be observed in cloud-free conditions. The second and third databases are HelioClim-1 and HelioClim-3 v4 that are derived from Meteosat images using the Heliosat-2 method and the ESRA clear sky model, based on the Linke turbidity factor. HelioClim-3 v5 is the fourth database and differs from v4 by the

  15. Is tropospheric weather influenced by solar wind through atmospheric vertical coupling downward control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Paul; Tsukijihara, Takumi; Iwao, Koki; Muldrew, Donald B.; Bruntz, Robert; Rušin, Vojto; Rybanský, Milan; Turňa, Maroš; Šťastný, Pavel; Pastirčák, Vladimír

    2017-04-01

    More than four decades have passed since a link between solar wind magnetic sector boundary structure and mid-latitude upper tropospheric vorticity was discovered (Wilcox et al., Science, 180, 185-186, 1973). The link has been later confirmed and various physical mechanisms proposed but apart from controversy, little attention has been drawn to these results. To further emphasize their importance we investigate the occurrence of mid-latitude severe weather in the context of solar wind coupling to the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere (MIA) system. It is observed that significant snowstorms, windstorms and heavy rain, particularly if caused by low pressure systems in winter, tend to follow arrivals of high-speed solar wind. Previously published statistical evidence that explosive extratropical cyclones in the northern hemisphere tend to occur after arrivals of high-speed solar wind streams from coronal holes (Prikryl et al., Ann. Geophys., 27, 1-30, 2009; Prikryl et al., J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 149, 219-231, 2016) is corroborated for the southern hemisphere. A physical mechanism to explain these observations is proposed. The leading edge of high-speed solar wind streams is a locus of large-amplitude magneto-hydrodynamic waves that modulate Joule heating and/or Lorentz forcing of the high-latitude lower thermosphere generating medium-scale atmospheric gravity waves that propagate upward and downward through the atmosphere. Simulations of gravity wave propagation in a model atmosphere using the Transfer Function Model (Mayr et al., Space Sci. Rev., 54, 297-375, 1990) show that propagating waves originating in the thermosphere can excite a spectrum of gravity waves in the lower atmosphere. In spite of significantly reduced amplitudes but subject to amplification upon reflection in the upper troposphere, these gravity waves can provide a lift of unstable air to release instabilities in the troposphere thus initiating convection to form cloud/precipitation bands

  16. Simultaneous emissions of X-rays and microwaves from long laboratory sparks and downward lightning leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanya, J.; Oscar, V. D. V.; Tapia, F. F.

    2017-12-01

    radiation was detected before the return stroke. The microwave emissions in the first positive leader had lower amplitude but presented longer duration whereas the emissions in the three negative downward dart leaders were more impulsive. X-rays were detected in two of the three negative downward dart leaders.

  17. Analysis of Tube Bank Heat Transfer In Downward Directed Foam Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Gylys

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Apparatus with the foam flow are suitable to use in different technologies like heat exchangers, food industry, chemical and oil processing industry. Statically stable liquid foam until now is used in technologic systems rather seldom. Although a usage of this type of foam as heat transfer agent in foam equipment has a number of advantages in comparison with one phase liquid equipment: small quantity of liquid is required, heat transfer rate is rather high, mass of equipment is much smaller, energy consumption for foam delivery into heat transfer zone is lower. The paper analyzes the peculiarities of heat transfer from distributed in staggered order and perpendicular to foam flow in channel of rectangular cross section tube bundle to the foam flow. It was estimated the dependence of mean gas velocity and volumetric void fraction of foam flow to heat transfer in downward foam flow. Significant difference of heat transfer intensity from front and back tubes of tube row in laminar foam flow was noticed. Dependence of heat transfer on flow velocity and volumetric void fraction of foam was confirmed and estimated by criterion equations.

  18. Tornado frequency in the USA - meteorological and non-meteorological factors of a downward trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Citing numerical simulations, climate alarmists believe that global warming will lead to more frequent and more intensive tornadoes. Considering temperature increase data in the contiguous USA, this study has investigated the trend of strong tornadoes in F3+ category in the 1954-2012 period. Statistically significant decrease of tornadoes per year at an average rate of 0.44 has been recorded, that is, 4.4 tornadoes per decade. Tornado increase has been recorded with F0 and F1 categories and the cause of this increase lies in meteorological and non-meteorological factors. By using upper and lower standard deviation values, the stages of tornado activity have been singled out. The 1957-1974 period may be considered as an active stage and the 1978-2009 period as an inactive stage. Upward trend of air temperature increase does not correspond with the downward trend of the number of F3+ tornado category, while the correlation coefficient between these two variables is R = −0.14. This fact does not correspond with the simulation results and output data of various numerical models anticipating an increase in the number and intensity of tornado events in the conditions of surface air temperature growth.

  19. Enhancement of downward-facing saturated boiling heat transfer by the cold spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohag, Frauk A.; Beck, Faith R.; Mohanta, Lokanath; Cheung, Fan Bill; Segall, Albert E.; Eden, Timothy J.; Potter, John K. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park (United States)

    2017-02-15

    In-vessel retention by passive external reactor vessel cooling under severe accident conditions is a viable approach for retention of radioactive core melt within the reactor vessel. In this study, a new and versatile coating technique known as 'cold spray' that can readily be applied to operating and advanced reactors was developed to form a microporous coating on the outer surface of a simulated reactor lower head. Quenching experiments were performed under simulated in-vessel retention by passive external reactor vessel cooling conditions using test vessels with and without cold spray coatings. Quantitative measurements show that for all angular locations on the vessel outer surface, the local critical heat flux (CHF) values for the coated vessel were consistently higher than the corresponding CHF values for the bare vessel. However, it was also observed for both coated and uncoated surfaces that the local rate of boiling and local CHF limit vary appreciably along the outer surface of the test vessel. Nonetheless, results of this intriguing study clearly show that the use of cold spray coatings could enhance the local CHF limit for downward-facing boiling by > 88%.

  20. BABCOCK–LEIGHTON SOLAR DYNAMO: THE ROLE OF DOWNWARD PUMPING AND THE EQUATORWARD PROPAGATION OF ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Cameron, Robert, E-mail: bkarak@ucar.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-11-20

    The key elements of the Babcock–Leighton dynamos are the generation of poloidal field through decay and the dispersal of tilted bipolar active regions and the generation of toroidal field through the observed differential rotation. These models are traditionally known as flux transport dynamo models as the equatorward propagations of the butterfly wings in these models are produced due to an equatorward flow at the bottom of the convection zone. Here we investigate the role of downward magnetic pumping near the surface using a kinematic Babcock–Leighton model. We find that the pumping causes the poloidal field to become predominately radial in the near-surface shear layer, which allows the negative radial shear to effectively act on the radial field to produce a toroidal field. We observe a clear equatorward migration of the toroidal field at low latitudes as a consequence of the dynamo wave even when there is no meridional flow in the deep convection zone. Both the dynamo wave and the flux transport type solutions are thus able to reproduce some of the observed features of the solar cycle including the 11-year periodicity. The main difference between the two types of solutions is the strength of the Babcock–Leighton source required to produce the dynamo action. A second consequence of the magnetic pumping is that it suppresses the diffusion of fields through the surface, which helps to allow an 11-year cycle at (moderately) larger values of magnetic diffusivity than have previously been used.

  1. BABCOCK–LEIGHTON SOLAR DYNAMO: THE ROLE OF DOWNWARD PUMPING AND THE EQUATORWARD PROPAGATION OF ACTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Cameron, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The key elements of the Babcock–Leighton dynamos are the generation of poloidal field through decay and the dispersal of tilted bipolar active regions and the generation of toroidal field through the observed differential rotation. These models are traditionally known as flux transport dynamo models as the equatorward propagations of the butterfly wings in these models are produced due to an equatorward flow at the bottom of the convection zone. Here we investigate the role of downward magnetic pumping near the surface using a kinematic Babcock–Leighton model. We find that the pumping causes the poloidal field to become predominately radial in the near-surface shear layer, which allows the negative radial shear to effectively act on the radial field to produce a toroidal field. We observe a clear equatorward migration of the toroidal field at low latitudes as a consequence of the dynamo wave even when there is no meridional flow in the deep convection zone. Both the dynamo wave and the flux transport type solutions are thus able to reproduce some of the observed features of the solar cycle including the 11-year periodicity. The main difference between the two types of solutions is the strength of the Babcock–Leighton source required to produce the dynamo action. A second consequence of the magnetic pumping is that it suppresses the diffusion of fields through the surface, which helps to allow an 11-year cycle at (moderately) larger values of magnetic diffusivity than have previously been used.

  2. 'Downward control' of the mean meridional circulation and temperature distribution of the polar winter stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rolando R.; Boville, Byron A.

    1994-01-01

    According to the 'downward control' principle, the extratropical mean vertical velocity on a given pressure level is approximately proportional to the meridional gradient of the vertically integrated zonal force per unit mass exerted by waves above that level. In this paper, a simple numerical model that includes parameterizations of both planetary and gravity wave breaking is used to explore the influence of gravity wave breaking in the mesosphere on the mean meridional circulation and temperature distribution at lower levels in the polar winter stratosphere. The results of these calculations suggest that gravity wave drag in the mesosphere can affect the state of the polar winter stratosphere down to altitudes below 30 km. The effect is most important when planetary wave driving is relatively weak: that is, during southern winter and in early northern winter. In southern winter, downwelling weakens by a factor of 2 near the stratospause and by 20% at 30 km when gravity wave drag is not included in the calculations. As a consequence, temperatures decrease considerably throughout the polar winter stratosphere (over 20 K above 40 km and as much as 8 K at 30 km, where the effect is enhanced by the long radiative relaxation timescale). The polar winter states obtained when gravity wave drag is omitted in this simple model resemble the results of simulations with some general circulation models and suggest that some of the shortcomings of the latter may be due to a deficit in mesospheric momentum deposition by small-scale gravity waves.

  3. Studies on boiling heat transfer on a hemispherical downward heating surface supposing IVR-AM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Tadayoshi; Kataoka, Isao

    2006-01-01

    The scale-down experiments supposing the IVR-AM were made on the pool boiling heat transfer from hemispherical downward facing heating surface. The boiling phenomena were realized by flooding the heated hemispherical vessel into the sub-cooled water or saturated water under the atmospheric pressure. The hemispherical vessel supposing the scale-down pressure vessel was made of SUS304 stainless steel. Molten lead, which was preheated up to about 500 degrees Celsius, was put into the vessel and used as the heat source. The vessel was cooled down by flooding into the water to realize the quenching process. The direct observation by using the digital video camera was performed and made clear the special characteristics of boiling phenomena such as the film boiling, the transition boiling and the nucleate boiling taking place in order during the cooling process. The measurement for the wall superheat and heat flux by using thermocouples was also carried out to make clear the boiling heat transfer characteristics during the cooling process. Fifteen thermocouples are inserted in the wall of the hemispherical bowl to measure the temperature distributions and heat flux in the hemispherical bowl. (author)

  4. Flow Regime Identification of Co-Current Downward Two-Phase Flow With Neural Network Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Goda; Seungjin Kim; Ye Mi; Finch, Joshua P.; Mamoru Ishii; Jennifer Uhle

    2002-01-01

    Flow regime identification for an adiabatic vertical co-current downward air-water two-phase flow in the 25.4 mm ID and the 50.8 mm ID round tubes was performed by employing an impedance void meter coupled with the neural network classification approach. This approach minimizes the subjective judgment in determining the flow regimes. The signals obtained by an impedance void meter were applied to train the self-organizing neural network to categorize these impedance signals into a certain number of groups. The characteristic parameters set into the neural network classification included the mean, standard deviation and skewness of impedance signals in the present experiment. The classification categories adopted in the present investigation were four widely accepted flow regimes, viz. bubbly, slug, churn-turbulent, and annular flows. These four flow regimes were recognized based upon the conventional flow visualization approach by a high-speed motion analyzer. The resulting flow regime maps classified by the neural network were compared with the results obtained through the flow visualization method, and consequently the efficiency of the neural network classification for flow regime identification was demonstrated. (authors)

  5. Experimental study of natural convection heat transfer from an isothermal combined geometry (downward cone- cylinder)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, A. [Yazd Univ., Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Goharkhah, M.; Ashjaee, M. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Laminar free convection heat transfer from an isothermal combined geometry which consists of a downward cone attached to a vertical cylinder was studied. In particular, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used to determine the change in local and average heat transfer coefficients on the surface of an isothermal combined geometry for different vertex angles. The effect of the vertex angle on heat transfer was also investigated by keeping the height of the cylinder and slant length of the cone constant for all objects. The experimental data showed that the local heat transfer coefficient on the conical part increased in the vicinity of the cylinder and cone intersection. The distance between the point of minimum heat transfer coefficient on the cone and vertex of the cone decreased as the vertex angle increased. The maximum average Nusselt number for a constant Rayleigh number was obtained for the geometry with the smallest vertex angle. For all objects, the average Nusselt number increased with an increase in the Rayleigh number. An experiment was carried out on a vertical isothermal cylinder of circular cross section in order to validate the experimental approach. An analytical solution was found to be in good agreement with experimental results. 31 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Correlation for downward melt penetration into a miscible low-density substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, L.J.; Cheung, F.B.; Pedersen, D.R.; Linehan, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Downward penetration of a sacrificial bed material or a concrete basemat structure by an overlying layer of core melt resulting from a hypothetical core disruptive accident has been a major issue in post accident heat removal studies. One characteristic feature of this problem is that the solid substrate, when molten, is miscible with and lighter than the core melt so that the rate of penetration is strongly dependent upon the motion of natural convection in the melt layer driven by the density difference between the core melt and the molten substrate. This fundamentally interesting and technologically important problem has been investigated by a number of researchers. Significantly different melting rates, however, were observed in these studies. Questions concerning the occurrence of flow transition and its effect on melt penetration remain to be answered. To promote the understanding of the phenomena and to strengthen the data base of melt penetration, simulation experiments were conducted using various kinds of salt solutions (KI, NaCl, CaCl 2 , and MgCl 2 solutions) as the working fluid and an air-bubble-free ice slab as the solid substrate

  7. Experimental and theoretical study on transition boiling concerning downward-facing horizontal surface in confined space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, D.W.; Su, G.H.; Tian, W.X.; Sugiyama, K.; Qiu, S.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental study has been conducted to examine the pool boiling occurs on a relative large downward-facing round surface with a diameter of 300 mm in confined water pool at atmospheric pressure. An artificial neural network (ANN) has been trained successfully based on the experimental data for predicting Nusselt number of transition boiling in the present study. The input parameters of the ANN are wall superheat, ΔT w , the ratio of the gap size to the diameter of the heated surface, δ/D, Prandtl number and Rayleigh number. The output is Nusselt number, Nu. The results show that: Nu decreases with increasing ΔT w , and increases generally with an increase of δ/D. Nu increases with increasing Pr when gap size is smaller than 4.0 mm. And Nu decreases initially and then increases with increasing Pr as gap size bigger than 5.0 mm. The results also indicate that the influence of Grashof number, Gr, could be negligible. Finally, a new correlation was proposed to predict the transition boiling heat transfer under the present condition. The comparisons between the prediction of the new correlation and experimental data show a reasonable agreement

  8. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Reliability of levator scapulae index in subjects with and without scapular downward rotation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Choi, Woo-Jeong; Jeong, Hyo-Jung; Yoon, Tae-Lim

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce levator scapulae (LS) measurement using a caliper and the levator scapulae index (LSI) and to investigate intra- and interrater reliability of the LSI in subjects with and without scapular downward rotation syndrome (SDRS). Two raters measured LS length twice in 38 subjects (19 with SDRS and 19 without SDRS). For reliability testing, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC) were calculated. Intrarater reliability analysis resulted with ICCs ranging from 0.94 to 0.98 in subjects with SDRS and 0.96 to 0.98 in subjects without SDRS. These results represented that intrarater reliability in both groups were excellent for measuring LS length with the LSI. Interrater reliability was good (ICC: 0.82) in subjects with SDRS; however, interrater reliability was moderate (ICC: 0.75) in subjects without SDRS. Additionally, SEM and MDC were 0.13% and 0.36% in subjects with SDRS and 0.35% and 0.97% in subjects without SDRS. In subjects with SDRS, low dispersion of the measurement errors and MDC were shown. This study suggested that the LSI is a reliable method to measure LS length and is more reliable for subjects with SDRS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional Movement Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Patient Organizations International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) See all related organizations Publications Order NINDS Publications Definition Psychogenic movement is an unwanted muscle movement such ...

  12. Downward social comparison and subjective well-being in late life: the moderating role of perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tara L; Chipperfield, Judith G; Ruthig, Joelle C; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from Heckhausen and Schulz's Motivational Theory of Life-span Development, this study examined perceived control as a moderator of the protective relationship between downward social comparison and subjective well-being among older adults. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 97, 63% female, ages 79-97) were interviewed in their own homes at three time-points over a nine-year period. Interviews assessed older adults' perceived control over daily tasks, their use of downward social comparison in response to task restriction, and their subjective well-being. Regression analyses yielded a significant interaction between downward social comparison and perceived control for three subjective well-being outcomes: life satisfaction, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms. Follow-up analyses revealed that downward social comparison was associated with greater subjective well-being at low levels of perceived control; but was unrelated to subjective well-being at high levels of perceived control. These findings corroborate Heckhausen and Schulz's theorized goal-opportunity congruence premise and have implications for quality-of-life interventions to assist community-dwelling older adults.

  13. Observational Characterization of the Downward Atmospheric Longwave Radiation at the Surface in the City of São Paulo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde Barbaro, E.; Oliveira, A.P.; Soares, J.; Codato, G.; Ferreira, M.J.; Mlakar, P.; Boznar, M.Z.; Escobedo, J.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the seasonal and diurnal variations of downward longwave atmospheric irradiance (LW) at the surface in São Paulo, Brazil, using 5-min-averaged values of LW, air temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation observed continuously and simultaneously from 1997 to 2006 on a

  14. Distribution characteristics of interfacial parameter in downward gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical circular tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guoqiang; Yan Changqi; Tian Daogui; Sun Licheng

    2014-01-01

    Experimental study was performed on distribution characteristics of interfacial parameters of downward gas-liquid flow in a vertical circular tube with the measurement by a two-sensor optical fiber probe. The test section is a circular pipe with the inner diameter of 50 mm and the length of 2000 mm. The superficial velocities of the gas and the liquid phases cover the ranges of 0.004-0.077 m/s and 0.43-0.71 m/s, respectively. The results show that the distributions of the interfacial parameters in downward bubbly flows are quite different from those in upward bubbly flows. For the case of upward flow, the parameters present the 'wall-peak' or 'core-peak' distributions, but for the case of downward flow, they show 'wall-peak' or 'wide-peak' distributions. The average value of void fraction in vertical downward flow is about 119.6%-145.0% larger than that in upward flow, and the interfacial area concentration is about 18.8%-82.5% larger than that in upward flow. The distribution of interfacial parameters shows an obvious tendency of uniformity. (authors)

  15. Experimental observation of pulsating instability under acoustic field in downward-propagating flames at large Lewis number

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Sung Hwan; Hu, Longhua; Fujita, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    by interaction between heat release and acoustic pressure fluctuations of the downward-propagating premixed flames in a tube to enhance conductive heat loss at the tube wall and radiative heat loss at the open end of the tube due to extended flame residence time

  16. Dropout and downward mobility in the educational career: An event-history analysis of ethnic schooling differences in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    While many aspects of educational careers have been examined ill the literature on ethnic minorities, such as truancy, turnover and grades, downward mobility has rarely been studied. Using data on more than 10,000 students who entered secondary school in The Netherlands in 1989, we develop an

  17. Dropout and Downward Mobility in the Educational Career : An Event-History Analysis of ethnic Schooling Differences in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2003-01-01

    While many aspects of educational careers have been examined ill the literature on ethnic minorities, such as truancy, turnover and grades, downward mobility has rarely been studied. Using data on more than 10,000 students who entered secondary school in The Netherlands in 1989, we develop an

  18. Iron fertilization enhanced net community production but not downward particle flux during the Southern Ocean iron fertilization experiment LOHAFEX

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Martin, P.; Loeff, M.M.R. van der.; Cassar, N.; Vandromme, P.; d'Ovidio, F.; Stemmann, L.; Rengarajan, R.; Soares, M.A.; Gonzalez, H.E.; Ebersbach, F.; Lampitt, R.S.; Sanders, R.; Barnett, B.A.; Smetacek, V.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    A closed eddy core in the Subantarctic Atlantic Ocean was fertilized twice with two tons of iron (as FeSO4), and the 300 km2 fertilized patch was studied for 39 days to test whether fertilization enhances downward particle flux...

  19. Comparison of vehicle-mounted forward-looking polarimetric infrared and downward-looking infrared sensors for landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, F.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Jong, W. de; Schutte, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a comparison of two vehicle-mounted infrared systems for landmine detection. The first system is a down-ward looking standard infrared camera using processing methods developed within the EU project LOTUS. The second system is using a forward-looking polarimetric infrared camera.

  20. Flow regime, void fraction and interfacial area transport and characteristics of co-current downward two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokanathan, Manojkumar [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088 (United States); Hibiki, Takashi [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Downward flow regime maps and models were studied for 25.4 to 101.6 mm pipe diameters. • Effect of flow inlet on flow transition, void & interfacial area profile were studied. • Bubble void profiles were associated with the interfacial forces for downward flow. • Flow regime pressure drop and interfacial friction factor were studied. • The most applicable and accurate downward drift-flux correlation was determined. - Abstract: Downward two-phase flow is observed in light water reactor accident scenarios such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and loss of heat sink accident (LOHS) due to loss of feed water or a secondary pipe break. Hence, a comprehensive literature review has been performed for the co-current downward two-phase flow with information on the flow regime transitions and flow characteristics for each regime in the downward flow. The review compares the experimental data of the flow regime map and the current available transition models. Objectivity of the data varies on the method utilized as a certain degree of subjectivity is still present in the most objective method. Nevertheless, experimental data through subjective methods such as direct visualization or analysis of a wire mesh sensor (WMS) data were still studied in this review. Despite the wide range of flow regime data for numerous pipe sizes, a consensus was not reached for the effect of pipe sizes on flow regime transition. However, it is known that a larger pipe results in greater degree of coalescence at lower gas flow rates (Hibiki et al., 2004). The introduction of a flow straightener at the inlet led to less coring and fluid rotation and inevitably, reduced bubble coalescence. This also resulted in the disappearance of the kinematic shock wave phenomenon, contrary to an inlet without a flow straightener. The effect of flow inlet, flow location, pipe diameter and bubble interfacial forces on the radial distribution as well as bubble coalescence and breakup rate

  1. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, S.; Gruber, S.; Purves, R. S.

    2012-06-01

    As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR) and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR). In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB) stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM) in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night. We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD) and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD) of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between -2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations to local conditions

  2. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR. In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night.

    We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between −2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations

  3. Predicting Downward Longwave Radiation for Various Land Use in All-Sky Condition: Northeast Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Han Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimate of the surface longwave radiation is important for the surface radiation budget, which in turn controls evaporation and sensible heat fluxes. Regional land use changes can impact local weather conditions; for example, heterogeneous land use patterns and temporal changes in atmospheric circulation patterns would affect air temperature and water vapor pressure, which are more commonly used as inputs in existing models for estimating downward longwave radiation (LWd. In this study, first, we analyzed the cloud cover and land use covers impacts on LWd. Next, LWd on all-sky conditions were developed by using the existing land use-adapted model and cloud cover data from the region of Saint Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD, FL. The results show that factors, such as, seasonal effects, cloud cover, and land use, are of importance in the estimation of LWd and they cannot be ignored when developing a model for LWd prediction. The all-sky land use-adapted model with all factors taken into account performs better than other existing models statistically. The results of the statistical analyses indicated that the BIAS, RMSE, MAE, and PMRE are −0.18 Wm−2, 10.81 Wm−2, 8.00 Wm−2, and 2.30%; −2.61 Wm−2, 14.45 Wm−2, 10.64 Wm−2, and 3.19%; −0.07 Wm−2, 10.53 Wm−2, 8.03 Wm−2, and 2.27%; and −0.62 Wm−2, 13.97 Wm−2, 9.76 Wm−2, and 2.87% for urban, rangeland, agricultural, and wetland areas, respectively.

  4. Estimating Surface Downward Shortwave Radiation over China Based on the Gradient Boosting Decision Tree Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Downward shortwave radiation (DSR is an essential parameter in the terrestrial radiation budget and a necessary input for models of land-surface processes. Although several radiation products using satellite observations have been released, coarse spatial resolution and low accuracy limited their application. It is important to develop robust and accurate retrieval methods with higher spatial resolution. Machine learning methods may be powerful candidates for estimating the DSR from remotely sensed data because of their ability to perform adaptive, nonlinear data fitting. In this study, the gradient boosting regression tree (GBRT was employed to retrieve DSR measurements with the ground observation data in China collected from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA Meteorological Information Center and the satellite observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR at a spatial resolution of 5 km. The validation results of the DSR estimates based on the GBRT method in China at a daily time scale for clear sky conditions show an R2 value of 0.82 and a root mean square error (RMSE value of 27.71 W·m−2 (38.38%. These values are 0.64 and 42.97 W·m−2 (34.57%, respectively, for cloudy sky conditions. The monthly DSR estimates were also evaluated using ground measurements. The monthly DSR estimates have an overall R2 value of 0.92 and an RMSE of 15.40 W·m−2 (12.93%. Comparison of the DSR estimates with the reanalyzed and retrieved DSR measurements from satellite observations showed that the estimated DSR is reasonably accurate but has a higher spatial resolution. Moreover, the proposed GBRT method has good scalability and is easy to apply to other parameter inversion problems by changing the parameters and training data.

  5. Downward carbon transport in a 2000-year rice paddy soil chronosequence traced by radiocarbon measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuer, T., E-mail: tbraeuer@leibniz.uni-kiel.de [Leibniz-Laboratory, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Grootes, P.M.; Nadeau, M.-J.; Andersen, N. [Leibniz-Laboratory, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Paddy and non-paddy soils from a chronosequence of 50-2000 years of agricultural use, developed on former estuarine sediments of the Yangtze River, were sampled near Cixi, Zhejiang Province, China, in the framework of the Research Unit 'Biogeochemistry of paddy soil evolution' of the German Research Foundation (DFG). In addition samples of Yangtze River estuarine sediments were obtained. The parent sediment shows a fairly homogeneous composition with ca. 0.3% TOC and a {sup 14}C concentration of ca. 50 pMC. After being diked-in, gradients in soil organic carbon and {sup 14}C concentration develop under the influence of vegetation and cultivation. In the non-paddy soil, a {sup 14}C gradient with concentration decreasing with increasing depth from modern (>100 pMC) to original sediment values around 50 pMC is already established after 50 years and can also be observed in the older sites. In contrast, the 50 years old paddy soil shows organic carbon and {sup 14}C enrichment only in the A-horizon and a nearly constant TOC and {sup 14}C stock of original sediment below the plough pan. To test the basic approach that the soil profile development started on homogeneous sediment, an isotope and mass balance calculation was used. The results show a quite similar age composition of different sample sites. Paddy rice cultivation quickly leads to a dense plough pan, which seriously reduces, but not totally prevents, downward transport of organic matter. The equilibrium times for TOC and {sup 14}C in paddy soil profiles are short (decades) in the topsoil and in the order of centuries in the subsoil, underlining the dynamic character of soil organic carbon.

  6. Downward carbon transport in a 2000-year rice paddy soil chronosequence traced by radiocarbon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bräuer, T.; Grootes, P.M.; Nadeau, M.-J.; Andersen, N.

    2013-01-01

    Paddy and non-paddy soils from a chronosequence of 50–2000 years of agricultural use, developed on former estuarine sediments of the Yangtze River, were sampled near Cixi, Zhejiang Province, China, in the framework of the Research Unit “Biogeochemistry of paddy soil evolution” of the German Research Foundation (DFG). In addition samples of Yangtze River estuarine sediments were obtained. The parent sediment shows a fairly homogeneous composition with ca. 0.3% TOC and a 14 C concentration of ca. 50 pMC. After being diked-in, gradients in soil organic carbon and 14 C concentration develop under the influence of vegetation and cultivation. In the non-paddy soil, a 14 C gradient with concentration decreasing with increasing depth from modern (>100 pMC) to original sediment values around 50 pMC is already established after 50 years and can also be observed in the older sites. In contrast, the 50 years old paddy soil shows organic carbon and 14 C enrichment only in the A-horizon and a nearly constant TOC and 14 C stock of original sediment below the plough pan. To test the basic approach that the soil profile development started on homogeneous sediment, an isotope and mass balance calculation was used. The results show a quite similar age composition of different sample sites. Paddy rice cultivation quickly leads to a dense plough pan, which seriously reduces, but not totally prevents, downward transport of organic matter. The equilibrium times for TOC and 14 C in paddy soil profiles are short (decades) in the topsoil and in the order of centuries in the subsoil, underlining the dynamic character of soil organic carbon.

  7. Spatio-temporal representativeness of ground-based downward solar radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris

    2017-04-01

    Surface solar radiation (SSR) is most directly observed with ground based pyranometer measurements. Besides measurement uncertainties, which arise from the pyranometer instrument itself, also errors attributed to the limited spatial representativeness of observations from single sites for their large-scale surrounding have to be taken into account when using such measurements for energy balance studies. In this study the spatial representativeness of 157 homogeneous European downward surface solar radiation time series from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) were examined for the period 1983-2015 by using the high resolution (0.05°) surface solar radiation data set from the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF SARAH) as a proxy for the spatiotemporal variability of SSR. By correlating deseasonalized monthly SSR time series form surface observations against single collocated satellite derived SSR time series, a mean spatial correlation pattern was calculated and validated against purely observational based patterns. Generally decreasing correlations with increasing distance from station, with high correlations (R2 = 0.7) in proximity to the observational sites (±0.5°), was found. When correlating surface observations against time series from spatially averaged satellite derived SSR data (and thereby simulating coarser and coarser grids), very high correspondence between sites and the collocated pixels has been found for pixel sizes up to several degrees. Moreover, special focus was put on the quantification of errors which arise in conjunction to spatial sampling when estimating the temporal variability and trends for a larger region from a single surface observation site. For 15-year trends on a 1° grid, errors due to spatial sampling in the order of half of the measurement uncertainty for monthly mean values were found.

  8. Using Satellites to Investigate the Sensitivity of Longwave Downward Radiation to Water Vapor at High Elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Miller, James R.; Landry, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many studies suggest that high-elevation regions may be among the most sensitive to future climate change. However, in situ observations in these often remote locations are too sparse to determine the feedbacks responsible for enhanced warming rates. One of these feedbacks is associated with the sensitivity of longwave downward radiation (LDR) to changes in water vapor, with the sensitivity being particularly large in many high-elevation regions where the average water vapor is often low. We show that satellite retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) can be used to expand the current ground-based observational database and that the monthly averaged clear-sky satellite estimates of humidity and LDR are in good agreement with the well-instrumented Center for Snow and Avalanche Studies ground-based site in the southwestern Colorado Rocky Mountains. The relationship between MODIS-retrieved precipitable water vapor and surface specific humidity across the contiguous United States was found to be similar to that previously found for the Alps. More important, we show that satellites capture the nonlinear relationship between LDR and water vapor and confirm that LDR is especially sensitive to changes in water vapor at high elevations in several midlatitude mountain ranges. Because the global population depends on adequate fresh water, much of which has its source in high mountains, it is critically important to understand how climate will change there. We demonstrate that satellites can be used to investigate these feedbacks in high-elevation regions where the coverage of surface-based observations is insufficient to do so.

