WorldWideScience

Sample records for normal dam operations

  1. Dam safety operating guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, E.; Leung, T.; Kirkham, A.; Lum, D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of Ontario Hydro's dam structure assessment program, the hydraulic design review of several river systems has revealed that many existing dam sites, under current operating procedures, would not have sufficient discharge capacity to pass the Inflow Design Flood (IDF) without compromising the integrity of the associated structures. Typical mitigative measures usually considered in dealing with these dam sites include structural alterations, emergency action plans and/or special operating procedures designed for extreme floods. A pilot study was carried out for the Madawaska River system in eastern Ontario, which has seven Ontario Hydro dam sites in series, to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of the Dam Safety Operating Guidelines (DSOG). The DSOG consist of two components: the flood routing schedules and the minimum discharge schedules, the former of which would apply in the case of severe spring flood conditions when the maximum observed snowpack water content and the forecast rainfall depth exceed threshold values. The flood routing schedules would identify to the operator the optimal timing and/or extent of utilizing the discharge facilities at each dam site to minimize the potential for dam failures cased by overtopping anywhere in the system. It was found that the DSOG reduced the number of structures overtopped during probable maximum flood from thirteen to four, while the number of structures that could fail would be reduced from seven to two. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Olympic Dam Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold-silver deposit in South Australia was discovered in 1975. The Mine is located 520 kilometres NNW of Adelaide, in South Australia. Following a six year period of intensive investigation and assessment of all the aspects required for the development of the deposit, the Joint Venturers decided in December, 1985, to proceed with the project. Milling of ore commenced in June 1988 and final products are cathode copper, uranium ore concentrate (yellow cake), and refined gold and silver. Anticipated production, from treating approximately 1.5 million tonnes of ore, in normal production years, is expected to be 45,000 tonnes of copper, 1,600 tonnes of yellow cake (1350 tonnes of Uranium), 25,000 ounces of gold and 500,000 ounces of silver. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Restoring Environmental Flows by Modifying Dam Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Richter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of new dams has become one of the most controversial issues in global efforts to alleviate poverty, improve human health, and strengthen regional economies. Unfortunately, this controversy has overshadowed the tremendous opportunity that exists for modifying the operations of existing dams to recover many of the environmental and social benefits of healthy ecosystems that have been compromised by present modes of dam operation. The potential benefits of dam "re-operation" include recovery of fish, shellfish, and other wildlife populations valued both commercially and recreationally, including estuarine species; reactivation of the flood storage and water purification benefits that occur when floods are allowed to flow into floodplain forests and wetlands; regaining some semblance of the naturally dynamic balance between river erosion and sedimentation that shapes physical habitat complexity, and arresting problems associated with geomorphic imbalances; cultural and spiritual uses of rivers; and many other socially valued products and services. This paper describes an assessment framework that can be used to evaluate the benefits that might be restored through dam re-operation. Assessing the potential benefits of dam re-operation begins by characterizing the dam's effects on the river flow regime, and formulating hypotheses about the ecological and social benefits that might be restored by releasing water from the dam in a manner that more closely resembles natural flow patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by implementing a re-operation plan, tracking the response of the ecosystem, and continually refining dam operations through adaptive management. The paper highlights a number of land and water management strategies useful in implementing a dam re-operation plan, with reference to a variety of management contexts ranging from individual dams to cascades of dams along a river to regional energy grids. Because many of the

  4. Environmental design of the Olympic Dam operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental Design of The Olympic Dam Operations has been required to take into account the Environmental Management Programme as approved by the South Australian Government and radiological protection standards as determined by the Commonwealth of Australia's Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores 1987. The article describes the natural environment, project assessment and infrastructure relating to the environmental design. The radiological standards refer to the control of exposure to radiation above naturally occurring background levels both for employees and for members of the public. 2 tabs., maps

  5. Changes in engineering-geological conditions in the foundation of the Bratsk hydroelectric powerplant dam during 15 years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, G K; Savinskaya, M K; Tizdel, R R; Sotnikova, N P

    1978-04-01

    Field observations of the rock foundation beneath the Bratsk Hydropower Dam have been conducted continuously and carefully, beginning during the period of construction. The dam is a concrete gravity dam with expanded seams, 125 m in height and 924 m in length. The head is 106 m. The dam was constructed in 42 column sections which were subsequently cemented together. The anchor of the dam is up to 15 m deep. Two rows of drainage wells 30 m deep and 3 m apart were drilled into the foundation beneath the dam. The observations indicate that the status of the foundation and the stability of the channel and left bank earth dam are quite satisfactory. The changes in engineering and geological conditions that are unavoidable upon construction of a large dam have apparently been completed, and the new conditions in the foundation of the dam have stabilized. The drainage devices are operating normally. However, observations should be continued at full volume.

  6. Derivation of Operation Rule for Ilisu Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdul-Sahib Mohammed Ali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Tigris River water that comes from Turkey represents the main water resource of this river in Iraq. The expansion in water river implementations has formed a source of trouble for the workers in the water resources management field in Iraqi. Unfortunately, there is no agreement between Iraq and Turkey till now to share the water of this international river. Consequently, the optimal operation of water resources systems, particularly a multi-objective, multi-reservoir, is of the most necessity at the present time. In this research two approaches, were used the dynamic programming (DP approach and simulation model to find the optimal monthly operation of Ilisu Dam (from an Iraqi point of view through a computer program (in Q. Basic language to find the optimum monthly release and storage by adopting an objective function that minimizes the release and storage losses (penalty. The historical inflow data of 588 months from (Oct. 1961 to Sep. 2009 formed the input data to the optimization models. Storage rule curves for the reservoir at (lower, mean, upper of (10%, 50%, and 90%, respectively, were found according to the results of the optimized operation. A simulation model was developed to operate the system using these rule curves.

  7. Olympic Dam operations - environmental management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This is the 3rd Annual Report pertaining to the Olympic Dam Operations Environmental Management Programme and covers the period 1st March, 1989 to 28th February, 1990. The monitoring programe has provided detailed assessment of meteorological data, vegetation, fauna, soil stability, soil salinity, hydrogeology and well-fields both inside and outside the operations area. Mine site rehabilitation is considered to be progressing satisfactorily. Out of the 851 drill pad sites 72% have been rehabilitated to the stage where natural soil stability and plant cover has been achieved. Drill pad sites that have received good rainfall within one year of being ripped have rehabilitated very succesfully. Sites that receive no significant rainfall for more than two years, particularly on dune slopes may require re-ripping before successful regeneration can occur. To improve the drill pad site rehabilitation monitoring programme it is recommended that 200 drill sites be analysed each year. Air emission and solid waste data are also presented. This program is considered to be particularly successful in relation to SO 2 assessment. 90 tabs., 63 figs., ills

  8. Dams

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset �is generated from from the Vermont Dam Inventory (VDI). The VDI is managed by the VT DEC's Dam Safety and Hydrology Section and contains information...

  9. Development of probabilistic operating rules for Hluhluwe Dam, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiritu, J.; Odiyo, J.; Makungo, R.; Mwaka, B.; Mthethwa, N.; Ntuli, C.; Andanje, A.

    2017-08-01

    Hluhluwe Dam, with a 30 million m3 reservoir that supplies water for irrigation and Hluhluwe municipality in Kwa-Zulu Natal Province, South Africa, was consistently experiencing low storage levels over several non-drought years since 2001. The dam was operated by rules of thumb and there were no records of water releases for irrigation - the main user of the dam. This paper describes an assessment of the historic behaviour of the reservoir since its completion in 1964 and the development of operating rules that accounted for: i) the multiple and different levels of reliability at which municipal and irrigation demands need to be supplied, and ii) inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of climate and inflows into the dam. The assessment of the behaviour of the reservoir was done by simulation assuming trigonometric rule curves that were optimized to maximize both yield and storage state using the SCE-UA method. The resulting reservoir behaviour matched the observed historic trajectory reasonably well and indicated that the dam has mainly been operated at a demand of 10 million m3/year until 2000 when the demand suddenly rose to 25 million m3/year. Operating rules were developed from a statistical analysis of the base yields from 500 simulations of the reservoir each using 5 year-long stochastically generated sequences of inflows, rainfall and evaporation. After the implementation of the operating rules in 2009, the storage state of the dam improved and matched those of other reservoirs in the region that had established operating rules.

  10. Lithium control during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Jain, D.

    2010-01-01

    Periodic increases in lithium (Li) concentrations in the primary heat transport (PHT) system during normal operation are a generic problem at CANDU® stations. Lithiated mixed bed ion exchange resins are used at stations for pH control in the PHT system. Typically tight chemistry controls including Li concentrations are maintained in the PHT water. The reason for the Li increases during normal operation at CANDU stations such as Pickering was not fully understood. In order to address this issue a two pronged approach was employed. Firstly, PNGS-A data and information from other available sources was reviewed in an effort to identify possible factors that may contribute to the observed Li variations. Secondly, experimental studies were carried out to assess the importance of these factors in order to establish reasons for Li increases during normal operation. Based on the results of these studies, plausible mechanisms/reasons for Li increases have been identified and recommendations made for proactive control of Li concentrations in the PHT system. (author)

  11. Modeling the ecological impacts of Flaming Gorge Dam operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, S.C.L.; LaGory, K.E.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.; Cho, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    Hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah, US, can produce rapid downstream changes in flow and stage during a day. These changes can, in turn, affect ecological resources below the dam, including riparian vegetation, trout, and endangered fish. Four hydropower operational scenarios featuring varying degrees of hydropower-induced flow fluctuation were evaluated with hydrologic models and multispectral aerial videography of the river. Year-round high fluctuations would support the least amount of stable spawning habitat for trout and nursery habitat for endangered fish, and would have the greatest potential for reducing growth and over winter survival of fish. Seasonally, adjusted moderate fluctuation and seasonally adjusted steady flow scenarios could increase food production and over winter survival and would provide the greatest amount of spawning and nursery habitat for fish. The year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation scenarios would result in a 5% decrease in upper riparian zone habitat. the seasonally adjusted steady flow scenario would result in an 8% increase in upper riparian zone habitat. Lower riparian zone habitat would increase by about 17% for year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flow scenarios but decrease by about 24% and 69% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuating and steady flow scenarios, respectively

  12. Water temperature effects from simulated dam operations and structures in the Middle Fork Willamette River, western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Turner, Daniel F.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-09-14

    Significant FindingsStreamflow and water temperature in the Middle Fork Willamette River (MFWR), western Oregon, have been regulated and altered since the construction of Lookout Point, Dexter, and Hills Creek Dams in 1954 and 1961, respectively. Each year, summer releases from the dams typically are cooler than pre-dam conditions, with the reverse (warmer than pre-dam conditions) occurring in autumn. This pattern has been detrimental to habitat of endangered Upper Willamette River (UWR) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and UWR winter steelhead (O. mykiss) throughout multiple life stages. In this study, scenarios testing different dam-operation strategies and hypothetical dam-outlet structures were simulated using CE-QUAL-W2 hydrodynamic/temperature models of the MFWR system from Hills Creek Lake (HCR) to Lookout Point (LOP) and Dexter (DEX) Lakes to explore and understand the efficacy of potential flow and temperature mitigation options.Model scenarios were run in constructed wet, normal, and dry hydrologic calendar years, and designed to minimize the effects of Hills Creek and Lookout Point Dams on river temperature by prioritizing warmer lake surface releases in May–August and cooler, deep releases in September–December. Operational scenarios consisted of a range of modified release rate rules, relaxation of power-generation constraints, variations in the timing of refill and drawdown, and maintenance of different summer maximum lake levels at HCR and LOP. Structural scenarios included various combinations of hypothetical floating outlets near the lake surface and hypothetical new outlets at depth. Scenario results were compared to scenarios using existing operational rules that give temperature management some priority (Base), scenarios using pre-2012 operational rules that prioritized power generation over temperature management (NoBlend), and estimated temperatures from a without-dams condition (WoDams).Results of the tested model scenarios led

  13. Dam pre-release as an important operation strategy in reducing flood impact in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah Ishak, Nurul; Mustafa Hashim, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    The 2014 flood was reported to be one of the worst natural disaster has ever affected several states in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Overwhelming rainfall was noted as one of the main factors causing such impact, which was claimed to be unprecedented to some extent. The state of Perak, which is blessed with four cascading dams had also experienced flood damage at a scale that was considered the worst in history. The rainfall received had caused the dam to reach danger level that necessitated additional discharge to be released. Safety of the dams was of great importance and such unavoidable additional discharge was allowed to avoid catastrophic failure of the dam structures. This paper discusses the dam pre-release as a significant dam management strategy in reducing flood impact. An important balance between required dam storage to be maintained and the risk element that can be afforded is the crucial factor in such enhanced operation strategy. While further possibility in developing a carefully engineered dam pre-release strategy can be explored for dam operation in Malaysia, this has already been introduced in some developed countries. Australia and South Africa are examples where pre-release has been practiced and proven to reduce flood risk. The concept involves controlling the dam lake level throughout the year, in reference to the rainfall data and the hydrological properties for the catchment area of the dams. Plentiful data analysis need to be done in contemplation of producing the optimal pre-release model. The amount of heavy rainfalls received is beyond human control but the distribution of the discharge from the dams can be further managed with the appropriate pre-release strategy.

  14. Technical Condition of Earthen Dams at Nizhegorodskaya HPP After 60 Years of Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, V. S., E-mail: kuznetsovVS@vniig.ru; Ladenko, S. Yu., E-mail: ladenko@yandex.ru [B. E. Vedeneev All-Russian Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (JSC) (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    The complex of hydraulic engineering installations includes five earthen dams. All facilities are of Class I. The diagnostic parameters of dam operation and technical condition monitored via in-situ observation for seepage mode, seepage strength, settlement, static stability, etc. generally meet design assumptions and safety criteria. Despite individual defects and signs of “aging” identified over the period of earthen dam operation, these are currently in a satisfactory and operable state. The long, 60-year operating period of the dams with no serious overhauls or emergencies has demonstrated the high reliability of the facilities, the correctness of the design and technological solutions adopted and implemented in the construction, and the high professional level of their operation in close cooperation with science.

  15. Climate change impact on operation of dams and hydroelectricity generation in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    We are using a large-scale, high-resolution, fully integrated hydrological/reservoir/hydroelectricity model to investigate the impact of climate change on the operation of 11037 dams and generation of electricity from 375 hydroelectric power plants in the Northeastern United States. Moreover, we estimate the hydropower potential of the region by energizing the existing non-powered dams and then studying the impact of climate change on the hydropower potential. We show that climate change increases the impact of dams on the hydrology of the region. Warmer temperatures produce shorter frozen periods, earlier snowmelt and elevated evapotranspiration rates, which when combined with changes in precipitation, are projected to increase water availability in winter but reduce it during summer. As a result, the water that is stored by dams will be more than ever a necessary part of the routine water systems operations to compensate for these seasonal imbalances. The function of dams as emergency water storage for creating drought resiliency will mostly diminish in the future. Building more dams to cope with the local impacts of climate change on water resources and to offset the increased drought vulnerability may thus be inevitable. Annual hydroelectricity generation in the region is 41 Twh. Our estimate of the annual hydropower potential of non-powered dams adds up to 350 Twh. Climate change may reduce hydropower potential from non-powered dams by up to 13% and reduce current hydroelectricity generation by up to 8% annually. Hydroelectricity generation and hydropower potential may increase in winter months and decline in months of summer and fall. These changes call for recalibration of dam operations and may raise conflict of interests in multipurpose dams.

  16. Methodology for Risk Analysis of Dam Gates and Associated Operating Equipment Using Fault Tree Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patev, Robert C; Putcha, Chandra; Foltz, Stuart D

    2005-01-01

    .... This report summarizes research on methodologies to assist in quantifying risks related to dam gates and associated operating equipment, and how those risks relate to overall spillway failure risk...

  17. LGR adult trap data - Operation of the adult trap at Lower Granite Dam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) - funded project pays for NOAA staff to operate the adult salmon trap located in the fish ladder at Lower Granite Dam. The...

  18. Investigation of changes to the operation of Keenleyside Dam to reduce supersaturation of dissolved gases downstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, J.O.H.; Fidler, L.E.; Northcott, P.

    1993-01-01

    Keenlyside Dam is located on the Columbia River in southeast British Columbia. It impounds Arrow Lakes Reservoir, which has a live storage of 8.8 billion m 3 . The dam is used for flood control and to increase power generation in the USA. Recent field measurements have shown that the current operation of the dam often creates high levels of total gas pressure (TGP) downstream of the dam, with supersaturation levels occasionally reaching as high as 140%. It appeared that these increased levels were associated with the use of the spillway. High levels of dissolved gases may have adverse effects on aquatic life. Therefore, a comprehensive study was initiated to investigate ways of reducing TGP levels. The discharge facilities at the dam are described, along with the effects of dissolved gas supersaturation on fish. Current studies include measurement of field TGP levels, development of a model to predict TGP levels for different modes of operation of the discharge facilities, assessing the effects of TGP on different fish species at different life stages, field testing of the discharge facilities, and assessment of long-term impacts of various operating alternatives on the dam structures and equipment. Preliminary results indicate that the north low-level ports of the spillway increase the TGP level significantly less than the other two components of the discharge facilities. Current operating practice therefore maximizes use of the north ports within current operating limits. 9 refs., 4 figs

  19. Perturbations of normally solvable nonlinear operators, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Ray

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X and Y be Banach spaces and let ℱ and be Gateaux differentiable mappings from X to Y In this note we study when the operator ℱ+ is surjective for sufficiently small perturbations of a surjective operator ℱ The methods extend previous results in the area of normal solvability for nonlinear operators.

  20. Spruce Lake Dam reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, G. [SGE Acres Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Barnard, J. [SGE Acres Ltd., St. John' s, NF (Canada); Vriezen, C. [City of Saint John, NF (Canada); Stephenson, M. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    Spruce Lake Dam was constructed in 1898 as part of the water supply system for Saint John, New Brunswick. The original dam was a 6 meter high, 140 meter long concrete gravity dam with an intake structure at its mid point and an overflow spillway at the left abutment. A rehabilitation project was launched in 2001 to bring the deteriorated dam into conformance with the dam safety guidelines of the Canadian Dam Association. The project criteria included minimal disruption to normal operation of water supply facilities and no negative effect on water quality. The project involved installation of a new low level outlet, removal of a gate house and water intake pipes, replacement of an access road culvert in the spillway channel, and raising the earth dam section by 1.8 meters to allow for increased water storage. The new raised section has an impervious core. The project also involved site and geotechnical investigations as well as hydrotechnical and environmental studies. This presentation described the final design of the remedial work and the environmental permitting procedures. Raising the operating level of the system proved successful as demonstrated by the fewer number of pumping days required after dam rehabilitation. The dam safety assessment under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act began in April 2001, and the rehabilitation was completed by the end of 2002. 1 tab., 8 figs.

  1. Use of aerial videography to evaluate the effects of Flaming Gorge Dam operations on natural resources of the Green River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.; Greaney, M.M.; Kuiper, J.A.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Peaking hydropower operations can profoundly alter natural stream flow and thereby affect the natural resources dependent on these flows. In this paper, we describe how aerial videography was used to collect environmental data and evaluate impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on natural resources of the Green River. An airborne multispectral video/radiometer remote sensing system was used to collect resource data under four different flow conditions from seven sites (each about one mile in length) located downstream from the dam. Releases from Flaming Gorge Dam during data collection ranged from approximately 800 to 4,000 cubic feet/sec (cfs), spanning most of the normal operating range for this facility. For each site a series of contiguous, non-overlapping images was prepared from the videotapes and used to quantify surface water area, backwater habitats, and areas of riparian vegetation under varying flow conditions. From this information, relationships between flow and habitat parameters were developed and used in conjunction with hydrologic modeling and ecological information to evaluate impacts of various modes of operation

  2. Dam! Dam! Dam!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCully, P.

    1997-01-01

    The author of ''Silenced Rivers'' a book questioning the desirability of dam building and hydroelectric power generation argues the main themes of his book in this paper. Despite being hailed by politicians as good solutions to power generation problems, and enthusiastically pursued in China, the U.S.A., the former Soviet Union, India and Japan, dams have far-reaching ecological and human consequences. The ecosystems lost to flooding, and the agricultural land use lost, the human cost in terms of homes and employment lost to reservoirs, disease from water-borne infections such as malaria, and the hazards of dams overflowing or breaking are all factors which are against the case for dam construction. The author argues the hydroelectric power may be renewable, but the social, agricultural and ecological costs are too high to justify it as a method of first choice. (UK)

  3. Effects on the upstream flood inundation caused from the operation of Chao Phraya Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutham Visutimeteegorn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During the flooding events, the operation of Chao Phraya Dam to control downstream water discharge is one of the causes of the inundation occuring over the upstream area. The purposes of this research are to study the effects of the operation of Chao Phraya Dam upon the upstream flood inundation and to find out the new measures of the flood mitigation in the upstream areas of Chao Phraya Dam by using a hydrodynamic model. The results show that Manning's n in the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries is 0.030-0.035 in the main channels and 0.050-0.070 in the flood plain areas. The backwater due to the operation of the Chao Praya dam affects as far as 110 kilometers upstream. New methods of water diversion can mitigate the flood inundation without the effect on the floating rice fields. The construction of reservoirs in the Upper Sakaekang River Basin and the Upper Yom River Basin will mitigate the flood not only in their own basins but also in the Lower Chao Phraya River Basin. The coordinated operation of the Chao Phraya Dam, the regulators and the upper basin reservoirs will efficiently mitigate the flood inundation.

  4. Operational behaviour of a reactor normal operation and disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    During normal operation, the following topics are dealt with: primary and secondary coolant circuits - full load operation - start-up and shutdown - steady state part load diagramm. During disturbances and incidents, the following procedures are discussed: identification and detection of the events - automatic actions - manual actions of the operator - provided indications - explanation of actuated systems - basic information of reactor protection system. (RW)

  5. Simulating potential structural and operational changes for Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, Oregon, for downstream temperature management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.; Risley, John C.

    2012-01-01

    structural options were explored with the model scenarios. Multiple downstream temperature targets were used along with three sets of environmental forcing conditions representing cool/wet, normal, and hot/dry conditions. Five structural options at Detroit Dam were modeled, including the use of existing outlets, one hypothetical variable-elevation outlet such as a sliding gate, a hypothetical combination of a floating outlet and a fixed-elevation outlet, and a hypothetical combination of a floating outlet and a sliding gate. Finally, 14 sets of operational guidelines for Detroit Dam were explored to gain an understanding of the effects of imposing different downstream minimum streamflows, imposing minimum outflow rules to specific outlets, and managing the level of the lake with different timelines through the year. Selected subsets of these combinations of operational and structural scenarios were run through the downstream models of Big Cliff Reservoir and the North Santiam and Santiam Rivers to explore how hypothetical changes at Detroit Dam might provide improved temperatures for endangered salmonids downstream of the Detroit-Big Cliff Dam complex. Conclusions that can be drawn from these model scenarios include: *The water-temperature targets set by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for releases from Detroit Dam can be met through a combination of new dam outlets or a delayed drawdown of the lake in autumn. *Spring and summer dam operations greatly affect the available release temperatures and operational flexibility later in the autumn. Releasing warm water during midsummer tends to keep more cool water available for release in autumn. *The ability to meet downstream temperature targets during spring depends on the characteristics of the available outlets. Under existing conditions, although warm water sometimes is present at the lake surface in spring and early summer, such water may not be available for release if the lake level is either well below or well above the

  6. Integrated Flood Forecast and Virtual Dam Operation System for Water Resources and Flood Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Ikoma, Eiji; Lawford, Peter; Oyanagi, Misa; Kanauchi, Shizu; Koudelova, Petra; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    While availability of hydrological- and hydrometeorological data shows growing tendency and advanced modeling techniques are emerging, such newly available data and advanced models may not always be applied in the field of decision-making. In this study we present an integrated system of ensemble streamflow forecast (ESP) and virtual dam simulator, which is designed to support river and dam manager's decision making. The system consists of three main functions: real time hydrological model, ESP model, and dam simulator model. In the real time model, the system simulates current condition of river basins, such as soil moisture and river discharges, using LSM coupled distributed hydrological model. The ESP model takes initial condition from the real time model's output and generates ESP, based on numerical weather prediction. The dam simulator model provides virtual dam operation and users can experience impact of dam control on remaining reservoir volume and downstream flood under the anticipated flood forecast. Thus the river and dam managers shall be able to evaluate benefit of priori dam release and flood risk reduction at the same time, on real time basis. Furthermore the system has been developed under the concept of data and models integration, and it is coupled with Data Integration and Analysis System (DIAS) - a Japanese national project for integrating and analyzing massive amount of observational and model data. Therefore it has advantage in direct use of miscellaneous data from point/radar-derived observation, numerical weather prediction output, to satellite imagery stored in data archive. Output of the system is accessible over the web interface, making information available with relative ease, e.g. from ordinary PC to mobile devices. We have been applying the system to the Upper Tone region, located northwest from Tokyo metropolitan area, and we show application example of the system in recent flood events caused by typhoons.

  7. Manual on environmental monitoring in normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Many establishments handling radioactive materials produce, and to some extent also discharge, radioactive waste as part of their normal operation. The radiation doses to which members of the public may be exposed during such operation must remain below the stipulated level. The purpose of this manual is to provide technical guidance for setting up programmes of routine environmental monitoring in the vicinity of nuclear establishment. The annex gives five examples of routine environmental monitoring programmes currently in use: these have been indexed separately.

  8. Limiting Normal Operator in Quasiconvex Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aussel, D.; Pištěk, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2015), s. 669-685 ISSN 1877-0533 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00735S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Quasiconvex function * Sublevel set * Normal operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/pistek-0453552.pdf

  9. Quantum arrival times and operator normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerfeldt, Gerhard C.; Seidel, Dirk; Gonzalo Muga, J.

    2003-01-01

    A recent approach to arrival times used the fluorescence of an atom entering a laser illuminated region, and the resulting arrival-time distribution was close to the axiomatic distribution of Kijowski, but not exactly equal, neither in limiting cases nor after compensation of reflection losses by normalization on the level of expectation values. In this paper we employ a normalization on the level of operators, recently proposed in a slightly different context. We show that in this case the axiomatic arrival-time distribution of Kijowski is recovered as a limiting case. In addition, it is shown that Allcock's complex potential model is also a limit of the physically motivated fluorescence approach and connected to Kijowski's distribution through operator normalization

  10. Chinese engineers and scientists urge leadership to change Three Gorges Dam operating plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-26

    An appeal to the Chinese Leadership by a group of senior engineers, water management experts and academics about the dire consequences of filling the Three Gorges reservoir on the Yangtze River to 175 metres, is reported. Originally, the plan was to keep water levels behind the Three Gorges Dam at 156 metres for the first ten years of operation, in order to allow for resettlement of people displaced by building the dam, and to evaluate the impact of silt deposits on navigation and ports at the upper end of the reservoir. Plans have changed in 1997; the water level is now scheduled to rise to 175 metres in the sixth year of the dam's operation in order to maximize the dam's power output. The appeal by 53 experts warned the Chinese Government that the filling of the reservoir to 175 metres would displace 1.13 million people and raise the water level in the Yangtze River more than 10 metres at Chongqing City, submerging drainage outlets and backing up the city's sewage, as well as increase silt deposits, blocking shipping traffic along the Yangtze River. A parallel is drawn with the Sanmenxia Dam on the Yellow River. It was completed in 1960; it has proven to be useless for controlling floods while producing only one-third of its expected output due to massive silt build-up in the reservoir.

  11. Chinese engineers and scientists urge leadership to change Three Gorges Dam operating plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    An appeal to the Chinese Leadership by a group of senior engineers, water management experts and academics about the dire consequences of filling the Three Gorges reservoir on the Yangtze River to 175 metres, is reported. Originally, the plan was to keep water levels behind the Three Gorges Dam at 156 metres for the first ten years of operation, in order to allow for resettlement of people displaced by building the dam, and to evaluate the impact of silt deposits on navigation and ports at the upper end of the reservoir. Plans have changed in 1997; the water level is now scheduled to rise to 175 metres in the sixth year of the dam's operation in order to maximize the dam's power output. The appeal by 53 experts warned the Chinese Government that the filling of the reservoir to 175 metres would displace 1.13 million people and raise the water level in the Yangtze River more than 10 metres at Chongqing City, submerging drainage outlets and backing up the city's sewage, as well as increase silt deposits, blocking shipping traffic along the Yangtze River. A parallel is drawn with the Sanmenxia Dam on the Yellow River. It was completed in 1960; it has proven to be useless for controlling floods while producing only one-third of its expected output due to massive silt build-up in the reservoir

  12. Oldman river dam mitigation program downstream vegetation project report, Volume II: The potential effects of an operating plan for the Oldman River dam on Riparian cottonwood forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Extensive cottonwood (poplar) forests exist in the Oldman River valley downstream of the Oldman River dam. Studies of similar forests in nearby river valleys and elsewhere on the western prairies have found significant declines of some riparian forests following river damming. This investigation was initiated to determine the causes of cottonwood forest decline downstream from existing dams in southern Alberta; inventory the existing river valley forests in the Oldman Basin; establish study sites in the Oldman River forests to monitor changes in forest status following commissioning of the Oldman River dam, and evaluate the probable impact of proposed operating plans for the Oldman River dam and associated water control structures on downstream forests. This report summarizes the progress made in the analyses of the probable effects on the survival of the forests, including a discussion of the hydrological conditions essential for cottonwood forest regeneration and an explanation of the effects of altering these characteristics on riparian forests; the hydrological alterations expected along various river reaches in the Oldman Basin with the implementation of the proposed OD05 Oldman Dam operating plan; and preliminary analyses of the problem impacts of the OD05 operating plan on the cottonwood forests along these reaches.

  13. Simulating potential structural and operational changes for Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, Oregon-Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to operational changes in 2007, Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in western Oregon had a well-documented effect on downstream water temperature that was problematic for endangered salmonid fish species. In this U.S. Geological Survey study, done in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, an existing calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 model of Detroit Lake (the impounded waterbody behind Detroit Dam) was used to determine how changes in dam operation or changes to the structural release points of Detroit Dam might affect downstream water temperatures under a range of historical hydrologic and meteorological conditions.

  14. Crate counter for normal operating loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlan, R.A.

    A lithium-loaded zinc sulfide scintillation counter to closely assay plutonium in waste packaged in 1.3 by 1.3 by 2.13m crates was built. In addition to assays for normal operating loss accounting, the counter will allow safeguards verification immediately before shipment of the crates for burial. The counter should detect approximately 10 g of plutonium in 1000 kg of waste

  15. Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2011-05-01

    This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled “Normal and Emergency Operations Visualization” for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

  16. Probabilistic-Multiobjective Comparison of User-Defined Operating Rules. Case Study: Hydropower Dam in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bianucci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A useful tool is proposed in this paper to assist dam managers in comparing and selecting suitable operating rules. This procedure is based on well-known multiobjective and probabilistic methodologies, which were jointly applied here to assess and compare flood control strategies in hydropower reservoirs. The procedure consisted of evaluating the operating rules’ performance using a simulation fed by a representative and sufficiently large flood event series. These flood events were obtained from a synthetic rainfall series stochastically generated by using the RainSimV3 model coupled with a deterministic hydrological model. The performance of the assessed strategies was characterized using probabilistic variables. Finally, evaluation and comparison were conducted by analyzing objective functions which synthesize different aspects of the rules’ performance. These objectives were probabilistically defined in terms of risk and expected values. To assess the applicability and flexibility of the tool, it was implemented in a hydropower dam located in Galicia (Northern Spain. This procedure allowed alternative operating rule to be derived which provided a reasonable trade-off between dam safety, flood control, operability and energy production.

  17. Mean normalized force computation for different types of obstacles due to dam break using statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duricic, J.; Erdik, T.; Pektas, A.O.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The dam-break induced loads and their effects on buildings are of vital importance for assessing the vulnerability of buildings in flood-prone areas. A comprehensive methodology, for risk assessment of buildings subject to flooding, is nevertheless still missing. This research aims to take a step

  18. Influences of Dam Operations in Groundwater-Surface Water Mixing Zones: Towards Multiscale Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegen, J.; Scheibe, T. D.; Chen, X.; Huang, M.; Arntzen, E.; Garayburu-Caruso, V. A.; Graham, E.; Johnson, T. C.; Strickland, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The installation and operation of dams have myriad influences on ecosystems, from direct effects on hydrographs to indirect effects on marine biogeochemistry and terrestrial food webs. With > 50000 existing and > 3700 planned large dams world-wide there is a pressing need for holistic understanding of dam impacts. Such understanding is likely to reveal unrecognized opportunities to modify dam operations towards beneficial outcomes. One of the most dramatic influences of daily dam operations is the creation of `artificial intertidal zones' that emerge from short-term increases and decreases in discharge due to hydroelectric power demands; known as hydropeaking. There is a long history of studying the influences of hydropeaking on macrofauna such as fish and invertebrates, but only recently has significant attention been paid to the hydrobiogeochemical effects of hydropeaking. Our aim here is to develop an integrated conceptual model of the hydrobiogeochemical influences of hydropeaking. To do so we reviewed available literature focusing on hydrologic and/or biogeochemical influences of hydropeaking. Results from these studies were collated into a single conceptual model that integrates key physical (e.g., sediment transport, hydromorphology) and biological (e.g., timescale of microbiome response) processes. This conceptual model highlights non-intuitive impacts of hydropeaking, the presence of critical thresholds, and strong interactions among processes. When examined individually these features suggest context dependency, but when viewed through an integrated conceptual model, common themes emerge. We will further discuss a critical next step, which is the local to regional to global evaluation of this conceptual model, to enable multiscale understanding. We specifically propose a global `hydropeaking network' of researchers using common methods, data standards, and analysis techniques to quantify the hydrobiogeochemical effects of hydropeaking across biomes. We

  19. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Normal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Williams, Daniel M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. In this concept, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports during periods of poor weather. Within this new airspace, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Using onboard equipment and procedures, they would then approach and land at the airport. Departures would be handled in a similar fashion. The details for this operational concept are provided in this document.

  20. Seasonal variation of water quality in a lateral hyporheic zone with response to dam operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Chen, L.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic environment of lateral hyporheic zone in a regulated river were investigated seasonally under fluctuated water levels induced by dam operations. Groundwater levels variations in preassembled wells and changes in electronic conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, water temperature and pH in the hyporheic zone were examined as environmental performance indicators for the water quality. Groundwater tables in wells were highly related to the river water levels that showed a hysteresis pattern, and the lag time is associated with the distances from wells to the river bank. The distribution of DO and EC were strongly related to the water temperature, indicating that the cold water released from up-reservoir could determine the biochemistry process in the hyporheic zone. Results also showed that the hyporheic water was weakly alkaline in the study area but had a more or less uniform spatial distribution. Dam release-storage cycles were the dominant factor in changing lateral hyporheic flow and water quality.

  1. EVALUASI KEAMANAN DAM JATILUHUR BERBASIS INDEKS RESIKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avazbek Ishbaev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dams have very important roles to agricultural activities. Especially, West Java with 240,000 hectares of agricultural land, needs a good dam structure that can be used sustainably. Jatiluhur dam in Purwakarta, West Java is one of big dams in Indonesia which has important rules not only for Purwakarta but also for Jakarta, Karawang and Bekasi residents. A study and observation about safety and dam stability is needed to prevent any damage. The purpose of this research were to identify parameters that influenced dam safety and to evaluate dam reliability based on index tools. Analysis was done using risk index tools. The result showed that the condition of the dam of Jatiluhur is still satisfied with indicators, "Idam"-750. The total index risk was 127.22 and the safety factor was 83.04 out of 100. Therefore, Jatiluhur dam could be classified as safe and no need for particular treatments. Jatiluhur dam can be operated in normal condition or abnormal condition with periodic monitoring. Keywords: dam safety, evaluation, Jatiluhur Dam, risk index tools

  2. Water quantity and quality optimization modeling of dams operation based on SWAT in Wenyu River Catchment, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Xia, Jun; Chen, Junfeng; Zhang, Minghua

    2011-02-01

    Water quantity and quality joint operation is a new mode in the present dams' operation research. It has become a hot topic in governmental efforts toward integrated basin improvement. This paper coupled a water quantity and quality joint operation model (QCmode) and genetic algorithm with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Together, these tools were used to explore a reasonable operation of dams and floodgates at the basin scale. Wenyu River Catchment, a key area in Beijing, was selected as the case study. Results showed that the coupled water quantity and quality model of Wenyu River Catchment more realistically simulates the process of water quantity and quality control by dams and floodgates. This integrated model provides the foundation for research of water quantity and quality optimization on dam operation in Wenyu River Catchment. The results of this modeling also suggest that current water quality of Wenyu River will improve following the implementation of the optimized operation of the main dams and floodgates. By pollution control and water quantity and quality joint operation of dams and floodgates, water quality of Wenyu river will change significantly, and the available water resources will increase by 134%, 32%, 17%, and 82% at the downstream sites of Sha River Reservoir, Lutong Floodgate, Xinpu Floodgate, and Weigou Floodgate, respectively. The water quantity and quality joint operation of dams will play an active role in improving water quality and water use efficiency in Wenyu River Basin. The research will provide the technical support for water pollution control and ecological restoration in Wenyu River Catchment and could be applied to other basins with large number of dams. Its application to the Wenyu River Catchment has a great significance for the sustainable economic development of Beijing City.

  3. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, Jay; Garrow, Larry (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2005-06-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) uses a combination of techniques to collect physical and biological data within the Kootenai River Basin. These data serve several purposes including: the development and refinement of models used in management of water resources and operation of Libby Dam; investigations into the limiting factors of native fish populations, gathering basic life history information, tracking trends in endangered and threatened species, and the assessment of restoration or management activities designed to restore native fishes and their habitats.

  4. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, Jay; Garrow, Larry (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2004-06-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan. Montana FWP uses a combination of diverse techniques to collect a variety of physical and biological data within the Kootenai River Basin. These data serve several purposes including: the development and refinement of models used in management of water resources and operation of Libby Dam; investigations into the limiting factors of native fish populations, gathering basic life history information, tracking trends in endangered, threatened species, and the assessment of restoration or management activities intended to restore native fishes and their habitats.

  5. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Greg; Marotz, Brian L.; Dunnigan, James (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2002-09-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness.

  6. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James L.; Marotz, Brian L.; DeShazer, Jay (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2003-06-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River Treaty 1964). Libby Reservoir inundated 109 stream miles of the mainstem Kootenai River in the United States and Canada, and 40 miles of tributary streams in the U.S. that provided habitat for spawning, juvenile rearing, and migratory passage (Figure 1). The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power (91.5%), flood control (8.3%), and navigation and other benefits (0.2%; Storm et al. 1982). The Pacific Northwest Power Act of 1980 recognized possible conflicts stemming from hydroelectric projects in the northwest and directed Bonneville Power Administration to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries...'' (4(h)(10)(A)). Under the Act, the Northwest Power Planning Council was created and recommendations for a comprehensive fish and wildlife program were solicited from the region's federal, state, and tribal fish and wildlife agencies. Among Montana's recommendations was the proposal that research be initiated to quantify acceptable seasonal minimum pool elevations to maintain or enhance the existing fisheries (Graham et al. 1982). Research to determine how operations of Libby Dam affect the reservoir and river fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these effects began in May, 1983. The framework for the Libby Reservoir Model (LRMOD) was completed in 1989. Development of Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) for Libby Dam operation was completed in 1996 (Marotz et al. 1996). The Libby Reservoir Model and the IRCs continue to be refined (Marotz et al 1999). Initiation of mitigation projects such as lake rehabilitation and stream restoration began in 1996. The primary focus of the Libby Mitigation project now is to

  7. Water temperature effects from simulated changes to dam operations and structures in the Middle and South Santiam Rivers, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.

    2017-05-31

    Green Peter and Foster Dams on the Middle and South Santiam Rivers, Oregon, have altered the annual downstream water temperature profile (cycle). Operation of the dams has resulted in cooler summer releases and warmer autumn releases relative to pre-dam conditions, and that alteration can hinder recovery of various life stages of threatened spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhyncus tshawytscha) and winter steelhead (O. mykiss). Lake level management and the use of multiple outlets from varying depths at the dams can enable the maintenance of a temperature regime more closely resembling that in which the fish evolved by releasing warm surface water during summer and cooler, deeper water in the autumn. At Green Peter and Foster Dams, the outlet configuration is such that temperature control is often limited by hydropower production at the dams. Previously calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 water temperature models of Green Peter and Foster Lakes were used to simulate the downstream thermal effects from hypothetical structures and modified operations at the dams. Scenarios with no minimum power production requirements allowed some releases through shallower and deeper outlets (summer and autumn) to achieve better temperature control throughout the year and less year-to-year variability in autumn release temperatures. Scenarios including a hypothetical outlet floating 1 meter below the lake surface resulted in greater ability to release warm water during summer compared to existing structures. Later in Autumn (October 15–December 31), a limited amount of temperature control was realized downstream from Foster Dam by scenarios limited to operational changes with existing structures, resulting in 15-day averages within 1.0 degree Celsius of current operations.

  8. Libby Mitigation Program, 2007 Annual Progress Report: Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, J.; Garrow, L.

    2009-05-26

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River Treaty 1964). Libby Reservoir inundated 109 stream miles of the mainstem Kootenai River in the United States and Canada, and 40 miles of tributary streams in the U.S. that provided habitat for spawning, juvenile rearing, and migratory passage (Figure 1). The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power (91.5%), flood control (8.3%), and navigation and other benefits (0.2%; Storm et al. 1982). The Pacific Northwest Power Act of 1980 recognized possible conflicts stemming from hydroelectric projects in the northwest and directed Bonneville Power Administration to 'protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries' (4(h)(10)(A)). Under the Act, the Northwest Power Planning Council was created and recommendations for a comprehensive fish and wildlife program were solicited from the region's federal, state, and tribal fish and wildlife agencies. Among Montana's recommendations was the proposal that research be initiated to quantify acceptable seasonal minimum pool elevations to maintain or enhance the existing fisheries (Graham et al. 1982). Research to determine how operations of Libby Dam affect the reservoir and river fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these effects began in May 1983. The framework for the Libby Reservoir Model (LRMOD) was completed in 1989. Development of Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) for Libby Dam operation was completed in 1996 (Marotz et al. 1996). The Libby Reservoir Model and the IRCs continue to be refined (Marotz et al 1999). Initiation of mitigation projects such as lake rehabilitation and stream restoration began in 1996. The primary focus of the Libby Mitigation project now is to restore the fisheries

  9. Ex post power economic analysis of record of decision operational restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-07-31

    On October 9, 1996, Bruce Babbitt, then-Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed the Record of Decision (ROD) on operating criteria for the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD). Criteria selected were based on the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) Alternative as described in the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Arizona, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (Reclamation 1995). These restrictions reduced the operating flexibility of the hydroelectric power plant and therefore its economic value. The EIS provided impact information to support the ROD, including an analysis of operating criteria alternatives on power system economics. This ex post study reevaluates ROD power economic impacts and compares these results to the economic analysis performed prior (ex ante) to the ROD for the MLFF Alternative. On the basis of the methodology used in the ex ante analysis, anticipated annual economic impacts of the ROD were estimated to range from approximately $15.1 million to $44.2 million in terms of 1991 dollars ($1991). This ex post analysis incorporates historical events that took place between 1997 and 2005, including the evolution of power markets in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council as reflected in market prices for capacity and energy. Prompted by ROD operational restrictions, this analysis also incorporates a decision made by the Western Area Power Administration to modify commitments that it made to its customers. Simulated operations of GCD were based on the premise that hourly production patterns would maximize the economic value of the hydropower resource. On the basis of this assumption, it was estimated that economic impacts were on average $26.3 million in $1991, or $39 million in $2009.

  10. Release of airborne radionuclides from Olympic Dam operations and exposure assessment for members of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, F.F.; Chandler, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    Olympic Dam Operations, a copper, uranium, silver and gold producing project, is situated in a semi-arid area 550 km north of Adelaide. Airborne dispersal is the major transport pathway of operation-related radionuclides to members of the public, and as such has become the focus of a major environmental monitoring program. Major emissions consist of radon and its associated daughters and radionuclides in dust that originate from mine, metallurgical plant, ore and mullock stockpiles and the tailings retention system. Dispersion modelling and measured ground level concentrations have been utilised to calculate the effective dose equivalent for three critical groups. All critical groups exposures are less than 0.2 mSv by the most conservative calculation and are well below the legislative limit of 1 mSv applicable to members of the public. 12 refs., 5 gabs., 12 figs

  11. Dam operations may improve aquatic habitat and offset negative effects of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjankar, Rohan; Tonina, Daniele; McKean, James A; Sohrabi, Mohammad M; Chen, Quiwen; Vidergar, Dmitri

    2018-05-01

    Dam operation impacts on stream hydraulics and ecological processes are well documented, but their effect depends on geographical regions and varies spatially and temporally. Many studies have quantified their effects on aquatic ecosystem based mostly on flow hydraulics overlooking stream water temperature and climatic conditions. Here, we used an integrated modeling framework, an ecohydraulics virtual watershed, that links catchment hydrology, hydraulics, stream water temperature and aquatic habitat models to test the hypothesis that reservoir management may help to mitigate some impacts caused by climate change on downstream flows and temperature. To address this hypothesis we applied the model to analyze the impact of reservoir operation (regulated flows) on Bull Trout, a cold water obligate salmonid, habitat, against unregulated flows for dry, average, and wet climatic conditions in the South Fork Boise River (SFBR), Idaho, USA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-11-13

    This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat

  13. Flood management of Dongting Lake after operation of Three Gorges Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-jun Lai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Full operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD reduces flood risk of the middle and lower parts of the Yangtze River Basin. However, Dongting Lake, which is located in the Yangtze River Basin, is still at high risk for potentially severe flooding in the future. The effects of the TGD on flood processes were investigated using a hydrodynamic model. The 1998 and 2010 flood events before and after the operation of the TGD, respectively, were analyzed. The numerical results show that the operation of the TGD changes flood processes, including the timing and magnitude of flood peaks in Dongting Lake. The TGD can effectively reduce the flood level in Dongting Lake, which is mainly caused by the flood water from the upper reach of the Yangtze River. This is not the case, however, for floods mainly induced by flood water from four main rivers in the catchment. In view of this, a comprehensive strategy for flood management in Dongting Lake is required. Non-engineering measures, such as warning systems and combined operation of the TGD and other reservoirs in the catchment, as well as traditional engineering measures, should be further improved. Meanwhile, a sustainable philosophy for flood control, including natural flood management and lake restoration, is recommended to reduce the flood risk.

  14. Raman spectroscopy analysis of differences in composition of spent culture media of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Dušan; Kačmarová, Martina; Kubandová, Janka; Čikoš, Štefan; Koppel, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare overall patterns of metabolic activity of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams by means of non-invasive profiling of spent culture media using Raman spectroscopy. To produce females with two different types of body condition (normal and fat), a previously established two-generation model was used, based on overfeeding of experimental mice during prenatal and early postnatal development. Embryos were isolated from spontaneously ovulating and naturally fertilized dams at the 2-cell stage of development and cultured to the blastocyst stage in synthetic oviductal medium KSOMaa. Embryos from fat mice (displaying significantly elevated body weight and fat) showed similar developmental capabilities in vitro as embryos isolated from normal control dams (displaying physiological body weight and fat). The results show that alterations in the composition of culture medium caused by the presence of developing mouse preimplantation embryos can be detected using Raman spectroscopy. Metabolic activity of embryos was reflected in evident changes in numerous band intensities in the 1620-1690cm(-1) (amide I) region and in the 1020-1140cm(-1) region of the Raman spectrum for KSOMaa. Moreover, multivariate analysis of spectral data proved that the composition of proteins and other organic compounds in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos isolated from fat dams was different from that in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos from control dams. This study demonstrates that metabolic activity of cultured preimplantation embryos might depend on the body condition of their donors. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of the environmental impact statement for the proposed expansion of the Olympic Dam operations at Roxby Downs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment Report assesses the social, environmental and economic impact of the proposal by Western Mining Corporation (Olympic Dam Corporation) Pty Ltd. (WMC) to increase their production at Olympic Dam mine from 150,000t/a of copper and associated products to 350,000t/a by a phased expansion. The first phase would take production to approximately 200,000t/a. The report reviews the 1997 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), public comments on the EIS, and the proponent's responses to these comments in the Supplement to the EIS. It also relies on information, comments and advice provided by appropriate South Australian and Commonwealth government agencies (through the joint assessment process) and previous studies undertaken in the region.The focus of the contents of this assessment report are: water usage; tailing management; radiation management; economic and employment estimates; EIS process, regulation and monitoring as well as flora, fauna and town management issues. This report also recognises that the Olympic Dam mine has been subject to previous environmental assessments which resulted in the environmental regime currently in place for the existing operations.It is concluded that the risks to the biophysical, historical, cultural and social environments from the proposed Olympic dam expansion are acceptable provided the mine continues to operate under stringent environmental control

  16. Effects of hydropower operations on recreational use and nonuse values at Glen Canyon and Flaming Gorge Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    Increases in streamflows are generally positively related to the use values of angling and white-water boating, and constant flows tend to increase the use values more than fluctuating flows. In most instances, however, increases in streamflows beyond some threshold level cause the use values to decrease. Expenditures related to angling and white-water boating account for about $24 million of activity in the local economy around Glen Canyon Dam and $24.8 million in the local economy around flaming Gorge Dam. The range of operational scenarios being considered in the Western Area Power Administration`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, when use rates are held constant, could change the combined use value of angling and white-water boating below Glen Canyon Dam, increasing it by as much as 50%, depending on prevailing hydrological conditions. Changes in the combined use value below Flaming Gorge Dam could range from a decrease of 9% to an increase of 26%. Nonuse values, such as existence and bequest values, could also make a significant contribution to the total value of each site included in this study; however, methodological and data limitations prevented estimating how each operational scenario could change nonuse values.

  17. Assessment of the environmental impact statement for the proposed expansion of the Olympic Dam operations at Roxby Downs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This Environmental Assessment Report assesses the social, environmental and economic impact of the proposal by Western Mining Corporation (Olympic Dam Corporation) Pty Ltd. (WMC) to increase their production at Olympic Dam mine from 150,000t/a of copper and associated products to 350,000t/a by a phased expansion. The first phase would take production to approximately 200,000t/a. The report reviews the 1997 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), public comments on the EIS, and the proponent's responses to these comments in the Supplement to the EIS. It also relies on information, comments and advice provided by appropriate South Australian and Commonwealth government agencies (through the joint assessment process) and previous studies undertaken in the region.The focus of the contents of this assessment report are: water usage; tailing management; radiation management; economic and employment estimates; EIS process, regulation and monitoring as well as flora, fauna and town management issues. This report also recognises that the Olympic Dam mine has been subject to previous environmental assessments which resulted in the environmental regime currently in place for the existing operations.It is concluded that the risks to the biophysical, historical, cultural and social environments from the proposed Olympic dam expansion are acceptable provided the mine continues to operate under stringent environmental control.

  18. Reservoir Operation Rules for Controlling Algal Blooms in a Tributary to the Impoundment of Three Gorges Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijian Lian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the first impoundment of Three Gorges Dam in 2003, algal blooms occur frequently in the near-dam tributaries. It is widely recognized that the impoundment-induced change in hydrodynamic condition with the lower current velocity will make the eutrophication problem even more severe when an excessive amount of nutrients is already loaded into a reservoir and/or its tributaries. Operation tests carried out by Three Gorges Corporation in 2010 point to some feasible reservoir operation schemes that may have positive impacts on reducing the algal bloom level. In our study, an attempt is made to obtain, through a numerical hydrodynamic and water quality modeling and analysis, the reservoir operation rules that would reduce the level of algal blooms in the Xiangxi River (XXR, a near-dam tributary. Water movements and algal blooms in XXR are simulated and analyzed under different scenarios of one-day water discharge fluctuation or two-week water level variation. The model results demonstrate that the reservoir operations can further increase the water exchange between the mainstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR and the XXR tributary and thus move a larger amount of algae into the deep water where it will die. Analysis of the model results indicate that the water discharge fluctuation constituted of a lower valley-load flow and a larger flow difference for the short-term operation (within a day, the rise in water level for the medium-term operation (e.g., over weeks, and the combination of the above two for the long-term operation (e.g., over months can be the feasible reservoir operation rules in the non-flood season for TGR.

  19. Simulation of environmental change in response to operation of dams in Huaihe Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the model simulation of a portion of the Huaihe Basin upstream of the river mouth at Hongze Lake, with an area of 130 520 km2. The MIKE 11 modeling system was used to assess the flows and water quality in the Huaihe, Shayinghe, Honghe, Guohe, and Pihe rivers. The hydraulic part of the model was used to study the propagation of flows in the Huaihe River, which was calibrated with data from 2002–2003 and verified with data from 2004–2005. In general, there was agreement between measured and simulated discharges at all the hydrological stations. Except for some places close to large gates, there was reasonable agreement between measured and simulated water levels in the simulated rivers. The MIKE 11 WQ (water quality model was used to study general sanitary parameters describing the river water quality in areas influenced by human activities. The water quality model simulated dissolved oxygen (DO, chemical oxygen demand (COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N. The difference between the simulated and observed concentrations was within the range that could be expected from water quality modeling, taking into account uncertainties such as pollution loads, and monitoring and sampling frequency. This model setup was also suitable for the subsequent scenario modeling of periods of water project operation. In the simulation of the Pihe River, increasing the discharge at Hengpaitou Dam was shown to cause a significant improvement in water quality downstream of Lu'an City. In the Shayinghe and Huaihe rivers, the effect was less visible. This suggests that the poor water quality in the Huaihe Basin is mainly caused by extensive discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater.

  20. 78 FR 34258 - Safety Zone; Salvage Operations at Marseilles Dam; Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Temporary Final Rule RNA Regulated Navigation Area A. Regulatory History and Information On April 18, 2013... 3, 2013 the Coast Guard established an RNA on the Illinois River from the gates of the Dresden Lock and Dam at Mile Marker 271.4 to Mile Marker 240.0 (USCG-2013-0344). This RNA was established to ensure...

  1. PV System Performance Evaluation by Clustering Production Data to Normal and Non-Normal Operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsafarakis, O.; Sinapis, K.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2018-01-01

    The most common method for assessment of a photovoltaic (PV) system performance is by comparing its energy production to reference data (irradiance or neighboring PV system). Ideally, at normal operation, the compared sets of data tend to show a linear relationship. Deviations from this linearity

  2. Efficient ecologic and economic operational rules for dammed systems by means of nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayifar, A.; Perona, P.

    2015-12-01

    River impoundment by dams is known to strongly affect the natural flow regime and in turn the river attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Making hydropower sustainable implies to seek for innovative operational policies able to generate dynamic environmental flows while maintaining economic efficiency. For dammed systems, we build the ecological and economical efficiency plot for non-proportional flow redistribution operational rules compared to minimal flow operational. As for the case of small hydropower plants (e.g., see the companion paper by Gorla et al., this session), we use a four parameters Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution to mathematically formulate non-proportional redistribution rules. These rules allocate a fraction of water to the riverine environment depending on current reservoir inflows and storage. Riverine ecological benefits associated to dynamic environmental flows are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, we apply nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) to an ensemble of non-proportional and minimal flow redistribution rules in order to generate the Pareto frontier showing the system performances in the ecologic and economic space. This fast and elitist multiobjective optimization method is eventually applied to a case study. It is found that non-proportional dynamic flow releases ensure maximal power production on the one hand, while conciliating ecological sustainability on the other hand. Much of the improvement in the environmental indicator is seen to arise from a better use of the reservoir storage dynamics, which allows to capture, and laminate flood events while recovering part of them for energy production. In conclusion, adopting such new operational policies would unravel a spectrum of globally-efficient performances of the dammed system when compared with those resulting from policies based on constant minimum flow releases.