  9. Natural convection in a water tank with a heated horizontal plate facing downward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sun Kyoo; Jung, Moon Kee; Helmut Hoffmann

    1995-01-01

    Experimental and computational studies were carried out to investigate the natural convection of the single phase flow in a tank with a heated horizontal plate facing downward. This is a simplified model for investigations of the influence of a core melt at the bottom of a reactor vessel on the thermal hydraulic behavior in a water filled cavity surrounding the vessel. In this case the vessel is simulated by a hexahedron insulated box with a heated plate horizontally mounted at the bottom of the box. The box with the heated plate is installed in a water filled hexahedron tank. Coolers are immersed in the U-type water volume between the box and the tank. Although the multicomponent flows exist more probably below the heated plate in reality, present study concentrates on the single phase flow in a first step prior to investigating the complicated multicomponent thermal hydraulic phenomena. In the present study, in order to get a better understanding for the natural convection characteristics below the heated plate, the velocity and temperature are measured by LDA(Laser Doppler Anemometry) and thermocouples, respectively. And flow fields are visualized by taking pictures of the flow region with suspended particles. The results show the occurrence of a very effective circulation of the fluid in the whole flow area as the heater and coolers are put into operation. In the remote region below the heated plate the flow is nearly stagnant, and a remarkable temperature stratification can be observed with very thin thermal boundary. Analytical predictions using the FLUTAN code show a reasonable matching of the measured velocity fields. 18 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs. (Author)

  10. Critical heat flux for downward-facing pool boiling on CANDU calandria tube surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behdadi, Azin, E-mail: behdada@mcmaster.ca; Talebi, Farshad; Luxat, John

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Pressure tube-calandria tube contact may challenge fuel channel integrity in CANDU. • Critical heat flux variation is predicted on the outer surface of CANDU calandria tube. • A two-phase boundary layer flow driven by buoyancy is modeled on the surface. • Different slip ratios and flow regimes are considered inside the boundary layer. • Subcooling effects are added to the model using wall heat flux partitioning. - Abstract: One accident scenario in CANDU reactors that can challenge the integrity of the primary pressure boundary is a loss of coolant accident, referred to as critical break LOCA, in which the pressure tube (PT) can undergo thermal creep strain deformation and contact its calandria tube (CT). In such case, rapid redistribution of stored heat from PT to CT, leads to a large spike in heat flux to the moderator which can cause bubble accumulation and dryout on the CT surface. A challenge to fuel channel integrity is posed if critical heat flux occurs on the surface of the CT and results in sustained film boiling. If the post-dryout temperature becomes sufficiently high then continued creep strain of the PT and CT may lead to fuel channel failure. In this study, a mechanistic model is developed to predict the critical heat flux variations along the downward facing outer surface of CT. The hydrodynamic model considers a liquid macrolayer beneath an elongated vapor slug on the surface. Local dryout is postulated to occur whenever the fresh liquid supply to the macrolayer is not sufficient to compensate for the liquid depletion. A boundary layer analysis is performed, treating the two phase motion as an external buoyancy driven flow. The model shows good agreement with the available experimental data and has been modified to take into account the effect of subcooling.

  11. Tracers confirm downward mixing of Tyrrhenian Sea upper waters associated with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Roether

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of tritium and 3He in the Tyrrhenian Sea, 1987–2009, confirm the enhanced vertical mixing of intermediate waters into the deep waters that has been noted and associated with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient in previous studies. Our evidence for the mixing rests on increasing tracer concentrations in the Tyrrhenian deep waters, accompanied by decreases in the upper waters, which are supplied from the Eastern Mediterranean. The downward transfer is particularly evident between 1987 and 1997. Later on, information partly rests on increasing tritium-3He ages; here we correct the observed 3He for contributions released from the ocean floor. The Tyrrhenian tracer distributions are fully compatible with data upstream of the Sicily Strait and in the Western Mediterranean. The tracer data show that mixing reached to the bottom and confirm a cyclonic nature of the deep water circulation in the Tyrrhenian. They furthermore indicate that horizontal homogenization of the deep waters occurs on a time scale of roughly 5 years. Various features point to a reduced impact of Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW in the Tyrrhenian during the enhanced-mixing period. This is an important finding because it implies less upward mixing of WMDW, which has been named a major process to enable the WMDW to leave the Mediterranean via the Gibraltar Strait. On the other hand, the TDW outflow for several years represented a major influx of enhanced salinity and density waters into the deep-water range of the Western Mediterranean.

  12. 25 CFR 167.14 - Movement of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of livestock. 167.14 Section 167.14 Indians... Movement of livestock. Annually, prior to the normal lamb buying season, the Central Grazing Committee... and the procedures and methods to be used in moving livestock to market. All movements of livestock...

  13. Ground-Based Observations of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes Associated with Downward-Directed Lightning Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, J.; Abbasi, R.; Krehbiel, P. R.; LeVon, R.; Remington, J.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    and energy measurement, simulation studies indicate that the fluxes and forward-beaming observed are consistent with production in processes such as the relativistic runaway electron avalanche. We conclude that the anomalous triggers observed by TA are most likely downward-directed Terrestrial Gamma Flashes.

  14. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  15. Study of the influence of water properties dependency with the temperature in a laminar downward flow between parallel flat plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmastro, Dario F.; Chasseur, A.F.; Garcia, Juan C.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we develop a model that contemplates stationary completely developed laminar downward flow between flat parallel plates with uniform and constant heat fluxes. The Boussinesq approach is used in the momentum equation, taking into account the change of the density with the temperature only in the gravitational term. The system is at atmospheric pressure and the dependencies of the density and the thermal conductivity with the temperature are also considered. The velocity and temperature profiles, the friction factor, the heat transfer coefficient and the Nusselt Number are calculated, for different flow rates and heating powers. The results allow to obtain some conclusions that can be of interest in the study of research reactors with forced downward refrigeration and flat plate fuels, although these calculations do not exactly represent the real behavior inside these channels. (author) [es

  16. The Downward Causality and the Hard Problem of Consciousness or Why Computer Programs Do not Work in the Dark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldachev Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Any low-level processes, the sequence of chemical interactions in a living cell, muscle cellular activity, processor commands or neuron interaction, is possible only if there is a downward causality, only due to uniting and controlling power of the highest level. Therefore, there is no special “hard problem of consciousness”, i.e. the problem of relation of ostensibly purely biological materiality and non-causal mentality - we have only the single philosophical problem of relation between the upward and downward causalities, the problem of interrelation between hierarchic levels of existence. It is necessary to conclude that the problem of determinacy of chemical processes by the biological ones and the problem of neuron interactions caused by consciousness are of one nature and must have one solution.

  17. A simple way of characterizing X-ray downwards-deflecting mirror-bender assemblies using the long trace profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assoufid, L.; Her, P.

    1999-01-01

    A simple device composed of a modular double-pentaprism system that enables the long trace profiler (LTP) to measure mirrors in nonconventional ways, i.e., in the vertical-downward and sideways positions, has been devised and implemented in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) long trace profiler (LTP II). The systems is very useful in calibrating mirror-bender assemblies. This paper describes the system and gives results of measurements performed with it on a mirror used at the APS

  18. Modeled Downward Transport of a Passive Tracer over Western North America during an Asian Dust Event in April 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Joshua P.; McKendry, Ian G.; Stull, Roland B.

    2001-09-01

    An intense Gobi Desert dust storm in April 1998 loaded the midtroposphere with dust that was transported across the Pacific to western North America. The Mesoscale Compressible Community (MC2) model was used to investigate mechanisms causing downward transport of the midtropospheric dust and to explain the high concentrations of particulate matter of less than 10-m diameter measured in the coastal urban areas of Washington and southern British Columbia. The MC2 was initialized with a thin, horizontally homogeneous layer of passive tracer centered at 650 hPa for a simulation from 0000 UTC 26 April to 0000 UTC 30 April 1998. Model results were in qualitative agreement with observed spatial and temporal patterns of particulate matter, indicating that it captured the important meteorological processes responsible for the horizontal and vertical transport over the last few days of the dust event. A second simulation was performed without topography to isolate the effects of topography on downward transport.Results show that the dust was advected well east of the North American coast in southwesterly midtropospheric flow, with negligible dust concentration reaching the surface initially. Vertically propagating mountain waves formed during this stage, and differences between downward and upward velocities in these waves could account for a rapid descent of dust to terrain height, where the dust was entrained into the turbulent planetary boundary layer. A deepening outflow (easterly) layer near the surface transported the tracer westward and created a zonal-shear layer that further controlled the tracer advection. Later, the shear layer lifted, leading to a downward hydraulic acceleration along the western slopes, as waves generated in the easterly flow amplified below the shear layer that was just above mountain-crest height. Examination of 10 yr of National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalyses suggests that such events

  19. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  20. On the Nocturnal Downward and Westward Equatorial Ionospheric Plasma Drifts During the 17 March 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagiya, Mala S.; Vichare, Geeta; Sinha, A. K.; Sripathi, S.

    2018-02-01

    During quiet period, the nocturnal equatorial ionospheric plasma drifts eastward in the zonal direction and downward in the vertical direction. This quiet time drift pattern could be understood through dynamo processes in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere. The present case study reports the nocturnal simultaneous occurrence of the vertically downward and zonally westward plasma drifts over the Indian latitudes during the geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015. After 17:00 UT ( 22:10 local time), the vertical plasma drift became downward and coincided with the westward zonal drift, a rarely observed feature of low latitude plasma drifts. The vertical drift turned upward after 18:00 UT, while the zonal drift became eastward. We mainly emphasize here the distinct bipolar type variations of vertical and zonal plasma drifts observed around 18:00 UT. We explain the vertical plasma drift in terms of the competing effects between the storm time prompt penetration and disturbance dynamo electric fields. Whereas, the westward drift is attributed to the storm time local electrodynamical changes mainly through the disturbance dynamo field in addition to the vertical Pedersen current arising from the spatial (longitudinal) gradient of the field aligned Pedersen conductivity.

  1. Unexpected high 35S concentration revealing strong downward transport of stratospheric air during the monsoon transitional period in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mang; Zhang, Zhisheng; Su, Lin; Su, Binbin; Liu, Lanzhong; Tao, Jun; Fung, Jimmy C. H.; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2016-03-01

    October is the monsoon transitional period in East Asia (EA) involving a series of synoptic activities that may enhance the downward transport of stratospheric air to the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Here we use cosmogenic 35S in sulfate aerosols (35SO42-) as a tracer for air masses originating from the stratosphere and transported downward to quantify these mixing processes. From 1 year 35SO42- measurements (March 2014 to February 2015) at a background station in EA we find remarkably enhanced 35SO42- concentration (3150 atoms m-3) in October, the highest value ever reported for natural sulfate aerosols. A four-box 1-D model and meteorological analysis reveal that strong downward transport from the free troposphere is a vital process entraining aged stratospheric air masses to the PBL. The aged stratospheric masses are accumulated in the PBL, accelerating the SO2 transformation to SO42-. Implications for the tropospheric O3 budget and the CO2 biogeochemical cycle are discussed.

  2. Are insecure jobs as bad for mental health and occupational commitment as unemployment? Equal threat or downward spiral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Otto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the significance of unemployment and job insecurity for mental health (self-esteem; life satisfaction and occupational commitment (occupational self-efficacy; affective occupational commitment comparing the "equal threat" assumption with the "downward spiral" assumption. Whereas the equal threat model suggests that unemployment and (perceived insecure employment are similarly threatening phenomena, the downward spiral model assumes that there might be a spectrum of employment insecurity, ranging from secure employment to long-term unemployment, that is associated with decreasing mental health and occupational commitment. Controlling for socio-demographic background variables and personality traits, results of ANCOVAs, in which we distinguished between workers who were (more or less securely employed and those who were either insecurely employed or short- or long-term unemployed revealed that the insecurely employed workers were no better off than those who were (short-term unemployed - in line with the equal threat hypothesis. Only for occupational self-efficacy did we find some support for the downward spiral model.

  3. A study on the upward and downward facing pool boiling heat transfer characteristics of graphene-modified surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Ahn, Ho Seon; Kim, Ji Min

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene, carbon in two dimensions, were highlighted as a good heat transfer materials, according to its high thermal conductivity. Lateral conduction and water absorption into the structure helped graphene films to inhibit the formation of hot spots, which means increasing of critical heat flux (CHF) and boiling heat transfer coefficient (BHTC) performances. In this study, we report a promising increase of CHF and BHTC results with 2D graphene films. Furthermore, we tried to observe bubble behavior via high-speed visualization to investigate a relationship between bubble behavior and pool boiling performances in downward facing boiling. The effect of graphene film coating on the pool boiling performances of upward and downward facing heater surface were examined. 2D- and 3D- graphene film showed good enhancement results on the CHF (by 111% and 60%) and BHTC (by 40% and 20-25%) performances. Bubble behavior change was significant factor on the CHF and BHTC performances in downward facing boiling. The amount of evaporation heat flux was calculated from the velocity, bubble diameter, frequency, orientation angle and superheat that the post-products of the high-speed visualization

  4. Disappearance of the laue spots of the downward X-ray diffraction and huge recoil Thomson scattering in solid helium as some prominent peculiarities of a quantum crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Tetsuo

    1996-02-01

    In topographs of the downward X-ray diffraction, no Laue spots could be observed using a horizontally thin line-focussed beam. The disappearance of the Laue spots by the downward X-ray diffraction could be explained by two main factors besides a synergistic effect of the smallness of the atomic-scattering factors, the absorption coefficients, the densities etc. One is that the downward X-ray diffraction is completely inelastic scattering, and, as a result, diffracted X-ray beams may become entirely diffuse scattering. The other is that the great difference in the linear scatterer density between the forward and downward directions resulted from the fact that the irradiation of a line-focussed X-ray beam to take section topographs weakens the downward X-ray diffraction. The main reason is not due to the zero-point vibration. (J.P.N.).

  5. Disappearance of the laue spots of the downward X-ray diffraction and huge recoil Thomson scattering in solid helium as some prominent peculiarities of a quantum crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tetsuo.

    1996-02-01

    In topographs of the downward X-ray diffraction, no Laue spots could be observed using a horizontally thin line-focussed beam. The disappearance of the Laue spots by the downward X-ray diffraction could be explained by two main factors besides a synergistic effect of the smallness of the atomic-scattering factors, the absorption coefficients, the densities etc. One is that the downward X-ray diffraction is completely inelastic scattering, and, as a result, diffracted X-ray beams may become entirely diffuse scattering. The other is that the great difference in the linear scatterer density between the forward and downward directions resulted from the fact that the irradiation of a line-focussed X-ray beam to take section topographs weakens the downward X-ray diffraction. The main reason is not due to the zero-point vibration. (J.P.N.)

  6. Prognostic Significance of Preterm Isolated Decreased Fetal Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Karahanoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the prognostic significance of isolated, preterm decreased fetal movement following normal initial full diagnostic workup. Study design: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary centre. The applied protocol was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Department of the hospital where the research was conducted. Obstetrics outcomes of preterm- and term-decreased fetal movement were compared following an initial, normal diagnostic work up. Evaluated outcomes were birth weight, mode of delivery, stillbirth rate, induction of labour, development of gestational hypertension, small for gestational age and oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios during the follow up period. Result: Obstetric complications related to placental insufficiency develops more frequently for decreased fetal movement in preterm cases with respect to that of in term cases. Following the diagnosis of decreased fetal movement, pregnancy hypertension occurred in 17% of preterm decreased fetal movement cases and in 4.7% of term decreased fetal movement cases. Fetal growth restriction developed in 6.6% of preterm decreased fetal movement and in 2.3% of term decreased fetal movement. Amniotic fluid abnormalities more frequently developed in preterm decreased fetal movement. Conclusion: Following an initial normal diagnostic workup, preterm decreased fetal movement convey a higher risk for the development of pregnancy complications associated with placental insufficiency. The patient should be monitored closely and management protocols must be developed for initial normal diagnostic workups in cases of preterm decreased fetal movement.

  7. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  8. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  9. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  10. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  11. Overview of Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Delirium Additional Content Medical News Overview of Movement Disorders By Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD, Professor ... Neurology, HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente; Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology at IMSS Alberto Espay, MD, ...

  12. Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskins, Bryan L

    2013-01-01

    The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs closely examines forty-three unique case studies on movement patterns down stairwells. These studies include observations made during evacuation drills, others made during normal usage, interviews with people after fire evacuations, recommendations made from compiled studies, and detailed results from laboratory studies. The methodology used in each study for calculating density and movement speed, when known, are also presented, and this book identifies an additional seventeen variables linked to altering movement speeds. The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs is intended for researchers as a reference guide for evaluating pedestrian evacuation dynamics down stairwells. Practitioners working in a related field may also find this book invaluable.

  13. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement......-based interaction we will briefly introduce and discuss how learning, mapping and multi-user interaction are important when designing movement based interaction....

  14. Recent crustal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelzer, H.

    Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.

  15. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  16. A comparison of ground reaction force components according to the foothold heights in 16-t truck during downward step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seung-Hyun; Ryew, Che-Cheong

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the components of ground reaction force (GRF) relative to the foothold heights during downward step of 16-t truck. Adult males (n= 10) jumped downward from each 1st, 2nd, 3rd foothold step and driver's seat orderly using hand rail. Sampling rate of force components of 3 axis (medial-lateral [ML] GRF, anterior-posterior [AP] GRF, peak vertical force [PVF]), variables (COPx, COPy, COP area) of center of pressure (COP), loading rate, and stability index (ML, AP, vertical, and dynamic postural stability index [DPSI]) processed from GRF system was cut off at 1,000 Hz. and variables was processed with repeated one-way analysis of variance. AP GRF, PVF and loading rate showed higher value in case of not used hand rail than that used hand rail in all 1st, 2nd, and 3rd of foothold step. DPSI showed more lowered stability in order of 2nd, 3rd step than 1st foothold step used with hand rail, of which showed lowest stability from driver's seat. COPx, COPy, and COP area showed higher value in case of 2nd and 3rd than that of 1st of foothold step, and showed lowest stability from driver's seat. It is more desirable for cargo truck driver to utilize an available hand rail in order of 3rd, 2nd, and 1st of foothold step than downward stepping directly, thus by which may results in decrease of falling injuries and minimization of impulsive force transferring to muscular-skeletal system.

  17. Mixed convection heat transfer to carbon dioxide flowing upward and downward in a vertical tube and an annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Yoon Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Experimental results of heat transfer at a supercritical pressure for a tube with an inner diameter of 4.57 mm and a corresponding annular channel (8 mm x 10 mm, 1 mm gap) were compared each other. → Effect of various parameters such as pressure, flow direction, diameter, channel shape, was investigated. → Existing correlation for supercritical heat transfer were evaluated against the experimental data. → Some unusual characteristics of supercritical heat transfer, such as overshoot and non-monotonic behavior against buoyancy parameter, were discussed. → New correlations were proposed based on the experimental data. - Abstract: This paper addresses three main subjects in supercritical heat transfer: (1) difference in thermal characteristics between upward and downward flows; (2) effect of simulating flow channel shape; (3) evaluation of the existing supercritical heat transfer correlations. To achieve the objectives, a series of experiments was carried out with CO 2 flowing upward and downward in a circular tube with an inner diameter of 4.57 mm and an annular channel created between a tube with an inner diameter of 10 mm and a heater rod with an outer diameter of 8 mm. The working fluid, CO 2 , has been regarded as an appropriate modeling fluid for water, primarily because of their similarity in property variations against reduced temperatures. The mass flux ranged from 400 to 1200 kg/m 2 s. The heat flux was varied between 30 and 140 kW/m 2 so that the pseudo-critical point was located in the middle of the heated section at a given mass flux. The measurements were made at a pressure of 8.12 MPa, which corresponds to 110% of the critical pressure of CO 2 . The difference between the upward and downward flows was observed clearly. The heat transfer deterioration was observed in the downward flow through an annular subchannel over the region beyond the critical point. Several well-known correlations were evaluated against the experimental

  18. Long term subsidence movements and behavior of subsidence-damaged structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, J.W.; Marino, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    Surface ground movement related to sag mine subsidence has been monitored above Illinois abandoned room and pillar coal workings for periods of more than 15 years. The long term movement related to a specific mine subsidence is typically small relative to the initial displacements but have caused crack and tilt damage in both repaired and unrepaired structures. Seasonal variations in ground surface elevations are superimposed on the downward movement related to mine subsidence. Thus it is necessary to measure long term subsidence movement at about the same time each year in order to minimize environmental factors. This paper presents long term monitoring data from five subsidence sags in central and southern Illinois. The abandoned coal mine workings are located at depths of 160 to 460 ft below the ground surface. measured residual mine subsidence ranges between 1.4 and 3.6 in. 4.4 to 15 years after mine failure. The magnitude of downward displacement is greater than settlement design values (1 in.) and are at rates (0.0004 to 0.0056 ft/month) that cause damage to structures. Most of the damage in unrepaired structures occurs along existing cracks and separations. In all five cases, the ground movements are continuing at residual rates. Sag subsidence movement in Illinois takes place for a minimum of five years after the damage is manifested at the ground surface. A classification of say development is provided based on the displacement-time data

  19. Analysis of the direction of plasma vertical movement during major disruptions in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukash, Victor; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Gribov, Yuri; Fujieda, Hirobumi

    2005-01-01

    The plasma movement in the upward direction (away from the X-point) after the thermal quench (TQ) of major disruptions in ITER is favourable for the machine design, since the downward movement causes larger electromagnetic (EM) load due to the induced eddy and halo currents. Vertical directions of plasma movement after the TQ in ITER are investigated using the predictive mode of the DINA code. Three dominant parameters in determining the direction of plasma movement are identified: (i) the rate of plasma current quench (plasma temperature after the TQ) (ii) the width of plasma current mixing area just after the TQ (change of the internal plasma inductance l i ) and (iii) the initial vertical position of plasma column before the TQ. It is shown that the reference ITER plasma moves upwards after the TQ, if the electron temperature after the TQ is less than 10 eV and the drop of l i does not exceed 0.2 for the present reference initial vertical position (55.5 cm above the centre of the machine). It is also shown that the operational domain leading to the upward movement is considerably large for disruptions with fast current quench, which could generate quite severe EM load due to the induced eddy current combined with the induced halo current if the movement is downwards

  20. Design report on the guide box-reactivity and safety control plates for MPR reactor under normal operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markiewicz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The reactivity control system for the MPR reactor (Multi Purpose Reactor) is a critical component regarding safety, it must ensure a fast shut down, maintaining the reactor in subcritical condition under normal or accidental operation condition. For this purpose, this core component must be designed to maintain its operating capacity during all the residence time and under any foreseen operation condition. The mechanical design of control plates and guide boxes must comply with structural integrity, maintaining its geometric and dimensional stability within the pre-established limits to prevent interferences with other core components. For this, the heat generation effect, mechanical loads and environment and irradiation effects were evaluated during the mechanical design. The reactivity control system is composed of guide boxes, manufactured from Aluminium alloy, located between the fuel elements, and control absorber plates of Ag-In-Cd alloy hermetically enclosed by a cladding of stainless steel sliding inside de guide boxes. The upward-downward movement is transmitted by a rod from the motion device located at the reactor lower part. The design requirements, criteria and limits were established to fulfill with the normal and abnormal operation conditions. The design verifications were performed by analytical method, estimating the guide box and control plates residence time. The result of the analysis performed, shows that the design of the reactivity control system and the material selected, are appropriate to fulfill the functional requirements, with no failures attributed to the mechanical design. (author)

  1. Development of a Convective Heat Transfer Correlation of a Supercritical CO{sub 2} with Vertical Downward Flow in Circular Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Tae Ho; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Bae, Yoon Yeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Pressure of coolant flowing through a SCWR core subchannel is supercritical and the heat transfer behavior is known to be quite different from those at a subcritical pressure. Therefore the heat transfer study in a supercritical pressure is required for the acquisition of a reliable heat transfer correlation. A downward flow as well as an upward flow occurs in a multi-pass reactor core. The heat transfer at a supercritical pressure in downward channel has been known to result in a quite different behavior from an upward flow. An experiment for a supercritical CO{sub 2} flowing vertically downward in circular tubes with inner diameters of 6.32 mm and 9 mm was performed by using SPHINX(Supercritical Pressure Heat transfer Investigation for NeXt generation) at KAERI. The obtained test results are compared with the estimations from the existing correlations and an empirical formula for a downward flow is suggested.

  2. Properties of the histogram location approach and the extent and change of downward nominal wage rigidity in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Behr

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The histogram location approach has been proposed by Kahn (1997 to estimate the fraction of wage cuts prevented by downward nominal wage rigidity. In this paper, we analyze the validity of the approach by means of a simulation study which yielded evidence of unbiasedness but also of potential underestimation of rigidity parameter uncertainty and therefore of potential anticonservative inference. We apply the histogram location approach to estimate the extent of downward nominal wage rigidity across the EU for 1995-2001. Our data base is the User Data Base (UDB of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP. The results show wide variation in the fraction of wage cuts prevented by nominal wage rigidity across the EU. The lowest rigidity parameters are found for the UK, Spain and Ireland, the largest for Portugal and Italy. Analyzing the change of rigidity between sub periods 1995-1997 and 1999-2001 even shows an widening of the differences in nominal wage rigidity. Due to the finding of large differences across the EU, the results imply that the costs of low inflation policies across the EU differ substantially.

  3. Measurement of pool boiling CHF for SUS 304 and SA 508 flat plate under downward-facing and atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, Dong Hoon; Park, Hae Min; Choi, Young Jae; Jeong, Yong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Heat transfer performance of downward-facing conditions are important especially in severe accident mitigation strategy (IVR-ERVC and Core-catcher). Heat transfer limit, in other word, critical heat flux (CHF) is important value in this basis to guarantee the integrity of the system. For the application point of view in nuclear power plant, carbon steel surface should also be considered since reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in IVR-ERVC strategy consists of carbon steel, and core-catcher in EU-APR1400 is also composed of carbon steel. In this perspective, carbon steel surface was used in previous studies. In this study, CHF of both stainless steel and carbon steel material were measured under pool boiling condition with various inclination angles and dimensions. There was a width effect as angle increases, but it disappeared as approached to horizontally downward condition. Besides, there was almost no length effect for both of the width since the size of coalesced bubble was far smaller than the length of short test section (100 mm). SA 508 showed enhanced results at high angles for 40 mm-width case even though no oxidation occurred on the surface during the experiments

  4. Measurement of pool boiling CHF for SUS 304 and SA 508 flat plate under downward-facing and atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kam, Dong Hoon; Park, Hae Min; Choi, Young Jae; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Heat transfer performance of downward-facing conditions are important especially in severe accident mitigation strategy (IVR-ERVC and Core-catcher). Heat transfer limit, in other word, critical heat flux (CHF) is important value in this basis to guarantee the integrity of the system. For the application point of view in nuclear power plant, carbon steel surface should also be considered since reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in IVR-ERVC strategy consists of carbon steel, and core-catcher in EU-APR1400 is also composed of carbon steel. In this perspective, carbon steel surface was used in previous studies. In this study, CHF of both stainless steel and carbon steel material were measured under pool boiling condition with various inclination angles and dimensions. There was a width effect as angle increases, but it disappeared as approached to horizontally downward condition. Besides, there was almost no length effect for both of the width since the size of coalesced bubble was far smaller than the length of short test section (100 mm). SA 508 showed enhanced results at high angles for 40 mm-width case even though no oxidation occurred on the surface during the experiments.

  5. Downward Migration of Coastal Conifers as a Response to Recent Land Emergence in Eastern Hudson Bay, Québec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin, Yves; Bérubé, Dominique; Grégoire, Martin

    1993-07-01

    Postglacial uplift in the eastern Hudson Bay area is among the most rapid in the world (300 m during the last 8000 yr). Although emergence curves based on 14 C-dated raised shorelines give a consistent basis for modeling relative sea-level changes, such a low-resolution dating method is inappropriate for estimating trends over recent decades. A major downward displacement of white spruce ( Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and tamarack ( Larix laricina (DuRoi) K. Koch) occurred on protected shores as a response to shoreline retreat during this century. Analysis of the age distribution of trees indicates a progradation of white spruce and tamarack on gently sloping terrain ranging from 1.3 and 2.6 cm/yr, respectively, toward the sea. Improvement of climatic conditions during the 20th century favored such expansion which was probably faster than the real land emergence rates, but recent episodes of high water levels caused regression of forest margins over the highly exposed shores. Nevertheless, the downward trend of the treeline over this century substantiates the projections of 14C-dated coastal emergence curves during the modern period (1.0 to 1.3 cm/yr) by providing an estimate of the maximum rates of shoreline retreat.

  6. Downward Trend in Maternal Mortality Ratio in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Talebi Doluee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Maternal mortality is defined as the death during pregnancy or up to 42 days postpartum. This study sought to determine the trend of maternal mortality ratio (MMR and its associated factors in Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Khorasan Razavi Province, North East of Iran, during 2010 to 2014. Data was collected from the reports of Maternal Mortality Committee of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. The MMR was calculated for each period, and its trend was estimated. Chi-square test was used to find the relationship between mode of delivery and direct or indirect causes of maternal death. Results: According to the results, 94 maternal deaths occurred during 2010 to 2014. The total MMR was 17.68 (95%CI: 13.59-21.77 per 100,000 live births. The mean maternal age was 30.7±6.1 years old. Most of the deaths (75.6% occurred during postpartum period, from which 81% happened following a high-risk pregnancy. In addition, 50% of the mothers had proper numbers of visits during pregnancy. The most direct and indirect causes of maternal death were maternal hemorrhage (24.5% and cardiovascular diseases (12.8%, respectively. The relative risk of maternal mortality associated with cesarean section was 1.3 in comparison to normal vaginal delivery. Conclusion: The estimation of MMR is essential for decision-making and resource allocation. To reach this goal, a good registration system is needed to register all deaths and their exact causes.

  7. Movement monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Yoneda, Yasuaki; Hanatsumi, Masaharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable to accurate recognition for the moving state of reactor core fuels as an object to be monitored in a nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention prepares each of scheduled paths for the movement of the object to be monitored and executed moving paths along with the movement based on the information of the movement obtained from scheduled information for the movement of the reactor core fuels as a object to be monitored and the actual movement of the object to be monitored. The results of the preparation are outputted. As an output mode, (1) the results of preparation for each of the paths for movement and the results of the monitoring obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are jointed and outputted, (2) images showing each of the paths for the movement are formed, and the formed images are displayed on a screen, and (3) each of the moving paths is prepared as an image, and the image is displayed together with the image of the regions before and after the movement of the object to be monitored. In addition, obtained images of each of the paths for the movement and the monitored images obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are joined and displayed. (I.S.)

  8. Classification of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahn, Stanley

    2011-05-01

    The classification of movement disorders has evolved. Even the terminology has shifted, from an anatomical one of extrapyramidal disorders to a phenomenological one of movement disorders. The history of how this shift came about is described. The history of both the definitions and the classifications of the various neurologic conditions is then reviewed. First is a review of movement disorders as a group; then, the evolving classifications for 3 of them--parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor--are covered in detail. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  10. Directional asymmetries in human smooth pursuit eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Sally R; Lam, Jessica; Pai, Dinesh K; Spering, Miriam

    2013-06-27

    Humans make smooth pursuit eye movements to bring the image of a moving object onto the fovea. Although pursuit accuracy is critical to prevent motion blur, the eye often falls behind the target. Previous studies suggest that pursuit accuracy differs between motion directions. Here, we systematically assess asymmetries in smooth pursuit. In experiment 1, binocular eye movements were recorded while observers (n = 20) tracked a small spot of light moving along one of four cardinal or diagonal axes across a featureless background. We analyzed pursuit latency, acceleration, peak velocity, gain, and catch-up saccade latency, number, and amplitude. In experiment 2 (n = 22), we examined the effects of spatial location and constrained stimulus motion within the upper or lower visual field. Pursuit was significantly faster (higher acceleration, peak velocity, and gain) and smoother (fewer and later catch-up saccades) in response to downward versus upward motion in both the upper and the lower visual fields. Pursuit was also more accurate and smoother in response to horizontal versus vertical motion. CONCLUSIONS. Our study is the first to report a consistent up-down asymmetry in human adults, regardless of visual field. Our findings suggest that pursuit asymmetries are adaptive responses to the requirements of the visual context: preferred motion directions (horizontal and downward) are more critical to our survival than nonpreferred ones.

  11. A coupled oscillator model describes normal and strange zooplankton swimming behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Lingeman, R.