  3. Mathematical Modeling in Systems for Operational Evaluation of the Stress-Strain State of the Arch-Gravity Dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellendir, E. N.; Gordon, L. A., E-mail: lev-gordon@mail.ru; Khrapkov, A. A.; Skvortsova, A. E., E-mail: SkvortsovaAE@vniig.ru [B. E. Vedeneev All-Russia Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (VNIIG) (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Current studies of the stress-strain state of the dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant at VNIIG based on mathematical modeling including full scale and experimental data are described. Applications and programs intended for automatic operational evaluation of the stress-strain state of the dam for optimizing control of the upper race level in the course of the annual filling-drawdown cycle and during seismic events are examined. Improvements in systems for monitoring the stress-strain state of concrete dams are proposed.

  4. Environmental dosimetry for normal operations at SRP. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marter, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    The radiological effect of environmental releases from SRP during normal operations has been assessed annually since 1972 with a dosimetry model developed by SRL in 1971 to 1972, as implemented in the MREM code for atmospheric releases and RIVDOSE code for liquid releases. Starting in 1978, SRL started using environmental models and dose commitment factors developed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for all other environmental dose calculations. The NRC models are more flexible than the older SRL models, use more up-to-date methodologies, cover more exposure pathways, and permit more detailed analysis of effects of normal operations. It is recommended that the NRC models, as implemented in the computer codes X0QD0Q and GASPAR for atmospheric releases and LADTAP for liquid releases, and NRC dose commitment factors be used as the standard method at SRP for assessing offsite dose from normal operations in Health Protection Department annual environmental monitoring reports, and in National Environmental Policy Act documents and Safety Analysis Reports for SRP facilities. 23 references, 3 figures, 9 tables

  5. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation

  6. [Effects of cascading hydropower dams operation on the structure and distribution pattern of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in Manwan Reservoir, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Peng; Dong, Shi Kui; Peng, Ming Chun; Wu, Xuan; Zhou, Fang; Yu, Yin

    2017-12-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are one of the biological groups in aquatic ecosystem most sensitive to the habitat change and degradation, and can be a biological indicator for the aquatic ecosystem change and succession in cascading hydropower dam reservoir. The middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River are key spot for international biodiversity conservation and ecological studies on the effects of cascading hydropower dam exploitation. In this study, the reservoir of Manwan hydropower dam, the first dam in Lancang-Mekong river main stream, was selected as the study site. The benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled in 2011 and 2016 respectively. Meanwhile, the survey data before impounding (natural river, 1996) and early stage of single dam (1997) were collected to conduct the overall analysis for structure, distribution pattern and evolution of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. The results showed that the dominant biological group was gradually changed from the Oligochaeta and Insecta to the Mollusca. Along the longitudinal gradient, the density and biomass of the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were remarkably increased in reservoir, especially in the lacustrine zone. As for the functional feeding group, the predator and gatherer-collector changed into filter-collector predominantly in lacustrine zone. With the cascading dams operation, the biotic index indicated that the water quality of reservoir in 2016 was better than in 2011. The evolution of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Manwan Reservoir was related to the operation of Xiaowan dam in the upper reach, the hydrological regime and siltation in the reservoir, and would continue with dynamic changes with the operation of the cascading hydropower dam.

  7. Development of advanced automatic operation system for nuclear ship. 1. Perfect automatic normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Toshio; Yabuuti, Noriaki; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shimazaki, Junya

    1999-02-01

    Development of operation support system such as automatic operating system and anomaly diagnosis systems of nuclear reactor is very important in practical nuclear ship because of a limited number of operators and severe conditions in which receiving support from others in a case of accident is very difficult. The goal of development of the operation support systems is to realize the perfect automatic control system in a series of normal operation from the reactor start-up to the shutdown. The automatic control system for the normal operation has been developed based on operating experiences of the first Japanese nuclear ship 'Mutsu'. Automation technique was verified by 'Mutsu' plant data at manual operation. Fully automatic control of start-up and shutdown operations was achieved by setting the desired value of operation and the limiting value of parameter fluctuation, and by making the operation program of the principal equipment such as the main coolant pump and the heaters. This report presents the automatic operation system developed for the start-up and the shutdown of reactor and the verification of the system using the Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulator System. (author)

  8. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Some Normal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Heronian Mean Operators Using Hamacher Operation and Their Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofang Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hamacher operation is a generalization of the algebraic and Einstein operation and expresses a family of binary operation in the unit interval [0,1]. Heronian mean can deal with correlations of different criteria or input arguments and does not bring out repeated calculation. The normal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (NIFNs can depict normal distribution information in practical decision making. A decision-making problem was researched under the NIFN environment in this study, and a new multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM approach is herein introduced on the basis of Hamacher operation. Firstly, according to Hamacher operation, some operational laws of NIFNs are presented. Secondly, it is noted that Heronian mean not only takes into account mutuality between the attribute values once, but also considers the correlation between input argument and itself. Therefore, in order to aggregate NIFN information, we developed some operators and studied their properties. These operators include Hamacher Heronian mean (NIFHHM, Hamacher weighted Heronian mean (NIFHWHM, Hamacher geometric Heronian mean (NIFHGHM, and Hamacher weighted geometric Heronian mean (NIFHWGHM. Furthermore, we applied the proposed operators to the MCGDM problem and developed a new MCGDM approach. The characteristics of this new approach are that: (1 it is suitable for making a decision under the NIFN environment and it is more reasonable for aggregating the normal distribution data; (2 it utilizes Hamacher operation to provide an effective and powerful MCGDM algorithm and to make more reliable and more flexible decisions under the NIFN circumstance; (3 it uses the Heronian mean operator to deal with interrelations between the attributes or input arguments, and it does not bring about repeated calculation. Therefore, the proposed method can describe the interaction of the different criteria or input arguments and offer some reasonable and reliable MCGDM aggregation operators

  10. Proceedings of the Canadian Dam Association's 2006 annual conference: dams: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference addressed particular technical challenges regarding the operation of dams with particular focus on best practices for improving dam management and safety. It featured 4 workshops and a technical program led by experts on dams and tailings facilities that addressed topics such as dam construction, design and rehabilitation; dam management in a hydrological uncertainty context; monitoring, instrumentation and maintenance; dam behaviour; dam safety, dam failure and practical approaches to emergency preparedness planning for dam owners; historical aspects and environmental issues and conflicting water use. Recent developments in dam construction were reviewed along with discharge and debris management, tailings dam issues, asset management, seismic issues, public safety, seepage monitoring, flow control, dam rehabilitation, concrete testing, hydrotechnical issues, risk assessment methodology, and dam safety guidelines for extreme flood analyses and their applications. All 80 presentations from this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Analysis of WWER-440 fuel performance under normal operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunduz, Oe; Koese, S; Akbas, T [Atomenerjisi Komisyonu, Ankara (Turkey); Colak, Ue [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (Turkey)

    1994-12-31

    FRAPCON-2 code originally developed for LWR fuel behaviour simulation is used to analyse the WWER-440 fuel rod behaviour at normal operational conditions. The code is capable of utilizing different models for mechanical analysis and gas release calculations. Heat transfer calculations are accomplished through a collocation technique by the method of weighted residuals. Temperature and burnup element properties are evaluated using MATPRO package. As the material properties of Zr-1%Nb used as cladding in WWER-440s are not provided in the code, Zircaloy-4 is used as a substitute for Zr-1%Nb. Mac-Donald-Weisman model is used for gas release calculation. FRACAS-1 and FRACAS-2 models are used in the mechanical calculations. It is assumed that the reactor was operated for 920 days (three consecutive cycles), the burnup being 42000 Mwd/t U. Results of the fuel rod behaviour analysis are given for three axial nodes: bottom node, central node and top node. The variations of the following characteristic fuel rod parameters are studied through the prescribed power history: unmoved gap thickness, gap heat transfer coefficient, fuel axial elongation, cladding axial elongation, fuel centerline temperature and ZrO-thickness at cladding surface. The value of each parameter is calculated as a function of the effective power days for the three nodes by using FRACAS-1 and FRACAS-2 codes for comparison.The results show that calculations with deformable pellet approximation with FRACAS-II model could provide better information for the behaviour of a typical fuel rod. Calculations indicate that fuel rod failure is not observed during the operation. All fuel rod parameters investigated are found to be within the safety limits. It is concluded, however, that for better assessment of reactor safety these calculations should be extended for transient conditions such as LOCA. 1 tab., 10 figs., 4 refs.

  12. Temperature Effects of Point Sources, Riparian Shading, and Dam Operations on the Willamette River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2007-01-01

    Water temperature is an important factor influencing the migration, rearing, and spawning of several important fish species in rivers of the Pacific Northwest. To protect these fish populations and to fulfill its responsibilities under the Federal Clean Water Act, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality set a water temperature Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in 2006 for the Willamette River and the lower reaches of its largest tributaries in northwestern Oregon. As a result, the thermal discharges of the largest point sources of heat to the Willamette River now are limited at certain times of the year, riparian vegetation has been targeted for restoration, and upstream dams are recognized as important influences on downstream temperatures. Many of the prescribed point-source heat-load allocations are sufficiently restrictive that management agencies may need to expend considerable resources to meet those allocations. Trading heat allocations among point-source dischargers may be a more economical and efficient means of meeting the cumulative point-source temperature limits set by the TMDL. The cumulative nature of these limits, however, precludes simple one-to-one trades of heat from one point source to another; a more detailed spatial analysis is needed. In this investigation, the flow and temperature models that formed the basis of the Willamette temperature TMDL were used to determine a spatially indexed 'heating signature' for each of the modeled point sources, and those signatures then were combined into a user-friendly, spreadsheet-based screening tool. The Willamette River Point-Source Heat-Trading Tool allows the user to increase or decrease the heating signature of each source and thereby evaluate the effects of a wide range of potential point-source heat trades. The predictions of the Trading Tool were verified by running the Willamette flow and temperature models under four different trading scenarios, and the predictions typically were accurate

  13. Forecasting analysis of runoff for reservoir regulation of dams and weirs in terms of hydro power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maradjieva, Mariana; Nikolov, Nikola

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of Hydropower Plant (HPP) production new algorithms and software were developed for daily, seasonal, annual and long-term control of the runoff for the design of dam and weirs. This control is carried out for monitored periods from 20 to 50 years. The control depends on economic considerations, namely that the accepted probability of required water power is 90%, i.e. concerning the runoff and in this way for the useful volume of water dams. The research is accomplished by a design with the observations. First the hydrometric stations are selected at the available analogy with the building project and then the correlative connection is found assessed by general and true correlative coefficients. The transferring to the project of the observations for the average annual and average monthly water discharges is made with the coefficient of the analogy. The theoretical probability curves are chosen with a minimum dispersion. By the last curves the average monthly distributions are settled with probability from 2% to 90% by statistical method. During the investigated period of the regulation the volumes of discharge, overflow and shortage are calculated as and the determination for the accepted volume of the reservoir if the normative probability of the need is executed. As well the power output of the HPP and its participation in the coverage of the charge diagram on the peak load, under peak load, daily and nightly part are determined in separate observed or forecasting periods. The upper problems about the design and the operation of HPP, water output, reservoir volume and coverage of the charge diagram are solved by iterations. Practical examples are given for the runoff and for the time forecasting system.

  14. Walden North Dam overtopping : emergency response and rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, S. [FortisBC Inc., South Slocan, BC (Canada); McCreanor, J. [Acres International Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Cronin, D.L.R.; Daw, D. [Acres International Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    This paper described the events that led to the overtopping of the Walden North Dam during a heavy rainfall in June 2002, resulting in a breach around an abutment wall. The dam is part of a run-of-river hydro development on Cayoosh Creek near Lillooet, British Columbia. The Walden North Dam was a low, 46 meter wide concrete dam with a single radial gate. The dam overtopping was attributed to failure of the radial gate hoist. Prior to this event, the dam had been classified by the British Columbia Dam Safety Authorities as a high and then a low consequence category of failure. As facility managers, Aquila Networks Canada Ltd. established an immediate action plan to stabilize the situation and resume normal power production by applying the following priorities: (1) ensure safety of workers and the public, (2) limit further damage to the dam and other facilities, (3) ensure environmental protection, and (4) continue to operate the generation units. Local authorities were informed to evacuate a downstream campsite and environmental agencies were contacted along with safety regulators. Repairs included demolition of the damaged portion of the structure and construction a new two-bay gate/stoplog spillway and bridge. Construction was completed by September 2003 according to the requirements of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans for minimum flow, accurate control of fish flows and environmental monitoring of the stream area. 10 figs.

  15. Seismic Fortification Analysis of the Guoduo Gravity Dam in Tibet, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this research was to analyze the seismic performance of the Guoduo gravity dam. A nonlinear FEM method was implemented to study the deformation, stress, and overall stability of dam under both static and dynamic loading conditions, including both normal and overloading conditions. A dam seismic failure risk control method is proposed based on the cracking mechanism induced by the dynamic load to ensure dam safety and stability. Numerical simulation revealed that (1 under normal static and dynamic loading the symmetry of the displacement distributions is good, showing that the dam abutments and riverbed foundation have good overall stiffness. The stress distribution is a safe one for operation under both normal water loading and seismic loading. (2 Attention should be paid to the reinforcement design of outlets of the diversion dam monoliths, and enhance the capability of sustaining that tensile stress of dam monoliths. (3 The shape of the dam profile has a significant effect on the dynamic response of the dam. (4 By employing the “overload safety factor method,” the overall seismic fortification is as follows: K1=1.5, K2= 2~3, and K3= 3~4.

  16. Smolt monitoring at the head of lower granite reservoir and lower Granite Dam, annual report 1999 operations.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Fish and Wildlife; Idaho. Dept. of Fish and Game.

    2001-01-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 1999 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1999. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 440% of the 1998 number. The wild chinook catch was 603% of the previous year's catch. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 93% of 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 68% of 1998 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 62 age-0 chinook salmon. During 1998 the Snake River trap captured 173 hatchery and 37 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 130 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 25. The trap was out of operation for 18 d during the season due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 214%, and wild chinook salmon catch was 384% of 1998 numbers. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 210% of the 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 203% of the 1998 catch. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 21. The trap was out of operation for 17 d during the season due to high flow and debris

  17. Smolt monitoring at the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, annual report 1997 operations.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Fish and Wildlife.

    1999-01-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1997 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1997. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 49% of the 1996 number but only 6% of the 1995 catch. The wild chinook catch was 77% of the 1996 but was only 13% of 1995. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 18% of 1996 numbers but only 7% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 22% of 1996 but only 11% of the 1995 numbers. The Snake River trap collected eight age-0 chinook salmon and one sockeye/kokanee salmon O. nerka. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 8 and were out of operation for 23 d due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 37% and wild chinook salmon catch was 60% of 1996 numbers but only 5% and 11% of 1995 catch, respectively. The 1997 hatchery steelhead trout collection was 13% of the 1996 catch and 32% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1997 was 21% of the 1996 catch and 13% of the 1995 numbers. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 7 and were out of operation for 19 d due to high flow and debris

  18. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1983 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.

    1983-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This annual report covers the 1982-1983 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance, migration, spawning, egg incubation and fry emergence in the Flathead River system. This report also addresses the expected recovery of the mainstem kokanee population under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in 1982.

  19. The spectral theorem for quaternionic unbounded normal operators based on the S-spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpay, Daniel, E-mail: dany@math.bgu.ac.il; Kimsey, David P., E-mail: dpkimsey@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Colombo, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.colombo@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Matematica, Via E. Bonardi, 9, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper we prove the spectral theorem for quaternionic unbounded normal operators using the notion of S-spectrum. The proof technique consists of first establishing a spectral theorem for quaternionic bounded normal operators and then using a transformation which maps a quaternionic unbounded normal operator to a quaternionic bounded normal operator. With this paper we complete the foundation of spectral analysis of quaternionic operators. The S-spectrum has been introduced to define the quaternionic functional calculus but it turns out to be the correct object also for the spectral theorem for quaternionic normal operators. The lack of a suitable notion of spectrum was a major obstruction to fully understand the spectral theorem for quaternionic normal operators. A prime motivation for studying the spectral theorem for quaternionic unbounded normal operators is given by the subclass of unbounded anti-self adjoint quaternionic operators which play a crucial role in the quaternionic quantum mechanics.

  20. Changes of Vegetation Distribution in the East Dongting Lake After the Operation of the Three Gorges Dam, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yu Hu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Water regime is regarded as the primary factor influencing the vegetation distribution in natural wetland ecosystems. However, the effect of water regime change induced by large-scale hydraulic engineering on vegetation distribution is still unclear. In this study, multi-temporal TM/ETM+/OLI images and hydrological data from 1995 to 2015 were used to elucidate how the change in water regime influenced the vegetation distribution in the East Dongting Lake (EDTL, especially after the operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD in 2003. Using unsupervised and supervised classification methods, three types of land cover were identified in the study area: Water and Mudflat, Grass, and Reed and Forest. Results showed that the total vegetation area in EDTL increased by approximately 78 km2 during 1995–2015. The areas of Reed and Forest and Grass exhibited a contrasting trend, dramatic increase in Reed and Forest but sharp decrease in Grass, particularly after the operation of TGD. The lowest distribution elevations of Grass and Reed and Forest decreased by 0.61 and 0.52 m, respectively. As a result of water level variation, submergence duration increased at 20–21 m and 28 m elevations (1–13 days, but significantly decreased at 22–27 m and 29–30 m elevations (-3 to -31 days. The submergence duration of Grass and Reed and Forest was 246 and 177 days, respectively. This study indicated that wetland vegetation pattern significantly changed after the operation of TGD, mainly as a result of changes in submergence condition. Submergence duration might be an effective indicator to predict the shift of vegetation distribution in EDTL, and which could provide scientific guidance for vegetation restoration and wetland management in this lake.

  1. Assessment of Short Term Flood Operation Strategies Using Numerical Weather Prediction Data in YUVACΙK DAM Reservoir, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, G.; Yavuz, O.; Sensoy, A.; Sorman, A.; Akgun, T.; Gezgin, T.

    2011-12-01

    Yuvacik Dam Reservoir Basin, located in the Marmara region of Turkey with 248 km2 drainage area, has steep topography, mild and rainy climate thus induces high flood potential with fast flow response, especially to early spring and fall precipitation events. Moreover, the basin provides considerable snowmelt contribution to the streamflow during melt season since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. The long term strategies are based on supplying annual demand of 142 hm3 water despite a relatively small reservoir capacity of 51 hm3. This situation makes short term release decisions as the challenging task regarding the constrained downstream safe channel capacity especially in times of floods. Providing the demand of 1.5 million populated city of Kocaeli is the highest priority issue in terms of reservoir management but risk optimization is also required due to flood regulation. Although, the spillway capacity is 1560 m3/s, the maximum amount of water to be released is set as 100 m3/s by the regional water authority taking into consideration the downstream channel capacity which passes through industrial region of the city. The reservoir is a controlled one and it is possible to hold back the 15 hm3 additional water by keeping the gates closed. Flood regulation is set to achieve the maximum possible flood attenuation by using the full flood-control zone capacity in the reservoir before making releases in excess of the downstream safe-channel capacity. However, the operators still need to exceed flood regulation zones to take precautions for drought summer periods in order to supply water without any shortage that increases the risk in times of flood. Regarding to this circumstances, a hydrological model integrated reservoir modeling system, is applied to account for the physical behavior of the system. Hence, this reservoir modeling is carried out to analyze both previous decisions and also the future scenarios as a decision support tool for operators. In the

  2. The effect of frizzle gene and dwarf gene on reproductive performance of broiler breeder dams under high and normal ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, A R; Horst, P; Simianer, H

    2010-11-01

    In 3 experimental runs, the influence of genotype × temperature interactions on the reproductive traits (sexual maturity, egg production, fertility, hatchability, and chick production) of hens of a broiler breeder dam line carrying major genes for dwarfism (dw-) and frizzle (F) was investigated. In experiments 1 and 2, the hens were caged individually under hot (30°C) and temperate (19°C) temperatures, from wk 18 to 72 of age, whereas in experiment 3, hens were kept under moderate temperature (24°C). Hens in experiment 1 were heterozygous for the frizzle gene, and those in experiments 2 and 3 were homozygous, both with and without the dwarf gene. Hens without the above-mentioned major genes (ffDw-) served as control lines. In experiment 1, the frizzle gene (Ff) had no significant effect on sexual maturity, egg production, fertility, hatchability, and chick number under the 2 environmental conditions. In experiment 2, there was a significant interaction between feathering genotype (FF) and environmental temperature for all traits except sexual maturity. Under heat stress, there was a distinct reduction in all reproductive traits except sexual maturity for normally feathered hens compared with frizzle-feathered hens, whereas under temperate conditions, egg production and number of chicks of the FF genotype were reduced and sexual maturity was delayed. In experiments 1 and 2, the dw- gene showed a depressive effect on the growth of hens. In experiment 1, the interaction between dwarf genotype and environmental temperature for egg production was significant. Under temperate conditions, the egg production of dwarf hens was inferior to that of normally sized birds, whereas under hot temperatures, the egg production of the 2 body sizes did not differ. In experiment 2, for sexual maturity, egg production and fertility locus × locus interactions could be determined. The genotype combining the 2 major genes (FFdw-) proved to be inferior to the normally feathered dwarf

  3. On an inequality for non-normal operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Starting from the inequality proved by Takayuki Furuta for a dominant operator A on a complex Hilbert space H, which extends to all operators such that the pure part of A has empty point spectrum, it is shown that if A is a contraction (on a separable complex Hilbert space) with simple eigenvalues and C 0 completely non-unitary part, and if (1-A*A) 1/2 is of Hilbert-Schmidt class, then the said inequality holds for A. 8 refs

  4. The mathematics of dam safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmann, R. [Osterreichische Gesellschaft fuer Geomechanik, Salzburg (Austria)

    1997-05-01

    The safety of a dam is determined by its design, construction and supervision during operation. High arch dam failures have dropped dramatically since the early part of this century. An essential part of the success story relates to improved measurement techniques that can detect earlier unexpected behaviour that may lead to failure. (UK)

  5. New application of procedures computer to normal operating procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano Carbajo, J.; Mendez Salguero, J.

    2012-07-01

    Currently, existing technologies in the operating power plants accused increasingly more problems of obsolescence and replacement of equipment supply. For this reason are spreading, to a greater or lesser extent, the projects of migration from analogue to digital technology systems. These systems, in line with the current situation of the industry, provide solutions to such problems and other advantages.

  6. Effects of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1979-1985 Final Research Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clancy, Patrick

    1986-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. Studies concerning operation of the dam on the Flathead River aquatic biota began in 1979 and continued to 1982 under Bureau of Reclamation funding. These studies resulted in flow recommendations for the aquatic biota in the main stem Flathead River, below the influence of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork. Studies concerned specifically with kokanee salmon have continued under Bonneville Power Administration funding since 1982. This completion report covers the entire study period (September 1979 to June 1985). Major results of this study were: (1) development and refinement of methods to assess hydropower impacts on spawning and incubation success of kokanee; (2) development of a model to predict kokanee year class strength from Flathead River flows; and (3) implementation of flows favorable for successful kokanee reproduction. A monitoring program has been developed which will assess the recovery of the kokanee population as it proceeds, and to recommend management strategies to maintain management goals for the kokanee fishery in the river system.

  7. A measure disintegration approach to spectral multiplicity for normal operators

    OpenAIRE

    Ay, Serdar

    2012-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Mathematics and the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2012. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical references leaves 44-45. In this thesis we studied the notion of direct integral Hilbert spaces, first introduced by J. von Neumann, and the closely related notion of decomposable operators, as defined in Kadison and Ringrose [1997] and Abrahamse and Kriete [1973]. Examples which show th...

  8. Effects of dam operation on the endangered Júcar nase, Parachondrostoma arrigonis, related to mesohabitats, microhabitat availability and water temperature regime, in the river Cabriel (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Costa, Rui; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Diego Alcaraz-Hernandez, Juan; Hernandez-Mascarell, Aina

    2010-05-01

    The presence of large dams affects habitat availability, often regarded as the primary factor that limits population and community recovery in rivers. Physical habitat is often targeted in restoration, but there is often a paucity of useful information. Habitat degradation has reduced the complexity and connectivity of the Mediterranean streams in Spain. These changes have diminished the historical range of the endangered Júcar nase, Parachondrostoma arrigonis (Steindachner, 1866), isolated the populations of this species, and probably contributed to its risk of extinction. In the Júcar River basin (Spain), where this fish is endemic, the populations are mainly restricted to the river Cabriel, which is fragmented in two segments by the large dam of Contreras. In this river, 3 main lines of research were developed from 2006 to 2008, i.e., microhabitat suitability, mesohabitat suitability, and water temperature, in order to relate such kind of variables with the flow regime. The main goal of the research project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, was to detect the main reasons of the species decline, and to propose dam operation improvements to contribute to the recovery of the species. The flow and water temperature regimes were also studied in the river Cabriel, upstream and downstream the large dam of Contreras. During the three years of study, below the dam it was observed a small and not significant variation in the proportions of slow and fast habitats; the regulated flow regime was pointed out as the main reason of such variations. At the microhabitat scale, optimal ranges for average depth and velocity were defined; these data allowed us to develop an estimation of weighted useable area under natural and regulated conditions. The Júcar nase were found majorly at depths no greater than 1,15 meters with slow water velocities. It was possible to observe a clear alteration of the flow and water temperature regime below the dam, due to the cold

  9. Dams life; La vie des barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The paper reports on the conclusions of decennial and annual inspections of French dams. Dams surveillance is performed by the operators and consists in visual examinations and measurements. Concrete dams, in particular, always have more or less developed fissures with water sweating threw the concrete mass or the foundations. Old concrete often show low swelling phenomena which are measured too. (J.S.)

  10. Considerations in modeling fission gas release during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumble, E.T.; Lim, E.Y.; Stuart, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The EPRI LWR fuel rod modeling code evaluation program analyzed seven fuel rods with experimental fission gas release data. In these cases, rod-averged burnups are less than 20,000 MWD/MTM, while the fission gas release fractions range roughly from 2 to 27%. Code results demonstrate the complexities in calculating fission gas release in certain operating regimes. Beyond this work, the behavior of a pre-pressurized PWR rod is simulated to average burnups of 40,000 MWD/MTM using GAPCON-THERMAL-2. Analysis of the sensitivity of fission gas release to power histories and release correlations indicate the strong impact that LMFBR type release correlations induce at high burnup. 15 refs

  11. Radioactive effluents from CANDU 6 reactors during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, C.R.; Allsop, P.J.

    1995-12-01

    During routine operation of a CANDU 6 reactor, various gaseous, liquid, and solid radioactive wastes are generated. The layout of the CANDU 6 reactor and the design of its systems ensure that these are minimized, but small quantities of gaseous and liquid wastes are continually discharged at very low concentrations. This report discusses the make-up of these chronically generated gaseous and liquid effluents. From a safety perspective, the doses to individual members of the public resulting from radioactive wastes chronically discharged from CANDU 6 reactors have been negligible. Similarly, doses to the regional and global populations have been negligible, generally less than 0.001% of background. While far below regulatory limits, releases of tritium, noble gases and gross β - -γ have been the most radiologically significant emissions, while radioiodine and particulates have had the greatest potential to deliver public dose. (author). 8 refs., 16 tabs., 3 figs

  12. The Sulphate Effect on Lijiaxia Concrete Dam (China Gallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufen Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concrete degradation is one of the most serious problems for a dam construct during the normal operation, which determines the dam service life. Hence, it is very important to reduce the extent of the dam concrete degradation for the safety of the dam normal operation. Here, Lijiaxia hydroelectric station is taken as an example, and a comprehensive method to assess the sulphate effect on dam gallery is proposed. Eleven samples in total were taken from three difference locations by the drill bore. The microstructural investigations including X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were conducted to assess the sulphate attack and the degradation degree. Meanwhile, the water chemical analysis was applied to reveal the mechanism of concrete degradation. The experimental and analysis results indicate that the concrete degradation degree varies with the location of the samples. The components of the concrete change and the content of SO3 increase dramatically during degradation. Moreover, the mineral facies of the concrete change correspondingly, with the cement paste substituted by the calcite, calcium vitriol, and gypsum. The reinforcement and precaution measures are suggested based on the results of the degradation assessment.

  13. On the approximative normal values of multivalued operators in topological vector space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Minh Chuong; Khuat van Ninh

    1989-09-01

    In this paper the problem of approximation of normal values of multivalued linear closed operators from topological vector Mackey space into E-space is considered. Existence of normal value and convergence of approximative values to normal value are proved. (author). 4 refs

  14. Integral type operators from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi GU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Operator theory is an important research content of the analytic function space theory. The discussion of simultaneous operator and function space is an effective way to study operator and function space. Assuming that  is an analytic self map on the unit disk Δ, and the normal weighted bloch space μ-B is a Banach space on the unit disk Δ, defining a composition operator C∶C(f=f on μ-B for all f∈μ-B, integral type operator JhC and CJh are generalized by integral operator and composition operator. The boundeness and compactness of the integral type operator JhC acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces are discussed, as well as the boundeness of the integral type operators CJh acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces. The related sufficient and necessary conditions are given.

  15. Mechanism Research of Arch Dam Abutment Forces during Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research on the abutment forces of a double-curvature arch dam during overload based on numerical calculation results obtained through finite element method by Ansys. Results show that, with an increase in elevation, the abutment forces and bending moment of the arch dam increase first and then decrease from the bottom to the top of the dam. Abutment forces and bending moment reach their maximum at the middle or middle-down portion of the dam. The distributions of abutment forces and moment do not change during overload. The magnitude of each arch layer’s forces and moment increases linearly during overload. This result indicates that each arch layer transmits bearing loads to the rocks of the left and right banks steadily. This research explains the operating mechanism of an arch dam under normal and overload conditions. It provides a simple method to calculate the distribution of forces Fx and Fy and a new method to calculate the overload factor of an arch dam through the estimation of arch layers based on the redistribution characteristic of arch abutment forces.

  16. Dam Safety Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duricic, J.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of dams constructed in the world are dams that can be categorized as embankment dams. Throughout history we can point to many failures of dams, and embankment dams in particular. Nowadays it is clear that the goal to construct stable dams has not been achieved, even with advanced

  17. Physics of collisionless scrape-off-layer plasma during normal and off-normal Tokamak operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1999-01-01

    The structure of a collisionless scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma in tokamak reactors is being studied to define the electron distribution function and the corresponding sheath potential between the divertor plate and the edge plasma. The collisionless model is shown to be valid during the thermal phase of a plasma disruption, as well as during the newly desired low-recycling normal phase of operation with low-density, high-temperature, edge plasma conditions. An analytical solution is developed by solving the Fokker-Planck equation for electron distribution and balance in the SOL. The solution is in good agreement with numerical studies using Monte-Carlo methods. The analytical solutions provide an insight to the role of different physical and geometrical processes in a collisionless SOL during disruptions and during the enhanced phase of normal operation over a wide range of parameters

  18. Simulation of Breach Outflow for Earthfill Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razad, Azwin Zailti Abdul; Muda, Rahsidi Sabri; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Azia, Intan Shafilah Abdul; Mansor, Faezah Hanum; Yalit, Ruzaimei

    2013-01-01

    Dams have been built for many reasons such as irrigation, hydropower, flood mitigation, and water supply to support development for the benefit of human. However, the huge amount of water stored behind the dam can seriously pose adverse impacts to the downstream community should it be released due to unwanted dam break event. To minimise the potential loss of lives and property damages, a workable Emergency Response Plan is required to be developed. As part of a responsible dam owner and operator, TNB initiated a study on dam breach modelling for Cameron Highlands Hydroelectric Scheme to simulate the potential dam breach for Jor Dam. Prediction of dam breach parameters using the empirical equations of Froehlich and Macdonal-Langridge-Monopolis formed the basis of the modelling, coupled with MIKE 11 software to obtain the breach outflow due to Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). This paper will therefore discuss the model setup, simulation procedure and comparison of the prediction with existing equations.

  19. Mitigating Dam Impacts Using Environmental Flow Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B. D.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most ecologically disruptive impacts of dams is their alteration of natural river flow variability. Opportunities exist for modifying the operations of existing dams to recover many of the environmental and social benefits of healthy ecosystems that have been compromised by present modes of dam operation. The potential benefits of dam "re-operation" include recovery of fish, shellfish, and other wildlife populations valued both commercially and recreationally, including estuarine species; reactivation of the flood storage and water purification benefits that occur when floods are allowed to flow into floodplain forests and wetlands; regaining some semblance of the naturally dynamic balance between river erosion and sedimentation that shapes physical habitat complexity, and arresting problems associated with geomorphic imbalances; cultural and spiritual uses of rivers; and many other socially valued products and services. Assessing the potential benefits of dam re-operation begins by characterizing the dam's effects on the river flow regime, and formulating hypotheses about the ecological and social benefits that might be restored by releasing water from the dam in a manner that more closely resembles natural flow patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by implementing a re-operation plan, tracking the response of the ecosystem, and continually refining dam operations through adaptive management. This presentation will highlight a number of land and water management strategies useful in implementing a dam re-operation plan, with reference to a variety of management contexts ranging from individual dams to cascades of dams along a river to regional energy grids. Because many of the suggested strategies for dam re-operation are predicated on changes in the end-use of the water, such as reductions in urban or agricultural water use during droughts, a systemic perspective of entire water management systems will be required to attain the fullest possible

  20. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir... Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. The Secretary of the Interior, through his agent, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the Marshall Ford Dam...

  1. New guidelines for dam safety classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascal, O.

    1999-01-01

    Elements are outlined of recommended new guidelines for safety classification of dams. Arguments are provided for the view that dam classification systems should require more than one system as follows: (a) classification for selection of design criteria, operation procedures and emergency measures plans, based on potential consequences of a dam failure - the hazard classification of water retaining structures; (b) classification for establishment of surveillance activities and for safety evaluation of dams, based on the probability and consequences of failure - the risk classification of water retaining structures; and (c) classification for establishment of water management plans, for safety evaluation of the entire project, for preparation of emergency measures plans, for definition of the frequency and extent of maintenance operations, and for evaluation of changes and modifications required - the hazard classification of the project. The hazard classification of the dam considers, as consequence, mainly the loss of lives or persons in jeopardy and the property damages to third parties. Difficulties in determining the risk classification of the dam lie in the fact that no tool exists to evaluate the probability of the dam's failure. To overcome this, the probability of failure can be substituted for by a set of dam characteristics that express the failure potential of the dam and its foundation. The hazard classification of the entire project is based on the probable consequences of dam failure influencing: loss of life, persons in jeopardy, property and environmental damage. The classification scheme is illustrated for dam threatening events such as earthquakes and floods. 17 refs., 5 tabs

  2. Qu'Appelle River Dam, dam break analysis using advanced GIS tools for rapid modelling and inundation mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, D. [Hatch Energy, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Campbell, C. [Saskatchewan Watershed Authority, Moose Jaw, SK (Canada); Groeneveld, J. [Hatch Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The South Saskatchewan River Project (SSRP) comprises a multi-purpose reservoir that provides water for conservation and irrigation, flood control, power generation, recreation, and municipal and industrial water supply. In addition to the 64 m high Gardiner Dam, the 27 m high Qu'Appelle River Dam and the 22 km long Lake Diefenbaker Reservoir, the SSRP also includes ancillary works. The Qu'Appelle River valley extends for 458 km before connecting to the Assiniboine River. The valley is incised up to 90 m in depth and is a popular cottaging and recreational area with several major communities located in the flood plain. In the event of a breach of the Qu'Appelle Dam, the discharge will increase from a normal maximum discharge of under 60 m{sup 3} per second to over 50,000 m{sup 3} per second. The Saskatchewan Watershed Authority (SWA) is responsible for ensuring safe development of the Province's water resources, without affecting reservoir or lake operations, and preventing damage from flooding, erosion or land slides. It is in the process of developing Hazard Assessments and emergency preparedness plans for each of their dams in accordance with the Canadian Dam Safety Guidelines. Studies using GIS technology and the hydrodynamic routing model HEC-RAS have been completed to evaluate the potential inundation that may result in the event of failure of the Qu'Appelle River Dam. These studies involved the development of a breach parameter model using a breach data set revised to better reflect the Qu'Appelle River Dam; the development of a dam break model for the Qu'Appelle River Dam and downstream river and flood plain; and, the use of this model to simulate two potential dam failure scenarios for the Qu'Appelle River Dam, notably failure during passage of the PMF and failure during fair weather conditions. Inundation maps have been prepared for the downstream Qu'Appelle River valley for each of the above events. 3 refs., 4

  3. nth roots with Hilbert-Schmidt defect operator of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-08-01

    Let T be a normal contraction (on a complex separable Hilbert space H into itself) with an nth root A such that the defect operator D A =(1-A*A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class C 2 . Then either A is normal or A is similar to a normal contraction. In the case in which T is hyponormal, A n =T and D A is an element of C 2 , A is a ''coupling'' of a contraction similar to a normal contraction and a contraction which is the quasi-affine transform of a unilateral shift. These results are applied to prove a (Putnam-Fuglede type) commutatively theorem for operator valued roots of commutative analytic functions and hyponormal contractions T which have an nth root with Hilbert-Schmidt defect operator. 23 refs

  4. Intrinsic-normal-ordered vertex operators from the multiloop N-tachyon amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabal, G.; Nunez, C.; Bonini, M.; Iengo, R.

    1987-09-01

    We construct vertex operators for arbitrary mass level states of the closed bosonic string. Starting from a generalization of the Koba-Nielsen amplitude which is suitable for an arbitrary genus Riemann surface, we read the vertex operators from the residues of the poles for the intermediate states. Since the original expression is metric independent and normal ordered without the need of inventing any regularization scheme, our vertex operators also possess these properties. We discuss their general features. (author). 17 refs

  5. NRC inventory of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, G.E.; Thompson, O.O.

    1983-01-01

    The NRC Inventory of Dams has been prepared as required by the charter of the NRC Dam Safety Officer. The inventory lists 51 dams associated with nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams (licensed by NRC) in the US as of February 1, 1982. Of the 85 listed nuclear power plants (148 units), 26 plants obtain cooling water from impoundments formed by dams. The 51 dams associated with the plants are: located on a plant site (29 dams at 15 plant sites); located off site but provide plant cooling water (18 dams at 11 additional plant sites); and located upstream from a plant (4 dams) - they have been identified as dams whose failure, and ensuing plant flooding, could result in a radiological risk to the public health and safety. The dams that might be considered NRC's responsibility in terms of the federal dam safety program are identified. This group of dams (20 on nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams) was obtained by eliminating dams that do not pose a flooding hazard (e.g., submerged dams) and dams that are regulated by another federal agency. The report includes the principal design features of all dams and related useful information

  6. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1995-05-01

    Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation

  7. Expansion at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Olympic Dam orebody is the 6th largest copper and the single largest uranium orebody in the world. Mine production commenced in June 1988, at an annual production rate of around 45,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of uranium. Western Mining Corporation announced in 1996 a proposed $1.25 billion expansion of the Olympic Dam operation to raise the annual production capacity of the mine to 200,000 tonnes of copper, approximately 3,700 tonnes of uranium, 75,000 ounces of gold and 950,000 ounces of silver by 2001. Further optimisation work has identified a faster track expansion route, with an increase in the capital cost to $1.487 billion but improved investment outcome, a new target completion date of end 1999, and a new uranium output of 4,600 tonnes per annum from that date

  8. Hungry Horse Mitigation Plan; Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam, 1990-2003 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.; Marotz, Brian L. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT); DosSantos, Joseph M. (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2003-04-01

    In this document we present fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives, and recommendations to protect, mitigate, and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. This plan addresses six separate program measures in the 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. We designed the plan to be closely coordinated in terms of dam operations, funding, and activities with the Kerr Mitigation Plan presently before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. This document represents a mitigation plan for consideration by the Northwest Power Planning Council process; it is not an implementation plan. Flathead Lake is one of the cleanest lakes of its size in the world. The exceptional water quality and unique native fisheries make the Flathead Lake/River system extremely valuable to the economy and quality of life in the basin. The recreational fishery in Flathead Lake has an estimated value of nearly eight million dollars annually. This mitigation process represents our best opportunity to reduce the impacts of hydropower in this valuable aquatic system and increase angling opportunity. We based loss estimates and mitigation alternatives on an extensive data base, agency reports, nationally and internationally peer-reviewed scientific articles, and an innovative biological model for Hungry Horse Reservoir and the Flathead River. We conducted an extensive, 14-month scoping and consultation process with agency representatives, representatives of citizen groups, and the general public. This consultation process helped identify issues, areas of agreement, areas of conflict, and advantages and disadvantages of mitigation alternatives. The results of the scoping and consultation process helped shape our mitigation plan. Our recommended plan is based firmly on principles of adaptive management and recognition of biological uncertainty. After we receive direction from the NPPC, we will add more detailed hypotheses and

  9. Simple eigenvectors of unbounded operators of the type “normal plus compact”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gil'

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with operators of the form \\(A=S+B\\, where \\(B\\ is a compact operator in a Hilbert space \\(H\\ and \\(S\\ is an unbounded normal one in \\(H\\, having a compact resolvent. We consider approximations of the eigenvectors of \\(A\\, corresponding to simple eigenvalues by the eigenvectors of the operators \\(A_n=S+B_n\\ (\\(n=1,2, \\ldots\\, where \\(B_n\\ is an \\(n\\-dimensional operator. In addition, we obtain the error estimate of the approximation.

  10. Prediction of the time-dependent failure rate for normally operating components taking into account the operational history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Simic, Z.; Sljivac, D.

    2008-01-01

    The prediction of the time-dependent failure rate has been studied, taking into account the operational history of a component used in applications such as system modeling in a probabilistic safety analysis in order to evaluate the impact of equipment aging and maintenance strategies on the risk measures considered. We have selected a time-dependent model for the failure rate which is based on the Weibull distribution and the principles of proportional age reduction by equipment overhauls. Estimation of the parameters that determine the failure rate is considered, including the definition of the operational history model and likelihood function for the Bayesian analysis of parameters for normally operating repairable components. The operational history is provided as a time axis with defined times of overhauls and failures. An example for demonstration is described with prediction of the future behavior for seven different operational histories. (orig.)

  11. Assessment of risks of accidents and normal operation at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, Ilkka; Vuori, Seppo.

    1977-01-01

    A probabilistic assessment model for the analysis of risks involved in the operation of nuclear power plants is described. With the computer code ARANO it is possible to estimate the health and economic consequences of reactor accidents both in probabilistic and deterministic sense. In addition the code is applicable to the calculation of individual and collective doses caused by the releases during normal operation. The estimation of release probabilities and magnitudes is not included in the model. (author)

  12. Occupational and Public Exposure During Normal Operation of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Vedernikova; I. A. Pron; M. N. Savkin; N. S. Cebakovskaya

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on occupational and public exposure during operation of disposal facilities receiving liquid and solid radioactive waste of various classes and provides a comparative analysis of the relevant doses: actual and calculated at the design stage. Occupational and public exposure study presented in this paper covers normal operations of a radioactive waste disposal facility receiving waste. Results: Analysis of individual and collective occupational doses was performed based on d...

  13. Expectations of immortality: dam safety management into the next millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Topics concerning the problems associated with older and aging dams are considered including: what can be done to extent the lifetime of an old dam, the decision to decommission a dam based on a value judgment that the risk of maintaining the dam is too great for society's acceptance, the possibility of change in the level of risk tolerance with time in a technological environment, traditional surveillance methods used by dam owners in the Y2K situation, and the unreality of dam immortality. Trends and means for preserving older dams for their owner's purposes are outlined, as well as their lifetime compared to that of the downstream systems they serve. Despite the fact that we live in a throwaway society, dam owners cannot just leave their dam asset when they are through with using it. Someone has to maintain the dam, or ensure that it is safely decommissioned when the owner is finished with it. On a worldwide scale the available pool of experienced dam engineers is shrinking. This problem needs to be addressed by a shift towards operating and dam safety management skills based on a firm awareness of dam design principles. A shift in society's expectations has occurred such that dam designers and owners must now recognize the impact a dam can have both on its natural and social environments. Because of the increasing emphasis on paying attention to the impacts of people's activities on the planet, engineers more than anyone else must have a significant influence in that direction. 9 refs

  14. Results of dose calculations for NET accidental and normal operation releases of tritium and activation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Hasemann, I.

    1992-08-01

    This report documents conditions, data and results of dose calculations for accidental and normal operation releases of tritium and activation products, performed within the NET subtask SEP2.2 ('NET-Benchmark') of the European Fusion Technology Programme. For accidental releases, the computer codes UFOTRI and COSYMA for assessing the radiological consequences, have been applied for both deterministic and probabilistic calculations. The influence on dose estimates of different release times (2 minutes / 1 hour), two release heights (10 m / 150 m), two chemical forms of tritium (HT/HTO), and two different model approaches for the deposition velocity of HTO on soil was investigated. The dose calculations for normal operation effluents were performed using the tritium model of the German regulatory guidelines, parts of the advanced dose assessment model NORMTRI still under development, and the statistical atmospheric dispersion model ISOLA. Accidental and normal operation source terms were defined as follows: 10g (3.7 10 15 Bq) for accidental tritium releases, 10 Ci/day (3.7 10 11 Bq/day) for tritium releases during normal operation and unit releases of 10 9 Bq for accidental releases of activation products and fission products. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Dams and Levees: Safety Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    The nation's flood risk is increasing. The condition of U.S. dams and levees contributes to that risk. Dams and levee owners are responsible for the safety, maintenance, and rehabilitation of their facilities. Dams-Of the more than 90,000 dams in the United States, about 4% are federally owned and operated; 96% are owned by state and local governments, public utilities, or private companies. States regulate dams that are not federally owned. The number of high-hazard dams (i.e., dams whose failure would likely result in the loss of human life) has increased in the past decade. Roughly 1,780 state-regulated, high-hazard facilities with structural ratings of poor or unsatisfactory need rehabilitation. Levees-There are approximately 100,000 miles of levees in the nation; most levees are owned and maintained by municipalities and agricultural districts. Few states have levee safety programs. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) inspects 15,000 miles of levees, including levees that it owns and local levees participating in a federal program to assist with certain post-flood repairs. Information is limited on how regularly other levees are inspected. The consequence of a breach or failure is another aspect of risk. State and local governments have significant authority over land use and development, which can shape the social and economic impacts of a breach or failure; they also lead on emergency planning and related outreach. To date, federal dam and levee safety efforts have consisted primarily of (1) support for state dam safety standards and programs, (2) investments at federally owned dams and levees, and (3) since 2007, creation of a national levee database and enhanced efforts and procedures for Corps levee inspections and assessments. In Public Law 113-121, enacted in 2014, Congress (1) directed the Corps to develop voluntary guidelines for levee safety and an associated hazard potential classification system for levees, and (2) authorized support for the

  16. Numerical modelling for stability of tailings dams

    OpenAIRE

    Auchar, Muhammad; Mattsson, Hans; Knutsson, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A tailings dam is a large embankment structure that is constructed to store the waste from the mining industry. Stability problems may occur in a tailings dam due to factors such as quick rate of raising, internal erosion and liquefaction. The failure of a tailings dam may cause loss of human life and environmental degradation. Tailings Dams must not only be stable during the time the tailings storage facility is in operation, but also long time after the mine is closed. In Sweden, the licens...

  17. The Effects of Dams on Downstream Channel Characteristics in Pennsylvania and Maryland: Assessing the Potential Consequences of Dam Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, K. J.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Jenkins, P.

    2003-12-01

    The potential downstream effects of dam removal were assessed on fifteen sites of varying dam size and characteristics in Pennsylvania and Maryland. The dams ranged in size from a 30 cm high fish weir to a water supply dam 57 m high. Stream order ranged from 1 to 4. The dams are located in watersheds with varying degrees of human disturbance and urbanization. The dams are also operated differently, with significant consequences for hydraulic residence time and downstream flow variability. Most streams were alluvial, but 6 of the reaches were clearly bedrock channels. We hypothesize that the channel upstream, which is unaffected by the dam, will provide an accurate model for the channel downstream of the dam long after dam removal. Therefore, reaches upstream and downstream of the dam were compared to determine the effects of the dam as well as the condition of the stream that will ultimately develop decades after dam removal. Surprisingly, the dams had no consistent influence on channel morphology. However, the percentage of sand is significantly lower downstream than upstream: the mean % sand downstream is 11.47%, while the mean % sand upstream is 21.39%. The coarser fractions of the bed, as represented by the 84th percentile grain diameter, are unaffected by the presence of the dam. These results imply that decades after dam removal, the percentage of sand on the bed will increase, but the coarse fraction of the bed will remain relatively unchanged.

  18. Study on radioactive release of gaseous and liquid effluents during normal operation of AP1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Quan; Zhou Jing; Liu Yu

    2014-01-01

    The gaseous and liquid radioactive releases of pressurized water reactors plant during normal operation are an important content of environmental impact assessment and play a significant role in the design of nuclear power plant. According to the design characters of AP1OOO radioactive waste management system and the study on the calculation method and the release pathways, the calculation model of the gaseous and liquid radioactive releases during normal operation for AP1OOO are established. Base on the established calculation model and the design parameters of AP1000, the expected value of gaseous and liquid radioactive releases of AP1OOO is calculated. The results of calculation are compared with the limits in GB 6249-2011 and explain the adder that is included tu account for anticipated operational occurrences, providing a reference for environmental impact assessment of pressurized water reactor. (authors)

  19. Safety Aspects of Sustainable Storage Dams and Earthquake Safety of Existing Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wieland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic element in any sustainable dam project is safety, which includes the following safety elements: ① structural safety, ② dam safety monitoring, ③ operational safety and maintenance, and ④ emergency planning. Long-term safety primarily includes the analysis of all hazards affecting the project; that is, hazards from the natural environment, hazards from the man-made environment, and project-specific and site-specific hazards. The special features of the seismic safety of dams are discussed. Large dams were the first structures to be systematically designed against earthquakes, starting in the 1930s. However, the seismic safety of older dams is unknown, as most were designed using seismic design criteria and methods of dynamic analysis that are considered obsolete today. Therefore, we need to reevaluate the seismic safety of existing dams based on current state-of-the-art practices and rehabilitate deficient dams. For large dams, a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is usually recommended. Today, large dams and the safety-relevant elements used for controlling the reservoir after a strong earthquake must be able to withstand the ground motions of a safety evaluation earthquake. The ground motion parameters can be determined either by a probabilistic or a deterministic seismic hazard analysis. During strong earthquakes, inelastic deformations may occur in a dam; therefore, the seismic analysis has to be carried out in the time domain. Furthermore, earthquakes create multiple seismic hazards for dams such as ground shaking, fault movements, mass movements, and others. The ground motions needed by the dam engineer are not real earthquake ground motions but models of the ground motion, which allow the safe design of dams. It must also be kept in mind that dam safety evaluations must be carried out several times during the long life of large storage dams. These features are discussed in this paper.

  20. Dams, Hydrology and Risk in Future River Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Across America there are over 80,000 large to medium dams and globally the number is in excess of 800,000. Currently there are over 1,400 dams and diversion structures being planned or under construction globally. In addition to these documented dams there are thousands of small dams populating watersheds. Governments, agencies, native tribes, private owners and regulators all have a common interest in safe dams. Often dam safety is characterized as reducing structural risk while providing for maximum operational flexibility. In the 1970's there were a number of large and small dam failures in the United States. These failures prompted the federal government to issue voluntary dam safety guidelines. These guidelines were based on historic information incorporated into a risk assessment process to analyze, evaluate and manage risk with the goal to improve the quality of and support of dam management and safety decisions. We conclude that historic and new risks need to be integrated into dam management to insure adequate safety and operational flexibility. A recent assessment of the future role of dams in the United States premises that future costs such as maintenance or removal beyond the economic design life have not been factored into the long-term operations or relicensing of dams. The converging risks associated with aging water storage infrastructure, multiple dams within watersheds and uncertainty in demands policy revisions and an updated strategic approach to dam safety. Decisions regarding the future of dams in the United States may, in turn, influence regional water planning and management. Leaders in Congress and in the states need to implement a comprehensive national water assessment and a formal analysis of the role dams play in our water future. A research and national policy agenda is proposed to assess future impacts and the design, operation, and management of watersheds and dams.

  1. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1984 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.

    1984-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This report covers the 1983-84 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance and reproductive success in the upper Flathead River system. This report also addresses the projected recovery of the main stem kokanee run under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and implemented by the Bureau of Reclamation and Bonneville Power Administration in 1982. An estimated 58,775 kokanee reached spawning grounds in the Flathead River System in 1983. The 1983 spawning run was composed of 92% age III + fish, as compared to an average of 80% from 1972-1983. A total of 6883 kokanee redds were enumerated in the main stem Flathead River in 1983. A total of 2366 man-days of angling pressure was estimated during the 1983 kokanee lure fishery in the Flathead River system. Estimated numbers of fry emigrating from McDonald Creek, the Whitefish River and Brenneman's Slough were 13,100,000, 66,254 and 37,198, yielding egg to fry survival rates of 76%, 10.4% and 19.2%.

  2. Health effects of technologies for power generation: Contributions from normal operation, severe accidents and terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, Stefan; Bauer, Christian; Burgherr, Peter; Cazzoli, Eric; Heck, Thomas; Spada, Matteo; Treyer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    As a part of comprehensive analysis of current and future energy systems we carried out numerous analyses of health effects of a wide spectrum of electricity supply technologies including advanced ones, operating in various countries under different conditions. The scope of the analysis covers full energy chains, i.e. fossil, nuclear and renewable power plants and the various stages of fuel cycles. State-of-the-art methods are used for the estimation of health effects. This paper addresses health effects in terms of reduced life expectancy in the context of normal operation as well as fatalities resulting from severe accidents and potential terrorist attacks. Based on the numerical results and identified patterns a comparative perspective on health effects associated with various electricity generation technologies and fuel cycles is provided. In particular the estimates of health risks from normal operation can be compared with those resulting from severe accidents and hypothetical terrorist attacks. A novel approach to the analysis of terrorist threat against energy infrastructure was developed, implemented and applied to selected energy facilities in various locations. Finally, major limitations of the current approach are identified and recommendations for further work are given. - Highlights: • We provide state-of-the-art comparative assessment of energy health risks. • The scope of the analysis should to the extent possible cover full energy chains. • Health impacts from normal operation dominate the risks. • We present novel approach to analysis of terrorist threat. • Limitations include technology choices, geographical coverage and terrorist issues.

  3. The normalized administration of hybrid operating room: its practical application in managing multiple injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xue; Zhang Weiguo; Zhang Lianyang; Chen Tingjing; Chen Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Through carrying out the normalized administration of hybrid operating room the application of the operating room is expanded to the performing of multiple injuries, and, in this way, the operative management become standardized and programmed, the cooperation and efficiency of hybrid operations for multiple injuries are improved and the surgeries can be ensured. Methods: According to the characteristics of hybrid interventional operation for multiple injuries, the basic construction of the hybrid operating room improved, the hybrid operation team was organized, and the administrative system as well as the working program were established. The green channel for rescuing patients with multiple injuries was set up. The cooperative behavior during interventional treatment for multiple injuries was specified. Results: The coordination and working efficiency of physicians, nurses, technicians and anesthetists were well improved. The qualified rate of lamina flow administration reached 100%. The success rate of the rescue of multiple injuries was increased. Conclusion: As one-stop complex interventional operation for multiple injuries is a new technique, there is no integrated administration system. Therefore, the establishment of standardized management of one-stop complex interventional operation is of great significance in guiding clinical practice. (authors)

  4. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Zubik, Raymond; Clancey, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    Studies of kokanee reproductive success in the Flathead system from 1981 to 1987 have assessed the losses in fish production attributable to hydroelectric operations. We estimated that the Flathead Lake shoreline spawning stock has lost at least 50,000 fish annually, since Kerr Dam was completed in 1938. The Flathead River spawning stock has lost 95,000 spawners annually because of the operations of Hungry Horse Dam. Lakeshore spawning has been adversely affected because Flathead Lake has been drafted to minimum pool during the winter when kokanee eggs are incubating in shallow shoreline redds. Egg mortality from exposure and desiccation of kokanee redds has increased since the mid 1970's. When the lake was drafted more quickly and held longer at minimum pool. Escapement surveys in the early 1950's, and a creel survey in the early 1960's have provided a baseline to which the present escapement levels can be compared, and loss estimated. Main stem Flathead River spawning has also declined since the mid 1970's when fluctuating discharge from Hungry Horse Dam during the spawning and incubation season exposed redds at the river margin and increased mortality. This decline followed an increase in main stem spawning in the late 1950's through the mid 1960's attributable to higher winter water temperature and relatively stable discharge from Hungry Horse Dam. Spawning escapement in the main stem exceeded 300,000 kokanee in the early 1970's as a result. Spawning in spring-influenced sites has comprised 35 percent of the main stem escapement from 1979 to 1986. We took that proportion of the early 1970's escapement (105,000) as the baseline against which to measure historic loss. Agricultural and suburban development has contributed less significantly to degradation of kokanee spawning habitat in the river system and on the Flathead Lake shoreline. Their influence on groundwater quality and substrate composition has limited

  5. Identification of support structure damping of a full scale offshore wind turbine in normal operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukoura, Christina; Natarajan, Anand; Vesth, Allan

    2015-01-01

    damping from the decaying time series. The Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD) method was applied to the wind turbine response under ambient excitation, for estimation of the damping in normal operation. The aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool HAWC2 is validated with offshore foundation load...... maxima of an impulse response caused by a boat impact. The result is used in the verification of the non aerodynamic damping in normal operation for low wind speeds. The auto-correlation function technique for damping estimation of a structure under ambient excitation was validated against the identified...... measurements. The model was tuned to the damping values obtained from the boat impact to match the measured loads. Wind turbulence intensity and wave characteristics used in the simulations are based on site measurements. A flexible soil model is included in the analysis. The importance of the correctly...