    2003-01-01

    "Normal" swimming in marine and freshwater zooplankton is often intermittent with active upward and more passive downward displacements. In the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia, the pattern is sometimes regular enough to demonstrate the presence of a rhythm. Abnormal swimming patterns were also

  12. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  13. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  14. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  15. Experimental Study on Downwardly Spreading Flame over Inclined Polyethylene-insulated Electrical Wire with Applied AC Electric Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung Jae

    2014-12-30

    An experimental study on downwardly spreading flame over slanted electrical wire, which is insulated by Polyethylene (PE), was conducted with applied AC electric fields. The result showed that the flame spread rate decreased initially with increase in inclination angle of wire and then became nearly constant. The flame shape was modified significantly with applied AC electric field due to the effect of ionic wind. Such a variation in flame spread rate could be explained by a thermal balance mechanism, depending on flame shape and slanted direction of flame. Extinction of the spreading flame was not related to angle of inclination, and was described well by a functional dependency upon the frequency and voltage at extinction.

  16. Collector Efficiency in Downward-Type Double-Pass Solar Air Heaters with Attached Fins and Operated by External Recycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Dong Ho

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The collector efficiency in a downward-type double-pass external-recycle solar air heater with fins attached on the absorbing plate has been investigated theoretically. Considerable improvement in collector efficiency is obtainable if the collector is equipped with fins and the operation is carried out with an external recycle. Due to the recycling, the desirable effect of increasing the heat transfer coefficient compensates for the undesirable effect of decreasing the driving force (temperature difference of heat transfer, while the attached fins provide an enlarged heat transfer area. The order of performances in the devices of same size is: double pass with recycle and fins > double pass with recycle but without fins > single pass without recycle and fins.

  17. Uncertainty in RELAP5/MOD3.2 calculations for interfacial drag in downward two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Collin; Schlegel, Joshua P.; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru; Kinoshita, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertainty propagation is key for best estimate code reliability. • Uncertainty in drift flux correlations used to evaluate uncertainty in interfacial drag. • Bias and error have been compared for various models. - Abstract: RELAP5/MOD3.2 is a thermal-hydraulic system analysis code used to predict the response of nuclear reactor coolant systems in the event of certain accident scenarios. It is important that RELAP and other system analysis codes are able to accurately predict various two-phase flow phenomena, particularly the interfacial transfers between the liquid and gas phases. It is also important to understand how much uncertainty exists in these predictions due to uncertainties in the constitutive relations used to close the two-fluid model. In this paper, the uncertainty in the interfacial drag calculated by RELAP5/MOD3.2 due to errors in the drift-flux models used to close the model is evaluated and compared to the correlation developed by Goda et al. (2003). The case of downward flow is considered due to the importance of co-current and counter-current downward flow for predicting behavior in the downcomer of reactor systems during small-break Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) in nuclear reactor systems. The overall uncertainty in the interfacial force calculations due to error in the distribution parameter models were found to have a bias of +8.1% and error of 20.1% for the models used in RELAP5, and a bias of −30.8% and error of 23.1% for the correlation of Goda et al. (2003). However this analysis neglects the effects of compensating errors in the drift-flux parameters, as the drift velocity is assumed to be perfectly accurate. More physically meaningful results could be obtained if the distribution parameter and drift velocity were calculated directly from local phase concentration and velocity measurements, however no studies were available which included all of this information.

  18. Effects of External Loads on Human Head Movement Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M. H.; Choi, O. M.

    1984-01-01

    The central and reflexive control strategies underlying movements were elucidated by studying the effects of external loads on human head movement control systems. Some experimental results are presented on dynamic changes weigh the addition of aviation helmet (SPH4) and lead weights (6 kg). Intended time-optimal movements, their dynamics and electromyographic activity of neck muscles in normal movements, and also in movements made with external weights applied to the head were measured. It was observed that, when the external loads were added, the subject went through complex adapting processes and the head movement trajectory and its derivatives reached steady conditions only after transient adapting period. The steady adapted state was reached after 15 to 20 seconds (i.e., 5 to 6 movements).

  19. Islamic Puritanism Movements in Indonesia as Transnational Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Baskara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Islamic puritanism movements are the movements compelling to return to the teachings of Quran and Sunnah, as the pure teachings of Islam and abandon even abolish other teachings outside the teachings of Quran and Sunnah. The movements of Islamic puritanism can be considered as transnational movements because they spread their teachings and ideologies, create organizations, networks, and provide financial supports across nations. This paper describes Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia and their transnational connections. Some Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia can be considered as part of Islamic transnational movements, in which most of the movements are centered in the Middle East. In Indonesia, Islamic puritanism movements firstly appeared in the beginning of the nineteenth century, called Padri movement in West Sumatra. It was then continued to the emergence of Islamic organizations in the twentieth century. Recently, Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia mostly take form as Salafism-Wahabism movements.

  20. Flow regime visualization and pressure drops of HFO-1234yf, R-134a and R-410A during downward two-phase flow in vertical return bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, Miguel; Revellin, Rémi; Wallet, Jérémy; Bonjour, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Visual observation of two-phase flow regimes during downward flow in a return bend. ► Bubble and vapor slug dynamical behaviors in downward slug flow are reported. ► Perturbation lengths up- and downstream of the return bend have been investigated. ► Measurement of 285 pressure drop data points for HFO-1234yf, R-134a and R-410A. -- Abstract: This paper provides a qualitative visual observation of the two-phase flow patterns for HFO-1234yf and R-134a during downward flow in a vertical 6.7 mm inner diameter glass return bend. The different flow regimes observed are: slug, intermittent and annular flows. Bubble and vapor slug dynamical behaviors in downward slug flow are reported for HFO-1234yf. In addition, to determine the perturbation lengths up- and downstream of the return bend, the total pressure drop has been measured at different pressure tap location up- and downstream of the singularity. Furthermore, 285 pressure drop data points measured for two-phase flow of HFO-1234yf, R-134a and R-410A in vertical downward flow return bends are presented. The flow behavior in the return bend, which is subjected to the complex combined actions of gravity and centrifugal force was expressed in terms of the vapor Froude number. This experimental pressure drop database, which is included in the appendix, is compared to four well-known prediction methods available in the literature

  1. The Irish Women's Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Ireland’s long history of patriarchy is matched by the ongoing evolution of its women’s movements. Today’s complex, transnational feminism finds its precursor in the colonial era. The first wave of the Irish women’s movement dates from the mid-19th century, with the franchise secured for women in 1918 while still under British colonial rule. First-wave feminists played a role in the nationalist movement, but their demands were sidelined later, during the construction of a conserva...

  2. Music and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  3. Polycythemia vera presenting with left hemichoreiform movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tamiharu; Shimomura, Chikako; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro; Nagataki, Shigenobu.

    1985-01-01

    A 65-year-old man developed abruptly choreiform movements involving the left face, arm and leg one day prior to admission. Physical examination revealed red face and palms, hyperemic conjunctivae and atrial fibrillations. Blood pressure was 168/90. Spleen was not palpable. Hemichoreiform movements of the left face and limbs were observed. There was no other neurological abnormalities. Laboratory studies showed RBC 880x10 4 , Hb 22.4g/dl, Hct 63%, WBC 8,100, platelets 22.9x10 4 , ESR 0mm/hr, RBC oxygen saturation 97%, serum iron 67 μg/dl, LDH 593 units, uric acid 14mg/dl, and erythropoietine (HI method) 19mIU/ml (normal 28-88). Bone marrow showed myeloid nucleated cell count 38.6x10 4 . ECG showed atrial fibrillations. Chest X-ray and scintigrams of liver and spleen were normal. CSF was normal. Brain CT scan on admission disclosed a low density area in right caudate nucleus. The choreiform movements were rapidly mitigated by venesection and by oral administration of haloperidol(3mg daily). There weeks after discontinuing haloperidol, the hemichorea returned. The routine hematology showed RBC 870x10 4 , Hb 19.8g/dl, Hct 62%, WBC 10,200, and plateret 37.4x10 4 . Another venesection reduced the chorea. Pipobroman was administered to control the polycythemia vera. He has been free of choreic movements thereafter. Choreiform movement is rarely observed in polycythemia vera. The pathogenesis is still unknown. The venous congestion, however, may play a role in this case because the choreic movements disappeared by venesection. (author)

  4. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  5. The French ecological movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansen, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the ecological Movement in France is presented: its organisation, its topics, its position with respect to the main political trends. The accent is put in particular on the antinuclear contestation [fr

  6. Movement and personality development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida M. Aylamazyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of the movement in the process of shaping the personality, its importance as a mechanism for personality development is considered. The issue of the movement has always occupied a central place in Russian psychology. However, subsequently the movement began to be considered primarily as an executive action in human life. The role of movement in personality development can vary depending on the level it occupies in the hierarchical structure of activity, and also on the type of movement, its character, and the way it is constructed. Under certain conditions, the movement can express the attitude of the subject to the surrounding world and people. Many foreign and Russian psychologists point to a special place of the postural tonic component of the motor movement, the posture in personal regulation. The posture reflects his/her personal attitudes, the system of relationships, and, above all, the emotional attitude or emotional assessment of the current situation, the interest in the actions performed. Mastering the tonic level of motor management is based on the emotional regulation, so the ability to regulate one’s own pose is an important stage in the personality development. Posture tonic regulation of motor movements in humans reveals a qualitatively different character than in animals, this being due to the person’s facing the task of mastering his’her posture, arbitrary retention of the body in one or another position. Maintaining a vertical posture requires constant activity at an arbitrary and involuntary level of mental regulation. Mastering the posture of an unstable equilibrium presupposes the emergence of the «I» and is the last stage of the development. The way a person solves the motor task of maintaining the vertical position of the body reflects his/her specific personal strategy or attitude.

  7. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses to and ...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....

  8. Paraneoplastic autoimmune movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Thien Thien

    2017-11-01

    To provide an overview of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders presenting with various movement disorders. The spectrum of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders has been expanding with the discovery of new antibodies against cell surface and intracellular antigens. Many of these paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders manifest as a form of movement disorder. With the discovery of new neuronal antibodies, an increasing number of idiopathic or neurodegenerative movement disorders are now being reclassified as immune-mediated movement disorders. These include anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which may present with orolingual facial dyskinesia and stereotyped movements, CRMP-5 IgG presenting with chorea, anti-Yo paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration presenting with ataxia, anti-VGKC complex (Caspr2 antibodies) neuromyotonia, opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome, and muscle rigidity and episodic spasms (amphiphysin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, glycine receptor, GABA(A)-receptor associated protein antibodies) in stiff-person syndrome. Movement disorders may be a presentation for paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders. Recognition of these disorders and their common phenomenology is important because it may lead to the discovery of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Antiglobalization movements and their critics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    inequity, organize transnationally, and maintain a critical stance toward significant aspects of the state system. For this reason, many supporters favor other terms such as alterglobalization movement, global justice movement , or simply the movement of movements . Critics accuse the movements...... of ideological incoherence, self-interested protectionism, and illiberal and undemocratic political methods, and point to Western liberal elite dominance within the movements. The debate has ...

  11. Downward migration of radiocesium in an abandoned paddy soil after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Junko; Wakabayashi, Shokichi; Tamura, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi

    2018-02-01

    After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 2011, continuous monitoring of the detailed vertical distribution of radiocesium in soil is required to evaluate the fate of radiocesium and establish strategies for remediation and management of the contaminated land. It is especially important to investigate paddy soil because little knowledge has been accumulated for paddy soil and wetland rice is a major staple in Japan. Therefore, we monitored the vertical distribution of 137 Cs in abandoned paddy soil in a planned evacuation zone from June 2011 to March 2016. The decontamination works (i.e., 5 cm of surface soil removal and re-covering with uncontaminated soil) were conducted by the government in 2015. As a result of monitoring, the 137 Cs gradually migrated downward with time and the 137 Cs concentration in the 0-10 cm soil was almost homogenous in October 2014, although it was non-cultivated. The liner relationship was obtained between the median depth, which is the thickness of a soil layer containing half of the total 137 Cs inventory, and the time after the accident, indicating the migration rate was constant (1.3 cm y -1 ) before the decontamination works. After the decontamination works, the 137 Cs concentration in the uppermost surface layer was reduced by 90%, however the total 137 Cs inventory was reduced by only 50-70%. It was shown that the efficiency of 137 Cs removal by the decontamination works decrease linearly over time in fields like the studied paddy, in which the homogenization of 137 Cs concentration occurred. Conversely, the downward migration of 137 Cs to subsurface layers deeper than 10 cm (i.e., plowpan layer) with low permeability rarely occurred. It is expected that these unique trends in distribution and migration of 137 Cs would be found in abandoned paddy soils with properties similar to the studied soil, sandy loam but poorly drained because of the low permeable plowpan layer, although further validation is

  12. Extracting Leaf Area Index by Sunlit Foliage Component from Downward-Looking Digital Photography under Clear-Sky Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelu Zeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of near-surface remote sensing requires the accurate extraction of leaf area index (LAI from networked digital cameras under all illumination conditions. The widely used directional gap fraction model is more suitable for overcast conditions due to the difficulty to discriminate the shaded foliage from the shadowed parts of images acquired on sunny days. In this study, a new LAI extraction method by the sunlit foliage component from downward-looking digital photography under clear-sky conditions is proposed. In this method, the sunlit foliage component was extracted by an automated image classification algorithm named LAB2, the clumping index was estimated by a path length distribution-based method, the LAD and G function were quantified by leveled digital images and, eventually, the LAI was obtained by introducing a geometric-optical (GO model which can quantify the sunlit foliage proportion. The proposed method was evaluated at the YJP site, Canada, by the 3D realistic structural scene constructed based on the field measurements. Results suggest that the LAB2 algorithm makes it possible for the automated image processing and the accurate sunlit foliage extraction with the minimum overall accuracy of 91.4%. The widely-used finite-length method tends to underestimate the clumping index, while the path length distribution-based method can reduce the relative error (RE from 7.8% to 6.6%. Using the directional gap fraction model under sunny conditions can lead to an underestimation of LAI by (1.61; 55.9%, which was significantly outside the accuracy requirement (0.5; 20% by the Global Climate Observation System (GCOS. The proposed LAI extraction method has an RMSE of 0.35 and an RE of 11.4% under sunny conditions, which can meet the accuracy requirement of the GCOS. This method relaxes the required diffuse illumination conditions for the digital photography, and can be applied to extract LAI from downward-looking webcam images

  13. A Computational Framework for Quantitative Evaluation of Movement during Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yinpeng; Duff, Margaret; Lehrer, Nicole; Sundaram, Hari; He, Jiping; Wolf, Steven L.; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a novel generalized computational framework for quantitative kinematic evaluation of movement in a rehabilitation clinic setting. The framework integrates clinical knowledge and computational data-driven analysis together in a systematic manner. The framework provides three key benefits to rehabilitation: (a) the resulting continuous normalized measure allows the clinician to monitor movement quality on a fine scale and easily compare impairments across participants, (b) the framework reveals the effect of individual movement components on the composite movement performance helping the clinician decide the training foci, and (c) the evaluation runs in real-time, which allows the clinician to constantly track a patient's progress and make appropriate adaptations to the therapy protocol. The creation of such an evaluation is difficult because of the sparse amount of recorded clinical observations, the high dimensionality of movement and high variations in subject's performance. We address these issues by modeling the evaluation function as linear combination of multiple normalized kinematic attributes y = Σwiφi(xi) and estimating the attribute normalization function φi(ṡ) by integrating distributions of idealized movement and deviated movement. The weights wi are derived from a therapist's pair-wise comparison using a modified RankSVM algorithm. We have applied this framework to evaluate upper limb movement for stroke survivors with excellent results—the evaluation results are highly correlated to the therapist's observations.

  14. An experimental study on two-phase pressure drop in small diameter horizontal, downward inclined and vertical tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autee Arun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of two-phase pressure drop in small diameter tubes orientated horizontally, vertically and at two other downward inclinations of θ= 300 and θ = 600 is described in this paper. Acrylic transparent tubes of internal diameters 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 mm with lengths of 400 mm were used as the test section. Air-water mixture was used as the working fluid. Two-phase pressure drop was measured and compared with the existing correlations. These correlations are commonly used for calculation of pressure drop in macro and mini-microchannels. It is observed that the existing correlations are inadequate in predicting the two-phase pressure drop in small diameter tubes. Based on the experimental data, a new correlation has been proposed for predicting the two-phase pressure drop. This correlation is developed by modification of Chisholm parameter C by incorporating different parameters. It was found that the proposed correlation predicted two-phase pressure drop at satisfactory level.

  15. A stable downward continuation of airborne magnetic data: A case study for mineral prospectivity mapping in Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Gholami, Ali; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that a well-known multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) technique called Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE II) to explore porphyry copper deposits can prioritize the ground-based exploratory evidential layers effectively. In this paper, the PROMETHEE II method is applied to airborne geophysical (potassium radiometry and magnetometry) data, geological layers (fault and host rock zones), and various extracted alteration layers from remote sensing images. The central Iranian volcanic-sedimentary belt is chosen for this study. A stable downward continuation method as an inverse problem in the Fourier domain using Tikhonov and edge-preserving regularizations is proposed to enhance magnetic data. Numerical analysis of synthetic models show that the reconstructed magnetic data at the ground surface exhibits significant enhancement compared to the airborne data. The reduced-to-pole (RTP) and the analytic signal filters are applied to the magnetic data to show better maps of the magnetic anomalies. Four remote sensing evidential layers including argillic, phyllic, propylitic and hydroxyl alterations are extracted from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images in order to map the altered areas associated with porphyry copper deposits. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on six Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images is implemented to map iron oxide layer. The final mineral prospectivity map based on desired geo-data set indicates adequately matching of high potential zones with previous working mines and copper deposits.

  16. Effect of subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from downward-facing curved surfaces in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Glebov, A.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching experiments were performed to investigate the effects of water subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from a downward-facing curved surface. Experiments used three copper sections of the same diameter (50.8 mm) and surface radius (148 mm), but different thickness (12.8, 20 and 30 mm). Local and average pool boiling curves were obtained at saturation and 5 K, 10 K, and 14 K subcooling. Water subcooling increased the maximum heat flux, but decreased the corresponding wall superheat. The minimum film boiling heat flux and the corresponding wall superheat, however, increased with increased subcooling. The maximum and minimum film boiling heat fluxes were independent of wall thickness above 20 mm and Biot Number > 0.8, indicating that boiling curves for the 20 and 30 thick sections were representative of quasi steady-state, but not those for the 12.8 mm thick section. When compared with that for a flat surface section of the same thickness, the data for the 12.8 mm thick section showed significant increases in both the maximum heat flux (from 0.21 to 0.41 MW/m{sup 2}) and the minimum film boiling heat flux (from 2 to 13 kW/m{sup 2}) and about 11.5 K and 60 K increase in the corresponding wall superheats, respectively.

  17. Relationship between ice water path and downward longwave radiation for clouds optically thin in the infrared: Observations and model calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, Taneil; Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Snider, Jack B.; Kropfli, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    A vertically pointing 3.2-cm radar is used to observe altostratus and cirrus clouds as they pass overhead. Radar reflectivities are used in combination with an empirical Z(sub i)-IWC (ice water content) relationship developed by Sassen (1987) to parameterize IWC, which is then integrated to obtain estimates of ice water path (IWP). The observed dataset is segregated into all-ice and mixed-phase periods using measurements of integrated liquid water paths (LWP) detected by a collocated, dual-channel microwave radiometer. The IWP values for the all ice periods are compared to measurements of infrared (IR) downward fluxes measured by a collocated narrowband (9.95-11.43 microns) IR radiometer, which results in scattergrams representing the observed dependence of IR fluxes on IWP. A two-stream model is used to calculate the infrared fluxes expected from ice clouds with boundary conditions specified by the actual clouds, and similar curves relating IWP and infrared fluxes are obtained. The model and observational results suggest that IWP is one of the primary controls on infrared thermal fluxes for ice clouds.

  18. Experimental observation of pulsating instability under acoustic field in downward-propagating flames at large Lewis number

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Sung Hwan

    2017-10-12

    According to previous theory, pulsating propagation in a premixed flame only appears when the reduced Lewis number, β(Le-1), is larger than a critical value (Sivashinsky criterion: 4(1 +3) ≈ 11), where β represents the Zel\\'dovich number (for general premixed flames, β ≈ 10), which requires Lewis number Le > 2.1. However, few experimental observation have been reported because the critical reduced Lewis number for the onset of pulsating instability is beyond what can be reached in experiments. Furthermore, the coupling with the unavoidable hydrodynamic instability limits the observation of pure pulsating instabilities in flames. Here, we describe a novel method to observe the pulsating instability. We utilize a thermoacoustic field caused by interaction between heat release and acoustic pressure fluctuations of the downward-propagating premixed flames in a tube to enhance conductive heat loss at the tube wall and radiative heat loss at the open end of the tube due to extended flame residence time by diminished flame surface area, i.e., flat flame. The thermoacoustic field allowed pure observation of the pulsating motion since the primary acoustic force suppressed the intrinsic hydrodynamic instability resulting from thermal expansion. By employing this method, we have provided new experimental observations of the pulsating instability for premixed flames. The Lewis number (i.e., Le ≈ 1.86) was less than the critical value suggested previously.

  19. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  20. HEAD MOVEMENT DURING WALKING IN THE CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUBAIR, HUMZA N.; BELOOZEROVA, IRINA N.; SUN, HAI; MARLINSKI, VLADIMIR

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20–90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40–90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ~1.5 cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ~3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ~1 cm and 1.5–3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10–30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5–1 m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ~0.05 and ~0.1 m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ~0.05 m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20–50 °/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3–0.5 cm taller and held their head 0.5–2 cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25–100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ~20 °/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  1. Monitoring of water movement in paddy field's soil using a bromide tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiah Ahmad; Kouichi Yuita

    1994-01-01

    Water movement in soils at the lower course and the middle course of Sakawa River's paddy field was monitored over an 8 week period using a bromide tracer. The water of soil samples taken one day after bromide application contained high concentrations of bromide at 50 to 60 cm soil depth at lower course. The bromide was concentrated promarily within 20 to 80 cm depth. No downward movement below 80 cm depth was detected six weeks afetr the application. This might indicate the high water table of this area. On the other hand, bromide concentrations were high at 50 cm depth in water of the soils sample taken one day after application from the middle course of Sakawa River plot. However, the concentrations were nearly at background level in all samples taken from the middle course of sakawa River 3 weeks after application. The evidence from bromide's movement shows that water readily penetrate the soils at the middle course of Sakawa River. The downward movement was faster compared to that at lower course

  2. A comparison of ventilatory prostate movement in four treatment positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Laura A.; Litzenberg, Dale W.; Brock, Kristy K.; Sanda, Martin; Sullivan, Molly; Sandler, Howard M.; Balter, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure target coverage during radiotherapy, all sources of geometric uncertainty in target position must be considered. Movement of the prostate due to breathing has not traditionally been considered in prostate radiotherapy. The purpose of this study is to report the influence of patient orientation and immobilization on prostate movement due to breathing. Methods and Materials: Four patients had radiopaque markers implanted in the prostate. Fluoroscopy was performed in four different positions: prone in alpha cradle, prone with an aquaplast mold, supine on a flat table, and supine with a false table under the buttocks. Fluoroscopic movies were videotaped and digitized. Frames were analyzed using 2D-alignment software to determine the extent of movement of the prostate markers and the skeleton for each position during normal and deep breathing. Results: During normal breathing, maximal movement of the prostate markers was seen in the prone position (cranial-caudal [CC] range: 0.9-5.1 mm; anterior-posterior [AP] range: up to 3.5 mm). In the supine position, prostate movement during normal breathing was less than 1 mm in all directions. Deep breathing resulted in CC movements of 3.8-10.5 mm in the prone position (with and without an aquaplast mold). This range was reduced to 2.0-7.3 mm in the supine position and 0.5-2.1 mm with the use of the false table top. Deep breathing resulted in AP skeletal movements of 2.7-13.1 mm in the prone position, whereas AP skeletal movements in the supine position were negligible. Conclusion: Ventilatory movement of the prostate is substantial in the prone position and is reduced in the supine position. The potential for breathing to influence prostate movement, and thus the dose delivered to the prostate and normal tissues, should be considered when positioning and planning patients for conformal irradiation

  3. Studying Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The research method of participant observation has long been used by scholars interested in the motivations, dynamics, tactics and strategies of social movements from a movement perspective. Despite participant observation being a common research method, there have been very few efforts to bring...... together this literature, which has often been spread across disciplines. This makes it difficult to identify the various challenges (and their interrelation) facing participant observers. Consequently, this article first reviews how participant observation roles have been conceptualised in general...... and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...

  4. Movement as utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  5. Programming and execution of movement in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, M R; Flowers, K A; Hurrell, J

    1987-10-01

    Programming and execution of arm movements in Parkinson's disease were investigated in choice and simple reaction time (RT) situations in which subjects made aimed movements at a target. A no-aiming condition was also studied. Reaction time was fractionated using surface EMG recording into premotor (central) and motor (peripheral) components. Premotor RT was found to be greater for parkinsonian patients than normal age-matched controls in the simple RT condition, but not in the choice condition. This effect did not depend on the parameters of the impending movement. Thus, paradoxically, parkinsonian patients were not inherently slower at initiating aiming movements from the starting position, but seemed unable to use advance information concerning motor task demands to speed up movement initiation. For both groups, low velocity movements took longer to initiate than high velocity ones. In the no-aiming condition parkinsonian RTs were markedly shorter than when aiming, but were still significantly longer than control RTs. Motor RT was constant across all conditions and was not different for patient and control subjects. In all conditions, parkinsonian movements were around 37% slower than control movements, and their movement times were more variable, the differences showing up early on in the movement, that is, during the initial ballistic phase. The within-subject variability of movement endpoints was also greater in patients. The motor dysfunction displayed in Parkinson's disease involves a number of components: (1) a basic central problem with simply initiating movements, even when minimal programming is required (no-aiming condition); (2) difficulty in maintaining computed forces for motor programs over time (simple RT condition); (3) a basic slowness of movement (bradykinesia) in all conditions; and (4) increased variability of movement in both time and space, presumably caused by inherent variability in force production.

  6. Examination of vocal fold movement by ultra-short pulse X radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noscoe, N.J.; Berry, R.J.; Brown, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    Antero-posterior radiographs of the larynx lack spatial and temporal resolution, due to the movement of the vocal folds during phonation. By utilising the electrolaryngograph to monitor vocal fold movement, single X-ray pulses of 30 nanoseconds duration have been triggered at pre-determined points during the cycle of vocal fold movement to visualise these in normal phonation. (author)

  7. Movement Without Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Johnson Simon, an artist based in West Palm Beach, FL, provided the cover art for the Fall 2017 edition of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Dancing in Motion” is a 36” x 60” painting made from acrylic on canvas. Johnson always wanted to become a dancer. He was born with cerebral palsy, and therefore physical limitations make it difficult for Johnson to coordinate his body movements. Through use of vibrant colors and bold strokes, Johnson’s expressionist paintings evoke movement and motion. Occupational therapy helped Johnson discover his artistic abilities. Painting empowered him to move without limitations

  8. Solute transport with time-variable flow paths during upward and downward flux in a heterogeneous unsaturated porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa; Bechtold, Michel; Vanderborght, Jan

    2014-05-01

    To acquire knowledge of solute transport through the unsaturated zone in the shallow subsurface is decisive to assess groundwater quality, nutrient cycling or to plan remediation strategies. The shallow subsurface is characterized by structural heterogeneity and strongly influenced by atmospheric conditions. This leads to changing flow directions, strong temporal changes in saturation and heterogeneous water fluxes during infiltration and evaporation events. Recent studies (e.g. Lehmann and Or, 2009; Bechtold et al.,2011) demonstrated the importance of lateral flow and solute transport during evaporation conditions (upward flux). The heterogeneous structure in these studies was constructed using two types of sand with strong material contrasts and arranged in parallel with a vertical orientation. Lateral transport and redistribution of solute from coarse to fine media was observed deeper in the soil column and from fine to coarse close to the soil surface. However, if boundary conditions are reversed due to precipitation, the flow field is not necessarily reversed in the same manner, resulting in entirely different transport patterns for downward and upward flow. Therefore, considering net-flow rates alone is misleading when describing transport under those conditions. In this contribution we analyze transport of a solute in the shallow subsurface to assess effects resulting from the temporal change of heterogeneous soil structures due to dynamic flow conditions. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of unsaturated flow and transport are conducted using a coupled finite volume and random walk particle tracking algorithm to quantify solute transport and leaching rates. Following previous studies (Lehmann and Or, 2009; Bechtold et al., 2011), the chosen domain is composed of two materials, coarse and fine sand, arranged in parallel with a vertical orientation. Hence, one sharp interface of strong material heterogeneity is induced. During evaporation both sands are

  9. The improvement of movement and speech during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Valérie Cochen; Debs, Rachel; Oudiette, Delphine; Leu, Smaranda; Radji, Fatai; Tiberge, Michel; Yu, Huan; Bayard, Sophie; Roze, Emmanuel; Vidailhet, Marie; Dauvilliers, Yves; Rascol, Olivier; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy is an atypical parkinsonism characterized by severe motor disabilities that are poorly levodopa responsive. Most patients develop rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Because parkinsonism is absent during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease, we studied the movements of patients with multiple system atrophy during rapid eye movement sleep. Forty-nine non-demented patients with multiple system atrophy and 49 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were interviewed along with their 98 bed partners using a structured questionnaire. They rated the quality of movements, vocal and facial expressions during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder as better than, equal to or worse than the same activities in an awake state. Sleep and movements were monitored using video-polysomnography in 22/49 patients with multiple system atrophy and in 19/49 patients with Parkinson's disease. These recordings were analysed for the presence of parkinsonism and cerebellar syndrome during rapid eye movement sleep movements. Clinical rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was observed in 43/49 (88%) patients with multiple system atrophy. Reports from the 31/43 bed partners who were able to evaluate movements during sleep indicate that 81% of the patients showed some form of improvement during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. These included improved movement (73% of patients: faster, 67%; stronger, 52%; and smoother, 26%), improved speech (59% of patients: louder, 55%; more intelligible, 17%; and better articulated, 36%) and normalized facial expression (50% of patients). The rate of improvement was higher in Parkinson's disease than in multiple system atrophy, but no further difference was observed between the two forms of multiple system atrophy (predominant parkinsonism versus cerebellar syndrome). Video-monitored movements during rapid eye movement sleep in patients with multiple system

  10. Self-consistent electrostatic simulations of reforming double layers in the downward current region of the aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gunell

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The plasma on a magnetic field line in the downward current region of the aurora is simulated using a Vlasov model. It is found that an electric field parallel to the magnetic fields is supported by a double layer moving toward higher altitude. The double layer accelerates electrons upward, and these electrons give rise to plasma waves and electron phase-space holes through beam–plasma interaction. The double layer is disrupted when reaching altitudes of 1–2 Earth radii where the Langmuir condition no longer can be satisfied due to the diminishing density of electrons coming up from the ionosphere. During the disruption the potential drop is in part carried by the electron holes. The disruption creates favourable conditions for double layer formation near the ionosphere and double layers form anew in that region. The process repeats itself with a period of approximately 1 min. This period is determined by how far the double layer can reach before being disrupted: a higher disruption altitude corresponds to a longer repetition period. The disruption altitude is, in turn, found to increase with ionospheric density and to decrease with total voltage. The current displays oscillations around a mean value. The period of the oscillations is the same as the recurrence period of the double layer formations. The oscillation amplitude increases with increasing voltage, whereas the mean value of the current is independent of voltage in the 100 to 800 V range covered by our simulations. Instead, the mean value of the current is determined by the electron density at the ionospheric boundary.