  6. Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows during Normal Operation and Pressurized Conduction Cooldown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn E McCreery; Keith G Condie

    2006-09-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. The present document addresses experimental modeling of flow and thermal mixing phenomena of importance during normal or reduced power operation and during a loss of forced reactor cooling (pressurized conduction cooldown) scenario. The objectives of the experiments are, 1), provide benchmark data for assessment and improvement of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, and, 2), obtain a better understanding of related phenomena, behavior and needs. Physical models of VHTR vessel upper and lower plenums which use various working fluids to scale phenomena of interest are described. The models may be used to both simulate natural convection conditions during pressurized conduction cooldown and turbulent lower plenum flow during normal or reduced power operation.

  7. Occupational radiation exposure at the Eurochemic reprocessing plant during normal operation and intervention periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenco, A.

    1980-01-01

    The Eurochemic reprocessing plant is a direct-maintenance, demonstration facility. From 1966 to 1974 it has processed about 180 tonnes of natural or low-enriched uranium, mainly as oxide, and about 30 tonnes of alloys of aluminium and highly enriched uranium. In this period, the operation was stopped for the time necessary to build and connect a new unit for the separation and purification of plutonium. As from 1975, all equipment was rinsed in order to put the plant in standby, some particular equipment was dismantled and a campaign of systematic decontamination was started. Simultaneously, the necessary steps were taken for the solidification and conditioning for storage or disposal of the wastes produced during the operation of the plant. The methods used to determine the individual doses due to external or internal irradiation are shortly described, as well as the rules set up for limiting these doses or for authorizing planned exposures. For the period 1966-1978 the paper shows the distribution of yearly individual and collective doses recorded for the permanent staff and for workers occupied for limited times. Correlations are shown between the absorbed doses and the nature of the work (normal operation, intervention, etc.) or the function in the enterprise (operation, maintenance, health physics, etc.). A small number of incidents leading to intakes or doses higher than normal did occur. However, experience has shown that careful planning and close collaboration between operational and health physics staff have resulted in keeping the doses within the authorized limits. (author)

  8. Assessment of radiation doses due to normal operation, incidents and accidents of the final disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.; Raiko, H.; Suolanen, V.; Ilvonen, M.

    1999-03-01

    Radiation doses for workers of the encapsulation and disposal facility and for inhabitants in the environment caused by the facility during its operation were considered. The study covers both the normal operation of the plant and some hypothetical incidents and accidents. Occupational radiation doses inside the plant during normal operation are based on the design basis, assuming that highest permitted dose levels are prevailing in control rooms during fuel transfer and encapsulation processes. Release through the ventilation stack is assumed to be filtered both in normal operation and in hypothetical incident and accident cases. Calculation of the offsite doses from normal operation is based on the hypothesis that one fuel pin per 100 fuel bundles for all batches of spent fuel transported to the encapsulation facility is leaking. The release magnitude in incidents and accidents is based on the event chains, which lead to loss of fuel pin tightness followed by a discharge of radionuclides into the handling chamber and to some degree through the ventilation stack into atmosphere. The weather data measured at the Olkiluoto meteorological mast was employed for calculating of offsite doses. Therefore doses could be calculated in a large amount of different dispersion conditions, the statistical frequencies of which have, been measured. Finally doses were combined into cumulative distributions, from which a dose value representing the 99.5 % confidence level, is presented. The dose values represent the exposure of a critical group, which is assumed to live at the distance of 200 meters from the encapsulation and disposal plant and thus it will receive the largest doses in most dispersion conditions. Exposure pathways considered were: cloudsnine, inhalation, groundshine and nutrition (milk of cow, meat of cow, green vegetables, grain and root vegetables). Nordic seasonal variation is included in ingestion dose models. The results obtained indicate that offsite doses

  9. Alpine dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Marnezy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les barrages-réservoirs de montagne ont été réalisés initialement dans les Alpes pour répondre à la demande d’énergie en période hivernale. Une certaine diversification des usages de l’eau s’est ensuite progressivement développée, en relation avec le développement touristique des collectivités locales. Aujourd’hui, la participation des ouvrages d’Électricité De France à la production de neige de culture représente une nouvelle étape. Dans les régions où les aménagements hydroélectriques sont nombreux, les besoins en eau pour la production de neige peuvent être résolus par prélèvements à partir des adductions EDF. Les gestionnaires de stations échappent ainsi aux inconvénients liés à la construction et à la gestion des « retenues collinaires ». Cette évolution, qui concerne déjà quelques régions alpines comme la haute Maurienne ou le Beaufortin, apparaît comme une forme renouvelée d’intégration territoriale de la ressource en eau.Mountain reservoirs were initially built in the Alps to meet energy needs in the winter. A certain diversification in the uses of water then gradually developed, related to tourism development in the local communities. Today, the use of facilities belonging to EDF (French Electricity Authority to provide water for winter resorts to make artificial snow represents a new phase. By taking water from EDF resources to supply snow-making equipment, resort managers are thus able to avoid the problems related to the construction and management of small headwater dams. This new orientation in the use of mountain water resources already affects a number of alpine regions such as the Upper Maurienne valley and Beaufortain massif and represents a renewed form of the territorial integration of water resources.

  10. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System; Technical Addendum to the Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Tohtz, Joel

    1990-03-01

    This addendum to the Final Report presents results of research on the zooplankton and fish communities of Flathead Lade. The intent of the Study has been to identify the impacts of hydroelectric operations at Kerr and Hungry Horse Dam on the reproductive success of kokanee an to propose mitigation for these impacts. Recent changes in the trophic ecology of the lake, have reduced the survival of kokanee. In the last three year the Study has been redirected to identify, if possible, the biological mechanisms which now limit kokanee survival, and to test methods of enhancing the kokanee fishery by artificial supplementation. These studies were necessary to the formulation of mitigation plans. The possibility of successfully rehabilitating the kokanee population, is the doubt because of change in the trophic ecology of the system. This report first presents the results of studies of the population dynamics of crustacean zooplankton, upon which planktivorous fish depend. A modest effort was directed to measuring the spawning escapement of kokanee in 1988. Because of its relevance to the study, we also report assessments of 1989 kokanee spawning escapement. Hydroacoustic assessment of the abundance of all fish species in Flathead Lake was conducted in November, 1988. Summary of the continued efforts to document the growth rates and food habits of kokanee and lake whitefish are included in this report. Revised kokanee spawning and harvest estimates, and management implications of the altered ecology of Flathead Lake comprise the final sections of this addendum. 83 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. Extension of the TCV Operating Space Towards Higher Elongation and Higher Normalized Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, F.; Coda, S.; Lavanchy, P.; Llobet, X.; Marmillod, Ph.; Martin, Y.; Martynov, A.; Mlynar, J.; Moret, J.-M.; Pochelon, A.; Sauter, O.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, an experimental campaign has been launched on TCV with the aim of exploring and extending the limits of the operating space. The vertical position control system has been optimized, with the help of extensive model calculations, in order to allow operation at the lowest possible stability margin. In addition, the growth rate of the axisymmetric instability has been minimized by choosing optimum values for the plasma triangularity and squareness and by operating close to the current limit imposed by the n= 1 external kink mode. These measures have allowed us to reach record values of elongation, κ=2.8, and normalized current, I N =3.6, in a tokamak with standard aspect ratio, R/a=3.5. (author)

  12. Construction of anhydrite dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoluzzi, L; Francois, G

    1977-05-01

    To construct a ventilation dam, the road is closed with a fibreglass sheet onto which 3 or 4 cm of anhydrite paste is sprayed. The equipment necessary is described, and the cost is compared with that of an aggregate dam.

  13. Pellet cladding interaction (PCI) fuel duty during normal operation of ASEA-ATOM BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaernild, O.; Olsson, S.

    1983-01-01

    Local power changes may under special conditions cause PCI fuel failures in a power reactor. By restricting the local power increase rate in certain situations it is possible to prevent PCI failures. Fine motion control rod drives, large operating range of the main recirculation pumps and an advanced burnable absorber design have minimized the impact of the PCI restrictions. With current ICFM schemes the power of an assembly is due to the burnup of the gadolinia gradually increasing during the first cycle of operation. After this the power is essentially decreasing monotonously during the remaining life of the assembly. Some assemblies are for short burnup intervals operated at very low power in control cells. The control rods in these cells may however be withdrawn without restrictions leading to energy production losses. Base load operation would in the normal case lead to very minor PCI loads on the fuel regardless of any PCI related operating restrictions. At the return to full power after a short shutdown or in connection with load follow operation, the xenon transient may cause PCI loads on the fuel. To avoid this a few hoursholdtime before going back to full power is recommended. (author)

  14. Pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) fuel duty during normal operation of ASEA-ATOM BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaernild, O.; Olsson, S.

    1985-01-01

    Local power changes may, under special conditions, cause PCI fuel failures in a power reactor. By restricting the local power increase rate in certain situations it is possible to prevent PCI failures. Fine motion control rod drives, large operating range of the main recirculation pumps and an advanced burnable absorber design have minimized the impact of the PCI restrictions. With current ICFM schemes the power of an assembly is due to the burnup of the gadolinia gradually increasing during the first cycle of operation. After this the power is essentially decreasing monotonously during the remaining life of the assembly. Some assemblies are for short burnup intervals operated at very low power in control cells. The control rods in these cells may, however, be withdrawn without restrictions leading to energy production losses. Base load operation would in the normal case lead to very minor PCI loads on the fuel regardless of any PCI-related operating restrictions. At the return to full power after a short shutdown or in connection with load follow operation, the xenon transient may cause PCI loads on the fuel. To avoid this a few hours hold-time before going back to full power is recommended. (author)

  15. Risk assessment of the Krsko NPP normal operation on the public in the Zagreb area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanata, D.; Pevec, D.

    1994-01-01

    In the paper, a very short review of the ICRP recommendations related to effective dose limitation for the workers as well as for the public, is given. Particular attention is paid to the risk coefficients values. In the short manner, description of the applied methodology and achieved result related to the risk assessment of the Krsko NPP normal operation on the public in the Zagreb Area, are given too. The mentioned assessment was performed as an activity within the Case Study Zagreb Project developed under the Inter-Agency Programme on the Assessment and Management of Health and Environmental Risks from Energy and Other Complex Industrial Systems (UNEP, WHO, IAEA and UNIDO). Making comparison between assessment risk of the Krsko NPP normal operation and risks to which inhabitants of the City of Zagreb are normally exposed, it is concluded that living in the vicinity of such nuclear power plant as it is Krsko NPP (PWR, 664 MWe), is not so risky as risky are some everyday activities

  16. Mathematical model and computer code for coated particles performance at normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, I.; Kadarmetov, I.; Makarov, V.

    2002-01-01

    Computer modeling of thermo-mechanical behavior of coated particles during operating both at normal and off-normal conditions has a very significant role particularly on a stage of new reactors development. In Russia a big experience has been accumulated on fabrication and reactor tests of CP and fuel elements with UO 2 kernels. However, this experience cannot be using in full volume for development of a new reactor installation GT-MHR. This is due to very deep burn-up of the fuel based on plutonium oxide (up to 70% fima). Therefore the mathematical modeling of CP thermal-mechanical behavior and failure prediction becomes particularly important. The authors have a clean understanding that serviceability of fuel with high burn-ups are defined not only by thermo-mechanics, but also by structured changes in coating materials, thermodynamics of chemical processes, 'amoeba-effect', formation CO etc. In the report the first steps of development of integrate code for numerical modeling of coated particles behavior and some calculating results concerning the influence of various design parameters on fuel coated particles endurance for GT-MHR normal operating conditions are submitted. A failure model is developed to predict the fraction of TRISO-coated particles. In this model it is assumed that the failure of CP depends not only on probability of SiC-layer fracture but also on the PyC-layers damage. The coated particle is considered as a uniform design. (author)

  17. Operative findings of conductive hearing loss with intact tympanic membrane and normal temporal bone computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Despite recent technological advances in diagnostic methods including imaging technology, it is often difficult to establish a preoperative diagnosis of conductive hearing loss (CHL) in patients with an intact tympanic membrane (TM). Especially, in patients with a normal temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT), preoperative diagnosis is more difficult. We investigated middle ear disorders encountered in patients with CHL involving an intact TM and normal TBCT. We also analyzed the surgical results with special reference to the pathology. We reviewed the medical records of 365 patients with intact TM, who underwent exploratory tympanotomy for CHL. Fifty nine patients (67 ears, eight bilateral surgeries) had a normal preoperative TBCT findings reported by neuro-radiologists. Demographic data, otologic history, TM findings, preoperative imaging findings, intraoperative findings, and pre- and postoperative audiologic data were obtained and analyzed. Exploration was performed most frequently in the second and fifth decades. The most common postoperative diagnosis was stapedial fixation with non-progressive hearing loss. The most commonly performed hearing-restoring procedure was stapedotomy with piston wire prosthesis insertion. Various types of hearing-restoring procedures during exploration resulted in effective hearing improvement, especially with better outcome in the ossicular chain fixation group. In patients with CHL who have intact TM and normal TBCT, we should consider an exploratory tympanotomy for exact diagnosis and hearing improvement. Information of the common operative findings from this study may help in preoperative counseling.

  18. Dam removal: Listening in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, M. M.; Bellmore, J. R.; O'Connor, J. E.; Duda, J. J.; East, A. E.; Grant, G. E.; Anderson, C. W.; Bountry, J. A.; Collins, M. J.; Connolly, P. J.; Craig, L. S.; Evans, J. E.; Greene, S. L.; Magilligan, F. J.; Magirl, C. S.; Major, J. J.; Pess, G. R.; Randle, T. J.; Shafroth, P. B.; Torgersen, C. E.; Tullos, D.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2017-07-01

    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (< 5 years) and do not adequately represent the diversity of dam types, watershed conditions, and dam-removal methods in the U.S.

  19. Assessment of radiation doses in normal operation, upset accident conditions at the Olkiluoto nuclear waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.; Raiko, H.; Suolanen, V.

    2009-09-01

    Radiation doses for workers of the facility, for inhabitants in the environment and for terrestrial ecosystem possibly caused by the encapsulation and disposal facility to be built at Olkiluoto during its operation were considered in the study. The study covers both the normal operation of the plant and some hypothetical incidents and accidents. Release through the ventilation stack is assumed to be filtered both in normal operation and in hypothetical abnormal fault and accident cases. Calculation of the offsite doses from normal operation is based on the hypothesis that on average one fuel pin per 100 fuel bundles for all batches of spent fuel transported to the encapsulation facility is leaking. The release magnitude in incidents and accidents is based on the event chains, which lead to loss of fuel pin tightness followed by a discharge of radionuclides into the handling space and to some degree to the atmosphere through the ventilation stack equipped with redundant filters. The critical group is conservatively assumed to live at the distance of 200 meters from the encapsulation and disposal plant and thus it will receive the largest doses in most dispersion conditions. The dose value to a member of the critical group was calculated on the basis of the weather data in such a way that greater dose than obtained here is caused only in 0.5 percent of dispersion conditions. The results obtained indicate that during normal operation the doses to workers remain small and the dose to the member of the critical group is less than 0,001 mSv per year. In the case of hypothetical fault and accident releases the offsite doses do not exceed either the limit values set by the safety authority. The highest dose rates to the reference organisms of the terrestrial ecosystem with conservative assumptions from the largest release were estimated to be of the order of 100 μ Gy/h at the distance of 200 m. As a chronic exposure this dose rate is expected to bring up detrimental

  20. Dams life; La vie des barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the conclusions of the annual inspections of French dams in operation (fissures, water oozing, concrete swelling etc..). Only the observations which require a special attention are reported. (J.S.)

  1. Quantifying the Effects of Near-Bed Concentration on the Sediment Flux after the Operation of the Three Gorges Dam, Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li He

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The regime of sediment transport in the Jingjiang Reach has significantly changed from quasi-equilibrium to sub-saturation since the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD, and vertical profiles of suspended sediment concentration (SSC have changed accordingly. Vertical profiles of SSC data measured at three hydrological stations in the Jingjiang Reach (Zhicheng, Shaishi, and Jianli, before and after the impoundment of TGD, were collected and analyzed. Analytic results indicate a remarkably large concentration in the near-bed zone (within 10% of water depth from the river-bed in a sub-saturated channel. The maximum measured concentration was up to 15 times the vertical average concentration, while the ratio in quasi-equilibrium channel was less than four times that. Concentrations normalized with reference concentration at the same height, and may decrease with increasing values of suspension index (settling velocity over shear velocity. In addition, concentration near the water surface may be larger than concentration in the near-bed region when the suspension index is smaller than 0.01. Sediment flux transported in the near-bed zone may be up to 35% of the total sediment flux in unsaturated flows. The relationship between deviations of estimating sediment flux when ignoring the near-bed concentration and discharge in flood season and non-flood season are different in unsaturated and quasi-equilibrium channels. Analysis indicates that, in the quasi-equilibrium channel, more attention should be paid to near-bed concentration during non-flood season, the same as measurements during flood season with larger discharge.

  2. Evaluating safety of concrete gravity dam on weak rock: Scott Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.E.; Ahlgren, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Scott Dam is owned and operated by Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG and E) as part of the Potter Valley Project. Although it is an unimpressive concrete gravity dam [233 m (765 ft) long with maximum water surface 33.4 m (110 ft) above tail water], the dam has unusually complex and weak foundation rocks; thick condition caused design changes during construction, numerous subsequent special investigations, and several corrections and additions. A main stumbling block to clarification of the dam safety issue for Scott Dam has always been difficulty in characterizing the foundation material. This paper discusses an approach to this problem as well s how the safety of the dam was subsequently confirmed. Following a comprehensive program of research, investigations, and analysis from 1991 to 1997

  3. Thermal loads on tokamak plasma-facing components during normal operation and disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    Power loadings experienced by tokamak plasma-facing components during normal operation and during off-normal events are discussed. A model for power and particle flow in the tokamak boundary layer is presented and model predictions are compared to infrared measurements of component heating. The inclusion of the full three-dimensional geometry of the components and of the magnetic flux surface is very important in the modeling. Experimental measurements show that misalignment of component armour tile surfaces by only a millimeter can lead to significant localized heating. An application to the design of plasma-facing components for future machines is presented. Finally, thermal loads expected during tokamak disruptions are discussed. The primary problems are surface melting and vaporization due to localized intense heating during the disruption thermal quench and volumetric heating of the component armour and structure due to localised impact of runaway electrons. (author)

  4. Radioactivities evaluation code system for high temperature gas cooled reactors during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Kenji; Morimoto, Toshio; Suzuki, Katsuo.

    1979-01-01

    A radioactivity evaluation code system for high temperature gas-cooled reactors during normal operation was developed to study the behavior of fission products (FP) in the plants. The system consists of a code for the calculation of diffusion of FPs in fuel (FIPERX), a code for the deposition of FPs in primary cooling system (PLATO), a code for the transfer and emission of FPs in nuclear power plants (FIPPI-2), and a code for the exposure dose due to emitted FPs (FEDOSE). The FIPERX code can calculate the changes in the course of time FP of the distribution of FP concentration, the distribution of FP flow, the distribution of FP partial pressure, and the emission rate of FP into coolant. The amount of deposition of FPs and their distribution in primary cooling system can be evaluated by the PLATO code. The FIPPI-2 code can be used for the estimation of the amount of FPs in nuclear power plants and the amount of emitted FPs from the plants. The exposure dose of residents around nuclear power plants in case of the operation of the plants is calculated by the FEDOSE code. This code evaluates the dose due to the external exposure in the normal operation and in the accident, and the internal dose by the inhalation of radioactive plume and foods. Further studies of this code system by the comparison with the experimental data are considered. (Kato, T.)

  5. Mechanical stress analysis for a fuel rod under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, Eddy S.; Giovedi, Claudia; Serra, Andre da Silva; Abe, Alfredo Y.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements consist mainly in a system of a nuclear fuel encapsulated by a cladding material subject to high fluxes of energetic neutrons, high operating temperatures, pressure systems, thermal gradients, heat fluxes and with chemical compatibility with the reactor coolant. The design of a nuclear reactor requires, among a set of activities, the evaluation of the structural integrity of the fuel rod submitted to different loads acting on the fuel rod and the specific properties (dimensions and mechanical and thermal properties) of the cladding material and coolant, including thermal and pressure gradients produced inside the rod due to the fuel burnup. In this work were evaluated the structural mechanical stresses of a fuel rod using stainless steel as cladding material and UO 2 with a low degree of enrichment as fuel pellet on a PWR (pressurized water reactor) under normal operating conditions. In this sense, tangential, radial and axial stress on internal and external cladding surfaces considering the orientations of 0 deg, 90 deg and 180 deg were considered. The obtained values were compared with the limit values for stress to the studied material. From the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that, under the expected normal reactor operation conditions, the integrity of the fuel rod can be maintained. (author)

  6. Occupational and Public Exposure During Normal Operation of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Vedernikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on occupational and public exposure during operation of disposal facilities receiving liquid and solid radioactive waste of various classes and provides a comparative analysis of the relevant doses: actual and calculated at the design stage. Occupational and public exposure study presented in this paper covers normal operations of a radioactive waste disposal facility receiving waste. Results: Analysis of individual and collective occupational doses was performed based on data collected during operation of near-surface disposal facilities for short-lived intermediate-, lowand very low-level waste in France, as well as nearsurface disposal facilities for long-lived waste in Russia. Further analysis of occupational and public doses calculated at the design stage was completed covering a near-surface disposal facility in Belgium and deep disposal facilities in the United Kingdom and the Nizhne-Kansk rock massive (Russia. The results show that engineering and technical solutions enable almost complete elimination of internal occupational exposure, whereas external exposure doses would fall within the range of values typical for a basic nuclear facility. Conclusion: radioactive waste disposal facilities being developed, constructed and operated meet the safety requirements effective in the Russian Federation and consistent with relevant international recommendations. It has been found that individual occupational exposure doses commensurate with those received by personnel of similar facilities abroad. Furthermore, according to the forecasts, mean individual doses for personnel during radioactive waste disposal would be an order of magnitude lower than the dose limit of 20 mSv/year. As for the public exposure, during normal operation, potential impact is virtually impossible by delaminating boundaries of a nuclear facility sanitary protection zone inside which the disposal facility is located and can be solely attributed to the use

  7. Deformation Monitoring and Bathymetry Analyses in Rock-Fill Dams, a Case Study at Ataturk Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey has 595 dams constructed between 1936 and 2013 for the purposes of irrigation, flood control, hydroelectric energy and drinking water. A major portion of the dam basins in Turkey are deprived of vegetation and have slope topography on near surrounding area. However, landscaping covered with forest around the dam basin is desirable for erosion control. In fact; the dams, have basins deprived of vegetation, fill up quickly due to sediment transport. Erosion control and forestation are important factors, reducing the sediment, to protect the water basins of the dams and increase the functioning life of the dams. The functioning life of dams is as important as the investment and construction. Nevertheless, in order to provide safety of human life living around, well planned monitoring is essential for dams. Dams are very large and critical structures and they demand the use or application of precise measuring systems. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Monitoring is an essential component of the dam after construction and during operation and must en­able the timely detection of any behavior that could deteriorate the dam, potentially result in its shutdown or failure. Considering the time and labor consumed by long-term measurements, processing and analysis of measured data, importance of the small structural motions at regular intervals could be comprehended. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation measurements of Atatürk Dam in Turkey which is the 6th largest dam of world considering the filling volume of embankment. Brief information is given about the

  8. Dams designed to fail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penman, A. [Geotechnical Engineering Consultants, Harpenden (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01

    New developments in geotechnical engineering have led to methods for designing and constructing safe embankment dams. Failed dams can be categorized as those designed to fail, and those that have failed unexpectedly. This presentation outlined 3 dam failures: the 61 m high Malpasset Dam in France in 1959 which killed 421; the 71 m high Baldwin Hills Dam in the United States in 1963 which killed 5; and, the Vajont Dam in Italy in 1963 which killed 2,600 people. Following these incidents, the International Commission for Large Dams (ICOLD) reviewed regulations on reservoir safety. The 3 dams were found to have inadequate spillways and their failures were due to faults in their design. Fuse plug spillways, which address this problem, are designed to fail if an existing spillway proves inadequate. They allow additional discharge to prevent overtopping of the embankment dam. This solution can only be used if there is an adjacent valley to take the additional discharge. Examples of fuse gates were presented along with their effect on dam safety. A research program is currently underway in Norway in which high embankment dams are being studied for overtopping failure and failure due to internal erosion. Internal erosion has been the main reason why dams have failed unexpectedly. To prevent failures, designers suggested the use of a clay blanket placed under the upstream shoulder. However, for dams with soft clay cores, these underblankets could provide a route for a slip surface and that could lead to failure of the upstream shoulder. It was concluded that a safe arrangement for embankment dams includes the use of tipping gates or overturning gates which always fail at a required flood water level. Many have been installed in old and new dams around the world. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  9. EMERALD-NORMAL, Routine Radiation Release and Dose for PWR Design Analysis and Operation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, S.G.; Brunot, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: EMERALD-NORMAL is designed for the calculation of radiation releases and exposures resulting from normal operation of a large pressurized water reactor. The approach used is similar to an analog simulation of a real system. Each component or volume in the plant which contains a radioactive material is represented by a subroutine which keeps track of the production, transfer, decay, and absorption of radioactivity in that volume. During the course of the analysis, activity is transferred from subroutine to subroutine in the program as it would be transferred from place to place in the plant. Some of this activity is then released to the atmosphere and to the discharge canal. The rates of transfer, leakage, production, cleanup, decay, and release are read as input to the program. Subroutines are also included which calculate the off-site radiation exposures at various distances for individual isotopes and sums of isotopes. The program contains a library of physical data for the forty isotopes of most interest in licensing calculations, and other isotopes can be added or substituted. Because of the flexible nature of the simulation approach, the EMERALD-NORMAL program can be used for most calculations involving the production and release of radioactive material. These include design, operation, and licensing studies. 2 - Method of solution: Explicit solutions of first-order linear differential equations are included. In addition, a subroutine is provided which solves a set of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Many parameters and systems included in the program, particularly the radiation waste-treatment system, are unique to the PG and E Diablo Canyon PWR plant. Maxima of: 50 isotopes, 9 distances, 16 angular sectors, 1 operating period, 1 reactor power level

  10. Development of dose assessment code for release of tritium during normal operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, J.; Malatova, I.

    2009-01-01

    A computer code PTM H TO has been developed to assess tritium doses to the general public. The code enables to simulate the behavior of tritium in the environment released into the atmosphere under normal operation of nuclear power plants. Code can calculate the doses for the three chemical and physical forms: tritium gas (HT), tritiated water vapor and water drops (HTO). The models in this code consist of the tritium transfer model including oxidation of HT to HTO and reemission of HTO from soil to the atmosphere, and the dose calculation model

  11. An estimation of population doses from a nuclear power plant during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, K.

    1975-07-01

    A model is presented for estimation of the potential submersion and inhalation radiation doses to people located within a distance of 1000 km from a nuclear power plant during normal operation. The model was used to calculate doses for people living 200-1000 km from hypothetical nuclear power facility sited near the geographical centre of Denmark. Two kinds of sources are considered for this situation: - unit release of 15 isotopes of noble gases and iodines, - effluent releases from two types of 1000 MWe Light Water Power Reactors: PWR and BWR. Parameter variations were made and analyzed in order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of the model. (author)

  12. Jules Horowitz Reactor: Organisation for the Preparation of the Commissioning Phase and Normal Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrade, J.; Fabre, J. L.; Marcille, O. [French Alternative Energies end Atomic Energy Commission, Provence (France)

    2013-07-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is a new modern Material Testing Reactor (MTR) currently under construction at CEA Cadarache research centre in the south of France. It will be a major research facility in support to the development and the qualification of materials and fuels under irradiation with sizes and environment conditions relevant for nuclear power plants in order to optimise and demonstrate safe operations of existing power reactors as well as to support future reactors design. It will represent also an important research infrastructure for scientific studies dealing with material and fuel behaviour under irradiation. The JHR will contribute also to secure the production of radioisotope for medical application. This is a key public health stake. The construction of JHR which started in 2007 is going-on with target of commissioning by the end of 2017. The design of the reactor provides modern experimental capacity in support to R and D programs for the nuclear energy for the next 60 years. In parallel to the facility construction, the preparation of the future staff and of the organisation to operate the reactor safely, reliably and efficiently is an important issue. In this framework, many actions are in progress to elaborate: Ο the staffing and the organisational structure for the commissioning test phases and also for normal operation, Ο the documentation in support to the reactor operation (safety analysis report, general operating rules, procedures, instructions, ···), Ο the maintenance, in service and periodic test programs, Ο staff training programs by using dedicated facilities (simulator, ···) Ο commissioning test programs for ensuring that the layout of systems and subcomponents is completed in accordance with the design requirements, the specification performances and the safety criteria. These commissioning tests will also be helpful for transferring the knowledge on the installed systems to the operating group. This paper gives the

  13. Study on B-10 consumption of PWR primary coolant during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    B-10 consumption under PWR primary coolant conditions has been analyzed. The result indicates its time-dependent change reacting with neutron in the normal operation. In this work, neutron energy assumed to be 4 eV; thermal neutron flux is in the range of 3 x 10 13 to 3 x 10 14 n/sec - cm 2 and the time of cycling of the primary coolant through the RCS is 8 sec. and its retention time in the core region is about 1 sec. Under this condition investigated, B-10 consumption is less than 5% at 3 x 10 13 n/sec - cm 2 thermal neutron flux, and closes to 27% at 3 x 10 14 n/sec - cm 2 by calculation at the 16th month of continuous operation. The effect of B-10 consumption on PWR primary water chemistry is also investigated. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 4 refs

  14. Irreducible normalizer operators and thresholds for degenerate quantum codes with sublinear distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryadko, Leonid P.; Dumer, Ilya; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2015-03-01

    We construct a lower (existence) bound for the threshold of scalable quantum computation which is applicable to all stabilizer codes, including degenerate quantum codes with sublinear distance scaling. The threshold is based on enumerating irreducible operators in the normalizer of the code, i.e., those that cannot be decomposed into a product of two such operators with non-overlapping support. For quantum LDPC codes with logarithmic or power-law distances, we get threshold values which are parametrically better than the existing analytical bound based on percolation. The new bound also gives a finite threshold when applied to other families of degenerate quantum codes, e.g., the concatenated codes. This research was supported in part by the NSF Grant PHY-1416578 and by the ARO Grant W911NF-11-1-0027.

  15. Operator-normalized quantum arrival times in the presence of interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerfeldt, G.C.; Seidel, D.; Muga, J.G.; Navarro, B.

    2004-01-01

    We model ideal arrival-time measurements for free quantum particles and for particles subject to an external interaction by means of a narrow and weak absorbing potential. This approach is related to the operational approach of measuring the first photon emitted from a two-level atom illuminated by a laser. By operator normalizing the resulting time-of-arrival distribution, a distribution is obtained which for freely moving particles not only recovers the axiomatically derived distribution of Kijowski for states with purely positive momenta but is also applicable to general momentum components. For particles interacting with a square barrier the mean arrival time and corresponding 'tunneling time' obtained at the transmission side of the barrier become independent of the barrier width (Hartman effect) for arbitrarily wide barriers, i.e., without the transition to the ultraopaque, classical-like regime dominated by wave packet components above the barrier

  16. LHC Beam Dump Design Study - Part III : Off-normal operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, L; Ross, M; Sala, P

    2000-01-01

    The LHC beam dump design study has been preliminarily substantiated by energy deposition simulations (Part I) and heat transfer analyses (Part II). The present report is devoted to the abnormal operating conditions induced by a malfunction of the beam diluters. A general approach to the analysis of off-normal operation is presented, which is derived from standard design norms adopted in the nuclear industry. Attention is focused mainly on the carbon core, which is longitudinally split into segments of different density in order to better distribute the deposited energy. The maximum energy density it absorbs decreases by at least 33%, compared to a uniform standard density carbon core. This structure may sustain any partial sweep failure without major damage, up to the ultimate beam intensity and energy. To minimise the risks inherent in a fully unswept beam, a sacrificial graphite mandrel will be placed on the core axis, surrounded by a thick high strength carbon-carbon composite tube. With this arrangement, ...

  17. Mechanics of slide dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.A.

    1970-01-01

    Studies which promote the use of nuclear energy for peaceful projects in engineering are sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program. Specific projects being considered include the construction of harbors, canals, and dams. Of these projects, perhaps the most difficult to accomplish will be the latter. This paper which is in two parts considers the problems which are associated with the construction of slide dams with nuclear explosives. It examines first the characteristics of conventional earth and rock-fill dams which are based upon proven techniques developed after many years of experience. The characteristics of natural landslide dams are also briefly considered to identify potential problems that must be overcome by slide dam construction techniques. Second, the mechanics of slide dams as determined from small-scale laboratory studies are presented. It is concluded that slide dams can be constructed and that small-scale field tests and additional laboratory studies are justified. (author)

  18. Mechanics of slide dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, G A [Engineering, Agbabian-Jacobsen Associates, Los Angeles (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Studies which promote the use of nuclear energy for peaceful projects in engineering are sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program. Specific projects being considered include the construction of harbors, canals, and dams. Of these projects, perhaps the most difficult to accomplish will be the latter. This paper which is in two parts considers the problems which are associated with the construction of slide dams with nuclear explosives. It examines first the characteristics of conventional earth and rock-fill dams which are based upon proven techniques developed after many years of experience. The characteristics of natural landslide dams are also briefly considered to identify potential problems that must be overcome by slide dam construction techniques. Second, the mechanics of slide dams as determined from small-scale laboratory studies are presented. It is concluded that slide dams can be constructed and that small-scale field tests and additional laboratory studies are justified. (author)

  19. Radiological Impacts Assessment during Normal Decommissioning Operation for EU-APR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Do Hyun; Lee, Keun Sung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, ChongHui [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, radiological impacts on human beings during normal execution of the decommissioning operations from the current standard design of EU-APR which has been modified and improved from its original design of APR1400 to comply with EUR, are evaluated. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life cycle of a nuclear installation, covering all activities from shutdown and removal of fissile material to environmental restoration of the site. According to article 5.4 specified in chapter 2.20 of European Utility Requirements (EUR), all relevant radiological impacts on human being should be considered during the environmental assessment of decommissioning, including external exposure from direct radiation of plant and other radiation sources, and internal exposure due to inhalation and ingestion. In this paper, radiological impacts on human beings during normal circumstances of the decommissioning operation were evaluated from the current standard design of EU-APR based on the simple transport model and practical generic methodology for assessing the radiological impact provided by IAEA. The results of dose assessment fulfilled the dose limit for all scenarios.

  20. Tailings dams from the perspective of conventional dam engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    A guideline intended for conventional dams such as hydroelectric, water supply, flood control, or irrigation is used sometimes for evaluating the safety of a tailings dam. Differences between tailings dams and conventional dams are often substantial and, as such, should not be overlooked when applying the techniques or safety requirements of conventional dam engineering to tailings dams. Having a dam safety evaluation program developed specifically for tailings dams is essential, if only to reduce the chance of potential errors or omissions that might occur when relying on conventional dam engineering practice. This is not to deny the merits of using the Canadian Dam Safety Association Guidelines (CDSA) and similar conventional dam guidelines for evaluating the safety of tailings dams. Rather it is intended as a warning, and as a rationale underlying basic requirement of tailings dam emgineering: specific experience in tailings dams is essential when applying conventional dam engineering practice. A discussion is included that focuses on the more remarkable tailings dam safety practics. It is not addressed to a technical publications intended for such dams, or significantly different so that the use of conventional dam engineering practice would not be appropriate. The CDSA Guidelines were recently revised to include tailings dams. But incorporating tailings dams into the 1999 revision of the CDSA Guidelines is a first step only - further revision is necessary with respect to tailings dams. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Public safety around dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourassa, H [Centre d' expertise hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Fourty public dams are managed on a real-time basis by the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). This presentation described the public dams owned by the CEHQ and discussed the public safety measures at the dams. The dams serve various purposes, including protection against floods; industrial or drinking water supply; resort or recreational activities; hydroelectric development; and wildlife conservation. Trigger events were also discussed, such as the complaint at Rapides-des-Cedres dam and deaths that occurred in 2004 when water from a dam was released without warning. Several photographs were presented to illustrate that people were unaware of the danger. Initiatives aimed at raising awareness and studying public safety issues were discussed. A pilot project was launched and a permanent committee was created to evaluate all aspects of public safety at the dams owned by CEHQ. The first tasks of the committee were to establish requirements for waterway safety barriers, both upstream and downstream, for all public dams; to establish requirements for safety signage for all public dams; and to develop criteria to decide on safety signage at each dam. figs.

  2. Public safety around dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourassa, H. [Centre d' expertise hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Fourty public dams are managed on a real-time basis by the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). This presentation described the public dams owned by the CEHQ and discussed the public safety measures at the dams. The dams serve various purposes, including protection against floods; industrial or drinking water supply; resort or recreational activities; hydroelectric development; and wildlife conservation. Trigger events were also discussed, such as the complaint at Rapides-des-Cedres dam and deaths that occurred in 2004 when water from a dam was released without warning. Several photographs were presented to illustrate that people were unaware of the danger. Initiatives aimed at raising awareness and studying public safety issues were discussed. A pilot project was launched and a permanent committee was created to evaluate all aspects of public safety at the dams owned by CEHQ. The first tasks of the committee were to establish requirements for waterway safety barriers, both upstream and downstream, for all public dams; to establish requirements for safety signage for all public dams; and to develop criteria to decide on safety signage at each dam. figs.

  3. Rehabilitation at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.P.; Middleton, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Rehabilitation work on areas denuded of vegetation during the exploration phase of the Olympic Dam project was used to test various methods for regeneration of vegetation cover in the arid zone. The test work carried out on drill pads and access tracks has indicated that, with adequate site preparation, natural regeneration is the most economical and effective method to ensure post-operational stability of the affected land-forms. An on-going monitoring regime, utilising a computer data base, has been set up to allow year-to-year comparison of rehabilitation effectiveness. The database also provides a catalogue of initial colonising plants and a measure of variations in species diversity with time

  4. Assessment of Radionuclides Release from Inshas LILW Disposal Facility Under Normal and Unusual Operational Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Disposing of low and intermediate radioactive waste (LILW) is a big concern for Egypt due to the accumulated waste as a result of past fifty years of peaceful nuclear applications. Assessment of radionuclides release from Inshas LILW disposal facility under normal and unusual operational conditions is very important in order to apply for operation license of the facility. Aqueous release of radionuclides from this disposal facility is controlled by water flow, access of the water to the wasteform, release of the radionuclides from the wasteform, and transport to the disposal facility boundary. In this work, the release of 137 Cs , 6C o, and 90 Sr radionuclides from the Inshas disposal facility was studied under the change of operational conditions. The release of these radio contaminants from the source term to the unsaturated and saturated zones , to groundwater were studied. It was found that the concentration of radionuclides in a groundwater well located 150 m away from the Inshas disposal facility is less than the maximum permissible concentration in groundwater in both cases

  5. Large dams and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazelais, N.

    2003-01-01

    In July 1996, Quebec's Saguenay region was subjected to intensive rainfall which caused severe floods and uncontrolled release of several reservoirs, resulting in extensive damage to dam structures and reservoirs. The probability of occurrence for that disaster was 1:10,000. Following the disaster, the Quebec government established a dam management body entitled the Commission scientifique et technique sur la gestion des barrages, which pointed out several safety shortcomings of existing dams. Many were either very old or had undergone significant function change without being subsequently re-evaluated. A report by the Commission stated that damage following the floods could have been limited if the design and operating standards of the dams had been more stringent. A Dam Safety Act was adopted by the Quebec National Assembly on May 30, 2000 following recommendations to retain safer structures. The Act demands regular reporting of operating procedures. Seismic activity was noted as being a topic that requires in-depth examination since Quebec's St. Lawrence Valley, particularly the Charlevoix region, is one of Canada's largest seismic zones. The other is on the west coast in British Columbia. Earthquakes in Quebec are less intense than the ones in British Columbia, but they have higher frequency content which exerts a quasi-resonance wave effect which impacts roads, bridges, buildings and hydroelectric generating facilities. Hydro-Quebec is a public utility which owns 563 retaining structures, of which 228 are ranked as large dams that measure more than 15 metres high, 400 metres long and with a reservoir capacity of more than 1 million cubic metres of water. Hydro-Quebec addresses hydrological, seismic, technological and human risks through a dam safety procedure that includes structured plans for choosing best alternatives through staged exercises. Hazard levels are minimized through the adoption of emergency, prevention and alleviation measures. The utility

  6. Hydrological Analysis for Inflow Forecasting into Temengor Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najid, MI; Sidek, LM; Hidayah, B.; Roseli, ZA

    2016-03-01

    These days, natural disaster such as flood is the main concern for hydrologists. One of solutions in understanding the reason of flood is by prediction of the event sooner than normal occurrence. One of the criteria is lead time or travel time that is important in the study of fresh waters and flood events. Therefore, estimation of lead or travel time for flood event can be beneficial primary information. The objective of this study is to estimate the lead time or travel time for outlet of Temengor dam in Malaysia. Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) Sungai Perak dam operation has the main contribution on decision support for early water released and flood warning to authorities and locals resident for in the down streams area. For this study, hydrological analysis carried out will help to determine which years that give more rainfall contribution into the reservoir. Rainfall contribution of reservoir help to understanding rainfall distribution and peak discharge on that period. It also help for calibration of forecasting model system for better accuracy of flood hydrograph. There may be various methods to determine the rainfall contribution of catchment. The result has shown that, the rainfall contribution for Temengor catchment, is more on November in each year which is the monsoon season in Malaysia. TNB dam operational decision support systems can prepare and be more aware at this time for flood control and flood mitigation.

  7. Predictions of structural integrity of steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1996-09-01

    Available models for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions are reviewed. Tests conducted in the past, though limited, tended to show that the earlier flow-stress model for part-through-wall axial cracks overestimated the damaging influence of deep cracks. This observation is confirmed by further tests at high temperatures as well as by finite element analysis. A modified correlation for deep cracks can correct this shortcoming of the model. Recent tests have shown that lateral restraint can significantly increase the failure pressure of tubes with unsymmetrical circumferential cracks. This observation is confirmed by finite element analysis. The rate-independent flow stress models that are successful at low temperatures cannot predict the rate sensitive failure behavior of steam generator tubes at high temperatures. Therefore, a creep rupture model for predicting failure is developed and validated by tests under varying temperature and pressure loading expected during severe accidents

  8. Normal return and efficient operation of the electric grid monopolies; Normalavkastning og effektiv drift for nettmonopolene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjeret, Frode Andre

    2001-07-01

    This report deals with the size of the risk premium for electric grid operation in Norway. The size of the companies' risk premium must reflect the market requirements on return compensation (for normal investment risk), adjusted for the return risk for this type of enterprise. The return risk of the grid companies is discussed using two approaches, one theoretical and one empirical. This implies an empirical analysis of comparable foreign companies and an examination of the Norwegian regulatory regime. It is concluded that the regulatory authority is using too small an estimate for the risk premium when determining the capital income of the Norwegian utilities. The report also discusses the principles for valuation of the capital base.

  9. Environmental dose-assessment methods for normal operations at DOE nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Corley, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    Methods for assessing public exposure to radiation from normal operations at DOE facilities are reviewed in this report. The report includes a discussion of environmental doses to be calculated, a review of currently available environmental pathway models and a set of recommended models for use when environmental pathway modeling is necessary. Currently available models reviewed include those used by DOE contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other organizations involved in environmental assessments. General modeling areas considered for routine releases are atmospheric transport, airborne pathways, waterborne pathways, direct exposure to penetrating radiation, and internal dosimetry. The pathway models discussed in this report are applicable to long-term (annual) uniform releases to the environment: they do not apply to acute releases resulting from accidents or emergency situations

  10. Comparison of Pre-operative Central Corneal Thickness in Pediatric Cataract Cases versus Normal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Ali, M.; Zaheer, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the pre-operative central corneal thickness (CCT) in paediatric cataract patients with reference to normal control group. Study Design: A case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Paediatric Ophthalmology Clinic of Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital (ASTEH), Rawalpindi, from November 2009 to May 2010. Methodology: The study included 116 subjects with equal number of cases and controls. Demographic profile of all the subjects was noted followed by history and detailed ophthalmic examination. CCT was measured using an ultrasonic pachymeter (model Pac Scan 300). The mean of three measurements from the central cornea were recorded in microns. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results: Mean CCT values of the cases was 566.83 +- 37.646 microns while the control group had a mean CCT of 535.81 +- 24.466 microns. Difference between the CCT values of the two groups was highly significant (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Eyes with congenital cataracts have greater CCT values as compared to normal paediatric population. This factor must be kept in mind while interpreting intra-ocular pressure in such patients. (author)

  11. On the Similarity of Sturm-Liouville Operators with Non-Hermitian Boundary Conditions to Self-Adjoint and Normal Operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David; Siegl, Petr; Železný, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 255-281 ISSN 1661-8254 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002; GA MŠk LC527; GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD202/08/H072 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Sturm-Liouville operators * non-symmetric Robin boundary conditions * similarity to normal or self-adjoint operators * discrete spectral operator * complex symmetric operator * PT-symmetry * metric operator * C operator * Hilbert- Schmidt operators Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.545, year: 2014

  12. Reliability analysis of meteorological data registered during nuclear power plant normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, V.; Ulke, A.; Marino, B.; Thomas, L.

    2011-01-01

    The atmosphere is the environment in which gaseous radioactive discharges from nuclear power plants are transported. It is therefore essential to have reliable meteorological information to characterize the dispersion and feed evaluation models and radiological environmental impact during normal operation of the plant as well as accidental releases. In this way it is possible to determine the effects on the environment and in humans. The basic data needed to represent adequately the local weather include air temperature, wind speed and direction, rainfall, humidity and pressure. On the other hand, specific data consistent with the used model is required to determine the turbulence, for instance, radiation, cloud cover and vertical temperature gradient. It is important that the recorded data are representative of the local meteorology. This requires, first, properly placed instruments, that should be kept in operation and undergoing maintenance on a regular basis. Second, but equally substantial, a thorough analysis of its reliability must be performed prior to storage and/or data processing. In this paper we present the main criteria to consider choosing the location of a meteorological tower in the area of a nuclear power plant and propose a methodology for assessing the reliability of recorded data. The methodology was developed from the analysis of meteorological data registered in nuclear power plants in Argentina. (authors) [es

  13. Sinkhole remediation at Swinging Bridge Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. [Devine Tarbell and Associates, Portland, ME (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This case history summary described a piping-related sinkhole that occurred after a flood at the Swinging Bridge Dam. The earth-filled embankment dam was constructed using a hydraulic fill technique. A foundation drilling and grouting program was constructed in areas of the dam founded on jointed sandstone and shale. The storage volumes of the reservoir is 32,000 acre-feet. A sinkhole 25 to 300 feet in diameter was observed on May 5, 2005 along the edge of the dam crest. The sinkhole extended to within 10 feet of the reservoir and was separated by a shallow berm of soil and driftwood. Cracking of the crest extended across an area of 180 feet. Operations staff notified the appropriate agencies, implemented a monitoring program, and mobilized construction equipment and sands for use as emergency sinkhole filler. An increase in tailrace turbidity was observed. Historical records for the dam showed significant cracking during the initial filling of the reservoir. Failure modes included increased pore pressures and seepages resulting in the piping of soil along the outside of the dam conduit. Emergency repairs included chemical grouting and weld repairs in the penstocks. A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is currently addressing safety issues associated with conduits through dams. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Parameter study on the influence of prepressurization on LWR fuel rod behaviour during normal operation and hypothetical LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.P.; Brzoska, B.; Depisch, F.; Sauermann, W.

    1978-01-01

    To analyse the influence of prepressurization on fuel rod behaviour, a parametric study has been performed considering the effects of the as-fabricated fuel rod internal prepressure on the normal operation and postulated LOCA red behaviour of a 1300 MWe1 KWU standard nuclear power plant pressurized water reactor. A reduction of prepressurization in the analysed range results in a negligible worsened normal operation behaviour whereas the LOCA behaviour is improved significantly. (author)

  15. Expectations of immortality: dam safety management into the next millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, M.D. [Tonkin and Taylor International Ltd., Auckland, (New Zealand)

    1999-07-01

    Topics concerning the problems associated with older and aging dams are considered including: what can be done to extent the lifetime of an old dam, the decision to decommission a dam based on a value judgment that the risk of maintaining the dam is too great for society's acceptance, the possibility of change in the level of risk tolerance with time in a technological environment, traditional surveillance methods used by dam owners in the Y2K situation, and the unreality of dam immortality. Trends and means for preserving older dams for their owner's purposes are outlined, as well as their lifetime compared to that of the downstream systems they serve. Despite the fact that we live in a throwaway society, dam owners cannot just leave their dam asset when they are through with using it. Someone has to maintain the dam, or ensure that it is safely decommissioned when the owner is finished with it. On a worldwide scale the available pool of experienced dam engineers is shrinking. This problem needs to be addressed by a shift towards operating and dam safety management skills based on a firm awareness of dam design principles. A shift in society's expectations has occurred such that dam designers and owners must now recognize the impact a dam can have both on its natural and social environments. Because of the increasing emphasis on paying attention to the impacts of people's activities on the planet, engineers more than anyone else must have a significant influence in that direction. 9 refs.

  16. STUDY ON ENERGY EXCHANGE PROCESSES IN NORMAL OPERATION OF METRO ROLLING STOCK WITH REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Sulym

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The analysis of the existing studies showed that the increasing of energy efficiency of metro rolling stock becomes especially important and requires timely solutions. It is known that the implementation of regenerative braking systems on rolling stock will allow significantly solving this problem. It was proved that one of the key issues regarding the introduction of the above-mentioned systems is research on efficient use of electric energy of regenerative braking. The purpose of the work is to evaluate the amount of excessive electric power of regenerative braking under normal operation conditions of the rolling stock with regenerative braking systems for the analysis of the energy saving reserves. Methodology. Quantifiable values of electrical energy consumed for traction, returned to the contact line and dissipated in braking resistors (excessive energy are determined using results of experimental studies of energy exchange processes under normal operating conditions of metro rolling stock with regenerative systems. Statistical methods of data processing were applied as well. Findings. Results of the studies analysis of metro rolling stock operation under specified conditions in Sviatoshinsko-Brovarskaia line of KP «Kyiv Metro system» stipulate the following: 1 introduction of regenerative braking systems into the rolling stock allows to return about 17.9-23.2% of electrical energy consumed for traction to the contact line; 2 there are reserves for improving of energy efficiency of rolling stock with regenerative systems at the level of 20.2–29.9 % of electrical energy consumed for traction. Originality. For the first time, it is proved that the most significant factor that influences the quantifiable values of the electrical energy regeneration is a track profile. It is suggested to use coefficients which indicate the amount and reserves of unused (excessive electrical energy for quantitative evaluation. Studies on

  17. The role of dams in development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmak, C.

    2001-01-01

    Although the amounts of water resources are enough for the entire world, the distribution of them in time and space shows uneven pattern. The water need is increasing with heavy industrial and agricultural requirements, while available water in the world remains as a fixed source. Economic growth, socio-cultural, and environmental developments are being realized following these changes. In order to achieve sustainable management of water resources, these changes have to be taken into consideration in water-related development projects. Demand for water is steadily increasing through out the world, even though the fresh water resources are limited and unevenly distributed, during the past three centuries, the amount of water withdrawn from fresh water resources has increased by a factor of 35, whereas world population by a factor 8. The engineering of dams, which provides regular water from reservoirs of dams to be used in case of demand pattern, is a vital part of the civilization. Dams have played a key rote in the development since the third millennium B C when the first great civilizations evolved on major rivers, such as Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile and the Indus. From these early times dams were built for flood control, water supply, irrigation and navigation. Dams also had been built to produce motive power and electricity since the industrial revolution. Development priorities changed, experience accumulated with the construction and operation of dams. Although the importance of water is well known in the human life and civilization around the world, still various groups argue that expected economic benefits are not being produced and that major environmental, economic and social costs are not being taken into account. By the end of 20th century, there were 45000 large dams in over 150 countries. According to the same classification there are 625 large dams in Turkey. All over the world, 50 % of the large dams were built mainly for irrigation. It is estimated

  18. A multi-year analysis of spillway survival for juvenile salmonids as a function of spill bay operations at McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2004-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Hansel, Hal C.; Perry, Russell W.; Evans, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 6 years (2004-09) of passage and survival data collected at McNary Dam to examine how spill bay operations affect survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the spillway at McNary Dam. We also examined the relations between spill bay operations and survival through the juvenile fish bypass in an attempt to determine if survival through the bypass is influenced by spill bay operations. We used a Cormack-Jolly-Seber release-recapture model (CJS model) to determine how the survival of juvenile salmonids passing through McNary Dam relates to spill bay operations. Results of these analyses, while not designed to yield predictive models, can be used to help develop dam-operation strategies that optimize juvenile salmonid survival. For example, increasing total discharge typically had a positive effect on both spillway and bypass survival for all species except sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Likewise, an increase in spill bay discharge improved spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and an increase in spillway discharge positively affected spillway survival for juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The strong linear relation between increased spill and increased survival indicates that increasing the amount of water through the spillway is one strategy that could be used to improve spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. However, increased spill did not improve spillway survival for subyearling Chinook salmon and sockeye salmon. Our results indicate that a uniform spill pattern would provide the highest spillway survival and bypass survival for subyearling Chinook salmon. Conversely, a predominantly south spill pattern provided the highest spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. Although spill pattern was not a factor for spillway survival of sockeye salmon, spill bay operations that optimize passage through the north and south spill bays maximized

  19. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for selected dams in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and near Atoka, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Molly J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Grout, Trevor S.; Lewis, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and storage of water supplies, but they also entail risk; dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or improper operation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning an emergency response if a dam breach occurs.