  11. Comparison of the sensitivity of surface downward longwave radiation to changes in water vapor at two high elevation sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yonghua; Naud, Catherine M; Rangwala, Imtiaz; Landry, Christopher C; Miller, James R

    2014-01-01

    Among the potential reasons for enhanced warming rates in many high elevation regions is the nonlinear relationship between surface downward longwave radiation (DLR) and specific humidity (q). In this study we use ground-based observations at two neighboring high elevation sites in Southwestern Colorado that have different local topography and are 1.3 km apart horizontally and 348 m vertically. We examine the spatial consistency of the sensitivities (partial derivatives) of DLR with respect to changes in q, and the sensitivities are obtained from the Jacobian matrix of a neural network analysis. Although the relationship between DLR and q is the same at both sites, the sensitivities are higher when q is smaller, which occurs more frequently at the higher elevation site. There is a distinct hourly distribution in the sensitivities at both sites especially for high sensitivity cases, although the range is greater at the lower elevation site. The hourly distribution of the sensitivities relates to that of q. Under clear skies during daytime, q is similar between the two sites, however under cloudy skies or at night, it is not. This means that the DLR–q sensitivities are similar at the two sites during daytime but not at night, and care must be exercised when using data from one site to infer the impact of water vapor feedbacks at another site, particularly at night. Our analysis suggests that care should be exercised when using the lapse rate adjustment to infill high frequency data in a complex topographical region, particularly when one of the stations is subject to cold air pooling as found here. (letter)

  12. Comparison of the Sensitivity of Surface Downward Longwave Radiation to Changes in Water Vapor at Two High Elevation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Naud, Catherine M.; Rangwala, Imtiaz; Landry, Christopher C.; Miller, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Among the potential reasons for enhanced warming rates in many high elevation regions is the nonlinear relationship between surface downward longwave radiation (DLR) and specific humidity (q). In this study we use ground-based observations at two neighboring high elevation sites in Southwestern Colorado that have different local topography and are 1.3 kilometers apart horizontally and 348 meters vertically. We examine the spatial consistency of the sensitivities (partial derivatives) of DLR with respect to changes in q, and the sensitivities are obtained from the Jacobian matrix of a neural network analysis. Although the relationship between DLR and q is the same at both sites, the sensitivities are higher when q is smaller, which occurs more frequently at the higher elevation site. There is a distinct hourly distribution in the sensitivities at both sites especially for high sensitivity cases, although the range is greater at the lower elevation site. The hourly distribution of the sensitivities relates to that of q. Under clear skies during daytime, q is similar between the two sites, however under cloudy skies or at night, it is not. This means that the DLR-q sensitivities are similar at the two sites during daytime but not at night, and care must be exercised when using data from one site to infer the impact of water vapor feedbacks at another site, particularly at night. Our analysis suggests that care should be exercised when using the lapse rate adjustment to infill high frequency data in a complex topographical region, particularly when one of the stations is subject to cold air pooling as found here.

  13. Modeling the downward transport of 210Pb in Peatlands: Initial Penetration‐Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olid, Carolina; Diego, David; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Klaminder, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    The vertical distribution of 210 Pb is commonly used to date peat deposits accumulated over the last 100–150 years. However, several studies have questioned this method because of an apparent post-depositional mobility of 210 Pb within some peat profiles. In this study, we introduce the Initial Penetration–Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model for calculating ages derived from 210 Pb profiles that are altered by an initial migration of the radionuclide. This new, two-phased, model describes the distribution of atmospheric-derived 210 Pb ( 210 Pb xs ) in peat taking into account both incorporation of 210 Pb into the accumulating peat matrix as well as an initial flushing of 210 Pb through the uppermost peat layers. The validity of the IP-CRS model is tested in four anomalous 210 Pb peat records that showed some deviations from the typical exponential decay profile not explained by variations in peat accumulation rates. Unlike the most commonly used 210 Pb-dating model (Constant Rate of Supply (CRS)), the IP-CRS model estimates peat accumulation rates consistent with typical growth rates for peatlands from the same areas. Confidence in the IP-CRS chronology is also provided by the good agreement with independent chronological markers (i.e. 241 Am and 137 Cs). Our results showed that the IP-CRS can provide chronologies from peat records where 210 Pb mobility is evident, being a valuable tool for studies reconstructing past environmental changes using peat archives during the Anthropocene. - Highlights: • Accurate age dating of peat and sediment cores is critical for evaluating change. • A new 210 Pb dating model that includes vertical transport of 210 Pb was developed. • The IP-CRS model provided consistent peat accumulation rates. • The IP-CRS ages were consistent with independent chronological markers. • The IP-CRS model derives peat ages where downward 210 Pb transport is evidenced.

  14. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E

    2008-12-09

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.).

  15. Rationality in Human Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2016-01-01

    It long has been appreciated that humans behave irrationally in economic decisions under risk: they fail to objectively consider uncertainty, costs, and rewards and instead exhibit risk-seeking or risk-averse behavior. We hypothesize that poor estimates of motor variability (influenced by motor task) and distorted probability weighting (influenced by relevant emotional processes) contribute to characteristic irrationality in human movement decisions.

  16. The Matter of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2015-01-01

    This contribution concerns itself with the design and realisation of architectures that operate with material dynamics. It presents this concern as a counter to the consideration of movement in architecture as something conceptualised from the position of the observer. The contribution draws upon...

  17. Knowledge through movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kjær; Moser, T.

    2003-01-01

    In: Children and adolescents in movement - perspectives and ideas. The Danish Ministry of Culture, pages 150 - 162. 2003 Short description: the article debunks a lot of the myths surrounding body and learning, and replace them with a vision about another kind of learning. The aim is to reintroduce...

  18. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...

  19. The Evidence Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established...

  20. Managing Movement as Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  1. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  2. Editorial: Body Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Assuncao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the juxtaposition between physical bodies and the gameworld is ever more fluid. Virtual Reality headsets are available at game stores with more AAA games being created for the format. The release of the Nintendo Switch and its dynamic JoyCon controllers reintroduce haptic movement based controls.  Pokémon GO’s augmented reality took gamers outdoors and has encouraged the Harry Potter franchise to follow in its mobile footsteps. Each development encourages a step further into the digital world. At the same time, the movement of bodies always has political dimensions. We live in a world where walls seem like solutions to the movement of bodies, while the mere meeting of bodies elsewhere – for sex, marriage and other reasons – is still forbidden by many states’ rules. Games and game-like interfaces have shown the ability to bend those rules, and to sometimes project other worlds and rule systems over our world in order to make bodies move and meet. For this special issue on ‘Body Movements’, Press Start invited authors to focus on embodiment, body movements, political bodies, community bodies, virtual bodies, physical bodies, feminine, masculine, trans- bodies, agency or its lack, and anything else in between. The response to this invitation was variegated, and provocative, as outlined here.

  3. Morocco's February 20 Movement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2017 ... revolted several times, namely in big cities like Casablanca, Marrakech or .... region in order to take advantage of their experience and acquire a regional ..... Undoubtedly, with social networking, the dynamics of protest movements.

  4. [Architecture and movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  5. Pre-movement planning processes in people with congenital mirror movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, E A; Fu, Y

    2017-10-01

    Pre-movement processes were investigated in people with Congenital mirrormovement (CMM), a rare disorder in which bilateral movement (mirroring) occurs in the upper distal extremities (primarily the hands and fingers) during intended unilateral movements. Abnormal density of ipsilateral corticospinal projections is an established hallmark of CMM. This study tested whether the Lateralised Readiness Potential (LRP), which reflects movement planning and readiness, is also abnormal in people with CMM. Twenty-eight neurologically-normal controls and 8 people with CMM were tested on a unimanual Go/No-go task while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded to assess the LRP. No significant group differences were found in reaction time (RT). However, significantly smaller LRP amplitudes were found, on average, in the CMM group compared to Controls at central-motor (C3,C4) sites in stimulus-locked and response-locked epochs; similar group differences were also found at further frontal sites (F3,F4) during response-locked epochs. Abnormal brain activity in pre-movement processes associated with response planning and preparation is present in people with CMM. Aberrant bilateral activity during pre-movement processes is clearly implicated; whether part of the etiology of CMM, or as a mechanism of neuro-compensation, is not yet known. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Variability and trends of downward surface global solar radiation over the Iberian Peninsula based on ERA-40 reanalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Perdigão, João Carlos

    2016-01-26

    © 2016 Royal Meteorological Society. A climate study of the incidence of downward surface global solar radiation (SSRD) in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) based primarily on ERA-40 reanalysis is presented. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and ground-based records from several Portuguese and Spanish stations have been also considered. The results show that reanalysis can capture a similar inter-annual variability as compared to ground-based observations, especially on a monthly basis, even though annual ERA-40 (NCEP/NCAR) values tend to underestimate (overestimate) the observations with a mean relative difference of around 20Wm-2 (40Wm-2). On the other hand, ground-based measurements in Portuguese stations during the period 1964-1989 show a tendency to decrease until the mid-1970s followed by an increase up to the end of the study period, in line with the dimming/brightening phenomenon reported in the literature. Nevertheless, there are different temporal behaviours as a greater increase since the 1970s is observed in the south and less industrialized regions. Similarly, the ERA-40 reanalysis shows a noticeable decrease until the early 1970s followed by a slight increase up to the end of the 1990s, suggesting a dimming/brightening transition around the early 1970s, earlier in the south and centre and later in the north of the IP. Although there are slight differences in the magnitude of the trends as well as the turning year of the dimming/brightening periods, the decadal changes of ERA-40 fairly agree with the ground-based observations in Portugal and Spain, in contrast to most of the literature for other regions of the world, and is used in the climatology of the SSRD in the study area. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis does not capture the decadal variations of SSRD in the IP. The results show that part of the decadal variability of the global radiation in the IP is related to changes in cloud cover (represented in ERA-40).

  7. Variability and trends of downward surface global solar radiation over the Iberian Peninsula based on ERA-40 reanalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Perdigã o, Joã o Carlos; Salgado, Rui; Costa, Maria Joã o; Dasari, Hari Prasad; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Royal Meteorological Society. A climate study of the incidence of downward surface global solar radiation (SSRD) in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) based primarily on ERA-40 reanalysis is presented. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and ground-based records from several Portuguese and Spanish stations have been also considered. The results show that reanalysis can capture a similar inter-annual variability as compared to ground-based observations, especially on a monthly basis, even though annual ERA-40 (NCEP/NCAR) values tend to underestimate (overestimate) the observations with a mean relative difference of around 20Wm-2 (40Wm-2). On the other hand, ground-based measurements in Portuguese stations during the period 1964-1989 show a tendency to decrease until the mid-1970s followed by an increase up to the end of the study period, in line with the dimming/brightening phenomenon reported in the literature. Nevertheless, there are different temporal behaviours as a greater increase since the 1970s is observed in the south and less industrialized regions. Similarly, the ERA-40 reanalysis shows a noticeable decrease until the early 1970s followed by a slight increase up to the end of the 1990s, suggesting a dimming/brightening transition around the early 1970s, earlier in the south and centre and later in the north of the IP. Although there are slight differences in the magnitude of the trends as well as the turning year of the dimming/brightening periods, the decadal changes of ERA-40 fairly agree with the ground-based observations in Portugal and Spain, in contrast to most of the literature for other regions of the world, and is used in the climatology of the SSRD in the study area. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis does not capture the decadal variations of SSRD in the IP. The results show that part of the decadal variability of the global radiation in the IP is related to changes in cloud cover (represented in ERA-40).

  8. [Neuropsychiatry Of Movement Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Barrios Vincos, Gustavo Adolfo; Martínez Gallego, Melisa Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review neuroanatomical (structural and functional), psychopathological and neuropsychological aspects of PD and HD. The role of fronto-subcortical loops in non-motor functions is particularly emphasised in order to understand the clinical spectrum of both diseases, together with the influence of genetic, psychological and psychosocial aspects. A brief description of the main psychopharmacological approaches for both diseases is also included. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Locomotor-like leg movements evoked by rhythmic arm movements in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sylos-Labini

    Full Text Available Motion of the upper limbs is often coupled to that of the lower limbs in human bipedal locomotion. It is unclear, however, whether the functional coupling between upper and lower limbs is bi-directional, i.e. whether arm movements can affect the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry. Here we tested the effects of voluntary rhythmic arm movements on the lower limbs. Participants lay horizontally on their side with each leg suspended in an unloading exoskeleton. They moved their arms on an overhead treadmill as if they walked on their hands. Hand-walking in the antero-posterior direction resulted in significant locomotor-like movements of the legs in 58% of the participants. We further investigated quantitatively the responses in a subset of the responsive subjects. We found that the electromyographic (EMG activity of proximal leg muscles was modulated over each cycle with a timing similar to that of normal locomotion. The frequency of kinematic and EMG oscillations in the legs typically differed from that of arm oscillations. The effect of hand-walking was direction specific since medio-lateral arm movements did not evoke appreciably leg air-stepping. Using externally imposed trunk movements and biomechanical modelling, we ruled out that the leg movements associated with hand-walking were mainly due to the mechanical transmission of trunk oscillations. EMG activity in hamstring muscles associated with hand-walking often continued when the leg movements were transiently blocked by the experimenter or following the termination of arm movements. The present results reinforce the idea that there exists a functional neural coupling between arm and legs.

  10. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  11. Anti-nuclear movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedig, W.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power, heralded in the years after World War II as the answer to the world's energy needs, has in more recent times become the focus of intense ecological, political and economic debate. In this study, the current worldwide opposition to nuclear power is examined from its origins in expert dissent to the widespread development of grassroots activity. Chapter headings include: Social Movements: A Theoretical Framework; Creating the Preconditions for Public Protest; Local and Regional Opposition: Mobilizing the Grass Roots; Local Opposition and the Politicization of Nuclear Power; The Use of Local Opposition as a Political Resource; Local Opposition and Social Movement Analysis; The Removal of Political Stimuli: The Unpolitics of Nuclear Siting; Analyzing Host Community Attitudes: The Survey Evidence; Attitudes and Political Action of Nuclear Host Communities: Approaches and Explanations; Novel Siting Approaches and their Political Implications; Siting and Social Movement Analysis; Patterns and Outcomes of Nuclear Energy Conflicts; The Future of the Nuclear Energy Conflict. Throughout the text, analysis and theory are blended with detailed accounts of the growth and activities of individual anti-nuclear organizations in different countries. (author)

  12. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  13. Sleep-related movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Giovanni; Gigli, Gian Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Several movement disorders may occur during nocturnal rest disrupting sleep. A part of these complaints is characterized by relatively simple, non-purposeful and usually stereotyped movements. The last version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders includes these clinical conditions (i.e. restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism and sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder) under the category entitled sleep-related movement disorders. Moreover, apparently physiological movements (e.g. alternating leg muscle activation and excessive hypnic fragmentary myoclonus) can show a high frequency and severity impairing sleep quality. Clinical and, in specific cases, neurophysiological assessments are required to detect the presence of nocturnal movement complaints. Patients reporting poor sleep due to these abnormal movements should undergo non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments.

  14. Interventions for disorders of eye movement in patients with stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Pollock, A.; Hazelton, C.; Henderson, C.A.; Angilley, J.; Dhillon, B.; Langhorne, P.; Livingstone, K.; Munro, F.A.; Orr, H.; Rowe, F.J.; Shahani, U.

    2011-01-01

    Background Eye movement disorders may affect over 70% of stroke patients. These eye movement disorders can result in difficulty maintaining the normal ocular position and difficulty moving the eyes appropriately. The resulting functional disabilities include a loss of depth perception, reduced hand-to-eye co-ordination, marked difficulties with near tasks and reading and reduced ability to scan the visual environment. They can also impact on the effectiveness of rehabilitation therapy. There ...

  15. Levels of processing and Eye Movements: A Stimulus driven approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvey, Fiona Bríd

    2014-01-01

    movements can be controlled either by bottom up stimulus properties or by top down cognitive control, studies have compared eye movements in real world tasks and searched for indicators of cognitive load or level of attention when task demands increase. Extracting the effects of cognitive processing on eye......The aim of this research is to investigate the explication of levels of attention through eye movement parameters. Previous research from disparate fields have suggested that eye movements are related to cognitive processing, however, the exact nature of the relationship is unclear. Since eye...... to investigate individual differences in levels of processing within the normal population using existing constructs and tests of cognitive style. Study 4 investigates these stimuli and the eye movements of a clinical group with known interruption to the dorsal stream of processing, and subsequent isolated...

  16. Social Movements and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francisca Pinheiro Coelho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study approaches the relationship between social movements and institutions in Brazil concerning three different stages of the process of re-democratization: the political transition; the National Constituent Assembly; and the new Constitutional Order. The general question is: what is the interface, reciprocity or conflict, between social movements and institutions in this context of social change? The paper examines the different roles of social movements and institutions in each specific period: in the pre-democratization moment, the movement for direct elections for president, Diretas-Já, is analyzed; in the National Constituent Assembly, the movement in defense for free public education is examined;  in the new constitutional order, the pro-reform political movement is studied.  The work focuses on the scope of the studies on social movements and democracy.  It belongs to the field of the studies about the representativeness and legitimacy of the demands of social movements in the context of democracy and its challenges. Key words: social movement, institution, reciprocity, conflict, democracy.   Social Movements and Institutions                               Resumen El estudio aborda la relación entre los movimientos sociales e instituciones en Brasil en tres etapas diferentes del proceso de redemocratización en las últimas décadas: la transición política; la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente; y el nuevo orden constitucional. La pregunta general es: ¿cuál es la relación, la reciprocidad o el conflito, entre los movimientos sociales y las instituciones en este contexto de cambio social? El artículo examina los diferentes roles de los movimientos sociales e instituciones en cada período específico: en el momento de la transición política analiza el movimiento de las elecciones directas para presidente, las Diretas-Já; en la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente aborda el movimiento en

  17. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  18. Evaluation and Comparison of the Processing Methods of Airborne Gravimetry Concerning the Errors Effects on Downward Continuation Results: Case Studies in Louisiana (USA) and the Tibetan Plateau (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qilong; Strykowski, Gabriel; Li, Jiancheng; Pan, Xiong; Xu, Xinyu

    2017-05-25

    Gravity data gaps in mountainous areas are nowadays often filled in with the data from airborne gravity surveys. Because of the errors caused by the airborne gravimeter sensors, and because of rough flight conditions, such errors cannot be completely eliminated. The precision of the gravity disturbances generated by the airborne gravimetry is around 3-5 mgal. A major obstacle in using airborne gravimetry are the errors caused by the downward continuation. In order to improve the results the external high-accuracy gravity information e.g., from the surface data can be used for high frequency correction, while satellite information can be applying for low frequency correction. Surface data may be used to reduce the systematic errors, while regularization methods can reduce the random errors in downward continuation. Airborne gravity surveys are sometimes conducted in mountainous areas and the most extreme area of the world for this type of survey is the Tibetan Plateau. Since there are no high-accuracy surface gravity data available for this area, the above error minimization method involving the external gravity data cannot be used. We propose a semi-parametric downward continuation method in combination with regularization to suppress the systematic error effect and the random error effect in the Tibetan Plateau; i.e., without the use of the external high-accuracy gravity data. We use a Louisiana airborne gravity dataset from the USA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to demonstrate that the new method works effectively. Furthermore, and for the Tibetan Plateau we show that the numerical experiment is also successfully conducted using the synthetic Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM08)-derived gravity data contaminated with the synthetic errors. The estimated systematic errors generated by the method are close to the simulated values. In addition, we study the relationship between the downward continuation altitudes and the error effect. The

  19. Evaluation and Comparison of the Processing Methods of Airborne Gravimetry Concerning the Errors Effects on Downward Continuation Results: Case Studies in Louisiana (USA) and the Tibetan Plateau (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Gravity data gaps in mountainous areas are nowadays often filled in with the data from airborne gravity surveys. Because of the errors caused by the airborne gravimeter sensors, and because of rough flight conditions, such errors cannot be completely eliminated. The precision of the gravity disturbances generated by the airborne gravimetry is around 3-5 mgal. A major obstacle in using airborne gravimetry are the errors caused by the downward continuation. In order to improve the results the external high-accuracy gravity information e.g., from the surface data can be used for high frequency correction, while satellite information can be applying for low frequency correction. Surface data may be used to reduce the systematic errors, while regularization methods can reduce the random errors in downward continuation. Airborne gravity surveys are sometimes conducted in mountainous areas and the most extreme area of the world for this type of survey is the Tibetan Plateau. Since there are no high-accuracy surface gravity data available for this area, the above error minimization method involving the external gravity data cannot be used. We propose a semi-parametric downward continuation method in combination with regularization to suppress the systematic error effect and the random error effect in the Tibetan Plateau; i.e., without the use of the external high-accuracy gravity data. We use a Louisiana airborne gravity dataset from the USA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to demonstrate that the new method works effectively. Furthermore, and for the Tibetan Plateau we show that the numerical experiment is also successfully conducted using the synthetic Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM08)-derived gravity data contaminated with the synthetic errors. The estimated systematic errors generated by the method are close to the simulated values. In addition, we study the relationship between the downward continuation altitudes and the error effect. The

  20. A theoretical model of air and steam co-injection to prevent the downward migration of DNAPLs during steam-enhanced extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslusky, Scott F.; Udell, Kent S.

    2002-04-01

    When steam is injected into soil containing a dense volatile non-aqueous phase liquid contaminant the DNAPL vaporized within the heated soil region condenses and accumulates ahead of the steam condensation front. If enough DNAPL accumulates, gravitational forces can overcome trapping forces allowing the liquid contaminant to flow downward. By injecting air with steam, a portion of the DNAPL vapor remains suspended in equilibrium with the air, decreasing liquid contaminant accumulation ahead of the steam condensation front, and thus reducing the possibility of downward migration. In this work, a one-dimensional theoretical model is developed to predict the injection ratio of air to steam that will prevent the accumulation of volatile DNAPLs. The contaminated region is modeled as a one-dimensional homogeneous porous medium with an initially uniform distribution of a single component contaminant. Mass and energy balances are combined to determine the injection ratio of air to steam that eliminates accumulation of the contaminant ahead of the steam condensation front, and hence reduces the possibility of downward migration. The minimum injection ratio that eliminates accumulation is defined as the optimum injection ratio. Example calculations are presented for three DNAPLs, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4), trichloroethylene (TCE), and perchloroethylene (PCE). The optimum injection ratio of air to steam is shown to depend on the initial saturation and the volatility of the liquid contaminant. Numerical simulation results are presented to validate the model, and to illustrate downward migration for ratios less than optimum. Optimum injection ratios determined from numerical simulations are shown to be in good agreement with the theoretical model.

  1. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  2. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  3. Movement disorder and epilepsy in subependymal nodular heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Lohmror

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subependymal nodular heterotopia is a cortical development malformation that is commonly associated with refractory epilepsy. Patients with heterotopia show a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from being asymptomatic to presenting with intractable seizures and intellectual impairment. We report a case of drug-resistant epilepsy with normal intelligence, having bilateral subependymal heterotopic nodules in the brain, presenting to us with a movement disorder in the form of myoclonus of bilateral lower limbs which is an unusual manifestation of gray matter heterotopias. Although rare, gray matter heterotopias may present as movement disorder and should be considered in differential diagnosis while workup of movement disorders.

  4. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  5. The Propagation of Movement Variability in Time: A Methodological Approach for Discrete Movements with Multiple Degrees of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Melanie; Straube, Andreas; Eggert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, theory-building in motor neuroscience and our understanding of the synergistic control of the redundant human motor system has significantly profited from the emergence of a range of different mathematical approaches to analyze the structure of movement variability. Approaches such as the Uncontrolled Manifold method or the Noise-Tolerance-Covariance decomposition method allow to detect and interpret changes in movement coordination due to e.g., learning, external task constraints or disease, by analyzing the structure of within-subject, inter-trial movement variability. Whereas, for cyclical movements (e.g., locomotion), mathematical approaches exist to investigate the propagation of movement variability in time (e.g., time series analysis), similar approaches are missing for discrete, goal-directed movements, such as reaching. Here, we propose canonical correlation analysis as a suitable method to analyze the propagation of within-subject variability across different time points during the execution of discrete movements. While similar analyses have already been applied for discrete movements with only one degree of freedom (DoF; e.g., Pearson's product-moment correlation), canonical correlation analysis allows to evaluate the coupling of inter-trial variability across different time points along the movement trajectory for multiple DoF-effector systems, such as the arm. The theoretical analysis is illustrated by empirical data from a study on reaching movements under normal and disturbed proprioception. The results show increased movement duration, decreased movement amplitude, as well as altered movement coordination under ischemia, which results in a reduced complexity of movement control. Movement endpoint variability is not increased under ischemia. This suggests that healthy adults are able to immediately and efficiently adjust the control of complex reaching movements to compensate for the loss of proprioceptive information. Further, it is

  6. The tactile movement aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, M; Favorov, O

    1994-01-01

    The existence of a tactile movement aftereffect was established in a series of experiments on the palmar surface of the hand and fingers of psychophysical observers. During adaptation, observers cupped their hand around a moving drum for up to 3 min; following this period of stimulation, they typically reported an aftereffect consisting of movement sensations located on and deep to the skin, and lasting for up to 1 min. Preliminary experiments comparing a number of stimulus materials mounted on the drum demonstrated that a surface approximating a low-spatial-frequency square wave, with a smooth microtexture, was especially effective at inducing the aftereffect; this adapting stimulus was therefore used throughout the two main experiments. In Experiment 1, the vividness of the aftereffect produced by 2 min of adaptation was determined under three test conditions: with the hand (1) remaining on the now stationary drum; (2) in contact with a soft, textured surface; or (3) suspended in air. Subjects' free magnitude estimates of the peak vividness of the aftereffect were not significantly different across conditions; each subject experienced the aftereffect at least once under each condition. Thus the tactile movement aftereffect does not seem to depend critically on the ponditions of stimulation that obtain while it is being experienced. In Experiment 2, the vividness and duration of the aftereffect were measured as a function of the duration of the adapting stimulus. Both measures increased steadily over the range of durations explored (30-180 sec). In its dependence on adapting duration, the aftereffect resembles the waterfall illusion in vision. An explanation for the tactile movement aftereffect is proposed, based on the model of cortical dynamics of Whitsel et al. (1989, 1991). With assumed modest variation of one parameter across individuals, this application of the model is able to account both for the data of the majority of subjects, who experienced the

  7. Fetal body movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1990-03-01

    Recording fetal activity serves as an indirect measure of central nervous system integrity and function. The coordination of whole body movement, which requires complex neurologic control, is likely similar to that of the newborn infant. Short-term observations of the fetus are best performed using real-time ultrasound imaging. Monitoring fetal motion has been shown to be clinically worthwhile in predicting impending death or compromise, especially when placental insufficiency is longstanding. The presence of a vigorous fetus is reassuring. Perceived inactivity requires a reassessment of any underlying antepartum complication and a more precise evaluation by fetal heart rate testing or real-time ultrasonography before delivery is contemplated.

  8. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise......-slavery movements had raised awareness, this political emergence was even easier. Indeed the fight against ‘slave mentalities’ was everywhere a major challenge and a crucial step to mobilize groups of slave status under a united force. As this article argues changes in political structures and changes in political...

  9. Laryngeal electromyography in movement disorders: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimaid Paulo A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes preliminary laryngeal electromyography (LEMG data and botulinum toxin treatment in patients with dysphonia due to movement disorders. Twenty-five patients who had been clinically selected for botulinum toxin administration were examined, 19 with suspected laryngeal dystonia or spasmodic dysphonia (SD, 5 with vocal tremor, and 1 with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS. LEMG evaluations were performed before botulinum toxin administration using monopolar electrodes. Electromyography was consistent with dystonia in 14 patients and normal in 5, and differences in frequency suggesting essential tremor in 3 and Parkinson tremors in 2. The different LEMG patterns and significant improvement in our patients from botulinum toxin therapy has led us to perform laryngeal electromyography as a routine in UNICAMP movement disorders ambulatory.

  10. Diagram of Calcium Movement in the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This diagram shows the normal pathways of calcium movement in the body and indicates changes (green arrows) seen during preliminary space flight experiments. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts have participated in a study of calcium kinetics -- that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

  11. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias......, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual......Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However...

  12. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    section unearths what characterizes the literature on camera movement. The second section of the dissertation delineates the history of camera movement itself within narrative cinema. Several organizational principles subtending the on-screen effect of camera movement are revealed in section two...... but they are not organized into a coherent framework. This is the task that section three meets in proposing a functional taxonomy for camera movement in narrative cinema. Two presumptions subtend the taxonomy: That camera movement actively contributes to the way in which we understand the sound and images on the screen......, commentative or valuative manner. 4) Focalization: associating the movement of the camera with the viewpoints of characters or entities in the story world. 5) Reflexive: inviting spectators to engage with the artifice of camera movement. 6) Abstract: visualizing abstract ideas and concepts. In order...

  13. Ampleness of head movements of children and adolescents with sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Melo, Renato

    2017-02-01

    Head movements are controlled by the vestibular system. Children with sensorineural hearing loss can present restrictions in ampleness of head movements due to damage in the vestibule-cochlear systems, resulting from injury in the inner ear. To evaluate the ampleness of head movements of children with normal hearing and children with sensorineural hearing loss and compare data between groups. Cross-sectional study that evaluated the ampleness of head movements of 96 students, being 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, of both sexes, with aged between 7 and 18 years old. The performance of ampleness of head movements was analyzed by a manual goniometric evaluation, according the references proposed by Marques. To the statistical analysis we used the t-Student test in case of normality of the data or the Mann-Whitney test when did not applied the suppositions of normality. Hearing loss children showed less mean in ampleness of all movements of head compared to normal hearing children, pointing difference to movements of flexion (p = 0,001), lateral inclination to the right (p = 0,025) and lateral rotation to the left (p = 0,021). Hearing loss children showed reduction in the ampleness of these head movements: flexion, lateral inclination to the right and lateral rotation to the left compared to normal hearing children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake

    2014-09-01

    We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: congenital mirror movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Congenital mirror movement disorder Congenital mirror movement disorder Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Congenital mirror movement disorder is a condition in which intentional movements ...

  16. Criminal Policy Movements and Legal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thula Rafaela de Oliveira Pires

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article's intention is to make an analyse of the emerging criminal policy movements in Brazil, especially after the 1980 decade, and their influence on legal education. Based on empirical research in Law Course UNIFESO (Teresópolis- Rio de Janeiro, it is sought to identify the political and criminal discourses prevalent in positions of hegemonic power among the Law scholars. Beyond the necessity of interdisciplinary approach, it is defended a more radical critique of the knowledge production process, with the affiliation of decolonial perspective, fundamental for the deconstruction of punitive normalization standards adopted by the modern States, of colonial slave matrix.

  17. Temporomandibular joint movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Itou, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Hayashi, N.; Ishii, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ten temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 5 healthy volunteers and 19 TMJs of internal derangements in 16 patients with splint therapy were examined with MR imaging. T1-weighted images were obtained only in the closed mouth position, and gradient recalled acquisition in steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in active opening and closing phases, allowing a pseudodynamic display of TMJ movement. All patients received protrusive splint treatment. The usefulness of MR imaging to assess the efficacy of splint therapy was evaluated. Corrected disk position with the splint in place was clearly demonstrated in 9 TMJs, corresponding with elimination of reciprocal clicking. Ten other TMJs of anterior disk displacement without reduction showed uncorrected disk position by the splint. This information could confirm the therapeutic efficacy, or suggest other treatment alternatives. GRASS MR imaging can provide accurate and physiologic information about disk function in initial and follow-up assessment of protrusive splint therapy. (orig.)

  18. Tracking the Poster Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    Summary: This article considers the display of posters as a distinctive activity and defining aspect of British modernism between the two wars, looking to a cardinal event, the Exhibition of British and Foreign Posters at the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1931. This manifestation was the first...... in the Museum to expose the poster-image as a medium in its own artistic, technical, historical and popular right; the article examines the event as a sign holding core characteristics of a ‘poster movement’ prevailing during the interwar years. The period made a varied scene for exhibitions promoting...... commercial and graphic design of various kinds of which British and Foreign Posters offers a particularly rich example. The exhibition attracted commercial, artistic and curatorial forces substantiating the idea of a movement, and approached commercial art from a perspective that raised new awareness towards...

  19. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... repeatedly to convey the feeling of a man and a woman falling in love. This raises the question of why producers and directors choose certain stylistic features to narrate certain categories of content. Through the analysis of several short film and TV clips, this article explores whether...... or not there are perceptual aspects related to specific stylistic features that enable them to be used for delimited narrational purposes. The article further attempts to reopen this particular stylistic debate by exploring the embodied aspects of visual perception in relation to specific stylistic features...

  20. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    . The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...... of individual experiences of school and everyday school life as it unfolds in and beyond the formal teaching situations. The chapter follows in the wake of a growing attention to the aspects of everyday life and lived life at school in the history of education. It also develops tools for and demonstrates how...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective....