  20. Response of currents and water quality to changes in dam operations in Hoover Reservoir, Columbus, Ohio, August 24–28, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonins, Branden L.; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2017-05-25

    Hoover Reservoir, an important drinking water supply for the City of Columbus, Ohio, has been the source of a series of taste and odor problems in treated drinking water during the past few years. These taste and odor problems were caused by the compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, which are thought to have been related to cyanobacteria blooms. In an effort to reduce the phosphorus available for cyanobacteria blooms at fall turnover, the City of Columbus began experimenting with the dam’s selective withdrawal system to remove excess phosphorus in the hypolimnion, which is released from bottom sediments during summer anoxic conditions.The U.S. Geological Survey completed two synoptic survey campaigns to assess distributions of water quality and water velocity in the lower part of Hoover Reservoir to provide information on the changes to reservoir dynamics caused by changing dam operations. One campaign (campaign 1) was done while water was being withdrawn from the reservoir through the dam’s middle gate and the other (campaign 2) while water was being withdrawn through the dam’s lower gate. Velocities were measured using an acoustic Doppler current profiler, and water-quality parameters were measured using an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with water-quality sensors. Along with the water-quality and water-velocity data, meteorological, inflow and outflow discharges, and independent water-quality data were compiled to monitor changes in other parameters that affect reservoir behavior. Monthly nutrient data, collected by the City of Columbus, were also analyzed for trends in concentration during periods of expected stratification.Based on the results of the two campaigns, when compared to withdrawing water through the middle gate, withdrawing water through the lower gate seemed to increase shear-driven mixing across the thermocline, which resulted in an increase in the depth of the epilimnion throughout the lower part of Hoover Reservoir. The

  1. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproduction Success of Kokanee in the Flathead River System, 1986 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Clancey, Patrick

    1987-03-01

    eggs above minimum pool depends on redds being wetted by groundwater seeps. After 40 days exposure by drawdown, eggs in groundwater seeps showed 86 percent survival, whereas outside of the groundwater seeps eggs survived less than six days. These results confirm that exposure by drawdown is the primary factor that limits kokanee reproductive success in redds above minimum pool. We surveyed the west and south shoreline of Flathead Lake to locate potential kokanee spawning habitat. We found conditions which could support incubating eggs at two sites in South Ray and two sites on the west shore of the lake. Seven other sites on the west shore were not suitable due to low groundwater discharge or low dissolved oxygen. In all these areas suitable substrate existed only within the drawdown zone. The lake should be drafted earlier in the fall, and filled earlier in the spring to improve recruitment from lakeshore spawning. We conducted creel surveys during 1985, and estimated that anglers caught 192,000 kokanee. Anglers harvested 49,200 fish during the ice fishery in Skidoo Bay, 129,000 fish during the summer fishery on the lake, and 13,800 during the fall river fishery. Estimated fishing pressure for the year exceeded 188,000 angler hours. The abundance of mysid shrimp in Flathead Lake, measured at six index stations, increased to 130/mIf in 1986. My&Is increased tenfold from 1984 to 1985, and about threefold from 1985 to 1986. Monitoring of mysid shrimp and zooplankton populations in Flathead Lake is supplementing an investigation of the growth and survival of juvenile kokanee. Kokanee and mysid shrimp feed primarily on planktonic crustaceans. This work was designed to detect a potential decline in kokanee recruitment or growth brought about by competitive interaction with mysid shrimp. Fluctuation in adult kokanee year class strength is in part attributable to the negative effects of hydroelectric dam operation on reproductive success in the main stem Flathead River and in

  2. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage through the normal duct in patients with post-operative bile leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Yong Joo

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) through the normal duct in patients with post-operative bile leakage. From January 1998 to December 2003, fourteen patients (male: 12, female: 2, mean age: 56) with biliary leak after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n = 5), T-tube removal (n = 5), choledochojejunostomy due to small bowel perforation (n = 1), right lobectomy (n = 1), laparoscopic adrenalectomy (n = 1), and subtotal gastrectomy (n = 1) were treated by means of PTBD; this was performed with the two-step approach. The central bile duct was cannulated using a 21-G Chiba needle to map the intrahepatic biliary tree. An 8.5-F drainage catheter tip was positioned at the CBD after puncturing peripheral bile duct with an additional Chiba needle. We evaluated the technical feasibility, the procedure-related complications, clinical efficacy and the duration of catheter placement. PTBD of the normal duct with the two-step approach was successful in all but two cases. In these two cases, the two-step approach was failed due to the rapid disappearance of the targeted peripheral duct, and this was the result caused by biloportal fistula. PTBD was performed through the central bile duct in one patient, and through the remnant cystic duct in one patient. There were no procedure-related complications except for mild abdominal pain in seven patients. Bile leakage was demonstrated on cholangiogram in 10 of 14 patients; this occurred at the T-tube exit site (n = 4), cystic duct stump (n = 2), choledochojejunostomy site (n = 1), resection margin of liver (n = 1), caudate lobe (n = 1), and GB bed (n = 1). In 13 patients, the biliary leak stopped after drainage (mean duration: 32.1 days). In one patient, surgical management was performed one day after PTBD due to the excessive amount of bile leakage. PTBD is a technically feasible and clinically efficacious treatment for post-operative bile leakage, and it can

  3. Worst-case prediction of normal operating containment temperatures for environmentally qualified equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnopoler, M.J.; Sundergill, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Due to issues raised in NRC Information Notice No. 87-65, a southern US nuclear plant was concerned about thermal aging of environmentally qualified (EQ) equipment located in areas of elevated containment temperatures. A method to predict the worst-case monthly temperatures at various zones in the containment and calculate the qualified life using this monthly temperature was developed. Temperatures were predicted for twenty locations inside the containment. Concern about the qualified life of EQ equipment resulted from normal operating temperatures above 120F in several areas of the containment, especially during the summer. At a few locations, the temperature exceeded 140F. Also, NRC Information Notice No. 89-30 reported high containment temperatures at three other nuclear power plants. The predicted temperatures were based on a one-year containment temperature monitoring program. The monitors included permanent temperature monitors required by the Technical Specifications and temporary monitors installed specifically for this program. The temporary monitors were installed near EQ equipment in the expected worst-case areas based on design and operating experience. A semi-empirical model that combined physical and statistical models was developed. The physical model was an overall energy balance for the containment. The statistical model consists of several linear regressions that conservatively relate the monitor temperatures to the bulk containment temperature. The resulting semi-empirical model predicts the worst-case monthly service temperatures at the location of each of the containment temperature monitors. The monthly temperatures are the maximum expected because they are based on the historically worst-case atmospheric data

  4. Laboratory determination of normal operating flow rates with enlarged outlet fittings -- BDF reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, E.D.

    1960-02-02

    Experiments have been conducted in the Hydraulics Laboratory, at the request of IPD`s Mechanical Development-A Operation, to determine the energy losses of various enlarged outlet fitting combinations. These experiments were conducted an steady state runs and allow the determination of the normal operating point (flow rate) of a reactor process channel under selected conditions of front header pressure and fuel charge. No attempt is made to make a mechanical or economic evaluation of the particular fitting combinations, although observations were noted which might bear on this evaluation. It is very important for the reader to bear in mind that changing outlet fittings will definitely affect the reactor tube power limits and outlet vater temperature limits. The size of the outlet fittings largely determines the present outlet temperature limits of the old reactors. The flow characteristics of these present fittings cause some degree of pressurization to suppress boiling on the fuel charge and also cause dual Panellit trip protection for certain flow changes and for power surges. Enlargement of the outlet fittings may actually reduce the allowable outlet coolant temperature limits. Since these effects cannot be determined on the apparatus used in these experiments, a complete discussion of this point is not included in this report. However, the seriousness of these effects should be known and carefully analyzed before a final selection of enlarged outlet fittings in made. This report will be one of a series. New reports in the series will be issued as data are obtained for other such outlet fitting combinations or for new concepts of outlet fitting assemblies such as the new nozzle being developed by C. E. Trantz for use on F-reactor stuck gunbarrel tubes.

  5. Geodetic deformation monitoring at Pendidikan Diponegoro Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwono, Bambang Darmo; Awaluddin, Moehammad; Yusuf, M. A.; Fadillah, Rizki

    2017-07-01

    Deformation monitoring is one indicator to assess the feasibility of Dam. In order to get the correct result of the deformation, it is necessary to determine appropriate deformation monitoring network and the observation data should be analyse and evaluated carefully. Measurement and analysis of deformation requires relatively accurate data and the precision is high enough, one of the observation method that used is GPS (Global Positioning System). The research was conducted at Pendidikan Undip Dams is Dam which is located in Tembang. Diponegoro Dam was built in 2013 and a volume of 50.86 m3 of water, inundation normal width of up to 13,500 m2. The main purpose of these building is not only for drainage but also for education and micro hydro power plant etc. The main goal of this reasearch was to monitor and analyze the deformation at Pendidikan Undip Dam and to determaine whether GPS measurement could meet accuracy requirement for dam deformation measurements. Measurements were made 2 times over 2 years, 2015 and 2016 using dual frequency GPS receivers with static methods and processed by Scientific Software GAMIT 10.6

  6. FREC-4A: a computer program to predict fuel rod performance under normal reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harayama, Yasuo; Izumi, Fumio

    1981-10-01

    The program FREC-4A (Fuel Reliability Evaluation Code-version 4A) is used for predicting fuel rod performance in normal reactor operation. The performance is calculated in accordance with the irradiation history of fuel rods. Emphasis is placed on the prediction of the axial elongation of claddings induced by pellet-cladding mechanical interaction, including the influence of initially preloaded springs inserted in fuel rod lower plenums. In the FREC-4A, an fuel rod is divided into axial segments. In each segment, it is assumed that the temperature, stress and strain are axi-symmetrical, and the axial strain in constant in fuel pellets and in a cladding, though the values in the pellets and in the cladding are different. The calculation of the contact load and the clearance along the length of a fuel rod and the stress and strain in each segment is explained. The method adopted in the FREC-4A is simple, and suitable to predict the deformation of fuel rods over their full length. This report is described on the outline of the program, the method of solving the stiffness equations, the calculation models, the input data such as irradiation history, output distribution, material properties and pores, the printing-out of input data and calculated results. (Kako, I.)

  7. DOSEFU: Computer application for dose calculation and effluent management in normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Garcia, J. E.; Gonzalvo Manovel, A.; Revuelta Garcia, L.

    2002-01-01

    DOSEFU is a computer application on Windows that develops the methodology of nuclear power plant Exterior Dose Calculation Manuals (Manuals de Calculo de Dosis al Exterior-MACADE) for calculating doses in normal operation caused by radioactive liquid and gaseous effluents, for the purpose of enforcing the new Spanish Regulation on Health Protection against Ionizing Radiations, Royal Decree 783/2001 resulting from transposition of Directive 96/29/Euratom whereby the basic rules regarding health protection of workers and the population against risks resulting from ionizing radiations are established. In addition to making dose calculations, DOSEFU generates, on a magnetic support, the information regarding radioactive liquid and gaseous effluents that plants must periodically send to the CSN (ELGA format). The computer application has been developed for the specific case of Jose Cabrera NPP, which is called DOEZOR. This application can be easily implemented in any other nuclear or radioactive facility. The application is user-friendly, as the end user inputs data and executes the different modules through keys and dialogue boxes that are enabled by clicking on the mouse (see figures 2, 3, 4 and 5 ), The application runs under Windows 95. Digital Visual Fortran has been used as the development program, as this does not require additional libraries (DLLs), it can be installed in any computer without affecting other programs that are already installed. (Author)

  8. Evaluation of gap heat transfer model in ELESTRES for CANDU fuel element under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Moon; Ohn, Myung Ryong; Im, Hong Sik; Choi, Jong Hoh; Hwang, Soon Taek

    1995-01-01

    The gap conductance between the fuel and the sheath depends strongly on the gap width and has a significant influence on the amount of initial stored energy. The modified Ross and Stoute gap conductance model in ELESTRES is based on a simplified thermal deformation model for steady-state fuel temperature calculations. A review on a series of experiments reveals that fuel pellets crack, relocate, and are eccentrically positioned within the sheath rather than solid concentric cylinders. In this paper, the two recently-proposed gap conductance models (offset gap model and relocated gap model) are described and are applied to calculate the fuel-sheath gap conductances under experimental conditions and normal operating conditions in CANDU reactors. The good agreement between the experimentally-inferred and calculated gap conductance values demonstrates that the modified Ross and Stoute model was implemented correctly in ELESTRES. The predictions of the modified Ross and Stoute model provide conservative values for gap heat transfer and fuel surface temperature compared to the offset gap and relocated gap models for a limiting power envelope. 13 figs., 3 tabs., 16 refs. (Author)

  9. Dams. Bulletin of the technical service of electric power and big dams; Barrages. Bulletin du service technique de l`energie electrique et des grands barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davard, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Dams bulletin reports on technical news concerning big French dams in operation. This issue comprises 5 papers. Two of them are examples of granting problems which led to the dismantling of the dams of Kernansquillec (Cotes d`Armor, France) and Maisons-Rouges (Indre-et-Loire, France) for economical and environmental reasons. The 3 other papers concern the life of French dams (technical control reports of the French dams in operation), the activities of the control service (annual inspections, preparation of draining operations, renewing of granting), and some general information (organisation of competent authorities, colloquium reports, hydro-power production during the first quarter of 1997). (J.S.)

  10. 30 CFR 715.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... overtopping by wind and wave action. (iii) Dams shall have minimum safety factors as follows: Case Loading... title and the name of the person operating or controlling the dam, shall be located on or immediately...

  11. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  12. Teton Dam failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snorteland, N. [United States Dept. of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States). Bureau of Reclamation

    2009-07-01

    This case summary discussed an internal erosion failure that occurred at the embankment foundation of Teton Dam. The project was designed as a run-of-the-river power generation facility and to provide irrigation, flood protection, and power generation to the lower Teton region of southern Idaho. The dam site was located next to the eastern Snake River plain, a volcanic filled depression. The foundation's cutoff trench was excavated into the bedrock along the length of the dam. The dam was designed as a zoned earthfill with a height of 305 feet. A trench made of low plasticity windblown silt was designed to connect the embankment core to the rock foundation. Seeps were noted in 1976, and a leak was observed near the toe of the dam. A wet spot appeared on the downstream face of the dam at elevation 5200. A sinkhole then developed. The embankment crest collapsed, and the dam breached. Peak outflow was estimated at 1,000,000 cfs. The failure was attributed to a lack of communication between designers, a failure to understand geologic information about the region, and an insufficient review of designs and specifications by designers and field personnel. No monitoring instrumentation was installed in the embankment. Approximately 300 square miles were inundated, and 25,000 people were displaced. Eleven people were killed. A review group noted that the rock surface was not adequately sealed, and that the dam failed as a result of inadequate protection of the impervious core material from internal erosion. 42 figs.

  13. Research on early-warning index of the spatial temperature field in concrete dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Gu, Chongshi; Bao, Tengfei; Cui, Zhenming; Kan, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Warning indicators of the dam body's temperature are required for the real-time monitoring of the service conditions of concrete dams to ensure safety and normal operations. Warnings theories are traditionally targeted at a single point which have limitations, and the scientific warning theories on global behavior of the temperature field are non-existent. In this paper, first, in 3D space, the behavior of temperature field has regional dissimilarity. Through the Ward spatial clustering method, the temperature field was divided into regions. Second, the degree of order and degree of disorder of the temperature monitoring points were defined by the probability method. Third, the weight values of monitoring points of each regions were explored via projection pursuit. Forth, a temperature entropy expression that can describe degree of order of the spatial temperature field in concrete dams was established. Fifth, the early-warning index of temperature entropy was set up according to the calculated sequential value of temperature entropy. Finally, project cases verified the feasibility of the proposed theories. The early-warning index of temperature entropy is conducive to the improvement of early-warning ability and safety management levels during the operation of high concrete dams.

  14. Non uniform nature of recorded ground accelerations at dam foundation interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaemian, Mohsen; Gilani, Morteza Sohrabi [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noorzad, Ali [Power and Water University of Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    The Karun III is a double curved concrete arch dam located in Iran which was used to investigate earthquake motions and dam responses. This paper presented the study of the Karun III dam foundation interface. Using an array of 15 accelerometers, two major events that occurred on 2007.11.20 and 2007.11.21 were recorded during dam operation with a PGA at crest of 0.312 g and 0.109.g respectively. A finite element model of Karun III dam was performed. The response of the Karun III dam during the 2007 earthquake was investigated using the NSAD-DRI program. It was found that the motion of the dam foundation interface is non-uniform. There is a time shift and amplification at the abutment compared to those at the base of the dam. The results showed that the spatially varying earthquake assumption is in good agreement with the recorded displacement of the dam.

  15. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the...

  16. Figurative and Operative Bases of Memory: Evidence from Normal and Learning Disabled Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier, Mary L.; Liben, Lynn S.

    A set of studies investigated the relative importance of operative schemes and figurative (rote) memory. In Study I, 60 concrete operational children from grades 1-4 were asked to reconstruct two types of stimuli from memory. In order to separate the effects of operative and figurative skill use, learning disabled children with poor figurative…

  17. Nuclear power plant operating personnel training for normal and accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrene, C.

    1995-01-01

    Training system of reactor operating staff in France for maximum safety is discussed. The structure of the training program consists of three levels, initial training in each aspect of operations job functions, with systematic refresher training sessions; the principles at global team skills; the range of skills required for unit operation. (N.T.). 1 fig

  18. New layout concepts in MW-scale IGBT modules for higher robustness during normal and abnormal operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    the Finite-Element-Method AnSYS Q3D Extractor, electromagnetic simulations are conducted to extract the self and mutual inductance from the six different layouts. PSpice simulations are used to reveal that the stray parameters inside the module play an important role under normal and abnormal operations...

  19. Buckling resistance calculation of Guide Thimbles for the mechanical design of fuel assembly type PWR under normal reactor operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, C.B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The calculations demonstrate the fulfillment of one of the mechanical design criteria for the Fuel Assembly Structure under normal reactor operating conditions. The calculations of stresses in the Guide Thimbles are performed with the aid of the program ANSYS. This paper contains program parameters and modelling of a typical Fuel Assembly for a Reactor similar to ANGRA II. (author)

  20. 45 CFR 91.13 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: Normal operation or statutory objective of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... objective of any program or activity. A recipient is permitted to take an action, otherwise prohibited by...: Normal operation or statutory objective of any program or activity. 91.13 Section 91.13 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN...

  1. Evaluating new methods for direct measurement of the moderator temperature coefficient in nuclear power plants during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makai, M.; Kalya, Z.; Nemes, I.; Pos, I.; Por, G.

    2007-01-01

    Moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity is not monitored during fuel cycles in WWER reactors, because it is not very easy or impossible to measure it without disturbing the normal operation. Two new methods were tested in our WWER type nuclear power plant to try methodologies, which enable to measure that important to safety parameter during the fuel cycle. One is based on small perturbances, and only small changes are requested in operation, the other is based on noise methods, which means it is without interference with reactor operation. Both method is new that aspects that they uses the plant computer data(VERONA) based signals calculated by C P ORCA diffusion code (Authors)

  2. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  3. 33 CFR 208.32 - Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith, Canadian River, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.32 Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith, Canadian River, Tex. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Sanford Dam and...

  4. 33 CFR 208.34 - Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird, Little River, Okla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.34 Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird, Little River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate Norman Dam and Lake...

  5. Isotope technique in JPS dam surveillance: its potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Controlling seepage is one of the most important requirements for safe dams. Any leakage at an earth embankment may be potentially dangerous since rapid internal erosion may quickly enlarge an initially minor defect. Thus dam owners need to have thorough surveillance programs that can forewarn of impending problems from seepage or other factors influencing the safety of dams. In carrying out dam surveillance works, all possible efforts should be considered and foreseeing the potential of isotope technique, JPS (Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Malaysia) and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) participated actively in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA program under RAS/8/093 project sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Through these activities, it was noted that the technique demonstrated very promising potentials such as in assisting dam site selections, site investigations, watershed studies, dam and reservoir design, leakage investigations and sediments related issues, the two latter ones being relatively critical during the operational life of the dam. Establishment of baseline isotopic characteristics (or fingerprint), hydrochemistry, electrical conductivity and temperature profiles is underway for all JPS dams to be later utilized in diagnosing seepage related issues it is suggested that application of this technique be extended to other dam owners nationwide. (Author)

  6. Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

  7. 76 FR 36864 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Operation Without Normal Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Normal Electric Power AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special... Interface Branch, ANM-111, Transport Standards Staff, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification... Model GVI airplane will be an all-new, two- engine jet transport airplane. The maximum takeoff weight...

  8. Hydroelectric dams need billions for rehab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, F.H.; Soast, A.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the Corps of Engineers older hydroelectric dams will require major rehabilitation over the next ten years. Preventive maintenance, repair work, and major rehabilitation of the Corp's hydro dams in inadequate because the revenue generated by sales of electricity, by law, is returned to the Treasury. Most multimillion dollar rehabilitation projects require specific approval for funding by Congress and securing it is a long and difficult process. It is hoped the funding problem will soon be addressed by the Clinton administration. Already, nearly one-sixth of the 2,154 Mw of hydro is unavailable because with hydro units are either out of service or operating at less than full capacity

  9. Impact of changed fuel performances on safety barrier effectiveness at normal operation of NPP with WWER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhurbenko, A. V.; Semchenkov, Y. M.; Slavyagin, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of adopted safety barriers against propagation of fission product released from WWER core of active power plants. Relationship between system and equipment performances and safety barriers is demonstrated. The fundamental principles of methodological approach to the operational limit determination based on the assessment of iodine-131 specific activity in the primary circuit are discussed. Problems of substantiating the operational limit for primary coolant activity are analyzed for conditions of growing burnup (Authors)

  10. Results of tests under normal and abnormal operating conditions concerning LMFBR fuel element behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.; Bergeonneau, P.; Essig, C.; Guerin, Y.

    1985-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to improve the knowledge on LMFBR fuel element behaviour during protected and unprotected transients in RAPSODIE and PHENIX reactors in order to evaluate its reliability. The range of the tests performed in these reactors is sufficiently large to cover normal and also extreme off normal conditions such as fuel melting. Results of such tests allow to better establish transient design limits for reactor structural components in particular for fuel pin cladding which play a lead role in controlling the accident sequence. Three main topics are emphasized in this paper: fuel melting during slow over-power excursions; influence of the fuel element geometrical evolution on reactivity feedback effects and reactor dynamic behaviour; clad damage evaluation during a transient (essentially very severe loss of flow)

  11. Operation of a plant for waste combustion in the dim frames and the national and Europe legislation in the case of the solid waste combustion plant Rugenberger-Dam in Hamburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, D.; Zwahr, D.

    2000-01-01

    The difficulties in the operation of a waste processing plant are demonstrated on the example of the waste combustion facility Rudenberger-Dam in Hamburg. The installation and processes are described in details. The produced in the process 30% HCL is in compliance with the requirements for a commercial product, but since it is produced as a result from the processing of waste gases, it is treated as a waste product. Similar problems occur in other installations. German and European legislation in the field of waste management are unnecessary complicated. The introduction of technical frame conditions in the laws often presents an obstacle for the application of new technologies. It is pointed out that the time for changes in the environment legislation has come

  12. Investigation on the Causes of Cracking in Earth Dams (Case study: Mahmood-Abad Earth Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rahimi

    2016-09-01

    river base beneath the dam structure. In fact , this layer has not been considered in the analysis as well in design. Because of fully saturated condition of this layer in an operation period of dam it might subjected to liquefaction during the happening of the earthquake. Evaluation of liquefaction potential of this layer based on Seed and Idriss (1971 diagram showed probability of this phenomenon. To prove this hypothesis, the stability analysis had been conducted in two different conditions by including the thin sandy layer and without considering the mentioned layer. The analysis showed in the case of absence of sandy layer the required safety factor was satisfied, but including the sandy layer leads cause the safety factor dropped to 0.84 that means accruing of liquefaction in the thin layer would lead to structural instability of the studied dam. The simulation of the behavior of dam by employing the accrued earthquake acceleration confirmed the liquefaction has been accrued in the thin sandy layer. The results of finite element simulation showed the depth of the cracks on the crest is about 2 meters and also the upstream slope has slipped about 81 mm to the reservoir of the dam. These results was consistent with the observed values. To overcome the next risks, also to repair the damaged parts of the dam, 3 different methods had been proposed. The curing technics was deploying of the reservoir and removing of the damage part of the dam and as well the thin sandy layer and reconstructed that part of dam, Deploying of reservoir of the dam and adjusting the slope of the upper shoulder to stable condition and at least repairing the developed cracks by injecting cement slurry and tolerate the current condition without imposition any additional costs to the project. The third method has been selected, but for any probable risky condition monitoring of the dam has been advised. Conclusion: Based on the overall results of the investigations, it was concluded that cracking

  13. Small dams need better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Many small dams around the world are poorly maintained and represent a safety hazard, according to Pisaniello et al. Better oversight of small dams is needed, the authors argue. The researchers reviewed literature, conducted case studies in four states in Australia, and developed policy benchmarks and best practices for small-dam management. Small dams, often just several meters high and typically privately owned by individual farmers, have historically caused major damage when they fail. For instance, in China in 1975, 230,000 people died when two large dams failed because of the cumulative failure of 60 smaller upstream dams. In the United States, in 1977 the 8-meter-high Kelly Barnes Lake dam failed, killing 39 people. Many other small-dam failures around the world have resulted in casualties and severe ecological and economic damage.

  14. Computation of fission product distribution in core and primary circuit of a high temperature reactor during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattke, U.H.

    1991-08-01

    The fission product release during normal operation from the core of a high temperature reactor is well known to be very low. A HTR-Modul-reactor with a reduced power of 170 MW th is examined under the aspect whether the contamination with Cs-137 as most important nuclide will be so low that a helium turbine in the primary circuit is possible. The program SPTRAN is the tool for the computations and siumlations of fission product transport in HTRs. The program initially developed for computations of accident events has been enlarged for computing the fission product transport under the conditions of normal operation. The theoretical basis, the used programs and data basis are presented followed by the results of the computations. These results are explained and discussed; moreover the consequences and future possibilities of development are shown. (orig./HP) [de

  15. NORMALIZATION OF AUTOMOTIVE BRAKE CHARACTERISTICS WHILE OPERATING THEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Flerko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety provision for the operated auto-transport facilities is of great significance all over the world. The problem is also considered as an actual one for the automotive transport of theRepublicofBelarus. Provision of higher brake system reliability for the operated vehicles is one of the directions to solve the problem pertaining to improve traffic safety.The paper contains an analysis of basic national standard documents which regulate brake characteristics for the operated vehicles, evaluates checking methods of braking efficiency and vehicle stability at the moment of braking, considers some problems pertaining to methods used for checking and estimation of braking control systems of transport facilities. 

  16. Cooling system of the core of a nuclear reactor while it is being stopped or normally operating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention proposes a cooling system with intermediate gas flow which ensures the reactor core cooling when the primary pumps are stopped either directly by means of main heat-exchange circuits ensuring normally the reactor operation, or by means of separated loops, these ones being able so to operate in an autonomous way for they produce their own electricity needs and also an excedent which is added to the power plant production. The cooling circuit and the heat exchanger are described in detail [fr

  17. Distributed hierarchical control architecture for integrating smart grid assets during normal and disrupted operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Karan; Fuller, Jason C.; Somani, Abhishek; Pratt, Robert G.; Chassin, David P.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2017-09-12

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for facilitating operation and control of a resource distribution system (such as a power grid). Among the disclosed embodiments is a distributed hierarchical control architecture (DHCA) that enables smart grid assets to effectively contribute to grid operations in a controllable manner, while helping to ensure system stability and equitably rewarding their contribution. Embodiments of the disclosed architecture can help unify the dispatch of these resources to provide both market-based and balancing services.

  18. Simulation of zincblende AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors for normally-off operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, R.; Bayram, C.

    2017-07-01

    In this work we investigate design parameters enabling normally-off operation of zincblende (ZB-) phase Al X Ga(1-X)N/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) via Synopsys Sentaurus Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD). As ZB-phase III-nitrides are polarization-free, the 2D electron gas (2DEG) channel at the Al X Ga(1-X)N/GaN heterojunction is formed through intentional δ-doping part of the Al X Ga(1-X)N barrier layer. The impact of each of the design parameters (i.e. Al-content and thickness of Al X Ga(1-X)N barrier; δ-doping location (within the Al X Ga(1-X)N barrier), δ-doped Al X Ga(1-X)N layer thickness and its doping amount; gate metal) are studied in detail and design trade-offs are reported. We show that work function of the gate metal impacts normally-off behavior and turn-on voltage considerably. Our results suggest that Al-content of 35% or less in the Al X Ga(1-X)N barrier results in a normally-off behavior whereas Al X Ga(1-X)N barrier thickness is effective in controlling the turn-on voltage. Overall, we provide design guidelines in controlling the normally-on/-off operation, threshold voltage, and 2DEG density in ZB-phase AlGaN/GaN HEMT technology.

  19. Improvement of the mechanical performance of Fergoug dam sediments treated for reuse in road engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader LAROUCI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of siltation is one of the main problems facing many dams throughout the world, and particularly in Algeria. The mud, before and even after extraction, is always harmful. Indeed, mud is a harmful material, first for dams, because it reduces their capacity of water storage, and second, for the environment following the desilting operations that generate large quantities of materials that occupy and sometimes pollute large areas. However, these materials can be exploited differently and used in other fields. The envisaged research work relates to real cases of silted dams, such as the dam of Fergoug (western Algeria whose siltation rate is very high; it is estimated at 97% of its initial capacity which, according to the National Agency for Dams (Agence Nationale des Barrages - ANB, is equal to 18 million m3. The large quantities of silt extracted present an environmental problem, and its use as a local raw material for the manufacture of civil engineering materials can contribute to solve this problem. The vulnerable lands of the sub-catchment of Wadi Fergoug (Fergoug River extend over an area of 122 km2, from a total surface of 8340 km2 for the dam catchment area. There is a great diversity of superficial formations with predominantly clay soils from marly formations. The rate of specific erosion has increased to 160 T/ km2/ year due to irregular annual rainfall resulting from a succession of dry and wet years. Sedimentary materials, which are found in considerable quantities, were collected at the foot of the dam, on its right bank. This study attempts to find a recycling pathway for these sediments. The objective of the present work is to investigate the behavior of silt from the dam of Fergoug (Algeria for the purpose of using it in road construction (foundation and base layers. The method adopted is to reconstitute, in the laboratory, samples of mixtures containing road aggregates with different proportions of silt. These

  20. Radioactive airborne effluents and the environmental impact assessment of CAP1400 nuclear power plant under normal operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiong; Guo, RuiPing; Zhang, ChunMing; Chen, XiaoQiu; Wang, Bo, E-mail: wangbo@chinansc.cn

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Typical radionuclides dispersion from CAP1400 under normal operation was simulated. • Modified Gaussian model considered radioactive decay, dry and wet deposition and so on. • The radioactive impact pathways on the public through atmosphere were compared. • The maximum individual effective dose was lower than the public irradiation limit. - Abstract: China Advanced Passive nuclear power plant with installed capacity reaching to 1400 MW (CAP1400) is independently designed as the China's state-of-the-art third generation nuclear power brand based on AP1000 technology digestion and absorption. The concentration of typical radionuclides dispersed from CAP1400 under normal operation was calculated with modified Gaussian model, considering mixed layer height, dry deposition, wet deposition, radioactive decay and so on. The atmospheric dispersion factors, ground deposition rate, individual dose and public dose were also investigated to estimate the radioactive effects of CAP1400 under normal operation on surrounding environment and human beings. The radioactive impact pathways on the public through atmosphere, such as immersion irradiation in the smoke plume, internal irradiation from ingestion and inhalation and external irradiation from surface deposition were briefly introduced with focus on the comparison of the maximum individual effective dose to different group from atmospheric dispersion. All computation results show that the maximum individual irradiation dose happened to children with total effective irradiation dose of 4.52E−03 mSv/y, which was lower than the public irradiation limit of 0.25 mSv/y.

  1. Radioactive airborne effluents and the environmental impact assessment of CAP1400 nuclear power plant under normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiong; Guo, RuiPing; Zhang, ChunMing; Chen, XiaoQiu; Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Typical radionuclides dispersion from CAP1400 under normal operation was simulated. • Modified Gaussian model considered radioactive decay, dry and wet deposition and so on. • The radioactive impact pathways on the public through atmosphere were compared. • The maximum individual effective dose was lower than the public irradiation limit. - Abstract: China Advanced Passive nuclear power plant with installed capacity reaching to 1400 MW (CAP1400) is independently designed as the China's state-of-the-art third generation nuclear power brand based on AP1000 technology digestion and absorption. The concentration of typical radionuclides dispersed from CAP1400 under normal operation was calculated with modified Gaussian model, considering mixed layer height, dry deposition, wet deposition, radioactive decay and so on. The atmospheric dispersion factors, ground deposition rate, individual dose and public dose were also investigated to estimate the radioactive effects of CAP1400 under normal operation on surrounding environment and human beings. The radioactive impact pathways on the public through atmosphere, such as immersion irradiation in the smoke plume, internal irradiation from ingestion and inhalation and external irradiation from surface deposition were briefly introduced with focus on the comparison of the maximum individual effective dose to different group from atmospheric dispersion. All computation results show that the maximum individual irradiation dose happened to children with total effective irradiation dose of 4.52E−03 mSv/y, which was lower than the public irradiation limit of 0.25 mSv/y

  2. Characterisation of radioactive waste at Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordache, M.; Bujoreanu, L.; Popescu, I. V.

    2008-01-01

    During the operation of a nuclear plant significant quantities of radioactive waste results that have a very large diversity. At Cernavoda NPP the important waste categories are non-radioactive wastes and radioactive wastes, which are manipulated completely different from which other. For a CANDU type reactor, the production of radioactive wastes is due to contamination with the following types of radioactive substances: - fission products resulting from nuclear fuel burning; - activated products of materials which form part of the technological systems; - activated products of process fluids. Radioactive wastes can be in solid, liquid or gas form. At Cernavoda NPP the solid wastes represent about 70% of the waste volume which is produced during plant operation and as a consequence of maintenance and decontamination activities. The most important types of solid wastes that are obtained and then handled, processed (if required) and temporarily stored are: solid low level radioactive wastes (classified as compact and non-compact), solid medium radioactive wastes, spent resins, used filters and filter cartridges. The liquid radioactive waste class includes organic liquids (used oil, scintillator liquids and used solvents) and aqueous wastes resulting from process system operating, decontamination and maintenance operations. Radioactive gas wastes occur subsequent to the fission process inside the fuel elements as well as due to the process fluids neutron activation in the reactor systems. As result of the plant operation, iodine, noble gases, tritium and radioactive particles occur and are passed to the ventilation stack in a controlled manner so that an exceeding of the maximum permissible concentrations of radioactive material to the environment should not occur. (authors)

  3. Introduction of an Emergency Response Plan for flood loading of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Muda, R. S.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul

    2016-03-01

    Sultan Abu Bakar Dam Emergency Response Plan (ERP) is designed to assist employees for identifying, monitoring, responding and mitigation dam safety emergencies. This paper is outlined to identification of an organization chart, responsibility for emergency management team and triggering level in Sultan Abu Bakar Dam ERP. ERP is a plan that guides responsibilities for proper operation of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in respond to emergency incidents affecting the dam. Based on this study four major responsibilities are needed for Abu Bakar Dam owing to protect any probable risk for downstream which they can be Incident Commander, Deputy Incident Commander, On-Scene Commander, Civil Engineer. In conclusion, having organization charts based on ERP studies can be helpful for decreasing the probable risks in any projects such as Abu Bakar Dam and it is a way to identify and suspected and actual dam safety emergencies.

  4. Wynoochee Dam Foundation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    schists and in propylitized andesite volcanic rocks. Tests on chlorite-bearing graywackes (Lumni Island and Robe Quarry, Seattle District) and... propylitized chlorite-bearing andesites (Blue River and Lookout Point Dams, Portland District) have shown these rocks to be durable materials with only minor

  5. Energy efficiency estimation of a steam powered LNG tanker using normal operating data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rajendra Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A ship’s energy efficiency performance is generally estimated by conducting special sea trials of few hours under very controlled environmental conditions of calm sea, standard draft and optimum trim. This indicator is then used as the benchmark for future reference of the ship’s Energy Efficiency Performance (EEP. In practice, however, for greater part of operating life the ship operates in conditions which are far removed from original sea trial conditions and therefore comparing energy performance with benchmark performance indicator is not truly valid. In such situations a higher fuel consumption reading from the ship fuel meter may not be a true indicator of poor machinery performance or dirty underwater hull. Most likely, the reasons for higher fuel consumption may lie in factors other than the condition of hull and machinery, such as head wind, current, low load operations or incorrect trim [1]. Thus a better and more accurate approach to determine energy efficiency of the ship attributable only to main machinery and underwater hull condition will be to filter out the influence of all spurious and non-standard operating conditions from the ship’s fuel consumption [2]. The author in this paper identifies parameters of a suitable filter to be used on the daily report data of a typical LNG tanker of 33000 kW shaft power to remove effects of spurious and non-standard ship operations on its fuel consumption. The filtered daily report data has been then used to estimate actual fuel efficiency of the ship and compared with the sea trials benchmark performance. Results obtained using data filter show closer agreement with the benchmark EEP than obtained from the monthly mini trials . The data filtering method proposed in this paper has the advantage of using the actual operational data of the ship and thus saving cost of conducting special sea trials to estimate ship EEP. The agreement between estimated results and special sea trials EEP is

  6. Thermal monitoring of leakage through Karkheh embankment dam, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirghasemi, A.A.; Bagheri, S.M. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Heidarzadeh, M. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering]|[Mahab Ghodss Consulting Engineers, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    A newly developed and simple method for monitoring seepage in embankment dams was presented. The method of temperature measurement is based on the fact that a change in permeability results in a change in seepage flow, thereby causing a temperature change that can be readily measured in the dam body and foundation. In this study, water leaking through the Karkheh embankment dam was thermally analyzed to determine a pattern and amount of water seepage. With nearly 33 million cubic metres of fill, the Karkheh earth and rock-fill dam is the largest dam in Iran. Construction was completed in 2000. The thermal processes in the embankment were studied due to the dam's complex thermo-hydraulic behaviour. Thermal data was collected and analyzed during construction and operation of the dam. This paper presented the temperature variations for the different dam zones, including core, upstream shell, downstream shell, upstream filter, downstream filter and the plastic concrete cut-off wall. It was determined that the clay core works very well as an impermeable curtain. It was also shown that temperature variations of the Karkheh reservoir water is seasonal, and decrease as water depth increases. The reservoir water temperature remains constant beyond depths of 60 metres. The thermal behaviour of the core is not similar to that of the reservoir, indicating a very low value of seepage through the core. The pattern of temperature variations in the upstream shell in the left abutment is harmonic, while in the right abutment it is not harmonic. A harmonic pattern of temperature variation exists in some aquifers of the dam foundation, indicating high seepage through these aquifers. The Karkheh dam cut-off wall performs satisfactorily. It was determined that one dimensional equations for estimating seepage cannot be applied for the Karkheh dam. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Use of tritiated water as indicator of the water metabolism on normal and operate patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallot, P.; Aeberhardt, A.

    1955-01-01

    Water disruptions are very frequent during the medical and surgical affections. In order to study the kinetics of the water exchanges as well as the determination of the total water of the body, we have chosen tritiated water as indicator. This work presents a rapid process, faithful and sensitive of dosage of the Tritium in the biologic liquids. This method has been applied to the survey of the intestinal absorption of water among normal subjects and during some medical and surgical affections. The exam of the experimental curves permitted to get information concerning the kinetics of water ingested as well as of data on the volume of total water of the human body and on the biologic period of the Tritium in the organism. (M.B.) [fr

  8. Design report on the guide box-reactivity and safety control plates for MPR reactor under normal operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markiewicz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The reactivity control system for the MPR reactor (Multi Purpose Reactor) is a critical component regarding safety, it must ensure a fast shut down, maintaining the reactor in subcritical condition under normal or accidental operation condition. For this purpose, this core component must be designed to maintain its operating capacity during all the residence time and under any foreseen operation condition. The mechanical design of control plates and guide boxes must comply with structural integrity, maintaining its geometric and dimensional stability within the pre-established limits to prevent interferences with other core components. For this, the heat generation effect, mechanical loads and environment and irradiation effects were evaluated during the mechanical design. The reactivity control system is composed of guide boxes, manufactured from Aluminium alloy, located between the fuel elements, and control absorber plates of Ag-In-Cd alloy hermetically enclosed by a cladding of stainless steel sliding inside de guide boxes. The upward-downward movement is transmitted by a rod from the motion device located at the reactor lower part. The design requirements, criteria and limits were established to fulfill with the normal and abnormal operation conditions. The design verifications were performed by analytical method, estimating the guide box and control plates residence time. The result of the analysis performed, shows that the design of the reactivity control system and the material selected, are appropriate to fulfill the functional requirements, with no failures attributed to the mechanical design. (author)

  9. The differential radiological impact of plutonium recycle in the light-water reactor fuel cycle: effluent discharges during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Guetat, P.; Jones, J.A.; Kelly, G.N.; Legrand, J.; White, I.F.

    1980-01-01

    The radiological impact of a light-water reactor fuel cycle utilizing enriched uranium fuel may be altered by the recycle of plutonium. Differences in impact may arise during various operations in the fuel cycle: those which arise from effluents discharged during normal operation of the various installations comprising the fuel cycle are evaluated in this study. The differential radiological impact on the population of the European Communities (EC) of effluents discharged during the recycling of 10 tonnes of fissile plutonium metal is evaluated. The contributions from each stage of the fuel cycle, i.e. fuel fabrication, reactor operation and fuel reprocessing and conversion, are identified. Separate consideration is given to airborne and liquid effluents and account is taken of a wide range of environmental conditions, representative of the EC, in estimating the radiological impact. The recycle of plutonium is estimated to result in a reduction in the radiological impact from effluents of about 30% of that when using enriched uranium fuel

  10. Microwave plasma source having improved switching operation from plasma ignition phase to normal ion extraction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakudo, N.; Abe, K.; Koike, H.; Okada, O.; Tokiguchi, K.

    1985-01-01

    In a microwave plasma source, a discharge space supplied with a microwave electric field is supplied with a DC magnetic field. A material to be ionized is introduced into the discharge space to produce plasma, whereby ions are extracted through an ion extracting system. A switch is provided for effecting through switching operation the change-over of the magnetic field applied to the discharge space from the intensity for the ignition of plasma to the intensity for ion extraction in succession to completion of the plasma ignition

  11. Probabilistic analysis in normal operation of distribution system with distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villafafila-Robles, R.; Sumper, A.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the incorporation of high levels of small-scale non-dispatchable distributed generation is leading to the transition from the traditional 'vertical' power system structure to a 'horizontally-operated' power system, where the distribution networks contain both stochastic generation...... and load. This fact increases the number of stochastic inputs and dependence structures between them need to be considered. The deterministic analysis is not enough to cope with these issues and a new approach is needed. Probabilistic analysis provides a better approach. Moreover, as distribution systems...

  12. Computer simulation of WWER - 440 normal and emergency transient operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izbeshesku, M.; Rajka, V.; Untaru, S.; Dumitresku, A.; Paneh, M.; Turku, I.

    1976-01-01

    Results of computer realization of a model for studying transient process in the nuclear system of vapour production at the WWER - 40 peactor nuclear power plant are presented. The first circuit model consists of a number of modules, corresponding to its main parts: for each module derived were the equations describing neutron and thermohydraulic parameters. The second circuit effect is taken into account by heat quantity accepted from a steam generator. The equations are mostly differential with constant coefficients. Coefficient values and initial values of physical quantities are evaluated according to the technical literature. Both manual and automatic operations are modelled [ru

  13. Radiation protection of population under normal operation conditions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, Eh.; Shvets, I.

    1976-01-01

    Evolution of shielding is defined in short; approaches suggested for applying in radiation protection or being used are evaluated and classified. Modern views analysis of a risk of biological irradiation consequences in public approaches to health protection in connection with the technical progress side by side with provision of separate persons protection requires attentin to the nuclear power plants protection optimization. Protection optimization suggests the analysis of separate components of technology and protection systems, used materials and constructive solutions, maintenance rules and operating load with respect to environmental discharge of radioactive products. It is expedient to carry out similtaneously the similar analysis with respect to the nuclear power plant personnel irradiation, as separate measures can affect both personnel and population irradiation [ru

  14. Thermal effects of dams in the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2010-01-01

    Methods were developed to assess the effects of dams on streamflow and water temperature in the Willamette River and its major tributaries. These methods were used to estimate the flows and temperatures that would occur at 14 dam sites in the absence of upstream dams, and river models were applied to simulate downstream flows and temperatures under a no-dams scenario. The dams selected for this study include 13 dams built and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as part of the Willamette Project, and 1 dam on the Clackamas River owned and operated by Portland General Electric (PGE). Streamflows in the absence of upstream dams for 2001-02 were estimated for USACE sites on the basis of measured releases, changes in reservoir storage, a correction for evaporative losses, and an accounting of flow effects from upstream dams. For the PGE dam, no-project streamflows were derived from a previous modeling effort that was part of a dam-relicensing process. Without-dam streamflows were characterized by higher peak flows in winter and spring and much lower flows in late summer, as compared to with-dam measured flows. Without-dam water temperatures were estimated from measured temperatures upstream of the reservoirs (the USACE sites) or derived from no-project model results (the PGE site). When using upstream data to estimate without-dam temperatures at dam sites, a typical downstream warming rate based on historical data and downstream river models was applied over the distance from the measurement point to the dam site, but only for conditions when the temperature data indicated that warming might be expected. Regressions with measured temperatures from nearby or similar sites were used to extend the without-dam temperature estimates to the entire 2001-02 time period. Without-dam temperature estimates were characterized by a more natural seasonal pattern, with a maximum in July or August, in contrast to the measured patterns at many of the tall dam sites

  15. The socio-economics dynamics of Dam on Rural Communities: A case study of Oyan Dam, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Amidu; Ojifo, Lawrence

    2018-06-01

    Dams construction and operations have many benefits, nevertheless, they have also led to lots of negative social, health and human impacts. It is based on this that this study assesses the potential and socio-economics dynamics of Oyan dam between 1980 and 2016. The data used for this study include water level and discharge records of the dam between 2007 and 2016, Landsat imageries of 1984 and 2016 and socio-economic datasets for the period. Analysis of the dam potentials (water supply, agriculture and hydropower) and socio-economic impacts of the dam were carried out using basic statistical tools, land use change anaysis and field survey using questionnaire, structured interview with major stakeholders and personal observation. The results revealed that the water level and storage of the Oyan dam had a relative reduction of about 2 % as well as non-stationarity pattern of water abstraction and production for the period. The landuse classes show all classes decreased in extent except the cultivated landuse that acrued an increased of 19.9 % between 1984 and 2016. Furthermore, commercial water supply varied significantly between 2010 and 2016 while irrigation scheme is grossly under-utilized from the inception in 1983 to 2016. Finally, the result of socio-economic impacts revealed that majority of the selected communities' members are actually not benefiting from the dam and their livelihoods are not from the dam.

  16. The FOCON model to assess doses due to the atmospheric radioactive discharges of nuclear facilities during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rommens, C.; Morin, A.; Merle-Szeremeta, A.

    1999-01-01

    The FOCON model to assess doses due to the atmospheric radioactive discharges of nuclear facilities during normal operation. To assess the dosimetric impact to the public due to atmospheric radioactive discharges of nuclear facilities during normal operation, the Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety has developed the FOCON96 code. FOCON96 calculates the dispersion of gases and aerosols into the environment (atmosphere contamination and ground deposition), their transfer in the biosphere (soils, plants and animals) and their impact to a member of the public (individual effective and equivalent doses, external exposure to the plume and to the deposits, internal exposure by inhalation and ingestion). FOCON96 uses ergonomic windows and proposes many capabilities (modular architecture, default values, choice of libraries, access to all the parameters of the models, listing or results, management of result files, calculations made directly, etc.). In the European context, and intercomparison with the PC-CREAM code, developed by the National Radiological Protection Board, has shown the coherence of the results of the two codes. A comparison of the windows and capabilities has shown that FOCON96 was easier to use. FOCON96 is not adapted to calculate the doses received during one particular year that are due to the discharges of a facility in operation for a long period of time. An evolution of the software will be considered if this kind of assessment is generalized. (authors)

  17. Simulation of zincblende AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors for normally-off operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, R; Bayram, C

    2017-01-01

    In this work we investigate design parameters enabling normally-off operation of zincblende (ZB-) phase Al X Ga (1−X) N/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) via Synopsys Sentaurus Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD). As ZB-phase III-nitrides are polarization-free, the 2D electron gas (2DEG) channel at the Al X Ga (1−X) N/GaN heterojunction is formed through intentional δ -doping part of the Al X Ga (1−X) N barrier layer. The impact of each of the design parameters (i.e. Al-content and thickness of Al X Ga (1−X) N barrier; δ -doping location (within the Al X Ga (1−X) N barrier), δ-doped Al X Ga (1−X) N layer thickness and its doping amount; gate metal) are studied in detail and design trade-offs are reported. We show that work function of the gate metal impacts normally-off behavior and turn-on voltage considerably. Our results suggest that Al-content of 35% or less in the Al X Ga (1−X) N barrier results in a normally-off behavior whereas Al X Ga (1−X) N barrier thickness is effective in controlling the turn-on voltage. Overall, we provide design guidelines in controlling the normally-on/-off operation, threshold voltage, and 2DEG density in ZB-phase AlGaN/GaN HEMT technology. (paper)

  18. Risk Perception Analysis Related To Existing Dams In Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimene, Pellegrino

    2013-04-01

    In the first part of this work, the progress of Italian National Rules about dams design, construction and operation are presented to highlight the strong connection existing between the promulgation of new decrees, as a consequence of a dam accidents, and the necessity to prevent further loss of lives and goods downstream. Following the Gleno Dam failure (1923), a special Ministerial Committee wrote out the first Regulations and made the proposal to establish, within the High Council of Public Works, a special department that become soon the "Dam Service", with the tasks of control and supervision about construction and operation phases of the dams and their reservoirs. A different definition of tasks and the structure of Dam Service were provided in accordance with law n° 183/1989, which transferred all the technical services to the Office of the Prime Minister; the aim was to join the Dam Office with the Department for National Technical Services, with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the territory and promoting the study on flood propagation downstream in case of operations on bottom outlet or hypothetical dam-break. In fact, population living downstream is not ready to accept any amount of risk because has not a good knowledge of the efforts of experts involved in dam safety, both from the operators and from the safety Authority. So it's important to optimize all the activities usually performed in a dam safety program and improve the emergency planning as a response to people's primary needs and feeling about safety from Civil Protection Authority. In the second part of the work, a definition of risk is provided as the relationship existing between probability of occurrence and loss, setting out the range within to plan for prevention (risk mitigation), thanks to the qualitative assessment of the minimum safety level that is suited to assign funds to plan for Civil Protection (loss mitigation). The basic meaning of the reliability of a zoned

  19. Methods and data for HTGR fuel performance and radionuclide release modeling during normal operation and accidents for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, K.; Martin, R.C.; Moormann, R.

    1993-01-01

    The previous status report released in 1987 on reference data and calculation models for fission product transport in High-Temperature, Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) safety analyses has been updated to reflect the current state of knowledge in the German HTGR program. The content of the status report has been expanded to include information from other national programs in HTGRs to provide comparative information on methods of analysis and the underlying database for fuel performance and fission product transport. The release and transport of fission products during normal operating conditions and during the accident scenarios of core heatup, water and air ingress, and depressurization are discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. GIS inundation mapping and dam breach analysis of Woolwich Dam using HEC-geoRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the extent of flood inundation given a hypothetical dam breach scenario of the Woolwich Dam located in the Grand River Watershed, 2.5 km north of the Town of Elmira, Ontario. The dam is operated by the Grand River Conservation Authority and was constructed to provide low-flow augmentation to Canagagigue Creek. Advances in the computational capabilities of numerical models along with the availability of fine resolution geospatial data has lead to significant advances in the evaluation of catastrophic consequences due to the ensuing flood waters when dams fail. The hydraulic models HEC-RAS and HEC-GeoRAS were used in this study along with GIS to produce high resolution spatial and temporal flood inundation mapping. Given the proximity to the Town of Elmira, the dam is classified as having a high hazard potential. The large size and high hazard potential of the dam suggests that the Inflow Design Flood (IDF) is the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) event. The outlet structure of the spillway consists of 4 ogee-type concrete spillways equipped with radial gates. A low-level concrete pipe located within the spillway structure provides spillage for maintenance purposes. The full flow capacity of the spillway structure is 297 cubic metres per second at the full supply level of 364.8 metres. In addition to GIS flood inundation maps, this paper included the results of flood hydrographs, water surface profiles and peak flow data. It was concluded that techniques used in this analysis should be considered for use in the development of emergency management planning and dam safety assessments across Canada. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Dam spills and fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This short paper reports the main topics discussed during the two days of the annual colloquium of the Hydro-ecology Committee of EdF. The first day was devoted to the presentation of the joint works carried out by EdF, the Paul-Sabatier University (Toulouse), the Provence St-Charles University (Marseille), the ENSAT (Toulouse) and the CEMAGREF (Lyon and Aix-en-Provence) about the environmental impact of dam spills on the aquatic flora and fauna downstream. A synthesis and recommendations were presented for the selection and characterization of future sites. The second day was devoted to the hydro-ecology study of the dam reservoir of Petit-Saut (French Guyana): water reoxygenation, quality evolution, organic matter, plankton, invertebrates and fishes. The 134 French dams concerned by water spills have been classified according to the frequency of spills, the variations of flow rates created, and their impacts on fishing, walking, irrigation, industry, drinking water, navigation, bathing. Particular studies on different sites have demonstrated the complexity of the phenomena involved concerning the impact on the ecosystems and the water quality. (J.S.)

  2. Development of a Numerical Fish Surrogate for Improved Selection of Fish Passage Design and Operation Alternatives for Lower Granite Dam: Phase I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nestler, John

    2000-01-01

    .... The overall goal of this research is to develop and apply an approach for integrating biological and hydraulic information to support selection of optimum designs and project operations for Surface...

  3. Large dams and alluvial rivers in the Anthropocene: The impacts of the Garrison and Oahe Dams on the Upper Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, Katherine; Benthem, Adam J.; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

    2013-01-01

    The Missouri River has had a long history of anthropogenic modification with considerable impacts on river and riparian ecology, form, and function. During the 20th century, several large dam-building efforts in the basin served the needs for irrigation, flood control, navigation, and the generation of hydroelectric power. The managed flow provided a range of uses, including recreation, fisheries, and habitat. Fifteen dams impound the main stem of the river, with hundreds more on tributaries. Though the effects of dams and reservoirs are well-documented, their impacts have been studied individually, with relatively little attention paid to their interaction along a river corridor. We examine the morphological and sedimentological changes in the Upper Missouri River between the Garrison Dam in ND (operational in 1953) and Oahe Dam in SD (operational in 1959). Through historical aerial photography, stream gage data, and cross sectional surveys, we demonstrate that the influence of the upstream dam is still a major control of river dynamics when the backwater effects of the downstream reservoir begin. In the “Anthropocene”, dams are ubiquitous on large rivers and often occur in series, similar to the Garrison Dam Segment. We propose a conceptual model of how interacting dams might affect river geomorphology, resulting in distinct and recognizable morphologic sequences that we term “Inter-Dam sequence” characteristic of major rivers in the US.

  4. Report on Auscultation of the Arenal's Dam P. H. Arenal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Costa Rican Electricity Institute (Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad), always has been worried to verify the good state of the works and thus to guarantee its operation. For that reason, it has established different sorts of auscultation to the Arenal's Dam. This report analyzes the geo-hydraulic, structural and topographic auscultation. It also includes information about the new techniques used by the ARCAL XVIII RLA/8/018; application of Tracer Techniques for the study of water leakage in dams and damming projects. (author). 18 charts, 2 maps, 4 tabs

  5. Switchable Q-switched and modelocked operation in ytterbium doped fiber laser under all-normal-dispersion configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Pranb K., E-mail: pkm@rrcat.gov.in; Gupta, Pradeep K.; Singh, Chandra Pal; Singh, Amarjeet; Sharma, Sunil K.; Bindra, Kushvinder S.; Oak, Shrikant M. [Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore, M.P. 452013 (India)

    2015-03-15

    We have constructed an Yb-doped fiber laser in all-normal-dispersion configuration which can be independently operated in Q-switched or modelocked configuration with the help of a simple fiber optic ring resonator (FORR). In the presence of FORR, the laser operates in Q-switched mode producing stable pulses in the range of 1 μs-200 ns with repetition rate in the range of 45 kHz-82 kHz. On the other hand, the laser can be easily switched to mode-locked operation by disjoining the FORR loop producing train of ultrashort pulses of ∼5 ps duration (compressible to ∼150 fs) at ∼38 MHz repetition rate. The transmission characteristics of FORR in combination with the nonlinear polarization rotation for passive Q-switching operation is numerically investigated and experimentally verified. The laser can serve as a versatile seed source for power amplifier which can be easily configured for application in the fields that require different pulsed fiber lasers.