  1. Clinical features of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C Y

    1983-08-01

    The descriptive aspects of all types of movement disorders and their related syndromes and terminologies used in the literature are reviewed and described. This comprises the features of (a) movement disorders secondary to neurological diseases affecting the extrapyramidal motor system, such as: athetosis, chorea, dystonia, hemiballismus, myoclonus, tremor, tics and spasm, (b) drug induced movement disorders, such as: akathisia, akinesia, hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, extrapyramidal syndrome, and tardive dyskinesia, and (c) abnormal movements in psychiatric disorders, such as: mannerism, stereotyped behaviour and psychomotor retardation. It is intended to bring about a more comprehensive overview of these movement disorders from a phenomenological perspective, so that clinicians can familiarize with these features for diagnosis. Some general statements are made in regard to some of the characteristics of movement disorders.

  2. A statistical approach for water movement in the unsaturated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tielin Zang.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis presents a statistical approach for estimating and analyzing the downward transport pattern and distribution of soil water by the use of pattern analysis of space-time correlation structures. This approach, called the Space-time-Correlation Field, is mainly based on the analyses of correlation functions simultaneously in the space and time domain. The overall purpose of this work is to derive an alternative statistical procedure in soil moisture analysis without involving detailed information on hydraulic parameters and to visualize the dynamics of soil water variability in the space and time domains. A numerical model using method of characteristics is employed to provide hypothetical time series to use in the statistical method, which is, after the verification and calibration, applied to the field measured time series. The results of the application show that the space-time correlation fields reveal effects of soil layers with different hydraulic properties and boundaries between them. It is concluded that the approach poses special advantages when visualizing time and space dependent properties simultaneously. It can be used to investigate the hydrological response of soil water dynamics and characteristics in different dimensions (space and time) and scales. This approach can be used to identify the dominant component in unsaturated flow systems. It is possible to estimate the pattern and the propagation rate downwards of moisture movement in the soil profile. Small-scale soil heterogeneities can be identified by the correlation field. Since the correlation field technique give a statistical measure of the dependent property that varies within the space-time field, it is possible to interpolate the fields to points where observations are not available, estimating spatial or temporal averages from discrete observations. (au)

  3. The Explanatory Range of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Drawing a distinction between systemic and functional explanations of movement in general, I shall argue that the Chomskyan view of movement in language is originally functional. With the advent of the Minimimalist Program, however, it has become systemic, but no argument for this change has been...... forthcoming. I'll then present data (from Danish) to sustain the view that only functional type explanations of movement can be empirically motivated, and these only if movement is reinterpreted as transition states between representations of different kinds....

  4. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  5. Movement Matters: Observing the Benefits of Movement Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Melani Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Montessori's first premise is that movement and cognition are closely entwined, and movement can enhance thinking and learning (Lillard, 2005). Children must move, and practice moving, to develop strength, balance, and the stability needed to fully participate in the rigors of daily life. It is imperative for young children's motor…

  6. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation

  7. Visually induced eye movements in Wallenberg's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, R.; Nakamura, T.; Ohki, M.; Kimura, Y.; Koike, Y.; Kato, I.

    1991-01-01

    Eighteen patients with Wallenberg's syndrome were investigated concerning visually induced eye movements. All results were analysed quantitatively using a computer. In 16 out of 18 patients, OKN slow-phase velocities were impaired, in the remaining 2 patients they were normal. All patients showed reduced visual suppression of caloric nystagmus during the slow-phase of nystagmus toward the lesion side, except 3 patients who showed normal visual suppression in both directions. CT scan failed to detect either the brainstem or the cerebellar lesions in any cases, but MRI performed on the most recent cases demonstrated the infractions clearly. These findings suggest that infractions are localized in the medulla in the patients of group A, but extend to the cerebellum as well as to the medulla in patients of group B. (au)

  8. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  9. Integration deficiencies associated with continuous limb movement sequences in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Hoon; Stelmach, George E

    2009-11-01

    The present study examined the extent to which Parkinson's disease (PD) influences integration of continuous limb movement sequences. Eight patients with idiopathic PD and 8 age-matched normal subjects were instructed to perform repetitive sequential aiming movements to specified targets under three-accuracy constraints: 1) low accuracy (W = 7 cm) - minimal accuracy constraint, 2) high accuracy (W = 0.64 cm) - maximum accuracy constraint, and 3) mixed accuracy constraint - one target of high accuracy and another target of low accuracy. The characteristic of sequential movements in the low accuracy condition was mostly cyclical, whereas in the high accuracy condition it was discrete in both groups. When the accuracy constraint was mixed, the sequential movements were executed by assembling discrete and cyclical movements in both groups, suggesting that for PD patients the capability to combine discrete and cyclical movements to meet a task requirement appears to be intact. However, such functional linkage was not as pronounced as was in normal subjects. Close examination of movement from the mixed accuracy condition revealed marked movement hesitations in the vicinity of the large target in PD patients, resulting in a bias toward discrete movement. These results suggest that PD patients may have deficits in ongoing planning and organizing processes during movement execution when the tasks require to assemble various accuracy requirements into more complex movement sequences.

  10. Ongoing movement of the hermit warbler X Townsend's warbler hybrid zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meade Krosby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Movements of hybrid zones - areas of overlap and interbreeding between species - are difficult to document empirically. This is true because moving hybrid zones are expected to be rare, and because movement may proceed too slowly to be measured directly. Townsend's warblers (Dendroica townsendi hybridize with hermit warblers (D. occidentalis where their ranges overlap in Washington and Oregon. Previous morphological, behavioral, and genetic studies of this hybrid zone suggest that it has been steadily moving into the geographical range of hermit warblers, with the more aggressive Townsend's warblers replacing hermit warblers along ∼2000 km of the Pacific coast of Canada and Alaska. Ongoing movement of the zone, however, has yet to be empirically demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared recently sampled hybrid zone specimens to those collected 10-20 years earlier, to test directly the long-standing hypothesis of hybrid zone movement between these species. Newly sampled specimens were more Townsend's-like than historical specimens, consistent with ongoing movement of the zone into the geographical range of hermit warblers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While movement of a hybrid zone may be explained by several possible mechanisms, in this case a wealth of existing evidence suggests that movement is being driven by the competitive displacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers. That no ecological differences have been found between these species, and that replacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers is proceeding downward in latitude and elevation - opposite the directions of range shifts predicted by recent climate change - further support that this movement is not being driven by alternative environmental factors. If the mechanism of competitive displacement is correct, whether this process will ultimately lead to the extinction of hermit warblers will depend on the continued maintenance of the

  11. Spontaneous movement tempo is influenced by observation of rhythmical actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Marco; Tacchino, Andrea; Pelosin, Elisa; Moisello, Clara; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Ghilardi, M Felice

    2009-09-28

    Observation of people performing movements facilitates motor planning, execution and memory formation. Tempo, a crucial aspect involved in the execution of rhythmic movements, is normally perceived and learned through auditory channels. In this work, we ascertained whether: first, the frequency of self-paced finger movements (SPMs), which in normal subjects is around 2 Hz, is modified by prior observation of movements performed at either 1 or 3 Hz; second, such changes are lasting; third, there is an effect of time interval between observation and performance. We finally determined the effect of providing explicit information about the upcoming motor task. Seventy-two normal subjects (12 groups) performed a simple finger sequence at different intervals after observation of videos of either landscapes or finger opposition movements. Both with and without information about the upcoming task, observation influenced the tempo of SPMs and led to memory formation. With knowledge of the upcoming task, such changes occurred at all observation-execution intervals, while without instructions, changes took place only when SPMs were performed immediately after observation. Compared to explicit instructions, the absence of instructions produced tempo's changes that more closely resembled the observed rhythms. We conclude that learning requires a prompt comparison between visual and sensorimotor representations of movements; moreover, learning with explicit instructions is more efficient, as activity in both the dorsal and ventral streams might be potentiated by the chatecholaminergic attentional systems that promote long-term potentiation. These results provide the bases for novel neurorehabilitation strategies in terms of temporal re-organization of movement.

  12. Visual information transfer across eye movements in the monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khayat, Paul S.; Spekreijse, Henk; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2004-01-01

    During normal viewing, the eyes move from one location to another in order to sample the visual environment. Information acquired before the eye movement facilitates post-saccadic processing. This "preview effect" indicates that some information is maintained in transsaccadic memory and combined

  13. Evaluation of Ocular Movements in Patients with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagge, Aldo; Cavanna, Margherita; Traverso, Carlo Enrico; Iester, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between dyslexia and eye movements and to assess whether this method can be added to the workup of dyslexic patients. The sample was comprised of 11 children with a diagnosis of dyslexia and 11 normal between 8 and 13 years of age. All subjects underwent orthoptic evaluation, ophthalmological…

  14. Performance of a wearable acoustic system for fetal movement discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lai

    Full Text Available Fetal movements (FM are a key factor in clinical management of high-risk pregnancies such as fetal growth restriction. While maternal perception of reduced FM can trigger self-referral to obstetric services, maternal sensation is highly subjective. Objective, reliable monitoring of fetal movement patterns outside clinical environs is not currently possible. A wearable and non-transmitting system capable of sensing fetal movements over extended periods of time would be extremely valuable, not only for monitoring individual fetal health, but also for establishing normal levels of movement in the population at large. Wearable monitors based on accelerometers have previously been proposed as a means of tracking FM, but such systems have difficulty separating maternal and fetal activity and have not matured to the level of clinical use. We introduce a new wearable system based on a novel combination of accelerometers and bespoke acoustic sensors as well as an advanced signal processing architecture to identify and discriminate between types of fetal movements. We validate the system with concurrent ultrasound tests on a cohort of 44 pregnant women and demonstrate that the garment is capable of both detecting and discriminating the vigorous, whole-body 'startle' movements of a fetus. These results demonstrate the promise of multimodal sensing for the development of a low-cost, non-transmitting wearable monitor for fetal movements.

  15. Speed invariance of independent control of finger movements in pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Soechting, John F

    2012-10-01

    Independent control of finger movements characterizes skilled motor behaviors such as tool use and musical performance. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effect of movement frequency (tempo) on individuated finger movements in piano playing. Joint motion at the digits was recorded while 5 expert pianists were playing 30 excerpts from musical pieces with different fingering and key locations either at a predetermined normal tempo or as fast as possible. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm determined three distinct patterns of finger movement coordination for a keypress with each of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers at each of the two tempi. The finger kinematics of each coordination pattern was overall similar across the tempi. Tone sequences assigned into each cluster were also similar for both tempi. A linear regression analysis determined no apparent difference in the amount of movement covariation between the striking and nonstriking fingers at both metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal joints across the two tempi, which indicated no effect of tempo on independent finger movements in piano playing. In addition, the standard deviation of interkeystroke interval across strokes did not differ between the two tempi, indicating maintenance of rhythmic accuracy of keystrokes. Strong temporal constraints on finger movements during piano playing may underlie the maintained independent control of fingers over a wider range of tempi, a feature being likely to be specific to skilled pianists.

  16. Foot loading characteristics during three fencing-specific movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Caroline; Martinelli, Nicolo; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2011-12-01

    Plantar pressure characteristics during fencing movements may provide more specific information about the influence of foot loading on overload injury patterns. Twenty-nine experienced fencers participated in the study. Three fencing-specific movements (lunge, advance, retreat) and normal running were performed with three different shoe models: Ballestra (Nike, USA), Adistar Fencing Lo (Adidas, Germany), and the fencers' own shoes. The Pedar system (Novel, Munich, Germany) was used to collect plantar pressures at 50 Hz. Peak pressures, force-time integrals and contact times for five foot regions were compared between four athletic tasks in the lunge leg and supporting leg. Plantar pressure analysis revealed characteristic pressure distribution patterns for the fencing movements. For the lunge leg, during the lunge and advance movements the heel is predominantly loaded; during retreat, it is the hallux. For the supporting leg, during the lunge and advance movements the forefoot is predominantly loaded; during retreat, it is the hallux. Fencing-specific movements load the plantar surface in a distinct way compared with running. An effective cushioning in the heel and hallux region would help to minimize foot loading during fencing-specific movements.

  17. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  18. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  20. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Arjan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  1. Movement Patterns in Educational Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Nielsen, Thorsten B.

    2018-01-01

    Although movement is essential in location-based games to get from one point of interest to the next, it is seldom taken into account for the game design and the selection of locations. Instead, player movement is usually analyzed after the fact, i.e. when the game is ready to play. In this paper......-based educational games....

  2. Music and Movement. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    2000-01-01

    Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of…

  3. The influence of emotional picture thematic content on exploratory eye movements

    OpenAIRE

    Carniglia, Elena; Caputi, Marcella; Manfredi, Valentina; Zambarbieri, Daniela; Pessa, Eliano

    2012-01-01

    In picture viewing, emotional vs. neutral stimuli could play a different role in eye movement parameters and in the spatial progression of the scanpath. The aim of this paper is to investigate exploratory behaviour of normal subjects during the vision of emotional vs. non-emotional stimuli, by considering to what extent the thematic content (animate vs. inanimate) is likely to influence the observer’s eye movements. Sixty-five subjects’ eye movement patterns were measured while looking to emo...

  4. The ecological movement in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccoen, L.B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The anti-nuclear movements in France are part of a broader movement which, following common usage, the author calls the Ecological Movement. In France, the movement can be divided into a fairly small politically oriented core, numerous and varied associations for the defence of the environment, and a number of consumer associations. The movement cannot be classified politically, which accounts for the attitude of the political parties - distrust of the ''ecologists'', but considerable interest in them as voters. Those with responsibility for power generation must explain to the population at large the energy problem and the importance of economic growth in raising wages and reducing unemployment. They must also explain why nuclear power generation is one of the safest technologies existing at present. (author)

  5. On Biometrics With Eye Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti

    2017-09-01

    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In this paper, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  6. Photon counting and fluctuation of molecular movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inohara, Koichi

    1978-01-01

    The direct measurement of the fluctuation of molecular motions, which provides with useful information on the molecular movement, was conducted by introducing photon counting method. The utilization of photon counting makes it possible to treat the molecular system consisting of a small number of molecules like a radioisotope in the detection of a small number of atoms, which are significant in biological systems. This method is based on counting the number of photons of the definite polarization emitted in a definite time interval from the fluorescent molecules excited by pulsed light, which are bound to the marked large molecules found in a definite spatial region. Using the probability of finding a number of molecules oriented in a definite direction in the definite spatial region, the probability of counting a number of photons in a definite time interval can be calculated. Thus the measurable count rate of photons can be related with the fluctuation of molecular movement. The measurement was carried out under the condition, in which the probability of the simultaneous arrival of more than two photons at a detector is less than 1/100. As the experimental results, the resolving power of photon-counting apparatus, the frequency distribution of the number of photons of some definite polarization counted for 1 nanosecond are shown. In the solution, the variance of the number of molecules of 500 on the average is 1200, which was estimated from the experimental data by assuming normal distribution. This departure from the Poisson distribution means that a certain correlation does exist in molecular movement. In solid solution, no significant deviation was observed. The correlation existing in molecular movement can be expressed in terms of the fluctuation of the number of molecules. (Nakai, Y.)

  7. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  8. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  9. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  10. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  11. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  12. Study of natural energy system and downward atmospheric radiation. Part 2. Study of downward atmospheric radiation simple estimated formula and elective longwave radiation; Shizen energy system to tenku hosharyo no kansoku kenkyu. 2. Tenku hosharyo kan`i suiteishiki to jikko hosharyo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, K; Yano, S [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan); Masuoka, Y

    1997-11-25

    With an objective to design and control a natural energy utilization system, this paper describes discussions on a simple estimation formula for downward atmospheric radiation. The simple estimation formula for downward atmospheric radiation using a square root of steam partial pressure, {sigma}T{sup 4} ({sigma} is the Stefan Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute outside air temperature), and SAT (observation value for corresponding outside air temperature) as explanatory variables was added with data made available further to improve its accuracy. A calculated value, whose formula had observation values at each location substituted, had coefficient of correlation with the observation values of 0.9. This formula was found applicable to each location. The effective radiation amount is the difference between the downward atmospheric radiation and the long wavelength radiation from the ground surface, from which a formula to simply estimate the effective radiation was proposed. Although there is a slight difference, the calculated values derived by using this formula agreed nearly well with the observation values of the effective radiation. A standard SAT meter was used to discuss cooling effect of atmospheric radiation cooling on the ground surface, whereas the cooling effect was verified to appear markedly under windless condition at night. It was found that the cooling effect is more remarkable in winter than in summer. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Detection of cortical activities on eye movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1997-11-01

    Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)

  14. Detection of cortical activities on eye movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)

  15. Femoropatellar gliding movement during active stretching of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossmann, J.; Muhle, C.; Melchert, U.H.; Spielmann, R.P.; Schroeder, C.; Hassenpflug, J.

    1992-01-01

    By means of motion-triggered MRT it has been possible for the first time to demonstrate movements in the patello-femoral joint by means of MRT. Patello-femoral movement was studied during active extension of the knee between 30deg flexion and complete extension. The knees of 5 normal females and 7 normal males were studied together with 2 women with recurrent lateral patellar luxation. In normal women there was an average 16deg (10 to 18deg), in men an average of 12deg (10 to 14deg) of lateralisation of the patella during complete extension of the knee. In 1 patient there was 10deg medial displacement of the patella before extension. In 2 knees with recurrent lateral subluxation there was a 20 and 24deg displacement of the patella. (orig.) [de

  16. Movement disorders in hereditary ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Ruiz, Pedro J; Mayo, David; Hernandez, Jaime; Cantarero, Susana; Ayuso, Carmen

    2002-10-15

    Movement disorders are well known features of some dominant hereditary ataxias (HA), specially SCA3/Machado-Joseph disease and dentatorubropallidolusyan atrophy. However, little is known about the existence and classification of movement disorders in other dominant and recessive ataxias. We prospectively studied the presence of movement disorders in patients referred for HA over the last 3 years. Only those patients with a confirmed family history of ataxia were included. We studied 84 cases of HA, including 46 cases of recessive and 38 cases of dominant HA. Thirty out of 46 cases of recessive HA could be classified as: Friedreich ataxia (FA), 29 cases; vitamin E deficiency, 1 case. Twenty-three out of 38 cases of dominant HA could be classified as: SCA 2, 4 cases; SCA 3, 8 cases; SCA 6, 4 cases; SCA 7, 6 cases and SCA 8, 1 case. We observed movement disorders in 20/38 (52%) patients with dominant HA and 25/46 (54%) cases with recessive HA, including 16 patients (16/29) with FA. In general, postural tremor was the most frequent observed movement disorder (27 cases), followed by dystonia (22 cases). Five patients had akinetic rigid syndrome, and in 13 cases, several movement disorders coexisted. Movement disorders are frequent findings in HA, not only in dominant HA but also in recessive HA. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Does the cerebellum initiate movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, W T

    2014-02-01

    Opinion is divided on what the exact function of the cerebellum is. Experiments are summarized that support the following views: (1) the cerebellum is a combiner of multiple movement factors; (2) it contains anatomically fixed permanent focal representation of individual body parts (muscles and segments) and movement modes (e.g., vestibular driven vs. cognitive driven); (3) it contains flexible changing representations/memory of physical properties of the body parts including muscle strength, segment inertia, joint viscosity, and segmental interaction torques (dynamics); (4) it contains mechanisms for learning and storage of the properties in item no. 3 through trial-and-error practice; (5) it provides for linkage of body parts, motor modes, and motordynamics via the parallel fiber system; (6) it combines and integrates the many factors so as to initiate coordinated movements of the many body parts; (7) it is thus enabled to play the unique role of initiating coordinated movements; and (8) this unique causative role is evidenced by the fact that: (a) electrical stimulation of the cerebellum can initiate compound coordinated movements; (b) in naturally initiated compound movements, cerebellar discharge precedes that in downstream target structures such as motor cerebral cortex; and (c) cerebellar ablation abolishes the natural production of compound movements in the awake alert individuals.

  18. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  19. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  20. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  1. Dance movement therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie

    2017-02-03

    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  2. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  3. Polycythemia vera presenting with left hemichoreiform movements. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Tamiharu; Shimomura, Chikako; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro; Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1985-01-01

    A 65-year-old man developed abruptly choreiform movements involving the left face, arm and leg one day prior to admission. Physical examination revealed red face and palms, hyperemic conjunctivae and atrial fibrillations. Blood pressure was 168/90. Spleen was not palpable. Hemichoreiform movements of the left face and limbs were observed. There was no other neurological abnormalities. Laboratory studies showed RBC 880 x 10U, Hb 22.4g/dl, Hct 63%, WBC 8,100, platelets 22.9 x 10U, ESR 0mm/hr, RBC oxygen saturation 97%, serum iron 67 g/dl, LDH 593 units, uric acid 14mg/dl, and erythropoietine (HI method) 19mIU/ml (normal 28-88). Bone marrow showed myeloid nucleated cell count 38.6 x 10U. ECG showed atrial fibrillations. Chest X-ray and scintigrams of liver and spleen were normal. CSF was normal. Brain CT scan on admission disclosed a low density area in right caudate nucleus. The choreiform movements were rapidly mitigated by venesection and by oral administration of haloperidol(3mg daily). There weeks after discontinuing haloperidol, the hemichorea returned. The routine hematology showed RBC 870 x 10U, Hb 19.8g/dl, Hct 62%, WBC 10,200, and plateret 37.4 x 10U. Another venesection reduced the chorea. Pipobroman was administered to control the polycythemia vera. He has been free of choreic movements thereafter. Choreiform movement is rarely observed in polycythemia vera. The pathogenesis is still unknown. The venous congestion, however, may play a role in this case because the choreic movements disappeared by venesection. (author).

  4. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  5. Hypnosis and movement disorders: State of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamand-Roze, C; Célestin-Lhopiteau, I; Roze, E

    Hypnosis might represent an interesting complementary therapeutic approach to movement disorders, as it takes into account not only symptoms, but also well-being, and empowers patients to take a more active role in their treatment. Our review of the literature on the use of hypnosis to treat movement disorders was done by systematically searching the PubMed database for reports published between 1984 and November 2015. The following variables were extracted from each selected paper: study design; sample size; type of movement disorder; hypnotic procedure; treatment duration; and efficacy. Thirteen papers were selected for detailed analysis. Most concerned tremor in Parkinson's disease and tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Although promising, the data were insufficient to allow conclusions to be drawn on the efficacy of hypnosis in movement disorders or to recommend its use in this setting. Well-designed studies taking into account some specific methodological challenges are needed to determine the possible therapeutic utility of hypnosis in movement disorders. In addition to the potential benefits for such patients, hypnosis might also be useful for studying the neuroanatomical and functional underpinnings of normal and abnormal movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  7. Normalization of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  8. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  9. Surgical management of movement disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    together as movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor) is with medication and, in some, with ... Stereotactic lesioning of basal ganglia and/or thalamic targets ... and there is some concern related to suicide.

  10. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topalov, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  11. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eHiggins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  12. Healthy Movements: Your Body's Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body, are governed by the same basic physical laws,” says Dr. Jeffrey Weiss, a biomechanics expert at ... for movement disorders such as cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s disease. Joints are a common source of problems ...

  13. Galileo Probe Doppler Residuals as the Wave-Dynamical Signature of Weakly Stable, Downward-Increasing Stratification in Jupiter's Deep Wind Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Michael; Atkinson, David H.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Doppler radio tracking of the Galileo probe-to-orbiter relay, previously analyzed for its in situ measure of Jupiter's zonal wind at the equatorial entry site, also shows a record of significant residual fluctuations apparently indicative of varying vertical motions. Regular oscillations over pressure depth in the residual Doppler measurements of roughly 1-8 Hz (increasing upward), as filtered over a 134 sec window, are most plausibly interpreted as gravity waves, and imply a weak, but downward increasing static stability within the 5 - 20 bar region of Jupiter's atmosphere. A matched extension to deeper levels of an independent inertial stability constraint from the measured vertical wind shear at 1 - 4 bars is roughly consistent with a static stability of approximately 0.5 K/km near the 20 bar level, as independently detected by the probe Atmospheric Structure Instrument.

  14. Evaluation and comparison of the processing methods of airborne gravimetry concerning the errors effects on downward continuation results: Case studies in Louisiana (USA) and the Tibetan Plateau (China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qilong; Strykowski, Gabriel; Li, Jiancheng

    2017-01-01

    and the most extreme area of the world for this type of survey is the Tibetan Plateau. Since there are no high-accuracy surface gravity data available for this area, the above error minimization method involving the external gravity data cannot be used. We propose a semi-parametric downward continuation method...... in combination with regularization to suppress the systematic error effect and the random error effect in the Tibetan Plateau; i.e., without the use of the external high-accuracy gravity data. We use a Louisiana airborne gravity dataset from the USA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA......) to demonstrate that the new method works effectively. Furthermore, and for the Tibetan Plateau we show that the numerical experiment is also successfully conducted using the synthetic Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM08)-derived gravity data contaminated with the synthetic errors. The estimated systematic...

  15. Mitigation of upward and downward vertical displacement event heat loads with upper or lower massive gas injection in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Commaux, N.; Eidietis, N. W.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Parks, P. B.; Shiraki, D.

    2015-10-01

    Intentionally triggered upward and downward vertical displacement events (VDEs) leading to disruptions were pre-emptively mitigated with neon massive gas injection (MGI) coming from either above or below the plasma. Global indicators of disruption mitigation effectiveness (conducted heat loads, radiated power, and vessel motion) do not show a clear improvement when mitigating with the gas jet located closer to the VDE impact area. A clear trend of improved mitigation is observed for earlier MGI timing relative to the VDE impact time. The plasma edge magnetic perturbation is seen to lock to a preferential phase during the VDE thermal quench, but this phase is not clearly matched by preliminary attempts to fit to the conducted heat load phase. Clear indications of plasma infra-red (IR) emission are observed both before and during the disruptions. This IR emission can affect calculation of disruption heat loads; here, the time decay of post-disruption IR signals is used to correct for this effect.

  16. Mitigation of upward and downward vertical displacement event heat loads with upper or lower massive gas injection in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Commaux, N.; Shiraki, D.; Eidietis, N. W.; Parks, P. B.; Lasnier, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Intentionally triggered upward and downward vertical displacement events (VDEs) leading to disruptions were pre-emptively mitigated with neon massive gas injection (MGI) coming from either above or below the plasma. Global indicators of disruption mitigation effectiveness (conducted heat loads, radiated power, and vessel motion) do not show a clear improvement when mitigating with the gas jet located closer to the VDE impact area. A clear trend of improved mitigation is observed for earlier MGI timing relative to the VDE impact time. The plasma edge magnetic perturbation is seen to lock to a preferential phase during the VDE thermal quench, but this phase is not clearly matched by preliminary attempts to fit to the conducted heat load phase. Clear indications of plasma infra-red (IR) emission are observed both before and during the disruptions. This IR emission can affect calculation of disruption heat loads; here, the time decay of post-disruption IR signals is used to correct for this effect

  17. Game Movement as Enactive Focalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Shibolet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates thought on game narrative and embodied cognition, in order to consider the significance of movement to the embodied narrative experience of games. If games are a mode of ‘environmental storytelling’, determining the player’s mobile situatedness within the gamespace is of crucial importance. The metaphor of game design as narrative architecture should be expanded to include te the design of movement dynamics, alongside geographical gamespace. I suggest a theoretical infrastructure that aims to enable further analysis of movement design’s role in this scope. The theory of enactive perception asserts that all perception is inherently negotiated through embodied understanding of moving within environment. According to this model, by giving meaning to perception, movement is also directly related to the structure of consciousness and thought. Cognitive definitions of ‘narrative’ that integrate embodiment are applied to argue it can relevantly account for part of thought’s role in enactive perception. Mieke Bal’s concept of focalization (1997 broaches narrative perspective by underscoring the constant “movement of the look”. For enactive perception, such mobility should be understood as inseparable from the movement of the body even when perspective could appear detached from embodiment. Therefore, I offer the supplementary concept of “enactive focalization” – narrative perception as interpreted through the interconnected dynamics or perspectival and physical movement. To exemplify my ideas and the potential of future research in this scope, I discuss the uniquely effective and affective movement dynamic design of Journey. This paper concludes by reflecting on enactive focalization in light of the increased utilization of embodiment in the contemporary digital media landscape.

  18. Interacting vegetative and thermal contributions to water movement in desert soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C.A.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Cooper, C.A.; Šimůnek, J.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally driven water-vapor flow can be an important component of total water movement in bare soil and in deep unsaturated zones, but this process is often neglected when considering the effects of soil–plant–atmosphere interactions on shallow water movement. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the coupled and separate effects of vegetative and thermal-gradient contributions to soil water movement in desert environments. The evaluation was done by comparing a series of simulations with and without vegetation and thermal forcing during a 4.7-yr period (May 2001–December 2005). For vegetated soil, evapotranspiration alone reduced root-zone (upper 1 m) moisture to a minimum value (25 mm) each year under both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. Variations in the leaf area index altered the minimum storage values by up to 10 mm. For unvegetated isothermal and nonisothermal simulations, root-zone water storage nearly doubled during the simulation period and created a persistent driving force for downward liquid fluxes below the root zone (total net flux ~1 mm). Total soil water movement during the study period was dominated by thermally driven vapor fluxes. Thermally driven vapor flow and condensation supplemented moisture supplies to plant roots during the driest times of each year. The results show how nonisothermal flow is coupled with plant water uptake, potentially influencing ecohydrologic relations in desert environments.

  19. THE MOVEMENT SYSTEM IN EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Sulavik, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Although many physical therapists have begun to focus on movement and function in clinical practice, a significant number continue to focus on impairments or pathoanatomic models to direct interventions. This paradigm may be driven by the current models used to direct and guide curricula used for physical therapist education. The methods by which students are educated may contribute to a focus on independent systems, rather than viewing the body as a functional whole. Students who enter practice must be able to integrate information across multiple systems that affect a patient or client's movement and function. Such integration must be taught to students and it is the responsibility of those in physical therapist education to embrace and teach the next generation of students this identifying professional paradigm of the movement system. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to describe the current state of the movement system in physical therapy education, suggest strategies for enhancing movement system focus in entry level education, and envision the future of physical therapy education related to the movement system. Contributions by a student author offer depth and perspective to the ideas and suggestions presented. 5.

  20. The movement ecology of seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-11-22

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  1. Movement games in sports training of children

    OpenAIRE

    Komoň, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Title: Movement Games in Sports Training of Children Objectives: Create a systemized inventory of movement games. Movement games categorized according to which football skills can developed. Verify popularity of the each movement game in simple questionnaire. Methods: The literature search and data analysis. Also, quantitative research in the form of a simple questionnaire. Results: Systematized inventory of 39 movement games with methodological descriptions. Each movement game has feedback i...

  2. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  3. Medically-enhanced normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Claus; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To consider public perspectives on the use of medicines for non-medical purposes, a usage called medically-enhanced normality (MEN). Method: Examples from the literature were combined with empirical data derived from two Danish research projects: a Delphi internet study and a Telebus...

  4. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. Identification of abnormal movement state and avoidance strategy for mobile robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zi-xing; DUAN Zhuo-hua; ZHANG Hui-tuan; YU Jin-xia

    2006-01-01

    Abnormal movement states for a mobile robot were identified by four multi-layer perceptron. In the presence of abnormality, avoidance strategies were designed to guarantee the safety of the robot. Firstly, the kinematics of the normal and abnormal movement states were exploited, 8 kinds of features were extracted. Secondly, 4 multi-layer perceptrons were employed to classify the features for four 4-driving wheels into 4 kinds of states, i.e. normal, blocked, deadly blocked, and slipping. Finally,avoidance strategies were designed based on this. Experiment results show that the methods can identify most abnormal movement states and avoid the abnormality correctly and timely.

  6. Normal anatomical measurements in cervical computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaunbauer, W.; Daepp, S.; Haertel, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radiodiagnostically relevant normal values and variations for measurements of the cervical region, the arithmetical average and the standard deviation were determined from adequate computer tomograms on 60 healthy women and men, aged 20 to 83 years. The sagittal diameter of the prevertebral soft tissue and the lumina of the upper respiratory tract were evaluated at exactly defined levels between the hyoid bone and the incisura jugularis sterni. - The thickness of the aryepiglottic folds, the maximal sagittal and transverse diameters of the thyroid gland and the calibre of the great cervical vessels were defined. - To assess information about laryngeal function in computerized tomography, measurements of distances between the cervical spine and anatomical fixed points of the larynx and hypopharynx were made as well as of the degree of vocal cord movement during normal respiration and phonation. (orig.) [de

  7. Observing human movements helps decoding environmental forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Myrka; La Scaleia, Barbara; Miller, William L; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    Vision of human actions can affect several features of visual motion processing, as well as the motor responses of the observer. Here, we tested the hypothesis that action observation helps decoding environmental forces during the interception of a decelerating target within a brief time window, a task intrinsically very difficult. We employed a factorial design to evaluate the effects of scene orientation (normal or inverted) and target gravity (normal or inverted). Button-press triggered the motion of a bullet, a piston, or a human arm. We found that the timing errors were smaller for upright scenes irrespective of gravity direction in the Bullet group, while the errors were smaller for the standard condition of normal scene and gravity in the Piston group. In the Arm group, instead, performance was better when the directions of scene and target gravity were concordant, irrespective of whether both were upright or inverted. These results suggest that the default viewer-centered reference frame is used with inanimate scenes, such as those of the Bullet and Piston protocols. Instead, the presence of biological movements in animate scenes (as in the Arm protocol) may help processing target kinematics under the ecological conditions of coherence between scene and target gravity directions.

  8. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: component analysis of EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Ana; Leurs, Françoise; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cebolla, Ana Maria; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy; McIntyre, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A central question in Neuroscience is that of how the nervous system generates the spatiotemporal commands needed to realize complex gestures, such as handwriting. A key postulate is that the central nervous system (CNS) builds up complex movements from a set of simpler motor primitives or control modules. In this study we examined the control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when performing different types of movement: discrete, point-to-point movements in eight different directions and continuous figure-eight movements in both the normal, upright orientation and rotated 90°. To test for the effects of biomechanical constraints, movements were performed in the frontal-parallel or sagittal planes, corresponding to two different nominal flexion/abduction postures of the shoulder. In all cases we measured limb kinematics and surface electromyographic activity (EMG) signals for seven different muscles acting around the shoulder. We first performed principal component analysis (PCA) of the EMG signals on a movement-by-movement basis. We found a surprisingly consistent pattern of muscle groupings across movement types and movement planes, although we could detect systematic differences between the PCs derived from movements performed in each shoulder posture and between the principal components associated with the different orientations of the figure. Unexpectedly we found no systematic differences between the figure eights and the point-to-point movements. The first three principal components could be associated with a general co-contraction of all seven muscles plus two patterns of reciprocal activation. From these results, we surmise that both "discrete-rhythmic movements" such as the figure eight, and discrete point-to-point movement may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the impedance of the limb over the time span of the movement and two others operating to generate movement, one aligned with the

  9. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

    2008-12-01

    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability.

  10. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  11. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  12. The Moving Rubber Hand Illusion Reveals that Explicit Sense of Agency for Tapping Movements Is Preserved in Functional Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Marotta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional movement disorders (FMD are characterized by motor symptoms (e.g., tremor, gait disorder, and dystonia that are not compatible with movement abnormalities related to a known organic cause. One key clinical feature of FMD is that motor symptoms are similar to voluntary movements but are subjectively experienced as involuntary by patients. This gap might be related to abnormal self-recognition of bodily action, which involves two main components: sense of agency and sense of body ownership. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate whether this function is altered in FMD, specifically focusing on the subjective feeling of agency, body ownership, and their interaction during normal voluntary movements. Patients with FMD (n = 21 and healthy controls (n = 21 underwent the moving Rubber Hand Illusion (mRHI, in which passive and active movements can differentially elicit agency, ownership or both. Explicit measures of agency and ownership were obtained via a questionnaire. Patients and controls showed a similar pattern of response: when the rubber hand was in a plausible posture, active movements elicited strong agency and ownership; implausible posture of the rubber hand abolished ownership but not agency; passive movements suppressed agency but not ownership. These findings suggest that explicit sense of agency and body ownership are preserved in FMD. The latter finding is shared by a previous study in FMD using a static version of the RHI, whereas the former appears to contrast with studies demonstrating altered implicit measures of agency (e.g., sensory attenuation. Our study extends previous findings by suggesting that in FMD: (i the sense of body ownership is retained also when interacting with the motor system; (ii the subjective experience of agency for voluntary tapping movements, as measured by means of mRHI, is preserved.

  13. Patterns of movement of radioactive carabid beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baars, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Tracking of individual 192 Ir-labelled ground beetles released in the field revealed that both the day-active and night-active species studied showed periods of small distances covered per day in random directions, alternating with periods of directed movement with large distances covered per day. This pattern occurred not only in the reproductive period but outside the breeding season as well in juvenile Pterostichus versicolor and spent Calathus melanocephalus. Although mean locomotory activity increased with temperature, great daily differences occurred between individuals, pointing to asynchronous behaviour. In an unfavorable habitat directed movement occurred both more frequently and more extremely, sometimes resulting in escape to more favorable areas. Most of the radioactive beetles died within 7 weeks due to radiation effects, but independent field experiments and simulations showed that the recorded patterns were valid. Simulated individuals of P. versicolor living on 1 ha spread over 49 ha, whereas simulated C. melanocephalus covered only 9 ha after one activity season. Normal locomotory activities lead to both exchange of individuals between subpopulations and dispersal out of the habitat. The significance of these phenomena for population stability and for the survival of the species is discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Sleep staging with movement-related signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, B H; Shankar, K

    1993-05-01

    Body movement related signals (i.e., activity due to postural changes and the ballistocardiac effort) were recorded from six normal volunteers using the static-charge-sensitive bed (SCSB). Visual sleep staging was performed on the basis of simultaneously recorded EEG, EMG and EOG signals. A statistical classification technique was used to determine if reliable sleep staging could be performed using only the SCSB signal. A classification rate of between 52% and 75% was obtained for sleep staging in the five conventional sleep stages and the awake state. These rates improved from 78% to 89% for classification between awake, REM and non-REM sleep and from 86% to 98% for awake versus asleep classification.

  15. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  16. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  17. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Assessing the clinical utility of combined movement examination in symptomatic degenerative lumbar spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monie, A P; Price, R I; Lind, C R P; Singer, K P

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to report the development and validation of a low back computer-aided combined movement examination protocol in normal individuals and record treatment outcomes of cases with symptomatic degenerative lumbar spondylosis. Test-retest, following intervention. Self-report assessments and combined movement examination were used to record composite spinal motion, before and following neurosurgical and pain medicine interventions. 151 normal individuals aged from 20 years to 69 years were assessed using combined movement examination between L1 and S1 spinal levels to establish a reference range. Cases with degenerative low back pain and sciatica were assessed before and after therapeutic interventions with combined movement examination and a battery of self-report pain and disability questionnaires. Change scores for combined movement examination and all outcome measures were derived. Computer-aided combined movement examination validation and intraclass correlation coefficient with 95% confidence interval and least significant change scores indicated acceptable reliability of combined movement examination when recording lumbar movement in normal subjects. In both clinical cases lumbar spine movement restrictions corresponded with self-report scores for pain and disability. Post-intervention outcomes all showed significant improvement, particularly in the most restricted combined movement examination direction. This study provides normative reference data for combined movement examination that may inform future clinical studies of the technique as a convenient objective surrogate for important clinical outcomes in lumbar degenerative spondylosis. It can be used with good reliability, may be well tolerated by individuals in pain and appears to change in concert with validated measures of lumbar spinal pain, functional limitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    This is a social anthropological analysis of the antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee. This social movement was determined to halt the construction of proposed nuclear power plants in Tennessee, especially one the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) intended to build in Middle Tennessee. The data for the study were gathered by participant-observation interviewing, and the examination of documents from February 1973 through March 1975. The treatment of the data is based on transactional analysis and portions of the network model. This social movement was composed of a series of informally organized cells connected by a loose network of people who visited and talked with one another. Individual cells tended to be organized on a geographical basis, as was communication. Activity-initiators, however, often contacted antinuclear personnel in other Middle Tennessee cells. Movement activity for many of the antinuclear activists was short-lived. The strategic maneuvers of the movement utilized all the structurally and legally possible alternatives and the nuclear opponents hoped that the public would pressure public officials to oppose nuclear plants. Although the antinuclear activists worked very hard, they did not succeed in halting the planned construction of the Middle Tennessee nuclear plant. Indeed, they had not succeeded in the summer of 1977

  20. Yarbus, Eye Movements, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Tatler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.

  1. Driving Symbolic Consumption through Imagined Vertical Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostinelli, Massimiliano; Ringberg, Torsten; Luna, David

    Drawing on theories of embodied cognition and compensatory consumption, we provide evidence that merely imagining oneself moving upward or downward affects preference for symbolic products. Altogether, two studies show that magining taking an elevator down, as opposed to up, decreases self...

  2. 45 CFR 400.119 - Interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interstate movement. 400.119 Section 400.119... Services § 400.119 Interstate movement. After the initial placement of an unaccompanied minor, the same procedures that govern the movement of nonrefugee foster cases to other States apply to the movement of...

  3. Conceptualizing Learning in the Climate Justice Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluttz, Jenalee; Walter, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This article extends Scandrett et al.'s conceptual framework for social movement learning to understand learning and knowledge creation in the climate justice movement. Drawing on radical pluralist theoretical approaches to social movement learning, learning in the climate justice movement is conceptualized at the micro, meso, and macro levels,…

  4. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  5. Video-based quantification of body movement during social interaction indicates the severity of negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Zeno; Ramseyer, Fabian; Hoffmann, Holger; Kalbermatten, Samuel; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    In schizophrenia, nonverbal behavior, including body movement, is of theoretical and clinical importance. Although reduced nonverbal expressiveness is a major component of the negative symptoms encountered in schizophrenia, few studies have objectively assessed body movement during social interaction. In the present study, 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia were analyzed using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA). This method enables the objective measuring of body movement in conjunction with ordinary video recordings. Correlations between movement parameters (percentage of time in movement, movement speed) and symptom ratings from independent PANSS interviews were calculated. Movement parameters proved to be highly reliable. In keeping with predictions, reduced movement and movement speed correlated with negative symptoms. Accordingly, in patients who exhibited noticeable movement for less than 20% of the observation time, prominent negative symptoms were highly probable. As a control measure, the percentage of movement exhibited by the patients during role-play scenes was compared to that of their normal interactants. Patients with negative symptoms differed from normal interactants by showing significantly reduced head and body movement. Two specific positive symptoms were possibly related to movement parameters: suspiciousness tended to correlate with reduced head movement, and the expression of unusual thought content tended to relate to increased movement. Overall, a close and theoretically meaningful association between the objective movement parameters and the symptom profiles was found. MEA appears to be an objective, reliable and valid method for quantifying nonverbal behavior, an aspect which may furnish new insights into the processes related to reduced expressiveness in schizophrenia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biodiversity losses: The downward spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomback, Diana F.; Kendall, Katherine C.; Tomback, Diana F.; Arno, Stephen F.; Keane, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    The dramatic decline of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) populations in the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada from the combined effects of fire exclusion, mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), and the projected decline of whitebark pine populations rangewide (Chapters 10 and 11) do not simply add up to local extirpations of a single tree species. Instead, the loss of whitebark pine has broad ecosystem-level consequences, eroding local plant and animal biodiversity, changing the time frame of succession, and altering the distribution of subalpine vegetation (Chapter 1). One potential casualty of this decline may be the midcontinental populations of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis), which use whitebark pine seeds as a major food source (Chapter 7). Furthermore, whitebark pine is linked to other white pine ecosystems in the West through its seed-disperser, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) (Chapter 5). Major declines in nutcracker populations ultimately seal the fate of several white pine ecosystems, and raise the question of whether restoration is possible once a certain threshold of decline is reached.

  7. [High-frequency components of occlusal sound in sliding movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, K

    1990-03-01

    We postulated that high-frequency components of the occlusal sound occurring due to the characteristic vibration of teeth can be useful data for confirmation of the stability in occlusion, and studied the high-frequency components in the cases both of an experimental sliding movement and a normal occlusion. The results obtained were as follows. 1. A study on high-frequency components of the occlusal sound in an experimental sliding movement. 1) A study on wave type of the occlusal sound revealed one damped oscillation in an impact form and two in a slide form. 2) Spectrum analysis of the damped oscillation showed a similar spectrum pattern with a peak existing between 16KHz or more and 17KHz or less in both impact and slide cases. 2. A study on high-frequency components of the occlusal sound in a normal occlusion case. 1) The wave type in occlusal sound we have observed in a normal occlusion group and in a prosthetic or operative group was as follows: One damped oscillation shown in an impact form and two damped oscillation in a slide form which were the same as those shown in the case where an interference device was attached. 2) Duration of the sliding movement was short in a normal occlusion group, but was prolonged in a prosthetic or operative group. 3) The incidence of the wave type in occlusal sound was 56.7% in a prosthetic or operative group as compared to 87.8% in a normal occlusion group in an impact form. In contrast, the incidence was 43.3% in a prosthetic or operative group as compared to 12.2% in a normal occlusion group in a slide form. Such difference in the incidence between the wave types suggested that high-frequency components of occlusal sound can be an index for judgement of the stability in occlusion.

  8. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  9. Uncertainty in regional and zonal monthly mean downward surface irradiances from Edition 4.0 CERES Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF) data product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.; Rutan, D. A.; Rose, F. G.; Loeb, N. G.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of the Earth receives solar radiation (shortwave) and emission from the atmosphere (longwave). At a global and annual mean approximately 12% of solar radiation incident on the surface is reflected and the rest is absorbed by the surface. The surface emits radiation proportional to the forth power of the temperature. Although the uncertainty in global and annual mean surface irradiances is estimated in earlier studies (Zhang et al. 1995, 2004; L'Ecuyer et al. 2008; Stephens et al. 2012; Kato et al. 2012), only a few studies estimated the uncertainty in computed surface irradiances at smaller spatial and temporal scales (Zhang et al. 1995, 2004; Kato et al. 2012). We use surface observations at 46 buoys and 36 land sites and newly released the Edition 4.0 Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF)-surface data product to estimate the uncertainty in regional and zonal monthly mean downward shortwave and longwave surface irradiances. The root-mean-square difference of monthly mean computed and observed irradiances is used for the regional uncertainty. The uncertainty is separated into bias and spatially random components. The random component decreases when irradiances are averaged over a larger area, nearly inversely proportional to the number of surface observation sites. The presentation provides the uncertainty in the regional and zonal monthly mean downward surface irradiances over ocean and land. ReferencesKato, S. and N.G.Loeb, D. A.Rutan, F. G. Rose, S. Sun-Mack,W.F.Miller, and Y. Chen, 2012. Surv. Geophys., 33, 395-412, doi:10.1007/s10712-012-9179-x. L'Ecuyer, T. S., N. B. Wood, T. Haladay, G. L. Stephens, and P. W. Stackhouse Jr., 2008, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D00A15, doi:10.1029/2008JD009951. Stephens, G. L. and Coauthors, 2012, Nat. Geosci., 5, 691-696, doi:10.1038/ngeo1580. Zhang, Y., W. B. Rossow, A. A. Lacis, V. Oinas, and M. I. Mishchenko, 2004, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D19105, doi:10.1029/2003JD

  10. The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading

    OpenAIRE

    Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence readi...

  11. Learning fast accurate movements requires intact frontostriatal circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britne eShabbott

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia are known to play a crucial role in movement execution, but their importance for motor skill learning remains unclear. Obstacles to our understanding include the lack of a universally accepted definition of motor skill learning (definition confound, and difficulties in distinguishing learning deficits from execution impairments (performance confound. We studied how healthy subjects and subjects with a basal ganglia disorder learn fast accurate reaching movements, and we addressed the definition and performance confounds by: 1 focusing on an operationally defined core element of motor skill learning (speed-accuracy learning, and 2 using normal variation in initial performance to separate movement execution impairment from motor learning abnormalities. We measured motor skill learning learning as performance improvement in a reaching task with a speed-accuracy trade-off. We compared the performance of subjects with Huntington’s disease (HD, a neurodegenerative basal ganglia disorder, to that of premanifest carriers of the HD mutation and of control subjects. The initial movements of HD subjects were less skilled (slower and/or less accurate than those of control subjects. To factor out these differences in initial execution, we modeled the relationship between learning and baseline performance in control subjects. Subjects with HD exhibited a clear learning impairment that was not explained by differences in initial performance. These results support a role for the basal ganglia in both movement execution and motor skill learning.

  12. Modeling Uncertainty of Directed Movement via Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Zhangcai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic time geography (PTG is suggested as an extension of (classical time geography, in order to present the uncertainty of an agent located at the accessible position by probability. This may provide a quantitative basis for most likely finding an agent at a location. In recent years, PTG based on normal distribution or Brown bridge has been proposed, its variance, however, is irrelevant with the agent's speed or divergent with the increase of the speed; so they are difficult to take into account application pertinence and stability. In this paper, a new method is proposed to model PTG based on Markov chain. Firstly, a bidirectional conditions Markov chain is modeled, the limit of which, when the moving speed is large enough, can be regarded as the Brown bridge, thus has the characteristics of digital stability. Then, the directed movement is mapped to Markov chains. The essential part is to build step length, the state space and transfer matrix of Markov chain according to the space and time position of directional movement, movement speed information, to make sure the Markov chain related to the movement speed. Finally, calculating continuously the probability distribution of the directed movement at any time by the Markov chains, it can be get the possibility of an agent located at the accessible position. Experimental results show that, the variance based on Markov chains not only is related to speed, but also is tending towards stability with increasing the agent's maximum speed.

  13. How vertical hand movements impact brain activity elicited by literally and metaphorically related words: an ERP study of embodied metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardolph, Megan; Coulson, Seana

    2014-01-01

    Embodied metaphor theory suggests abstract concepts are metaphorically linked to more experientially basic ones and recruit sensorimotor cortex for their comprehension. To test whether words associated with spatial attributes reactivate traces in sensorimotor cortex, we recorded EEG from the scalp of healthy adults as they read words while performing a concurrent task involving either upward- or downward- directed arm movements. ERPs were time-locked to words associated with vertical space—either literally (ascend, descend) or metaphorically (inspire, defeat)—as participants made vertical movements that were either congruent or incongruent with the words. Congruency effects emerged 200–300 ms after word onset for literal words, but not until after 500 ms post-onset for metaphorically related words. Results argue against a strong version of embodied metaphor theory, but support a role for sensorimotor simulation in concrete language. PMID:25566041

  14. Structural and biomechanical basis of mitochondrial movement in eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Min Wu,1 Aruna Kalyanasundaram,2 Jie Zhu1 1Laboratory of Biomechanics and Engineering, Institute of Biophysics, College of Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 2College of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Mitochondria serve as energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells. In addition to providing the energy supply for cells, the mitochondria are also involved in other processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, information transfer, and apoptosis, and play an important role in regulation of cell growth and the cell cycle. In order to achieve these functions, the mitochondria need to move to the corresponding location. Therefore, mitochondrial movement has a crucial role in normal physiologic activity, and any mitochondrial movement disorder will cause irreparable damage to the organism. For example, recent studies have shown that abnormal movement of the mitochondria is likely to be the reason for Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. So, in the cell, especially in the particular polarized cell, the appropriate distribution of mitochondria is crucial to the function and survival of the cell. Mitochondrial movement is mainly associated with the cytoskeleton and related proteins. However, those components play different roles according to cell type. In this paper, we summarize the structural basis of mitochondrial movement, including microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, and adaptin, and review studies of the biomechanical mechanisms of mitochondrial movement in different types of cells. Keywords: mitochondrial movement, microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, adaptin

  15. Normal Range of Head-to-body Delivery Interval by Two-step Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The average time of head-to-body delivery interval was longer than 60 s by two-step delivery. Majority shoulders were delivered at the first contraction. Majority shoulders emerged from perineum rather from under pubic arch. The routine one-step method of shoulder delivery where the downward force applied is not necessary and is not the right direction. Baby's breath, making faces, sucking, bubble from noses and mouth, and the light blue color of the faces, all those signs during shoulder delivery indicated a normal live birth.

  16. Symmetric co-movement between Malaysia and Japan stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura

    2017-04-01

    The copula approach is a flexible tool known to capture linear, nonlinear, symmetric and asymmetric dependence between two or more random variables. It is often used as a co-movement measure between stock market returns. The information obtained from copulas such as the level of association of financial market during normal and bullish and bearish markets phases are useful for investment strategies and risk management. However, the study of co-movement between Malaysia and Japan markets are limited, especially using copulas. Hence, we aim to investigate the dependence structure between Malaysia and Japan capital markets for the period spanning from 2000 to 2012. In this study, we showed that the bivariate normal distribution is not suitable as the bivariate distribution or to present the dependence between Malaysia and Japan markets. Instead, Gaussian or normal copula was found a good fit to represent the dependence. From our findings, it can be concluded that simple distribution fitting such as bivariate normal distribution does not suit financial time series data, whose characteristics are often leptokurtic. The nature of the data is treated by ARMA-GARCH with heavy tail distributions and these can be associated with copula functions. Regarding the dependence structure between Malaysia and Japan markets, the findings suggest that both markets co-move concurrently during normal periods.

  17. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  18. Noun Phrase Structure and Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna; Vikner, Sten

    2011-01-01

    /solch to follow the article. We discuss two possible syntactic derivations, predicate raising (e.g. Corver 1998, Bennis, Corver & den Dikken 1998) and XP movement from an attributive adjective position within the nominal (e.g. Matushansky 2002). The analysis links up with the morphological agreement facts...

  19. Ketotic hyperglycemia with movement disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Awasthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorea, hemichorea-hemiballismus and severe partial seizures may be the presenting features of nonketotic hyperglycemia in older adults with type 2 diabetes, but cases in young adults with type 1 diabetes are rare. We hereby report a very rare case of diabetic ketosis with movement disorder in a young patient.

  20. Population consequences of aggregative movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Turchin

    1989-01-01

    Gregarious behaviour is an important factor influencing survival and reproduction of animals, as well as population interactions. In this paper I develop a model of movement with attraction or repulsion between conspecifics. To facilitate its use in empirical studies, the model is based on experimentally measurable features of individual behaviour.

  1. Actuating movement in refined wearables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toeters, M.J.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays it is quite possible to deploy textiles as sensors and avoid traditional hard sensors. Actuation (movement) turns out more difficult. It is advantageous to combine sensing and actuation, similar to ecological perception theory. Although several actuators are known: SMA, voice coil, motors,

  2. THE INTERNATIONAL WALDORF SCHOOL MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VON BARAVALLE, HERMANN

    AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE WALDORF SCHOOL PLAN TRACES THE MOVEMENT FROM ITS FOUNDING IN STUTTGART, GERMANY IN 1919, BY THE WALDORF ASTORIA COMPANY AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF RUDOLF STEINER, TO ITS INTRODUCTION INTO SWITZERLAND, OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, THE AMERICAS, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, AND SOUTH AFRICA, A TOTAL OF 175 SCHOOLS AS OF 1963. THE…

  3. Bread and Shoulders: Reversing the Downward Spiral, a Qualitative Analyses of the Effects of a Housing First-Type Program in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhenter, Pauline; Moreau, Delphine; Laval, Christian; Mantovani, Jean; Albisson, Amandine; Suderie, Guillaume; Boucekine, Mohamed; Tinland, Aurelie; Loubière, Sandrine; Greacen, Tim; Auquier, Pascal; Girard, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative analysis of the effects of accompagnement, a support framework, on recovery trajectories of people with long-term homelessness and severe psychiatric disorders during 24 months in a Housing First-type program in France. A comprehensive methodology based on grounded theory was used to construct an interview guide, conduct multiple interviews with 35 Housing First participants sampled for heterogeneity, and produce memos on their trajectories before and after entering the program based on interview information. Thematic analysis of a representative subsample (n = 13) of memos identified 12 objective factors and 6 subjective factors key to the recovery process. An in-depth re-analysis of the memos generated four recovery themes: (1) the need for secure space favorable to self-reflexivity; (2) a “honeymoon” effect; (3) the importance of even weak social ties; (4) support from and hope among peers. Three challenges to recovery were identified: (1) finding a balance between protection and risk; (2) breaking downward spirals; (3) bifurcating the trajectory. This study provides new insight into the recovery process, understood as a non-linear transformation of an experience—the relationship between objective life conditions and subjective perception of those conditions—which reinforces protective support over risk elements. PMID:29538346

  4. Disrupting the downward spiral of chronic pain and opioid addiction with mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement: a review of clinical outcomes and neurocognitive targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L

    2014-06-01

    Prescription opioid misuse and addiction among chronic pain patients are problems of growing medical and social significance. Chronic pain patients often require intervention to improve their well-being and functioning, and yet, the most commonly available form of pharmacotherapy for chronic pain is centered on opioid analgesics--drugs that have high abuse liability. Consequently, health care and legal systems are often stymied in their attempts to intervene with individuals who suffer from both pain and addiction. As such, novel, nonpharmacologic interventions are needed to complement pharmacotherapy and interrupt the cycle of behavioral escalation. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the downward spiral of chronic pain and prescription opioid misuse may be targeted by one such intervention, Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), a new behavioral treatment that integrates elements from mindfulness training, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and positive psychology. The clinical outcomes and neurocognitive mechanisms of this intervention are reviewed with respect to their effects on the risk chain linking chronic pain and prescription opioid misuse. Future directions for clinical and pharmacologic research are discussed.

  5. Bread and Shoulders: Reversing the Downward Spiral, a Qualitative Analyses of the Effects of a Housing First-Type Program in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Rhenter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a qualitative analysis of the effects of accompagnement, a support framework, on recovery trajectories of people with long-term homelessness and severe psychiatric disorders during 24 months in a Housing First-type program in France. A comprehensive methodology based on grounded theory was used to construct an interview guide, conduct multiple interviews with 35 Housing First participants sampled for heterogeneity, and produce memos on their trajectories before and after entering the program based on interview information. Thematic analysis of a representative subsample (n = 13 of memos identified 12 objective factors and 6 subjective factors key to the recovery process. An in-depth re-analysis of the memos generated four recovery themes: (1 the need for secure space favorable to self-reflexivity; (2 a “honeymoon” effect; (3 the importance of even weak social ties; (4 support from and hope among peers. Three challenges to recovery were identified: (1 finding a balance between protection and risk; (2 breaking downward spirals; (3 bifurcating the trajectory. This study provides new insight into the recovery process, understood as a non-linear transformation of an experience—the relationship between objective life conditions and subjective perception of those conditions—which reinforces protective support over risk elements.

  6. Single bubble dynamic behavior in AL{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O nanofluid on downward-facing heating surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Junmei [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-08-15

    After a severe accident to the nuclear reactor, the in-vessel retention strategy is a key way to prevent the leakage of radioactive material. Nanofluid is a steady suspension used to improve heat-transfer characteristics of working fluids, formed by adding solid particles with diameters below 100 nm to the base fluids, and its thermal physical properties and heat-transfer characteristics are much different from the conventional working fluids. Thus, nanofluids with appropriate nanoparticle type and volume concentration can enhance the heat-transfer process. In this study, the moving particle semi-implicit method-meshless advection using flow-directional local grid method is used to simulate the bubble growth, departure, and sliding on the downward-facing heating surface in pure water and nanofluid (1.0 vol.% Al2O3/H2O) flow boiling processes; additionally, the bubble critical departure angle and sliding characteristics and their influence are also investigated. The results indicate that the bubble in nanofluid departs from the heating surface more easily and the critical departure inclined angle of nanofluid is greater than that of pure water. In addition, the influence of nanofluid on bubble sliding is not significant compared with pure water.

  7. A Dual Conductance Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Void Fraction and Structure Velocity of Downward Two-Phase Flow in a Slightly Inclined Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Gun; Won, Woo-Youn; Lee, Bo-An; Kim, Sin

    2017-05-08

    In this study, a new and improved electrical conductance sensor is proposed for application not only to a horizontal pipe, but also an inclined one. The conductance sensor was designed to have a dual layer, each consisting of a three-electrode set to obtain two instantaneous conductance signals in turns, so that the area-averaged void fraction and structure velocity could be measured simultaneously. The optimum configuration of the electrodes was determined through numerical analysis, and the calibration curves for stratified and annular flow were obtained through a series of static experiments. The fabricated conductance sensor was applied to a 45 mm inner diameter U-shaped downward inclined pipe with an inclination angle of 3° under adiabatic air-water flow conditions. In the tests, the superficial velocities ranged from 0.1 to 3.0 m/s for water and from 0.1 to 18 m/s for air. The obtained mean void fraction and the structure velocity from the conductance sensor were validated against the measurement by the wire-mesh sensor and the cross-correlation technique for the visualized images, respectively. The results of the flow regime classification and the corresponding time series of the void fraction at a variety of flow velocities were also discussed.

  8. Bread and Shoulders: Reversing the Downward Spiral, a Qualitative Analyses of the Effects of a Housing First-Type Program in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhenter, Pauline; Moreau, Delphine; Laval, Christian; Mantovani, Jean; Albisson, Amandine; Suderie, Guillaume; Boucekine, Mohamed; Tinland, Aurelie; Loubière, Sandrine; Greacen, Tim; Auquier, Pascal; Girard, Vincent

    2018-03-14

    This paper is a qualitative analysis of the effects of accompagnement , a support framework, on recovery trajectories of people with long-term homelessness and severe psychiatric disorders during 24 months in a Housing First-type program in France. A comprehensive methodology based on grounded theory was used to construct an interview guide, conduct multiple interviews with 35 Housing First participants sampled for heterogeneity, and produce memos on their trajectories before and after entering the program based on interview information. Thematic analysis of a representative subsample ( n = 13) of memos identified 12 objective factors and 6 subjective factors key to the recovery process. An in-depth re-analysis of the memos generated four recovery themes: (1) the need for secure space favorable to self-reflexivity; (2) a "honeymoon" effect; (3) the importance of even weak social ties; (4) support from and hope among peers. Three challenges to recovery were identified: (1) finding a balance between protection and risk; (2) breaking downward spirals; (3) bifurcating the trajectory. This study provides new insight into the recovery process, understood as a non-linear transformation of an experience-the relationship between objective life conditions and subjective perception of those conditions-which reinforces protective support over risk elements.

  9. Sensitivity of the downward to sweeping velocity ratio to the bypass flow percentage along a guide wall for downstream fish passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kevin; Towler, Brett; Haro, Alexander J.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Partial-depth impermeable guidance structures (or guide walls) are used as a method to assist in the downstream passage of fish at a hydroelectric facility. However, guide walls can result in a strong downward velocity causing the approaching fish to pass below the wall and into the direction of the turbine intakes. The objective of this study was to describe how the ratio of the vertical velocity to the sweeping velocity magnitude changes along the full length and depth of a guide wall under a wide range of bypass flow percentages within a power canal. This paper focused on two guide wall configurations, each set at an angle of 45 ° to the approaching flow field and at a depth of 10 and 20 ft (3.05 and 6.10 m). The hydraulic conditions upstream of each guide wall configuration were shown to be impacted by a change in the bypass flow percentage, not only near the bypass but also at upstream sections of the guide wall. Furthermore, the effect of changing the bypass flow percentage was similar for both guide wall depths. In both cases, the effect of increasing the bypass flow percentage was magnified closer to the bypass and deeper in the water column along the guide wall.