  6. Environmental impact assessment of Ar-41 released by the normal operation of TRIGA-Mark 2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qassoud, D.; Soufi, I.; Ziagos, J.; Demir, Z

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In accordance with the international regulation of nuclear safety and radiological protection of the environment applicable to the basic nuclear installations, category in which the Triga-Mark 2 research reactor is considered, an assesment of the impact in to the environment of the Ar-41 radioelement is accomplished. This radioelement is released by the normal operation of this reactor. The assessment is based on the characteristics of a Moroccan site (where the reactor is installed). It is carried out using CEA Gaussian models and mathematical models developed in LLNL. Considering the assumptions of impact assessments of the radioactivity in the atmosphere, the most important exposure is relatively corresponding to 1 Km from the reactor. This exposure is approximately 0,07% of the lawful limit. Beyond this locality, the exposure becomes lower than 0,02% of this limit. Beyond 5 Km, it becomes lower than ten nono-Sivert. In the basis of the site radiological baseline, the environmental impact of Ar-41 released in normal operation of the reactor is negligible in the studied case. [fr

  7. Psychosocial work strain of maintenance personnel during annual outage and normal operation in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, L.; Svensson, O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which evaluates psychosocial work demands during the annual outage for a maintenance work group in a nuclear power plant. The study is based on a stress paradigm and it has been asserted that increased work strain would have a negative effect on performance. Nineteen workers, aged 20-55 years, participated in the study. The subjects filled out a questionnaire comparing work strain during annual outage and normal operation. During the outage period a 3-shift 24-hour work schedule, including nightwork, was used (working hours during normal operation was 7-16). Increased demands on concentration and vigilance, increased time pressure and strain on social relations within the group were found to characterize work during annual outage. Interestingly, for specific work tasks an association was found between the risk of making errors and high psychological workload. Increased work strain, shiftwork including nightwork and reduced social support are important psychosocial risk factors that might contribute to human error during the outage period

  8. FULCRUM - A dam safety management and alert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, Cameron; Greenaway, Graham [Knight Piesold Ltd., Vancouver, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Efficient management of instrumentation, monitoring and inspection data are the keys to safe performance and dam structure stability. This paper presented a data management system, FULCRUM, developed for dam safety management. FULCRUM is a secure web-based data management system which simplifies the process of data collection, processing and analysis of the information. The system was designed to organize and coordinate dam safety management requirements. Geotechnical instrumentation such as piezometers or inclinometers and operating data can be added to the database. Data from routine surveillance and engineering inspection can also be incorporated into the database. The system provides users with immediate access to historical and recent data. The integration of a GIS system allows for rapid assessment of the project site. Customisable alerting protocols can be set to identify and respond quickly to significant changes in operating conditions and potential impacts on dam safety.

  9. Automatic dam concrete placing system; Dam concrete dasetsu sagyo no jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Y; Hori, Y; Nakayama, T; Yoshihara, K; Hironaka, T [Okumura Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-11-15

    An automatic concrete placing system was developed for concrete dam construction. This system consists of the following five subsystems: a wireless data transmission system, an automatic dam concrete mixing system, a consistency determination system, an automatic dam concrete loading and transporting system, and a remote concrete bucket opening and closing system. The system includes the following features: mixing amount by mixing ratio and mixing intervals can be instructed from a concrete placing site by using a wireless handy terminal; concrete is mixed automatically in a batcher plant; a transfer car is started, and concrete is charged into a bucket automatically; the mixed concrete is determined of its properties automatically; labor cost can be reduced, the work efficiency improved, and the safety enhanced; and the system introduction has resulted in unattended operation from the aggregate draw-out to a bunker line, manpower saving of five persons, and reduction in cycle time by 10%. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Calculating earth dam seepage using HYDRUS software applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Nieć

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulations of water seepage within and under the embankment dam of Lake Kowalskie reservoir. The aim of the study was to compare seepage calculation results obtained using analytical and numerical methods. In April 1985, after the first filling of the reservoir to normal storage levels, water leaks was observed at the base of the escarpment, on the air side of the dam. In order to control seepage flow, drainage was performed and additional piezometers installed. To explain the causes of increased pressure in the aquifer under the dam in May 1985 a simplified calculation of filtration was performed. Now, on the basis of archived data from the Department of Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineering using 3D HYDRUS STANDARD software, the conditions of seepage under the dam have been recreated and re-calculated. Piezometric pressure was investigated in three variants of drainage, including drainage before and after modernization.

  11. Wynoochee Lake and dam flood storage reevaluation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    With the desire to increase the revenue generating potential of the Wynoochee Lake and Dam Project the cities of Tacoma and Aberdeen, Washington, have pursued the potential for retrofitting a hydropower plant at the dam. The feasibility of the hydropower plant is dependent on higher average head for power generation. This paper discusses the Corps of Engineers reevaluation of the winter flood control requirements with the aim of raising the elevation of the winter operating pool

  12. Odelouca Dam Construction: Numerical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, A.; Maranha, J. R.; Caldeira, L.

    2012-01-01

    Odelouca dam is an embankment dam, with 76 m height, recently constructed in the south of Portugal. It is zoned with a core consisting of colluvial and residual schist soil and with soil-rockfill mixtures making up the shells (weathered schist with a significant fraction of coarse sized particles). This paper presents a numerical analysis of Odelouca Dam`s construction. The material con-stants of the soil model used are determined from a comprehensive testing programme carried out in the C...

  13. Health impacts of large dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerer, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    Large dams have been criticized because of their negative environmental and social impacts. Public health interest largely has focused on vector-borne diseases, such as schistosomiasis, associated with reservoirs and irrigation projects. Large dams also influence health through changes in water and food security, increases in communicable diseases, and the social disruption caused by construction and involuntary resettlement. Communities living in close proximity to large dams often do not benefit from water transfer and electricity generation revenues. A comprehensive health component is required in environmental and social impact assessments for large dam projects

  14. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2011 - February 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Haner, Philip V.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.; Evans, Scott D.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2013-01-01

    passive integrated transponder detectors at various locations downstream of the dam, indicating some tagged fish passed the dam undetected. The rate of dam passage was affected by diel period, discharge, and reservoir elevation. Diel period was the most influential factor of those examined, with nighttime dam passage rates about 9 times greater than daytime rates, depending on the distance of fish from the dam outlet. Dam passage rates also were positively related to dam discharge, and negatively related to reservoir elevation. In the operational condition used as an example, fish approached the dam outlet at the temperature control tower from the south and east and, when most fish got near the tower, they were directly in front of it. In many cases, the results for wild and hatchery fish were similar, or the results suggested hatchery fish could be reasonable surrogates for wild fish. Hatchery-origin and wild-origin fish behaved similarly in the following ways: their general movements in the reservoir; the timing of their dam passage; and the effects of diel period, discharge, and elevation on their passage rates. Parasitic copepods were present on most wild fish examined, and the mortality of wild fish during capture, handling and tagging was much greater than that of hatchery fish. This suggests that the ability of wild fish to cope with stressors may be less than that of fish directly from the hatchery.

  15. Potential Risk Analysis of Tailings Dam under Preloading Condition and Its Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuren Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for mine production safety to ensure the stability of the tailings dam. Taking a flatland tailings pond as the background, a threedimensional computational model was built based on a tailings dam under mullock heap preloading condition. Considering the current operating water level conditions, a liquid-solid coupling analysis of the model was conducted.The deformation characteristics of the tailings dam were revealed during successive preloading at the front of the dam. The safety factor and the potential slide face of the tailings dam were calculated under different conditions using the strength reduction method. The results show that the tailings dam in its current condition is basically stable, but if the mullock heap continues to be heightened, the tailings dam will become unstable. Therefore, in order to limit the height of the mullock heap, establishing a monitor and early warning mechanism are put forward to ensure mine production safety.

  16. Stability of earth dam with a vertical core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth dam with impervious element in the form of asphaltic concrete core is currently the most promising type of earth dams (due to simple construction technology and universal service properties of asphaltic concrete and is widely used in the world. However, experience in the construction and operation of high dams (above 160 m is not available, and their work is scarcely explored. In this regard, the paper discusses the results of computational prediction of the stress-strain state and stability of a high earth dam (256 m high with the core. The authors considered asphaltic concrete containing 7 % of bitumen as the material of the core. Gravel was considered as the material of resistant prisms. Design characteristics of the rolled asphaltic concrete and gravel were obtained from the processing of the results of triaxial tests. The calculations were performed using finite element method in elastoplastic formulation and basing on the phased construction of the dam and reservoir filling. The research shows, that the work of embankment dam with vertical core during filling of the reservoir is characterized by horizontal displacement of the lower resistant prism in the tailrace and the formation of a hard wedge prism descending along the core in the upper resistant prism. The key issue of the safety assessment is to determine the safety factor of the overall stability of the dam, for calculation of which the destruction of the earth dam is necessary, which can be done by reducing the strength properties of the dam materials. As a results of the calculations, the destruction of the dam occurs with a decrease in the strength characteristics of the materials of the dam by 2.5 times. The dam stability depends on the stability of the lower resistant prism. The destruction of its slope occurs on the classical circular-cylindrical surface. The presence of a potential collapse surface in the upper resistant prism (on the edges of the descending wedge does

  17. An approach toward estimating the safety significance of normal and abnormal operating procedures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, T.F.; Harris, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's TMI Action Plan calls for a long-term plan to upgrade operating procedures in nuclear power plants. The scope of Generic Issue Human Factors 4.4, which stems from this requirement, includes the recommendation of improvements in nuclear power plant normal and abnormal operating procedures (NOPs and AOPs) and the implementation of appropriate regulatory action. This paper will describe the objectives, methodologies, and results of a Battelle-conducted value impact assessment to determine the costs and benefits of having the NRC implement regulatory action that would specify requirements for the preparation of acceptable NOPs and AOPs by the Commission's nuclear power plant licensees. The results of this value impact assessment are expressed in terms of ten cost/benefit attributes that can be affected by the NRC regulatory action. Five of these attributes require the calculation of change in public risk that could be expected to result from the action which, in this case, required determining the safety significance of NOPs and AOPs. In order to estimate this safety significance, a multi-step methodology was created that relies on an existing Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to provide a quantitative framework for modeling the role of operating procedures. The purpose of this methodology is to determine what impact the improvement of NOPs and AOPs would have on public health and safety

  18. Dam Break Analysis of Embankment Dams Considering Breach Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Shamsaei

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of dam's break, needs the definition of various parameters such as the break cause, its type, its dimension and the duration of breach development. The precise forecast for different aspects of the breach is one of the most important factors for analyzing it in embankment dam. The characteristics of the breach and determination of their vulnerability has the most effect on the waves resulting from dam break. Investigating, about the parameters of the breach in "Silveh" earth dam have been determined using the suitable model. In Silve dam a trapezoid breach with side slope z=0.01m and the average base line b=80m was computed. The duration of the breaches development is 1.9 hour. Regarding the above results and the application of DAM Break software the consequences of the probable break of the dam was determined. The analysis of the results of water covering of the city of Piranshahr located 12km from silve dam confirms that in 3 hours the water will reach the height (level of 1425 meters.

  19. Matahina Dam : lessons learned from an earthquake-related internal erosion incident at the Matahina Dam, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillon, M. [Damwatch Services Ltd., Wellington (New Zealand)

    2009-07-01

    This case history discussed internal erosion damage and crest subsidence caused by an earthquake at the Matahina Dam in New Zealand. The study showed that cracking and internal erosion was initiated during the 1967 reservoir filling operation. Located in an area of active volcanism and faulting, the dam is located on a river with extensive erosion through an ignimbrite flow. The dam's core is founded on compact Tertiary age sediments overlain by sand and gravel deposits beneath the shoulders of the dam. The earthquake caused a rupture along an unidentified fault trace 12 km from the dam. The horizontal base acceleration recorded at the dam was 3.25 m/s. Transverse cracking was observed at each abutment, and deformations were observed in the rockfill. An investigation program was conducted to determine the dam's integrity. Piezometer measurements showed widespread fluctuations. It was concluded that the lack of an effective filter was a significant design omission. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Removing Dams, Constructing Science: Coproduction of Undammed Riverscapes by Politics, Finance, Environment, Society and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew J. Grabowski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dam removal in the United States has continued to increase in pace and scope, transitioning from a dam-safety engineering practice to an integral component of many large-scale river restoration programmes. At the same time, knowledge around dam removals remains fragmented by disciplinary silos and a lack of knowledge transfer between communities of practice around dam removal and academia. Here we argue that dam removal science, as a study of large restoration-oriented infrastructure interventions, requires the construction of an interdisciplinary framework to integrate knowledge relevant to decision-making on dam removal. Drawing upon infrastructure studies, relational theories of coproduction of knowledge and social life, and advances within restoration ecology and dam removal science, we present a preliminary framework of dams as systems with irreducibly interrelated political, financial, environmental, social, and technological dimensions (PFESTS. With this framework we analyse three dam removals occurring over a similar time period and within the same narrow geographic region (the Mid-Columbia Region in WA and OR, USA to demonstrate how each PFESTS dimension contributed to the decision to remove the dam, how it affected the process of removing the dam, and how those dimensions continue to operate post removal in each watershed. We conclude with a discussion of a joint research and practice agenda emerging out of the PFESTS framing.

  1. A comparison study of the two-bladed partial pitch turbine during normal operation and an extreme gust conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T; Petersen, M M; Larsen, T J

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the load comparisons between the numerical simulation and the full-scale load measurement data. First part of this paper includes the comparisons of statistic load in terms of maximum, mean, and minimum values for the selected normal operation cases. The blade root bending moments and tower top bending moments are compared. Second part of this paper introduces the dynamic response comparisons during an extreme wind gust condition where the wind speed changed approximately 10 m/s during three seconds. The rotor speed and blade root flapwise and edgewise bending moment are compared. The nonlinear aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2 is used for the simulations. A very fine agreement between the simulated and the full-scale measured loads is seen for the both comparisons

  2. Public exposure from environmental release of radioactive material under normal operation of unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Parsouzi, Z.; Amrollahi, R.; Khamooshy, C.; Ghasemi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant is a VVER type reactor with 1000 MWe power. ► Doses of public critical groups living around the plant were assessed under normal reactor operation conditions. ► PC-CREAM 98 computer code developed by the HPA was applied to assess the public doses. ► Doses are comparable with those in the FSAR, in the ER and doses monitored. ► The doses assessed are lower than the dose constraint of 0.1 mSv/y associated with the plant. - Abstract: The Unit-1 Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP-1), constructed at the Hallileh site near Bushehr located at the coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran, is a VVER type reactor with 1000 MWe power. According to standard practices, under normal operation conditions of the plant, radiological assessment of atmospheric and aquatic releases to the environment and assessment of public exposures are considered essential. In order to assess the individual and collective doses of the critical groups of population who receive the highest dose from radioactive discharges into the environment (atmosphere and aquatic) under normal operation conditions, this study was conducted. To assess the doses, the PC-CREAM 98 computer code developed by the Radiation Protection Division of the Health Protection Agency (HPA; formerly called NRPB) was applied. It uses a standard Gaussian plume dispersion model and comprises a suite of models and data for estimation of the radiological impact assessments of routine and continuous discharges from an NPP. The input data include a stack height of 100 m annual radionuclides release of gaseous effluents from the stack and liquid effluents that are released from heat removal system, meteorological data from the Bushehr local meteorological station, and the data for agricultural products. To assess doses from marine discharges, consumption of sea fish, crustacean and mollusca were considered. According to calculation by PC-CREAM 98 computer code, the highest individual

  3. Model, parameter and code of environmental dispersion of gaseous effluent under normal operation from nuclear power plant with 600 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Gao Zhanrong

    1998-06-01

    The model of environmental dispersion of gaseous effluence under normal operation from a nuclear power plant with 600 MWe is established to give a mathematical expression of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor under mixing release condition based on quality assessment of radiological environment for 30 years of Chinese nuclear industry. In calculation, the impact from calm and other following factors have been taken into account: mixing layer, dry and wet deposition, radioactive decay and buildings. The doses caused from the following exposure pathways are also given by this model: external exposure from immersion cloud and ground deposition, internal exposure due to inhalation and ingestion. The code is named as ROULEA. It contains four modules, i.e. INPUT, ANRTRI, CHIQV and DOSE for calculating 4-dimension joint frequency, annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor and doses

  4. Extending the application range of a fuel performance code from normal operating to design basis accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Uffelen, P.; Gyori, C.; Schubert, A.; Laar, J. van de; Hozer, Z.; Spykman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two types of fuel performance codes are generally being applied, corresponding to the normal operating conditions and the design basis accident conditions, respectively. In order to simplify the code management and the interface between the codes, and to take advantage of the hardware progress it is favourable to generate a code that can cope with both conditions. In the first part of the present paper, we discuss the needs for creating such a code. The second part of the paper describes an example of model developments carried out by various members of the TRANSURANUS user group for coping with a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In the third part, the validation of the extended fuel performance code is presented for LOCA conditions, whereas the last section summarises the present status and indicates needs for further developments to enable the code to deal with reactivity initiated accident (RIA) events

  5. CFD Analysis of Random Turbulent Flow Load in Steam Generator of APR1400 Under Normal Operation Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Gyu; You, Sung Chang; Kim, Han Gon

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory guide 1.20 revision 3 of the Nuclear Regulatory Committee (NRC) modifies guidance for vibration assessments of reactor internals and steam generator internals. The new guidance requires applicants to provide a preliminary analysis and evaluation of the design and performance of a facility, including the safety margins of during normal operation and transient conditions anticipated during the life of the facility. Especially, revision 3 require rigorous assessments of adverse flow effects in the steam dryer cased by flow-excited acoustic and structural resonances such as the abnormality from power-uprated BWR cases. For two nearly identical nuclear power plants, the steam system of one BWR plant experienced failure of steam dryers and the main steam system components when steam flow was increased by 16 percent for extended power uprate (EPU). The mechanisms of those failures have revealed that a small adverse flow changing from the prototype condition induced severe flow-excited acoustic and structural resonances, leading to structural failures. In accordance with the historical background, therefore, potential adverse flow effects should be evaluated rigorously for steam generator internals in both BWR and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400), an evolutionary light water reactor, increased the power by 7.7 percent from the design of the 'Valid Prototype', System80+. Thus, reliable evaluations of potential adverse flow effects on the steam generator of APR1400 are necessary according to the regulatory guide. This paper is part of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis results for evaluation of the adverse flow effect for the steam generator internals of APR1400, including a series of sensitivity analyses to enhance the reliability of CFD analysis and an estimation the effect of flow loads on the internals of the steam generator under normal operation conditions

  6. Dams. Bulletin of the Technical Service of Electric Power and Big Dams; Barrages. Bulletin du Service Technique de l`Energie Electrique et des Grands Barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Three papers were selected in this issue of the bulletin of the Technical Service of Electric Power and Big Dams. The first one concerns the experience feedback gained from the accident of the Drac river near Grenoble (France) due to a spillover at the Notre-Dame-de-Commiers` dam and which led to the death of 6 children and their teacher. The second one is a report of the conclusions of decennial and annual safety inspections of French dams, while the third one is a report of the Control Services activities for the third quarter of the year 1996 concerning the French dams in operation. (J.S.)

  7. Evaluatie Dam tot Damloop 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutekom-Baart de la Faille, Marije

    In het weekend van 20 en 21 september 2014 vond de 30ste editie van de Dam tot Damloop plaats. Onderzoekers van de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en Hogeschool Inholland hebben bij de Dam tot Damloop een evaluatieonderzoek uitgevoerd met als doel het vinden van aanknopingspunten voor het structureel

  8. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonveiller, E.; Sever, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described

  9. Special design issues related to the G. Ross Lord Dam constructed in Metropolitan Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, V.A. [Jacques Whitford and Associates Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Tawil, A.H. [Acres International Ltd., Niagara Falls, ON (Canada); Haley, D.R. [Toronto Region and Conservation Authority, Downsview, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the special considerations required to build a flood control dam in a metropolitan area that holds major city infrastructures such as power transmission towers, pipelines, sanitary sewers and graveyards. The paper refers to the G. Ross Lord Dam, a 20 m high earth fill flood control dam which was constructed in 1973 on the West Branch of the Don River in Toronto. It was built following recommendations after Hurricane Hazel caused widespread flooding and the death of 81 people in 1954. The dam includes a concrete chute spillway and stilling basin. The geotechnical design of the dam was described along with the dam structures and the methods used to flood proof the infrastructure. The dam has a sloping impervious core and an upstream blanket to reduce seepage. Seepage control is provided by a drainage blanket and a chimney drain. A main overflow spillway was constructed on the south abutment, and a low level outlet was constructed at the base of the dam to accommodate normal river flows through the dam. Most of the water level control during a flood event is provided by the main overflow spillway. Spillway slab anchor keys prevent down slope creep of the slabs. The dam, the spillway and the reservoir structure have performed well since construction. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Damming evidence : Canada and the World Commission on Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vert, P.; Parkinson, B.

    2003-06-01

    Large hydroelectric projects have been met with strong resistance from affected communities, particularly indigenous groups who have been displaced from their flooded communities following the damming of a river. The World Commission on Dams (WCD) was formed in 1998 to review the effectiveness of large dams and develop internationally acceptable guidelines and standards for large dams or hydro energy projects. The Canadian government, through the Canadian International Development Agency, was one of many governments to fund the WCD. However, the authors argue that despite the financial support, the Canadian government was absent from any effort to follow-up on the recommendations of the WCD. The seven strategic priorities in the decision making process include: (1) gaining public acceptance, (2) comprehensive option assessment of water, energy, food and development needs, (3) addressing existing dams to improve the benefits that can be derived from them, (4) sustaining livelihoods, (5) recognizing the entitlements and sharing benefits, (6) ensuring compliance, and (7) sharing rivers for peace, development and security. This report offers a means to assess planned or existing dams and presents a set of guidelines for good practices linked to the seven strategic priorities. Ten case studies from around the world were presented, including the Three Gorges Dam in China. 154 refs., 3 figs., 3 appendices.

  11. Management plan for White Oak Dam. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.B.

    1997-03-01

    The purpose is to provide operation and maintenance, periodic inspection, and emergency action plans for White Oak Dam in general accordance with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) guidelines for dam safety. It must be understood that operations at the site are primarily for purposes of environmental monitoring, environmental protection and waste management operations control. Effluent is generally allowed to flow from the lake at its natural rate by rising above the broad crested weir notch elevation of 744 feet m.s.l

  12. Characteristics of transplacental lead transfer in rat dams and fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopfler, F.C.; Miller, R.G.; Kowal, N.E.; Kelty, K.C.; Doerger, J.U.; Mills, T.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to quantitate the dose resulting from lead exposure during the critical periods of brain development during gestation by determining: (1) if blood lead concentration in rat dams is affected by pregnancy status or duration of lead exposure, (2) if lead concentration in fetuses is associated with the duration of dam exposure, (3) the rates of lead absorption and elimination in pregnant and nonpregnant dams; and (4) the effect that prebreeding exposure on lead kinetics in the dam and upon fetus blood lead concentrations. The results of experiments in which the dams' drinking water contained 50 mg/L lead indicate blood lead levels (after normalizing by water consumption on a body weight basis) of pregnant rats are significantly higher than blood lead levels of non-pregnant rats. Statistical differences in blood lead levels were observed by day 15 of gestation and continue through day 20 of gestation. These blood lead differences are not due to lead treatment prior to breeding as seen when comparing Figure 1 and Figure 2. The blood lead levels of the fetuses at day 20 of gestation were 50-60% higher than that of the corresponding dams. The results from the latter two phases were ambiguous, due to large variability in individual animal absorption and elimination rates. However, the following observations can be made. Preexposure to lead does not affect the percent of lead transferred from the dams' blood to the fetuses. The rate of elimination of lead from the dams' blood does not appear to be affected by prebreeding exposure to lead or by the status of pregnancy. The fraction of the 203 Pb dose transferred to the fetus increases dramatically toward the end of gestation. The data suggest that lead absorption from the gut of pregnant rats is higher than that for nonpregnant rats

  13. Sediment depositions upstream of open check dams: new elements from small scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Le Guern, Jules; Carbonari, Costanza; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Torrent hazard mitigation remains a big issue in mountainous regions. In steep slope streams and especially in their fan part, torrential floods mainly result from abrupt and massive sediment deposits. To curtail such phenomenon, soil conservation measures as well as torrent control works have been undertaken for decades. Since the 1950s, open check dams complete other structural and non-structural measures in watershed scale mitigation plans1. They are often built to trap sediments near the fan apexes. The development of earthmoving machinery after the WWII facilitated the dredging operations of open check dams. Hundreds of these structures have thus been built for 60 years. Their design evolved with the improving comprehension of torrential hydraulics and sediment transport; however this kind of structure has a general tendency to trap most of the sediments supplied by the headwaters. Secondary effects as channel incision downstream of the traps often followed an open check dam creation. This sediment starvation trend tends to propagate to the main valley rivers and to disrupt past geomorphic equilibriums. Taking it into account and to diminish useless dredging operation, a better selectivity of sediment trapping must be sought in open check dams, i.e. optimal open check dams would trap sediments during dangerous floods and flush them during normal small floods. An accurate description of the hydraulic and deposition processes that occur in sediment traps is needed to optimize existing structures and to design best-adjusted new structures. A literature review2 showed that if design criteria exist for the structure itself, little information is available on the dynamic of the sediment depositions upstream of open check dams, i.e. what are the geomorphic patterns that occur during the deposition?, what are the relevant friction laws and sediment transport formula that better describe massive depositions in sediment traps?, what are the range of Froude and Shields

  14. Deformation performance of Waba Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salloum, T.; Bhardwaj, V.; Hassan, P. [Ontario Power Generation, Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON (Canada); Cragg, C. [Cragg Consulting Services, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described the performance of the Waba Dam which is being monitored as part of Ontario Power Generation's Dam Safety Program. It described the deformations that have been observed in this 3600 ft long earthfill dam which lies on marine clay in eastern Ontario. An extensive instrumentation program, including foundation settlement gauges, surface monuments, slope inclinometers, load cells and piezometers has been in effect since the construction of the dam in 1975. Significant settlement has occurred at Waba Dam since its construction. Wide berms were provided upstream and downstream beyond the slopes of the main fill to ensure stability of the dyke on the soft clay foundation and the crest elevations were designed to allow for the expected settlement in the foundation which would be overstressed by the dam loading. Based on current settlements, future settlements are predicted based on Asaoka's method. Inclinometer measurements have shown a foundation lateral spreading of 12 in. The lateral versus vertical deformations were found to be comparable to well behaving embankments reported in the literature. These analyses indicate that Waba Dam is performing well and should continue to perform well into the future. 8 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  15. Public safety around dams guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, T [Canadian Dam Association, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed Canadian and international initiatives for improving dam safety and described some of the drivers for the development of new Canadian Dam Association (CDA) public safety guidelines for dams. The CDA guidelines were divided into the following 3 principal sections: (1) managed system elements, (2) risk assessment and management, and (3) technical bulletins. Public and media responses to the drownings have called for improved safety guidelines. While the public remains unaware of the hazards of dams, public interaction with dams is increasing as a result of interest in extreme sports and perceived rights of access. Guidelines are needed for dam owners in order to provide due diligence. Various organizations in Canada are preparing technical and public safety dam guidelines. CDA guidelines have also been prepared for signage, booms and buoys, and audible and visual alerts bulletins. Working groups are also discussing recommended practices for spill procedures, spillways and the role of professional engineers in ensuring public safety. Methods of assessing risk were also reviewed. Managed system elements for risk assessment and public interactions were also discussed, and stepped control measures were presented. tabs., figs.

  16. Development and Implementation of Mechanistic Terry Turbine Models in RELAP-7 to Simulate RCIC Normal Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zou, Ling [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    As part of the efforts to understand the unexpected “self-regulating” mode of the RCIC (Reactor Core Isolation Cooling) systems in Fukushima accidents and extend BWR RCIC and PWR AFW (Auxiliary Feed Water) operational range and flexibility, mechanistic models for the Terry turbine, based on Sandia’s original work [1], have been developed and implemented in the RELAP-7 code to simulate the RCIC system. In 2016, our effort has been focused on normal working conditions of the RCIC system. More complex off-design conditions will be pursued in later years when more data are available. In the Sandia model, the turbine stator inlet velocity is provided according to a reduced-order model which was obtained from a large number of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulations. In this work, we propose an alternative method, using an under-expanded jet model to obtain the velocity and thermodynamic conditions for the turbine stator inlet. The models include both an adiabatic expansion process inside the nozzle and a free expansion process outside of the nozzle to ambient pressure. The combined models are able to predict the steam mass flow rate and supersonic velocity to the Terry turbine bucket entrance, which are the necessary input information for the Terry turbine rotor model. The analytical models for the nozzle were validated with experimental data and benchmarked with CFD simulations. The analytical models generally agree well with the experimental data and CFD simulations. The analytical models are suitable for implementation into a reactor system analysis code or severe accident code as part of mechanistic and dynamical models to understand the RCIC behaviors. The newly developed nozzle models and modified turbine rotor model according to the Sandia’s original work have been implemented into RELAP-7, along with the original Sandia Terry turbine model. A new pump model has also been developed and implemented to couple with the Terry turbine model. An input

  17. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55 Agriculture... § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this section apply only to RUS financed electric system... for Dam Safety,”(Guidelines), as applicable. A dam, as more fully defined in the Guidelines, is...

  18. Feasibility of groundwater recharge dam projects in arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, H. H.

    2014-05-01

    A new method for determining feasibility and prioritizing investments for agricultural and domestic recharge dams in arid regions is developed and presented. The method is based on identifying the factors affecting the decision making process and evaluating these factors, followed by determining the indices in a GIS-aided environment. Evaluated parameters include results from field surveys and site visits, land cover and soils data, precipitation data, runoff data and modeling, number of beneficiaries, domestic irrigation demand, reservoir objectives, demography, reservoirs yield and reliability, dam structures, construction costs, and operation and maintenance costs. Results of a case study on more than eighty proposed dams indicate that assessment of reliability, annualized cost/demand satisfied and yield is crucial prior to investment decision making in arid areas. Irrigation demand is the major influencing parameter on yield and reliability of recharge dams, even when only 3 months of the demand were included. Reliability of the proposed reservoirs as related to their standardized size and net inflow was found to increase with increasing yield. High priority dams were less than 4% of the total, and less priority dams amounted to 23%, with the remaining found to be not feasible. The results of this methodology and its application has proved effective in guiding stakeholders for defining most favorable sites for preliminary and detailed design studies and commissioning.

  19. Hydraulic fracture considerations in oil sand overburden dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R.; Madden, B.; Danku, M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed hydraulic fracture potential in the dry-filled temporary dams used in the oil sands industry. Hydraulic fractures can occur when reservoir fluid pressures are greater than the minimum stresses in a dam. Stress and strain conditions are influenced by pore pressures, levels of compaction in adjacent fills as well as by underlying pit floor and abutment conditions. Propagation pressure and crack initiation pressures must also be considered in order to provide improved hydraulic fracture protection to dams. Hydraulic fractures typically result in piping failures. Three cases of hydraulic fracture at oil sands operations in Alberta were presented. The study showed that hydraulic fracture failure modes must be considered in dam designs, particularly when thin compacted lift of dry fill are used to replace wetted clay cores. The risk of hydraulic fractures can be reduced by eliminating in situ bedrock irregularities and abutments. Overpressure heights, abutment sloping, and the sloping of fills above abutments, as well as the dam's width and base conditions must also be considered in relation to potential hydraulic fractures. It was concluded that upstream sand beaches and internal filters can help to prevent hydraulic fractures in dams in compacted control zones. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  20. Evaluating the Mosul Dam's Instability after Resumption of Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-husseinawi, Y.; Li, Z.; Clarke, P. J.; Edwards, S.

    2017-12-01

    There is serious concern about the safety of Mosul dam in the north of Iraq. Millions of people in the downstream area are exposed to risk of catastrophic collapse of this dam due to its soluble foundation. Recent study (Milillo et al., 2016, Scientific Report/10.1038/srep37408) reported that the dam deformation has accelerated since August 2014, when grouting operations were interrupted due to the conflict in the region. In this study, we investigate the health of Mosul dam since Jun 2016 using three independent datasets: Sentinel-1A/B SAR images, levelling, and GPS measurement. The latter are based on three epochs of terrestrial observation for levelling and GPS data: March 2016, December 2016 and July 2017. During this period, maintenance operations are being recovered to keep the dam stable. The monitoring network, on which the levelling and GPS observations are based, consists of eighty-seven pillars distributed on the dam surface. The results from InSAR and leveling data show that the dam crest is settling by 9 mm/yr. In contrast to previous studies, our results show a deceleration in the settlement. This may be due to the maintenance operations performed in the last few months. InSAR time series analysis was performed using the in-house tool TM-SBAS. When using the small baseline Sentinel-1 constellation, all possibilities of image choice are taken into consideration and the SRTM DEM accuracy is sufficient to generate the differential interferograms. Data from both Sentinel-1A and -1B images are used, and these results can be compared with multi-platform (Envisat, Sentinel-1, Cosmo-SkyMed, and TerraSar-X) data collected during the period between March 2003 and September 2016.

  1. Behavior of U3Si2 Fuel and FeCrAl Cladding under Normal Operating and Accident Reactor Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence; Hales, Jason Dean; Barani, Tommaso; Pizzocri, Davide; Pastore, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation program, an Accident Tolerant Fuel High Impact Problem was initiated at the beginning of fiscal year 2015 to investigate the behavior of \\usi~fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) claddings under normal operating and accident reactor conditions. The High Impact Problem was created in response to the United States Department of Energy's renewed interest in accident tolerant materials after the events that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. The High Impact Problem is a multinational laboratory and university collaborative research effort between Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. This report primarily focuses on the engineering scale research in fiscal year 2016 with brief summaries of the lower length scale developments in the areas of density functional theory, cluster dynamics, rate theory, and phase field being presented.

  2. Birth defects in perinatal infants in areas contiguous to Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Plant before its normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ling; Yin Zhihua; Han Zhonghui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the status of birth defects among the perinatal infants in the areas contiguous to Hongyanhe nuclear power plant before its normal operation, so as to provide background information for the evaluation of the impact of nuclear power plant on birth defects. Methods: From 1 October 1995 to 30 September 2009 the midwifery units at second class and above of Wafangdian City were asked to be in charge of recording the birth defects among the perinatal infants born during this period within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant. Results: The total number of birth defects was 697, and the maternal number Was 83779. The average defect rate Was 83.20/10 4 . There were significant differences in the birth defect rate among different years (χ 2 =39.54, P<0.05), however, without linear trend therein,and among the survey areas (χ 2 =15.36, P<0.05) as well. The top five birth defects were congenital heart disease (148 cases), cleft lip with cleft palate (67 cases), congenital hydrocephalus (63 cases), and spina bifida (37 cases) and cleft lip (36 cases). Conclusions: The birth defect rate within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant is lower than that of the region of Liaoning Province and the national rate of birth defects. (authors)

  3. Determination of engineering safety factor -routine in Hungary (a methodology for the normal operation local power engineering safety factors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szecsenyi, Z.; Korpas, L.; Bona, G.; Kereszturi, A.

    2010-01-01

    From the late nineties Paks Nuclear Power Plant-in collaboration with KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI)- is developing a system for determining the normal operation local power engineering safety factors. The system is based on a Monte Carlo sampling of the uncertain model input parameters. Additionally, the comparison of the calculation to the in-core measurements plays essential role for determining some important input parameters. By using new fuel types and the corresponding more recent detailed technological data, the applied method is being improved from time to time. Presently, the actually used and authorized engineering safety factors at Paks NPP are determined by using this method. In the paper, the system.s main properties are described (not going beyond the possible extent). The main points are as follows:-Mathematical definition of the engineering safety factor;-Sources of the uncertainties;-Input error propagation method constituting the basis of the system;-Flow-chart of the subsequent steps of the determination Finally, in the paper the engineering safety factors values of some selected parameters are presented as examples for demonstration of the capability of the method. (Authors)

  4. Perspectives on dam safety in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, R.

    2004-01-01

    Canadian dam safety issues were reviewed from the perspective of a water resources engineer who is not a dam safety practitioner. Several external factors affecting dam safety were identified along with perceived problems in dam safety administration. The author claims that the main weakness in safety practices can be attributed to provincial oversights and lack of federal engagement. Some additions to the Canadian Dam Safety Guidelines were proposed to address these weaknesses. Canada has hundreds of large dams and high hazard dams whose failure would result in severe downstream consequences. The safety of dams built on boundary waters shared with the United States have gained particular attention from the International Joint Commission. This paper also examined safety criteria for concerns such as aging dams, sabotage and global climate change that may compromise the safety of a dam. 26 refs

  5. Grouting Applications in Cindere Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim ALKAYA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouting is one of the most popular method to control the water leakage in fill dam constructions. With this regard this method is widely used in all the world. Geological and geotechnical properties of rock are important parameters affect the design of grouting. In this study, geotechnical properties of Cindere Dam's base rock and the grouting prosedure have been investigated with grouting pressure.

  6. Ririe Dam Release Test Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes 1420 Ririe Dam Ririe Dam 119,880 Gates opened and initial release started. 1455 115th St...16°F air temperature. Table A2. Observations made on 11 February 2013. Time Location Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes...ERDC/CRREL TR-13-10 52 Time Location Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes Travel Time* (sec) Vel.** (fps) 1224 5th

  7. Thermal margin comparison between DAM and simple model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jeonghun; Yook, Daesik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The nuclear industry in Korea, has considered using a detail analysis model (DAM), which described each rod, to get more thermal margin with the design a dry storage facility for nuclear spent fuel (NSF). A DAM is proposed and a thermal analysis to determine the cladding integrity is performed using test conditions with a homogenized NSF assembly analysis model(Simple model). The result show that according to USA safety criteria, temperature of canister surface has to keep below 500 K in normal condition and 630 K in excess condition. A commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) called ANSYS Fluent version 14.5 was used.

  8. 30 CFR 717.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... at least 3 feet to avoid overtopping by wind and wave action. (iii) Dams shall have minimum safety... pursuant to § 77.216-1 of this title and the name of the person operating or controlling the dam, shall be...

  9. Dam owner floodplain management: responsibility, consequences and strategies in a competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, J.B.; Lence, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Dam owners responsibilities regarding dam construction, operation, maintenance, and eventual decommissioning, as imposed by various statutes in British Columbia, are discussed. The discussion includes consideration of consequences of failure to meet mandated responsibilities, and technical, legal and educational strategies to avoid exposure to risk. Recent court decisions are examined to identify common areas of risk. 9 refs., 1 fig

  10. Proposal for a new normalization reference in LCA based on “safe operating space”: presentation of framework and global factors at midpoint level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Planetary boundaries have been suggested for a range of environmental impacts,such as climate change, eutrophying nutrients and land use. The boundaries demarcate the safe operating space of humanity: Staying within the space ensures environmental sustainability, while exceeding it risks pushing...... ecosystems into alternative regimes, leading to adverse effects for humanity. Planetary boundaries can be applied as policy targets. To promote a societal development in the direction of these targets, an indicator system is needed that measures the fraction of the safe operating space that a given activity...... normalization factors in units compatible with characterized results at midpoint level in LCA. Our suggested framework allows expressing normalized results in units of “sustainable person years”. Normalization factors are derived by dividing the safe operating space by the global population. The proposed...

  11. Impact of dam-building on marine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, T. J.

    1980-03-01

    Dam-building across naturally flowing rivers tends to decrease discharge of surplus water into the sea, reduce nutrient concentration in estuaries and coastal waters, and diminish plankton blooms as well as fish landings. Depletion of nutrients and organic matter along with reduced mud and silt deposition affect benthic life on the continental shelf. Reduced mud and silt deposition leads to coastal retreat. Dams, especially those constructed for hydro-electric purposes, hinder migration of fishes and decapods. Discharge from dams can create barriers at high or low flows, cause delays, disrupt normal behavioural routine and change the travel speed of migratory animals. Where all spawners of a given population are frequently kept away from the breeding site, the population faces extinction.

  12. Dams. Bulletin of the Technical Service of Electric Power and Big Dams; Barrages. Bulletin du Service Technique de l`Energie Electrique et des Grands Barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Four papers were selected in this issue of the bulletin of the Technical Service of Electric Power and Big Dams. The first one concerns the `Catastrophe Medicine` congress which took place in Amiens (France) in December 5 to 7 1996 and during which the analysis of experience feedbacks and lessons gained after dam accidents and organisation of emergency plans was discussed. The second one is a report of the conclusions of the decennial and annual inspections of French dams. The third paper describes the reinforcement of the Lavaud-Gelade dam embankment and the last paper reports on the Control Services activities concerning the French dams in operation for the forth quarter of the year 1996. (J.S.)

  13. National Dam Safety Program. Grindstone-Lost-Muddy Creek Dam F-20 (MO 11220), Grand - Chariton Basin, Daviess County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    for a small dam having a high hazard potential. Considering the small volume of water im- pounded and the downstream channel from the dam, one-half of...flood at damsite - Mr. Wesley Lee reported that the highest water he had seen was approximately 4 inches over the riser. (3) The principal spillway...operation. It was reported by Mr. Wesley Lee that the emergency spillway has never operated. 2.4 EVALUATION a. Availabilit X . The data in Appendix C

  14. Process-oriented dose assessment model for 14C due to releases during normal operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilonius, Karin; Hallberg, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    Swedish nuclear utility companies are required to assess doses due to releases of radionuclides during normal operation. In 2001, calculation methods used earlier were updated due to new authority regulations. The isotope 14 C is of special interest in dose assessments due to the role of carbon in the metabolism of all life forms. Earlier, factors expressing the ratio between concentration of 14 C in air and in various plants were used. In order to extend the possibility to take local conditions into account, a process-oriented assessment model for uptake of carbon and doses from releases of 14 C to air was developed (POM 14 C). The model uses part of Daisy which has been developed to model the turnover of carbon in crops. [Hansen, S., Jensen, H.E., Nielsen, N.E., Svendsen, H., 1993. Description of the Soil Plant System Model DAISY, Basic Principles and Modelling Approach. Simulation Model for Transformation and Transport of Energy and Matter in the Soil Plant Atmosphere System. Jordbruksfoerlaget, The Royal Veterianary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark]. The main objectives were to test model performance of the former method, and to investigate if taking site specific parameters into account to a greater degree would lead to major differences in the results. Several exposure pathways were considered: direct consumption of locally grown cereals, vegetables, and root vegetables, as well as consumption of milk and meat from cows having eaten fodder cereals and green fodder from the area around the nuclear plant. The total dose of the earlier model was compared with that of POM 14 C. The result of the former was shown to be slightly higher than the latter, but POM 14 C confirmed that the earlier results were of a reasonable magnitude. When full account of local conditions was taken, e.g. as regards solar radiation, temperature, and concentration of 14 C in air at various places in the surroundings of each nuclear plant, a difference in dose between

  15. No sensation at the simulator. Not only emergency conditions, specified normal operation also is on the training plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baude, W.

    1994-01-01

    Thanks to the great reliability and automation, the operating staff of German nuclear power stations have nearly no chance to collect negative experience. To remain fit, the power station operators rely on a simulator. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Optimization design of foundation excavation for Xiluodu super-high arch dam in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With better understanding of the quality and physico-mechanical properties of rocks of dam foundation, and the physico-mechanical properties and structure design of arch dam in association with the foundation excavation of Xiluodu arch dam, the excavation optimization design was proposed for the foundation surface on the basis of feasibility study. Common analysis and numerical analysis results demonstrated the feasibility of using the weakly weathered rocks III1 and III2 as the foundation surface of super-high arch dam. In view of changes in the geological conditions at the dam foundation along the riverbed direction, the design of extending foundation surface excavation area and using consolidating grouting and optimizing structure of dam bottom was introduced, allowing for harmonization of the arch dam and foundation. Three-dimensional (3D geomechanics model test and finite element analysis results indicated that the dam body and foundation have good overload stability and high bearing capacity. The monitoring data showed that the behaviors of dam and foundation correspond with the designed patterns in the construction period and the initial operation period.

  17. Importance of using roller compacted concrete in techno-economic investigation and design of small dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouissat, Bouchrit; Smail, N.; Zenagui, S.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, and under constraints caused by persistent drought, Algeria has launched a new mobilization strategy for surface water resources from small and medium dams. However, by making a review of the studies and achievements of twenty small dams in the west of Algeria, some deficiencies appeared. In addition to reservoir siltation assessment, operation spillways have been the major constraint on the reliability of these types of dams. The objective of this paper is to use the roller compacted concrete (RCC) for small dams' design for the benefit it offers and its ability to incorporate spillways. The development of this reflection was applied to the Khneg Azir earth dam situated in southwest of Algeria. Its uncontrolled lateral spillway has registered significant damage following the flood of October 2005, amounted, at that time, to more than 100 million Algerian dinars (1 million US Dollars). The present research encompasses a technical and economical comparative analysis concerning multiple criteria dam design types coupled with the conjugation of the spillways. Thus, on the basis of financial estimates calculated for all design types, the variant RCC remains competitive with that of the earth dam's spillway isolated (Less than 40% of the cost). To assess the mechanical behavior of the foundations for both types of dams, (earth and RCC dams), numerical modeling has been undertaken, according to the comparative analysis of deformations in the foundations. Analysis of deformations showed that the average foundation deformations was between (0.052-0.85) m for earth dam and (0.023-0.373) m for RCC dam. These economical and technical considerations open up important prospects for the use of RCC in the design of small dams.

  18. Determination of filtrations and permeability of an earth dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, H.R.; Baro, G.B.; Gillen, Ricardo.

    1975-11-01

    The aim of this work was to measure with the aid of a radioactive tracer the speed flow of the water filtrating from Sumampa Dam in northeastern Catamarca, while being in operation, and with these data determine if the actual permeability corresponds to the projected one. Iodine-131 was used as tracer and periodical samples were taken from the down stream water in order to determine its activity concentration. In previous perforations ionic interchange resines were used so as to measure simultaneously the fixed Iodine-131. The permeability of the dam was calculated from the obtained speed based on time-concentration curves and applying Darcy formulas for permeability. (author) [es

  19. Value of nuclear energy echoes with Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Australia's newest uranium mine, Olympic Dam contains 450 million tonnes of economic ore. It has the capacity to annually produce 45,000 tonnes of uranium oxide, 27,000 ounces of gold and 555,000 ounces of silver. The orebody composition and the deposit-wide mineral zonation pattern represents the end product of a complex evolution of a large breccia pipe system. A brief account is given of the mining and metallurgical operations, along with a list of the long term contracts which cover about 50% of Olympic Dam's initial uranium production. 1 tab., ills

  20. Priority ranking for maintenance activities on embankment dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouinard, L.E.; Andersen, G.R.; Robichaud, J.G.; Blanchette, G.; Gervais, R.

    1998-01-01

    Operators of dams in Canada and the U.S. are steadily shifting from construction of new facilities to the maintenance and repairs of existing ones. This paper emphasized the importance of prioritizing maintenance activities on embankment dams whose maintenance needs vary from structure to structure. Two parallel procedures were developed, one for monitoring devices and the other for defense groups. Both procedures are intended to be used together to rate the condition of the embankment dams. The term 'defense groups' is used to refer to the collection of physical components on dams to prevent adverse conditions from occurring that would result in an uncontrolled release of the reservoir. The priority rankings and condition indices developed by means of this procedure reflects the judgment of a panel of engineers and geologists who implement them. They are not to be interpreted as an index of dam safety. While the process is sufficiently well developed to warrant wide-spread distribution, it is considered to be still in the developmental stage. Therefore, it should be used in conjunction with other parallel processes evaluating structural, mechanical and electrical features of the structure under consideration. 6 refs., 7 tabs

  1. Downstream ecological effects of dams: A geomorphic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligon, F.K.; Dietrich, W.E.; Trush, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The damming of a river changes the flow of water, sediment, nutrients, energy, and biota, interrupting and altering most of a river's ecological processes. This article discusses the importance of geomorphological analysis in river conservation and management. To illustrate how subtle geomorphological adjustments may profoundly influence the ecological relationships downstream from dames, three case studies are presented. Then a geomorphically based approach for assessing and possibly mitigating some of the environmental effects of dams by tailoring dam designed and operation is outlined. The cases are as follows: channel simplification and salmon decline on the McKenzie River in Oregon; Channel incision and reduced floodplain inundation on the Oconee river in Georgia; Increased stability of a braided river in New Zealand's south island. 41 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  2. Competition at the attack of EdF's dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, O.; Gateaud, P.; Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    The exploitation of French hydroelectric dams is at the eve of a big upheaval. EdF, the historical operator, and GdF Suez the French number two of hydropower generation are going to face the strong competition of the big European energy groups. France will open 20% of its hydroelectric potential to competition in order to be in agreement with the opening of energy markets imposed by the European Union, and to increase by 10% the hydroelectric power as requested by the French government policy. The candidates will have to fulfill 3 criteria: investing to increase production, reducing the environmental impacts, and accepting the principle of paying fees. However, some of the French dams suffer from serious pathologies and the health of thousands of small dams remains unknown because of the lack of available data. (J.S.)

  3. Valorization of mud from Fergoug dam in manufacturing mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Laoufi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of calcined mud, with pozzolanic properties, from the large quantities of sediments dredged from Algerian dams, could be a good opportunity for the formulation of high performance mortars and pozzolanic concretes, with lower costs and less greenhouse gas (CO2 emissions. The optimal temperatures selected for calcination were 750, 850 and 950 °C. The burning operation was continuous over a period of 3 h. Therefore, a series of physical, chemical, mechanical and microstructural analyses were conducted on sediment samples, collected from the waters of Fergoug dam. The results obtained from the analyses of the calcined mud, from the dam, allowed saying that mortars with different percentages of that mud represent a potential source of high reactivity pozzolanic materials.

  4. Trading river services: optimizing dam decisions at the basin scale to improve socio-ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. G.; Gold, A.; Uchida, E.; McGreavy, B.; Smith, S. M.; Wilson, K.; Blachly, B.; Newcomb, A.; Hart, D.; Gardner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Dam removal has become a cornerstone of environmental restoration practice in the United States. One outcome of dam removal that has received positive attention is restored access to historic habitat for sea-run fisheries, providing a crucial gain in ecosystem resilience. But dams also provide stakeholders with valuable services, and uncertain socio-ecological outcomes can arise if there is not careful consideration of the basin scale trade offs caused by dam removal. In addition to fisheries, dam removals can significantly affect landscape nutrient flux, municipal water storage, recreational use of lakes and rivers, property values, hydroelectricity generation, the cultural meaning of dams, and many other river-based ecosystem services. We use a production possibility frontiers approach to explore dam decision scenarios and opportunities for trading between ecosystem services that are positively or negatively affected by dam removal in New England. Scenarios that provide efficient trade off potentials are identified using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. Our results suggest that for many river systems, there is a significant potential to increase the value of fisheries and other ecosystem services with minimal dam removals, and further increases are possible by including decisions related to dam operations and physical modifications. Run-of-river dams located near the head of tide are often found to be optimal for removal due to low hydroelectric capacity and high impact on fisheries. Conversely, dams with large impoundments near a river's headwaters can be less optimal for dam removal because their value as nitrogen sinks often outweighs the potential value for fisheries. Hydropower capacity is negatively impacted by dam removal but there are opportunities to meet or exceed lost capacity by upgrading preserved hydropower dams. Improving fish passage facilities for dams that are critical for safety or water storage can also reduce impacts on fisheries. Our

  5. Dams and Obstructions along Iowa's Canoe Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset represents obstruction to canoe and boat users of the canoe routes of Iowa. This may represent actual dams, rock dams (natural or man made), large...

  6. Douglas County Dam Breach Inundation Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Dam breach analysis provides a prediction of the extent and timing of flooding from a catastrophic breach of the dams. These results are sufficient for developing...

  7. Technical bulletin : structural considerations for dam safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This technical bulletin discussed issues related to the safety assessment of concrete water-retaining structures and timber dams. Structures reviewed in the paper included gravity dams; buttress dams; arch dams; spillway structures; intake structures; power plants; roller compacted concrete dams; and timber dams. A variety of issues related to the loss of cohesive bond and discontinuities in bedrock foundations were reviewed with reference to issues related to compressive strength, tensile strength, and shear strength. Static failure modes and failure mechanisms related to dam failures were also described. Visual indicators for potential failures include abutment and foundation movement, seepage, and structure movements. Loading combinations were discussed, and performance indicators for gravity dams were provided. Methods of analysis for considering load characteristics, structure types and geological conditions were also discussed. Modelling techniques for finite element analysis were also included. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. 78 FR 53494 - Dam Safety Modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Bar Dams AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority. ACTION: Issuance of Record of Decision. SUMMARY: This... the dam safety modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams. The notice of... Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams was published in the Federal Register on May 31, 2013. This...

  9. WinDAM C earthen embankment internal erosion analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two primary causes of dam failure are overtopping and internal erosion. For the purpose of evaluating dam safety for existing earthen embankment dams and proposed earthen embankment dams, Windows Dam Analysis Modules C (WinDAM C) software will simulate either internal erosion or erosion resulting f...

  10. Dams. Bulletin of the technical service of electric power and big dams; Barrages. Bulletin du service technique de l`energie electrique et des grands barrages (STEEGB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Four papers were selected in this issue of `Barrages` bulletin. The first one concerns the surveillance of medium size dams, the second one deals with the life of French dams in operation (safety decennial and annual inspections). The third paper describes the behaviour of free flow spillways installed on loam dams while the last paper reports on the activities of the control service of the STEEGB for the second quarter of 1997 (decennial and annual inspections, important facts, administrative instructions, draining, floods, granting etc..). (J.S.)

  11. Testing post-weaning food motivation in low and normal birth weight pigs in a runway and operant conditioning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, L. M.; Antonides, A.; Nordquist, R. E.; van der Staay, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) pigs face more welfare challenges than their normal birth weight (NBW) siblings. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of cognitive and learning abilities in these pigs may help to improve their welfare. Early competition in life over resources, combined with the higher need

  12. Testing post-weaning food motivation in low and normal birth weight pigs in a runway and operant conditioning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van L.M.; Antonides, A.; Nordquist, R.E.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) pigs face more welfare challenges than their normal birth weight (NBW) siblings. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of cognitive and learning abilities in these pigs may help to improve their welfare. Early competition in life over resources, combined with the higher

  13. A novel approach for evaluating acceptable intra-operative correction of lower limb alignment in femoral and tibial malunion using the deviation angle of the normal contralateral knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2014-03-01

    A simple and appropriate approach for evaluating an acceptable alignment of bone around the knee during operation has not yet been reported. Thirty-five men and 35 women presenting with nonunion or malunion of the unilateral femoral shaft were included in the first study. Using the standing scanograph, the contralateral normal lower extremity was measured to determine the normal deviation angle (DA) of the medial malleolus when the medial aspect of the knee was placed in the midline of the body. In the second study, the normal DA from individual patients was used as a reference to evaluate knee alignment during operation in 40 other patients presenting with distal femoral or proximal tibial nonunion or malunion. The clinical and knee functional outcomes of these 40 patients were investigated. The average normal DA was 4.2° in men and 6.0° in women (palignment was maintained in all 30 patients with fracture union. Satisfactory function of the knee was achieved in 28 patients (82%, palignment of bone around the knee during operation. Level IV, Case series. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 62627 - Sam Rayburn Dam Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ..., Wholesale Rates for Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Dam Electric Cooperative, Inc. (Contract No... Schedule SRD-08, Wholesale Rates for Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Dam Electric Cooperative... ADMINISTRATION RATE SCHEDULE SRD-13 \\1\\ WHOLESALE RATES FOR HYDRO POWER AND ENERGY SOLD TO SAM RAYBURN DAM...

  15. 78 FR 70295 - Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Dam Safety Modification Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... impacts to the natural, physical, and human environment resulting from modifications to Bluestone Dam. The..., low flow augmentation, and fish and wildlife enhancement. The project began operation in 1949 and...

  16. Navigation Study of Lower Lock Approach, John Day Lock and Dam, Columbia River, Oregon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Representatives of the Columbia River Towing Association reported recent structural and/or operational changes at John Day Lock and Dam have created difficult navigation conditions for tows entering...

  17. Dam's design continues throughout construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara E, R; Wulff, J G

    1979-11-01

    In spite of adverse site conditions, Arenal dam in Costa Rica was completed a year ahead of schedule. Historical data on local earthquake activity which was available in unusual detail reduced some uncertainties in design information. Other uncertainties regarding the complex foundation conditions were resolved as excavation and construction progressed.

  18. Public safety around dams : Ontario Power Generation's approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, T; Rowat, L [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has developed a Waterways Public Safety Program that includes elements such as integrating public safety considerations into normal business practices and decisions; applying conservative decision making principles regarding operations where there are issues of public safety; and seeking partnership opportunities that enhance public safety awareness. The key steps to the public safety risk assessment process include identifying each type of known public interaction at a facility; identifying the hazards associated with those interactions; assigning a rating of likelihood and consequence for each separate public interaction at a facility; and assigning a risk rating, with a risk matrix for each public interaction. OPG now requires that a new public safety risk assessment be completed every 3 years. The risk assessment is a guide to implementing control measures to lower the risk of injury at dam facilities. OPG has adopted the model that every water conveyance structure will have an established hazardous area, typically adjacent to the structure. These areas are delineated with red danger signs and other control measures installed as needed. Yellow signs are used to delineate warning areas where there is a reasonable likelihood of minor injury or where the public may become stranded. As a minimum, OPG uses signage, sluicegate audible alarms, a stepped approach to sluicegate openings and public education. Safety booms and buoys as well as fencing and barricades may be used as additional control measures along with security patrols and video surveillance to target specific public interactions. 6 figs.

  19. Taking a new approach to dam building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.

    1999-01-01

    Problems, including corruption, dogging construction of the Three Gorges dam being built in China are discussed. The article questions whether large hydro projects can ever be completed on time and within budget. It was suggested that by operating a build-operate-transfer scheme there might be greater incentives to complete on time but the vice-president of Skanska Civil Engineering was sceptical due to the risk involved. Through the Three Gorges Project, the Chinese government has learned that the relocation of thousands of people is far from easy. From a technical aspect, there may be unexpected problems in building underground. Some problems which arose in major hydro projects in India, Turkey and Lesotho were recounted. The vice-president of Skanska offered three pieces of advice and they are listed. (UK)

  20. Taking a new approach to dam building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.

    1999-03-01

    Problems, including corruption, dogging construction of the Three Gorges dam being built in China are discussed. The article questions whether large hydro projects can ever be completed on time and within budget. It was suggested that by operating a build-operate-transfer scheme there might be greater incentives to complete on time but the vice-president of Skanska Civil Engineering was sceptical due to the risk involved. Through the Three Gorges Project, the Chinese government has learned that the relocation of thousands of people is far from easy. From a technical aspect, there may be unexpected problems in building underground. Some problems which arose in major hydro projects in India, Turkey and Lesotho were recounted. The vice-president of Skanska offered three pieces of advice and they are listed. (UK)

  1. Neotectonics of the Vajont dam site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Franco; Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2003-08-01

    The disastrous Vajont landslide (NE Italy) of 9 October 1963 is generally thought to have occurred on an existing failure surface. Reassessment of the morphological and structural evidence suggests that movement was on a normal fault plane which had juxtaposed Cretaceous limestone and highly fractured rock debris, thus rendering the dam site unusually susceptible to massive sliding. The proposed fault is consistent in strike with the regional lineament pattern. Although movement was triggered by the combined effects of heavy rainfall and changes in reservoir level, there is circumstantial evidence that seismicity played a contributory part in mobilising the slide by increasing pore pressure at the base of the slide as well as by any associated shaking.

  2. Assessing Risks of Mine Tailing Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha Larrauri, P.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The consequences of tailings dam failures can be catastrophic for communities and ecosystems in the vicinity of the dams. The failure of the Fundão tailings dam at the Samarco mine in 2015 killed 19 people with severe consequences for the environment. The financial and legal consequences of a tailings dam failure can also be significant for the mining companies. For the Fundão tailings dam, the company had to pay 6 billion dollars in fines and twenty-one executives were charged with qualified murder. There are tenths of thousands of active, inactive, and abandoned tailings dams in the world and there is a need to better understand the hazards posed by these structures to downstream populations and ecosystems. A challenge to assess the risks of tailings dams in a large scale is that many of them are not registered in publicly available databases and there is little information about their current physical state. Additionally, hazard classifications of tailings dams - common in many countries- tend to be subjective, include vague parameter definitions, and are not always updated over time. Here we present a simple methodology to assess and rank the exposure to tailings dams using ArcGIS that removes subjective interpretations. The method uses basic information such as current dam height, storage volume, topography, population, land use, and hydrological data. A hazard rating risk was developed to compare the potential extent of the damage across dams. This assessment provides a general overview of what in the vicinity of the tailings dams could be affected in case of a failure and a way to rank tailings dams that is directly linked to the exposure at any given time. One hundred tailings dams in Minas Gerais, Brazil were used for the test case. This ranking approach could inform the risk management strategy of the tailings dams within a company, and when disclosed, it could enable shareholders and the communities to make decisions on the risks they are taking.

  3. Surveillance of medium-size dams; Surveillance des barrages de taille moyenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    French hydro-power buildings belong to the government and are retroceded by the licence holder when the granting delay comes to an end. Experience has shown that less care is given by licence holders to the maintenance of medium-size dams that to big dams. For this reason, the French Ministry of Industry decided to harmonize and standardize the surveillance practices of medium-size dams. A circular was signed on May 23, 1997 which concerns the 10 to 20 m height dams with water reservoir volumes lower than the H{sup 2} x V{sup 0.5} criterion which is an evaluation of the potential risk of the dam. The surveillance modalities concern: the construction, the licence holder file, the first filling up, the operation, and the periodical safety inspections. (J.S.)

  4. Numerical Modelling of Tailings Dam Thermal-Seepage Regime Considering Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniskin Nikolay Alekseevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem. The article describes the problem of combined thermal-seepage regime for earth dams and those operated in the permafrost conditions. This problem can be solved using the finite elements method based on the local variational formulation. Results. A thermal-seepage regime numerical model has been developed for the “dam-foundation” system in terms of the tailings dam. The effect of heat-and-mass transfer and liquid phase transition in soil interstices on the dam state is estimated. The study with subsequent consideration of these factors has been undertaken. Conclusions. The results of studying the temperature-filtration conditions of the structure based on the factors of heat-and-mass transfer and liquid phase transition have shown that the calculation results comply with the field data. Ignoring these factors or one of them distorts the real situation of the dam thermal-seepage conditions.

  5. Research on Safety Factor of Dam Slope of High Embankment Dam under Seismic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constant development of construction technology of embankment dam, the constructed embankment dam becomes higher and higher, and the embankment dam with its height over 200m will always adopt the current design criteria of embankment dam only suitable for the construction of embankment dam lower than 200m in height. So the design criteria of high embankment dam shall be improved. We shall calculate the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam under different dam height, slope ratio and different seismic intensity based on ratio of safety margin, and clarify the change rules of stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m. We calculate the ratio of safety margin of traditional and reliable method by taking the stable, allowable and reliability index 4.2 of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m as the standard value, and conduct linear regression for both. As a result, the conditions, where 1.3 is considered as the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m under seismic condition and 4.2 as the allowable and reliability index, are under the same risk control level.

  6. Using causal maps to support ex-post assessment of social impacts of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aledo, Antonio; García-Andreu, Hugo; Pinese, José

    2015-01-01

    - Highlights: • We defend the usefulness of causal maps (CM) for ex-post impact assessment of dams. • Political decisions are presented as unavoidable technical measures. • CM enable the identification of multiple causes involved in the dam impacts. • An alternative management of the dams is shown from the precise tracking of the causes. • Participatory CM better the quality of information and the governance of the research. This paper presents the results of an ex-post assessment of two important dams in Brazil. The study follows the principles of Social Impact Management, which offer a suitable framework for analyzing the complex social transformations triggered by hydroelectric dams. In the implementation of this approach, participative causal maps were used to identify the ex-post social impacts of the Porto Primavera and Rosana dams on the community of Porto Rico, located along the High Paraná River. We found that in the operation of dams there are intermediate causes of a political nature, stemming from decisions based on values and interests not determined by neutral, exclusively technical reasons; and this insight opens up an area of action for managing the negative impacts of dams

  7. Using causal maps to support ex-post assessment of social impacts of dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aledo, Antonio, E-mail: Antonio.Aledo@ua.es [Departamento de Sociología 1, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante 03080 (Spain); García-Andreu, Hugo, E-mail: Hugo.Andreu@ua.es [Departamento de Sociología 1, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante 03080 (Spain); Pinese, José, E-mail: pinese@uel.br [Centro de Ciências Exatas, UEL, Rodovia Celso Cid, Km 380, Campus Universitário, Londrina, PR 86057-970 (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    - Highlights: • We defend the usefulness of causal maps (CM) for ex-post impact assessment of dams. • Political decisions are presented as unavoidable technical measures. • CM enable the identification of multiple causes involved in the dam impacts. • An alternative management of the dams is shown from the precise tracking of the causes. • Participatory CM better the quality of information and the governance of the research. This paper presents the results of an ex-post assessment of two important dams in Brazil. The study follows the principles of Social Impact Management, which offer a suitable framework for analyzing the complex social transformations triggered by hydroelectric dams. In the implementation of this approach, participative causal maps were used to identify the ex-post social impacts of the Porto Primavera and Rosana dams on the community of Porto Rico, located along the High Paraná River. We found that in the operation of dams there are intermediate causes of a political nature, stemming from decisions based on values and interests not determined by neutral, exclusively technical reasons; and this insight opens up an area of action for managing the negative impacts of dams.

  8. Aylmer Dam : past, present and future; Barrage Aylmer : passe, present et futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giguere, H; Lehoux, B; Toma, G [Quebec Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Expertise Hydrique

    2006-07-01

    The Aylmer gravity dam was built in 1953 in Weedon in Quebec's Eastern Townships. The water reservoir retained by the Aylmer Dam has a capacity of 201,928,700 cubic metres and many houses and cottages now line its shores. As such, the water level must be kept high during the summer holiday season. The initial purpose of the dam was for log transportation, the regulation of the Saint-Francois River and the production of electricity. The retention structure belongs to the Quebec government and is managed by the Centre d'Expertise Hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). Underwater inspection of the dam in 1998 showed signs of erosion damage that required repair. Five of the dam's seven sluices were equipped with stop logs while the others had metallic floodgates. The damage was caused by the preferential use of the 2 floodgates over the years. This paper described the 3 phases for modernizing the evacuation devices of this dam. The first phase began in 2003 with the repair of the dam. The second phase involved the construction of a more modern building in 2004, and the third phase involved the replacement of wooden girders with heated metallic sluices in 2005. The modernization of this dam has reduced the time for required for water evacuation operations during all seasons and has eliminated the danger linked to de-icing techniques. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  9. The Potential for Dams to Impact Lowland Meandering River Floodplain Geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Marren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the world's floodplains are dammed. Although some implications of dams for riverine ecology and for river channel morphology are well understood, there is less research on the impacts of dams on floodplain geomorphology. We review studies from dammed and undammed rivers and include influences on vertical and lateral accretion, meander migration and cutoff formation, avulsion, and interactions with floodplain vegetation. The results are synthesized into a conceptual model of the effects of dams on the major geomorphic influences on floodplain development. This model is used to assess the likely consequences of eight dam and flow regulation scenarios for floodplain geomorphology. Sediment starvation downstream of dams has perhaps the greatest potential to impact on floodplain development. Such effects will persist further downstream where tributary sediment inputs are relatively low and there is minimal buffering by alluvial sediment stores. We can identify several ways in which floodplains might potentially be affected by dams, with varying degrees of confidence, including a distinction between passive impacts (floodplain disconnection and active impacts (changes in geomorphological processes and functioning. These active processes are likely to have more serious implications for floodplain function and emphasize both the need for future research and the need for an “environmental sediment regime” to operate alongside environmental flows.

  10. The potential for dams to impact lowland meandering river floodplain geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marren, Philip M; Grove, James R; Webb, J Angus; Stewardson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the world's floodplains are dammed. Although some implications of dams for riverine ecology and for river channel morphology are well understood, there is less research on the impacts of dams on floodplain geomorphology. We review studies from dammed and undammed rivers and include influences on vertical and lateral accretion, meander migration and cutoff formation, avulsion, and interactions with floodplain vegetation. The results are synthesized into a conceptual model of the effects of dams on the major geomorphic influences on floodplain development. This model is used to assess the likely consequences of eight dam and flow regulation scenarios for floodplain geomorphology. Sediment starvation downstream of dams has perhaps the greatest potential to impact on floodplain development. Such effects will persist further downstream where tributary sediment inputs are relatively low and there is minimal buffering by alluvial sediment stores. We can identify several ways in which floodplains might potentially be affected by dams, with varying degrees of confidence, including a distinction between passive impacts (floodplain disconnection) and active impacts (changes in geomorphological processes and functioning). These active processes are likely to have more serious implications for floodplain function and emphasize both the need for future research and the need for an "environmental sediment regime" to operate alongside environmental flows.

  11. The Impact of a Check Dam on Groundwater Recharge and Sedimentation in an Ephemeral Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Djuma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread presence of groundwater recharge check dams, there are few studies that quantify their functionality. The objectives of this study are (i to assess groundwater recharge in an ephemeral river with and without a check dam and (ii to assess sediment build-up in the check-dam reservoir. Field campaigns were carried out to measure water flow, water depth, and check-dam topography to establish water volume, evaporation, outflow, and recharge relations, as well as sediment build-up. To quantify the groundwater recharge, a water-balance approach was applied at two locations: at the check dam reservoir area and at an 11 km long natural stretch of the river upstream. Prediction intervals were computed to assess the uncertainties of the results. During the four years of operation, the check dam (storage capacity of 25,000 m3 recharged the aquifer with an average of 3.1 million m3 of the 10.4 million m3 year−1 of streamflow (30%. The lower and upper uncertainty limits of the check dam recharge were 0.1 and 9.6 million m3 year−1, respectively. Recharge from the upstream stretch was 1.5 million m3 year−1. These results indicate that check dams are valuable structures for increasing groundwater resources in semi-arid regions.

  12. Rock Mass Behavior Under Hydropower Embankment Dams: A Two-Dimensional Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarchuk, A.; Ask, M. V. S.; Dahlström, L.-O.; Nordlund, E.

    2012-09-01

    Sweden has more than 190 large hydropower dams, of which about 50 are pure embankment dams and over 100 are concrete/embankment dams. This paper presents results from conceptual analyses of the response of typical Swedish rock mass to the construction of a hydropower embankment dam and its first stages of operation. The aim is to identify locations and magnitudes of displacements that are occurring in the rock foundation and grout curtain after construction of the dam, the first filling of its water reservoir, and after one seasonal variation of the water table. Coupled hydro-mechanical analysis was conducted using the two-dimensional distinct element program UDEC. Series of the simulations have been performed and the results show that the first filling of the reservoir and variation of water table induce largest magnitudes of displacement, with the greatest values obtained from the two models with high differential horizontal stresses and smallest spacing of sub-vertical fractures. These results may help identifying the condition of the dam foundation and contribute to the development of proper maintenance measures, which guarantee the safety and functionality of the dam. Additionally, newly developed dams may use these results for the estimation of the possible response of the rock foundation to the construction.

  13. The calculating methods of the release of airborne radionuclides to environment during the normal operation of a module high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuanzhong

    1993-01-01

    The calculations of the release of radionuclides to environment are the basis of environmental impact assessment during the normal operation of a module high temperature gas-cooled reactor of the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, China. According to the features of the reactor it is pointed out that only five sources of the airborne radioactive materials released to environment are important. They are: (1) the activation of the air in the reactor cavity; (2) the escape from the primary coolant systems; (3) the release of radioactively contaminated helium from storage tanks; (4) the release of radioactively contaminated helium from the gas evacuation system of fuel load and unload system; (5) the leakage of the vapour from water-steam loop. In accordance with five release sources the calculating methods of radionuclides released to environment are worked out respectively and the respective calculating formulas are derived for the normal operation of the reactor

  14. Modeling the cool down of the primary heat transport system using shut down cooling system in normal operation and after events such as LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icleanu, D.L.; Prisecaru, I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at modeling the cooling of the primary heat transport system using shutdown cooling system (SDCS), for a CANDU 6 NPP in all operating modes, normal and abnormal (particularly in case of LOCA accident), using the Flowmaster calculation code. The modelling of heavy water flow through the shutdown cooling system and primary heat transport system was performed to determine the distribution of flows, pressure in various areas of the hydraulic circuit and the pressure loss corresponding to the components but also for the heat calculation of the heat exchangers related to the system. The results of the thermo-hydraulic analysis show that in all cases analyzed, normal operation and for LOCA accident regime, the performance requirements are confirmed by analysis

  15. Concept of the core for a small-to-medium-sized BWR that does not use control rods during normal operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakadozono, N.; Ikegawa, T., E-mail: naoyuki.nakadozono.st@hitachi.com [Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi Research Lab., Ibaraki (Japan); Nishida, K. [Hitachi Works, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    A small-to-medium-sized boiling water reactor (BWR) with a natural circulation system is being developed for countries where initial investment funds for construction are limited and electricity transmission networks have not been fully constructed. To lighten operators' work load, a core that does not use control rods during normal operation (control rod-free core) was developed by using a neutronics calculation system coupled with core flow evaluation. The control rod-free core had large core power fluctuation with conventional burnable poison design. The target of core power fluctuation was set to less than 10% and was achieved by optimization of burnable poison arrangement. (author)

  16. Concept of the core for a small-to-medium-sized BWR that does not use control rods during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakadozono, N.; Ikegawa, T.; Nishida, K.

    2013-01-01

    A small-to-medium-sized boiling water reactor (BWR) with a natural circulation system is being developed for countries where initial investment funds for construction are limited and electricity transmission networks have not been fully constructed. To lighten operators' work load, a core that does not use control rods during normal operation (control rod-free core) was developed by using a neutronics calculation system coupled with core flow evaluation. The control rod-free core had large core power fluctuation with conventional burnable poison design. The target of core power fluctuation was set to less than 10% and was achieved by optimization of burnable poison arrangement. (author)

  17. Research on shape optimization of CSG dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The multi-objective optimization method was used for shape optimization of cement sand and gravel (CSG dams in this study. The economic efficiency, the sensitivities of maximum horizontal displacement and maximum settlement of the dam to water level changes, the overall stability, and the overall strength security were taken into account during the optimization process. Three weight coefficient selection schemes were adopted to conduct shape optimization of a dam, and the case studies lead to the conclusion that both the upstream and downstream dam slope ratios for the optimal cross-section equal 1:0.7, which is consistent with the empirically observed range of 1:0.6 to 1:0.8 for the upstream and downstream dam slope ratios of CSG dams. Therefore, the present study is of certain reference value for designing CSG dams.

  18. Dynamic tests at the Outardes 3 dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proulx, J.; Paultre, P.; Duron, Z.; Tai Mai Phat; Im, O.

    1992-01-01

    At the Outardes 3 gravity dam, part of the Manicouagan-Outardes hydroelectric complex in northeastern Quebec, forced vibration tests were carried out using an eccentric mass shaker attached to the dam crest at three different locations. Accelerations were measured along the crest and in the inspection galleries, and hydrodynamic pressures were measured along the upstream dam face and at various locations in the reservoir. The tests were designed to analyze the effects of gravity dam-reservoir interactions and to generate a data base for calibrating finite element models used in studying the dynamic behavior of gravity dams. Experimental results are presented in order to demonstrate the quality of the data obtained and the effectiveness of the experimental procedures. Modes of vibration were observed which corresponded to those obtained by finite element analysis. It is shown that techniques recently developed for dynamic tests on large dams can be successfully used on gravity dams. 3 refs., 6 figs

  19. Remote Sensing of Deformation of a High Concrete-Faced Rockfill Dam Using InSAR: A Study of the Shuibuya Dam, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Settlement is one of the most important deformation characteristics of high concrete faced rockfill dams (CFRDs, >100 m. High CFRDs safety would pose a great threat to the security of people’s lives and property downstream if this kind of deformation were not to be measured correctly, as traditional monitoring approaches have limitations in terms of durability, coverage, and efficiency. It has become urgent to develop new monitoring techniques to complement or replace traditional monitoring approaches for monitoring the safety and operation status of high CFRDs. This study examines the Shuibuya Dam (up to 233.5 m in height in China, which is currently the highest CFRD in the world. We used space-borne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR time series to monitor the surface deformation of the Shuibuya Dam. Twenty-one ALOS PALSAR images that span the period from 28 February 2007 to 11 March 2011 were used to map the spatial and temporal deformation of the dam. A high correlation of 0.93 between the InSAR and the in-situ monitoring results confirmed the reliability of the InSAR method; the deformation history derived from InSAR is also consistent with the in-situ settlement monitoring system. In addition, the InSAR results allow continuous investigation of dam deformation over a wide area that includes the entire dam surface as well as the surrounding area, offering a clear picture continuously of the dam deformation.

  20. Construction of an external electrode for determination of electrochemical corrosion potential in normal operational conditions of an BWR type reactor for hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar T, J.A.; Rivera M, H.; Hernandez C, R.

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of the corrosion processes at high temperature requires of external devices that being capable to resist a temperature of 288 Centigrade and a pressure of 80 Kg/cm 2 , to give stable and reproducible results of some variable and resisting physically and chemically the radiation. The external electrode of Ag/AgCl fulfils all the requirements in the determination of the electrochemical corrosion potential under normal operational conditions of a BWR type reactor in hot cells. (Author)

  1. An effort to improve the operators' habits of actions in normal operations and in disturbance situations at TVO NPP in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, C.

    2004-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy owns and operates two ABB BWR's, each of 850 MW net outputs. A full-scope training simulator was commissioned in March 1990 at the TVO Olkiluoto plant site. This paper discusses the development of a method to evaluate and improve the operators' habits of actions in a task performance at the Teollisuuden Voima Oy full-scope training simulator. The development of the method started as a study in autumn 1992 and the first goal of the study was to analyse the dynamics of operators' decision making in the on-line control of a disturbance situation. The analysis was ready in 1994. The second goal was to develop out of the analysis method a tool that could serve as the instructor's in evaluating the individuals and the crew's simulator performances. It was assumed that such a tool would enhance the efficiency of the simulator training, because with it the instructors could provide more explicit performance feedback for the operators. The next stage was to apply the method to the entire simulator training and create a course, which consists of a theoretical part and practical training on the simulator. That was done in the retraining period in 1998. The future goals are to improve the method so that it will be used in all the simulator training at the Teollisuuden Voima Oy full-scope training simulator (OLKS). (author)

  2. An online Vce measurement and temperature estimation method for high power IGBT module in normal PWM operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    An on-state collector-emitter voltage (Vce) measurement and thereby an estimation of average temperature in space for high power IGBT module is presented while power converter is in operation. The proposed measurement circuit is able to measure both high and low side IGBT and anti parallel diode...

  3. Proceedings of the 2010 Canadian Dam Association's public safety around dams workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Nearly 30 people have drowned in dam-related incidents over the last 10 years in Canada. The Canadian public is now calling for improved safety guidelines. Public interaction with dams is increasing as a result of interest in extreme sports and perceived rights of access. However, many members of the public are not aware of the dangers posed by dams. This workshop provided a forum to discuss proposals for a draft publication of the Canadian Dam Association (CDA) guidelines for public safety and security around dams. Issues related to current legislation and liability were discussed. Methods of increasing public awareness of the hazards posed by dams included increased signage in dam locations, the use of audible and visual alert systems, and the use of booms and buoys. The responsibilities of dam owners in ensuring the safety of dams were also discussed. The conference featured 5 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  4. Study of Dam-break Due to Overtopping of Four Small Dams in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaraya Alhasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dam-break due to overtopping is one of the most common types of embankment dam failures. During the floods in August 2002 in the Czech Republic, several small dams collapsed due to overtopping. In this paper, an analysis of the dam break process at the Luh, Velký Bělčický, Melín, and Metelský dams breached during the 2002 flood is presented. Comprehensive identification and analysis of the dam shape, properties of dam material and failure scenarios were carried out after the flood event to assemble data for the calibration of a numerical dam break model. A simple one-dimensional mathematical model was proposed for use in dam breach simulation, and a computer code was compiled. The model was calibrated using the field data mentioned above. Comparison of the erodibility parameters gained from the model showed reasonable agreement with the results of other authors.

  5. Management of dams for the next Millennium: proceedings of the 1999 Canadian Dam Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The meeting featured seven sessions with 18 papers abstracted/indexed therein as follows: keynote address: tailings dams safety - implications for the dam safety community; 1 - design and performance: performance monitoring of dams: are we doing what we should be doing?; tailings dams from the perspective of conventional dam engineering; and design overview of Syncrude's Mildred Lake east toe berm; 2 - design and modelling: use of a 2D model for a dam break study on the ALCAN hydroelectric complex in Quebec; and spillway design implications resulting from changes in rainfall extremes; 3 - risk and dam safety I: closing the gaps in the dam safety guidelines; the reality of life safety consequence classification; and surveillance practices for the next millenium; 4 - risk and dam safety II: quantitative risk-assessment using the capacity-demand analysis; and new guidelines for dam safety classification; 5 - millenium issues: expectations of immortality, dam safety management into the next millenium; 6 - rehabilitation techniques: the unconventional application of conventional materials; nondestructive testing technology to characterize concrete dam/bedrock interface; method and instrument for detecting crack in concrete; and grouting of the cracks in the Arch 5-6 - Daniel Johnson Dam; and 7 - case studies: rehabilitation of an 80 year old Ambursen type dam; and debris booms for the protection of spillways.

  6. The protection of operating personnel in nuclear power plants against the risk of nuclear incidents and ionizing radiation arising from normal operation of the plant. Rules and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortore, F.; Scalera, D.

    1980-03-01

    After an analysis of the nuclear third party liability insurance policy to be taken out in Italy in implementation of Act no. 1860 of 31 December 1962 and Decree No. 519 of 10 May 1979, the collective policy against radiation injuries taken out for operating personnel in nuclear installations is described. The author is in favour of further harmonization of the legal system presently in force in this respect. (NEA) [fr

  7. The Water Quality Control of the Secondary Cooling Water under a Normal Operation of 30 MWth in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Chul; Lee, Young Sub; Lim, Rag Yong

    2008-01-01

    HANARO, a multi-purpose research reactor, a 30 MWth open-tank-in-pool type, has been under a full power operation since 2005. The heat generated by the core of HANARO is transferred to the primary cooling water. And the cooling water transfers the heat to the secondary cooling water through the primary cooling heat exchanger. The heat absorbed by the secondary cooling water is removed through a cooling tower. The quality of the secondary cooling water is deteriorated by a temperature variation of the cooling water and a foreign material flowing over the cooling water through the cooling tower fan for a cooling. From these, a corrosion reduces the life time of a system, a scale degrades the heat transfer effect and a sludge and slime induces a local corrosion. For reducing these impacts, the quality of the secondary cooling water is treated by a high ca-hardness water quality program by maintaining a super saturated condition of ions, 12 of a ca-hardness concentration. After an overhaul maintenance of a secondary cooling tower composed of a secondary cooling system in 2007, a secondary cooling water stored in the cooling tower basin was replaced with a fresh city water. In this year, a water quality deterioration test has been performed under a full power operation and a mode of a twenty three day operation and twelve day maintenance for setting a beginning control limit of the secondary cooling water. This paper describes the water quality deterioration test for the secondary cooling system under a full power operation of 30 MWth including a test method, a test requirement and a test result

  8. Activities of the nuclear emergency assistance and training center. Strengthening co-operation with parties in normal circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Fumitaka; Matsui, Tomoaki; Nomura, Tamotsu

    2005-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) established the Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) in March 2002. The center aims to provide various support nuclear safety regulatory bodies, local governments and nuclear facility licenses as specialists about nuclear and radiological issues according to the role shown in the Basic Disaster Management Plan. Upon a nuclear and/or radiological disaster occurring in Japan, NEAT will send specialists to the disaster scene, and offer the use of special equipments. NEAT maintains frequent contact with related organizations in normal circumstance. NEAT also participates in nuclear emergency exercises instructed by the parties concerned, which has contributed to the brewing of mutual trust with related organizations. In October 2005, JNC and JAERI merged into a new organization named the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). NEAT, as a section of the organization, continuously deals with nuclear emergencies. (author)

  9. Crotch Lake dam rehabilitation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, G.; Dobrowolski, E.

    1999-01-01

    Replacement of the existing wood crib dam structure on Crotch Lake on the Mississippi River in eastern Ontario that provided water storage for the power production at High Falls Generating Station, became necessary when it was determined that the dam did not meet Ontario-Hydro's safety standards. This paper describes the project of replacing the existing structure with a PVC coated gabion wall with waterproofing. The entire structure was covered with three layers of wire mesh, laced together, and criss-crossed for superior strength and rigidity. The work was completed in 28 days with no environmental impact . Life expectancy of the new structure is in excess of 40 years. With periodic maintenance of the gabion mat cover, life span could be extended an additional 20 to 40 years. 5 figs

  10. Effects of dams in river networks on fish assemblages in non-impoundment sections of rivers in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jana S.; Lizhu Wang,; Infante, Dana M.; Lyons, John D.; Arthur Cooper,

    2011-01-01

    Regional assessment of cumulative impacts of dams on riverine fish assemblages provides resource managers essential information for dam operation, potential dam removal, river health assessment and overall ecosystem management. Such an assessment is challenging because characteristics of fish assemblages are not only affected by dams, but also influenced by natural variation and human-induced modification (in addition to dams) in thermal and flow regimes, physicochemical habitats and biological assemblages. This study evaluated the impacts of dams on river fish assemblages in the non-impoundment sections of rivers in the states of Michigan and Wisconsin using multiple fish assemblage indicators and multiple approaches to distinguish the influences of dams from those of other natural and human-induced factors. We found that environmental factors that influence fish assemblages in addition to dams should be incorporated when evaluating regional effects of dams on fish assemblages. Without considering such co-influential factors, the evaluation is inadequate and potentially misleading. The role of dams alone in determining fish assemblages at a regional spatial scale is relatively small (explained less than 20% of variance) compared with the other environmental factors, such as river size, flow and thermal regimes and land uses jointly. However, our results do demonstrate that downstream and upstream dams can substantially modify fish assemblages in the non-impoundment sections of rivers. After excluding river size and land-use influences, our results clearly demonstrate that dams have significant impacts on fish biotic-integrity and habitat-and-social-preference indicators. The influences of the upstream dams, downstream dams, distance to dams, and dam density differ among the fish indicators, which have different implications for maintaining river biotic integrity, protecting biodiversity and managing fisheries.

  11. Coupled models in dam engineering

    OpenAIRE

    González Gutiérrez, María De Los Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Rock ll dams are certainly one of the most important engineering structures due to their economic advantages and exible design. Unfortunately their vulnerability to overtopping still remains their weakest point. For that reason, several research groups are interested in both the numerical and experimental analysis of this phenomenon. In this work we focused on the numerical analysis. The previous work developed in CIMNE on a coupled PFEM-Eulerian free surface Compu- tational...

  12. Environmental monitoring at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The environmental management and protection program at the Olympic Dam uranium/copper/gold project, Roxby Downs, South Australia, monitors eight major environmental parameters - meteorology, vegetation, mine site rehabilitation, fauna, terrain, soil salinity, hydrogeology and well fields. It came into effect with the approval of the South Australian Government in March 1987. The Great Artesian Basin, one of the world's greatest artesian basins, is the source of the water supply for the project

  13. Numerical Analysis on Temperature Rise of a Concrete Arch Dam after Sealing Based on Measured Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal boundary conditions in the construction and operation phases of a concrete arch dam are always complex. After sealing, differences between the arch dam temperature and its sealing temperature can cause compressive or tensile stresses. Based on measured temperature of an arch dam located in China, a temperature rise phenomenon (TRP is found in the after-sealed regions of the arch dam. By mining and analyzing the temperature data of various monitoring apparatus embedded in the arch dam, higher environment temperature is considered to be the main cause for the occurrence of the TRP. Mathematical methods for complex thermal boundary conditions, including external boundary conditions and internal heat source conditions, are proposed in this paper. A finite element model is implemented with the concern of the construction phase and operation phase of the arch dam. Results confirm good agreement with the measured temperature and verify the conjecture that the TRP occurs mainly because the external temperature of the arch dam is higher than its sealing temperature.

  14. Conceptual analysis of a preliminary model for instability study in normal operation of a natural circulation reactor type EBWR, using Relap5/Mod 3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda S, J.; Morales S, J.; Chavez M, C.

    2009-10-01

    This work intends a model using the code Relap5/Mod 3.2, for the instability study in normal operation of a natural circulation reactor type ESBWR. A conceptual analysis is considered because all the information was obtained of the open literature, and some of reactor operation or dimension (not available) parameters were approached. As starting point was took the pattern developed for reactor type BWR, denominated Browns Ferry and changes were focused in elimination of bonds of forced recirculation, in modification of operation parameters, dimensions and own control parameters, according to internal code structure. Additionally the nodalization outline is described analyzing for separate the four fundamental areas employees in peculiar geometry of natural circulation reactor. Comparative analysis of results of stability behavior obtained with those reported in the open literature were made, by part of commercial reactor designer ESBWR. (Author)

  15. Hydrogen sulfide concentration in Beaver Dam Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Concentration-time profiles calculated with LODIPS for various hypothetical releases of hydrogen sulfide from the heavy water extraction facility predict lethal conditions for swamp fish from releases as small as 568 kg discharged over a period of 30 minutes or from releases of 1818 kg discharged over a period of 6 hours or less. The necessary volatilization and oxidation coefficients for LODIPS were derived from field measurements following planned releases of H 2 S. Upsets in the operation of the wastewater strippers in the Girdler-Sulfide (GS) heavy water extraction facility in D Area have released significant amounts of dissolved H 2 S to Beaver Dam Creek. Because H 2 S is toxic to fish in concentrations as low as 1 mg/liter, the downstream environmental impact of H 2 S releases from D Area was evaluated

  16. Signal sensing of the internal ducts inspection robot: GIRINO (Get Inside Robot to Impel Normal Operation); Sensoriamento de sinais do robo de inspecao interna de dutos: GIRINO (Gabarito Interno Robotizado de Incidencia Normal ao Oleoduto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panta, Pedro G.; Dutra, Max S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Santos, Auderi V.; Ferreira, Rodrigo C. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Telecomunicacoes; Reis, Ney S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2004-07-01

    One of the major challenges in the operation field of subway oil pipelines is the presence of blockades caused by paraffin and hydrates accumulation. The maintenance and inspection inside pipelines practiced until now imply complicated risky processes for people and equipment involved in daily operational activities. The Get Inside Robot to Impel Normal Operation (G.I.R.I.N.O.) is a robot developed by the Robotic Laboratory of PETROBRAS Research Center, that aims at looking for less risky ways in internal inspection process of pipelines which displacement movements are generated by hydraulic energy. In order to get the inspection and displacement functions, the G.I.R.I.N.O. needs a constant internal movement monitoring that is made by its several parts; the interaction with the environment in diverse processes. This paper has the objective of proposing a monitoring system for the 14 inch duct G.I.R.I.N.O. For this end, a study of available components for receiving , signal processing and visualization used in the industry that fulfill the basic requirements of the robot's performance was done. The choice of the proposed devices considers these main features: size, power consumption and marinization capability. (author)

  17. Balancing of generators at wind power plants. Operational balancing in normal operation at wind power plants; Auswuchten von Generatoren auf Windkraftanlagen. Betriebsauswuchten im Normalbetrieb der Windkraftanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Dieter [IDF vibrodiagnose GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Gerrit [WSB Service GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    An increasing or suddenly arising unbalanced state in the generator of a wind power plant can be recognized by means of condition monitoring systems and regularly accomplished oscillation diagnoses. A strong unbalanced state results in a fast bearing wear, increases the risk of outage and reduces the profit. The risk of a further damage of the generator by means of a clearly increased vibration severity often is substantial. The counterbalancing takes place at the extended rotor at work benches in workshops. Among other things, the substantial cost is based on the expense of the disassembly and remounting of the generator. The total costs may amount several ten thousand Euro. As an alternative to balancing in the workshop, an operating balancing is recommended on the plant in order to reduce the costs. This was successfully realized by the engineer's office IDF vibrodiagnose GmbH (Dresden, Federal Republic of Germany) by the example of a Vestas V44 plant. The authors of the contribution under consideration describe the approach and advantages of an operating balancing. The main vibration stimulation at generators are described.

  18. Simulation analysis of temperature control on RCC arch dam of hydropower station

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIA, Shi-fa

    2017-12-01

    The temperature analysis of roller compacted concrete (RCC) dam plays an important role in their design and construction. Based on three-dimensional finite element method, in the computation of temperature field, many cases are included, such as air temperature, elevated temperature by cement hydration heat, concrete temperature during placing, the influence of water in the reservoir, and boundary temperature. According to the corresponding parameters of RCC arch dam, the analysis of temperature field and stress field during the period of construction and operation is performed. The study demonstrates that detailed thermal stress analysis should be performed for RCC dams to provide a basis to minimize and control the occurrence of thermal cracking.

  19. Development of operators' mental model acquisition system (2). Integration of knowledge representation about normal and abnormal plant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Mizoguchi, R.; Yoshikawa, S.

    1999-03-01

    This report discusses a representation scheme of device failures anticipated in nuclear power plant, to describe related knowledge in a computer software. Coping ability covering a wide range of physical events is desired in plant operators and maintenance staffs, but it is impractical to give them a set of experience to cover the all possible events in the education/training curriculum. However, in case that their knowledge of plant design and of generally-known physical principles are enforced, their ability of cause identification and of appropriate responding actions against inexperienced events are expected to be enhanced, by combining the basic engineering and physical knowledge. Most of the anomalies anticipated in nuclear power plants are initiated as an incipient failure in some auxiliary equipment initially affecting only within the relative subsystem and hiding from the central control room, and then are propagated to deviate process parameters in the main subsystems to be observed from the control room. Incipient failures in auxiliary subsystems, such as a chemical degrading of an axis holder caused by a blockage of lubricant supply line through increased friction and subsequent extra heating, are typically local and irreversible consequences. On the other hand, deviation propagation in main systems, such as outlet temperature rise by an increased pump rotation friction though decreased coolant flow rate, are typically global and reversible consequences. This paper describes a methodology development to represent a category of knowledge to support operators' and maintenance staffs' effort in understanding local and irreversible failure consequences. (author)

  20. Status of achievements reached in applying optimization of protection in design and normal operation of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Croft, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The increased emphasis in recent years on the ALARA principle and its practical implementation has opened new perspectives in the organisation of radiological protection. This change could be characterised as a shift from an 'a posteriori' control, (i.e. demonstrating that dose limits had not been exceeded), towards an 'a priori' management or dose predictive approach. Undoubtedly in both operation and design conscious efforts are made to achieve ALARA. However, there are certainly differences in various organisations' perceptions of what this practically entails and there is scope for us all to learn. If the 'ALARA Procedure' remains only a tool used at the early stage of design or as an elegant means of justifying past choices, it will have missed its main objective which is to give more rational and coherent management of practical protection at both the design and operational stages. We feel that the integration of the structured approaches of the ALARA Procedure and the ALARA Audit, into radiation protection programmes provides the best way forwad. This would require ALARA studies moving from the province of the 'experts' to the 'practitioners'. This in turn will require us to provide them with the tools to do the job. The methodology is secure but the areas of dose data collection and the costing of detriment need to be addressed further. Similarly, there is perhaps a need for the 'experts' to develop further experience of using the multiattribute and multicriteria techniques for the higher level decisions

  1. Intra-operative on-line discrimination of kidney cancer from normal tissue by IR ATR spectroscopy of extracellular fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urboniene, V.; Velicka, M.; Ceponkus, J.; Pucetaite, M.; Jankevicius, F.; Sablinskas, V.; Steiner, G.

    2016-03-01

    Determination of cancerous and normal kidney tissues during partial, simple or radical nephrectomy surgery was performed by using differences in the IR absorption spectra of extracellular fluid taken from the corresponding tissue areas. The samples were prepared by stamping of the kidney tissue on ATR diamond crystal. The spectral measurements were performed directly in the OR during surgery for 58 patients. It was found that intensities of characteristic spectral bands of glycogen (880-1200 cm-1) in extracellular fluid are sensitive to the type of the tissue and can be used as spectral markers of tumours. Characteristic spectral band of lactic acid (1730 cm-1) - product of the anaerobic glycolysis, taking place in the cancer cells is not suitable for use as a spectral marker of cancerous tissue, since it overlaps with the band of carbonyl stretch in phospholipids and fatty acids. Results of hierarchical cluster analysis of the spectra show that the spectra of healthy and tumour tissue films can be reliably separated into two groups. On the other hand, possibility to differentiate between tumours of different types and grades remains in question. While the fluid from highly malignant G3 tumour tissue contains highly pronounced glycogen spectral bands and can be well separated from benign and G1 tumours by principal component analysis, the variations between spectra from sample to sample prevent from obtaining conclusive results about the grouping between different tumour types and grades. The proposed method is instant and can be used in situ and even in vivo.

  2. MacDonald Dam reconstruction : using roller-compacted concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, E. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2007-04-01

    Located in Nova Scotia, the MacDonald Dam was commissioned in 1928. The dam consists of a 122 metre-long, 16 metre-high concrete structure comprised of an intake structure, stoplog openings, and a 34 metre-long free-overflow spillway. A 488 metre-long power canal was added as an upgrade in the 1950s. This paper provided details of the roller-compact concrete (RCC) used in the dam's recent rehabilitation following a dam failure analysis in 2003 by Nova Scotia Power Inc. RCC was chosen to help keep the dam's construction project on schedule. The layout and cross-section of the spillway was selected with consideration given to the RCC placing operation. A lift thickness of 0.20 m was selected. A formed ogee crest consisting of conventional reinforced concrete was constructed on top of the RCC. The downstream steps of the spillway were also covered with cast-in-place concrete. A low level sluice was designed to resist the weight of the wet RCC. The design compressive strength of the RCC was 20 MPa. The forms used to support the cast-in-place facing concrete on the upstream face of the dam were constructed full height and were braced back to the downstream face of the existing concrete structure prior to the start of RCC placement. Formwork inserts were placed in the facing concrete as construction progressed. Crack inducers were pre-placed on the forms. Aggregates from a local source were transported to a pug mill as the RCC construction progressed. The RCC was spread into 0.20 m lifts using a small bull-dozer, and the facing concrete was vibrated into the lift below. RCC lifts were compacted using a 9 tonne vibratory drum roller. The RCC placing operation was completed over a period of 10 days. Following the completion of the RCC portion of the dam, the remainder of the cast-in-place concrete was completed. It was concluded that the RCC provided a durable, low-maintenance structure that was completed at a lower price and in a shorter time-frame than

  3. Impacts of the Garafiri hydroelectric dam on the Konkoure estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoura, K.; Waaub, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This article described the environmental impacts caused by the exploitation of one or several dams in tropical coastal basins. In particular, it proposed a methodological approach for analyzing the vulnerability of ecosystems to modifications caused by the exploitation of the Garafiri hydroelectric dam in Guinea. With an installed power capacity of 75 MW, this dam has been operational since 1999 and has supplied electricity to coastal and mid Guinea since 2000. Since then, the ecosystem of the Konkoure River has undergone important changes. This study focused primarily on impacts during the dry season. Data was collected at different hydroelectric stations along the Konkoure Basin to estimate changes in water flow in the estuary. The study showed several changes, including noticeable impacts on the soil salt content. In addition, changes in vegetation were attributed to changes in soil content. The study revealed that rice production has increased 65 per cent since 2000, while salt exploitation has been completely discontinued. It was concluded that the hydraulic management of the dam can have a significant impact on the region's ecosystem which can in turn influence ecological and social economic functions. It was concluded that the vulnerability of the ecosystem can be worsened in the context of climate change. 25 refs., 9 figs

  4. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffi, Giulia; Venturi, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs) used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D) model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations. PMID:28771185

  5. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ridolfi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations.

  6. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Elena; Buffi, Giulia; Venturi, Sara; Manciola, Piergiorgio

    2017-08-03

    This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs) used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D) model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations.

  7. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation Implementation Plan, 1990-2003 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks; Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    1993-03-10

    In this document the authors present mitigation implementation activities to protect and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. This plan only addresses non-operational actions (mitigation measures that do not affect dam operation) described in the 'Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam' (Mitigation Plan) submitted to the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in March 1991 and in accordance with subsequent Council action on that Mitigation Plan. Operational mitigation was deferred for consideration under the Columbia Basin System Operation Review (SOR) process. This document represents an implementation plan considered and conditionally approved by the Council in March of 1993.

  8. Three Sisters Dam modifications and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courage, L.J.R. [Monenco AGRA Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Recent modifications and maintenance carried out at the Three Sisters Dam, in the Alberta Rockies south of the town of Canmore, were described. A detailed account was given of the dam`s geological setting, its abnormally high leakage through the foundation and its sinkhole activity. Results of studies aimed at finding the cause of leakage and sinkhole occurrences were reviewed. Modifications made to the dam since 1951 were detailed, as were modifications to handle probable maximum flood levels. Three approaches for estimating failure probabilities after identification of failure modes were described. The overall conclusion was that based on constant leakage, no settlement in the dam, penstocks, or the powerhouse since construction, the Three Sisters Dam was stable. 1 ref.

  9. The changing hydrology of a dammed Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2017-01-01

    Developing countries around the world are expanding hydropower to meet growing energy demand. In the Brazilian Amazon, >200 dams are planned over the next 30 years, and questions about the impacts of current and future hydropower in this globally important watershed remain unanswered. In this context, we applied a hydrologic indicator method to quantify how existing Amazon dams have altered the natural flow regime and to identify predictors of alteration. The type and magnitude of hydrologic alteration varied widely by dam, but the largest changes were to critical characteristics of the flood pulse. Impacts were largest for low-elevation, large-reservoir dams; however, small dams had enormous impacts relative to electricity production. Finally, the “cumulative” effect of multiple dams was significant but only for some aspects of the flow regime. This analysis is a first step toward the development of environmental flows plans and policies relevant to the Amazon and other megadiverse river basins. PMID:29109972

  10. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas.

  11. Measurement of Dam Deformations: Case Study of Obruk Dam (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulal, V. Engin; Alkan, R. Metin; Alkan, M. Nurullah; İlci, Veli; Ozulu, I. Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Kose, Zafer; Aladogan, Kayhan; Sahin, Murat; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Oku, Guldane

    2016-04-01

    In the literature, there is information regarding the first deformation and displacement measurements in dams that were conducted in 1920s Switzerland. Todays, deformation measurements in the dams have gained very different functions with improvements in both measurement equipment and evaluation of measurements. Deformation measurements and analysis are among the main topics studied by scientists who take interest in the engineering measurement sciences. The Working group of Deformation Measurements and Analysis, which was established under the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), carries out its studies and activities with regard to this subject. At the end of the 1970s, the subject of the determination of fixed points in the deformation monitoring network was one of the main subjects extensively studied. Many theories arose from this inquiry, as different institutes came to differing conclusions. In 1978, a special commission with representatives of universities has been established within the FIG 6.1 working group; this commission worked on the issue of determining a general approach to geometric deformation analysis. The results gleaned from the commission were discussed at symposiums organized by the FIG. In accordance with these studies, scientists interested in the subject have begun to work on models that investigate cause and effect relations between the effects that cause deformation and deformation. As of the scientist who interest with the issue focused on different deformation methods, another special commission was established within the FIG engineering measurements commission in order to classify deformation models and study terminology. After studying this material for a long time, the official commission report was published in 2001. In this prepared report, studies have been carried out by considering the FIG Engineering Surveying Commission's report entitled, 'MODELS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEODETIC MONITORING OBSERVATIONS

  12. Management of environmental and radiation data - the Olympic Dam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, B.

    1987-01-01

    In terms of data management the Olympic Dam Project is in a process of transition from investigative studies to operational monitoring. The data management requirements for investigative studies are quite different requirements and indicates the progress taken in this transition, as well as the directions being taken to complete this transition. The environmental and radiation management programs for the Olympic Dam Project have already stored 70 megabytes of data on computer. With the comprehensive monitoring requirements which have been, or are in the process of being established for production operations, the volume of data is increasing. There are six main areas involving environmental and radiation data management: project area environmental monitoring; monitoring of the impact pathway from groundwater extraction for water supply to possible effects on mound springs; radiation levels in the environment; radiation exposures to designated employees; other occupational exposures in the mine; medical records relevant to occupational health

  13. The measurement of inclination on gravity concrete dams using the tiltmeter instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanović Slobodan D.; Brajović Ljiljana M.; Pavić Maja L.; Đurić Srđan S.; Ranđelović Sanja D.; Milivojević Vladimir J.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of inclination on gravity concrete dams using the instrument tiltmeter is described and discussed with special reference on obtained results on the dam 'Đerdap 2' acquired in the three years period. Tiltmetar way of operation is presented both through physical principle of vibrating wire sensors and through described design of the instrument. The influence of the temperature on the measurement of the slope is specially emphasized and presented through temperature correction. P...

  14. Dam safety management in Victoria (Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adem, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Victoria state government's decision to make dam owners accountable for safety and upkeep of their dams was reported. To give effect to this decision a series of guidelines have been developed which outline the required activities and skills to ensure that dams are properly managed within a framework of 'light-handed' regulation. The guidelines are also intended to ensure that dam management becomes an integral part of the business decision making process, not just a set of prescribed technical procedures. Details of the direction being taken and the proposed controls to ensure compliance with national and international standards were described. 4 refs., 2 figs

  15. Brazil's Amazonian dams: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil's 2015-2024 Energy Expansion Plan calls for 11 hydroelectric dams with installed capacity ≥ 30 MW in the country's Amazon region. Dozens of other large dams are planned beyond this time horizon, and dams with environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Loss of forest to flooding is one, the Balbina and Tucuruí Dams being examples (each 3000 km2). If the Babaquara/Altamira Dam is built it will flood as much forest as both of these combined. Some planned dams imply loss of forest in protected areas, for example on the Tapajós River. Aquatic and riparian ecosystems are lost, including unique biodiversity. Endemic fish species in rapids on the Xingu and Tapajós Rivers are examples. Fish migrations are blocked, such as the commercially important "giant catfish" of the Madeira River. Dams emit greenhouse gases, including CO2 from the trees killed and CH4 from decay under anoxic conditions at the bottom of reservoirs. Emissions can exceed those from fossil-fuel generation, particularly over the 20-year period during which global emissions must be greatly reduced to meet 1.5-2°C limit agreed in Paris. Carbon credit for dams under the Climate Convention causes further net emission because the dams are not truly "additional." Anoxic environments in stratified reservoirs cause methylation of mercury present in Amazonian soils, which concentrates in fish, posing a health risk to human consumers. Population displacement is a major impact; for example, the Marabá Dam would displace 40,000 people, mostly traditional riverside dwellers (ribeirinhos). Various dams impact indigenous peoples, such as the Xingu River dams (beginning with Belo Monte) and the São Luiz do Tapajós and Chacorão Dams on the Tapajós River. Brazil has many energy options other than dams. Much energy use has little benefit for the country, such as exporting aluminum. Electric showerheads use 5% of the country's power. Losses in transmission lines (20%) are far above global averages and can be

  16. Japan`s largest composition dam, aiming for harmony with nature. Chubetsu dam; Shizen tono chowa wo mezasu, Nippon ichi no fukugo dam. Chubetsu dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizushima, T. [Hokkaido Development Bureau, Hokkaido Development Agency, Sapporo (Japan)

    1994-08-15

    This paper introduces Chubetsu Dam planned with a large-scale embankment having a river bed width of 600 m. Chubetsu Dam is being constructed with such objectives as flood control of Ishikari River, river flow rate maintenance, drinking water supply, irrigation water supply and power generation. The dam site is a gravel bed having a river bed width of 600 m and a maximum foundation rock thickness of 40 m, requiring evaluations as a dam foundation and discussions of water shielding methods. As a result of discussions at the Chubetsu Dam technical discussion committee, the dam type is decided to be a composition dam consisting of a gravity type concrete dam on the left river side and a central core type fill dam using a part of the gravel bed as the foundation on the right river side. A continuous underground wall system is planned to be used for shielding water in the gravel foundation. In discussing the anti-seismic properties, analyses for bank construction and water filling to derive stress and deformation conditions prior to an earthquake and a time-history response analysis to derive conditional changes during the earthquake are performed. According to the results thereof, evaluations are given on the safety by compounding the stress and the acceleration. In plans to improve the surrounding areas, an area will be provided upstream the reservoir where the water level is kept constant to serve as a bird sanctuary. 7 figs.

  17. Survey of Potential Hanford Site Contaminants in the Upper Sediment for the Reservoirs at McNary, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville Dams, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Gregory W.; Priddy, M; Yokel, Jerel W.; Delistraty, Damon A.; Stoops, Thomas M.

    2005-02-01

    This report presents the results from a multi-agency cooperative environmental surveillance study. of the study looked at sediment from the pools upstream from dams on the Columbia River that are downstream from Hanford Site operations. The radiological and chemical conditions existing in the upper-level sediment found in the pools upstream from McNary Dam, John Day Dam, The Dalles Lock and Dam, and Bonneville Dam were evaluated. This study also evaluated beach sediment where available. Water samples were collected at McNary Dam to further evaluate potential Hanford contaminants in the lower Columbia River. Samples were analyzed for radionuclides, chemicals, and physical parameters. Results from this study were compared to background values from sediment and water samples collect from the pool upstream of Priest Rapids Dam (upstream of the Hanford Site) by the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project.

  18. Dam safety review using non-destructive methods for reinforced concrete structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, Alain; Saint-Pierre, Francois; Turcotte, Bernard [Le Groupe S.M. International Inc., Sherbrooke, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Dams built at the beginning of the twentieth century include concrete structures that were put in under rehabilitation works. In some cases, the details of the structures are not well documented. In other cases, concrete damage can be hidden under new layers of undamaged material. This requires that the dam safety review in a real investigation gather the information necessary for carrying out the hydraulic and stability studies required by the Dam Safety Act. This paper presented the process of dam safety review using non-destructive methods for reinforced concrete structures. Two reinforced concrete dams built in the 1900's, the Eustic dam on the Coaticook River and the Frontenac dam on the Magog River near Sherbrooke, were evaluated by S.M. International using non-destructive methods such as sonic and ground penetrating radar methods. The studies allowed mapping of concrete damage and provided geometric information on some non visible structure elements that were part of previous reinforcement operations.

  19. Environmental risk index: A tool to assess the safety of dams for leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer Mendoza, Francisco J.; Gallardo Izquierdo, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Dams for leachate store very toxic substances that contain a large amount of organic material and, probably, heavy metals; they therefore constitute an important threat to the environment. Existing models of environmental risk assessment for landfills do not take into consideration the specific risk that leachate dams may represent for the environment. In this paper a methodology to improve the environmental safety is presented according to the parameters used in their construction and management. In order to do that, the following characteristics of the dam must be known: (1) geotechnical stability, (2) erosion of downstream slope, (3) type of sealing of the dam, (4) overtopping probability, (5) volume of leachate stored inside the dam and (6) pollution load of leachate. Once these parameters have been calculated, they are transformed by means of rating curves into homogeneous units, so as to make it possible to operate between them. From the study and analysis of these parameters an environmental risk index for a dam for leachate can be calculated. If the environmental risk index exceeds an established value then it involves a dam for leachate with high environmental risk, therefore preventive measures in its design, construction and management would be necessary

  20. An application of extreme value theory to the management of a hydroelectric dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkah, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the probability of very low or high water levels is an important issue in the management of hydroelectric dams. In the case of the Akosombo dam, very low and high water levels result in load shedding of electrical power and flooding in communities downstream respectively. In this paper, we use extreme value theory to estimate the probability and return period of very low water levels that can result in load shedding or a complete shutdown of the dam's operations. In addition, we assess the probability and return period of high water levels near the height of the dam and beyond. This provides a framework for a possible extension of the dam to sustain the generation of electrical power and reduce the frequency of spillage that causes flooding in communities downstream. The results show that an extension of the dam can reduce the probability and prolong the return period of a flood. In addition, we found a negligible probability of a complete shutdown of the dam due to inadequate water level.

  1. Physicochemical Characteristics of River Water Downstream of a Large Tropical Hydroelectric Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality in the downstream river of a hydroelectric dam may be affected by the structural design and operation. To date, little is known about the water quality downstream of the largest dam in Malaysia, the Bakun hydroelectric dam. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the water quality downstream of the dam when the spillway was closed and when it was opened. Results of the study indicate that the dam plays a significant role in regulating the water quality downstream of it. When the spillway was closed, pH and oxygen were lower in the river where DO was below 5 mg/L. When the spillway was opened, the water quality improved in terms of oxygen content (>8.0 mg/L, total sulphide (TS, and chemical oxygen demand (COD but deteriorated in terms of five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN, and total phosphorus (TP. Additionally, the intensity of the impacts, particularly BOD5, COD, and TAN, shows a declining trend as distance from the dam increases. This study shows that impacts on the water quality extend to a distance of 32 km from the dam particularly turbidity and DO and opening the spillway changes the water quality significantly.

  2. Deformation Monitoring of Geomechanical Model Test and Its Application in Overall Stability Analysis of a High Arch Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoquan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomechanical model testing is an important method for studying the overall stability of high arch dams. The main task of a geomechanical model test is deformation monitoring. Currently, many types of deformation instruments are used for deformation monitoring of dam models, which provide valuable information on the deformation characteristics of the prototype dams. However, further investigation is required for assessing the overall stability of high arch dams through analyzing deformation monitoring data. First, a relationship for assessing the stability of dams is established based on the comprehensive model test method. Second, a stability evaluation system is presented based on the deformation monitoring data, together with the relationships between the deformation and overloading coefficient. Finally, the comprehensive model test method is applied to study the overall stability of the Jinping-I high arch dam. A three-dimensional destructive test of the geomechanical model dam is conducted under reinforced foundation conditions. The deformation characteristics and failure mechanisms of the dam abutments and foundation were investigated. The test results indicate that the stability safety factors of the dam abutments and foundation range from 5.2 to 6.0. These research results provide an important scientific insight into the design, construction, and operation stages of this project.

  3. Geophysical investigation of seepage beneath an earthen dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikard, S J; Rittgers, J; Revil, A; Mooney, M A

    2015-01-01

    A hydrogeophysical survey is performed at small earthen dam that overlies a confined aquifer. The structure of the dam has not shown evidence of anomalous seepage internally or through the foundation prior to the survey. However, the surface topography is mounded in a localized zone 150 m downstream, and groundwater discharges from this zone periodically when the reservoir storage is maximum. We use self-potential and electrical resistivity tomography surveys with seismic refraction tomography to (1) determine what underlying hydrogeologic factors, if any, have contributed to the successful long-term operation of the dam without apparent indicators of anomalous seepage through its core and foundation; and (2) investigate the hydraulic connection between the reservoir and the seepage zone to determine whether there exists a potential for this success to be undermined. Geophysical data are informed by hydraulic and geotechnical borehole data. Seismic refraction tomography is performed to determine the geometry of the phreatic surface. The hydro-stratigraphy is mapped with the resistivity data and groundwater flow patterns are determined with self-potential data. A self-potential model is constructed to represent a perpendicular profile extending out from the maximum cross-section of the dam, and self-potential data are inverted to recover the groundwater velocity field. The groundwater flow pattern through the aquifer is controlled by the bedrock topography and a preferential flow pathway exists beneath the dam. It corresponds to a sandy-gravel layer connecting the reservoir to the downstream seepage zone. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  4. Olympic Dam - the first decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, A.W.; Wilson, M.A.; Harris, J.

    1988-01-01

    Most aspects of the pre-production phase of the Olympic Dam Project, from commencement of exploration in May 1975 through to commitment to development in December 1985 are documented here. The discovery by Western Mining Corporation Ltd of copper mineralisation on Roxby Downs Station in July 1975 has led to one of the more intensive base-metal exploration programmes undertaken in Australia. Comprehensive exploration, evaluation and feasibility studies between 1975 and 1985 have delineated a probable 450 million tonnes of higher grade ore containing 2.5% copper, 0.8 kg/t uranium oxide, 0.6 g/t gold and 6.0 g/t silver. The total resource is estimated at 2 billion tonnes containing 1.6% copper, 0.6 kg/t uranium oxide, 0.6 g/t gold and 3.5 g/t silver. At 31 December 1985, over 540 km of surface and underground drilling had been completed, comprising over 700 surface drillholes totalling 234 km of core and 218 km of open-hole drilling, and about 900 underground diamond-drillholes totalling 90 km. The Whenan Shaft had been sunk to 500 m and driving on three levels totalled almost 10 km. More than one million tonnes of ore and mullock were raised during development. A pilot treatment plant commissioned on site produced concentrates, matte and blister copper, and ammonium diuranate. Following a technical study of the Olympic Dam Project, completed in March 1985, and a subsequent economic feasibility study, it was announced on 11 June 1985 that the initial project was considered to be commercially viable. On 8 December 1985, the joint venturers, Western Mining Corporation Holdings Ltd (51%) and the BP Group (49%), announced their commitment to the Project. An appendix lists the important events that occurred between January 1986 and December 1987 in bringing Olympic Dam to the production state. 26 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs., ills

  5. Cordova Lake dam hydroelectric generating station case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, D.; Huxley, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources released a Crown owned site to the private water power industry as part of the small hydro site release program initiated by the Ontario Government in the mid 1980's. The Cordova Lake Dam Hydroelectric Generating Station, built on this site, has been in operation since the first week of October, 1992. Since that time, the plant has been operating with less than 1 % down time and has generated over 2,400 MWh of electricity. Algonquin Power Systems is responsible for the management and operations of the plant which includes full time monitoring from the company's Mississauga office and a part time employee at Cordova Lake. Cordova Lake Dam is located on the Crowe River at the outlet of Cordova Lake, approximately 125 kilometers east of Toronto, Ontario. The total cost of the Cordova Lake Dam project was $1.6 million. Algonquin Power contributed 20% equity to the project. Algonquin Power was also responsible for all engineering and geotechnical work and for completing the construction and equipment contracts. 1 tab., 2 figs

  6. Climate change effects on design floods for dams in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasson, J.; Bergstroem, S.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1990 new guidelines for hydrological design of the Swedish hydropower system are being implemented. The technique is based on a critical combination of extreme precipitation, extreme snowmelt and an operation strategy for multi-reservoir systems. Hydrological modeling is a central component, as is a prescribed design precipitation sequence. At the time when the guidelines were developed it was not possible to account for possible consequences of a changing climate. Sensitivity analyses using four different regional climate change scenarios (2071-2100) has been carried out for four important Swedish dams and also for the largest lake in Sweden, Lake Vanern. The research project was financed by Elforsk and the Swedish Dam Safety Authority (Svenska Kraftnat) and it was reported in 2006/2007. Some summarizing conclusions are: Changes in the mean climate results in smaller design snow pack according to all scenarios. This component acts towards decreased design inflows and water levels at most locations. Extreme precipitation can be expected to increase at most places in Sweden according to the climate scenarios. This component acts towards increased design inflows and water levels at most locations. Depending on how changes in the mean climate and in the extremes interact, the change in design inflows and water levels can be either an increase or a decrease. The effect depends both on the location of the dam and on the choice of climate scenario. This calls for site-specific analysis for each dam. In 2007 the second edition of the guidelines for hydrological design was issued in which also the question of climate change have been addressed. The first sensitivity analyses are now being extended within a new 2-year research project also funded jointly by Elforsk and the Swedish Dam Safety Authority (Svenska Kraftnat). The aim is to increase the number of regional climate scenarios and the number of high hazard dams in the analysis, but also to move the scenarios

  7. SCENARIO OF AN ACCIDENT OF SOIL DAMS IN CASE OF WATER SPILL OVER A DAM CREST BY USING FAULT TREE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Dmitriy Viktorovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The scenario of a hydrodynamic accident of water flow over a crest of a soil dam is considered by the method of fault tree analysis, for which the basic reasons and controlled diagnostic indicators of an accident have been defined. Logical operators “AND”/”OR” were used for creation of a sequence of logically connected events, leading to an undesired event in the scenario of accident. The scenario of the accident was plotted in case of three basic reasons - an excessive settling of a dam crest, an excess flood, an inoperable spillway, taking into account the sequence of the events’ development and with observance of the necessary conditions leading to an accident. “Technical” reasons were observed in the present scenario, force majeure events were not considered. The provided scenario of the accident consists of two branches of events’ development: the left one that depends on an upstream level, and the right one that depends on settling of a dam crest. In each of the considered events an accident “the water spill over a crest of a soil dam” is possible only in case of execution of two different conditions at the same time, i.e. in case of an appropriate upstream level and the appropriate mark of a crest of a soil dam. The conditions of the accident are defined by diagnostic indices - the upstream level and settling of a dam crest, which at the same time are safety criteria of the hydraulic structure for soil dams. They allow defining the technical condition of the construction. Four possible technical conditions are suggested for the definition of technical statuses - normative, operable, limited operable, abnormal. Criteria of safety are the boundaries of the state: for loading and impact - it is the upstream level, for geometrical compliance of the construction - it is a dam crest mark.

  8. National dam inventory provides data for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spragens, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Association of State Dam Safety Officials completed a dam inventory this fall. Information on approximately 90,000 state-regulated dams in the US collected during the four-year inventory is being used to build a database managed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. In addition to ASDSO's work, the federal government conducted an inventory of federal dams. This data will be added to the state information to form one national database. The database will feature 35 data fields for each entry, including the name of the dam, its size, the name of the nearest downstream community, maximum discharge and storage volume, the date of the last inspection, and details about the emergency action plan. The program is an update of the nation's first dam inventory, required by the Dam Safety Act of 1972. The US Army Corps of Engineers completed the original inventory in 1981. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 authorized appropriations of $2.5 million for the Corps to update the inventory. FEMA and the Corps entered into an agreement for FEMA to undertake the task for the Corps and to coordinate work on both the federal and state inventories. ASDSO compiles existing information on state-regulated dams into a common format for the database, added missing information, and established a process for continually updating data. ASDSO plans to analyze the information collected for the database. It will look at statistics for the number of dams regulated, communities that could be affected, and the number of high-hazard dams. FEMA is preparing reports for Congress on the project. The reports, which are expected to be ready by May 1993, will include information on the methodology used and facts about regulated dams under state jurisdiction

  9. Fragility Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekie, Paulos B.; Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    2002-09-01

    Concrete gravity dams are an important part ofthe nation's infrastructure. Many dams have been in service for over 50 years, during which time important advances in the methodologies for evaluation of natural phenomena hazards have caused the design-basis events to be revised upwards, in some cases significantly. Many existing dams fail to meet these revised safety criteria and structural rehabilitation to meet newly revised criteria may be costly and difficult. A probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) provides a rational safety assessment and decision-making tool managing the various sources of uncertainty that may impact dam performance. Fragility analysis, which depicts fl%e uncertainty in the safety margin above specified hazard levels, is a fundamental tool in a PSA. This study presents a methodology for developing fragilities of concrete gravity dams to assess their performance against hydrologic and seismic hazards. Models of varying degree of complexity and sophistication were considered and compared. The methodology is illustrated using the Bluestone Dam on the New River in West Virginia, which was designed in the late 1930's. The hydrologic fragilities showed that the Eluestone Dam is unlikely to become unstable at the revised probable maximum flood (PMF), but it is likely that there will be significant cracking at the heel ofthe dam. On the other hand, the seismic fragility analysis indicated that sliding is likely, if the dam were to be subjected to a maximum credible earthquake (MCE). Moreover, there will likely be tensile cracking at the neck of the dam at this level of seismic excitation. Probabilities of relatively severe limit states appear to be only marginally affected by extremely rare events (e.g. the PMF and MCE). Moreover, the risks posed by the extreme floods and earthquakes were not balanced for the Bluestone Dam, with seismic hazard posing a relatively higher risk.

  10. Horizon Dam design, construction, and quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, B. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Nanaimo, BC (Canada); Sisson, R. [Canadian Natural Resources Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the design and construction of the Tar River Diversion Dam and the quality management system (QMS) used during construction. The project was unusual in that the company constructed the project using its own workforce, without contractors, under challenging schedule and site conditions. The topography, geology and geotechnical aspects of the site were discussed along with the embankment design, seepage control measures and construction execution. The QMS was designed to fit the needs of the unique construction execution strategy and meet safety, reliability, performance, and operation requirements, comply with all regulations and approval conditions, and identify and communicate risk to the appropriate entity. Specifications and construction procedures had to be modified to accommodate equipment operators trained with the skills and techniques of mine operations, not those associated with conventional civil construction projects. Foundation movement identified during construction required mid-build design changes, construction rescheduling, and additional deformation analyses to determine long-term stability. The QMS allowed changes in the understanding of site conditions to be quickly addressed and risks to be identified and cost-effectively mitigated. Design consultants were used to modify designs and appropriately identify and mitigate risks. The approach to embankment construction was successful because the QMS included processes for change management, issue resolution, and risk-benefit assessment, and because experienced personnel had a regular presence on the construction site and worked collaboratively. The effective QMS was deemed to be integral to the success of the construction project. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  11. Is there a correlation between operative results and change in ventricular volume after shunt placement? A study of 60 cases of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, U.; Graewe, A.; Hajdukova, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Unfallkrankenhaus Berlin, Warener Strasse 7, 12683, Berlin (Germany); Paris, S.; Stockheim, D.; Mutze, S. [Department of Radiology, Unfallkrankenhaus Berlin, Warener Strasse 7, 12683, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    In patients with communicating or normal-pressure hydrocephalus, ventricular volume decreases following implantation of differential pressure valves. We implanted hydrostatic (Miethke dual-switch) valves in 60 patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) between September 1997 and December 2001. The patients underwent CT 1 year after operation, and we measured the Evans index. Although 83% of the patients showed no change in ventricular volume as assessed by this index, 72% nevertheless showed good to excellent and 16% satisfactory clinical improvement, while 12% showed no improvement. Moderate or marked reduction in ventricular size was observed in 17%, of whom 40% of these patients showed good to excellent and 20% satisfactory clinical improvement; 40% showed unsatisfactory improvement. The favourable outcome following implantation of a hydrostatic shunt thus did not correlate with decreased ventricular volume 1 year after operation, better outcomes being observed in patients with little or no alteration in ventricular size than in those with a marked decrease. Postoperative change in ventricular volume in NPH thus does not have the same significance as in patients with high-pressure hydrocephalus. (orig.)

  12. Is there a correlation between operative results and change in ventricular volume after shunt placement? A study of 60 cases of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, U.; Graewe, A.; Hajdukova, A.; Paris, S.; Stockheim, D.; Mutze, S.

    2003-01-01

    In patients with communicating or normal-pressure hydrocephalus, ventricular volume decreases following implantation of differential pressure valves. We implanted hydrostatic (Miethke dual-switch) valves in 60 patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) between September 1997 and December 2001. The patients underwent CT 1 year after operation, and we measured the Evans index. Although 83% of the patients showed no change in ventricular volume as assessed by this index, 72% nevertheless showed good to excellent and 16% satisfactory clinical improvement, while 12% showed no improvement. Moderate or marked reduction in ventricular size was observed in 17%, of whom 40% of these patients showed good to excellent and 20% satisfactory clinical improvement; 40% showed unsatisfactory improvement. The favourable outcome following implantation of a hydrostatic shunt thus did not correlate with decreased ventricular volume 1 year after operation, better outcomes being observed in patients with little or no alteration in ventricular size than in those with a marked decrease. Postoperative change in ventricular volume in NPH thus does not have the same significance as in patients with high-pressure hydrocephalus. (orig.)

  13. Range of the radiation monitor for the rigid vent of primary containment during normal and emergency operation for a BWR-5 in Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tijerina S, F.; Pozos S, A. M.; Cabrera U, S.; Mata A, J. A.; Sandoval V, S.; Ovando C, R.; Vargas A, A.; Gallardo R, I.; Cruz G, M.; Amador C, C.

    2014-10-01

    The earthquake followed by a tsunami, happened in March, 2011 in the coasts of oriental Japan, caused damages in the nuclear power plants 1 at 4 of Fukushima Daiichi leading to damage of the fuel in three of the reactors and to the radiation liberation to the exterior. As consequence of those events, the regulations requires that the power plants with Primary Containment type Mark I and II evaluate to have a system of rigid vent with a monitoring equipment of radiation effluents. The present work covers the rigid vent of diameter 12 of the Primary Containment, type Mark-II, of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in conditions of severe accident and normal operation, low regime of Extended Power Up rate (EPU - 2317 MWt), using the codes MAAP3B, MICROSHILED 5.05 and the Bardach Black Boxes methodology. As a result the measurement range of the radiation monitor that is required for monitoring the gassy liberation to the atmosphere was determined. The conclusion is that the superior limit of the range of the radiation meter during a Severe Accident is of 8.55 E + 05 R/h (8.55 E + 08 m R/h) and the superior limit in normal operation of 1.412 E-11 at 2.540 E-7 R/h (1.412 E-14 at 2.540 E-10 m R/h). (Author)

  14. Geoelectrical Methods and Monitoring for Dam Safety Assessment, Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. K.; Oldenburg, D.; Kang, S.; Song, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    Geoelectrical methods and monitoring to detect the seepage and internal erosion are essential for the safety assessment of earth dams. This work aims to develop improved methodologies to analyze the observed data and to monitor changes in seepage flow using direct current (DC) and self-potential (SP) methods. The seasonal variation of water level at dams causes a change in seepage and water saturation and hence alters the resistivity of the dam material. DC data are sensitive to water saturation and hence changes in saturation can be obtained by repeatedly measuring DC data. However, a more diagnostic parameter for safety assessment is fluid flow, and resistivity is only weakly coupled to that. Fortunately SP signals are directly related to fluid flow, and thus an SP survey has the potential to characterize fluid flow through the earth matrix. In Korea, the safety assessment of earth fill dams has been dealt by Korea Rural Community Corporation (KRC). Most of the dams are relatively old ( >50 years), hence assessing deterioration and corresponding seepage of those dams are crucial. In order to evaluate the engineering geological properties of the soil at earth dams in Korea, two boreholes in each dam were drilled to a bedrock depth that exceeds the height of the dam. A large set of field tests, including standard penetration tests (SPT) and in-situ permeability tests, were carried out along the boreholes. However, seepage paths in the dam is complex hence those limited measurements at a few points is not sufficient to delineate the zone of preferential seepage flow. For this, KRC developed permanent DC monitoring systems at a number of agricultural dams in Korea. The data were automatically collected every 6 hours. During the monitoring, the measurements of the water level at two boreholes were gathered at the same time. In this presentation we select an agricultural dam and delineate an anomalous leakage zone by inverting and interpreting time-lapse DC resistivity

  15. Undergraduate dental students' perception, educational satisfaction, and attitude regarding the use of rubber dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola Olamide Olatosi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The rubber dam is used in dentistry to create saliva-free working environment during operative procedures. Despite its numerous advantages, utilization is poor in dental schools. We sought to determine undergraduate dental students' perception, educational satisfaction, and attitude regarding the use of rubber dam. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out among 5th and 6th year undergraduate dental students. A structured questionnaire was developed that sought their perception, educational satisfaction, and attitude regarding the use of rubber dam. Data collected were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21.0. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: One hundred and nine students participated in the study; 66 (60.6% females and 43 (39.4% males with a mean age of 23.4 ± 2.02. Most of the students, i.e., 73 (67% were satisfied with their classroom experience with regard to the use of rubber dam but were least satisfied with their laboratory and clinical training. There was a statistically significant association between the students' satisfaction with their training in the use of rubber dam and the confidence to use the rubber dam on their patients (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The students agreed to the importance of rubber dam but were not satisfied with their hands-on clinical training. The use of rubber dam postgraduation may be influenced by the dental educator's method of training, motivation, and consistency in its use. Students who acquire competence and are confident in the use of rubber dam during their undergraduate training are more likely to continue to use the skills following graduation.

  16. Measuring and managing safety at Wahleach Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, G. M.; Cattanach, J. D.; Hartford, D. N. D.

    1996-01-01

    Safety improvements recently implemented at the Wahleach Dam were described as one of the first instances in international dam safety practice where risk concepts have been used in conjunction with acceptable risk criteria to evaluate safety of a dam relative to required level of safety. Erosion was identified as the greatest threat to the safety of the dam. In addressing the deficiencies B.C. Hydro formulated a process which advocates a balanced level of safety,i.e. the probability of failure multiplied by the consequences of failure, integrated over a range of initiators. If the risk posed by the dam is lower than a 'tolerable' risk, the dam is considered to be safe enough. In the case of the Wahleach Dam, the inflow design flood (IDF) was selected to be about one half of the probable maximum flow (PMF), hence it was more likely than not that the spillway could pass floods up to and including the PMF. By accepting the determined level of risk, expenditures of several million dollars for design and construction of dam safety improvements were made redundant. Another byproduct of this new concept of risk assessment was the establishment of improved life safety protection by means of an early warning system for severe floods through the downstream community and emergency authorities. 3 refs., 5 tabs

  17. Descriptive characteristics of the large Italian dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dello Vicario, E.; Petaccia, A.; Savanella, V.

    1999-01-01

    In the present note the characteristics of the Italian dams are examined, underlining, in a statistical view, story, geographical location, types and use of the most important works. Such a review can be useful for a more detailed analysis, both for the dams characterization and for further studies relevant to water resources utilization [it

  18. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-01-01

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams

  19. National Dam Inspection Program. Ingham Creek (Aquetong Lake) Dam (NDI ID PA 00224, PA DER 9-49) Delaware River Basin, Ingham Creek, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Delaware River Basing Ingham Justif icaticn--- L Creek, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Do DEL-AWARE RIVER BASIN Availabilit T Co~es Avail and/or D...about 1.5H:IV and an unknown upstream slope below the water surface. The dam impounds a reservoir with a normal pool surface area of 12.4 acres and a...deep. It was once used to direct water to a mill downstream of the dam and is now in poor condition. The spillway Design Flood (SDF) chosen for this

  20. Small Displacement Coupled Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam Foundations: Static and Dynamic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, Maria Luísa Braga; Azevedo, Nuno Monteiro; Candeias, Mariline

    2017-02-01

    The explicit formulation of a small displacement model for the coupled hydro-mechanical analysis of concrete gravity dam foundations based on joint finite elements is presented. The proposed coupled model requires a thorough pre-processing stage in order to ensure that the interaction between the various blocks which represent both the rock mass foundation and the dam is always edge to edge. The mechanical part of the model, though limited to small displacements, has the advantage of allowing an accurate representation of the stress distribution along the interfaces, such as rock mass joints. The hydraulic part and the mechanical part of the model are fully compatible. The coupled model is validated using a real case of a dam in operation, by comparison of the results with those obtained with a large displacement discrete model. It is shown that it is possible to assess the sliding stability of concrete gravity dams using small displacement models under both static and dynamic conditions.

  1. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong; Bao, Kai; Zhang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Seismic response of uplifting concrete gravity dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, P.; Sauve, G.; Bhattacharjee, S.

    1992-01-01

    The foundation interaction effects on the seismic response of dam-foundation systems have generally been studied using the linear elastic finite element models. In reality, the foundation can not develop effective tensile stresses to a significant degree along the interface. A two-dimensional finite element model, in which nonlinear gap elements are used at the dam-foundation interface to determine the uplift response of concrete gravity dams subjected to seismic loads, is presented. Time domain analyses were performed for a wide range of modelling assumptions such as dam height, interface uplift pressure, interface mesh density, and earthquake input motions, that were systematically varied to find their influence on the seismic response. The nonlinear interface behavior generally reduces the seismic response of dam-foundation systems acting as a seismic isolation mechanism, and may increase the safety against sliding by reducing the base shear transmitted to the foundation. 4 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong

    2011-08-01

    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors\\' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Proceedings of the technical committee meeting on sodium removal and disposal from LMFRs in normal operation and in the framework of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latge, C.

    1997-11-01

    This publication summarizes discussions and presented papers from the Technical Committee meeting on sodium removal and disposal from liquid metal fast reactors in normal operation and in the framework of decommissioning, organised by IAEA. The objective of this meeting was to provide a forum to review and exchange information on the international developments in technologies of sodium removal and disposal from liquid metal fast reactor components and systems in operation and maintenance conditions, and in framework of decommissioning. The technical parts of the meeting covered the three major subjects: sodium removal (cleaning) process, decontamination process and bulk disposal of sodium in the framework of decommissioning. These technologies were reviewed with regard to their implementation into current plants to improve operation and maintenance, and to develop an effective decommissioning program. Further, design for future Liquid metal fast reactors were reviewed in the context how they can accommodate today's technologies. The meeting resulted in an effective information exchange with the Member States sharing their needs as well as experiences in the mentioned topics

  5. Proceedings of the technical committee meeting on sodium removal and disposal from LMFRs in normal operation and in the framework of decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latge, C [ed.; CEA, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, Departement d' Etudes des Reacteurs, CEA-Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1997-11-01

    This publication summarizes discussions and presented papers from the Technical Committee meeting on sodium removal and disposal from liquid metal fast reactorsin normal operation and in the framework of decommissioning, organised by IAEA. The objective of this meeting was to provide a forum to review and exchange information on the international developments in technologies of sodium removal and disposal from liquid metal fast reactor components and systems in operation and maintenance conditions, and in framework of decommissioning. The technical parts of the meeting covered the three major subjects: sodium removal (cleaning) process, decontamination process and bulk disposal of sodium in the framework of decommissioning. These technologies were reviewed with regard to their implementation into current plants to improve operation and maintenance, and to develop an effective decommissioning program. Further, design for future Liquid metal fast reactors were reviewed in the context how they can accommodate today's technologies. The meeting resulted in an effective information exchange with the Member States sharing their needs as well as experiences in the mentioned topics.

  6. Mine tailings dams: Characteristics, failure, environmental impacts, and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossoff, D.; Dubbin, W.E.; Alfredsson, M.; Edwards, S.J.; Macklin, M.G.; Hudson-Edwards, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    On a global scale demand for the products of the extractive industries is ever increasing. Extraction of the targeted resource results in the concurrent production of a significant volume of waste material, including tailings, which are mixtures of crushed rock and processing fluids from mills, washeries or concentrators that remain after the extraction of economic metals, minerals, mineral fuels or coal. The volume of tailings is normally far in excess of the liberated resource, and the tailings often contain potentially hazardous contaminants. A priority for a reasonable and responsible mining organization must be to proactively isolate the tailings so as to forestall them from entering groundwaters, rivers, lakes and the wind. There is ample evidence that, should such tailings enter these environments they may contaminate food chains and drinking water. Furthermore, the tailings undergo physical and chemical change after they have been deposited. The chemical changes are most often a function of exposure to atmospheric oxidation and tends to make previously, perhaps safely held contaminants mobile and available. If the tailings are stored under water, contact with the atmosphere is substantially reduced, thereby forestalling oxygen-mediated chemical change. It is therefore accepted practice for tailings to be stored in isolated impoundments under water and behind dams. However, these dams frequently fail, releasing enormous quantities of tailings into river catchments. These accidents pose a serious threat to animal and human health and are of concern for extractive industries and the wider community. It is therefore of importance to understand the nature of the material held within these dams, what best safety practice is for these structures and, should the worst happen, what adverse effects such accidents might have on the wider environment and how these might be mitigated. This paper reviews these factors, covering the characteristics, types and magnitudes

  7. Variation of radioactivity in the environmental media and dose evaluation in Suzhou city after normal operation of Qinshan Nuclear Power Station condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Rongchu; Liu Li

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the radioactive monitoring in environmental media of Suzhou City when Qinshan Nuclear Power Station was in normal operational condition (from 1992-2001). Methods: The radiochemical method was used for monitoring the radioactivity level in air, soil and food. Results: The total radioactivity, concentrations of 134 I and 134,137 Cs in environmental media was far lower than the limit values specified by the national standard GB. Conclusion: The radioactivity level in Suzhou City is at the natural background level. The individual annual average effective dose for adults in that period caused by ingestion 134,137 Cs in food is 4.41 x 10 -4 mSv/a

  8. Investigation of analytical methods in thermal stratification analysis. Evaluation of flow rates through flow holes for normal and scram conditions of 40% power operation with AQUA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Yoshihiro; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    1997-08-01

    Thermal stratification phenomena are observed in an upper plenum of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) under reactor scram conditions, which give rise to thermal stress on structural components. Therefore it is important to evaluate characteristics of phenomena in the design of the internal structure in an LMFBR plenum. To evaluate flow rates through flow holes of the prototype fast breeder reactor, MONJU, numerical analyses were carried out with AQUA code for normal and scram conditions with 40% power operation. Through comparison of analysis results and measured temperature, thermal stratification phenomena in 300 second period after the scram was evaluated. Flow rate through the upper flow holes, the lower flow holes and annular gap between the inner barrel and the reactor vessel were evaluated with the measured temperature and the analysis results individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. Intra-operative Vector Flow Imaging Using Ultrasound of the Ascending Aorta among 40 Patients with Normal, Stenotic and Replaced Aortic Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Stenosis of the aortic valve gives rise to more complex blood flows with increased velocities. The angleindependent vector flow ultrasound technique transverse oscillation was employed intra-operatively on the ascending aorta of (I) 20 patients with a healthy aortic valve and 20 patients with aor...... replacement corrects some of these changes. Transverse oscillation may be useful for assessment of aortic stenosis and optimization of valve surgery. (E-mail: lindskov@gmail.com) 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology...... with aortic stenosis before (IIa) and after (IIb) valve replacement. The results indicate that aortic stenosis increased flow complexity (p , 0.0001), induced systolic backflow (p , 0.003) and reduced systolic jet width (p , 0.0001). After valve replacement, the systolic backflow and jet width were normalized...

  10. Dose conversion factors of radiation doses at normal operation discharges. E. Description of geographical surroundings and critical group; Dosomraekningsfaktorer foer normaldriftutslaepp. E. Omraadesbeskrivningar och kritisk grupp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, Bengt

    2001-10-01

    A study was performed in order to develop and supplement existing models for calculating radiation doses from discharges of radionuclides under normal operating conditions at the Swedish NPPs at Barsebaeck, Forsmark, Oskarshamn and Ringhals, and at the nuclear plants at Studsvik and the Westinghouse Atom fuel plant. A general description of the surroundings of each plant is given in this report, together with an inventory of agricultural activities, forestry, areas for leisure activities etc. The conditions of the critical group has been selected based on the description of the surroundings and the modeling of dispersion in the atmosphere and fallout on the ground. In contrast to earlier models where fictive critical groups were used, the present model is based on factual circumstances.

  11. Description of NORMTRI: a computer program for assessing the off-site consequences from air-borne releases of tritium during normal operation of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.

    1994-10-01

    The computer program NORMTRI has been developed to calculate the behaviour of tritium in the environment released into the atmosphere under normal operation of nuclear facilities. It is possible to investigate the two chemical forms tritium gas and tritiated water vapour. The conversion of tritium gas into tritiated water followed by its reemission back to the atmosphere as well as the conversion into organically bound tritium is considered. NORMTRI is based on the statistical Gaussian dispersion model ISOLA, which calculates the activity concentration in air near the ground contamination due to dry and wet deposition at specified locations in a polar grid system. ISOLA requires a four-parametric meteorological statistics derived from one or more years synoptic recordings of 1-hour-averages of wind speed, wind direction, stability class and precipitation intensity. Additional features of NORMTRI are the possibility to choose several dose calculation procedures, ranging from the equations of the German regulatory guidelines to a pure specific equilibrium approach. (orig.)

  12. Dam construction in salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmann, N.; Beinlich, A.; Flach, D.; Jockwer, N.; Klarr, K.; Krogmann, P.; Miehe, R.; Schmidt, M.W.; Schwaegermann, H.F.; Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1991-11-01

    Barriers are a major component of the satefy concept for the Gorleben repository. The construction and performance of dams are currently tested within the framework of a project carried out in the Asse salt mine. A measuring programme has been established to give evidence of the sealing capacities of a barrier consisting of an abatement, long-term sealing material, and a hydraulic sealing system. Tests are to be made to verify the barrier's performance for shorter of long time periods (up to about 500 years). The tests are assisted by computed models established for the project. The long-term safety aspects to be studied include such conditions as permeability changes due to mechanical impacts, circulation conditions at the roadside, and the serviceable life and efficiency of the sealing components. (DG) [de

  13. The Manantali dam. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickmann, M.; Sieburger, Dr; Ficatier, M.; Naudet, M.; Schmidt, M.; Seve, M.

    2009-01-01

    This report proposes an ex-post assessment of the Manantali dam on the Senegal river and of the related investments in Senegal, in Mauritania and in Mali. After a presentation of the methodology adopted for this assessment study performed by several organisms, the report describes the context and the concerned sectors: project costs and funding, framework for irrigated agriculture, and framework for energy. It discusses the relevance of the project with respect to irrigated agriculture and to energy. It assesses the project performance in terms of efficiency and of viability, and with respect to environmental aspects. It presents an overview of the different direct and indirect sector-based partners which are involved in energy or rural development. The next part proposes an assessment of the global impact of the project on development as far as irrigated agriculture, the energy sector, and regional cooperation and integration are concerned. A set of lessons learned and recommendations are then formulated

  14. After Three Gorges Dam: What have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, J.; Williams, P.; Wong, R.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    China is at a critical point in its development path. By investing heavily in large-scale infrastructure, the rewards of economic growth weigh against long-term environmental and social costs. The construction of Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric project, began in 1994. Between 2002 and 2010, its 660 kilometer reservoir filled behind a 181 meter dam, displacing at least 1.4 million people and transforming Asia's longest river (the Yangtze) while generating nearly 100 billion kWh/yr of electricity -- 2.85% of China's current electric power usage. As the mega-project progenitor in a cascade of planned dams, the Three Gorges Dam emerges as a test case for how China will plan, execute and mitigate its development pathway and the transformation of its environment. Post-Project Assessments (PPA) provide a systematic, scientific method for improving the practice of environmental management - particularly as they apply to human intervention in river systems. In 2012, the Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning at University of California, Berkeley organized a symposium-based PPA for the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River. Prior to this symposium, the twelve invited Chinese scientists, engineers and economists with recent research on Three Gorges Dam had not had the opportunity to present their evaluations together in an open, public forum. With a 50-year planning horizon, the symposium's five sessions centered on impacts on flows, geomorphology, geologic hazards, the environment and socioeconomic effects. Three Gorges' project goals focused on flood control, hydropower and improved navigation. According to expert research, major changes in sediment budget and flow regime from reservoir operation have significantly reduced sediment discharge into the downstream river and estuary, initiating a series of geomorphic changes with ecological and social impacts. While the dam reduces high flow stages from floods originating above the

  15. TYPOLOGY OF LARGE DAMS. A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ROMANESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dams represent hydrotechnical constructions meant to ensure a judicious use of water resources. The international literature is extremely rich in data regarding the large dams on Earth. In this context, a hierarchy of the main dams is attempted and the role they play in the economic development of the regions they were built in is underlined. The largest dams are built on the big rivers in Asia, North America, South America and Africa. The reservoirs have multiple roles: electricity production, drinking or industrial water supply, irrigations, recreation, etc. High costs and land fragility do not allow the construction of dams in the places most affected by drought or flood. This is why they are usually built in mountainous areas, at great distance from the populated centres. On the Romanian territory, there are 246 large dams, built in the hydrographical basins of Siret, Olt, Arges, Somes, etc. The largest rivers on Earth, by discharge, (Amazon and Zair do not also include the largest dams because the landform and the type of flow have not allowed such constructions.

  16. A Study of the Impact of Dams on Streamflow and Sediment Retention in the Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, T.; Anderson, E.; Markert, K. N.; Griffin, R.

    2017-12-01

    Dam construction in the Mekong Basin has many cascading effects on the ecology, economy, and hydrology of the surrounding region. Current studies that assess the hydrological impact of dams in the region focus on only one or a small subset (SWAT), a rainfall-runoff hydrologic model to determine change in streamflow and sedimentation in the Mekong Basin before and after the construction of dams. This study uses land cover land use and reservoir datasets created by the NASA SERVIR-Mekong Regional Land Cover Monitoring System and Dam Inundation Mapping Tool as inputs into the model. The study also builds on the capabilities of the SWAT model by using the sediment trapping efficiency (STE) equation from Brune (1953), rewritten by Kummu (2007), to calculate STE of dams and estimate change in sediment concentration downstream. The outputs from this study can be used to inform dam operation policies, study the correlation between dams and delta subsidence, and study the impact of dams on river fisheries, which are all pressing issues in the Mekong region.

  17. The proposals on cooperation to foreign centers of science on thermophysical properties of reactor materials in a broad band of pressure and temperatures realized at normal transient and emergency operation activity of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortov, V.E.

    1996-01-01

    The proposals on cooperation in the area of thermophysical properties of reactor materials in a broad band of pressure and temperature realized at normal transient and emergency operation activity of nuclear power plants are discussed. 1 fig

  18. The Dams and Monitoring Systems and Case Study: Ataturk and Karakaya Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.; Gülnerman, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    Dams are among the most important engineering structures used for flood controls, agricultural purposes as well as drinking and hydroelectric power. Especially after the Second World War, developments on the construction technology, increase the construction of larger capacity dams. There are more than 150.000 dams in the world and almost 1000 dams in Turkey, according to international criteria. Although dams provide benefits to humans, they possess structural risks too. To determine the performance of dams on structural safety, assessing the spatial data is very important. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. These physical data are measured and monitored by the instruments and equipment. Dams and their surroundings have to be monitored by using essential methods at periodic time intervals in order to determine the possible changes that may occur over the time. Monitoring programs typically consist of; surveillance or visual observation. These programs on dams provide information for evaluating the dam's performance related to the design intent and expected changes that could affect the safety performance of the dam. Additionally, these programs are used for investigating and evaluating the abnormal or degrading performance where any remedial action is necessary. Geodetic and non-geodetic methods are used for monitoring. Monitoring the performance of the dams is critical for producing and maintaining the safe dams. This study provides some general information on dams and their different monitoring systems by taking into account two different dams and their structural specifications with the required information. The case study in this paper depends on a comparison of the monitoring surveys on Atatürk Dam and Karakaya Dam, which are constructed on Firat River with two different structural

  19. Sustainability of dams-an evaluation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, E.

    2003-04-01

    Situated in the stream bed of a river, dams and reservoirs interrupt the natural hydrological cycle. They are very sensitive to all kinds of changes in the catchment, among others global impacts on land use, climate, settlement structures or living standards. Vice versa dams strongly affect the spatially distributed, complex system of ecology, economy and society in the catchment both up- and downstream of the reservoir. The occurrence of negative impacts due to large dams led to serious conflicts about future dams. Nevertheless, water shortages due to climatic conditions and their changes, that are faced by enormous water and energy demands due to rising living standards of a growing world population, seem to require further dam construction, even if both supply and demand management are optimised. Although environmental impact assessments are compulsory for dams financed by any of the international funding agencies, it has to be assumed that the projects lack sustainability. Starting from an inventory of today's environmental impact assessments as an integral part of a feasibility study the presentation will identify their inadequacies with regard to the sustainability of dams. To improve the sustainability of future dams and avoid the mistakes of the past, the planning procedures for dams have to be adapted. The highly complex and dynamical system of interrelated physical and non-physical processes, that involves many different groups of stakeholders, constitutes the need for a model-oriented decision support system. In line with the report of the World Commission of Dams an integrated analysis and structure of the complex interrelations between dams, ecology, economy and society will be presented. Thus the system, that a respective tool will be based on, is analysed. Furthermore an outlook will be given on the needs of the potential users of a DSS and how it has to be embedded in the overall planning process. The limits of computer-based decision-support in the

  20. Investigating leaks in dams and reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Millions of people throughout the world depend on dams and reservoirs for electricity, water and flood protection. Dams require significant investment to build and maintain, and yet their usefulness and integrity are constantly threatened by leakage and sedimentation. Isotope hydrology techniques, combined with conventional analytical methods, are a cost-effective tool to reduce such threats. The International Atomic Energy Agency is promoting their use to protect these investments and improve management, particularly by supporting specialized teams of scientists and engineers to investigate dam leakage in African countries on request. (IAEA)

  1. Developing an integrated dam safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, N. M.; Lampa, J.

    1996-01-01

    An effort has been made to demonstrate that dam safety is an integral part of asset management which, when properly done, ensures that all objectives relating to safety and compliance, profitability, stakeholders' expectations and customer satisfaction, are achieved. The means to achieving this integration of the dam safety program and the level of effort required for each core function have been identified using the risk management approach to pinpoint vulnerabilities, and subsequently to focus priorities. The process is considered appropriate for any combination of numbers, sizes and uses of dams, and is designed to prevent exposure to unacceptable risks. 5 refs., 1 tab

  2. Geophysics Methods in Electrometric Assessment of Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, V. A., E-mail: davydov-va@yandex.ru; Baidikov, S. V., E-mail: badikek@mail.ru; Gorshkov, V. Yu., E-mail: vitalaa@yandex.ru; Malikov, A. V., E-mail: alex.mal.1986@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Geophysical Institute, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The safety assessment of hydraulic structures is proposed to be conducted via geoelectric measurements, which are capable of assessing the health of earth dams in their natural bedding without intervention in their structure. Geoelectric measurements are shown as being capable of pinpointing hazardous parts of a dam, including areas of elevated seepage. Applications of such methods are shown for a number of mini-dams in the Sverdlovsk region. Aparameter (effective longitudinal conductivity) that may be used to monitor the safety of hydraulic structures is proposed. Quantitative estimates of this parameter are given in terms of the degree of safely.

  3. Intergarted geophysical investigations by GPR and ERT on the largest rock fill dam in Europe: Monte Cotugno dam (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperte, A.; Bavusi, M.; Cerverizzo, G.; Lapenna, V.; Soldovieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    dam and then monitor these areas of infiltration. For such a task, the use of conventional geotechnical investigation methods was discarded since these techniques often requires invasive actions in the inner of the structure to be investigated (destructiveness) and only provide punctual information for small volumes. On the contrary, in this case, it was decided to use non-invasive sensing techniques, which make it possible to investigate and gain "global" information about all the structure without affecting its operability. In particular, Ground Penetrating Radar and Electrical Resistivity Tomography techniques have been exploited so to have possibility of quickly investigating large portions of dam with different spatial and resolution scales and without the need of destructive actions. The results of this survey well agree with direct surveys and the details of the survey and of the diagnostic results will be shown at the conference.

  4. Predictions of total deformations in Jebba main dam by finite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the deformations of the Jebba Main Dam, Jebba Nigeria using the finite element method. The study also evaluated the predicted deformations and compared them with the actual deformations in the dam to identify possible causes of the observed longitudinal crack at the dam crest. The Jebba dam is a ...

  5. The geomorphic legacy of small dams — An Austrian study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeppl, R.E.; Keesstra, S.D.; Hein, T.

    2015-01-01

    Dams represent one of the most dominant forms of human impact upon fluvial systems during the Anthropocene, as they disrupt the downstream transfer of water and sediments. Removing dams restores river continuity and channel morphology. Both dam construction and dam removal induce geomorphic channel

  6. Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional hydropower can be turned on and off quicker and less expensively than thermal generation (coal, nuclear, or natural gas). These advantages enable hydropower utilities to respond to rapid fluctuations in energy supply and demand. More recently, a growing renewable energy sector has underlined the need for flexible generation capacity that can complement intermittent renewable resources such as wind power. While wind power entails lower variable costs than other types of generation, incorporating it into electric power systems can be problematic. Due to variable and unpredictable wind speeds, wind power is difficult to schedule and must be used when available. As a result, integrating large amounts of wind power into the grid may result in atypical, swiftly changing demand patterns for other forms of generation, placing a premium on sources that can be rapidly ramped up and down. Moreover, uncertainty in wind power forecasts will stipulate increased levels of 'reserve' generation capacity that can respond quickly if real-time wind supply is less than expected. These changes could create new hourly price dynamics for energy and reserves, altering the short-term financial signals that hydroelectric dam operators use to schedule water releases. Traditionally, hourly stream flow patterns below hydropower dams have corresponded in a very predictable manner to electricity demand, whose primary factors are weather (hourly temperature) and economic activity (workday hours). Wind power integration has the potential to yield more variable, less predictable flows at hydro dams, flows that at times could resemble reciprocal wind patterns. An existing body of research explores the impacts of standard, demand-following hydroelectric dams on downstream ecological flows; but weighing the benefits of increased reliance on wind power against further impacts to ecological flows may be a novel challenge for the environmental community. As a preliminary step in meeting this

  7. Identification of Natural Oscillation Modes for Purposes of Seismic Assessment and Monitoring of HPP Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuz’menko, A. P., E-mail: apkuzm@gmail.com; Saburov, S. V., E-mail: saburov58@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Computer Equipment Design Technology Institute, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The paper puts forward a method for processing data from detailed seismic assessments of HPP dams (dynamic tests). A detailed assessment (hundreds of observation points in dam galleries) is performed with consideration of operating dam equipment and the microseismic noise. It is shown that dynamic oscillation characteristics (natural oscillation frequencies and modes in the main dam axes, the velocities of propagation of elastic waves with given polarization, and so on.) can be determined with sufficient accuracy by using complex transfer functions and pulse characteristics. Monitoring data is processed using data from a detailed assessment, taking account of identified natural oscillation modes and determined ranges of natural frequencies. The spectra of characteristic frequencies thus obtained are used to choose substitution models and estimate the elastic characteristics of the “dam – rock bed” construction system, viz., the modulus of elasticity (the Young modulus), the Poisson ratio, the dam section stiffness with respect to shear, tension and compression and the elastic characteristics of the rock foundation.

  8. Advances in crosshole seismic instrumentation for dam safety monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderlini, G.; Anderlini, C. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Taylor, R. [RST Instruments Ltd., Coquitlam, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Since 1996, crosshole shear wave velocity measurements have been performed annually at the WAC Bennett Dam in order to monitor the performance of the dam core and integrity of the 1997 sinkhole repairs. As the testing showed to be responsive to embankment conditions and capable of detecting subtle changes, the testing program was expanded to include the development of an electrical shear wave source capable of carrying out crosshole seismic testing in Mica and Revelstoke Dams over distances of 100 metres and depths of 250 metres. This paper discussed the development and capabilities of the crosshole seismic instrumentation and presented preliminary results obtained during initial testing. Specific topics that were discussed included conventional crosshole seismic equipment; design basics; description of new crosshole seismic equipment; and automated in-situ crosshole seismic system (ACSS) system description and operation. It was concluded that the ACSS and accompanying electrical shear wave source, developed as part of the project, has advanced and improved on traditional crosshole seismic equipment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Impacts of large dams on the complexity of suspended sediment dynamics in the Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuankun; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Wang, Dong; Wu, Jichun; Zhang, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    The Yangtze River is one of the largest and most important rivers in the world. Over the past several decades, the natural sediment regime of the Yangtze River has been altered by the construction of dams. This paper uses multi-scale entropy analysis to ascertain the impacts of large dams on the complexity of high-frequency suspended sediment dynamics in the Yangtze River system, especially after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD). In this study, the complexity of sediment dynamics is quantified by framing it within the context of entropy analysis of time series. Data on daily sediment loads for four stations located in the mainstem are analyzed for the past 60 years. The results indicate that dam construction has reduced the complexity of short-term (1-30 days) variation in sediment dynamics near the structures, but that complexity has actually increased farther downstream. This spatial pattern seems to reflect a filtering effect of the dams on the on the temporal pattern of sediment loads as well as decreased longitudinal connectivity of sediment transfer through the river system, resulting in downstream enhancement of the influence of local sediment inputs by tributaries on sediment dynamics. The TGD has had a substantial impact on the complexity of sediment series in the mainstem of the Yangtze River, especially after it became fully operational. This enhanced impact is attributed to the high trapping efficiency of this dam and its associated large reservoir. The sediment dynamics "signal" becomes more spatially variable after dam construction. This study demonstrates the spatial influence of dams on the high-frequency temporal complexity of sediment regimes and provides valuable information that can be used to guide environmental conservation of the Yangtze River.

  10. Abandonment of the low level outlet structure at the McGregor South Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, D.L; Murray, T.K. [Klohn-Crippen Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Soutar, B.M. [Alberta Transportation, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Carseland-Bow River Headworks (CBRH) is a major multi-purpose water delivery system, situated in southern Alberta. It supplies water to 87,000 hectares of agricultural land and several municipalities. The system was originally built starting in 1909. It consists of diversion works on the Bow River, 65 kilometres of canal, and the McGregor and Little Bow reservoirs. In the 1950s, the system was rehabilitated by the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA), and Travers Reservoir was added in 1954. In 1973, ownership and operation of the CBRH system was turned over to Alberta Environment. In 2001, Alberta Transportation implemented a major program to rehabilitate and upgrade the CBRH system. This program included increasing the capacity of the canals and structures, and upgrading the dams to meet current dam safety guidelines. The project involved raising the north and south dams, providing an auxiliary spillway to accommodate the probable maximum flood (PMF), and rehabilitating the existing reservoir inlet and low level outlet structures. This paper discussed the abandonment of the existing low level outlet structure located within the south dam. The paper discussed the existing dams and outlet structure as well as the south dam and outlet structure. The abandonment of the existing low level outlet structure was discussed in terms of general construction; demolition; upstream conduits and gatewell; and downstream conduit. Several illustrations and photographs of the dam and the demolition were presented. It was concluded that the in-place abandonment of the existing low level outlet structure at the McGregor South Dam provides significant advantages, including eliminating the need to construct and remove an extensive cofferdam within the reservoir. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. On the response of large dams to incoherent seismic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, O.; Novak, M.

    1993-01-01

    An intensive parametric study was conducted to investigate the response of concrete gravity dams to horizontal, spatially variable seismic ground motions. Both segmented dams consisting of separate blocks, or monoliths, and continuous monolithic dams are considered. The study includes the effects of various parameters on system natural frequencies, vibration modes, modal displacement ratios, as well as dam displacements and internal stresses due to spatially variable ground motions. The dam analytical model, and dam response to incoherent ground motions are described. The results show that the dam vibrates almost as a rigid body under the fully correlated waves, but bends and twists significantly under the spatially correlated motions. Dam-foundation interaction magnifies the low frequency components of the dam response, more so for a full reservoir, but decreases the high frequency components. For long dams, the effects of spatially incoherent ground motions are qualitatively different and can be much greater than those due to surface travelling waves. 3 refs., 3 figs

  12. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A. [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2002 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2002 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 11.4 times greater in 2002 than in 2001. The wild Chinook catch was 15.5 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 2.9 times greater than in 2001. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.8 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 3,996 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2002, the Snake River trap captured 69 hatchery and 235 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 114 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant increase in catch in 2002 was due to a 3.1 fold increase in hatchery Chinook production and a more normal spring runoff. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on June 7. The trap was out of operation for a total of four days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 4.2 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 2.4 times greater than in 2001. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the 2001 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the previous year's catch. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on May 29 due to high flows. The trap was out of operation for four days due to high flow or debris. The

  13. Sediment and 137Cs transport and accumulation in the Ogaki Dam of eastern Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Susumu; Malins, Alex; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    The Ogaki Dam Reservoir is one of the principal irrigation dam reservoirs in the Fukushima Prefecture and its upstream river basin was heavily contaminated by radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. For the purpose of environmental assessment, it is important to determine the present condition of the water in the reservoir and to understand the behavior of sediment-sorbed radioactive cesium under different modes of operation of the dam, as these factors affect further contamination of arable farmlands downstream of the reservoir through sediment migration. This paper addresses this issue with numerical simulations of fluvial processes in the reservoir using the two-dimensional Nays2D code. We distinguish three grades of sediment (clay, silt, and sand), as cesium adherence depends on sediment grain size and surface area. Boundary conditions for the simulations were informed by monitoring data of the upstream catchment and by the results from a separate watershed simulation for sediment transport into the reservoir. The performance of the simulation method was checked by comparing the results for a typhoon flood in September 2013 against field monitoring data. We present results for sediment deposition on the reservoir bed and the discharge via the dam under typical yearly flood conditions, for which the bulk of annual sediment migration from the reservoir occurs. The simulations show that almost all the sand and silt that enter into the reservoir deposit onto the reservoir bed. However, the locations where they tend to deposit differ, with sand tending to deposit close to the entrance of the reservoir, whereas silt deposits throughout the reservoir. Both sand and silt settle within a few hours of entering the reservoir. In contrast, clay remains suspended in the reservoir water for a period as long as several days, thus increasing the amount that is discharged downstream from the reservoir. Under the current operating mode of the dam

  14. Remote sensing applications for the dam industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryse-Phillips, A.; Woolgar, R. [Hatch Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Puestow, T.; Warren, S. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). C-Core; Rogers, K. [Nalcor Energy, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Khan, A. [Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. Johns, NL (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    There has been an increase in the earth observation missions providing satellite imagery for operational monitoring applications. This technique has been found to be especially useful for the surveillance of large, remote areas, which is challenging to achieve in a cost-effective manner by conventional field-based or aerial means. This paper discussed the utility of satellite-based monitoring for different applications relevant to hydrology and water resources management. Emphasis was placed on the monitoring of river ice covers in near, real-time and water resources management. The paper first outlined river ice monitoring using remote sensing on the Lower Churchill River. The benefits of remote sensing over traditional survey methods for the dam industry was then outlined. Satellite image acquisition and interpretation for the Churchill River was then presented. Several images were offered. Watershed physiographic characterization using remote sensing was also described. It was concluded that satellite imagery proved to be a useful tool to develop physiographic characteristics when conducting rainfall-runoff modelling. 3 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  15. SCENARIO OF AN ACCIDENT OF SOIL DAMS IN CASE OF WATER SPILL OVER A DAM CREST BY USING FAULT TREE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsov Dmitriy Viktorovich

    2016-01-01

    The scenario of a hydrodynamic accident of water flow over a crest of a soil dam is considered by the method of fault tree analysis, for which the basic reasons and controlled diagnostic indicators of an accident have been defined. Logical operators “AND”/”OR” were used for creation of a sequence of logically connected events, leading to an undesired event in the scenario of accident. The scenario of the accident was plotted in case of three basic reasons - an excessive settling of a dam cres...

  16. Dam break analysis and flood inundation map of Krisak dam for emergency action plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliastuti, Setyandito, Oki

    2017-11-01

    The Indonesian Regulation which refers to the ICOLD Regulation (International Committee on Large Dam required have the Emergency Action Plan (EAP) guidelines because of the dams have potential failure. In EAP guidelines there is a management of evacuation where the determination of the inundation map based on flood modeling. The purpose of the EAP is to minimize the risk of loss of life and property in downstream which caused by dam failure. This paper will describe about develop flood modeling and inundation map in Krisak dam using numerical methods through dam break analysis (DBA) using hydraulic model Zhong Xing HY-21. The approaches of dam failure simulation are overtopping and piping. Overtopping simulation based on quadrangular, triangular and trapezium fracture. Piping simulation based on cracks of orifice. Using results of DBA, hazard classification of Krisak dam is very high. The nearest village affected dam failure is Singodutan village (distance is 1.45 kilometer from dam) with inundation depth is 1.85 meter. This result can be used by stakeholders such as emergency responders and the community at risk in formulating evacuation procedure.

  17. Effects of Pool Drawdown and Wing Dams (Pool 8), and Closure Damns (Pool 13), on Navigation Channel Sedimentation Processes, Upper Mississippi River

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abraham, David D; Cowan, Mark A; Hendrickson, Jon S; Katzenmeyer, William M; Landwhr, Kevin J; Pratt, Thad C

    2006-01-01

    ... (upstream of Lock and Dam No. 8) near La Crosse, WI, during the summers of 2001 and 2002. Water levels were allowed to drop below normal minimum values to expose mud flats, promote seed germination, and benefit fish and wildlife...

  18. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona). 100.1102 Section... MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1102 Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona). (a) General. Sponsors are...

  19. 78 FR 77397 - Flood Control Regulations, Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Regulations, Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps... Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. In 1997, the Lower Colorado River... regulations to reflect changes in ownership and responsibilities of flood control management of Marshall Ford...

  20. Physical - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  1. Biological - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  2. Seismic risks at Elsie Lake Main Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCammon, N.R.; Momenzadeh, M.; Hawson, H.H.; Nielsen, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Elsie Lake dams are located on Vancouver Island in an area of high seismic risk. A safety review in 1986 indicated potential deficiencies in the earthfill main dam with respect to modern earthquake design standards. A detailed field investigation program comprising drilling and penetration tests was carried out and the results used in an assessment of seismic stability. A 0.8 m thick less dense layer in the granular shell of the dam, possibly caused by wet construction conditions, would likely liquefy in a major earthquake but sufficient residual strength would likely remain to prevent catastrophic failure. The dam shell might undergo some distortion, and an assessment was initiated to determine the requirements for reservoir drawdown following an extreme earthquake to ensure the timely lowering of the reservoir for inspection and repair. It was suggested that an adequate evacuation capability would be 25% and 50% drawdown in not more than 30 and 50 days, respectively. 9 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  3. Can Dams and Reservoirs Cause Earthquakes?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    induced earthquakes in that region. Figure 1. A cartoon to illus- trate the spatial relation- ships between dam, reser- ... learning experience for us graduate students. Thus, on that ... infallibility and persuasiveness as in Euclidean geometry. The.

  4. Review of construction criteria for nuclear fuels under normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences - a literature study; Oeversyn av konstruktionskriterier foer kaernbraensle under normaldrift och foervaentade driftsstoerningar - en litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudling, P. [Advanced Nuclear Technology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1999-06-01

    General Design Criteria 10, GDC 10, in the Code of Federal Regulation Part 50 of Nuclear Regulatory Commission specifies that the fuel assembly including the fuel rod may not be damaged during normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences. No damaged, means that the fuel rods do not fail, that fuel rod and assembly dimensions remain within operational tolerances, and that functional capabilities are not reduced below those assumed in the safety analysis. This objective is given by GDC 10, and the design limits that are required to accomplish this objective are called Specified Acceptable Fuel Design Limits, SAFDLs. The SAFDLs are specified in Standard Review Plan, SRP, chapter 4.2. This report summarises and analyses published open data that are relevant for the below-specified SAFDLs. It also summarises the current view of NRC on the discussed SAFDLs as well as the margin towards fuel failure of the SAFDLs. The following SAFDLs are discussed herein: Avoidance of fuel centre melting; Avoidance of liftoff; Maximum cladding creep deformation; Avoidance of cladding collapse; Maximum fretting; Maximum dimensional changes; Maximum stresses; Maximum fatigue stresses; Maximum oxide thickness; Maximum hydrogen content; Avoidance of PCI - failures.

  5. Comparison of the Tritium permeated from ITER Blanket in normal operation and its short range impact of HT over France, Swiss or Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.; Velarde, M.; Ardao, J.; Perlado, J.; Sedano, L.; Xiberta, J.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we assumes the hydrogen isotopes permeation from a liquid metal ITER breeder blanket (assuming normal operation and a LM as DCLL or HCLL blanket) as one of the possible sources of a leak and tritium release,mainly but not only. The paper presents a short range low impact of HT gas activity over France, Swiss or Spain from same cases in 2014 and 2015 releases from ITER. The permeation of hydrogen isotopes is an important experimental issue to take into account into the development of a Tritium Breeder Module for ITER [1]. Tritium cannot be confined -without an uncertainty of 5% in the flux permeation- and therefore HT can be detected (e.g. by ionization chamber) as permeates though the structure of RAFM steel towards the coolant [1]. HT from Pb15.7Li and permeated in Eurofer97 can contaminate the other parts of the system and may be delivered though the normal-vent detritiation system (NVDS). Real time forecast of transport of tritium in air from the fusion reactor towards off-site far downwind though extended tritium clouds into the low levels of the atmosphere is calculated for the short range (up to 24 hours) by the coupling of 2 models the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) [2] model and the FLEXPART lagrangian dispersion model [3] verified with NORMTRI simulation [4] and implemented in many different cases and scenarios [5, 6, 7]. As a function of daily weather conditions the release will affect just France or already can be delivered towards Swiss when cyclonic circulation, or towards the Iberian Peninsula or Balearic Islands (Spain) when high produce anticyclonic circulation of the air over the Mediterranean Sea. (Author)

  6. Risk assessment of tailings facility dam failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Mirakovski, Dejan; Stefanova, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the consequences of tailings facility dam failure and therefore the needs for its risk assessment. Tailings are fine-grained wastes of the mining industry, output as slurries, due to mixing with water during mineral processing. Tailings dams vary a lot as it is affected by: tailings characteristics and mill output, site characteristics as: topography, hydrology, geology, groundwater, seismicity and available material and disposal methods. The talings which accumulat...

  7. The environmental impact of large dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razvan, E.

    1992-01-01

    The campaigns of conservationist groups against dams are generally based on rather emotional issues. This paper puts the situation in a more rational perspective, by analysing the various claims which tend to be put forward concerning the impacts of large dams, examining the validity of the arguments, looking at ways in which any adverse effects can be mitigated, and presenting the complexity of the problems. (author)

  8. Performance of iron–chromium–aluminum alloy surface coatings on Zircaloy 2 under high-temperature steam and normal BWR operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Weicheng; Mouche, Peter A.; Han, Xiaochun [University of Illinois, Department of Nuclear, Radiological, and Plasma Engineering, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Heuser, Brent J., E-mail: bheuser@illinois.edu [University of Illinois, Department of Nuclear, Radiological, and Plasma Engineering, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mandapaka, Kiran K.; Was, Gary S. [University of Michigan, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) coatings deposited on Zircaloy 2 (Zy2) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by magnetron sputtering have been tested with respect to oxidation weight gain in high-temperature steam. In addition, autoclave testing of FeCrAl-coated Zy2 coupons under pressure-temperature-dissolved oxygen coolant conditions representative of a boiling water reactor (BWR) environment has been performed. Four different FeCrAl compositions have been tested in 700 °C steam; compositions that promote alumina formation inhibited oxidation of the underlying Zy2. Parabolic growth kinetics of alumina on FeCrAl-coated Zy2 is quantified via elemental depth profiling. Autoclave testing under normal BWR operating conditions (288 °C, 9.5 MPa with normal water chemistry) up to 20 days demonstrates observable weight gain over uncoated Zy2 simultaneously exposed to the same environment. However, no FeCrAl film degradation was observed. The 900 °C eutectic in binary Fe–Zr is addressed with the FeCrAl-YSZ system. - Graphical abstract: Weight gain normalized to total sample surface area versus time during 700 °C steam exposure for FeCrAl samples with different composition (A) and Fe/Cr/Al:62/4/34 (B). In both cases, the responses of uncoated Zry2 (Zry2-13A and Zry2-19A) are shown for comparison. This uncoated Zry2 response shows the expected pre-transition quasi-cubic kinetic behavior and eventual breakaway (linear) kinetics. Highlights: • FeCrAl coatings deposited on Zy2 have been tested with respect to oxidation in high-temperature steam. • FeCrAl compositions promoting alumina formation inhibited oxidation of Zy2 and delay weight gain. • Autoclave testing to 20 days of coated Zy2 in a simulated BWR environment demonstrates minimal weight gain and no film degradation. • The 900 °C eutectic in binary Fe-Zr is addressed with the FeCrAl-YSZ system.

  9. Clinical outcome during the peri-operative (thyroidectomy) period of severely hyperthyroid patients with normalized pre-operative free-T4 levels: Importance of I-131 therapy as a part of pre-operative preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siguan-Crisaldo, M.A.L.; Mercado-Asis, L.B.

    2005-01-01

    Thyroidectomy is performed for hyperthyroidism on patients who do not respond to or are not compliant with medical therapy and in patients with very large goiters causing compressive symptoms. All thyrotoxic patients undergoing thyroidectomy usually are first treated with anti-thyroid drugs to normalize free thyroid hormone levels and render them euthyroid before surgery in order to prevent complications particularly thyroid storm and circulatory collapse. In this case series, we describe the clinical outcome during the perioperative (thyroidectomy) period of three severely hyperthyroid patients, two females and one male, with ages ranging from 13 to 38 years. All patients had grade III goiter, and only one had exophthalmos. The mean duration of goiter was 3.6 years. All of them were given preoperative treatment consisting of propylthiouracil (PTU) at 450-600 mg/day; iodone, 3 tablets daily and propranolol at 30-120 mg/day for one month. All of them had normalized preoperative thyroid function tests. In addition to the preoperative medications mentioned above, all three patients received radioactive iodine therapy before surgery. The first two patients received relatively low doses of 8.0 and 7.5 mCi of I-131 respectively. Unfortunately the first patient had supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), post skin cutting and the other one went into thyroid storm. The third patient who received a cumulative dose of 23.5 mCi of I-131 before surgery had an uneventful postoperative course. It is concluded that normalization of thyroid hormone parameters, especially free T4 is not sufficient for an uneventful and uncomplicated peri-thyroidectomy period in severely hyperthyroid patients with large goiters. Effective radioactive iodine therapy might prove to be helpful in inducing thyroid tissue fibrosis, thus leading to true clinical euthyroidism and excellent clinical course postoperatively. (author)

  10. Estimating flood inundation caused by dam failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). School of Engineering; Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2006-01-15

    Recent advancements in modelling inundation due to dam failures have allowed easier and more illustrative analyses of potential outcomes. This paper described new model and mapping capabilities available using the HEC-RAS hydraulic model in concert with geographic information systems (GIS). The study area was the upper reaches of Canagagigue Creek and the Woolwich Dam near Elmira, Ontario. A hydraulic analysis of a hypothetical dam failure was developed based on the summer probable maximum flood (PMF) event. Limits extended from Woolwich Dam to downstream of the Town of Elmira. An incoming summer PMF hydrograph was set as the upstream boundary condition in the upstream model. Simulation parameters include simulation time-step; implicit weighting factor; water surface calculation tolerance; and output calculation interval. Peak flows were presented, as well as corresponding flood inundation results through the Town of Elmira. The hydraulic model results were exported to a GIS in order to develop inundation maps for emergency management planning. Results from post-processing included inundation maps for each of the simulated time-steps as well as an inundation animation for the duration of the dam breach. It was concluded that the modelling tools presented in the study can be applied to other dam safety assessment projects in order to develop effective and efficient emergency preparedness plans through public consultation and the establishment of impact zones. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  11. Upstream movements of Atlantic Salmon in the Lower Penobscot River, Maine following two dam removals and fish passage modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Lisa K.; Maynard, George A.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project (PRRP), to be completed in 2016, involved an extensive plan of dam removal, increases in hydroelectric capacity, and fish passage modifications to increase habitat access for diadromous species. As part of the PRRP, Great Works and Veazie dams were removed, making Milford Dam the first impediment to federally endangered Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar. Upstream habitat access for Atlantic Salmon is dependent upon successful and timely passage at Milford Dam because nearly all suitable spawning habitat is located upstream. In 2014 and 2015, a total of 73 adult salmon were radio-tagged to track their upstream movements through the Penobscot River to assess potential delays at (1) the dam remnants, (2) the confluence of the Stillwater Branch and the main stem of the Penobscot River below the impassable Orono Dam, and (3) the Milford Dam fish lift (installed in 2014). Movement rates through the dam remnants and the Stillwater confluence were comparable to open river reaches. Passage efficiency of the fish lift was high in both years (95% and 100%). However, fish experienced long delays at Milford Dam, with approximately one-third of fish taking more than a week to pass in each year, well below the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission passage standard of 95% within 48 h. Telemetry indicates most fish locate the fishway entrance within 5 h of arrival and were observed at the entrance at all hours of the day. These data indicate that overall transit times through the lower river were comparable to reported movement rates prior to changes to the Penobscot River due to the substantial delays seen at Milford Dam. The results of this study show that while adult Atlantic Salmon locate the new fish lift entrance quickly, passage of these fish was significantly delayed under 2014–2015 operations.

  12. Hydrological impact of high-density small dams in a humid catchment, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Lei, H.; Yang, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Jiulong River basin is a humid catchment with a drainage area of 14,741 km2; however, it has over 1000 hydropower stations within it. Such catchment with high-density small dams is scarce in China. Yet few is known about the impact of high-density small dams on streamflow changes. To what extent the large number of dams alters the hydrologic patterns is a fundamental scientific issue for water resources management, flood control, and aquatic ecological environment protection. Firstly, trend and change point analyses are applied to determine the characteristics of inter-annual streamflow. Based on the detected change point, the study period is divided into two study periods, the ``natural'' and ``disturbed'' periods. Then, a geomorphology-based hydrological model (GBHM) and the fixing-changing method are adopted to evaluate the relative contributions of climate variations and damming to the changes in streamflow at each temporal scale (i.e., from daily, monthly to annual). Based on the simulated natural streamflow, the impact of dam construction on hydrologic alteration and aquatic ecological environment will be evaluated. The hydrologic signatures that will be investigated include flood peak, seasonality of streamflow, and the inter-annual variability of streamflow. In particular, the impacts of damming on aquatic ecological environment will be investigated using eco-flow metrics and indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA) which contains 33 individual streamflow statistics that are closely related to aquatic ecosystem. The results of this study expect to provide a reference for reservoir operation considering both ecological and economic benefits of such operations in the catchment with high-density dams.

  13. Hydraulics of embankment-dam breaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, J. S.; Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Godt, J. W.; Solovitz, S.

    2012-12-01

    Constructed or natural earthen dams can pose hazards to downstream communities. Experiments to date on earthen-dam breaching have focused on dam geometries relevant to engineering practice. We have begun experiments with dam geometries more like those of natural dams. Water was impounded behind dams constructed at the downstream end of the USGS debris-flow flume. Dams were made of compacted, well-sorted, moist beach sand (D50=0.21 mm), 3.5 m from toe to toe, but varying in height from 0.5 to 1 m; the lower the dam, the smaller the reservoir volume and the broader the initially flat crest. Breaching was started by cutting a slot 30-40 mm wide and deep in the dam crest after filling the reservoir. Water level and pore pressure within the dam were monitored. Experiments were also recorded by an array of still- and video cameras above the flume and a submerged video camera pointed at the upstream dam face. Photogrammetric software was used to create DEMs from stereo pairs, and particle-image velocimetry was used to compute the surface-velocity field from the motion of tracers scattered on the water surface. As noted by others, breaching involves formation and migration of a knickpoint (or several). Once the knickpoint reaches the upstream dam face, it takes on an arcuate form whose continued migration we determined by measuring the onset of motion of colored markers on the dam face. The arcuate feature, which can be considered the head of the "breach channel", is nearly coincident with the transition from subcritical to supercritical flow; that is, it acts as a weir that hydraulically controls reservoir emptying. Photogenic slope failures farther downstream, although the morphologically dominant process at work, play no role at all in hydraulic control aside from rare instances in which they extend upstream so far as to perturb the weir, where the flow cross section is nearly self-similar through time. The domain downstream of the critical-flow section does influence

  14. PRINCIPAL STRESSES IN NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS OF BAKUN CONCRETE FACED ROCKFILL DAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hilton Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With rapid population growth and accelerating economic development, much of the world’s WATER which requires urgent attention to ensure sustainable use. Nowadays, Concrete Faced Rockfill Dam (CFRD is preferred among dam consultant due to its advantages. They are designed to withstand all applied loads; namely gravity load due to its massive weight and hydrostatic load due to water thrust from the reservoir. Bakun CFRD, which ranks as the second highest CFRD in the world when completed, is analyzed to its safety due to both loads mentioned earlier by using Finite Element Method. 2-D plane strain finite element analysis of non-linear Duncan-Chang hyperbolic Model which formulated by Duncan and Chang is used to study the structural response of the dam in respect to the deformation and stresses of Main dam of Bakun’s CFRD project. Dead-Birth-Ghost element technique was used to simulate sequences of construction of the dam as well as during reservoir fillings. The comparison of rigid and flexible foundation on the behaviour of the dam was discussed. The maximum and minimum principal stresses are the maximum and minimum possible values of the normal stresses. The maximum principal stress controls brittle fracture. In the finite element modeling the concrete slab on the upstream was represented through six-noded element, while the interface characteristic between dam body and concrete slab was modeled using interface element. The maximum settlement and stresses of the cross section was founded and the distribution of them were discussed and tabulated in form of contours.

  15. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket module under normal operation steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Arena, P. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Aubert, J. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Bongiovì, G. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Chiovaro, P., E-mail: pierluigi.chiovaro@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Giammusso, R. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Li Puma, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Tincani, A. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A DEMO WCLL blanket module thermo-mechanical behaviour has been investigated. • Two models of the WCLL blanket module have been set-up adopting a code based on FEM. • The water flow domain in the module has been considered. • A set of uncoupled steady state thermo-mechanical analyses has been carried out. • Critical temperature is not overcome. Safety verifications are generally satisfied. - Abstract: Within the framework of DEMO R&D activities, a research cooperation has been launched between ENEA, the University of Palermo and CEA to investigate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the outboard equatorial module of the DEMO1 Water-Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) blanket under normal operation steady state scenario. The research campaign has been carried out following a theoretical–computational approach based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. In particular, two different 3D FEM models (Model 1 and Model 2), reproducing respectively the central and the lateral poloidal–radial slices of the WCLL blanket module, have been set up. A particular attention has been paid to the modelling of water flow domain, within both the segment box channels and the breeder zone tubes, to simulate realistically the coolant-box thermal coupling. Results obtained are herewith reported and critically discussed.

  16. Peculiarity of deuterium ions interaction with tungsten surface in the condition imitating combination of normal operation with plasma disruption in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I. E-mail: martyn@nfi.kiae.ru; Vasiliev, V.I.; Gureev, V.M.; Danelyan, L.S.; Khirpunov, B.I.; Korshunov, S.N.; Kulikauskas, V.S.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Petrov, V.B.; Strunnikov, V.N.; Stolyarova, V.G.; Zatekin, V.V.; Litnovsky, A.M

    2001-03-01

    Tungsten is a candidate material for the ITER divertor. For the simulation of ITER normal operation conditions in combination with plasma disruptions samples of various types of tungsten were exposed to both steady-state and high power pulsed deuterium plasmas. Tungsten samples were first exposed in a steady-state plasma with an ion current density {approx}10{sup 21} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} up to a dose of 10{sup 25} m{sup -2} at a temperature of 770 K. The energy of deuterium ions was 150 eV. The additional exposure of the samples to 10 pulses of deuterium plasma was performed in the electrodynamical plasma accelerator with an energy flux 0.45 MJ/m{sup 2} per pulse. Samples of four types of tungsten (W-1%La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, W-13I, monocrystalline W(1 1 1) and W-10%Re) were investigated. The least destruction of the surface was observed for W(1 1 1). The concentration of retained deuterium in tungsten decreased from 2.5x10{sup 19} m{sup -2} to 1.07x10{sup 19} m{sup -2} (for W(1 1 1)) as a result of the additional pulsed plasma irradiation. Investigation of the tungsten erosion products after the high power pulsed plasma shots was also carried out.

  17. Aviation’s Normal Operations Safety Audit: a safety management and educational tool for health care? Results of a small-scale trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett SA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Simon A Bennett Civil Safety and Security Unit, School of Business, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK Background: A National Health Service (NHS contingent liability for medical error claims of over £26 billion. Objectives: To evaluate the safety management and educational benefits of adapting aviation’s Normal Operations Safety Audit (NOSA to health care. Methods: In vivo research, a NOSA was performed by medical students at an English NHS Trust. After receiving training from the author, the students spent 6 days gathering data under his supervision. Results: The data revealed a threat-rich environment, where errors – some consequential – were made (359 threats and 86 errors were recorded over 2 weeks. The students claimed that the exercise improved their observational, investigative, communication, teamworking and other nontechnical skills. Conclusion: NOSA is potentially an effective safety management and educational tool for health care. It is suggested that 1 the UK General Medical Council mandates that all medical students perform a NOSA in fulfillment of their degree; 2 the participating NHS Trusts be encouraged to act on students’ findings; and 3 the UK Department of Health adopts NOSA as a cornerstone risk assessment and management tool. Keywords: aviation, safety audit, health care, management benefits, educational benefits

  18. RANS simulation of the thermal mixing in HTTF LP during normal operation conditions – High Temperature Test Facility at Oregon State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradecka, Malwina J.; Woods, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Since High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors are being considered as the most promising design of upcoming IV Gen reactors, key research areas were identified to address safety aspects of this design. A number of simulations and experiments need to be conducted in this field. In this paper, thermal-hydraulics aspects of coolant flow through Lower Plenum (LP) of HTGR were considered, specifically flow characteristics to identify the risk of temperature stratification in LP and hot spotting on LP floor. Local temperature gradients can cause material degradation. As the power profile is non-uniform across the core, jets of coolant exit the core region at different temperatures and enter the LP impinging on LP floor causing hot spots at LP structure and temperature stratification. To address those issues numerical simulation and an experiment are being developed. The numerical simulation provides coolant flow velocity and temperature fields. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mixing phenomenon in the LP due to risk of the hot streaking and thermal stratification phenomena during normal operation of HTTF. The following aspect are being examined: identification of gas flow behavior in lower plenum of HTTF based on CFD simulations, identification of hot streaking issue in the HTTF lower plenum using CFD tools, and computational investigation of gas mixing efficiency. This paper includes a description of experimental setup of HTTF, guidance for LP CFD modeling, and the results and analysis of CFD simulation. (author)

  19. Behavior of U3Si2 Fuel and FeCrAl Cladding under Normal Operating and Accident Reactor Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Barani, Tommaso [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pizzocri, Davide [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation program, an Accident Tolerant Fuel High Impact Problem was initiated at the beginning of fiscal year 2015 to investigate the behavior of \\usi~fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) claddings under normal operating and accident reactor conditions. The High Impact Problem was created in response to the United States Department of Energy's renewed interest in accident tolerant materials after the events that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. The High Impact Problem is a multinational laboratory and university collaborative research effort between Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. This report primarily focuses on the engineering scale research in fiscal year 2016 with brief summaries of the lower length scale developments in the areas of density functional theory, cluster dynamics, rate theory, and phase field being presented.

  20. Environmental considerations for the expansion of Olympic Dam, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.

    2002-01-01

    A recent $2 billion expansion at Olympic Dam saw production capacity increased to 200 000 tonnes of copper cathode, 4500 tonnes of UOC, 80,000 ozs of gold and 850 000 ozs of silver from the mining and milling of about 9 million tonnes of ore. The Expansion required the prior preparation and approval of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Design Criteria and Codes of Practice applied during design and construction of the Expansion ensured that no environmental incidents occurred during construction, and implementation of an Environmental Management System has ensured that operation of the expanded facilities continues to have low impacts. (author)

  1. Environmental considerations for the expansion of Olympic Dam, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.

    2000-01-01

    A recent $A2 billion expansion at Olympic Dam saw production capacity increased to 200,000 tonnes of copper cathode, 4,500 tonnes of UOC, 80,000 ozs of gold and 850,000 ozs of silver from the mining and milling of about 9 million tonnes of ore. The Expansion required the prior preparation and approval of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Design Criteria and Codes of Practice applied during design and construction of the Expansion ensured that no environmental incidents occurred during construction and implementation of an Environmental Management System has ensured that operation of the expanded facilities continues to have low impacts. (author)

  2. Modeling of fuel performance and fission product release behavior during HTTR normal operation. A comparative study of the FZJ and JAERI modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, Karl; Sumita, Junya; Ueta, Shohei; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2001-03-01

    For the prediction of fuel performance and fission product release behavior in the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, HTTR of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute(JAERI), during its normal operation, calculation tools were applied as have been used at the Research Center Juelich (FZJ) in safety analyses for pebble-bed HTGR designs. Calculations were made assuming the HTTR operation with a nominal operation time of 660 efpd including a 110 efpd period with elevated fuel temperatures. Fuel performance calculations by the PANAMA code with given fuel temperature distribution in the core have shown that the additional failure level of about 5x10 -6 is expected which is about twice as much as the as-fabricated through-coatings failure level. Under the extreme safety design conditions, the predicted particle failure fraction in the core increases to about 1x10 -3 in maximum. The diffusive release of metallic fission products from the fuel primarily occurs in the core layer with the maximum fuel temperature (layer 3) whereas there is hardly any contribution from layer 1 except for the recoil fraction. Silver most easily escapes the fuel; the predicted release fractions from the fuel compacts are 10% (expected) and 50% (safety design). The figures for strontium (expected: 1.5x10 -3 ), safety design: 3.1x10 -2 ) and cesium (5.6x10 -4 , 2.9x10 -2 ) reveal as well a significant fraction to originate already from intact particles. Comparison with the calculation based on JAERI's diffusion model for cesium shows a good agreement for the release behavior from the particles. The differences in the results can be explained mainly by the different diffusion coefficients applied. The release into the coolant can not modelled because of the influence of the gap between compact and graphite sleeve lowering the release by a factor of 3 to 10. For the prediction of performance and fission product release behavior of advanced ZrC TRISO particles, more experimental work is

  3. the effect of age of dam on weaning mass for ftve dam breed types

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY: The effect of age of dam on adjusted 210 day calf weaning mass was estimated by the Least Squares method for 5 dam types on 2 farms. ... the later maturing breeds would have a low level of productivity because these cows would be eliminated in their potentially prime .... time at 28 (2A) or 3l (28) months old.

  4. The interplay of activists and dam developers : the case of Myanmar’s mega-dams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411261487; J. Charles, Katrina; Walton, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Scholars investigating activism against large dam developments in Asia usually focus on those campaigning, but not on those the campaigns are aimed at–the dam developers. Yet the developers’ perspective is crucial to comprehensively understand the dynamics of social and environmental activism in

  5. Dam that social networking: connecting South Africa's major dams to social media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available where four major South African dams are connected to Twitter and Facebook (and other social media such as MXit and Google Chat) in a mechanism which would be easy to replicate for additional dams or rivers. Data is supplied by the South African...

  6. Modeling the capacity of riverscapes to support beaver dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, William W.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Bouwes, Nicolaas; Jensen, Martha L.; Gilbert, Jordan T.; Hough-Snee, Nate; Shivik, John A.

    2017-01-01

    The construction of beaver dams facilitates a suite of hydrologic, hydraulic, geomorphic, and ecological feedbacks that increase stream complexity and channel-floodplain connectivity that benefit aquatic and terrestrial biota. Depending on where beaver build dams within a drainage network, they impact lateral and longitudinal connectivity by introducing roughness elements that fundamentally change the timing, delivery, and storage of water, sediment, nutrients, and organic matter. While the local effects of beaver dams on streams are well understood, broader coverage network models that predict where beaver dams can be built and highlight their impacts on connectivity across diverse drainage networks are lacking. Here we present a capacity model to assess the limits of riverscapes to support dam-building activities by beaver across physiographically diverse landscapes. We estimated dam capacity with freely and nationally-available inputs to evaluate seven lines of evidence: (1) reliable water source, (2) riparian vegetation conducive to foraging and dam building, (3) vegetation within 100 m of edge of stream to support expansion of dam complexes and maintain large colonies, (4) likelihood that channel-spanning dams could be built during low flows, (5) the likelihood that a beaver dam is likely to withstand typical floods, (6) a suitable stream gradient that is neither too low to limit dam density nor too high to preclude the building or persistence of dams, and (7) a suitable river that is not too large to restrict dam building or persistence. Fuzzy inference systems were used to combine these controlling factors in a framework that explicitly also accounts for model uncertainty. The model was run for 40,561 km of streams in Utah, USA, and portions of surrounding states, predicting an overall network capacity of 356,294 dams at an average capacity of 8.8 dams/km. We validated model performance using 2852 observed dams across 1947 km of streams. The model showed

  7. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  8. The Total Risk Analysis of Large Dams under Flood Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dams and reservoirs are useful systems in water conservancy projects; however, they also pose a high-risk potential for large downstream areas. Flood, as the driving force of dam overtopping, is the main cause of dam failure. Dam floods and their risks are of interest to researchers and managers. In hydraulic engineering, there is a growing tendency to evaluate dam flood risk based on statistical and probabilistic methods that are unsuitable for the situations with rare historical data or low flood probability, so a more reasonable dam flood risk analysis method with fewer application restrictions is needed. Therefore, different from previous studies, this study develops a flood risk analysis method for large dams based on the concept of total risk factor (TRF used initially in dam seismic risk analysis. The proposed method is not affected by the adequacy of historical data or the low probability of flood and is capable of analyzing the dam structure influence, the flood vulnerability of the dam site, and downstream risk as well as estimating the TRF of each dam and assigning corresponding risk classes to each dam. Application to large dams in the Dadu River Basin, Southwestern China, demonstrates that the proposed method provides quick risk estimation and comparison, which can help local management officials perform more detailed dam safety evaluations for useful risk management information.

  9. Hydrogeophysical investigations at Hidden Dam, Raymond, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, Burke J.; Burton, Bethany L.; Ikard, Scott; Powers, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Self-potential and direct current resistivity surveys are carried out at the Hidden Dam site in Raymond, California to assess present-day seepage patterns and better understand the hydrogeologic mechanisms that likely influence seepage. Numerical modeling is utilized in conjunction with the geophysical measurements to predict variably-saturated flow through typical two-dimensional dam cross-sections as a function of reservoir elevation. Several different flow scenarios are investigated based on the known hydrogeology, as well as information about typical subsurface structures gained from the resistivity survey. The flow models are also used to simulate the bulk electrical resistivity in the subsurface under varying saturation conditions, as well as the self-potential response using petrophysical relationships and electrokinetic coupling equations.The self-potential survey consists of 512 measurements on the downstream area of the dam, and corroborates known seepage areas on the northwest side of the dam. Two direct-current resistivity profiles, each approximately 2,500 ft (762 m) long, indicate a broad sediment channel under the northwest side of the dam, which may be a significant seepage pathway through the foundation. A focusing of seepage in low-topography areas downstream of the dam is confirmed from the numerical flow simulations, which is also consistent with past observations. Little evidence of seepage is identified from the self-potential data on the southeast side of the dam, also consistent with historical records, though one possible area of focused seepage is identified near the outlet works. Integration of the geophysical surveys, numerical modeling, and observation well data provides a framework for better understanding seepage at the site through a combined hydrogeophysical approach.

  10. The strengthening of the Lavaud-Gelade dam; Le confortement de la digue de Lavaud-Gelade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devos, J.C. [IDTPE, Direction Regionale de l`Industrie, de la Recherche et de l`Environnement (DRIRE), (France); Legras, F. [ITPE, (France)

    1996-12-31

    The Lavaud-Gelade dam (Creuse, France) was built in 1931 and operated by Electricite de France (EdF) since 1946. It is made of loam (clay and sand) with a stone protective cover. The progressive increase of leaks which started in 1982 has led to a project of strengthening of the dam which is detailed in this paper (conclusion of the safety studies, works and costs). The surveillance system has been modified and improved too. (J.S.)

  11. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Como Dam (DE 00028), Delaware River Basin, Mill Creek, Kent County, Delaware. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    STATEMENT (of the abstract antarod in Block 20, It different frm Report) III. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Copies are obtainable from National Technical...should employ a professional engineer experienced in operation and maintanance of darns to develop written operating procedures and a periodic...100 YEAR FLOOD WOULD CAUSE A DAM TO bE OVERTOPPED THEREFORE THE OWNER SHOULD ENGAGE A QUALIFIED PkOFEbSIONAL CONSULTANT USING MORE PERCISE METHODS

  12. Monitoring the ongoing deformation and seasonal behaviour affecting Mosul Dam through space-borne SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessari, G.; Riccardi, P.; Pasquali, P.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring of dam structural health is an important practice to control the structure itself and the water reservoir, to guarantee efficient operation and safety of surrounding areas. Ensuring the longevity of the structure requires the timely detection of any behaviour that could deteriorate the dam and potentially result in its shutdown or failure.The detection and monitoring of surface displacements is increasingly performed through the analysis of satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, thanks to the non-invasiveness of their acquisition, the possibility to cover large areas in a short time and the new space missions equipped with high spatial resolution sensors. The availability of SAR satellite acquisitions from the early 1990s enables to reconstruct the historical evolution of dam behaviour, defining its key parameters, possibly from its construction to the present. Furthermore, the progress on SAR Interferometry (InSAR) techniques through the development of Differential InSAR (DInSAR) and Advanced stacking techniques (A-DInSAR) allows to obtain accurate velocity maps and displacement time-series.The importance of these techniques emerges when environmental or logistic conditions do not allow to monitor dams applying the traditional geodetic techniques. In such cases, A-DInSAR constitutes a reliable diagnostic tool of dam structural health to avoid any extraordinary failure that may lead to loss of lives.In this contest, an emblematic case will be analysed as test case: the Mosul Dam, the largest Iraqi dam, where monitoring and maintaining are impeded for political controversy, causing possible risks for the population security. In fact, it is considered one of the most dangerous dams in the world because of the erosion of the gypsum rock at the basement and the difficult interventions due to security problems. The dam consists of 113 m tall and 3.4 km long earth-fill embankment-type, with a clay core, and it was completed in 1984.The deformation

  13. Assessing the potential hydrological impact of the Gibe III Dam on Lake Turkana water level using multi-source satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.

    2012-10-01

    Lake Turkana, the largest desert lake in the world, is fed by ungauged or poorly gauged river systems. To meet the demand of electricity in the East African region, Ethiopia is currently building the Gibe III hydroelectric dam on the Omo River, which supplies more than 80% of the inflows to Lake Turkana. On completion, the Gibe III dam will be the tallest dam in Africa with a height of 241 m. However, the nature of interactions and potential impacts of regulated inflows to Lake Turkana are not well understood due to its remote location and unavailability of reliable in situ datasets. In this study, we used 12 yr (1998-2009) of existing multi-source satellite and model-assimilated global weather data. We used a calibrated multi-source satellite data-driven water balance model for Lake Turkana that takes into account model routed runoff, lake/reservoir evapotranspiration, direct rain on lakes/reservoirs and releases from the dam to compute lake water levels. The model evaluates the impact of the Gibe III dam using three different approaches - a historical approach, a rainfall based approach, and a statistical approach to generate rainfall-runoff scenarios. All the approaches provided comparable and consistent results. Model results indicated that the hydrological impact of the Gibe III dam on Lake Turkana would vary with the magnitude and distribution of rainfall post-dam commencement. On average, the reservoir would take up to 8-10 months, after commencement, to reach a minimum operation level of 201 m depth of water. During the dam filling period, the lake level would drop up to 1-2 m (95% confidence) compared to the lake level modeled without the dam. The lake level variability caused by regulated inflows after the dam commissioning were found to be within the natural variability of the lake of 4.8 m. Moreover, modeling results indicated that the hydrological impact of the Gibe III dam would depend on the initial lake level at the time of dam commencement. Areas

  14. Study on Viscoelastic Deformation Monitoring Index of an RCC Gravity Dam in an Alpine Region Using Orthogonal Test Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoying Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to present a method of determining viscoelastic deformation monitoring index of a Roller-compacted concrete (RCC gravity dam in an alpine region. By focusing on a modified deformation monitoring model considering frost heave and back analyzed mechanical parameters of the dam, the working state of viscoelasticity for the dam is illustrated followed by an investigation and designation of adverse load cases using orthogonal test method. Water pressure component is then calculated by finite element method, while temperature, time effect, and frost heave components are obtained through deformation statistical model considering frost heave. The viscoelastic deformation monitoring index is eventually determined by small probability and maximum entropy methods. The results show that (a with the abnormal probability 1% the dam deformation monitoring index for small probability and maximum entropy methods is 23.703 mm and 22.981 mm, respectively; thus the maximum measured displacement of the dam is less than deformation monitoring index, which indicates that the dam is currently in a state of safety operation and (b the obtained deformation monitoring index using orthogonal test method is more accurate due to the full consideration of more random factors; the method gained from this study will likely be of use to diagnose the working state for those RCC dams in alpine regions.

  15. GC51D-0831: A Study of the Impact of Dams on Sediment Retention in the Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Thailynn; Griffin, Robert; Anderson, Eric; Markert, Kel

    2017-01-01

    Dam construction in the Mekong Basin has many cascading effects on the ecology, economy, and hydrology of the surrounding region. The focus of this study is to utilize the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), developed at Texas A & M, a rainfall-runoff hydrologic model to determine change in sedimentation in the Mekong Basin after the construction of dams. This study uses land cover land use and reservoir datasets created by the NASA SERVIR-Mekong Regional Land Cover Monitoring System and Dam Inundation Mapping Tool as inputs into the model. The study also builds on the capabilities of the SWAT model by using the sediment trapping efficiency (STE) equation from Brune (1953), rewritten by Kummu & Varis (2007), to calculate STE of dams and estimate change in sediment concentration downstream. The outputs from this study can be used to inform dam operation policies, study the correlation between dams and delta subsidence, and study the impact of dams on river fisheries, which are all pressing issues in the Mekong region.

  16. Ice interactions at a dam face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, B.; Morse, J.; Beaulieu, P.; Pratt, Y. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Stander, E. [State Univ. of New York, Cobleskill College, Cobleskill, NY (United States). Dept. of Natural Sciences; Cote, A.; Tarras, A.; Noel, P. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada). IREQ

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a joint research project between Laval University and Hydro-Quebec to study ice forces on dams in an effort to harmonize design criteria and develop mitigation strategies. This paper introduced the project and explored some of the preliminary results of the 2007-2008 field season. Ice displacement, ice stresses and ice forces on the LaGabelle dam were measured at several locations. The paper identified and discussed the complex relationships between data sets and discussed the spatial-temporal variability of the ice forces and its impact on design criteria. The project objective was to develop design criteria for ice forces on dams and to provide a scientific basis for interpreting and harmonizing existing recommended criteria. The methodology and site description were presented. It was concluded that the ice processes in a reservoir near a dam face subject to water fluctuations are quite complex. Therefore, in order to know the real average pressure on the dam, a significant amount of panels are required, having important implications for determining safe design values. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Grouting of karstic arch dam foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.; Rigbey, S. [Acres International, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A 200 m high arch dam and a 2000 MW underground power house complex is under development in the Middle East. The project is located in a highly seismic area in rugged, mountainous terrain. The arch dam is constructed on good quality limestone and dolomitic limestone rock mass, but it contains several zones of disturbed or sheared rock. The basement rock is slightly karstic with hydraulic conductivities in the order of 100 Lugeons. In order to get a satisfactory foundation surface for the dam, it will be necessary to excavate extensively and backfill with concrete. Because of the presence of many clay infilled cavities and fractures, geotechnicians are considering the installation of a multiple row grout curtain to a depth of 150 m below the dam foundation to ensure adequate seepage and uplift parameters when the reservoir is impounded. Initial grouting water pressure test results suggested that the grouting and drainage curtain should be extended to the left abutment beyond the current design. However, when horizontal slide models of the dam abutment were developed using the finite element program SEEPW, it was shown that there is no benefit to extending the length of grout curtains unless they are tied to an area of much lower hydraulic conductivity much deeper in the abutment. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  18. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Welch

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River.

  19. Geophysical Investigations at Hidden Dam, Raymond, California: Summary of Fieldwork and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, Burke J.; Burton, Bethany L.; Ikard, Scott; Powers, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Geophysical field investigations have been carried out at the Hidden Dam in Raymond, California for the purpose of better understanding the hydrogeology and seepage-related conditions at the site. Known seepage areas on the northwest right abutment area of the downstream side of the dam are documented by Cedergren. Subsequent to the 1980 seepage study, a drainage blanket with a subdrain system was installed to mitigate downstream seepage. Flow net analysis provided by Cedergren suggests that the primary seepage mechanism involves flow through the dam foundation due to normal reservoir pool elevations, which results in upflow that intersects the ground surface in several areas on the downstream side of the dam. In addition to the reservoir pool elevations and downstream surface topography, flow is also controlled by the existing foundation geology as well as the presence or absence of a horizontal drain within the downstream portion of the dam. The purpose of the current geophysical work is to (1) identify present-day seepage areas that may not be evident due to the effectiveness of the drainage blanket in redirecting seepage water, and (2) provide information about subsurface geologic structures that may control subsurface flow and seepage. These tasks are accomplished through the use of two complementary electrical geophysical methods, self-potentials (SP) and direct-current (DC) electrical resistivity, which have been commonly utilized in dam-seepage studies. SP is a passive method that is primarily sensitive to active subsurface groundwater flow and seepage, whereas DC resistivity is an active-source method that is sensitive to changes in subsurface lithology and groundwater saturation. The focus of this field campaign was on the downstream area on the right abutment, or northwest side of the dam, as this is the main area of interest regarding seepage. Two exploratory self-potential lines were also collected on the downstream left abutment of the dam to identify

  20. Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Passing the Bonneville Dam Spillway in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; McComas, Roy L.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (CENWP) funds numerous evaluations of fish passage and survival on the Columbia River. In 2007, the CENWP asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct an acoustic telemetry study to estimate the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon passing the spillway at Bonneville Dam. This report documents the study results which are intended to be used to improve the conditions juvenile anadromous fish experience when passing through the dams that the Corps operates on the river.

  1. Survival and Passage of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead at The Dalles Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fischer, Eric S.; Hughes, James S.; Khan, Fenton; Kim, Jin A.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2011-12-01

    The acoustic telemetry study reported here was conducted by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The purpose of the study was to estimate dam passage survival and other performance measures for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  2. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Kim, Jin A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Wagner, Katie A.; Fischer, Eric S.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Batten, G.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Elder, T.; Etherington, D. J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Miracle, Ann L.; Mitchell, T. D.; Prather, K.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Royer, Ida; Seaburg, Adam; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-06-21

    This report presents survival, behavioral, and fish passage results for tagged yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead as part of a survival study conducted at John Day Dam during spring 2011. This study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead to assist managers in identifying dam operations for compliance testing as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords. Survival estimates were based on a paired-release survival model.

  3. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Wagner, Katie A.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; Miracle, Ann L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Royer, Ida M.; Khan, Fenton; Cushing, Aaron W.; Etherington, D. J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Elder, T.; Batton, George; Johnson, Gary E.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    This report presents survival, behavioral, and fish passage results for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts and juvenile steelhead tagged with JSATS acoustic micro-transmitters as part of a survival study conducted at John Day Dam during 2010. This study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead to assist managers in identifying dam operations for compliance testing as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords. Survival estimates were based on a single-release survival estimate model.

  4. PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    2012-07-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and

  5. The big issue: environment and large dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Some of the environmental issues associated with large dams are discussed. Prior to commencement of construction of the Three Gorges dam in China in 1993, 50 years of planning and 20 years of environmental argument had taken place. The Chinese were conscious of the need to consider the environmental issues as a factor in attracting foreign investment for the world's biggest and most expensive dam. While the resettlement issues (1.2 M people were resettled) have dominated the current arguments, the other important issues are environment, economics and safety. Despite criticism from environmentalists, both at home and abroad, the Chinese went ahead with the project. With regard to resettlement, the Chinese appear to be much more considerate than some other countries in providing housing and agricultural land. Perhaps the main losses were suffered by cultural heritage sites and aquatic systems, rather than by the resettled population. (UK)

  6. The big issue: environment and large dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Peter [Harvard Univ. (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Some of the environmental issues associated with large dams are discussed. Prior to commencement of construction of the Three Gorges dam in China in 1993, 50 years of planning and 20 years of environmental argument had taken place. The Chinese were conscious of the need to consider the environmental issues as a factor in attracting foreign investment for the world's biggest and most expensive dam. While the resettlement issues (1.2 M people were resettled) have dominated the current arguments, the other important issues are environment, economics and safety. Despite criticism from environmentalists, both at home and abroad, the Chinese went ahead with the project. With regard to resettlement, the Chinese appear to be much more considerate than some other countries in providing housing and agricultural land. Perhaps the main losses were suffered by cultural heritage sites and aquatic systems, rather than by the resettled population. (UK)

  7. Optimisation of using of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regula, E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of solving of research task ''Optimalisation of planning'' was to work out the model of co-operation of basins Orava and Liptovska Mara and working out of mathematical model of Vah cascade of water power plants so, that the operation of basins and water power plants could be optimalised. (author)

  8. Cleveland Dam East Abutment : seepage control project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, F.; Siu, D. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ahlfield, S.; Singh, N. [Klohn Crippen Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    North Vancouver's 91 meter high Cleveland Dam was built in the 1950s in a deep bedrock canyon to provide a reservoir for potable water to 18 municipalities. Flow in the concrete gravity dam is controlled by a gated spillway, 2 mid-level outlets and intakes and 2 low-level outlets. This paper describes the seepage control measures that were taken at the time of construction as well as the additional measures that were taken post construction to control piezometric levels, seepage and piping and slope instability in the East Abutment. At the time of construction, a till blanket was used to cover the upstream reservoir slope for 200 meters upstream of the dam. A single line grout curtain was used through the overburden from ground surface to bedrock for a distance of 166 meters from the dam to the East Abutment. Since construction, the safety of the dam has been compromised through changes in piezometric pressure, seepage and soil loss. Klohn Crippen Consultants designed a unique seepage control measure to address the instability risk. The project involved excavating 300,000 cubic meters of soil to form a stable slope and construction bench. A vertical wall was constructed to block seepage. The existing seepage control blanket was also extended by 260 meters. The social, environmental and technical issues that were encountered during the rehabilitation project are also discussed. The blanket extension construction has met design requirements and the abutment materials that are most susceptible to internal erosion have been covered by non-erodible blanket materials such as plastic and roller-compacted concrete (RCC). The project was completed on schedule and within budget and has greatly improved the long-term stability of the dam and public safety. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Channel evolution under changing hydrological regimes in anabranching reaches downstream of the Three Gorges Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianqiao; Zhang, Wei; Yuan, Jing; Fan, Yongyang

    2018-03-01

    Elucidating the influence of dams on fluvial processes can benefit river protection and basin management. Based on hydrological and topographical data, we analyzed channel evolution in anabranching reaches under changing hydrological regimes influenced by the Three Gorges Dam. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) the channels of specific anabranching reaches were defined as flood trend channels or low-flow trend channels according to the distribution of their flow characteristics. The anabranching reaches were classified as T1 or T2. The former is characterized by the correspondence between the flood trend and branch channels, and the latter is characterized by the correspondence between the flood trend and main channels; 2) on the basis of the new classification, the discrepant patterns of channel evolution seen in anabranching reaches were unified into a pattern that showed flood trend channels shrinking and low-flow trend channels expanding; 3) flood abatement and the increased duration of moderate flow discharges are the main factors that affect channel adjustments in anabranching reaches after dam construction; and 4) in the next few decades, the pattern of channel evolution will remain the same as that of the Three Gorges Dam operation. That is, the morphology will fully adapt to a flow with a low coefficient of variation. Our results are of interest in the management of the Yangtze River and other rivers influenced by dams.

  10. Increasing drought risk in large-dam basins of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, I. W.; Shin, Y.; Park, J.; Kim, D.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, South Korea suffered one of the worst droughts in recent years. Seoul and Gyeonggi and Gangwon provinces experienced severe drought conditions, receiving less than 43 percent of the annual precipitation average of the past 30 years. Additionally, the 2015 summer precipitation was less than half of the average. The lack of summer precipitation induced serious shortages in dam storages, which are important supplies for the dry season. K-water, a public company managing South Korea's public water supply system, is fighting to secure public water supply and minimize potential damage that may occur before the subsequent wet season. This study detected significant decreasing trends (95% confidence interval) in dry-seasonal runoff rates (=dam inflow / precipitation) in three dams basins (Soyang, Chungju, and Andong). Changes in potential evapotranspiration (PET) and precipitation indices were examined to investigate potential causes of decreasing runoff rates trends. However, there were no clear relations among changes in runoff rates, PET, and precipitation indices. Runoff rate reduction in the three dams may increase the risk of dam operational management and long-term water resource planning. Therefore, it will be necessary to perform a multilateral analysis to better understand decreasing runoff rates.AcknowledgementsThis research was supported by a grant(2017-MPSS31-001) from Supporting Technology Development Program for Disaster Management funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security(MPSS) of the Korean government.

  11. Hungry Horse mitigation: Aquatic modeling of the selective withdrawal system -- Hungry Horse Dam, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotz, B.L.; Althen, C.; Gustafson, D.

    1994-04-01

    Hungry Horse Dam presently releases frigid water from the bottom of the reservoir all year long. Cold water effects insect production and fish growth downstream. Rapid temperature changes of up to 8.3 C (14 F) have been measured in the Flathead River downstream of the South Fork confluence, controlled by dam discharges. Thermal effects from Hungry Horse Dam are detectable for over 64 Km downstream to Flathead Lake. The installation of a selective withdrawal structure on each of the dam's discharge penstocks was determined to be the most cost-effective means to provide constant, permanent temperature control without impacting power production and flexibility in dam operation. The thermal model presented herein revealed that fish growth potential in the river would increase two to five times through selective withdrawal, temperature control. Temperature control is possible over the entire range of turbine discharge capacity, with very little effect on power production. Findings indicate that angling would improve through higher catch rates and larger fish. Temperature control will solve the most serious impact to river health. However, flow fluctuations will continue to effect insect production and usable fishery habitat in the Flathead River. A natural thermal regime combined with moderated flow fluctuation would further enhance riverine food production, trout growth and recreation potential

  12. The measurement of inclination on gravity concrete dams using the tiltmeter instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Slobodan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of inclination on gravity concrete dams using the instrument tiltmeter is described and discussed with special reference on obtained results on the dam 'Đerdap 2' acquired in the three years period. Tiltmetar way of operation is presented both through physical principle of vibrating wire sensors and through described design of the instrument. The influence of the temperature on the measurement of the slope is specially emphasized and presented through temperature correction. Processing the results of real inclination measurements on the dam 'Đerdap 2' with and without temperature correction showed the significant difference. Statistical analysis of measurement data consisted of performed regression analysis and forming of corresponding series with the expected measurement values depending on environmental conditions. At the end we give a summary conclusion on the instrument, the influence of temperature on the measurement and statistical model.

  13. Modeling Juvenile Salmon Egress Conditions in The Dalles Dam Tailrace using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Perkins, William A.; Serkowski, John A.; Ebner, Laurie L.; Schlenker, Stephen J.

    2009-07-27

    At The Dalles Dam, located between Oregon and Washington on the Columbia River, juvenile salmon passing over the spillway have a survival rate that is below acceptable levels. An important factor affecting survival is the egress route fish take through the immediate tailrace of the dam. Passage through the high-energy spillway and stilling basin environment can leave fish disoriented and vulnerable to predators. Egress conditions can be improved through structural and operational modifications that provide flow paths that move fish more rapidly into the thalweg of the river hence reducing their exposure to predators. We used the results from free-surface computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling combined with Lagrangian particle tracking to evaluate the tailrace egress conditions at The Dalles Dam for different alignments of a proposed guidance wall and for different spillway discharge scenarios.

  14. Ambient modal testing of a double-arch dam: the experimental campaign and model updating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Palacios, Jaime H.; Soria, José M.; Díaz, Iván M.; Tirado-Andrés, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A finite element model updating of a double-curvature-arch dam (La Tajera, Spain) is carried out hereof using the modal parameters obtained from an operational modal analysis. That is, the system modal dampings, natural frequencies and mode shapes have been identified using output-only identification techniques under environmental loads (wind, vehicles). A finite element model of the dam-reservoir-foundation system was initially created. Then, a testing campaing was then carried out from the most significant test points using high-sensitivity accelerometers wirelessly synchronized. Afterwards, the model updating of the initial model was done using a Monte Carlo based approach in order to match it to the recorded dynamic behaviour. The updated model may be used within a structural health monitoring system for damage detection or, for instance, for the analysis of the seismic response of the arch dam- reservoir-foundation coupled system. (paper)

  15. Official opening of the Olympic Dam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, A.

    1989-01-01

    This is the text of an address given on November 5, 1988 to mark the commencement of production of copper, uranium, gold and silver from the first stage of the Olympic Dam project at Roxby Downs, South Australia. The huge deposit was discovered in 1975 and years of exploration, underground development, metallurgical testing, planning and establishing the infrastructure followed, at a cost of $750 million. 740 people are now employed at Olympic Dam. The first shipment of copper and uranium oxide left for Sweden at the end of November 1988. The deposit is able to support a much higher production rate as the market for the products, particularly uranium, improves

  16. Dam safety at Seven Sisters Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, R. W.; Gupta, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    A safety surveillance program for all hydraulic structures in Manitoba was first implemented in 1979, and updated in 1988. This contribution describes the current status of the program, and the nature of the issues that the program was designed to address. The Seven Sisters Station's dam on the Winnipeg River, about 90 km northeast of the City of Winnipeg, was used as an example. Extensive reviews of flood risks and downstream inundation potential at Seven Sisters' revealed a number of deficiencies; these findings will be incorporated into a corporate plan of overall remediation. Updating the program will also include efforts to ensure adherence to national dam safety guidelines. 5 figs

  17. Monitoring evaluation of a spillway pilaster for Premiere Chute Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, Louis; Kassem, Chakib [OSMOS Canada Inc., Montreal, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Premiere-Chute hydroelectric power station, commissioned in 1968, has four hydraulic turbines for a total of 130 MW. One of the pilasters of the dam weir, built with pre-stressed concrete, showed a crack at the level of the post-tension cable. This paper presented an evaluation of the behaviour of the pilaster in question, No. 9. The main goal was to prevent any disruption to the gate opening through adequate monitoring for a long term data follow-up. Six long-base OSMOS type optical sensors were installed on each face of the spillway pilaster. The behaviour of the No. 9 pilaster was then compared with that of other pilasters with respect to the effects of temperature and water level fluctuation in the dam. After the pilasters had been monitored for six months, it was found that No. 9 pilaster showed the least deformation of all. It was therefore concluded that the behaviour of this pilaster was normal.

  18. User's Guide: Arch Dam Stress Analysis System (ADSAS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... ADSAS assumes linear elastic behavior for the entire dam, i.e. the dam is assumed to support the computed tensile stresses within the concrete mass and across the monolith joints without cracking or opening the joints...

  19. Inventory of Dams in the State of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Permitted dams in Iowa and associated attributes, as recorded by the Floodplain Section of the DNR. The dams regulated are those with the parameters listed below: a....

  20. Computational Aspects of Dam Risk Analysis: Findings and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Escuder-Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, risk analysis techniques have proved to be a useful tool to inform dam safety management. This paper summarizes the outcomes of three themes related to dam risk analysis discussed in the Benchmark Workshops organized by the International Commission on Large Dams Technical Committee on “Computational Aspects of Analysis and Design of Dams.” In the 2011 Benchmark Workshop, estimation of the probability of failure of a gravity dam for the sliding failure mode was discussed. Next, in 2013, the discussion focused on the computational challenges of the estimation of consequences in dam risk analysis. Finally, in 2015, the probability of sliding and overtopping in an embankment was analyzed. These Benchmark Workshops have allowed a complete review of numerical aspects for dam risk analysis, showing that risk analysis methods are a very useful tool to analyze the risk of dam systems, including downstream consequence assessments and the uncertainty of structural models.