  10. Cerium and cobalt movement with litter leachate in a forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    Leachate containing 144 Ce and 60 Co from leaf litter of mockernut hickory (Carya tomentosa Nutt.) and black gum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.) trees was applied to a forest soil in three different treatments to estimate the rates at which these elements move downward after release in the litter layer: (a) single application, (b) single application at twice the concentration in (a), and (c) four periodic applications over 1 year. Regression b values describing the distribution of 144 Ce and 60 Co 4 years after the first applications did not differ significantly (P greater than 0.01) among treatments for either element, but movement by 144 Ce significantly exceeded that by 60 Co for all treatments. A combination of chemical and physical phenomena retained cerium and cobalt in the biologically active zones of soil, with the organic layer and upper 3 cm of mineral soil accounting for 68 percent of the 144 Ce and 91 percent of the 60 Co

  11. Theory of normal metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The organizers requested that I give eight lectures on the theory of normal metals, ''with an eye on superconductivity.'' My job was to cover the general properties of metals. The topics were selected according to what the students would need to known for the following lectures on superconductivity. My role was to prepare the ground work for the later lectures. The problem is that there is not yet a widely accepted theory for the mechanism which pairs the electrons. Many mechanisms have been proposed, with those of phonons and spin fluctuations having the most followers. So I tried to discuss both topics. I also introduced the tight-binding model for metals, which forms the basis for most of the work on the cuprate superconductors

  12. Cerebral Activations Related to Ballistic, Stepwise Interrupted and Gradually Modulated Movements in Parkinson Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxopeus, Carolien M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced

  13. Cerebral activations related to ballistic, stepwise interrupted and gradually modulated movements in Parkinson patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolien M Toxopeus

    Full Text Available Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12 and healthy subjects (N = 18. In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account

  14. WEBnm@: a web application for normal mode analyses of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuter Nathalie

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal mode analysis (NMA has become the method of choice to investigate the slowest motions in macromolecular systems. NMA is especially useful for large biomolecular assemblies, such as transmembrane channels or virus capsids. NMA relies on the hypothesis that the vibrational normal modes having the lowest frequencies (also named soft modes describe the largest movements in a protein and are the ones that are functionally relevant. Results We developed a web-based server to perform normal modes calculations and different types of analyses. Starting from a structure file provided by the user in the PDB format, the server calculates the normal modes and subsequently offers the user a series of automated calculations; normalized squared atomic displacements, vector field representation and animation of the first six vibrational modes. Each analysis is performed independently from the others and results can be visualized using only a web browser. No additional plug-in or software is required. For users who would like to analyze the results with their favorite software, raw results can also be downloaded. The application is available on http://www.bioinfo.no/tools/normalmodes. We present here the underlying theory, the application architecture and an illustration of its features using a large transmembrane protein as an example. Conclusion We built an efficient and modular web application for normal mode analysis of proteins. Non specialists can easily and rapidly evaluate the degree of flexibility of multi-domain protein assemblies and characterize the large amplitude movements of their domains.

  15. Early Christian movements: Jesus movements and the renewal of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Horsley

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and development of the earliest Jesus movements within the context of persistent conflict between the Judean and Galilean peasantry and their Jerusalem and Roman rulers. It explores the prominence of popular prophetic and messianic movements and shows how the earliest movements that formed in response to Jesus’ mission exhibit similar features and patterns. Jesus is not treated as separate from social roles and political-economic relationships. Viewing Jesus against the background of village communities in which people lived, the Gospels are understood as genuine communication with other people in historical social contexts. The article argues that the net effect of these interrelated factors of theologically determined New Testament interpretation is a combination of assumptions and procedures that would be unacceptable in the regular investigation of history. Another version of the essay was published in Horsley, Richard A (ed, A people’s history of Christianity, Volume 1: Christian origins, 23-46. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.

  16. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory.

  17. Dynamic modulation of corticospinal excitability and short-latency afferent inhibition during onset and maintenance phase of selective finger movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Joo; Panyakaew, Pattamon; Thirugnanasambandam, Nivethida; Wu, Tianxia; Hallett, Mark

    2016-06-01

    During highly selective finger movement, corticospinal excitability is reduced in surrounding muscles at the onset of movement but this phenomenon has not been demonstrated during maintenance of movement. Sensorimotor integration may play an important role in selective movement. We sought to investigate how corticospinal excitability and short-latency afferent inhibition changes in active and surrounding muscles during onset and maintenance of selective finger movement. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and paired peripheral stimulation, input-output recruitment curve and short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) were measured in the first dorsal interosseus and abductor digiti minimi muscles during selective index finger flexion. Motor surround inhibition was present only at the onset phase, but not at the maintenance phase of movement. SAI was reduced at onset but not at the maintenance phase of movement in both active and surrounding muscles. Our study showed dynamic changes in corticospinal excitability and sensorimotor modulation for active and surrounding muscles in different movement states. SAI does not appear to contribute to motor surround inhibition at the movement onset phase. Also, there seems to be different inhibitory circuit(s) other than SAI for the movement maintenance phase in order to delineate the motor output selectively when corticospinal excitability is increased in both active and surrounding muscles. This study enhances our knowledge of dynamic changes in corticospinal excitability and sensorimotor interaction in different movement states to understand normal and disordered movements. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Development of Fetal Movement between 26 and 36 Weeks’ Gestation in Response to Vibro-acoustic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marybeth eGrant-Beuttler

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasound observation of fetal movement has documented general trends in motor development and fetal age when motor response to stimulation is observed. Evaluation of fetal movement quality, in addition to specific motor activity, may improve documentation of motor development and highlight specific motor responses to stimulation. Aims: The aim of this investigation was to assess fetal movement at 26 and 36 weeks gestation during three conditions (baseline, immediate response to vibro-acoustic stimulation (VAS, and post-response. Design: A prospective, longitudinal design was utilized. Subjects: Twelve normally developing fetuses, 8 females and 4 males, were examined with continuous ultrasound imaging. Outcome measures: The Fetal Neurobehavioral Coding System (FENS was used to evaluate the quality of motor activity during 10-second epochs over the three conditions. Results: Seventy-five percent of the fetuses at the 26 week assessment and 100% of the fetuses at the 36 week assessment responded with movement immediately following stimulation. Significant differences in head, fetal breathing, general, limb, and mouthing movements were detected between the 26 week and 36 week assessments. Movement differences between conditions were detected in head, fetal breathing, limb, and mouthing movements. Conclusions: Smoother and more complex movement was observed with fetal maturation. Following VAS stimulation, an immediate increase of large, jerky movements suggest instability in fetal capabilities. Fetal movement quality changes over gestation may reflect sensorimotor synaptogenesis in the central nervous system, while observation of immature movement patterns following VAS stimulation may reflect movement pattern instability.

  19. Zero-gravity movement studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.

  20. Organization of octopus arm movements: a model system for studying the control of flexible arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Yarom, Y; Fiorito, G; Segev, I; Hochner, B

    1996-11-15

    Octopus arm movements provide an extreme example of controlled movements of a flexible arm with virtually unlimited degrees of freedom. This study aims to identify general principles in the organization of these movements. Video records of the movements of Octopus vulgaris performing the task of reaching toward a target were studied. The octopus extends its arm toward the target by a wave-like propagation of a bend that travels from the base of the arm toward the tip. Similar bend propagation is seen in other octopus arm movements, such as locomotion and searching. The kinematics (position and velocity) of the midpoint of the bend in three-dimensional space were extracted using the direct linear transformation algorithm. This showed that the bend tends to move within a single linear plane in a simple, slightly curved path connecting the center of the animal's body with the target location. Approximately 70% of the reaching movements demonstrated a stereotyped tangential velocity profile. An invariant profile was observed when movements were normalized for velocity and distance. Two arms, extended together in the same behavioral context, demonstrated identical velocity profiles. The stereotyped features of the movements were also observed in spontaneous arm extensions (not toward an external target). The simple and stereotypic appearance of the bend trajectory suggests that the position of the bend in space and time is the controlled variable. We propose that this strategy reduces the immense redundancy of the octopus arm movements and hence simplifies motor control.

  1. Predicting tritium movement and inventory in fusion reactor subsystems using the TMAP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.L.; Merrill, B.J.; Holland, D.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Fusion Safety Program of EGandG idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing a safety analysis code called TMAP (Tritium Migration Analysis Program) to analyze tritium loss from fusion systems during normal and off-normal conditions. TMAP is a one-dimensional code that calculates tritium movement and inventories in a system of interconnected enclosures and wall structures. These wall structures can include composite materials with bulk trapping of the permeating tritium on impurities or radiation induced dislocations within the material. The thermal response of a structure can be modeled to provide temperature information required for tritium movement calculations. Chemical reactions and hydrogen isotope movement can also be included in the calculations. TMAP was used to analyze the movement of tritium implanted into a proposed limiter/first wall structure design

  2. Exoskeleton for assisting human movement

    OpenAIRE

    García Armada, Elena; Cestari, Manuel; Sanz Merodio, Daniel; Carrillo, Xavier Alberto

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to an exoskeleton for assisting human movement, which can be fitted to the user in terms of dimensions, tension and ranges of joint motion, either manually or automatically. Said exoskeleton can be fitted to the user in the anteroposterior direction in the sagittal plane, with the user in a horizontal or sitting position, without requiring a functional transfer. The exoskeleton has a modular design which is compatible with human biomechanics and reproduces a natural...

  3. Comparison of observed and modeled cloud-free longwave downward radiation (2010–2016 at the high mountain BSRN Izaña station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. García

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year (2010–2016 comparison study between measured and simulated longwave downward radiation (LDR under cloud-free conditions was performed at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (IZO, Spain. This analysis encompasses a total of 2062 cases distributed approximately evenly between day and night. Results show an excellent agreement between Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN measurements and simulations with libRadtran V2.0.1 and MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission model (MODTRAN V6 radiative transfer models (RTMs. Mean bias (simulated − measured of  <  1.1 % and root mean square of the bias (RMS of  <  1 % are within the instrumental error (2 %. These results highlight the good agreement between the two RTMs, proving to be useful tools for the quality control of LDR observations and for detecting temporal drifts in field instruments. The standard deviations of the residuals, associated with the RTM input parameters uncertainties are rather small, 0.47 and 0.49 % for libRadtran and MODTRAN, respectively, at daytime, and 0.49 to 0.51 % at night-time. For precipitable water vapor (PWV  >  10 mm, the observed night-time difference between models and measurements is +5 W m−2 indicating a scale change of the World Infrared Standard Group of Pyrgeometers (WISG, which serves as reference for atmospheric longwave radiation measurements. Preliminary results suggest a possible impact of dust aerosol on infrared radiation during daytime that might not be correctly parametrized by the models, resulting in a slight underestimation of the modeled LDR, of about −3 W m−2, for relatively high aerosol optical depth (AOD  >  0.20.

  4. Movement of global warming issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Taishi

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and the movement of the global warming issues as seen from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Conference of the Parties: COP) and the policy discussions in Japan. From the Fifth Assessment Report published by IPCC, it shows the following items: (1) increasing trends of greenhouse effect gas emissions during 1970 and 2010, (2) trends in world's greenhouse effect gas emissions according to income segment, and (3) factor analysis of changes in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Next, it takes up the greenhouse gas emission scenario of IPCC, shows the scenario due to temperature rise pattern, and introduces the assumption of emission reduction due to BECCS. Regarding the 2 deg. scenario that has become a hot topic in international negotiations, it describes the reason for difficulties in its implementation. In addition, as the international trends of global warming, it describes the agreement of numerical targets for emissions at COP3 (Kyoto Conference) and the subsequent movements. Finally, it introduces Japan's measures against global warming, as well as the future movement. (A.O.)

  5. Structure-Specific Movement Patterns in Patients With Chronic Low Back Dysfunction Using Lumbar Combined Movement Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monie, Aubrey P; Price, Roger I; Lind, Christopher R P; Singer, Kevin P

    2017-06-01

    A test-retest cohort study was conducted to assess the use of a novel computer-aided, combined movement examination (CME) to measure change in low back movement after pain management intervention in 17 cases of lumbar spondylosis. Additionally we desired to use a CME normal reference range (NRR) to compare and contrast movement patterns identified from 3 specific structural pathologic conditions: intervertebral disc, facet joint, and nerve root compression. Computer-aided CME was used before and after intervention, in a cohort study design, to record lumbar range of movement along with pain, disability, and health self-report questionnaires in 17 participants who received image-guided facet, epidural, and/or rhizotomy intervention. In the majority of cases, CME was reassessed after injection together with 2 serial self-reports after an average of 2 and 14 weeks. A minimal clinically important difference of 30% was used to interpret meaningful change in self-reports. A CME NRR (n = 159) was used for comparison with the 17 cases. Post hoc observation included subgrouping cases into 3 discrete pathologic conditions, intervertebral disc, facet dysfunction, and nerve root compression, in order to report intergroup differences in CME movement. Seven of the 17 participants stated that a "combined" movement was their most painful CME direction. Self-report outcome data indicated that 4 participants experienced significant improvement in health survey, 5 improved by ≥30% on low back function, and 8 reported that low back pain was more bothersome than stiffness, 6 of whom achieved the minimal clinically important difference for self-reported pain. Subgrouping of cases into structure-specific groups provided insight to different CME movement patterns. The use of CME assists in identifying atypical lumbar movement relative to an age and sex NRR. Data from this study, exemplified by representative case studies, provide preliminary evidence for distinct intervertebral disc

  6. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

  7. Communication Theory and the Consumer Movement-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Defines and traces the origins of the consumer movement and uses communication theories to explain the effects of the movement. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  8. Functional jerks, tics, and paroxysmal movement disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreissen, Y. E. M.; Cath, D C; Tijssen, M A J; Hallet, Mark; Stone, Jon; Carson, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Functional jerks are among the most common functional movement disorders. The diagnosis of functional jerks is mainly based on neurologic examination revealing specific positive clinical signs. Differentiation from other jerky movements, such as tics, organic myoclonus, and primary paroxysmal

  9. Gravity effects on endogenous movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank

    Gravity effects on endogenous movements A. Johnsson * and F. Antonsen *+ * Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,NO-7491, Trond-heim, Norway, E-mail: anders.johnsson@ntnu.no + Present address: Statoil Research Center Trondheim, NO-7005, Trondheim, Norway Circumnutations in stems/shoots exist in many plants and often consists of more or less regular helical movements around the plumb line under Earth conditions. Recent results on circumnu-tations of Arabidopsis in space (Johnsson et al. 2009) showed that minute amplitude oscilla-tions exist in weightlessness, but that centripetal acceleration (mimicking the gravity) amplified and/or created large amplitude oscillations. Fundamental mechanisms underlying these results will be discussed by modeling the plant tissue as a cylinder of cells coupled together. As a starting point we have modeled (Antonsen 1998) standing waves on a ring of biological cells, as first discussed in a classical paper (Turing 1952). If the coupled cells can change their water content, an `extension' wave could move around the ring. We have studied several, stacked rings of cells coupled into a cylinder that together represent a cylindrical plant tissue. Waves of extensions travelling around the cylinder could then represent the observable circumnutations. The coupling between cells can be due to cell-to-cell diffusion, or to transport via channels, and the coupling can be modeled to vary in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the cylinder. The results from ISS experiments indicate that this cylindrical model of coupled cells should be able to 1) show self-sustained oscillations without the impact of gravity (being en-dogenous) and 2) show how an environmental factor like gravity can amplify or generate the oscillatory movements. Gravity has been introduced in the model by a negative, time-delayed feed-back transport across the cylinder. This represents the physiological reactions to acceler

  10. A change in temporal organization of fidgety movements during the fidgety movement period is common among high risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæther, Rannei; Støen, Ragnhild; Vik, Torstein; Fjørtoft, Toril; Vågen, Randi Tynes; Silberg, Inger Elisabeth; Loennecken, Marianne; Møinichen, Unn Inger; Lydersen, Stian; Adde, Lars

    2016-07-01

    General movement assessment (GMA) at 9-20 weeks post-term, can effectively predict cerebral palsy. Our aim was to evaluate intra-individual variability of the temporal organization of fidgety movements (FMs) in high risk infants. 104 High risk infants (66 males) with at least two video recordings from the FMs period participated. 45 of the infants had GA <28 weeks and/or BW ≤800 g. Mean post-term age at first and second assessments was 11.0 (8-16) and 14.0 (11-17) weeks, respectively, and median time-difference between the assessments was 2.0 (range: three days to six weeks) weeks. Video recordings were analyzed according to Prechtl's GMA. 33 (32%) Infants were classified differently at first and second assessments. Six infants (6%) changed from normal to abnormal, and 10 (10%) changed from abnormal to normal FMs. Seven of the ten who changed classification from abnormal to normal were born before GA 26 weeks. A change between intermittent and continual, which are both considered normal, was observed in 17 (16%) infants. A change in temporal organization of FMs is common in high risk infants. Especially in extremely preterm infants with abnormal FMs, more than one assessment should be performed before long-term prognosis is considered. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  12. 49 CFR 195.424 - Pipe movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe movement. 195.424 Section 195.424... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.424 Pipe movement. (a) No operator may move any line pipe, unless... in the line section involved are joined by welding unless— (1) Movement when the pipeline does not...

  13. 30 CFR 250.602 - Equipment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.602 Section 250.602... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.602 Equipment movement. The movement of well-workover rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well on...

  14. 49 CFR 236.776 - Movement, trailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, trailing. 236.776 Section 236.776 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, trailing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in the direction in...

  15. 30 CFR 250.502 - Equipment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.502 Section 250.502... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.502 Equipment movement. The movement of well-completion rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well...

  16. 49 CFR 236.774 - Movement, facing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, facing. 236.774 Section 236.774 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, facing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in a direction opposite to...

  17. 9 CFR 92.3 - Movement restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement restrictions. 92.3 Section 92... ANIMAL PRODUCTS: PROCEDURES FOR REQUESTING RECOGNITION OF REGIONS § 92.3 Movement restrictions. Whenever... exist and the EC imposes prohibitions or other restrictions on the movement of animals or animal...

  18. Mixed movements/performance-based drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. As one in a series working with architectonic implementation in relation to body and movements, the actual project relates body-movement and dynamic drawing and presents the material as interactive ‘space-time-tables’....

  19. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  20. Movement Education Framework (MEF) Made EZ!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiller-Abels, Karen; Bridges, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    All physical educators want to provide lessons that foster success. Particularly essential to the movement education framework is not only providing lessons that foster motor success, but also to develop knowledge about movement to help the learner develop skill in executing all different types of movement. The framework and examples provided in…

  1. Salmon carcass movements in forest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke Strobel; Daniel R. Shivley; Brett B. Roper

    2009-01-01

    The movements of salmon carcasses over time were studied in two forest streams in the context of a large-scale salmon carcass supplementation program. The objectives were to assess both the level of treatment after stream flows had displaced carcasses and to evaluate whether the magnitude of carcass movements outside of a given reach could be predicted. The movements...

  2. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  3. Eye movements during object recognition in visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Leek, E; Patterson, Candy; Paul, Matthew A; Rafal, Robert; Cristino, Filipe

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports the first ever detailed study about eye movement patterns during single object recognition in visual agnosia. Eye movements were recorded in a patient with an integrative agnosic deficit during two recognition tasks: common object naming and novel object recognition memory. The patient showed normal directional biases in saccades and fixation dwell times in both tasks and was as likely as controls to fixate within object bounding contour regardless of recognition accuracy. In contrast, following initial saccades of similar amplitude to controls, the patient showed a bias for short saccades. In object naming, but not in recognition memory, the similarity of the spatial distributions of patient and control fixations was modulated by recognition accuracy. The study provides new evidence about how eye movements can be used to elucidate the functional impairments underlying object recognition deficits. We argue that the results reflect a breakdown in normal functional processes involved in the integration of shape information across object structure during the visual perception of shape. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prácticas para estimular el parto normal Practices to stimulate normal childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Maria Barbosa da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo lleva a una reflexión sobre las prácticas del estímulo al parto normal, con la fundamentación teórica de cada una de ellas. Las prácticas incluidas en este estudio fueron el ayuno, enemas, spray y baños de inmersión, caminatas, movimientos pélvicos y masaje. En un contexto de revalorización del parto normal, ofrecer a la mujer durante el parto opciones de comodidad basadas en evidencias puede ser una forma de preservar el curso fisiológico del parto.This article leads to a reflection about the practices of encouraging normal childbirth, with the theoretical foundation for each one of them. The practices included in this study were fasting, enema, shower and immersion baths, walking, pelvic movements and massage. In a context of revaluation of normal birth, providing evidence-based comfort options for women during childbirth can be a way to preserve the physiological course of labour.

  5. Migration using a transversely isotropic medium with symmetry normal to the reflector dip

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Sava, P.

    2011-01-01

    A transversely isotropic (TI) model in which the tilt is constrained to be normal to the dip (DTI model) allows for simplifications in the imaging and velocity model building efforts as compared to a general TI (TTI) model. Although this model cannot be represented physically in all situations, for example, in the case of conflicting dips, it handles arbitrary reflector orientations under the assumption of symmetry axis normal to the dip. Using this assumption, we obtain efficient downward continuation algorithms compared to the general TTI ones, by utilizing the reflection features of such a model. Phase-shift migration can be easily extended to approximately handle lateral inhomogeneity using, for example, the split-step approach. This is possible because, unlike the general TTI case, the DTI model reduces to VTI for zero dip. These features enable a process in which we can extract velocity information by including tools that expose inaccuracies in the velocity model in the downward continuation process. We test this model on synthetic data corresponding to a general TTI medium and show its resilience. 2011 Tariq Alkhalifah and Paul Sava.

  6. What makes a movement a gesture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Miriam A; Wakefield, Elizabeth M; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Theories of how adults interpret the actions of others have focused on the goals and intentions of actors engaged in object-directed actions. Recent research has challenged this assumption, and shown that movements are often interpreted as being for their own sake (Schachner & Carey, 2013). Here we postulate a third interpretation of movement-movement that represents action, but does not literally act on objects in the world. These movements are gestures. In this paper, we describe a framework for predicting when movements are likely to be seen as representations. In Study 1, adults described one of three scenes: (1) an actor moving objects, (2) an actor moving her hands in the presence of objects (but not touching them) or (3) an actor moving her hands in the absence of objects. Participants systematically described the movements as depicting an object-directed action when the actor moved objects, and favored describing the movements as depicting movement for its own sake when the actor produced the same movements in the absence of objects. However, participants favored describing the movements as representations when the actor produced the movements near, but not on, the objects. Study 2 explored two additional features-the form of an actor's hands and the presence of speech-like sounds-to test the effect of context on observers' classification of movement as representational. When movements are seen as representations, they have the power to influence communication, learning, and cognition in ways that movement for its own sake does not. By incorporating representational gesture into our framework for movement analysis, we take an important step towards developing a more cohesive understanding of action-interpretation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The general movement assessment helps us to identify preterm infants at risk for cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa eEinspieler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from motor and behavioral dysfunctions, deficits in cognitive skills are among the well-documented sequelae of preterm birth. However, early identification of infants at risk for poor cognition is still a challenge, as no clear association between pathological findings based on neuroimaging scans and cognitive functions have been detected as yet. The Prechtl General Movement Assessment (GMA has shown its merits for the evaluation of the integrity of the young nervous system. It is a reliable tool for identifying infants at risk for neuromotor deficits. Recent studies on preterm infants demonstrate that abnormal general movements also reflect impairments of brain areas involved in cognitive development. The aim of this systematic review was to discuss studies that included (i the Prechtl GMA applied in preterm infants, and (ii cognitive outcome measures in six data bases. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria and yielded the following results: (a children born preterm with consistently abnormal general movements up to 8 weeks after term had lower intelligence quotients at school age than children with an early normalization of general movements; (b from 3 to 5 months after term, several qualitative and quantitative aspects of the concurrent motor repertoire, including postural patterns, were predictive of intelligence at 7 to 10 years of age. These findings in 428 individuals born preterm suggest that normal general movements along with a normal motor repertoire during the first months after term are markers for normal cognitive development until at least age 10.

  8. Examining Age-Related Movement Representations for Sequential (Fine-Motor) Finger Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Theory suggests that imagined and executed movement planning relies on internal models for action. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested children aged 7-11 years and adults on their ability to perform sequential finger movements. Underscoring this tactic was our desire to gain a…

  9. Fractal analysis of lateral movement in biomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2018-04-01

    Lateral movement of a molecule in a biomembrane containing small compartments (0.23-μm diameter) and large ones (0.75 μm) is analyzed using a fractal description of its walk. The early time dependence of the mean square displacement varies from linear due to the contribution of ballistic motion. In small compartments, walking molecules do not have sufficient time or space to develop an asymptotic relation and the diffusion coefficient deduced from the experimental records is lower than that measured without restrictions. The model makes it possible to deduce the molecule step parameters, namely the step length and time, from data concerning confined and unrestricted diffusion coefficients. This is also possible using experimental results for sub-diffusive transport. The transition from normal to anomalous diffusion does not affect the molecule step parameters. The experimental literature data on molecular trajectories recorded at a high time resolution appear to confirm the modeled value of the mean free path length of DOPE for Brownian and anomalous diffusion. Although the step length and time give the proper values of diffusion coefficient, the DOPE speed calculated as their quotient is several orders of magnitude lower than the thermal speed. This is interpreted as a result of intermolecular interactions, as confirmed by lateral diffusion of other molecules in different membranes. The molecule step parameters are then utilized to analyze the problem of multiple visits in small compartments. The modeling of the diffusion exponent results in a smooth transition to normal diffusion on entering a large compartment, as observed in experiments.

  10. Movements and instability in the Swedish bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerner, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives a geological evaluation of the Swedish bedrock and its movements during the last 20,000 years, which may serve as a base for further evaluations of the possibilities of storing nuclear waste in the bedrock. The Swedish bedrock is by no means stable. Like all other bedrocks it is unstable. The Swedish bedrock has an old and rich tectono-geodynamic inheritance. Irregularities in the uplift in the form of shoreline bends and isobase irregularities have been established with ancient shorelines and geodetic data. They are in general all related to major faultlines and bedrock seams. Bouldery end moraines and bouldery ground in general register paleopseismic activity -(these areas must hence be excluded as alternatives for storage of nuclear waste in the bedrock). The next ice age, is either on its way or it will, under the most favorable circumstances, have begun 20,000years from now (AP). At the next ice age, all the seismic and neotectonic effects from the deglaciation period will be repeated. During an ice age. Nuclear waste cannot bestored in the bedrock. If one succed in finding a Precambrain bedrock unit within an area of smooth uplift, absence of recent earthquakes, the bedrock surface of which shows few fractures and no faultlines, and where the surroundings exhibit normal moraine features and normal till composition, this area must still be evaluated with respect to that which will happen and may happen in connection with the next ice age and in connection with the cyclic gravitational changes in the present linear uplift. (author)

  11. A machine learning approach to estimation of downward solar radiation from satellite-derived data products: An application over a semi-arid ecosystem in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingtao; Flores, Alejandro; Glenn, Nancy F; Walters, Reggie; Han, Bangshuai

    2017-01-01

    Shortwave solar radiation is an important component of the surface energy balance and provides the principal source of energy for terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents a machine learning approach in the form of a random forest (RF) model for estimating daily downward solar radiation flux at the land surface over complex terrain using MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) remote sensing data. The model-building technique makes use of a unique network of 16 solar flux measurements in the semi-arid Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed and Critical Zone Observatory, in southwest Idaho, USA. Based on a composite RF model built on daily observations from all 16 sites in the watershed, the model simulation of downward solar radiation matches well with the observation data (r2 = 0.96). To evaluate model performance, RF models were built from 12 of 16 sites selected at random and validated against the observations at the remaining four sites. Overall root mean square errors (RMSE), bias, and mean absolute error (MAE) are small (range: 37.17 W/m2-81.27 W/m2, -48.31 W/m2-15.67 W/m2, and 26.56 W/m2-63.77 W/m2, respectively). When extrapolated to the entire watershed, spatiotemporal patterns of solar flux are largely consistent with expected trends in this watershed. We also explored significant predictors of downward solar flux in order to reveal important properties and processes controlling downward solar radiation. Based on the composite RF model built on all 16 sites, the three most important predictors to estimate downward solar radiation include the black sky albedo (BSA) near infrared band (0.858 μm), BSA visible band (0.3-0.7 μm), and clear day coverage. This study has important implications for improving the ability to derive downward solar radiation through a fusion of multiple remote sensing datasets and can potentially capture spatiotemporally varying trends in solar radiation that is useful for land surface hydrologic and terrestrial

  12. Stereotypic movement disorder: easily missed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Roger D; Soltanifar, Atefeh; Baer, Susan

    2010-08-01

    To expand the understanding of stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) and its differentiation from tics and autistic stereotypies. Forty-two children (31 males, mean age 6y 3mo, SD 2y 8mo; 11 females, mean age 6y 7mo, SD 1y 9mo) consecutively diagnosed with SMD, without-self-injurious behavior, intellectual disability, sensory impairment, or an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), were assessed in a neuropsychiatry clinic. A list of probe questions on the nature of the stereotypy was administered to parents (and to children if developmentally ready). Questionnaires administered included the Stereotypy Severity Scale, Short Sensory Profile, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised, and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire. The stereotyped movement patterns were directly observed and in some cases further documented by video recordings made by parents. The probe questions were used again on follow-up at a mean age of 10 years 7 months (SD 4y 4mo). Mean age at onset was 17 months. Males exceeded females by 3:1. Family history of a pattern of SMD was reported in 13 and neuropsychiatric comorbidity in 30 (attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in 16, tics in 18, and developmental coordination disorder in 16). Obsessive-compulsive disorder occurred in only two. The Short Sensory Profile correlated with comorbidity (p<0.001), the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.009), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale (p<0.001); the last correlated with the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.001). Children (but not their parents) liked their movements, which were usually associated with excitement or imaginative play. Mean length of follow-up was 4 years 8 months (SD 2y 10mo). Of the 39 children followed for longer than 6 months, the behavior stopped or was gradually shaped so as to occur primarily privately in 25. Misdiagnosis was common: 26 were initially referred as tics, 10 as ASD, five as compulsions, and one as epilepsy. Co-occurring facial

  13. Brownian movement and molecular reality

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, Jean

    2005-01-01

    How do we know that molecules really exist? An important clue came from Brownian movement, a concept developed in 1827 by botanist Robert Brown, who noticed that tiny objects like pollen grains shook and moved erratically when viewed under a microscope. Nearly 80 years later, in 1905, Albert Einstein explained this ""Brownian motion"" as the result of bombardment by molecules. Einstein offered a quantitative explanation by mathematically estimating the average distance covered by the particles over time as a result of molecular bombardment. Four years later, Jean Baptiste Perrin wrote Brownia

  14. Case vignettes of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C Y

    1983-08-01

    This paper reports five movement disorders cases to serve as a basis for discussion of the problems encountered in the clinical management of these cases, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in these disorders as presented. Case 1 is a description of the subjective experience of a patient with acute orofacial dystonia from promethazine. Case 2 is the use of clonazepam is post-head injury tics. Case 3 is the complication from discontinuation of haloperidol and benztropine mesylate treatment. Case 4 is myoclonus in subacute sclerosing Panencephalitis, and Case 5 is rebound tremor from withdrawal of a beta-adrenergic blocker.

  15. Modeling the downward transport of {sup 210}Pb in Peatlands: Initial Penetration‐Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olid, Carolina, E-mail: olid.carolina@gmail.com [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-90187, Umeå (Sweden); Diego, David [Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen, NO-5020 Bergen (Norway); Garcia-Orellana, Jordi [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cortizas, Antonio Martínez [Departamento de Edafoloxía e Química Agrícola, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Klaminder, Jonatan [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-90187, Umeå (Sweden)

    2016-01-15

    The vertical distribution of {sup 210}Pb is commonly used to date peat deposits accumulated over the last 100–150 years. However, several studies have questioned this method because of an apparent post-depositional mobility of {sup 210}Pb within some peat profiles. In this study, we introduce the Initial Penetration–Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model for calculating ages derived from {sup 210}Pb profiles that are altered by an initial migration of the radionuclide. This new, two-phased, model describes the distribution of atmospheric-derived {sup 210}Pb ({sup 210}Pb{sub xs}) in peat taking into account both incorporation of {sup 210}Pb into the accumulating peat matrix as well as an initial flushing of {sup 210}Pb through the uppermost peat layers. The validity of the IP-CRS model is tested in four anomalous {sup 210}Pb peat records that showed some deviations from the typical exponential decay profile not explained by variations in peat accumulation rates. Unlike the most commonly used {sup 210}Pb-dating model (Constant Rate of Supply (CRS)), the IP-CRS model estimates peat accumulation rates consistent with typical growth rates for peatlands from the same areas. Confidence in the IP-CRS chronology is also provided by the good agreement with independent chronological markers (i.e. {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs). Our results showed that the IP-CRS can provide chronologies from peat records where {sup 210}Pb mobility is evident, being a valuable tool for studies reconstructing past environmental changes using peat archives during the Anthropocene. - Highlights: • Accurate age dating of peat and sediment cores is critical for evaluating change. • A new {sup 210}Pb dating model that includes vertical transport of {sup 210}Pb was developed. • The IP-CRS model provided consistent peat accumulation rates. • The IP-CRS ages were consistent with independent chronological markers. • The IP-CRS model derives peat ages where downward {sup 210}Pb transport is

  16. Movement of the diaphragm during radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Masayuki; Fujioka, Tomio; Sakurai, Makoto; Nakajima, Toshifumi; Onoyama, Yasuto.

    1991-01-01

    Movement of the target volume during the exposure to radiation results in decreased accuracy in radiotherapy. We carried out the quantitative evaluation of the movement of the diaphragm during the radiation therapy. Seventy seven patients, who received radiation therapy for lung cancer from December 1988 to February 1990 at the Osaka-prefectural Habikino Hospital, were studied. The movement was recorded with a sonoprinter at the time of treatment planning for radiotherapy, and the length of movement was evaluated at 6 points on the diaphragm. In a study of 402 points in 77 patients, the average movement was 12 mm, and the maximum movement was 40 mm. At the 17% of the points, the movement exceeded 20 mm. The largest movement was observed at the outer point of the right lung. Movement was greater in men than in women. Performance status was not related to the degree of movement. We concluded that in chest and abdominal irradiation, movement caused by respiration is not negligible, and synchronized radiotherapy should be developed in the future. (author)

  17. On modeling animal movements using Brownian motion with measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakov, Vladimir; Meyer, Thomas; Wang, Yu-Bo; Yan, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Modeling animal movements with Brownian motion (or more generally by a Gaussian process) has a long tradition in ecological studies. The recent Brownian bridge movement model (BBMM), which incorporates measurement errors, has been quickly adopted by ecologists because of its simplicity and tractability. We discuss some nontrivial properties of the discrete-time stochastic process that results from observing a Brownian motion with added normal noise at discrete times. In particular, we demonstrate that the observed sequence of random variables is not Markov. Consequently the expected occupation time between two successively observed locations does not depend on just those two observations; the whole path must be taken into account. Nonetheless, the exact likelihood function of the observed time series remains tractable; it requires only sparse matrix computations. The likelihood-based estimation procedure is described in detail and compared to the BBMM estimation.

  18. Evaluation of ocular movements in patients with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagge, Aldo; Cavanna, Margherita; Traverso, Carlo Enrico; Iester, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between dyslexia and eye movements and to assess whether this method can be added to the workup of dyslexic patients. The sample was comprised of 11 children with a diagnosis of dyslexia and 11 normal between 8 and 13 years of age. All subjects underwent orthoptic evaluation, ophthalmological examinations, and eye movement analysis, specifically, stability analysis on fixating a still target, tracking saccades, analysis of fixation pauses, speed reading, saccades, and regressions through the reading of a text. Stability analysis on fixating a still target showed a significant (p dyslexia in young children at a younger age, and an earlier intervention could be initiated.

  19. Susceptibility weighted imaging in the evaluation of movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hingwala, D.R.; Kesavadas, C.; Thomas, B.; Kapilamoorthy, T.R.

    2013-01-01

    Movement disorders are neurodegenerative disorders associated with abnormalities of brain iron deposition. In this presentation, we aim to describe the role of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in the imaging of patients with movement disorders and differentiate between the various disorders. SWI is a high-resolution, fully velocity-encoded gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence that consists of using both magnitude and phase information. We describe briefly the physics behind this sequence and the post-processing techniques used. The anatomy of the midbrain and basal ganglia in normal subjects on SWI is covered. A number of neurodegenerative disorders are associated with abnormal iron deposition, which can be detected due to the susceptibility effects

  20. Movement Induces the Use of External Spatial Coordinates for Tactile Localization in Congenitally Blind Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heed, Tobias; Möller, Johanna; Röder, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    To localize touch, the brain integrates spatial information coded in anatomically based and external spatial reference frames. Sighted humans, by default, use both reference frames in tactile localization. In contrast, congenitally blind individuals have been reported to rely exclusively on anatomical coordinates, suggesting a crucial role of the visual system for tactile spatial processing. We tested whether the use of external spatial information in touch can, alternatively, be induced by a movement context. Sighted and congenitally blind humans performed a tactile temporal order judgment task that indexes the use of external coordinates for tactile localization, while they executed bimanual arm movements with uncrossed and crossed start and end postures. In the sighted, start posture and planned end posture of the arm movement modulated tactile localization for stimuli presented before and during movement, indicating automatic, external recoding of touch. Contrary to previous findings, tactile localization of congenitally blind participants, too, was affected by external coordinates, though only for stimuli presented before movement start. Furthermore, only the movement's start posture, but not the planned end posture affected blind individuals' tactile performance. Thus, integration of external coordinates in touch is established without vision, though more selectively than when vision has developed normally, and possibly restricted to movement contexts. The lack of modulation by the planned posture in congenitally blind participants suggests that external coordinates in this group are not mediated by motor efference copy. Instead the task-related frequent posture changes, that is, movement consequences rather than planning, appear to have induced their use of external coordinates.

  1. Relative sensitivity of depth discrimination for ankle inversion and plantar flexion movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger

    2014-02-01

    25 participants (20 women, 5 men) were tested for sensitivity in discrimination between sets of six movements centered on 8 degrees, 11 degrees, and 14 degrees, and separated by 0.3 degrees. Both inversion and plantar flexion movements were tested. Discrimination of the extent of inversion movement was observed to decline linearly with increasing depth; however, for plantar flexion, the discrimination function for movement extent was found to be non-linear. The relatively better discrimination of plantar flexion movements than inversion movements at around 11 degrees from horizontal is interpreted as an effect arising from differential amounts of practice through use, because this position is associated with the plantar flexion movement made in normal walking. The fact that plantar flexion movements are discriminated better than inversion at one region but not others argues against accounts of superior proprioceptive sensitivity for plantar flexion compared to inversion that are based on general properties of plantar flexion such as the number of muscle fibres on stretch.

  2. The Effect of Clinical Pilates on Functional Movement in Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Anna; Williams, Sean; Wilson, Cassie

    2017-09-01

    Biomechanical imbalances and inefficient functional movements are considered contributing factors to running-related injuries. Clinical Pilates uses a series of exercises focused on retraining normal movement patterns. This study investigated whether a 6-week course of Clinical Pilates improves functional movement and thereby, potentially, reduces the risk of running-related injuries associated with movement dysfunction. A modified functional movement screen was used to analyze the functional movement ability of forty runners. Forty participants completed a 6-week course of Clinical Pilates delivered by a Clinical Pilates instructor. The movement screen was carried out 3 times for each runner: 6 weeks pre-intervention (baseline), within one week pre-intervention (pre) and within one week post-intervention (post). Repeated-measures analysis of variance and post-hoc tests found significant increases in scores between baseline and post (mean±SD; 13.4±2.4 vs. 17.0±1.7, pPilates significantly improves functional movement in recreational runners, and this may lead to a reduction in the risk of running-related injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Fetal movement detection: comparison of the Toitu actograph with ultrasound from 20 weeks gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, J A; Costigan, K A; Pressman, E K

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity of Doppler-detected fetal movement by a commercially available monitor and investigates whether characteristics of maternal body habitus and the intrauterine environment affect its performance. Fetal movement was evaluated in normal pregnancies using both ultrasound visualization and a fetal actocardiograph (Toitu MT320; Tofa Medical Inc., Malvern, PA). Data were collected for 32 min on 34 fetuses stratified by gestational age (20-25 weeks; 28-32 weeks; 35-39 weeks). Fetal and maternal characteristics were recorded. Comparisons between ultrasound-detected trunk and limb movements and actograph records were conducted based both on 10-s time intervals and on detection of individual movements. Time-based comparisons indicated agreement between ultrasound and actograph 94.7% of the time; this association rose to 98% when movements of less than 1 s duration were excluded. Individual movements observed on ultrasound were detected by the actograph 91% of the time, and 97% of the time when brief, isolated movements were excluded. The overall kappa value for agreement was 0.88. The actograph was reliable in detecting periods of quiescence as well as activity. These findings did not vary by gestational age. The number of movements detected by the actograph, but not the single-transducer ultrasound, significantly increased over gestation. Maternal age, parity, weight, height, or body mass index were not consistently associated with actograph validity. Characteristics of the uterine environment, including placenta location, fetal presentation, and amniotic fluid volume also did not affect results. The Toitu actograph accurately detects fetal movement and quiescence from as early as 20 weeks gestation and has utility in both clinical and research settings. Actographs are most useful for providing objective and quantifiable measures of fetal activity level, including number and duration of movements, while visualization through ultrasound is

  4. Passive limb movement: evidence of mechanoreflex sex specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Stephen J; McDaniel, John; Witman, Melissa A H; Richardson, Russell S

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have determined that premenopausal women exhibit an attenuated metaboreflex; however, little is known about sex specificity of the mechanoreflex. Thus, we sought to determine if sex differences exist in the central and peripheral hemodynamic responses to passive limb movement. Second-by-second measurements of heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output (CO), mean arterial pressure, and femoral artery blood flow (FBF) were recorded during 3 min of supine passive knee extension in 24 young healthy subjects (12 women and 12 men). Normalization of CO and stroke volume to body surface area, expressed as cardiac index and stroke index, eliminated differences in baseline central hemodynamics, whereas, peripherally, basal FBF and femoral vascular conductance were similar between the sexes. In response to passive limb movement, women displayed significantly attenuated peak central hemodynamic responses compared with men (heart rate: 9.0 ± 1 vs. 14.8 ± 2% change, stroke index: 4.5 ± 0.6 vs. 7.8 ± 1.2% change, cardiac index: 9.6 ± 1 vs. 17.2 ± 2% change, all P movement induced similar increases in peak FBF (167 ± 32 vs. 193 ± 17% change) and femoral vascular conductance (172 ± 31 vs. 203 ± 16% change) in both sexes (women vs. men, respectively). Additionally, there was a significant positive relationship between individual peak FBF and peak CO response to passive movement in men but not in women. Thus, although both sexes exhibited similar movement-induced hyperemia and peripheral vasodilatory function, the central hemodynamic response was blunted in women, implying an attenuated mechanoreflex. Therefore, this study reveals that, as already recognized with the metaboreflex, there is likely a sex-specific attenuation of the mechanoreflex in women.

  5. Remifentanil Prevents Withdrawal Movements Caused by Intravenous Injection of Rocuronium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byung In; Choi, Seung Ho; Shin, Yang-Sik; Lee, Sung Jin; Yoon, Kyung Bong; Shin, Seo Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of pain induced withdrawal movement following intravenous injection of rocuronium is high. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the effect of pretreatment of remifentanil on the withdrawal movements due to intravenous injection of rocuronium during anesthetic induction. Materials and Methods Ninety adult female patients undergoing thyroidectomy were randomly allocated to three groups. Each patient intravenously received one of three solutions of equal volume (4 mL): normal saline (Group I, n = 30), 0.5 µg/kg remifentanil (Group II, n = 30) or 1 µg/kg remifentanil (Group III, n = 30). Thirty seconds after remifentanil administration, anesthesia was induced with 5 mg/kg IV thiopental. Twenty seconds after thiopental injection, 0.6 mg/kg IV rocuronium was administered (injection rate of 0.5 mL/sec) and patients' withdrawal movements were assessed. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were assessed on arrival in the operation room, before the tracheal intubation and immediately, 1 and 2 min after the tracheal intubation. Results The incidence of withdrawal movements was significantly lower in both of the remifentanil groups (3 and 0% in Group II and III, respectively) than in the saline group (70%). Remifentanil attenuated the increase of heart rate and MAP immediately and 1 min after the tracheal intubation. Conclusion The pretreatment with 0.5 and 1.0 µg/kg remifentanil of bolus doses prevented the withdrawal movements caused by rocuronium injection, and effectively blunted cardiovascular activation following tracheal intubation. PMID:18452256

  6. Bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina | Okeke | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina exist in the literature; one of the cases had an anterior‑posterior disposition. This form of uterine abnormality is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies and suggests that a complex interplay of events ...

  7. Determination of ventilatory liver movement via radiographic evaluation of diaphragm position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, James M.; Dawson, Laura A.; Kazanjian, Sahira; McGinn, Cornelius; Brock, Kristy K.; Lawrence, Theodore; Haken, Randall ten

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the accuracy of estimation of liver movement inferred by observing diaphragm excursion on radiographic images. Methods and Materials: Eight patients with focal liver cancer had platinum embolization microcoils implanted in their livers during catheterization of the hepatic artery for delivery of regional chemotherapy. These patients underwent fluoroscopy, during which normal breathing movement was recorded on videotape. Movies of breathing movement were digitized, and the relative projected positions of the diaphragm and coils were recorded. For 6 patients, daily radiographs were also acquired during treatment. Retrospective measurements of coil position were taken after the diaphragm was aligned with the superior portion of the liver on digitally reconstructed radiographs. Results: Coil movement of 4.9 to 30.4 mm was observed during normal breathing. Diaphragm position tracked inferior-superior coil displacement accurately (population σ 1.04 mm) throughout the breathing cycle. The range of coil movement was predicted by the range of diaphragm movement with an accuracy of 2.09 mm (σ). The maximum error observed measuring coil movement using diaphragm position was 3.8 mm for a coil 9.8 cm inferior to the diaphragm. However, the distance of the coil from the top of the diaphragm did not correlate significantly with the error in predicting liver excursion. Analysis of daily radiographs showed that the error in predicting coil position using the diaphragm as an alignment landmark was 1.8 mm (σ) in the inferior-superior direction and 2.2 mm in the left-right direction, similar in magnitude to the inherent uncertainty in alignment. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the range of ventilatory movement of different locations within the liver is predicted by diaphragm position to an accuracy that matches or exceeds existing systems for ventilatory tracking. This suggests that the diaphragm is an acceptable anatomic landmark for radiographic

  8. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Mahmoud; Beer, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN), to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  9. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghandi

    Full Text Available Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN, to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  10. Deriving Animal Movement Behaviors Using Movement Parameters Extracted from Location Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Teimouri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology for distinguishing between three types of animal movement behavior (foraging, resting, and walking based on high-frequency tracking data. For each animal we quantify an individual movement path. A movement path is a temporal sequence consisting of the steps through space taken by an animal. By selecting a set of appropriate movement parameters, we develop a method to assess movement behavioral states, reflected by changes in the movement parameters. The two fundamental tasks of our study are segmentation and clustering. By segmentation, we mean the partitioning of the trajectory into segments, which are homogeneous in terms of their movement parameters. By clustering, we mean grouping similar segments together according to their estimated movement parameters. The proposed method is evaluated using field observations (done by humans of movement behavior. We found that on average, our method agreed with the observational data (ground truth at a level of 80.75% ± 5.9% (SE.

  11. Eye movements characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children in picture searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu; Jing, Jin; Zou, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Meng-Long; Li, Xiu-Hong; Lin, Ai-Hua

    2008-09-05

    Reading Chinese, a kind of ideogram, relies more on visual cognition. The visuospatial cognitive deficit of Chinese dyslexia is an interesting topic that has received much attention. The purpose of current research was to explore the visuopatial cognitive characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children by studying their eye movements via a picture searching test. According to the diagnostic criteria defined by ICD-10, twenty-eight dyslexic children (mean age (10.12 +/- 1.42) years) were enrolled from the Clinic of Children Behavioral Disorder in the third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. And 28 normally reading children (mean age (10.06 +/- 1.29) years), 1:1 matched by age, sex, grade and family condition were chosen from an elementary school in Guangzhou as a control group. Four groups of pictures (cock, accident, canyon, meditate) from Picture Vocabulary Test were chosen as eye movement experiment targets. All the subjects carried out the picture searching task and their eye movement data were recorded by an Eyelink II High-Speed Eye Tracker. The duration time, average fixation duration, average saccade amplitude, fixation counts and saccade counts were compared between the two groups of children. The dyslexic children had longer total fixation duration and average fixation duration (F = 7.711, P < 0.01; F = 4.520, P < 0.05), more fixation counts and saccade counts (F = 7.498, P < 0.01; F = 11.040, P < 0.01), and a smaller average saccade amplitude (F = 29.743, P < 0.01) compared with controls. But their performance in the picture vocabulary test was the same as those of the control group. The eye movement indexes were affected by the difficulty of the pictures and words, all eye movement indexes, except saccade amplitude, had a significant difference within groups (P < 0.05). Chinese dyslexic children have abnormal eye movements in picture searching, applying slow fixations, more fixations and small and frequent saccades. Their abnormal eye movement

  12. The Anti-Doping Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Teaching Movement Activities as Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    subjects the teaching style should be characterized by more variation and motivate the pupils. Research has shown that there is a correlation between physical activity and intellectual capital (e.g. educational attainment and academic performance), physical capital (e.g. physical fitness and reduction...... of the risk for diseases and risk factors) and emotional capital (e.g. fun, enjoyment and self-esteem) (Bailey, Hillman, Arent, & Petitpas, 2013). The school reform prescribes that all pupils from grade 1-9 must have at least 45 minutes of movement activities in average every day.Next to the well-known PE...... without prerequisites but part of discourses and at the same time individual interpretations of specific practices. The teaching role is something that is constantly produced and reproduced in the bodily interaction. Understanding teaching as performativity means that teachers are not acting in certain...

  14. Plant movements and climate warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Frenne, Pieter; Coomes, David A.; De Schrijver, An

    2014-01-01

    environments can establish in nonlocal sites. •We assess the intraspecific variation in growth responses to nonlocal soils by planting a widespread grass of deciduous forests (Milium effusum) into an experimental common garden using combinations of seeds and soil sampled in 22 sites across its distributional...... range, and reflecting movement scenarios of up to 1600 km. Furthermore, to determine temperature and forest-structural effects, the plants and soils were experimentally warmed and shaded. •We found significantly positive effects of the difference between the temperature of the sites of seed and soil...... collection on growth and seedling emergence rates. Migrant plants might thus encounter increasingly favourable soil conditions while tracking the isotherms towards currently ‘colder’ soils. These effects persisted under experimental warming. Rising temperatures and light availability generally enhanced plant...

  15. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; univariate study; normalization models; stainless steel; standard error of prediction. Abstract. Analytical performance of six different spectrum normalization techniques, namelyinternal normalization, normalization with total light, normalization with background along with their ...

  16. Parametric HMMs for Movement Recognition and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    , we develop an exemplar-based parametric hidden Markov model (PHMM) that allows to represent movements of a particular type. Since we use model interpolation to reduce the necessary amount of training data, we had to develop a method to setup local models in a synchronized way. In our experiments we......A common problem in human movement recognition is the recognition of movements of a particular type (semantic). E.g., grasping movements have a particular semantic (grasping) but the actual movements usually have very different appearances due to, e.g., different grasping directions. In this paper...... to recover the movement type, and, e.g., the object position a human is pointing at. Our experiments show the flexibility of the PHMMs in terms of the amount of training data and its robustness in terms of noisy observation data. In addition, we compare our PHMM to an other kind of PHMM, which has been...

  17. Integrating individual movement behaviour into dispersal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Simone K; Wissel, Christian; Conradt, Larissa; Frank, Karin

    2007-04-21

    Dispersal functions are an important tool for integrating dispersal into complex models of population and metapopulation dynamics. Most approaches in the literature are very simple, with the dispersal functions containing only one or two parameters which summarise all the effects of movement behaviour as for example different movement patterns or different perceptual abilities. The summarising nature of these parameters makes assessing the effect of one particular behavioural aspect difficult. We present a way of integrating movement behavioural parameters into a particular dispersal function in a simple way. Using a spatial individual-based simulation model for simulating different movement behaviours, we derive fitting functions for the functional relationship between the parameters of the dispersal function and several details of movement behaviour. This is done for three different movement patterns (loops, Archimedean spirals, random walk). Additionally, we provide measures which characterise the shape of the dispersal function and are interpretable in terms of landscape connectivity. This allows an ecological interpretation of the relationships found.

  18. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  19. The N'ormal Distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An optimal way of choosing sample size in an opinion poll is indicated using the normal distribution. Introduction. In this article, the ubiquitous normal distribution is intro- duced as a convenient approximation for computing bino- mial probabilities for large values of n. Stirling's formula. • and DeMoivre-Laplace theorem ...

  20. Movement-based Interaction in Camera Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....

  1. Outcomes of Social Movements and Protest Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Giugni, Marco; Bosi, Lorenzo; Uba, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Scholarship has left the study of the consequences of social movements in the background for a long time, focusing instead on movement emergence, characteristics, and dynamics. Since the mid-1970s, however, scholars have paid an increasing interest in how social movements and protest activities may produce change at various levels. The existing literature can be ordered according to the kind of consequence addressed. In this regard, one can roughly distinguish between political, biographical,...

  2. Comparison for aphasic and control subjects of eye movements hypothesized in neurolinguistic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, K O; Farmer, A

    1988-08-01

    Neurolinguistic programming's hypothesized eye movements were measured independently using videotapes of 10 nonfluent aphasic and 10 control subjects matched for age and sex. Chi-squared analysis indicated that eye-position responses were significantly different for the groups. Although earlier research has not supported the hypothesized eye positions for normal subjects, the present findings support the contention that eye-position responses may differ between neurologically normal and aphasic individuals.

  3. Subthalamic nucleus detects unnatural android movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Hirata, Masayuki; Kasaki, Masashi; Alimardani, Maryam; Matsushita, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2017-12-19

    An android, i.e., a realistic humanoid robot with human-like capabilities, may induce an uncanny feeling in human observers. The uncanny feeling about an android has two main causes: its appearance and movement. The uncanny feeling about an android increases when its appearance is almost human-like but its movement is not fully natural or comparable to human movement. Even if an android has human-like flexible joints, its slightly jerky movements cause a human observer to detect subtle unnaturalness in them. However, the neural mechanism underlying the detection of unnatural movements remains unclear. We conducted an fMRI experiment to compare the observation of an android and the observation of a human on which the android is modelled, and we found differences in the activation pattern of the brain regions that are responsible for the production of smooth and natural movement. More specifically, we found that the visual observation of the android, compared with that of the human model, caused greater activation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). When the android's slightly jerky movements are visually observed, the STN detects their subtle unnaturalness. This finding suggests that the detection of unnatural movements is attributed to an error signal resulting from a mismatch between a visual input and an internal model for smooth movement.

  4. Airport Movement Area Closure Planner, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR research develops an automation tool improving temporary and permanent runway closure management. The Movement Area Closure Planner (MACP) provides airport...

  5. White Matter Injury and General Movements in High-Risk Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, C; Yang, E; Msall, M E; Adde, L; Støen, R; Fjørtoft, T; Bos, A F; Einspieler, C; Zhou, Y; Schreiber, M D; Marks, J D; Drobyshevsky, A

    2017-01-01

    Very preterm infants (birth weight, cognitive and motor impairment, including cerebral palsy. These adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are associated with white matter abnormalities on MR imaging at term-equivalent age. Cerebral palsy has been predicted by analysis of spontaneous movements in the infant termed "General Movement Assessment." The goal of this study was to determine the utility of General Movement Assessment in predicting adverse cognitive, language, and motor outcomes in very preterm infants and to identify brain imaging markers associated with both adverse outcomes and aberrant general movements. In this prospective study of 47 preterm infants of 24-30 weeks' gestation, brain MR imaging was performed at term-equivalent age. Infants underwent T1- and T2-weighted imaging for volumetric analysis and DTI. General movements were assessed at 10-15 weeks' postterm age, and neurodevelopmental outcomes were evaluated at 2 years by using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III. Nine infants had aberrant general movements and were more likely to have adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, compared with infants with normal movements. In infants with aberrant movements, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis identified significantly lower fractional anisotropy in widespread white matter tracts, including the corpus callosum, inferior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi, internal capsule, and optic radiation. The subset of infants having both aberrant movements and abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in cognitive, language, and motor skills had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in specific brain regions. Aberrant general movements at 10-15 weeks' postterm are associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and specific white matter microstructure abnormalities for cognitive, language, and motor delays. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  6. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-05-01

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and

  7. Visually induced eye movements in Wallenberg's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, R.; Nakamura, T.; Ohki, M.; Kimura, Y.; Koike, Y. (Dept. of Otolaryngology, Yamagata Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Kato, I. (Dept. of Otolaryngology, St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    Eighteen patients with Wallenberg's syndrome were investigated concerning visually induced eye movements. All results were analysed quantitatively using a computer. In 16 out of 18 patients, OKN slow-phase velocities were impaired, in the remaining 2 patients they were normal. All patients showed reduced visual suppression of caloric nystagmus during the slow-phase of nystagmus toward the lesion side, except 3 patients who showed normal visual suppression in both directions. CT scan failed to detect either the brainstem or the cerebellar lesions in any cases, but MRI performed on the most recent cases demonstrated the infractions clearly. These findings suggest that infractions are localized in the medulla in the patients of group A, but extend to the cerebellum as well as to the medulla in patients of group B. (au).

  8. The role of eye movement driven attention in functional strabismic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Crewther, Sheila Gillard; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2015-01-01

    Strabismic amblyopia "blunt vision" is a developmental anomaly that affects binocular vision and results in lowered visual acuity. Strabismus is a term for a misalignment of the visual axes and is usually characterized by impaired ability of the strabismic eye to take up fixation. Such impaired fixation is usually a function of the temporally and spatially impaired binocular eye movements that normally underlie binocular shifts in visual attention. In this review, we discuss how abnormal eye movement function in children with misaligned eyes influences the development of normal binocular visual attention and results in deficits in visual function such as depth perception. We also discuss how eye movement function deficits in adult amblyopia patients can also lead to other abnormalities in visual perception. Finally, we examine how the nonamblyopic eye of an amblyope is also affected in strabismic amblyopia.

  9. The Role of Eye Movement Driven Attention in Functional Strabismic Amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strabismic amblyopia “blunt vision” is a developmental anomaly that affects binocular vision and results in lowered visual acuity. Strabismus is a term for a misalignment of the visual axes and is usually characterized by impaired ability of the strabismic eye to take up fixation. Such impaired fixation is usually a function of the temporally and spatially impaired binocular eye movements that normally underlie binocular shifts in visual attention. In this review, we discuss how abnormal eye movement function in children with misaligned eyes influences the development of normal binocular visual attention and results in deficits in visual function such as depth perception. We also discuss how eye movement function deficits in adult amblyopia patients can also lead to other abnormalities in visual perception. Finally, we examine how the nonamblyopic eye of an amblyope is also affected in strabismic amblyopia.

  10. MR assessment of movement and morphologic change in the menisci during knee flexion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Y.; Uetani, M.; Fuchi, K.; Eguchi, H.; Hayashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    To examine movement and morphologic alteration in the menisci during knee flexion. Twenty healthy knees were imaged at 0 degrees, 45 degrees, and 90 degrees of passive non-weight-bearing flexion in the sagittal plane with MR. In each meniscus, posterior movement distance during knee flexion and the ratio of anteroposterior (a.p.) diameter at flexion to that at extension were calculated. Each meniscus moved posteriorly during knee flexion. Movement was greater in the anterior horn than in the posterior horn, and greater in the medial meniscus than in the lateral meniscus (p<0.05). The a.p. diameter of each meniscus was reduced at flexion (p<0.05). Knee flexion normally leads to posterior movement and shortening of the a.p. diameter of the menisci, which may be related to the positioning and curvature of femoral condyles at the femorotibial contact point at knee flexion

  11. MR assessment of movement and morphologic change in the menisci during knee flexion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Y.; Uetani, M.; Hayashi, K.; Fuchi, K.; Eguchi, H.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To examine movement and morphologic alteration in the menisci during knee flexion. Material and Methods: Twenty healthy knees were imaged at 0 , 45 , and 90 of passive non-weight-bearing flexion in the sagittal plane with MR. In each meniscus, posterior movement distance during knee flexion and the ratio of anteroposterior (a.p.) diameter at flexion to that at extension were calculated. Results: Each meniscus moved posteriorly during knee flexion. Movement was greater in the anterior horn than in the posterior horn, and greater in the medial meniscus than in the lateral meniscus (p<0.05). The a.p. diameter of each meniscus was reduced at flexion (p<0.05). Conclusion: Knee flexion normally leads to posterior movement and shortening of the a.p. diameter of the menisci, which may be related to the positioning and curvature of femoral condyles at the femorotibial contact point at knee flexion. (orig.)

  12. Magnitude Squared of Coherence to Detect Imaginary Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Antônio Santos Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the Magnitude Squared of Coherence (MSC for detection of Event Related Potentials (ERPs related to left-hand index finger movement. Initially, ERP presence was examined in different brain areas. To accomplish that, 20 EEG channels were used, positioned according to the 10–20 international system. The grand average, resulting from 10 normal subjects showed, as expected, responses at frontal, central, and parietal areas, particularly evident at the central area (C3, C4, Cz. The MSC, applied to movement imagination related EEG signals, detected a consistent response in frequencies around 0.3–1 Hz (delta band, mainly at central area (C3, Cz, and C4. Ability differences in control imagination among subjects produced different detection performance. Some subjects needed up to 45 events for a detectable response, while for some others only 10 events proved sufficient. Some subjects also required two or three experimental sessions in order to achieve detectable responses. For one subject, response detection was not possible at all. However, due to brain plasticity, it is plausible to expect that training sessions (to practice movement imagination improve signal-noise ratio and lead to better detection using MSC. Results are sufficiently encouraging as to suggest further exploration of MSC for future BCI application.

  13. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Priya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle’s handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  14. Voluntary inhibitory motor control over involuntary tic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick

    2018-03-06

    Inhibitory control is crucial for normal adaptive motor behavior. In hyperkinesias, such as tics, disinhibition within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops is thought to underlie the presence of involuntary movements. Paradoxically, tics are also subject to voluntary inhibitory control. This puzzling clinical observation questions the traditional definition of tics as purely involuntary motor behaviors. Importantly, it suggests novel insights into tic pathophysiology. In this review, we first define voluntary inhibitory tic control and compare it with other notions of tic control from the literature. We then examine the association between voluntary inhibitory tic control with premonitory urges and review evidence linking voluntary tic inhibition to other forms of executive control of action. We discuss the somatotopic selectivity and the neural correlates of voluntary inhibitory tic control. Finally, we provide a scientific framework with regard to the clinical relevance of the study of voluntary inhibitory tic control within the context of the neurodevelopmental disorder of Tourette syndrome. We identify current knowledge gaps that deserve attention in future research. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Harvesting energy from the counterbalancing (weaving) movement in bicycle riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  16. Short-Term Plasticity of the Visuomotor Map during Grasping Movements in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safstrom, Daniel; Edin, Benoni B.

    2005-01-01

    During visually guided grasping movements, visual information is transformed into motor commands. This transformation is known as the "visuomotor map." To investigate limitations in the short-term plasticity of the visuomotor map in normal humans, we studied the maximum grip aperture (MGA) during the reaching phase while subjects grasped objects…

  17. Articulatory Movements during Vowels in Speakers with Dysarthria and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Weismer, Gary; Westbury, John R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared movement characteristics of markers attached to the jaw, lower lip, tongue blade, and dorsum during production of selected English vowels by normal speakers and speakers with dysarthria due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Parkinson disease (PD). The study asked the following questions: (a) Are movement…

  18. The influence of artificial scotomas on eye movements during visual search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, FW; Bruin, KJ; Kooijman, AC

    Purpose. Fixation durations are normally adapted to the difficulty of the foveal analysis task. We examine to what extent artificial central and peripheral visual field defects interfere with this adaptation process. Methods. Subjects performed a visual search task while their eye movements were

  19. Fetal Eye Movements on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C.; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Methods Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17–40 GW, three age groups [17–23 GW, 24–32 GW, 33–40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. Results In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3–45%. Conclusions In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations. PMID:24194885

  20. Fetal eye movements on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17-40 GW, three age groups [17-23 GW, 24-32 GW, 33-40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3-45%. In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations.