WorldWideScience

Sample records for normal daily cooking

  1. A qualitative review of instrumental activities of daily living in dementia: what's cooking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkes, S.A.M.; de Rotrou, J.

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is common in clinical practice and research into dementia. IADL are cognitively complex daily activities, such as cooking and doing finances. Their measurement is required for the diagnostic process of dementia, and also useful for

  2. U.S. Daily Climate Normals (1981-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Daily Climate Normals for 1981 to 2010 are 30-year averages of meteorological parameters for thousands of U.S. stations located across the 50 states, as...

  3. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  4. TIBETAN WOMEN'S DAILY LIFE: FIRE, FUEL, WATER COLLECTION, COOKING, AND CHILDCARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdo rje don 'grub རྡོ་རྗེ་དོན་འགྲུབ། Duojieduanzhi 多杰端智

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The daily lives of Lha mtsho skyid, Klu mo, and Tshe thar skyid, Tibetan women living in impoverished A bo rgyud (Awubuju Tibetan Village, Gser gzhung (Jinyuan Township, Dpal lung (Hualong Hui Autonomous County, Mtsho shar (Haidong City, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province in May 2011 are described. Aspects of fuel collection, family relationships, food preparation, child care, schooling, water collection, and day-to-day anxieties are described, illustrating the reality of their daily existence.

  5. Arsenic contamination in groundwater and its effects on adolescent intelligence and social competence in Bangladesh with special reference to daily drinking/cooking water intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Mst Nasrin; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Fujimura, Miho; Watanabe, Chiho; Shimizu, Hana; Tasmin, Saira; Tasnim, Sayra; Sultana, Nayar

    2014-03-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure and intelligence quotient (IQ) or social competence (SC) of Bangladeshi adolescents (aged 14 or 15 years) in Sonargaon thana. Information about socioeconomic status (SES) was collected as confounding factors. To evaluate the relative contribution of As sources to total As intake, the As concentrations in urine and drinking/cooking water, and the amount of water added in cooking, were assessed on site using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The results confirmed that As exposure was essential to lower adolescent IQ or SC because they were negatively associated with As exposure after controlling for SES (particularly household income). Except for cooking water, the amount of drinking water varied with season and appeared to be the major As source because the As concentration in water was generally correlated with the As concentration in urine, and they were related to lower IQ or SC (even after controlling for SES). The FFQ survey revealed that rice was consumed the most frequently (more than once daily), followed by daal (bean) soup and nonleafy vegetables, but fish, meat, and eggs were consumed approximately once a week. Water intake per meal from cooked rice was estimated to be 616 mL/person, followed by bean soup (258 mL/person) and cooked vegetables (82 mL/person). Our results suggest that water used for cooking might be an important source of As, and the cooking process can affect the amount of As in cooked food.

  6. Irradiation of pre-packaged sliced cooked meat products with low and normal sodium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stekelenburg, F.K.

    1990-01-01

    Irradiation experiments were carried out with pre-packaged sliced cooked meat products with different initial counts of Enterobacteriaceae and mesophilic aerobic bacteria. In low-sodium meat products Enterobacteriaceae could effectively be inactivated in refrigerated or frozen products by irradiation with a dose of 1 or 2 kGy respectively, provided the number of these bacteria was below 10(3) to 10(4) per g. The low-sodium meat products involved endured above treatment without being seriously affected as to sensory qualities. Shelf-life of salted cooked meat products could be prolonged by irradiating the frozen product. Irradiation with a dose of 2 kGy enabled uncooled storage of the product for a restricted period (5-7 days). Best results were obtained for meat products with a salt content in the brine phase of greater than 4.0% (w/w) and having a good hygienic quality, i.e. an initial bacterial count below 10(4)/g. Packaging in a gas atmosphere (CO2) slightly enhanced protection as compared to vacuum packaging. Off-flavours as a result of irradiation of salted cooked meat products varied from slight to strong and depended on the type of product

  7. Modification of the biologic dose to normal tissue by daily fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollin, M; Kagan, A R [Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Los Angeles Calif. (USA). Dep. of Radiation Therapy

    1976-12-01

    A method to predict normal tissue injury is proposed that includes high daily doses and unusual times successfully by calculating a new value called BIR (Biologic Index of Reaction). BIR and NSD were calculated for various normal tissue reactions. With the aid of statistical correlation techniques it is found that the BIR model is better than the NSD model in predicting radiation myelopathy and vocal edema and as good as NSD IN PREDICTING RIB FRACTURE/ Neither model predicts pericardial effusion. In no case were the results of BIR inferior to those of NSD.

  8. Modeling and forecasting foreign exchange daily closing prices with normal inverse Gaussian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneng, Dean

    2013-09-01

    We fit the normal inverse Gaussian(NIG) distribution to foreign exchange closing prices using the open software package R and select best models by Käärik and Umbleja (2011) proposed strategy. We observe that daily closing prices (12/04/2008 - 07/08/2012) of CHF/JPY, AUD/JPY, GBP/JPY, NZD/USD, QAR/CHF, QAR/EUR, SAR/CHF, SAR/EUR, TND/CHF and TND/EUR are excellent fits while EGP/EUR and EUR/GBP are good fits with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test p-value of 0.062 and 0.08 respectively. It was impossible to estimate normal inverse Gaussian parameters (by maximum likelihood; computational problem) for JPY/CHF but CHF/JPY was an excellent fit. Thus, while the stochastic properties of an exchange rate can be completely modeled with a probability distribution in one direction, it may be impossible the other way around. We also demonstrate that foreign exchange closing prices can be forecasted with the normal inverse Gaussian (NIG) Lévy process, both in cases where the daily closing prices can and cannot be modeled by NIG distribution.

  9. Physical activity patterns and estimated daily energy expenditures in normal and overweight tunisian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Fayçal; Bouhlel, Ezdine; Feki, Youssef; Amri, Mohamed; Shephard, Roy J

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to test the normality of physical activity patterns and energy expenditures in normal weight and overweight primary school students. Heart rate estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TEE), active energy expenditure (AEE), and activity patterns were made over 3 consecutive school days in healthy middle-class Tunisian children (46 boys, 44 girls, median age (25(th)-75(th)) percentile, 9.2 (8.8-9.9) years. Our cross-section included 52 students with a normal body mass index (BMI) and 38 who exceeded age-specific BMI limits. TEE, AEE and overall physical activity level (PAL) were not different between overweight children and those with a normal BMI [median values (25(th)-75(th)) 9.20 (8.20-9.84) vs. 8.88 (7.42-9.76) MJ/d; 3.56 (2.59-4.22) vs. 3.85 (2.77-4.78) MJ/d and 1.74 (1.54-2.04) vs. 1.89 (1.66-2.15) respectively]. Physical activity intensities (PAI) were expressed as percentages of the individual's heart rate reserve (%HRR). The median PAI for the entire day (PAI24) and for the waking part of day (PAIw) were lower in overweight than in normal weight individuals [16.3 (14.2-18.9) vs. 20.6 (17.9-22.3) %HRR, p spend more time in moderate activity and less time in sedentary pursuits than overweight children.

  10. Fish to meat intake ratio and cooking oils are associated with hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Momoka; Uchida, Yuki; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Kitani, Shingo; Itou, Minoru; Oriishi, Tetsuharu; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Tanaka, Suiko; Yagi, Minoru; Sata, Michio

    2012-10-01

      Dietary habits are involved in the development of chronic inflammation; however, the impact of dietary profiles of hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal alanine transaminase levels (HCV-PNALT) remains unclear. The decision-tree algorithm is a data-mining statistical technique, which uncovers meaningful profiles of factors from a data collection. We aimed to investigate dietary profiles associated with HCV-PNALT using a decision-tree algorithm.   Twenty-seven HCV-PNALT and 41 patients with chronic hepatitis C were enrolled in this study. Dietary habit was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. A decision-tree algorithm was created by dietary variables, and was evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (AUROC).   In multivariate analysis, fish to meat ratio, dairy product and cooking oils were identified as independent variables associated with HCV-PNALT. The decision-tree algorithm was created with two variables: a fish to meat ratio and cooking oils/ideal bodyweight. When subjects showed a fish to meat ratio of 1.24 or more, 68.8% of the subjects were HCV-PNALT. On the other hand, 11.5% of the subjects were HCV-PNALT when subjects showed a fish to meat ratio of less than 1.24 and cooking oil/ideal bodyweight of less than 0.23 g/kg. The difference in the proportion of HCV-PNALT between these groups are significant (odds ratio 16.87, 95% CI 3.40-83.67, P = 0.0005). Fivefold cross-validation of the decision-tree algorithm showed an AUROC of 0.6947 (95% CI 0.5656-0.8238, P = 0.0067).   The decision-tree algorithm disclosed that fish to meat ratio and cooking oil/ideal bodyweight were associated with HCV-PNALT. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  11. What does cooking mean to you?: Perceptions of cooking and factors related to cooking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of cooking in American life and evidence suggesting that meals cooked at home are healthier, little is known about perceptions of what it means to cook in the United States. The objective of this study was to describe perceptions of cooking and factors important to how cooking is perceived and practiced among American adults. Seven focus groups (N = 53; 39 female; 35 Black, 16 White, 2 Asian) were conducted from November 2014 to January 2015 in Baltimore City, Maryland. Participants were recruited from two neighborhoods; one with higher median income and access to healthy food and the other with lower income and low access to healthy food. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Participants' perceptions of cooking varied considerably, regardless of neighborhood income or food access, and spanned a continuum from all scratch cooking to anything made at home. Perceptions of cooking incorporated considerations of whether or how food was heated and the degree of time, effort and love involved if convenience foods were used. Key barriers to cooking included affordability, lack of time, and lack of enjoyment. Key facilitators of frequent cooking included extensive organization and time management to enable participants to incorporate cooking into their daily lives. Cooking is a complex concept and not uniformly understood. Efforts to encourage healthy cooking at home should consider the broad spectrum of activities Americans recognize as cooking as well as the barriers and facilitators to preparing food at home. Public health messages to encourage more frequent cooking should account for the heterogeneity in perspectives about cooking. More research should explore differences in perceptions about cooking in other diverse populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Impact of Memory Change on Daily Life in Normal Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Preeyam K; Troyer, Angela K; Maione, Andrea M; Murphy, Kelly J

    2016-10-01

    Older adults with age-normal memory changes and those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) report mild memory difficulties with everyday problems such as learning new names or remembering past events. Although the type and extent of memory changes in these populations have been well documented, little is known about how memory changes impact their everyday lives. Using a qualitative research design, data were collected from three focus groups of older adults with normal memory changes (n = 23) and two focus groups of older adults with aMCI (n = 14). A thematic analysis using the constant comparative method was used to identify the impacts of memory change on key life domains. Four major themes emerged from the two groups, including changes in feelings and views of the self, changes in relationships and social interactions, changes in work and leisure activities, and deliberate increases in compensatory behaviors. Participants described both positive and negative consequences of memory change, and these were more substantial and generally more adverse for individuals with aMCI than for those with age-normal memory changes. There are similarities and important differences in the impact of mild memory change on the everyday lives of older adults with age-normal memory changes and those with aMCI. Findings underscore the need for clinical interventions that aim to minimize the emotional impact of memory changes and that increase leisure and social activity in individuals with aMCI. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Solar cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  14. Nutritional value of daily food rations of overweight and normal weight pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzikowska, Agnieszka; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Anna; Riahi, Agnieszka; Weker, Halina

    Adequate nutrition and nutritional status during pregnancy are essential for mother’s health and foetus development. Due to increased demands, pregnant women are vulnerable to inadequate nutritional status and paradoxically it may also affect overweight women The aim of the study was to evaluate energy and nutrients intake in the group of pregnant women in relation to nutritional standards and pre-pregnancy BMI The study included 90 women, during the third trimester of pregnancy, recruited from Warsaw antenatal classes. The anthropometric data gathered in the research were used to calculate BMI value before pregnancy. Pre-pregnancy BMI was categorised as: normal weight (BMI=18.5-24.9 kg/m2, n=47) and overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2, n=43). The assessment of women’s nutrition was based on 3-days dietary record. Due to heterogeneous variances, differences between groups were assessed using Mann Whitney U test, pnutritional assessment should be an integral part of obstetric care

  15. Normal tissue sparing in a phase II trial on daily adaptive plan selection in radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Anne; Muren, Ludvig P; Lindberg, Henriette; Jakobsen, Kirsten L; Petersen, Jørgen B B; Elstrøm, Ulrik V; Agerbæk, Mads; Høyer, Morten

    2014-08-01

    Background: Patients with urinary bladder cancer often display large changes in the shape and size of their bladder target during a course of radiotherapy (RT), making adaptive RT (ART) appealing for this tumour site. We are conducting a clinical phase II trial of daily plan selection-based ART for bladder cancer and here report dose-volume data from the first 20 patients treated in the trial. All patients received 60 Gy in 30 fractions to the bladder; in 13 of the patients the pelvic lymph nodes were simultaneously treated to 48 Gy. Daily patient set-up was by use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance. The first 5 fractions were delivered with large, population-based (non-adaptive) margins. The bladder contours from the CBCTs acquired in the first 4 fractions were used to create a patient-specific library of three plans, corresponding to a small, medium and large size bladder. From fraction 6, daily online plan selection was performed, where the smallest plan covering the bladder was selected prior to each treatment delivery. A total of 600 treatment fractions in the 20 patients were evaluated. Small, medium and large size plans were used almost equally often, with an average of 10, 9 and 11 fractions, respectively. The median volume ratio of the course-averaged PTV (PTV-ART) relative to the non-adaptive PTV was 0.70 (range: 0.46-0.89). A linear regression analysis showed a 183 cm(3) (CI 143-223 cm(3)) reduction in PTV-ART compared to the non-adaptive PTV (R(2) = 0.94). Daily adaptive plan selection in RT of bladder cancer results in a considerable normal tissue sparing, of a magnitude that we expect will translate into a clinically significant reduction of the treatment-related morbidity.

  16. Knockout of Murine Mamld1 Impairs Testicular Growth and Daily Sperm Production but Permits Normal Postnatal Androgen Production and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyado, Mami; Yoshida, Kaoru; Miyado, Kenji; Katsumi, Momori; Saito, Kazuki; Nakamura, Shigeru; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2017-06-19

    MAMLD1 has been implicated in testicular function in both human and mouse fetuses. Although three patients with MAMLD1 mutations were reported to have hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in their teens, the functional significance of MAMLD1 in the postnatal testis remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the phenotype of Mamld1 knockout (KO) male mice at reproductive ages. The reproductive organs of KO male mice were morphologically unremarkable, except for relatively small testes. Seminiferous tubule size and number of proliferating spermatogonia/spermatocytes were reduced in the KO testis. Daily sperm production of KO mice was mildly attenuated, whereas total sperm counts in epididymal semen remained normal. Sperm motility and morphology, as well as androgen levels in serum and testicular tissues and the number of pups born from cross-mated wildtype (WT) female mice, were comparable between WT and KO male mice. These results indicate that MAMLD1 contributes to the maintenance of postnatal testicular growth and daily sperm production but is dispensable for androgen biosynthesis and fertility. MAMLD1 likely plays supporting roles in multiple and continuous steps of male reproduction.

  17. Knockout of Murine Mamld1 Impairs Testicular Growth and Daily Sperm Production but Permits Normal Postnatal Androgen Production and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Miyado

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available MAMLD1 has been implicated in testicular function in both human and mouse fetuses. Although three patients with MAMLD1 mutations were reported to have hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in their teens, the functional significance of MAMLD1 in the postnatal testis remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the phenotype of Mamld1 knockout (KO male mice at reproductive ages. The reproductive organs of KO male mice were morphologically unremarkable, except for relatively small testes. Seminiferous tubule size and number of proliferating spermatogonia/spermatocytes were reduced in the KO testis. Daily sperm production of KO mice was mildly attenuated, whereas total sperm counts in epididymal semen remained normal. Sperm motility and morphology, as well as androgen levels in serum and testicular tissues and the number of pups born from cross-mated wildtype (WT female mice, were comparable between WT and KO male mice. These results indicate that MAMLD1 contributes to the maintenance of postnatal testicular growth and daily sperm production but is dispensable for androgen biosynthesis and fertility. MAMLD1 likely plays supporting roles in multiple and continuous steps of male reproduction.

  18. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Tanguay, Annick N.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Guerrero Nuñez, Karla V.; Ferland, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients' difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we exam...

  19. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Annick N. Tanguay; Patrick S. R. Davidson; Patrick S. R. Davidson; Patrick S. R. Davidson; K. Vanessa eGuerrero Nuñez; Mark B. Ferland; Mark B. Ferland; Mark B. Ferland

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients’ difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we exa...

  20. Fruit and vegetable intake of Korean children and adolescents according to cooking location and daily meal: study based on 2010 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Suk; Kim, Yangsuk

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzed the intake of fruits and vegetables by cooking location and daily meals for Korean children and adolescents. For this study, 2,538 Korean children and adolescents aged 7-18 years, who participated in the 2010 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary intake survey (24-hour recall methods), were sampled. The total unsalted fruit and vegetable intake for all subjects was 300 g (aged 7-12 years, 280 g; aged 13-18 years, 316 g). Regarding meal serving location, the combined unsalted fruit and vegetable intake was 159 g at home, 206 g at commercial locations, and 104 g at institutions. The combined unsalted fruit and vegetable intake in snack form was 128 g, which was higher than that during daily meals. In total, 24.9% of subjects satisfied the recommended fruit and vegetable intake (>=400 g), according to the guidelines created by the World Health Organization/World Cancer Research Fund. Logistic regression analysis results revealed that the fruit and vegetable intake of girls was 1.4 times higher than that of boys, and the number of people who ate more than 400 g of fruits and vegetables was 1.7 times higher in the group with higher education. Based on the above results, in-depth measures to continuously increase intake of fruits and vegetables in children and adolescents are needed. This study can be used as basic data for the development of educational programs for dietary improvements.

  1. The effect of a daily facial cleanser for normal to oily skin on the skin barrier of subjects with acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2006-07-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that affects many people every year, especially the teenaged population. People with acne find the condition especially difficult to manage because of the disease's chronicity and variability in response to treatment. Acne is the result of pores clogged with shed skin cells combined with sebum in the hair follicle. Successful treatment of acne is important because acne has the potential to result in lasting physical and emotional scarring. For many years, physicians have agreed that although cleansing is not effective on its own, effective cleansing is an important part of any acne treatment regimen. However, patients have not been satisfied with the types of cleansers available. In addition to containing dyes and perfumes that can irritate and exacerbate acne, these cleansers often are too harsh and can result in excessive drying of the skin, which leads to overcompensation by the oil glands and ultimately to more oil on the surface of the skin. This study examined the use of a daily facial cleanser formulated for normal to oily skin in subjects with mild facial acne. The cleanser was studied for 2 weeks in the absence of additional treatments to eliminate the confounding effects of various treatments. Subjects were monitored for skin barrier function through transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneometry, sebum level, and lesion counts. The results of the study indicate that the facial cleanser is gentle and does not damage the skin barrier or result in sebum overcompensation; additionally, the cleanser is effective at deep-pore cleansing, which may help to manage some acne-associated symptoms.

  2. Energy-efficient cooking methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Dilip K. [Department of Physics, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State (Nigeria); Muwa Shawhatsu, N. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Yola, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria); De, N.N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ikechukwu Ajaeroh, M. [Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2013-02-15

    Energy-efficient new cooking techniques have been developed in this research. Using a stove with 649{+-}20 W of power, the minimum heat, specific heat of transformation, and on-stove time required to completely cook 1 kg of dry beans (with water and other ingredients) and 1 kg of raw potato are found to be: 710 {+-}kJ, 613 {+-}kJ, and 1,144{+-}10 s, respectively, for beans and 287{+-}12 kJ, 200{+-}9 kJ, and 466{+-}10 s for Irish potato. Extensive researches show that these figures are, to date, the lowest amount of heat ever used to cook beans and potato and less than half the energy used in conventional cooking with a pressure cooker. The efficiency of the stove was estimated to be 52.5{+-}2 %. Discussion is made to further improve the efficiency in cooking with normal stove and solar cooker and to save food nutrients further. Our method of cooking when applied globally is expected to contribute to the clean development management (CDM) potential. The approximate values of the minimum and maximum CDM potentials are estimated to be 7.5 x 10{sup 11} and 2.2 x 10{sup 13} kg of carbon credit annually. The precise estimation CDM potential of our cooking method will be reported later.

  3. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  4. Cooking and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Teplá, Hedvika

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis "Cooking and Society" focuses on cooking, a process of food preparation. The thesis analyzes cooking as a leisure activity, type of housework and it also discusses the relation between cooking and cultural identity. It focuses on the importance of national and ethnic cuisine and deals with the differences in cooking influenced by religion and social stratification. The thesis also deals with the acquisition of cooing skills and transgeneral transfer of cooking skills. It d...

  5. Comparing omeprazole with fluoxetine for treatment of patients with heartburn and normal endoscopy who failed once daily proton pump inhibitors: double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovaneh, M R; Saeidi, B; Hajifathalian, K; Farrokhi-Khajeh-Pasha, Y; Fotouhi, A; Mirbagheri, S S; Emami, H; Barzin, G; Mirbagheri, S A

    2014-05-01

    Patients with heartburn but without esophageal erosion respond less well to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). There is a growing body of evidence implicating the role of psychological comorbidities in producing reflux symptoms. Pain modulators improve symptoms in patients with other functional gastrointestinal disorders. We aimed to compare the efficacy of fluoxetine with omeprazole and placebo to achieve symptomatic relief in patients with heartburn and normal endoscopy who failed once daily PPIs. Endoscopy-negative patients with heartburn who failed once daily PPIs were randomly allocated to receive 6 weeks treatment of fluoxetine, omeprazole, or placebo. Random allocation was stratified according to ambulatory pH monitoring study. Percentage of heartburn-free days and symptom severity was assessed. Sixty patients with abnormal and 84 patients with normal pH test were randomized. Subjects receiving fluoxetine experienced more improvement in percentage of heartburn-free days (median 35.7, IQR 21.4-57.1) than those on omeprazole (median 7.14, IQR 0-50, p heartburn-free days (median improvement, 57.1, IQR 35.7-57.1 vs 13.9, IQR, 0-45.6 and 7.14, 0-23.8, respectively, p heartburn and normal endoscopy who failed once daily PPIs. The superiority of fluoxetine was mostly attributed to those with normal esophageal pH rather than those with abnormal pH (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01269788). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Purity of food cooked in stainless steel utensils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, G N; Packirisamy, S

    1997-01-01

    An extensive programme of cooking operations, using household recipes, has shown that, apart from aberrant values associated with new pans on first use, the contribution made by 19% Cr/9% Ni stainless steel cooking utensils to chromium and nickel in the diet is negligible. New pans, if first used with acid fruits, showed a greater pick-up of chromium and nickel, ranging from approximately 1/20 to 1/3 and 1/20 to 1/2 of the normal daily intake of chromium and nickel respectively. This situation did not recur in subsequent usage, even after the pan had been cleaned by abrasion. A higher rate of chromium and nickel release in new pans on first use was observed on products from four manufactures and appears to be related to surface finish, since treatment of the surface of a new pan was partly, and in the case of electropolishing, wholly effective in eliminating their initial high release.

  7. Cooking crisis: What crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Caraher, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking has long been a topic of discussion and concern among those arguing for a healthy diet. Chadwick, the great public health reformer, in 1842 called for cooking education.\\ud \\ud The Obama administration has heartedly endorsed cooking, mainly through the First Lady and a program called Cooking Matters, to address the obesity problem in the United States (http://cookingmatters.org/). \\ud \\ud Changing practices in cooking and food preparation and the way we eat some argue are driven by a ...

  8. Condensed tannins in traditional wet-cooked and modern extrusion-cooked sorghum porridges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, NR

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available the quantity and profile of condensed tannins in traditional wet-cooked and modern ready-to-eat extrusion-cooked sorghum porridges. CT were analyzed using normal-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection and their content was compared to CT and total phenols...

  9. Importance of cooking skills for balanced food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael

    2013-06-01

    A cooking skill scale was developed to measure cooking skills in a European adult population, and the relationship between cooking skills and the frequency of consumption of various food groups were examined. Moreover, it was determined which sociodemographic and psychological variables predict cooking skills. The data used in the present study are based on the first (2010) and second (2011) surveys of a yearly paper-and-pencil questionnaire (Swiss Food Panel). Data from 4436 participants (47.2% males) with a mean age of 55.5 years (SD=14.6, range 21-99) were available for analysis. The cooking skills scale was validated using a test-retest analysis, confirming that this new scale is a reliable and consistent instrument. Cooking enjoyment was the most important predictor for cooking skills, especially for men. Women had higher cooking skills in all age groups. Cooking skills correlated positively with weekly vegetable consumption, but negatively with weekly convenience food consumption frequency, even while holding the effect of health consciousness related to eating constant. In summary, cooking skills may help people to meet nutrition guidelines in their daily nutrition supply. They allow people to make healthier food choices. It is, therefore, important to teach children and teenagers how to cook and to encourage them to develop their cooking skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Healthy-cooking techniques capture the flavor and nutrients of food without extra fat or salt. By Mayo Clinic Staff Healthy cooking doesn't mean that ...

  11. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. ...

  12. Association between elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake with normal liver enzymes in HIV-HCV infected individuals: results from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, M Patrizia; Lions, Caroline; Sogni, Philippe; Winnock, Maria; Roux, Perrine; Mora, Marion; Bonnard, Philippe; Salmon, Dominique; Dabis, François; Spire, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort study of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals to investigate whether polyphenol rich food intake through coffee and/or daily chocolate consumption could play a role in reducing liver enzymes levels. Longitudinal data collection included self-administered questionnaires and medical data (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) liver enzymes). Two analyses were performed to assess the association between coffee (≥3 cups a day) and daily chocolate intake and abnormal values of AST and ALT (AST or ALT >2.5 × upper normal limit (UNL)) (N=990) over time, after adjustment for known correlates. Logistic regression models based on generalized estimating equations were used to take into account the correlations between repeated measures and estimate adjusted odds ratio. After adjustment, patients reporting elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake were less likely to present abnormal ALT (OR=0.65; p=0.04 and OR=0.57; p=0.04, for coffee and chocolate respectively), while only patients reporting elevated coffee consumption were less likely to have abnormal AST values (p=0.05). Nevertheless, the combined indicator of coffee and chocolate intake was most significantly associated with approximately 40% reduced risk of abnormal liver enzymes (p=0.003 for AST; p=0.002 for ALT). Elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake appear to be associated with reduced levels of liver enzymes in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Further experimental and observational research is needed to better understand the role that polyphenol intake or supplementation can play on liver disease and liver injury. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Cooking Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wynn D., Ed.

    This cooking curriculum, issued by the Washington District Early Childhood Council, details specific ways in which language arts, math, science, and social studies may be taught through cooking specific recipes. Cooking activities and recipes are presented for the fall, winter, and spring months, and guidelines are provided for preparing…

  14. Cooking activity for patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Shang-Qun Gong; Chu-Yun Cui; Hui Zhang; Fan-Jie Meng

    2017-01-01

    As a degenerative nervous system disease, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), can damage memory and cognitive function. Cooking activity, an instrumental activity of daily life, is one of the non-pharmacological therapies with positive effect on AD. Here, we review the effectiveness of cooking activity on AD. This paper shows that cooking activity can not only improve patient’s emotional state and alleviate the conduct disorder, but also ease the burden of professional caregiver. Cooking activity also ...

  15. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000095.htm Butter, margarine, and cooking oils To use the sharing features on this ... these oils when possible. What to Use When Cooking When you cook, solid margarine or butter is ...

  16. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick N. Tanguay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acquired brain injury (ABI often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients’ difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we examined the usefulness of a computerized meal preparation task (the Breakfast Task; Craik & Bialystok, 2006 as an indicator of real life meal preparation skills. Twenty-two ABI patients and 22 age-matched controls completed the Breakfast Task and the Rehabilitation Activities of Daily Living Survey (RADLS; Salmon, 2003. Patients also prepared actual meals, and were rated by members of the clinical team. As expected, the ABI patients had significant difficulty on all aspects of the Breakfast Task (failing to have all their foods ready at the same time, over- and under-cooking foods, setting fewer places at the table, and so on relative to controls. Surprisingly, however, patients’ Breakfast Task performance was not correlated with their in vivo meal preparation. These results indicate caution when endeavoring to replace traditional evaluation methods with computerized tasks for the sake of expediency.

  17. The Effect of Voice Ambulatory Biofeedback on the Daily Performance and Retention of a Modified Vocal Motor Behavior in Participants with Normal Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Ambulatory biofeedback has potential to improve carryover of newly established vocal motor behaviors into daily life outside of the clinic and warrants systematic research that is lacking in the literature. This proof-of-concept study was designed to establish an empirical basis for future work in this area by formally assessing whether…

  18. Frequency of eating home cooked meals and potential benefits for diet and health: cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susanna; Brown, Heather; Wrieden, Wendy; White, Martin; Adams, Jean

    2017-08-17

    Reported associations between preparing and eating home cooked food, and both diet and health, are inconsistent. Most previous research has focused on preparing, rather than eating, home cooked food; used small, non-population based samples; and studied markers of nutrient intake, rather than overall diet quality or health. We aimed to assess whether frequency of consuming home cooked meals was cross-sectionally associated with diet quality and cardio-metabolic health. We used baseline data from a United Kingdom population-based cohort study of adults aged 29 to 64 years (n = 11,396). Participants self-reported frequency of consuming home cooked main meals. Diet quality was assessed using the Mediterranean Diet Score, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, fruit and vegetable intake calculated from a 130-item food frequency questionnaire, and plasma vitamin C. Markers of cardio-metabolic health were researcher-measured body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ), cholesterol and hypertension. Differences across the three exposure categories were assessed using linear regression (diet variables) and logistic regression (health variables). Eating home cooked meals more frequently was associated with greater adherence to DASH and Mediterranean diets, greater fruit and vegetable intakes and higher plasma vitamin C, in adjusted models. Those eating home cooked meals more than five times, compared with less than three times per week, consumed 62.3 g more fruit (99% CI 43.2 to 81.5) and 97.8 g more vegetables (99% CI 84.4 to 111.2) daily. More frequent consumption of home cooked meals was associated with greater likelihood of having normal range BMI and normal percentage body fat. Associations with HbA 1c , cholesterol and hypertension were not significant in adjusted models. Those consuming home cooked meals more than five times, compared with less than three times per week, were 28% less likely to have overweight BMI (99

  19. Applying Creativity Research to Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.; Hatcher, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    What, if any, benefit might there be to applying creativity research to cooking? The purpose of this paper was to address this question. Specifically, we draw on concepts and theories from creativity research to help clarify what is meant by creative cooking. This includes exploring creative cooking through the lens of the 4-C and Propulsion…

  20. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  1. Cooking with Quadratics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Luajean N.

    2010-01-01

    A project that mixes algebra with data collection, uses technology, extends into data analysis, and cooks marshmallows can excite both teachers and students. This article describes a project that intends to pique students' interest in higher mathematics, incorporate their knowledge of parabolas, and offer a meaningful mathematics experience. Using…

  2. Chemistry Cook-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  3. Cooking activity for patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Qun Gong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As a degenerative nervous system disease, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, can damage memory and cognitive function. Cooking activity, an instrumental activity of daily life, is one of the non-pharmacological therapies with positive effect on AD. Here, we review the effectiveness of cooking activity on AD. This paper shows that cooking activity can not only improve patient’s emotional state and alleviate the conduct disorder, but also ease the burden of professional caregiver. Cooking activity also has certain positive effects on patient’s cognition, autonomy and memory function. Now, as one of the instrumental activities of daily life, cooking activity has developed as a useful tool in the intervention trials, serious game, virtual reality training and assessment of daily living activities.

  4. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-06-25

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Culinary Grief Therapy: Cooking for One Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickrand, Heather L; Brock, Cara M

    2017-02-01

    Although loss of loved ones is a universal experience, individuals who experience this loss grieve in different ways. Complicated grief involves the development of trauma symptoms, such as flashbacks, anxiety, and fear associated with daily activities after a death that disrupts the healthy grieving process. Daily activities such as eating, meal planning, grocery shopping, managing finances, and household maintenance can become painful and isolating for those experiencing complicated grief. Cognitive behavioral therapy is used to address irrational beliefs, feelings of depression or anger, and avoidance or numbing behaviors with a goal of leading the individual to adapting to a life, which no longer includes the lost loved one. As part of the bereavement counseling program in a hospice, a need was identified in individuals who had lost loved ones and were having difficulty with adjusting to meal planning, grocery shopping, and cooking for one. To address this need for grief counseling centered on meal planning, grocery shopping, meal preparations, and eating meals alone, "Culinary Grief Therapy: Cooking for One Series" was developed with a local Culinary Arts Program. Partnering with a local community college culinary arts program, the Cooking for One Series provides an interactive venue for cognitive behavioral therapy centered on meal planning and meal times. Along with demonstrations and hands-on experiences, participants are engaged in bereavement counseling with hospice staff. Initial reactions to Culinary Grief Therapy have been positive. Many attendees have participated in multiple workshops, and the number of participants grows for each offering. Culinary Grief Therapy is a novel approach to the needs of those experiencing the loss of a loved one and may reduce or prevent complicated grief associated with meal planning, grocery shopping, and cooking for one.

  6. Great apes prefer cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown by a raw-food-eating hominid for the properties present in cooked food, the more easily cooking should have been adopted following the control of fire. Here we use great apes to model food preferences by Paleolithic hominids. We conducted preference tests with various plant and animal foods to determine whether great apes prefer food items raw or cooked. We found that several populations of captive apes tended to prefer their food cooked, though with important exceptions. These results suggest that Paleolithic hominids would likewise have spontaneously preferred cooked food to raw, exapting a pre-existing preference for high-quality, easily chewed foods onto these cooked items. The results, therefore, challenge the hypothesis that the control of fire preceded cooking by a significant period.

  7. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  8. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance... cooking appliance must be installed to prevent movement in heavy seas. (c) For a grill or similar type of...

  10. Smart Substitutions for Healthy Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  11. Stability of vitamin D in foodstuffs during cooking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Knuthsen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the retention of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in eggs, vitamin D3 in margarine, and vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 in bread. Our set-up illustrated the cooking methods usually performed in households i.e. boiling, frying in pan and oven, and baking. All experiments were performed...... three times independently of one another. The retention of vitamin D compounds in eggs and margarine during heat treatment in an oven for 40min at normal cooking temperature showed retention at 39–45%, while frying resulted in retention at 82–84%. Boiled eggs were found to have a similar level...... of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in eggs was shown. Cooking may cause detrimental loss of vitamin D, but it depends on the actual foodstuffs and the heating process. Further research is needed to optimise cooking procedures to enhance retention of vitamin D. Vitamin D retention should be taken...

  12. Domestic cooking methods affect the nutritional quality of red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Zheng, Yonghua; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cao, Shifeng; Shao, Xingfeng; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwave heating, boiling and stir-frying on the nutritional quality of red cabbage. Compared with fresh-cut red cabbage, all cooking methods were found to cause significant reduction in anthocyanin and total glucosinolates contents. Moreover, steaming resulted in significantly greater retention of vitamin C and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, while stir-frying and boiling, two popular Chinese cooking methods, led to significant losses of total phenolic, vitamin C, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and total soluble sugar as well as reducing sugars. Normally, red cabbage consumed fresh in salads could maintain the highest nutrition. However, considering the habits of Asian cuisine, it is recommended to use less water and less cooking time, such as steaming based on our present results, so as to retain the optimum benefits of the health-promoting compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Who is cooking dinner?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Hach, Sara

    2015-01-01

    on almost identical questionnaires centering on the previous day’s eating as reported by the individuals: this included foods eaten, the social context of its consumption and details of who had prepared the food. We make use of a sub-sample encompassing respondents from two-adult households who ate dinner...... developments in the gendering of cooking dinners in multi-person households. The analysis is based on two surveys from a project investigating changes in meal patterns in the Nordic countries. Individuals from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden were interviewed in 1997 (n = 4823) and 2012 (n = 8242) based...

  14. More than preparing a meal? Concerning the meanings of home cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sarah; Glorieux, Ignace; Minnen, Joeri; van Tienoven, Theun Pieter

    2012-06-01

    Cooking is one of the basic activities in our lives. However, people frequently feel they fall short of time to cook when facing problems with the temporal organization of daily life. How people think about home cooking is considered to be important for the time they spend on preparing meals. It is assumed that the meaning of cooking differs for different people, depending on the temporal and social context. This contribution allows us to clarify how the meaning of cooking varies according to individual and household characteristics and the cooking occasion. By using the pooled time-diary data from the Flemish time-use surveys from 1999 and 2004 we can examine people's views on cooking in order to understand how people use time for food preparation. Although the results suggest that people consider cooking primarily as a household chore, preparing food can also be a way to please others, as well as themselves. It seems that feelings of time pressure and the family situation are clearly related to men's and women's cooking experiences. Furthermore, the meaning of cooking also tends to be clearly influenced by the meal situation and (the moment of) the day. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cooking up a Culinary Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongshem, Lars

    1993-01-01

    A program to introduce inner-city students to the fundamentals of French cooking has spread to more than 100 schools in 6 cities. The program awarded $400,000 in scholarships nationwide this year. Highlights a cooking competition of 10 juniors and seniors from the District of Columbia public schools. (MLF)

  16. Fluidised bed cereal cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Simon Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Man has been cooking food for thousands of years for a number of reasons: to improve flavour and palatability, sterilise, increase digestibility, improve texture and colour. Increasingly more advanced techniques are employed today in food production plants to engineer foods with many different properties. With this in mind manufacturers are constantly seeking to improve processing techniques and apply new or different technologies (such as microwaves, RF and extrusion) to develop foods with new properties (like puffed texture starches) and to increase process efficiencies (energy efficiency, water reduction). This thesis reports on work undertaken to demonstrate the potential to achieve high temperature starch conversion of whole wheat grains in a fluidised bed, thereby reducing the amount of water required and processing time. Specifically, wheat from the farm at 14% water content is cooked in a fluidised bed. The fluidised bed heats the wheat quickly by convective heating. In addition, energy can be delivered directly to the grain by microwave heating during fluidisation. Degree of starch conversion is determined by measuring the reduction in size of endotherm of reaction as observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The fluidising gas, processing temperature and starting moisture content were varied in order to investigate their effect on the cooking process. A mathematical model based on energy and species concentration equations was developed to help understand the internal grain processes. The model coupled the thermal energy equation with water diffusion. The effect of water evaporation was represented as a thermal sink in the energy equation. Popular kinetic models from literature were adapted to predict the degree of starch conversion. The model gives solutions consistent with experimental data and physical intuition. A commercial computational fluid dynamics package was used to study simple airflow and particle tracks in the fluidisation column. A

  17. Science of Food and Cooking: A Non-Science Majors Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Deon T.; Bachman, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent emphasis on the science of food and cooking has been observed in our popular literature and media. As a result of this, a new non-science majors course, The Science of Food and Cooking, is being taught at our institution. We cover basic scientific concepts, which would normally be discussed in a typical introductory chemistry course, in the…

  18. Cooking Up Creative Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-05-31

    There comes a time in every scientist’s career when one's mind seems to hit a wall. You can’t think of a new experiment that hasn’t been done before or figure out how to crack a problem that is blocking your progress. The easy questions have been answered. You go back to the wellspring of your creativity and find it dry. What to do? Collaborating with investigators who are investigating problems from a different data or analytical perspective is the best way I know to kick-start research creativity. They not only can provide new data, but they can also bring an expertise on how to get the most “flavor” out of the ingredient that they bring to your problem. As the complexity of the important biological problems continues to grow, too many cooks will never spoil the broth, but become a hallmark of the most creative research.

  19. Cooking frequency may enhance survival in Taiwanese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rosalind Chia-Yu; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the association between cooking behaviour and long-term survival among elderly Taiwanese. Cohort study. The duration of follow-up was the interval between the date of interview and the date of death or 31 December 2008, when censored for survivors. Information used included demographics, socio-economic status, health behaviours, cooking frequencies, physical function, cognitive function, nutrition knowledge awareness, eating out habits and food and nutrient intakes. These data were linked to death records. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to evaluate cooking frequency on death from 1999 to 2008 with related covariate adjustments. Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, 1999-2000. Nationally representative free-living elderly people aged ≥65 years (n 1888). During a 10-year follow-up, 695 participants died. Those who cooked most frequently were younger, women, unmarried, less educated, non-drinkers of alcohol, non-smokers, without chewing difficulty, had spouse as dinner companion, normal cognition, who walked or shopped more than twice weekly, who ate less meat and more vegetables. Highly frequent cooking (>5 times/week, compared with never) predicted survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 0·47; 95 % CI, 0·36, 0·61); with adjustment for physical function, cognitive function, nutrition knowledge awareness and other covariates, HR was 0·59 (95 % CI, 0·41, 0·86). Women benefited more from cooking more frequently than did men, with decreased HR, 51 % v. 24 %, when most was compared with least. A 2-year delay in the assessment of survivorship led to similar findings. Cooking behaviour favourably predicts survivorship. Highly frequent cooking may favour women more than men.

  20. Cooking in prison – from crook to cook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    2014-01-01

    thinking about, purchasing, and preparing food. Overall, prisoners reported being very pleased with self-catering systems. Prisoners also stressed the importance of making healthy food although some prisoners felt they lacked cooking skills. In addition, study data describe and explores prisoner food...... groups, which are formed for economic and social reasons. The food-groups are understood as arenas for group solidarity, and opportunities to measure access, or lack thereof, to capital and resources. Self-catering supports prisoners’ responsibility, need for autonomy and improves prisoners’ cooking...... abilities and personal resources. During incarceration few roles are available for prisoner. The self-catering system offers the role as a cook which offers an opportunity for identity realignment from crook to cook....

  1. A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE principles into daily living and how these factors change over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Florence

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people's ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174

  2. A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) principles into daily living and how these factors change over time

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Dympna

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants\\' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people\\'s ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174

  3. Effect of Equal Daily Doses Achieved by Different Power Densities of Low-Level Laser Therapy at 635 nm on Open Skin Wound Healing in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Kilík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Despite the fact that the molecular mechanism of low-level laser therapy (LLLT is not yet known, the exploitation of phototherapy in clinical medicine and surgery is of great interest. The present study investigates the effects of LLLT on open skin wound healing in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods. Four round full-thickness skin wounds on dorsum were performed in male adult nondiabetic (n=24 and diabetic (n=24 Sprague–Dawley rats. AlGaInP (635 nm, wavelength; 5 J/cm2, daily dose was used to deliver power densities of 1, 5, and 15 mW/cm2 three times daily until euthanasia. Results. PMNL infiltration was lower in the irradiated groups (15 mW/cm2. The synthesis and organisation of collagen fibres were consecutively enhanced in the 5 mW/cm2 and 15 mW/cm2 groups compared to the others in nondiabetic rats. In the diabetic group the only significant difference was recorded in the ratio PMNL/Ma at 15 mW/cm2. A significant difference in the number of newly formed capillaries in the irradiated group (5, 15 mW/cm2 was recorded on day six after injury compared to the control group. Conclusion. LLLT confers a protective effect against excessive inflammatory tissue response; it stimulates neovascularization and the early formation of collagen fibres.

  4. 9 CFR 166.7 - Cooking standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking standards. 166.7 Section 166.7... HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.7 Cooking standards. (a) Garbage shall...) Garbage shall be agitated during cooking, except in steam cooking equipment, to ensure that the prescribed...

  5. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance must be provided with hinges and locking devices to prevent...

  6. Systemic nickel: the contribution made by stainless-steel cooking utensils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, G N; Packirisamy, S

    1995-04-01

    An extensive programme of cooking operations, using household recipes, has shown that, apart from aberrant values associated with new pans on first use, the contribution made by 19 Cr/9 Ni stainless-steel cooking utensils to nickel in the diet is negligible. The amount of nickel (0 to 8 micrograms) derived from the utensils in standard portions of various "aggressive" foodstuffs tested was less than that to be found occurring in 1 square of a bitter-sweet chocolate bar. New pans, if first used with acid fruits, can show a greater pick-up of nickel, which, in the worst case observed, amounted to approximately 1/5 of the normal daily intake for the average person (ca. 200 micrograms). This situation does not recur in subsequent usage, even after the pan has been cleaned by abrasion. A higher rate of nickel release was observed in new pans on first use from 4 manufacturers located in different countries and appears to be a general phenomenon. This could provide a possible explanation for the high pick-up of nickel by acid fruits reported in 1 instance in the literature.

  7. Environmental exposure to cooking oil fumes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.-T.; Lee, L.-H.; Ho, C.-K.; Wu, S.-C.; Lin, L.-Y.; Cheng, B.-H.; Liu, C.-L.; Yang, C.-Y.; Tsai, H.-T.; Wu, T.-N.

    2004-01-01

    The fumes from cooking oil, similar to cigarette smoke, contain numerous carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc. In this study, we examined the association between exposure to cooking oil fumes and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. The study population in this nested case-control study consisted of women above the age of 19 years living in Chia-Yi County, located in the southwestern Taiwan, who had received pap smear screening between October, 1999, and December, 2000 (n=32,466). The potential cases were women having lesions greater than cervical intraepithelium neoplasm II (≥CIN2) reconfirmed by cervical biopsy (n=116). The potential controls (case: control=1:2) were age-matched (±2 years) and residence-matched women who had normal pap smears within 6 months of the cases. In total, 100 cases and 197 controls were completely interviewed by public health nurses about cooking methods, ventilation, and other potential risk factors. Women who cooked at home in a kitchen (n=269) without the presence of a fume extractor at least once a week between the ages of 20 and 40 had a 2.29 times higher risk [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-4.87] of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than those who did not cook once a week in such a kitchen during the same age span, after adjusting for other potential confounders. This finding was further strengthened by the finding that women who did not use the fume extractors had a 2.47 times higher risk (95% CI=1.15-5.32) of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than women who cooked in kitchens with fume extractors that were always switched on while cooking. We also found a joint protective effect of fume extractor use among women older than 40 years (n=202) if they used the extractors during both age spans of their lives, ages 20-40 and >40 years. Comparing our findings on women more than 40 years old who used fume extractors during

  8. Stability and retention of micronutrients in fortified rice prepared using different cooking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Frank T; Laillou, Arnaud; Guyondet, Christophe; Jallier, Vincent; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Berger, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Fortified rice holds great potential for bringing essential micronutrients to a large part of the world population. However, it is unknown whether differences in cooking methods or in production of rice premix affect the final amount of micronutrient consumed. This paper presents a study that quantified the losses of five different micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin B12) in fortified rice that was produced using three different techniques (hot extrusion, cold extrusion, and coating) during cooking and five different cooking methods (absorption method with or without soaking, washing before cooking, cooking in excess water, and frying rice before cooking). Fortified rice premix from six different producers (two for each technique) was mixed with normal rice in a 1:100 ratio. Each sample was prepared in triplicate, using the five different cooking methods, and retention of iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and folic acid was determined. It was found that the overall retention of iron, zinc, vitamin B12, and folic acid was between 75% and 100% and was unaffected by cooking method, while the retention of vitamin A was significantly affected by cooking method, with retention ranging from 0% (excess water) to 80% (soaking), depending on the cooking method and producer of the rice premix. No systematic differences between the different production methods were observed. We conclude that different cooking methods of rice as used in different regions of the world do not lead to a major loss of most micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin A. The factors involved in protecting vitamin A against losses during cooking need to be identified. All production techniques of rice premix yielded similar results, showing that coating is not inferior to extrusion techniques. Standard overages (50%) for vitamin B12 and folic acid are too high. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Public perceptions of cooking and the implications for cooking behaviour in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Frattaroli, Shannon; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-06-01

    Despite the importance of cooking in modern life, public perceptions about what it means to cook are unknown. We aimed to examine perceptions of cooking and their association with cooking confidence, attitudes and behaviours in the USA. We designed and fielded a nationally representative survey among US adults (n 1112) in April 2015. We used factor analysis to identify perceptions about cooking and multivariate ordered logit and Poisson models to explore associations between those perceptions and cooking confidence, attitudes and behaviours. Nationally representative web-based survey of US adults. US adults aged ≥18 years. Americans conceptualized cooking in three ways: the use of scratch ingredients, convenience foods and not using heat. Respondents who perceived cooking as including convenience foods were less confident in their ability to cook from scratch (OR=0·52, Pcooking (OR=0·68, P=0·01) than those who did not. Although individuals who perceived cooking as including only scratch ingredients reported cooking dinner (4·31 times/week) and using packaged/boxed products (0·95 times/week) the least frequently, few notable differences in the frequency of cooking meals were observed. Cooking frequency is similar among US adults regardless of how they perceive cooking, but cooking confidence and enjoyment are lowest among Americans who perceive cooking as including the use of convenience foods. These insights should inform the development of more specific measures of cooking behaviour as well as meaningful and targeted public health messages to encourage healthier cooking.

  10. Significance of Cooking Oil to Bioaccessibility of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Raw and Cooked Fish: Implications for Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiu-Bo; Su, Yang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-04-26

    The present study examined the bioacessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in cooked fish (yellow grouper; Epinephelus awoara) with and without heating using the colon extended physiologically based extraction test. The bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs increased from 60 and 26% in raw fish to 83 and 63%, respectively, after the addition of oil to raw fish. However, they decreased from 83 to 66% and from 63 to 40%, respectively, when oil-added fish were cooked. Human health risk assessment based on bioaccessible concentrations of DDTs and PBDEs in fish showed that the maximum allowable daily fish consumption rates decreased from 25, 59, and 86 g day -1 to 22, 53, and 77 g day -1 for children, youths, and adults, respectively, after fish were cooked with oil. These findings indicated that the significance of cooking oil to the bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in food should be considered in assessments of human health risk.

  11. Ruoanvalmistuspaperi Cook and chill prosessissa

    OpenAIRE

    Sarjohalme, Sirkka; Helin, Inga

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö lähti liikkeelle opinnäytetyön tilaajan, Metsä Tissuen, toiveesta tutkia Cook and chill -ruoanvalmistuspaperin soveltuvuutta Cook and chill -tuotantotapaan ammattikeittiöissä. Uudet toimintamenetelmät eroavat perinteisistä menetelmistä käytännössä näkyvimmin siinä, että ruoanvalmistus ei ole sidottu tarjoilupaikkaan ja ruoan tarjoilun ei tarvitse välttämättä tapahtua valmistuspäivänä. Tähän perustuu myös Cook and chill -tuotantotapa. Tutkimusyhteistyötä tehtiin Pirkkalan tuotanto...

  12. Onsite LLW storage at Cook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacRae, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Donald C. Cook nuclear plant has gained much experience through the onsite storage of low-level radioactive waste. Owned and operated by the Indiana Michigan Power Company, which is owned by American Electric Power, the plant is located in Bridgman, Michigan, on the southeast side of Lake Michigan, about 50 miles from Chicago. In November 1990, waste generators in the state of Michigan were denied access to licensed low-level waste disposal sites because of a lack of progress by the state in developing its own disposal site. Because of this lack, wastes from the Cook plant have been stored onsite for three years. This article covers four issues related to the Cook nuclear plant's experience in the low-level waste storage: storage capacity and waste generation rates, waste form and packages, regulatory issues, and the monitoring of the waste

  13. Captain Cook Chased a Chook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Schlunke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available How can we write the contemporary 'histories' of Captain Cook when they include such textual and material diversity? When that diversity ranges from children's rhymes to convenience stores as well as journals now claimed as iconic documents of the enlightenment? How might the insights of Bruno Latour into how the 'experimental' is produced in the laboratory be helpful in showing how Cook is produced in a settler culture? How does revealing the 'experimental' (the material and textual ethnography of history show us new ways of 'doing' history that engages with its textual as well as its material diversity.

  14. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G.

    2015-01-01

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer...

  15. Reduction of aflatoxin-beta/sub 1/ and ochratoxin-A levels in polished basmati rice (oryza sativa linn.) by different cooking methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Luttfullah, G.

    2009-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa Linn) is one of the basic diets of Pakistan. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of different cooking methods on the levels of aflatoxin-B/sub 1/ (AFB.) and ochratoxin-A (OTA). For this purpose the rice samples were artificially contaminated with AFB1 and ochratoxin-A (OTA) individually and simultaneously. The samples were then submitted to three different cooking methods i.e. normal cooking, cooking in an excess of water and in a microwave oven. After treatment, the both toxins were determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. The highest myco toxin reductions were observed when rice samples cooked in excess water (87.5 % for AFB1 and 86.6 % for OTA), followed by normal cooking (84.0 % for AFB, and 83.0 % for OTA) and microwave oven cooking (72.5 % for AFB1 and 82.4 % for OTA). The samples artificially contaminated with both AFB1 and OTA, the highest reductions were also observed for rice cooked in excess water (87.5 and 83.0 %) than cooked by normal cooking (82.5 and 766 %), and by microwave oven cooking (77.6 and 75.9 %). The rates of toxin reduction were relatively lower in samples artificially simultaneously contaminated with AFB1 and OTA, than the rice samples contaminated with AFB. and OTA individually. (author)

  16. Cook's Carteaux: Trends in nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The following Nuclear News interview, conducted by associate editor Gregg M. Taylor, is with Paul F. Carteaux, training superintendent at Indiana/Michigan Power Company's Cook nuclear power plant. The site has two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors. Cook-1, rated 1020-MWe (net), started commercial operation in August 1975, and the 1060-MWe Cook-2 began operation in July 1978

  17. Food, nutrition or cooking literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2014-01-01

    similarities and differences concerning the understanding of food literacy, ranging from a narrow r understanding of food literacy as the ability to read food messages to broader interpretations aimed at empowerment and self-efficacy concerning food and nutrition and from simple cooking skills to life skills...

  18. What’s Cooking, Man?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    : 1) rechefisation, 2) the TV chef as a moral entrepreneur, 3) the TV chef and the revitalisation of the national myth and 4) cooking as masculine escapism. The article concludes that the innovation of the masculine identity that was launched in The Naked Chef has not continued; rather, the genre has...

  19. Methods for estimating heterocyclic amine concentrations in cooked meats in the US diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, G A; Bogen, K T

    2001-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are formed in numerous cooked foods commonly consumed in the diet. A method was developed to estimate dietary HA levels using HA concentrations in experimentally cooked meats reported in the literature and meat consumption data obtained from a national dietary survey. Cooking variables (meat internal temperature and weight loss, surface temperature and time) were used to develop relationships for estimating total HA concentrations in six meat types. Concentrations of five individual HAs were estimated for specific meat type/cooking method combinations based on linear regression of total and individual HA values obtained from the literature. Using these relationships, total and individual HA concentrations were estimated for 21 meat type/cooking method combinations at four meat doneness levels. Reported consumption of the 21 meat type/cooking method combinations was obtained from a national dietary survey and the age-specific daily HA intake calculated using the estimated HA concentrations (ng/g) and reported meat intakes. Estimated mean daily total HA intakes for children (to age 15 years) and adults (30+ years) were 11 and 7.0 ng/kg/day, respectively, with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) estimated to comprise approximately 65% of each intake. Pan-fried meats were the largest source of HA in the diet and chicken the largest source of HAs among the different meat types.

  20. Climate and mortality changes due to reductions in household cooking emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Tommi; Mielonen, Tero; Arola, Antti; Kokkola, Harri

    2016-04-01

    Household cooking is a significant cause for health and environmental problems in the developing countries. There are more than 3 billion people who use biomass for fuel in cooking stoves in their daily life. These cooking stoves use inadequate ventilation and expose especially women and children to indoor smoke. To reduce problems of the biomass burning, India launched an initiative to provide affordable and clean energy solutions for the poorest households by providing clean next-generation cooking stoves. The improved cooking stoves are expected to improve outdoor air quality and to reduce the climate-active pollutants, thus simultaneously slowing the climate change. Previous research has shown that the emissions of black carbon can be decreased substantially, as much as 90 % by applying better technology in cooking stoves. We have implemented reasonable (50% decrease) and best case (90% decrease) scenarios of the reductions in black and organic carbon due to improved cooking stoves in India into ECHAM-HAMMOZ aerosol-climate model. The global simulations of the scenarios will be used to study how the reductions of emissions in India affect the pollutant concentrations and radiation. The simulated reductions in particulate concentrations will also be used to estimate the decrease in mortality rates. Furthermore, we will study how the emission reductions would affect the global climate and mortality if a similar initiative would be applied in other developing countries.

  1. Soup Cooking by Thermal Insulation Method

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 辰江; 根本, 勢子; サトウ, タツエ; ネモト, セイコ; TATSUE, SATO; SEIKO, NEMOTO

    1992-01-01

    In order to examine the thermal insulation method of soup cooking, we cooked two kinds of soup. The soup cooked by thermal insulation method was compared with the soup cooked by standard boiling method. ln sensory test, it was more aromatic and palatable than the soup by boiling, and some panels commented that it was rather mild. The measured values of pH, specific gravity, acidity and amount of dry weight of souble solids, total-N, formal-N of the soup cooked by the two methods mentioned abo...

  2. Environmental payoffs of LPG cooking in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Pachauri, S.; Zerriffi, H.

    2017-11-01

    Over two-thirds of Indians use solid fuels to meet daily cooking energy needs, with associated negative environmental, social, and health impacts. Major national initiatives implemented by the Indian government over the last few decades have included subsidies for cleaner burning fuels like liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene to encourage a transition to these. However, the extent to which these programs have affected net emissions from the use of these improved fuels has not been adequately studied. Here, we estimate the amount of fuelwood displaced and its net emissions impact due to improved access to LPG for cooking in India between 2001 and 2011 using nationally representative household expenditure surveys and census datasets. We account for a suite of climate-relevant emissions (Kyoto gases and other short-lived climate pollutants) and biomass renewability scenarios (a fully renewable and a conservative non-renewable case). We estimate that the national fuelwood displaced due to increased LPG access between 2001 and 2011 was approximately 7.2 million tons. On aggregate, we estimate a net emissions reduction of 6.73 MtCO2e due to the fuelwood displaced from increased access to LPG, when both Kyoto and non-Kyoto climate-active emissions are accounted for and assuming 0.3 as the fraction of non-renewable biomass (fNRB) harvested. However, if only Kyoto gases are considered, we estimate a smaller net emissions decrease of 0.03 MtCO2e (assuming fully renewable biomass harvesting), or 3.05 MtCO2e (assuming 0.3 as the fNRB). We conclude that the transition to LPG cooking in India reduced pressures on forests and achieved modest climate benefits, though uncertainties regarding the extent of non-renewable biomass harvesting and suite of climate-active emissions included in such an estimation can significantly influence results in any given year and should be considered carefully in any analysis and policy-making.

  3. Future Smart Cooking Machine System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Agushinta R.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many tools make human task get easier. Cooking has become a basic necessity for human beings, since food is one of basic human needs. Until now, the cooking equipment being used is still a hand tool. However everyone has slightly high activity. The presence of cooking tools that can do the cooking work by itself is now necessary. Future Smart Cooking Machine is an artificial intelligence machine that can do cooking work automatically. With this system design, the time is minimized and the ease of work is expected to be achieved. The development of this system is carried out with System Development Life Cycle (SDLC methods. Prototyping method used in this system is a throw-away prototyping approach. At the end of this research there will be produced a cooking machine system design including physical design engine and interface design.

  4. Stability of vitamin D in foodstuffs during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Knuthsen, Pia

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the retention of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in eggs, vitamin D3 in margarine, and vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 in bread. Our set-up illustrated the cooking methods usually performed in households i.e. boiling, frying in pan and oven, and baking. All experiments were performed three times independently of one another. The retention of vitamin D compounds in eggs and margarine during heat treatment in an oven for 40 min at normal cooking temperature showed retention at 39-45%, while frying resulted in retention at 82-84%. Boiled eggs were found to have a similar level of retention (86-88%). For bread baked, as recommended in the recipe, the retention of vitamin D3 in rye bread at 69% was lower than the retention in wheat bread at 85%. A similar observation was made for vitamin D2, although the retention was slightly higher, 73% and 89%. No difference between retention of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in eggs was shown. Cooking may cause detrimental loss of vitamin D, but it depends on the actual foodstuffs and the heating process. Further research is needed to optimise cooking procedures to enhance retention of vitamin D. Vitamin D retention should be taken into account in future calculations of dietary intake of vitamin D. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of infrared final cooking on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked meatball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz Turp, Gulen; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to improve the quality characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs via infrared cooking as a final stage. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooker at a voltage gradient of 15.26 V/cm for 92 s. Infrared cooking was then applied to the pre-cooked samples at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, and 8.475 kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 cm) and application durations (4, 8, and 12min). Effects of these parameters on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. The appearance of ohmically pre-cooked meatball samples was improved via infrared heating. A dark brown layer desired in cooked meatballs formed on the surface of the meatballs with lowest application distance (10.5 cm) and longest application duration (12 min). The texture of the samples was also improved with these parameters. However the cooking yield of the samples decreased at the longest application duration of infrared heating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cooking under Pressure: Applying the Ideal Gas Law in the Kitchen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Anderson, Jennifer Y.; Wang, Diane R.

    2010-01-01

    This case study uses a daily cooking scenario to demonstrate how the boiling point of water is directly related to the external pressures in order to reinforce the concepts of boiling and boiling point, apply ideal gas law, and relate chemical reaction rates with temperatures. It also extends its teaching to autoclaves used to destroy…

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Cooking Fuel Systems in India, China, Kenya, and Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily use of traditional cooking fuels and stoves in India, China, Kenya, and Ghana emits harmful air pollutants that result in over a million premature deaths annually. Reducing pollution from cookstoves is a key priority, as emissions from traditional cookstoves and open fires ...

  8. Effect of Stewing in Cooking Step on Textural and Morphological Properties of Cooked Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GHASEMI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Stewing of rice grains by steam after boiling in excess water can be used for cooking rice perfectly. The effects of this procedure in cooking of three varieties of Iranian rice (Sang Tarom, Domsiyah and Fajr on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice grains were investigated. The results showed that this step in rice cooking reduced the hardness and increased the adhesiveness of rice grains significantly. By the use of the scanning electron microscopy, it was shown that the outer surface of cooked rice stewed by steam had less porosity and closer pores due to the modification during cooking, and better gelatinization and more expansion of starch granules compared to non-stewed samples. The use of this procedure in rice cooking to provide a fully cooked and gelatinized, softer and stickier final product is recommended.

  9. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched.

  10. Cooking Appliances Using High-Frequency Heating

    OpenAIRE

    木村, 秀行; Hideyuki, KIMURA; (株)日立製作所機械研究所

    2007-01-01

    We have produced a guide suitable for people with no technical knowledge of cooking appliances that use high-frequency heating. In general, cooking appliances that use an electric heat source are popular since, they are simple to use because the offer easy heat control, are safe because they do not have naked flames, and do not make kitchens dirty because there is no exhaust. In recent years, high-efficiency cooking appliances using high-frequency heating technology have surged in popularity....

  11. Effect of Cooking on Speciation and In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Hg and As from Rice, Using Ordinary and Pressure Cookers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen; Wang, Guang; Li, Kaiming; Zhao, Wenbo; Wu, Ye

    2018-05-03

    Rice is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, and owing to environmental pollution, it is a major source of human exposure to mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As). We evaluated the impact of cooking on the speciation and bioaccessibility of Hg and As from rice in this study. Results show that the dominant Hg and As species in rice from Guangzhou market in China were their inorganic forms (iHg and iAs), respectively. The cooking process modified the levels of Hg and As. Average Hg and As bioaccessibility in raw rice was 69.74 and 80.32%, respectively. Hg bioaccessibility decreased to 46.22 and 42.37% for pressure- and ordinary-cooked rice, respectively. In contrast, As bioaccessibility remained unchanged except after cooking with a large amount of water. Protein denaturation and the amount of soluble and volatile forms determine the bioaccessibility of Hg and As in cooked rice by being released into the cooking water or into the air. From the bioaccessibility data, the average established daily intake (EDI) values of Hg and As from pressure-cooked rice for children and adults were 0.034 and 0.025 μg kg -1  day -1 (Hg), and 0.735 and 0.559 μg kg -1  day -1 (As), respectively. This study provides novel insights into Hg and As exposure due to rice cooking.

  12. Cooking in Crisis: Lessons from the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Caraher, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The concern with low levels of cooking skills among the British population can be traced back to the 1780s coinciding with the start of urbanisation of the English rural classes. Modern concerns with the lack of cooking skills, since the 1980s, have focused on the links to healthy food choice and preparation. This has resulted in a number of initiatives but little policy development to support cooking in any structured way. Cooking was de-facto removed from the educational experience in schoo...

  13. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G

    2015-06-22

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer cooked foods; (ii) comprehend the transformation of raw food that occurs when cooking, and generalize this causal understanding to new contexts; (iii) will pay temporal costs to acquire cooked foods; (iv) are willing to actively give up possession of raw foods in order to transform them; and (v) can transport raw food as well as save their raw food in anticipation of future opportunities to cook. Together, our results indicate that several of the fundamental psychological abilities necessary to engage in cooking may have been shared with the last common ancestor of apes and humans, predating the control of fire. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Usability analysis of industrial cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Alexana Vilar Soares; Soares, Marcelo Márcio

    2012-01-01

    This paper refers to the comparative study of the equipment used for cooking in commercial of kitchens restaurants that use the system of traditional cooking and those ones which use the system called smart cooking (combination oven). The study investigates the usability issues concerning to the two systems, analyzing comparatively the aspects related to anthropometry, dimensional variables, the use of the product and also the product safety, as well as issues of information related to operation of the new concepts of cooking in intelligent systems.

  15. The significance of cooking for early hominin scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alex R; Carmody, Rachel N; Dutton, Rachel J; Wrangham, Richard W

    2015-07-01

    Meat scavenged by early Homo could have contributed importantly to a higher-quality diet. However, it has been suggested that because carrion would normally have been contaminated by bacteria it would have been dangerous and therefore eaten rarely prior to the advent of cooking. In this study, we quantified bacterial loads on two tissues apparently eaten by hominins, meat and bone marrow. We tested the following three hypotheses: (1) the bacterial loads on exposed surfaces of raw meat increase within 24 h to potentially dangerous levels, (2) simple roasting of meat on hot coals kills most bacteria, and (3) fewer bacteria grow on marrow than on meat, making marrow a relatively safe food. Our results supported all three hypotheses. Our experimental data imply that early hominins would have found it difficult to scavenge safely without focusing on marrow, employing strategies of carrion selection to minimize pathogen load, or cooking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of cooking on radiocesium in fish from the Savannah River: exposure differences for the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gaines, Karen F; Boring, C Shane; Snodgrass, J; Stephens, W L; Gochfeld, M

    2004-02-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the risk from fish consumption is an important public health concern because of potential adverse effects of radionuclides, organochlorines, other pesticides, and mercury. Risk from consumption is normally computed on the basis of contaminant levels in fish, meal frequency, and meal size, yet cooking practices may also affect risk. This study examines the effect of deep-frying on radiocesium (137Cs) levels and risk to people fishing along the Savannah River. South Carolina and Georgia have issued consumption advisories for the Savannah River, based partly on 137Cs. 137Cs levels were significantly higher in the cooked fish compared to the raw fish on a wet weight basis. Mean 137Cs levels were 0.61 pCi/g (wet weight basis) in raw fish, 0.81 pCi/g in cooked-breaded, and 0.99 pCi/g in cooked-unbreaded fish. Deep-frying with and without breading resulted in a weight loss of 25 and 39%, while 137Cs levels increased by 32 and 62%, respectively. Therefore, the differences were due mainly to weight loss during cooking. However, the data suggest that risk assessments should be based on cooked portion size for contaminant analysis, or the risk from 137Cs in fish will be underestimated. People are likely to estimate the amounts of fish they eat based on a meal size of the cooked portion, while risk assessors determine 137Cs levels in raw fish. A conversion factor of at least two for 137Cs increase during cooking is reasonable and conservative, given the variability in 137Cs levels. The data also suggest that surveys determining consumption should specifically ask about portion size before or after cooking and state which was used in their methods.

  17. Radiation preservation of cooked foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb; Bibi, N.; Badshah, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The preservation of irradiated cooked food has been explained in this report under vacuum conditions. The samples were irradiated at dose levels of 7.5 and 10.0 LGy. Measurement of fungal count was carried immediately after irradiation and after each 15 days of storage life upto 60 days of time interval. The samples were evaluated organolepticaly as well. It has been observed that no significance difference was observed among samples of irradiated and vacuum packed controls during storage for 45 days. (A.B.)

  18. Effects of daily food processing on allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Novak, Natalija

    2017-08-11

    Daily food processing has the potential to alter the allergenicity of foods due to modification of the physico-chemical properties of proteins. The degree of such modifications depends on factors such as processing conditions, type of food considered, allergenic content, etc. The impact of daily food processing like boiling, roasting, frying or baking on food allergenicity have been extensively studied. The influence of other thermal treatments such as microwave heating or pressure cooking on allergenicity has also been analyzed. Non-thermal treatment such as peeling impacts on the allergenic content of certain foods such as fruits. In this review, we give an updated overview of the effects of daily processing treatments on the allergenicity of a wide variety of foods. The different variables that contribute to the modification of food allergenicity due to processing are also reviewed and discussed.

  19. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physicochemical changes in nontraditional pasta during cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in biochemical components of non-traditional spaghetti during cooking were reflected in the quality of the cooked product. Spaghetti samples were made from traditional and non-traditional formulations including semolina 100%, whole wheat flour 100%, semolina-whole wheat flour (49:51), semol...

  1. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  2. Validation of feasibility and quality of chicken breast meat cooked under various water-cooking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2016-12-01

    Under laboratory conditions, the qualities of boneless chicken breasts are commonly determined by placing them in a bag and cooking them in a water bath. The results are often applied as references for comparing the influences of cooking techniques. However, whether a sample cooked under this "laboratory" condition actually represents the meat cooked under the "real-life" condition in which meat is frequently cooked directly in water without packaging remains unclear. Whether the two cooking conditions lead to comparable results in meat quality should be determined. This study evaluated the influence of cooking conditions, including "placed-in-bag and cooked in a water bath (BC)" and "cooked directly in hot water (WC)" conditions, on the quality of chicken meat. The results reveal that BC samples had a longer cooking time. Deboned-and-skinless BC samples had a higher cooking loss and lower protein solubility (P < 0.01). BC samples with bone and skin had a higher lightness in both skin and muscle. No significant differences were observed in attributes, including shear force, collagen solubility, microstructures, redness, yellowness and descriptive sensory characteristics between treatments. Based on the results, considering the quality attributes that might be influenced, is critical when conducting relevant research. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Low-temperature cooking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Mørch

    . The third group showed a different behaviour; in this group time and temperature worked in different directions. Thus, the results showed three dominant behaviours in sensory properties. Two sensory properties, tenderness and juiciness, are very important in cooked meat according to both consumers and chefs......Molecular gastronomy is a new scientific field concerned with domestic and restaurant cooking, perception of food, and other factors relevant for cooking and meals. Most available gastronomic knowledge is based on experience and handed-down procedures from cookbooks and recipes. This inductive way......-time sous-vide-cooking of meat. This method is increasingly used, especially in high-end restaurants, where it receives much praise from leading chefs worldwide. Sous-vide-cooking uses vacuum-packaging of the meat and preparation in thermostated water-baths at temperatures between 54°C and 65°C for periods...

  4. Cooking of meat and fish in Europe--results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, S; Linseisen, J; Becker, N; Norat, T; Sinha, R; Skeie, G; Lund, E; Martínez, C; Barricarte, A; Mattisson, I; Berglund, G; Welch, A; Davey, G; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kesse, E; Lotze, G; Klipstein-Grobusch, K; Vasilopoulou, E; Polychronopoulos, E; Pala, V; Celentano, E; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Riboli, E; Slimani, N

    2002-12-01

    There is epidemiologic evidence that the consumption of fried, grilled or barbecued meat and fish that are well-done or browned may be associated with an increased cancer risk. These high-temperature cooking methods are thought to be surrogates for mutagens and carcinogens produced in meat and fish, eg heterocyclic amines or polycyclic hydrocarbons. Since data on food cooking methods are scarce, the aim of this study was to describe the variation in meat and fish cooking methods in different parts of Europe. Using a standardized 24 h recall from a sub-sample of the EPIC cohort (35 644 persons, 35-75 y old), mean daily intake of meat and fish prepared by different cooking methods and the relative contribution of the cooking methods to the overall cooking of meat and fish was calculated. Whereas frying was more often noted in northern Europe, roasting and stir frying were more often used in the south. Concerning high-temperature cooking methods, their frequency of application varies between 15% in the EPIC cohort of North-Italy and 49% in the cohort of The Netherlands. Average consumption of fried, grilled and barbecued meat and fish ranges from a low of 12 g/day in the centres in southern Spain to a high of 91 g/day in northern Spain. High variation in both the kind of meat/fish consumed as well as its cooking methods is observed within EPIC. In order to use this variation for the evaluation of the impact of cooking methods on cancer risk, a questionnaire on meat and fish cooking methods is being developed and could be applied in the whole EPIC cohort.

  5. Analyzing the Cooking Behavior of Sophomore Female Students : In relation to the ability for preparation of cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Imakawa, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the Dandori-ryoku (the ability for preparation in cooking) by analyzing the practical cooking behavior of sophomore female students. Ten sophomore female students were participated in the experiment to cook three kinds of food (cooking rice, making miso soup and fried vegetables). The behavior of the participants during cooking were videotaped and analyzed in detail later especially in relation to Dandori-ryoku. Such behaviors as “starting from cooking ric...

  6. Look who's cooking. Investigating the relationship between watching educational and edutainment TV cooking shows, eating habits and everyday cooking practices among men and women in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2016-01-01

    Television (TV) cooking shows have evolved from focusing on educating to focusing on entertaining, as well. At present, educational TV cooking shows focus on the transfer of cooking knowledge and skills, whereas edutainment TV cooking shows focus on entertaining their viewers. Both types of shows are ongoing success stories. However, little is known regarding the shows' links with the cooking and eating habits of their audiences. Therefore, the current study investigates the relationship between watching an educational or edutainment TV cooking show and one's cooking and eating habits. Given public health concerns regarding the decline in cooking behaviors and the simultaneous increase in caloric intake from food outside the home, this study suggests a promising intervention. The results of a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n = 845) demonstrate that the audiences of educational and edutainment TV cooking shows do not overlap. Although there is little connection between watching specific shows and eating behavior, the connection between watching shows and cooking behaviors varies across gender and age lines. Behaviors also differ depending on whether the viewer is watching an educational or edutainment cooking show. For example, men of all ages appear to cook more often if they watch an educational show. However, only older men (above 38 years) seem to cook more often if they watch an edutainment TV show. The results demonstrate that the relationship between watching TV cooking shows and cooking habits warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Concentration of Umami Compounds in Pork Meat and Cooking Juice with Different Cooking Times and Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotola-Pukkila, Minna K; Pihlajaviita, Seija T; Kaimainen, Mika T; Hopia, Anu I

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the concentrations of umami compounds in pork loins cooked at 3 different temperatures and 3 different lengths of cooking times. The pork loins were cooked with the sous vide technique. The free amino acids (FAAs), glutamic acid and aspartic acid; the 5'-nucleotides, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP); and corresponding nucleoside inosine of the cooked meat and its released juice were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the experimental conditions used, the cooking temperature played a more important role than the cooking time in the concentration of the analyzed compounds. The amino acid concentrations in the meat did not remain constant under these experimental conditions. The most notable effect observed was that of the cooking temperature and the higher amino acid concentrations in the released juice of meat cooked at 80 °C compared with 60 and 70 °C. This is most likely due to the heat induced hydrolysis of proteins and peptides releasing water soluble FAAs from the meat into the cooking juice. In this experiment, the cooking time and temperature had no influence on the IMP concentrations observed. However, the AMP concentrations increased with the increasing temperature and time. This suggests that the choice of time and temperature in sous vide cooking affects the nucleotide concentration of pork meat. The Sous vide technique proved to be a good technique to preserve the cooking juice and the results presented here show that cooking juice is rich in umami compounds, which can be used to provide a savory or brothy taste. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Masamitsu; Meshitsuka, Gyosuke; Nakano, Junzo

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been made of kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood. Beech (Fagus crenata Blume) wood meal suspended in aqueous alkaline alcohol was irradiated up to 1.5 KGy (0.15 Mrad) with gamma rays from a Co-60 source in the presence or absence of oxygen. The irradiated wood meals were washed thoroughly with fresh water, air dried and cooked under the ordinary cooking conditions. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Pre-irradiation in aqueous alkali have negligible effect on kraft cooking. (2) In the case of ethanol addition (50 g/l), pre-irradiation in vacuo shows acceleration of delignification and stabilization of carbohydrates during kraft cooking. Cooked yield gain by pre-irradiation was about 1.2% in all over the range of delignification from 80 to 90%. Aqueous ethanol without alkali also shows positive but smaller effect than that with alkali. (3) Propanol, iso-propanol and butanol show positive but smaller effects than ethanol. However, methanol does not show any positive effect. (4) Irradiation in the presence of oxygen does not show any attractive effect on kraft cooking. (author)

  9. Retention and removal 137Cs in Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) in dressing and cooking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.; Nakahara, N.; Nakamura, R.

    2004-01-01

    Japanese catfish contaminated by 137 Cs have been used to investigate how the dressing and cook-ing method affect the removal of radioactivity from the fish. During the dressing, 6.0% of the initial 137 Cs activity was removed by washing the live fish, further 30.3% of the activity relative to washed fish was removed by discarding the non-edible body parts (skeletons, fins, visceral mass, liver, kidney etc.) and washing the chopped fish. Fish curry was cooked using various spices, green-stuffs and vegetable oil following a method commonly used in South East and East Asian countries. The cooking process removed a further 61.6% of the 137 Cs activity relative to the activity in dressed fish. Taken together, this normal domestic fish dressing and culinary process removed 74.7% of the initial 137 Cs activity present in the live fish. During the cook-ing, the radioactivity removed from the fish pieces was found to distributed over the ingredients of the curry. The cooked fish pieces retained an average, 38.5% of the radioactivity present in the dressed raw fish pieces. Among the ingredients, the gravy was found to contain an average of 34.8% of the activity of the dressed fish. The activity in green-stuffs was found to vary from 4.0% (in cauliflower) to 7.2% (in potato). It may be concluded that normal home preparation and culinary processes removed the radio-activity from the fish to a great extent. In addition, discarding the gravy and green-stuffs of the curry further reduce the radioactivity intake into the human body. (author)

  10. CERN's 60th anniversary celebrations: "Cook"ed to perfection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    On 29 September, CERN celebrated its 60th anniversary with a gala celebration. Hundreds of CERN staff members and users, dignitaries from CERN Member States and representatives of international organisations filled the marquee for a ceremony featuring speeches as well as music from the EU Youth Orchestra. CERN Recruitment Unit section leader Anna Cook was called in at the last minute to host the ceremony.   Anna had just got back from a run on her day off when she got the call. On the line CERN60 project leader Sascha Schmeling, Globe manager Bernard Pellequer and video editor Jacques Fichet had a problem. French-Swiss journalist Darius Rochebin, who had been pegged to host CERN's 60th anniversary ceremony, had been forced to cancel at the last minute, just three days before the event. Would Anna host the celebration – a ceremony to be attended by hundreds and broadcast around the world for all to see? After asking whether it was a joke, she said: “OK, I&rsquo...

  11. Cooking for Independence: Middle School Students Gain Skills While Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Middle school students with intellectual disabilities often have difficulties achieving independence with instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs); therefore, these skills must be taught in school. IADLs are a complex component of skills that require a higher level of cognitive reasoning such as community mobility, shopping, meal…

  12. 20 CFR 654.413 - Cooking and eating facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooking and eating facilities. 654.413... Cooking and eating facilities. (a) When workers or their families are permitted or required to cook in their individual unit, a space shall be provided and equipped for cooking and eating. Such space shall...

  13. 46 CFR 169.703 - Cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking and heating. 169.703 Section 169.703 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.703 Cooking and heating. (a) Cooking and heating... cooking, heating or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (c) The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or...

  14. Una Modificación a la Distancia de Cook Una Modificación a la Distancia de Cook

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Díaz García; Oscar Alejandro Martínez Jaime

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se propone una modificación de la distancia de Cook, basándose en la distancia de Mahalanobis generalizada, en el contexto del modelo de regresión lineal multivariado con distribución normal. Se establece además, la distribución exacta del estadístico basado en esta distancia de Mahalanobis generalizada, la cual proporciona puntos críticos para identificar “outliers” en un conjunto de datos. Este procedimiento, se ilustra con un ejemplo, en el caso de la regresión lineal múlti...

  15. Fortification of lysine for improving protein quality in multiple-fortified quick cooking rice : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wongmetinee, T.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Chavasit, V.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in Thailand indicated that rice-based complementary foods of breast-fed infants normally provided inadequate iron and calcium. Quick-cooking rice fortified with different nutrients was therefore developed. The idea of lysine fortification was based on the fact that lysine is a

  16. Laboratory Development and Lecture Renovation for a Science of Food and Cooking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Deon T.; Borchardt, Adrienne C.

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago, a new nonscience majors course, The Science of Food and Cooking, was developed at our institution. The course covered basic scientific concepts that would normally be discussed in a typical introductory chemistry course, in the context of food and food preparation. Recently, the course has been revamped in three major ways: (1)…

  17. 2015 Cook & Tift County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Tift and Cook Counties GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task NOAA Contract No. EA133C-11-CQ-0010 Woolpert Order No. 75271...

  18. Cooking and drying processes optimization of Pentadesma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... This work determined the optimum conditions of cooking and drying processes. ... Key words: Forest galeries, Pentadesma butyraceae, cosmetic industry, ..... butyracea kernels can lead to the production of butter of.

  19. DASH Diet: Tips for Shopping and Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dash-in-brief-html. Accessed April 7, 2016. Essential kitchen equipment. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/HealthyCooking/Essential-Kitchen-Equipment_UCM_430098_Article.jsp. Accessed April 7, ...

  20. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  1. Potentials of raw and cooked walnuts (Tetracapidium conophorum) as sources of valuable nutrients for good health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyib, O K; Falegbe, O; Moyib, F R

    2015-12-01

    The present study estimated nutrient composition of walnuts before and after cooking with respect to its potential as valuable source of nutrients for daily intake. Walnut fruits were purchased from five different markets in Ijebu-Ode local government area and its environs. The fruits samples were divided into two portions, labelled R (for raw) and C (cooked). The C samples were cooked at 100 degrees C for 1 hr and allowed to cool to room temperature. The seeds of both C and R samples were ground and analyzed for proximate, macro and micro minerals using methods of Association of Official Chemists. The results obtained showed that both raw and cooked walnuts are rich in fat, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu) in amounts that are within daily recommended intake per 100 g of walnut seeds. They also contained appreciable levels of protein, phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) but with low content of moisture (MC), carbohydrate, fiber, sodium (Na) and potassium (K). Boiling significantly affected the levels of protein, carbohydrate, ash, moisture content, fat, nitrogen, calcium, sodium, copper, zinc, phosphorus, potassium, manganese and iron The study reveals that walnut is nutritious due to its appreciable level of protein and presence of various essential and macro minerals. Its low content of sodium and potassium is beneficiary in hypertensive condition as snack. The study suggests future bio-fortification of walnut with zinc, which may bring about a co-increase in Ca and protein content.

  2. Extrusion Cooking Systems and Textured Vegetable Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many fabricated foods are cooked industrially and are given desired textures, shapes, density and rehydration characteristics by an extrusion cooking process. This relatively new process is used in the preparation of “engineered” convenience foods: textured vegetable proteins, breakfast cereals, snacks, infant foods, dry soup mixes, breading, poultry stuffing, croutons, pasta products, beverage powders, hot breakfast gruels, and in the gelatinization of starch or the starchy component of foods.

  3. The emergence of cooking in Southwest Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Wright

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been surprisingly little systematic study by prehistorians of how in the distant past people cooked and consumed food. There are many unanswered questions. For example, how did cooking emerge and affect human evolution, how did it change with the advent of farming, when did kitchens first appear and who built the earliest known ovens? Research on Palaeolithic and Neolithic food preparation and consumption is now beginning to suggest answers to such questions.

  4. The emergence of cooking in Southwest Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    There has been surprisingly little systematic study by prehistorians of how in the distant past people cooked and consumed food. There are many unanswered questions. For example, how did cooking emerge and affect human evolution, how did it change with the advent of farming, when did kitchens first appear and who built the earliest known ovens? Research on Palaeolithic and Neolithic food preparation and consumption is now beginning to suggest answers to such questions.

  5. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. 315.2 Section 315.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes...

  6. Cooking frozen and thawed roasts: beef, pork, and lamb cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, C; Davis, C

    1975-09-01

    Cooking time, yield, and palatability of paired beef, pork, and lamb roasts cooked from the frozen and thawed states were compared. Cooking time for all roasts averaged from 3 to 22 min. per pound longer for meat cooked from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state was greater for roasts with a large amount of bone and for cuts cooked by braising than for less bony roasts and cuts cooked by roasting. Except for thawed beef rump roasts, which had a higher yield of cooked lean meat, yield of cooked lean meat from the various cuts of beef, pork, and lamb was not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Collectively, all pork roasts had a higher yield of cooked lean meat when cooked from the frozen state. Juiciness and natural flavor of the roasts were not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Lamb leg and rib roasts were more tender when cooked from the thawed state.

  7. Field measurement and estimate of gaseous and particle pollutant emissions from cooking and space heating processes in rural households, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Liu, Weijian; Du, Wei; Su, Shu; Duan, Yonghong; Lin, Nan; Zhuo, Shaojie; Wang, Xilong; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Pollutant emissions into outdoor air from cooking and space heating processes with various solid fuels were measured, and daily household emissions were estimated from the kitchen performance tests. The burning of honeycomb briquette had the lowest emission factors, while the use of wood produced the highest pollutants. Daily emissions from space heating were significantly higher than those from cooking, and the use of honeycomb briquette for cooking and raw coal chunk for space heating reduces 28%, 24% and 25% for CO, PM10 and PM2.5, compared to wood for cooking and peat for space heating. Much higher emissions were observed during the initial phase than the stable phase due to insufficient air supply and lower combustion temperature at the beginning of burning processes. However, more mass percent of fine particles formed in the later high temperature stable burning phase may increase potential inhalation exposure risks.

  8. Managing Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

  9. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  10. Teaching Basic Cooking Skills: Evaluation of the North Carolina Extension "Cook Smart, Eat Smart" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Baughman, Kristen; Levine, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Cook Smart, Eat Smart (CSES) is a 12-hour cooking school that teaches participants to prepare nutritious, delicious food using simple, healthy preparation techniques, basic ingredients, and minimal equipment. The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the impact of CSES on food preparation and meal consumption behavior. Program outcomes include…

  11. Method of Instruction in Cooking and Experimenting with Eggs in Elementary School Homemaking Education

    OpenAIRE

    富士栄, 登美子; Fujie, Tomiko

    1997-01-01

    It is our wish and heart's desire that school children cultivate creative and active minds through homemaking education. Homemaking education also aims to develop school children's spirit of inquiry into various phenomena in their daily lives. We can take up a variety of subjects in homemaking classes in order to realize these wishes and desires. For instance, we can cook and experiment with eggs. Teachers should encourage school children not only to acquire the basic knowledge and skill to c...

  12. Una Modificación a la Distancia de Cook Una Modificación a la Distancia de Cook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Díaz García

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone una modificación de la distancia de Cook, basándose en la distancia de Mahalanobis generalizada, en el contexto del modelo de regresión lineal multivariado con distribución normal. Se establece además, la distribución exacta del estadístico basado en esta distancia de Mahalanobis generalizada, la cual proporciona puntos críticos para identificar “outliers” en un conjunto de datos. Este procedimiento, se ilustra con un ejemplo, en el caso de la regresión lineal múltiple multivariada.A modification of the classical Cook´s distance is proposed in this paper, being based on the distance of widespread Mahalanobis in the context of multivariate normal linear regression model. Further more, the exact distribution of a pivotal type statistics based on this generalized Mahalanobis distance is established, providing critical points for the identification of outliers in data points. The procedure is illustrated with an example, in the case of multiple and multivariate linear regression.

  13. TEXTURE OF COOKED SPELT WHEAT NOODLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are limited and incomplete data on the ability of spelt to produce alimentary pasta of suitable quality. Noodles are traditional cereal-based food that is becoming increasingly popular worldwide because of its convenience, nutritional qualities, and palatability. It is generally accepted that texture is the main criterion for assessing overall quality of cooked noodles. We present selected indicators of noodle texture of three spelt cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. A texture analyzer TA.XT PLUS was used to determine cooked spelt wheat noodle firmness (N (AACC 66-50. The texture of cooked spelt wheat noodles was expressed also as elasticity (N and extensibility (mm. Statistical analysis showed significant influence of the variety and year of growing on the firmness, elasticity and extensibility of cooked noodles. The wholemeal spelt wheat noodles were characterized with lower cutting firmness than the flour noodles. Flour noodles were more tensile than wholemeal noodles. The best elasticity and extensibility of flour noodles was found in noodles prepared from Rubiota however from wholemeal noodles it was Oberkulmer Rotkorn. Spelt wheat is suitable for noodle production, however also here it is necessary to differentiate between varieties. According to achieved results, wholemeal noodles prepared from Oberkulmer Rotkorn can be recommended for noodle industry due to their consistent structure and better texture quality after cooking.

  14. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Thomas F.; Benson, David K.; Burch, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food.

  15. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Burch, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber there between. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food. 26 figs.

  16. Influence of cooking method on arsenic retention in cooked rice related to dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H; Rahman, M Arifur; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Miah, M A Majid

    2006-10-15

    Arsenic concentration in raw rice is not only the determinant in actual dietary exposure. Though there have been many reports on arsenic content in raw rice and different tissues of rice plant, little is known about arsenic content retained in cooked rice after being cooked following the traditional cooking methods employed by the people of arsenic epidemic areas. A field level experiment was conducted in Bangladesh to investigate the influence of cooking methods on arsenic retention in cooked rice. Rice samples were collected directly from a severely arsenic affected area and also from an unaffected area, to compare the results. Rice was cooked according to the traditional methods employed by the population of subjected areas. Arsenic concentrations were 0.40+/-0.03 and 0.58+/-0.12 mg/kg in parboiled rice of arsenic affected area, cooked with excess water and 1.35+/-0.04 and 1.59+/-0.07 mg/kg in gruel for BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, respectively. In non-parboiled rice, arsenic concentrations were 0.39+/-0.04 and 0.44+/-0.03 mg/kg in rice cooked with excess water and 1.62+/-0.07 and 1.74+/-0.05 mg/kg in gruel for BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, respectively. Total arsenic content in rice, cooked with limited water (therefore gruel was absorbed completely by rice) were 0.89+/-0.07 and 1.08+/-0.06 mg/kg (parboiled) and 0.75+/-0.04 and 1.09+/-0.06 mg/kg (non-parboiled) for BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, respectively. Water used for cooking rice contained 0.13 and 0.01 mg of As/l for contaminated and non-contaminated areas, respectively. Arsenic concentrations in cooked parboiled and non-parboiled rice and gruel of non-contaminated area were significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of contaminated area. The results imply that cooking of arsenic contaminated rice with arsenic contaminated water increases its concentration in cooked rice.

  17. Daily Living Skills at Your Fingertips. Daily Living Skills for 0-4 Level Adult Basic Education Students. Curriculum and Teacher Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Margret

    A curriculum and teacher guide are provided for a program to teach daily living skills to 0-4 level adult basic education students. The guide presents a method of instruction and lists the materials provided. Teaching plans (content outlines) are provided for these areas: cooking, housekeeping, laundry, leisure skills, and medication awareness. A…

  18. Energy Efficient Cooking - The EffiCooker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Substantial energy savings in moist heat cooking may be achieved by employing a pan with integrated electric heating element rather than an ordinary pan on a conventional electric range. The electric pan should be thermally insulated and equipped with an "intelligent" controller and timer....... A working prototype of a saucepan, dubbed the EffiCooker, has been constructed according to these guidelines. The EffiCooker has demonstrated energy savings in the range from 28% to 81% compared to conventional equipment when performing ordinary cooking tasks. The user need not be particularly aware...... of energy conservation to realize such savings; even those who are more concerned with their culinary achievements than with energy efficiency are likely to benefit. Besides being energy efficient the EffiCooker is user friendly. Many cooking tasks, once initiated, are performed automatically without any...

  19. Stainless steel leaches nickel and chromium into foods during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L; Hobbie, Kevin A; Anderson, Kim A

    2013-10-02

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan, cooking times of 2-20 h, 10 consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After 6 h of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold, respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34-fold and Cr increased approximately 35-fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, although significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage.

  20. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan; cooking times of 2 to 20 hours, ten consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After six hours of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34 fold and Cr increased approximately 35 fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, though significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle, resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage. PMID:23984718

  1. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage attributable to cooking-oil fumes exposure among cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuebin; Cheng, Jinquan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zhang, Renli; Zhang, Zhunzhen; Shuai, Zhihong; Wu, Tangchun

    2009-07-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that cooks are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from cooking-oil fumes. However, Emission of PAH and their carcinogenic potencies from cooking oil fumes sources have not been investigated among cooks. To investigate the urinary excretion of a marker for oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in different groups of cooks and different exposure groups, and to study the association between 8-OHdG and 1-hydroxypyrene(1-OHP), a biological marker for PAH exposure. Urine samples were collected from different groups of cooks (n = 86) and from unexposed controls (n = 36); all were male with similar age and smoking habits. The health status, occupational history, smoking, and alcohol consumption 24 h prior to sampling was estimated from questionnaires. The urine samples were frozen for later analyses of 8-OHdG and 1-OHP levels by high-performance liquid chromatography. Excretion in urine of 8-OHdG was similar for controls (mean 1.2micromol/mol creatinine, n = 36), and for those who had been in the kitchen with an exhaust-hood operating (mean 1.5micromol/mol creatinine, n = 45). Cooks exposed to cooking-oil fumes without exhaust-hood operation had significantly increased excretion of 8-OHdG (mean 2.3micromol/mol creatinine, n = 18), compared with controls. The urinary levels of ln 1-OHP and ln 8-OHdG were still significantly correlated in a multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that exposure to PAH or possibly other compounds in cooking-oil fumes may cause oxidative DNA damage.

  2. Simplification of Home Cooking and Its Periphery

    OpenAIRE

    小住, フミ子; 北崎, 康子; Fumiko, OZUMI; Yasuko, KITAZAKI

    1997-01-01

    Sence of home cooking has been changing with the times. Various topics, which make us conscious of health and dietary habits, such as delicatessen, half-ready-made foods, eating out, and utilization of home delivery service and food imports are involved in those of simplification of cooking. We requested 64 students to fill in a questionnaire in three parts. The recovery was 96.4%. The results are as follows : The main reason for purchasing delicatessen or half-ready-made foods was that "they...

  3. γ-ray irradiation of cooked dishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ruotai; Cheng Wei; Wen Shengli; Xiong Guangquan; Ye Lixiu; Chen Yuxia; Zhang Jinmu; He Jianjun; Lin Yong; Zhan Hanping

    2005-01-01

    Ready-to-eat cooked dishes, including stir-fried dishes, steamed dishes, roast meat, deep dried dishes, shrimps and seashells, and dishes of local flavor, etc were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays, and the decontamination effects were studied. The results showed that most of the cooked dishes are suitable for irradiation. The effective dose is 4 kGy to 8 kGy. Index of microbe of the irradiated dishes was conformed to the National Food-Health standards, and no significant sensory changes was observed with the irradiated dishes. The quality guarantee period (0-5 degree C) is 60 days. (authors)

  4. Experimental investigation of novel indirect solar cooker with indoor PCM thermal storage and cooking unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H.M.S.; El-Ghetany, H.H.; Nada, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, a novel indirect solar cooker with outdoor elliptical cross section, wickless heat pipes, flat-plate solar collector and integrated indoor PCM thermal storage and cooking unit is designed, constructed and tested under actual meteorological conditions of Giza, Egypt. Two plane reflectors are used to enhance the insolation falling on the cooker's collector, while magnesium nitrate hexahydrate (T m = 89 deg. C, latent heat of fusion 134 kJ/kg) is used as the PCM inside the indoor cooking unit of the cooker. It is found that the average daily enhancement in the solar radiation incident on the collector surface by the south and north facing reflectors is about 24%. Different experiments have been performed on the solar cooker without load and with different loads at different loading times to study the possibility of benefit from the virtues of the elliptical cross section wickless heat pipes and PCMs in indirect solar cookers to cook food at noon and evening and to keep food warm at night and in early morning. The results indicate that the present solar cooker can be used successfully for cooking different kinds of meals at noon, afternoon and evening times, while it can be used for heating or keeping meals hot at night and early morning

  5. Reliability of the Cooking Task in adults with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, Frédérique; Swaine, Bonnie; Taillefer, Chantal; Lamoureux, Julie; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Chevignard, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) often leads to deficits in executive functioning (EF) responsible for severe and long-standing disabilities in daily life activities. The Cooking Task is an ecological and valid test of EF involving multi-tasking in a real environment. Given its complex scoring system, it is important to establish the tool's reliability. The objective of the study was to examine the reliability of the Cooking Task (internal consistency, inter-rater and test-retest reliability). A total of 160 patients with ABI (113 men, mean age 37 years, SD = 14.3) were tested using the Cooking Task. For test-retest reliability, patients were assessed by the same rater on two occasions (mean interval 11 days) while two raters independently and simultaneously observed and scored patients' performances to estimate inter-rater reliability. Internal consistency was high for the global scale (Cronbach α = .74). Inter-rater reliability (n = 66) for total errors was also high (ICC = .93), however the test-retest reliability (n = 11) was poor (ICC = .36). In general the Cooking Task appears to be a reliable tool. The low test-retest results were expected given the importance of EF in the performance of novel tasks.

  6. Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk On ... hydrocarbons, and how are they formed in cooked meats? What factors influence the formation of HCA and ...

  7. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  8. Optimization of the Quality and Safety of Cooked Seafood Products

    OpenAIRE

    Brookmire, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Seafood products are a common consumer choice and a variety of cooking methods are used in seafood preparation. Although often cooked, products such as shrimp and salmon remain some of the most common carriers of foodborne disease. Cooking these products at elevated temperatures efficiently reduces foodborne disease causing pathogens to a safe level, but applying too much heat to seafood products can produce an overcooked, low quality food. It is necessary to investigate the cooking proces...

  9. Impacts of cooking system on indoor air environment: a case study on a Bangladeshi village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, A.K.; Afroze, S.; Azam, M.

    2005-01-01

    1624.8 micro g/m/sup 3/ for benzene, 812.4 micro g/m/sup 3/ for xylene, 333.9 micro g/m/sup 3/ for 1,3-butadeine, 243.7 micro g/m /sup 3/ for syrene. From the study is found that the daily exposure, which was calculated, is higher to chief-cook than the non-cook both for PM and CO. For this high exposure the people of the study area, mainly the women and their children face some severe health problems. About 30% of the exposed people suffer from dizziness while 60% feel severe headache. The eye irritation is another major problem they can feel for the duration of cooking. The problems that can be prominent are chest pain, several respiratory problems, asthma, bronchitis, premature mortality, etc. The lifetime risk of a typical woman from exposures to pollutants emitted by cook stoves were estimated. In the study area the changes in mortality for the cooks is 1.829 x 10/sup -03/ and for non-cooks is 3.554 x 10/sup -04/ due to use biomass cooking fuel. These estimates illustrate that doses and concentrations experienced by women and children in homes burning biomass fuels are significantly high. (author)

  10. Determinants of market production of cooking banana in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors that influence farmers' decisions to produce cooking banana for market in southeast Nigeria were examined. Data were collected from a ... Results of the study indicate that about 80% of the farmers interviewed produce cooking banana both for household consumption and for sale. The proportion of cooking ...

  11. Exposure to organic compounds during heat treatment of cooking oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Zaciera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fumes from cooking oils were found to be genotoxic in several short-term tests. Epidemiological research among Taiwanese and Chinese women has shown high incidence of lung cancer. These women were not smoking or rarely smoking , but they cooked meals every day. A lot of organic compounds have been identified from cooking oils including PAH.

  12. Quality factors in beef, pork, and lamb cooked by microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, B M; Baldwin, R E; Snider, S

    1976-12-01

    Three cooking treatments were applied to the longissimus muscle of beef and of pork and to deboned leg of lamb. Cooking treatments included: Intermittent energy application (3-min. cycle) with a microwave range operated at 220V and intermittent energy application (6-min. cycle) with a microwave range operated at 115V. Control roasts were cooked in a conventional gas oven (163+/-3 degrees C.). Cooking was adjusted so that roasts achieved an internal temperature of 70 degrees C. when cut for analyses. Cooking losses were significantly greater for microwave than for conventionally cooked beef. However, microwave cooking resulted in beef, pork, and lamb roasts with flavor of interior portions similar to those prepared conventionally. Flavor differences in samples from the edge of the slices of lamb and of pork and tenderness of lamb appeared to be related to cooking method. For these attributes, meat cooked conventionally was superior. In contrast, patterns in significant differences in tenderness and juiciness of beef and of pork were not consistent and were not related solely to method of cookery. Neither creatine nor creatinine was a good index of flavor of meat cooked by these methods. Aside from the time-saving aspect of microwave heating, there was no major advantage of one method of cooking over another. Thus, either high- or low- powered microwave equipment, operated at 2450 MHz, can be used satisfactorily for cooking tender cuts of beef, pork, and lamb.

  13. Fate of enniatins and deoxynivalenol during pasta cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, de Monique; Top, van den Hester; Stoppelaar, de Joyce; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The fate of deoxynivalenol and enniatins was studied during cooking of commercially available dry pasta in the Netherlands in 2014. Five samples containing relatively high levels of deoxynivalenol and/or enniatins were selected for the cooking experiment. Cooking was performed in duplicate on

  14. 46 CFR 169.685 - Electric heating and cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric heating and cooking equipment. 169.685 Section... More on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.685 Electric heating and cooking equipment. (a) Each...) All electric cooking equipment, attachments, and devices, must be of rugged construction and so...

  15. PM2.5 in Dutch dwellings due to cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Borsboom, W.A.; Kemp, R.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cooking emissions have long been seen as an odour problem. However recent studies showed that Particulate Matter (PM) is the main health risk of indoor air and cooking can be a major source. A small field study within 9 Dutch dwellings indicates that depending on the conditions cooking can have a

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicles in Vermont Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Vermont to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Vermont on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in

  17. Getting healthier : creating interactive cooking tools for kids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spermon, M.; Bruns, M.; Zampollo, F.; Smith, C.

    2012-01-01

    Cooking lessons are believed to be the basis for a healthy lifestyle for both children and adults. However, while children learn their eating habits during childhood, most people only learn to cook from the age of sixteen onwards. Therefore, it is suggested that people should learn to cook during

  18. “What’s Cooking?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejenova, Silviya

    2016-01-01

    “What’s cooking?” is old-fashioned slang for asking about what is happening or what someone is planning. In this chapter, it denotes an approach to prospective data collection in qualitative research and captures the gist of a case study from the field of haute cuisine that inspired the saying...

  19. Childhood respiratory morbidity and cooking practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Household air pollution is a leading risk factor for respiratory morbidity and mortality in developing countries where biomass fuel is mainly used for cooking. Materials and Method: A household cross-sectional survey was conducted in a predominantly rural area of Ghana in 2007 to determine the prevalence of ...

  20. DETERMINANTS OF UNSAFE HAMBURGER COOKING BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ralston, Katherine L.; Starke, Yolanda; Adu-Nyako, Kofi; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan

    1998-01-01

    We used a national hamburger preparation survey to estimate a simultaneous equation model of food safety knowledge, attitudes, and hamburger cooking behavior. The results suggest that food safety risk perceptions, palatability attributes, and food safety knowledge play important roles in determining food preparation behavior.

  1. Cooking exhaust systems for low energy dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Borsboom, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    Especially in airtight low energy dwellings exhaust systems are of utmost importance as cooking can be a major source of PM2.5 exposure. Dwellings should be designed including facilities enabling extraction of at least 83 dm3/s (300 m3/h) directly to outside. Residents should be able to select an

  2. What's Cooking in America's Schoolyard Gardens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses what's cooking in America's schoolyard gardens. From First Lady Michelle Obama's world-famous Kitchen Garden, to Alice Waters' groundbreaking Edible Schoolyard in Berkeley, California, to a nationally recognized elementary school learning garden in the small Midwestern town of Ashland, Missouri, school children are planting…

  3. Influence of cooking process on protein fractions in cooked ham and mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vonghia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The mortadella is a pork meat sausage (in natural or artificial bowel accurately triturated and mixed with little backfat cubes, salt, sodium nitrate and nitrite, spices and peppercorns, and then cooked in oven for many hours. The cooked ham is obtained from an anatomically completed piece of meat; the working process provides the addiction of salt and spices, the brine, the bones removal, the churning and the pressing, so the cured meat is first packed in a mould provided for this purpose, then cooked and after cooled and packed. The meat cooking is the last step in the cooked sausage production technology, and let us obtain a stable and eatable product. The effect of the heat and the lenght of processing are the main responsibles for modifications in water- and salt-soluble protein fractions. Indeed myofibrils denature themselves after cooking and consequently their solubility decreases; particularly the denaturation begins over 30°C in the myosin chain, instead the actin solubility begins to decrease over 60°C, being the actin more stable than myosin (Barbieri et al., 1997...

  4. Daily Food Plan for Moms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  5. MyPlate Daily Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  6. Catalytic hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for renewable diesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezergianni, Stella; Dimitriadis, Athanasios [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2013-06-01

    A new technology based on catalytic hydrotreating of Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) for biodiesel production has been developed in the Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH). The main premise of this process is the conversion of the WCO fatty acids into normal- and iso-paraffins. The technology was evaluated in hydroprocessing pilot plants of CERTH where feedstock origin as well as optimal catalysts and operating parameters where identified. The fractionated diesel product, called ''white'' diesel exhibits excellent fuel properties including higher heating value (over 49 MJ/kg), negligible acidity, higher oxidation stability and higher cetane number ({proportional_to}77) than conventional biodiesel. The overall product yield is {proportional_to}92% v/v. This new suggested technology is extremely appealing as it employs existing refinery infrastructure and expertise, offers feedstock flexibility, leaves no by-product and above all is economically attractive. (orig.)

  7. System and technique for ultrasonic determination of degree of cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J [Richland, WA; Diaz, Aaron A [W. Richland, WA; Judd, Kayte M [Richland, WA; Pappas, Richard A [Richland, WA; Cliff, William C [Richland, WA; Pfund, David M [Richland, WA; Morgen, Gerald P [Kennewick, WA

    2007-03-20

    A method and apparatus are described for determining the doneness of food during a cooking process. Ultrasonic signal are passed through the food during cooking. The change in transmission characteristics of the ultrasonic signal during the cooking process is measured to determine the point at which the food has been cooked to the proper level. In one aspect, a heated fluid cooks the food, and the transmission characteristics along a fluid-only ultrasonic path provides a reference for comparison with the transmission characteristics for a food-fluid ultrasonic path.

  8. Is cooking at home associated with better diet quality or weight-loss intention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N

    2015-06-01

    To examine national patterns in cooking frequency and diet quality among adults in the USA, overall and by weight-loss intention. Analysis of cross-sectional 24 h dietary recall and interview data. Diet quality measures included total kilojoules per day, grams of fat, sugar and carbohydrates per day, fast-food meals per week, and frozen/pizza and ready-to-eat meals consumed in the past 30 d. Multivariable regression analysis was used to test associations between frequency of cooking dinner per week (low (0-1), medium (2-5) and high (6-7)), dietary outcomes and weight-loss intention. The 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Adults aged 20 years and over (n 9569). In 2007-2010, 8 % of adults lived in households in which someone cooked dinner 0-1 times/week and consumed, on an average day, 9627 total kilojoules, 86 g fat and 135 g sugar. Overall, compared with low cookers (0-1 times/week), a high frequency of cooking dinner (6-7 times/week) was associated with lower consumption of daily kilojoules (9054 v. 9627 kJ, P=0·002), fat (81 v. 86 g, P=0·016) and sugar (119 v. 135 g, Pdinner frequently at home is associated with consumption of a healthier diet whether or not one is trying to lose weight. Strategies are needed to encourage more cooking among the general population and help infrequent cookers better navigate the food environment outside the home.

  9. Studies on Tasar Cocoon Cooking Using Permeation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javali, Uday C.; Malali, Kiran B.; Ramya, H. G.; Naik, Subhas V.; Padaki, Naveen V.

    2018-02-01

    Cocoon cooking is an important process before reeling of tasar silk yarn. Cooking ensures loosening of the filaments in the tasar cocoons thereby easing the process of yarn withdrawal during reeling process. Tasar cocoons have very hard shell and hence these cocoons need chemical cooking process to loosen the silk filaments. Attempt has been made in this article to study the effect of using vacuum permeation chamber for tasar cocoon cooking in order to reduce the cooking time and improve the quality of tasar silk yarn. Vacuum assisted permeation cooking method has been studied in this article on tasar daba cocoons for cooking efficiency, deflossing and reelability. Its efficiency has been evaluated with respect to different cooking methods viz, traditional and open pan cooking methods. The tasar silk produced after reeling process has been tested for fineness, strength and cohesion properties. Results indicate that permeation method of tasar cooking ensures uniform cooking with higher efficiency along with better reeling performance and improved yarn properties.

  10. Jamie's Ministry of Food: quasi-experimental evaluation of immediate and sustained impacts of a cooking skills program in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flego, Anna; Herbert, Jessica; Waters, Elizabeth; Gibbs, Lisa; Swinburn, Boyd; Reynolds, John; Moodie, Marj

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the immediate and sustained effectiveness of the first Jamie's Ministry of Food Program in Australia on individuals' cooking confidence and positive cooking/eating behaviours. A quasi- experimental repeated measures design was used incorporating a wait-list control group. A questionnaire was developed and administered at baseline (T1), immediately post program (T2) and 6 months post completion (T3) for participants allocated to the intervention group, while wait -list controls completed it 10 weeks prior to program commencement (T1) and just before program commencement (T2). The questionnaire measured: participants' confidence to cook, the frequency of cooking from basic ingredients, and consumption of vegetables, vegetables with the main meal, fruit, ready-made meals and takeaway. Analysis used a linear mixed model approach for repeated measures using all available data to determine mean differences within and between groups over time. All adult participants (≥18 years) who registered and subsequently participated in the program in Ipswich, Queensland, between late November 2011- December 2013, were invited to participate. In the intervention group: 694 completed T1, 383 completed T1 and T2 and 214 completed T1, T2 and T3 assessments. In the wait-list group: 237 completed T1 and 149 completed T1 and T2 assessments. Statistically significant increases within the intervention group (Pcooking confidence measures between T1 and T2 as well as cooking from basic ingredients, frequency of eating vegetables with the main meal and daily vegetable intake (0.52 serves/day increase). Statistically significant increases at T2 were sustained at 6 months post program in the intervention group. Jamie's Ministry of Food Program, Australia improved individuals' cooking confidence and cooking/eating behaviours contributing to a healthier diet and is a promising community-based strategy to influence diet quality.

  11. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  12. Evaluation of Cooking Oil as Processing Addtive for Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. SYAMIN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It was reported recently that high amount of aromatic ring  or number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds found in aromatic oil are carcinogenic. This paper discusses the work to evaluate the Malaysian cooking oil as an alternative option to be used as process oil since cooking oil is safe to use and non-toxic. The performance of cooking oil is compared againstaromatic and paraffinioils. The results showed that rubber compounds containing cooking oil produced almostsimilar cure characteristicsas those produced by aromatic and paraffinioils indicating that it did not interfere with the vulcanization reaction. The physical properties of the vulcanizates containing cooking oil were almostsimilar to those of vulcanizates containing aromatic and paraffinioils, except the rebound resilience. The vulcanizates containing cooking oil gave higher resilience than vulcanizates containing aromatic and paraffinioils. High resilience is one of the desired features for a low rolling resistance tyre. Cooking oil provided this extra advantage.

  13. Lightship Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  14. DailyMed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Web site provides health information...

  15. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  16. Occurrence and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives in a rural Chinese home through biomass fuelled cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Junnan; Zhong Junjun; Yang Yifeng; Li Bengang; Shen Guofeng; Su Yuhong; Wang Chen; Li Wei; Shen Huizhong; Wang Bin; Wang Rong; Huang Ye; Zhang Yanyan; Cao Hongying; Zhu Ying; Simonich, Staci L.M.; Tao Shu

    2012-01-01

    The concentration and composition of PAHs emitted from biomass cooking fuel were characterized in a rural non-smoking household in northern China. Twenty-two parent PAHs (pPAHs), 12 nitro-PAHs (nPAHs), and 4 oxy-PAHs (oPAHs) were measured in the kitchen, bedroom, and outdoors during both summer and winter. The most severe contamination occurred in the kitchen in the winter, where the daily mean concentrations of pPAHs, nPAHs, and oPAHs were 7500 ± 4100, 38 ± 29, and 8400 ± 9200 ng/m 3 , respectively. Our results suggest that the nPAHs were largely from secondary formation in ambient air while oPAHs were either from primary emission of biomass burning or secondary formation from pPAHs in the kitchen. The daily mean benzo(a)pyrene equivalent exposure concentration was as high as 200 ± 160 ng/m 3 in the winter for the housewife who did the cooking compared to 59 ± 37 ng/m 3 for the control group that did not cook. - Highlights: ► Very high levels of parent PAHs, nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs were detected in a rural non-smoking household in northern China. ► The PAHs measured in the bedroom air were primarily from the kitchen in the winter and from ambient air in the summer. ► The nPAHs were largely from secondary formation in ambient air, while oPAHs were either from primary emission of biomass burning or secondary formation. ► The daily mean benzo(a)pyrene equivalent exposure concentration was as high as 200 ± 160 ng/m 3 in the winter for the cooking housewife. - Rural residents, particularly housewives that cook, are exposed to very high PAH, including nitro and oxygenated-PAH, concentrations in indoor air.

  17. Cooking and palatability traits of beef longissimus steaks cooked with a belt grill or an open hearth electric broiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of belt grill and Open Hearth electric broiler cookery on palatability and cooking traits of longissimus steaks. The longissimus thoracis from carcasses of grain-fed steers or heifers was used. Duplicate measurements were made for Warner-Bratzler shear force at 3 and at 14 d after slaughter (n = 180) and trained sensory evaluation at 14 d after slaughter (n = 91) using both cooking methods. Belt grill-cooked samples had lower (P<.01) percentage of cooking losses (21.5 vs 25.8%) and higher (P<.01) shear force values (4.6 vs 4.3 kg) than electric broiler-cooked samples. Repeatability of duplicate measurements was higher for cooking losses (.58 vs .23) and shear force values (.85 vs .64) for belt grill than for electric broiler cooked samples. Belt grilled steaks had lower (P<.01) cooking losses (20.2 vs 29.8%); higher (P<.01) tenderness (7.0 vs 6.7) and juiciness (6.0 vs 5.1); and lower (P<.02) connective tissue amount (7.7 vs 7.8), beef flavor intensity (5.0 vs 5.1), and off-flavor (3.2 vs 3.3) ratings than steaks cooked with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the repeatability of duplicate sensory measurements for tenderness (.87 vs .71), connective tissue amount (.66 vs .30), and juiciness (.51 vs .08) ratings, and cooking losses (.63 vs .18) compared with cooking with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the precision for measurements of cooking, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and palatability traits of beef longissimus thoracis.

  18. Perspectives on learning to cook and public support for cooking education policies in the United States: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Bleich, Sara N; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Teret, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Declines in cooking skills in the United States may contribute to poor diet quality and high obesity rates. Little is known about how Americans learn to cook or their support for cooking education policies. The objective of this study was to examine how Americans learn to cook, attributions of responsibility for teaching children how to cook, and public support for policies to teach cooking skills. We used a concurrent, triangulation mixed-methods design that combined qualitative focus group data (from 7 focus groups in Baltimore, MD (N = 53)) with quantitative survey data from a nationally representative, web-based survey (N = 1112). We analyzed focus group data (using grounded theory) and survey data (using multivariable logistic regression). We find that relatively few Americans learn to cook from formal instruction in school or community cooking classes; rather, they primarily learn from their parents and/or by teaching themselves using cookbooks, recipe websites or by watching cooking shows on television. While almost all Americans hold parents and other family members responsible for teaching children how to cook, a broad majority of the public supports requiring cooking skills to be taught in schools either through existing health education (64%) or through dedicated home economics courses (67%). Slightly less than half of all Americans (45%) support increasing funding for cooking instruction for participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Broad public support for teaching cooking skills in schools suggests that schools are one promising avenue for policy action. However, school-based strategies should be complemented with alternatives that facilitate self-learning. More research is needed to identify effective means of teaching and disseminating the key cooking skills and knowledge that support healthy eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The structural features of hemicelluloses dissolved out at different cooking stages of active oxygen cooking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianbin; Yang, Qiulin; Lin, Lu

    2014-04-15

    This work described the morphologic changes of corn stalk and the structural characterization of its hemicelluloses dissolved in yellow liquor at different cooking stages. The results showed that active oxygen cooking process was an efficient method to depolymerize the corn stalk into cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin as a pretreatment of biomass conversion. This cooking process can also be divided into three phases: bulk delignification, extended delignification, and residual delignification. During the heating-up period 57.67% of hemicelluloses and 62.31% of lignin were removed from the raw material. However, only 15% of hemicelluloses and 23.21% of lignin were removed during at temperature' period. The hemicelluloses from the corn stalk and yellow liquor were composed of (1→4)-β-D-xylopyranose backbones substituted with α-l-arabinofuranosyl, 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronic acid, and some methoxyl residues. The backbones of hemicelluloses were gradually cleaved during the cooking process. The acetyl groups substituted with xylopyranosyl residues were completely cleaved during the cooking process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chimpanzees, cooking, and a more comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Hopper, Lydia M; de Waal, Frans B M; Brosnan, Sarah F; Sayers, Ken

    2016-06-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offered alternative explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees, and questioned the manner in which the data were used to examine human evolution (Beran, Hopper, de Waal, Sayers, & Brosnan, 2015). Two commentaries suggested either that we were overly critical of the original report's claims and methodology (Rosati & Warneken, 2016), or that, contrary to our statements, early biological thinkers contributed little to questions concerning the evolutionary importance of cooking (Wrangham, 2016). In addition, both commentaries took issue with our treatment of chimpanzee referential models in human evolutionary studies. Our response offers points of continued disagreement as well as points of conciliation. We view Warneken and Rosati's general conclusions as a case of affirming the consequent-a logical conundrum in which, in this case, a demonstration of a partial list of the underlying abilities required for a cognitive trait/suite (understanding of cooking) are suggested as evidence for that ability. And although we strongly concur with both Warneken and Rosati (2015) and Wrangham (2016) that chimpanzee research is invaluable and essential to understanding humanness, it can only achieve its potential via the holistic inclusion of all available evidence-including that from other animals, evolutionary theory, and the fossil and archaeological records.

  1. A Study on the Relationship between Cooking Properties of Adzuki Bean and Storage Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Isao; Breene, William M.; 早川, 功

    1982-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Phaseolus angularis) has been used for many cooking purposes in Japan. The basic method for adzuki bean cooking is heating in the presence of moisture, it seems that the differences of moisture content between the beans before cooking and between cooking methods have influence on the qualities of cooking products. But there is a general complaint about the poor cooking properties of these beans. Since the cooking properties depend, both on the moisture contents of bean before coo...

  2. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  3. Influence of cooking methods on bioactive compounds in beetroot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Arruda Ramos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Beetroot is rich in bioactive compounds that may provide health benefits. However, vegetable tissues are physically and chemically damaged by cooking, causing major changes to compounds in cell membranes. The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of several cooking methods on bioactive compounds in beetroot. Four heat treatments were carried out: steam cooking, pressure cooking, baking in an oven, and boiling in water. Beets were matched in uniformity of size, color, and absence of defects. They were washed thoroughly in running water to remove dirt. Next, one of the four cooking methods was applied. After cooking, beets were peeled by hand. Analysis was carried out on both uncooked and cooked beets to evaluate antioxidant activity, content of phenolic compounds, pigments, flavonoids, and betalains. The experiment was completely randomized design (CRD and carried out in triplicate. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (F test, p < 0.05 and mean values compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. There was no change in antioxidant activity or total phenolic and anthocyanin content by any of the cooking methods compared to that in raw beetroots. However, pressure-cooking resulted in lower carotenoid levels compared to that in raw beet. Furthermore, flavonoid and betalain content decreased by all the cooking methods.

  4. Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...

  5. Determination of advanced glycation endproducts in cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gengjun; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a pathogenic factor implicated in diabetes and other chronic diseases, are produced in cooked meat products. The objective of this study was to determine the AGE content, as measured by Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) levels, in cooked chicken, pork, beef and fish (salmon and tilapia) prepared by three common cooking methods used by U.S. consumers: frying, baking, and broiling. The CML was detected in all the cooked samples, but the levels were dependent on types of meat, cooking conditions, and the final internal temperature. Broiling and frying at higher cooking temperature produced higher levels of CML, and broiled beef contained the highest CML content (21.8μg/g). Baked salmon (8.6μg/g) and baked tilapia (9.7μg/g) contained less CML as compared to the other muscle food samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Used cooking oil as a green chemical admixture in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmia, B; Sidek, L M; Hidayah, B; Muda, Zakaria Che; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2013-01-01

    According to National Statistics Approximately 1.35 billion gallons of used oil are generated yearly. With the increasing of the concrete usage, a more cost effective and economic new type of admixtures may give positive impacts on the Malaysian construction building as well as worldwide concrete usage. To objective of this is study is to investigate the effect of used cooking oil in terms of slump test, compressive strength test and rebound hammer. By adding the used cooking oil to the concrete, it increases the slump value from 4% to 72%. And the compressive strength have an increment from 1% to 16.8%. The used cooking oil obtains the optimum contribution to the concrete mix proportion of containing used cooking oil of 1.50% from the cement content. The result of used cooking oil from experimental program of slump value and compressive strength proved that used cooking oil have positive effects on replacement of commercially available superplasticizer.

  7. Effect of Dietary Fiber Enrichment and Different Cooking Methods on Quality of Chicken Nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathera, Ashok K; Riar, C S; Yadav, Sanjay; Sharma, D P

    2017-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber enrichment (wheat bran) and cooking methods (oven, steam and microwave) on functional and physico-chemical properties of raw nuggets formulation as well as nutritional, color and textural properties of chicken nuggets were analyzed in this study. Among different cooking methods used for nuggets preparation, steam cooked nuggets had significantly ( p cooking yield (97.16%) and total dietary fiber content (4.32%) in comparison to oven and microwave cooked nuggets. The effect of cooking methods and wheat bran incorporation was also noticed on textural properties of the nuggets. Hardness, firmness and toughness values of oven and steam cooked nuggets were significantly ( p cooked nuggets. Among nuggets prepared by different cooking methods, cohesiveness of microwave cooked nuggets was found to be significantly ( p cooked nuggets had significantly ( p cooked nuggets were found to be better among all nuggets due to their higher cooking yield and dietary fiber content.

  8. Computational representation of Alzheimer's disease evolution applied to a cooking activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Audrey; Rialle, Vincent; Pigot, Hélène

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a computational model and a simulation of the decrease of activities of daily living performances due to Alzheimer's disease. The disease evolution is simulated thanks to the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Activities are represented according to the retrieval of semantic units in declarative memory and the trigger of rules in procedural memory. The simulation of Alzheimer's disease decrease is simulated thanks to the variation of subsymbolic parameters. The model is applied to a cooking activity. Simulation of 100 hundred subjects shows results similar to those realised in a standardized assessment with human subjects.

  9. Professional cooking: new approaches; Restauration professionnelle: nouvelles approches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on professional cooking to present the existing gas solutions to manage together the space heating, the air conditioning, the refrigeration and the cooking: evolution of markets with new consumer habits, natural gas technologies and innovations, architecture of cooking rooms: esthetics and functionality, opening of energy markets and new gas supplying contracts. (J.S.)

  10. The curiously long absence of cooking in evolutionary thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, R

    2016-06-01

    Beran et al. (2015, p. 1) characterized the idea that "cooked food was integral in human evolution" as a "long-held hypothesis" favored by Darwin and Engels. In fact, however, although Darwin and Engels considered the use of cooked food to be an important influence on behavior and society, neither of them suggested that its effects were evolutionary in the sense of affecting biology. Explicit discussion of the possible evolutionary impacts of cooking did not begin until the twentieth century.

  11. Occurrence of heterocyclic amines in several home-cooked meat dishes of the Spanish diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, R; Bordas, M; Toribio, F; Puignou, L; Galceran, M T

    2004-03-25

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) were determined in several of the most frequently eaten meat dishes in Spain such as fried beef hamburger, fried pork loin, fried chicken breast, fried pork sausages, griddled chicken breast, griddled lamb steak and griddled beef steak. All of the products tested were household cooked. The HAs were analysed in the selected meat dishes using an analytical method based on solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. DMIP, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, Norharman, Harman, PhIP, Trp-P-1, AalphaC and MeAalphaC were the amines most frequently found at concentrations of up to 47 ng g(-1) of cooked meat. Glu-P-2, IQ, MeIQ, Glu-P-1, 7,8-DiMeIQx and Trp-P-2 were only found in a few of the meat dishes and their concentrations were lower than 1 ng g(-1) of cooked meat. The highest amounts of HAs, especially PhIP and DMIP, were formed in fried chicken breast and the lowest were formed in fried beef hamburger and in fried pork sausages. Daily intake of HAs in Spain was estimated at 606 ng of mutagenic HAs per capita and day, DMIP and PhIP being the main contributors.

  12. Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected vegetables: okra fruit ( Abelmoshcus esculentus ), fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis ), African spinach ( Amarantus viridis ), and scent leaf ( Ocumum gratissimum.

  13. Effect of cooking on radionuclide concentrations in waterfowl tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four commercially raised mallar ducks (Anas platyrhyncos) were released at the Test Reactor Area radioactive leaching ponds, and subsequently collected 56 to 188 days later. Liver, gizzard, and carcass were analyzed for radionuclide concentrations before and after cooking. Significant decreases (P 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 60 Co, 140 La and /sup 110m/Ag concentrations in carcass and liver samples occurred after cooking. Radionuclide concentrations in gizzard showed no significant change in radionuclide concentrations after cooking. Cesium-134 and 137 Cs concentrations decreased by 27% in carcass after cooking and reduced the dose commitment to man by that amount

  14. Fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers during cooking of fish in a new model cooking apparatus and a household microwave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendig, Paul; Hägele, Florian; Blumenstein, Marina; Schmidt, Jasmin; Vetter, Walter

    2013-07-10

    Fish is a major source of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Because fish is mainly consumed after cooking, this measure may alter the pattern and amounts of PBDEs that are finally consumed. To investigate this issue, we developed a model cooking apparatus consisting of a small glass bowl and a beaker glass with an exhaust fitted with a polyurethane foam filter connected to a water jet pump. In this model cooking apparatus, fish (1 g) and/or sunflower oil (0.2/0.4 g) spiked with three PBDE congeners was cooked for 30 min. Small amounts of the semi-volatile PBDEs were evaporated from the fish (BDE-47 cooking apparatus proved to be well-suited to study the fate of polyhalogenated compounds in fish during cooking.

  15. Emissions from street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling). Final report, January 1998--March 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-06-01

    The report discusses a joint US/Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in the streets of Mexicali, Mexico, were investigated experimentally by measuring levels of particulate matter, particle size distributions, volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, aldehydes, and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, emitted when meat is cooked on a grill over a charcoal fire. To investigate the emission rate, both beef and chicken were tested. Furthermore, both meats were marinated with a mixture similar to that used by the street vendors. Some tests were conducted with non-marinated beef for comparison. Two blank runs were performed sampling charcoal fires without meat. Finally, a simple control device, normally used in an exhaust fan to trap grease over a kitchen stove, was evaluated for its effectiveness in reducing emissions

  16. Polysaccharide composition of raw and cooked chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) fruits and tuberous roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Tânia M; Peroni-Okita, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Carpita, Nicholas C; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2015-10-05

    Chayote is a multipurpose table vegetable widely consumed in Latin America countries. Chayote fruits, leaves and tuberous roots contain complex carbohydrates as dietary fiber and starch, vitamins and minerals. The complex polysaccharides (cell walls and starch) were analyzed in the black and green varieties of chayote fruits as well as in green chayote tuberous root before and after a controlled cooking process to assess changes in their composition and structure. The monosaccharide composition and linkage analysis indicated pectins homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan I backbones constitute about 15-20% of the wall mass, but are heavily substituted with, up to 60% neutral arabinans, galactans, arabinogalactans. The remainder is composed of xyloglucan, glucomannans and galactoglucomannans. Chayote cell-wall polysaccharides are highly stable under normal cooking conditions, as confirmed by the optical microscopy of wall structure. We found also that tuberous roots constitute a valuable additional source of quality starch and fiber. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Mutagens from the cooking of food. II. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in the major protein-rich foods of the American diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjeldanes, L.F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Morris, M.M.; Felton, J.S.; Healy, S.; Stuermer, D.; Berry, P.; Timourian, H.; Hatch, F.T.

    1982-01-01

    The formation of mutagens in the major cooked protein-rich foods in the US diet was studied in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. The nine protein-rich foods most commonly eaten in the USA--ground beef, beef steak, eggs, pork chops, fried chicken, pot-roasted beef, ham, roast beef and bacon--were examined for their mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA1538 after normal 'household' cooking (deep frying, griddle/pan frying, baking/roasting, broiling, stewing, braising or boiling at 100-475/sup 0/C). Well-done fried ground beef, beef steak, ham, pork chops and bacon showed significant mutagen formation. For chicken and beef steak high-temperature broiling produced the most mutagenicity, followed by baking/roasting and frying. Stewing, braising and deep frying produced little mutagen. Eggs andd egg products produced mutagens only after cooking at high temperatures (the yolk to a greater extent than the white). Commercially cooked hamburgers showed a wide range of mutagenic activity. We conclude that mutagen formation following cooking of protein-containing foods is a complex function of food type, cooking time and cooking temperature. It seems clear that all the major protein-rich foods if cooked to a well-done state on the griddle (eggs only at temperature above 225/sup 0/C) or by broiling will contain mutagens detectable by the Ames/Salmonella assay. This survey is a step towards determining whether any human health hazard results from cooking protein-rich foods. Further testing in both short- and long-term genotoxicity bioassays and carcinogenesis assays are needed before any human risk extrapolations can be made.

  18. Mutagens from the cooking of food. II. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in the major protein-rich foods of the American diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjeldanes, L F; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T

    1982-08-01

    The formation of mutagens in the major cooked protein-rich foods in the US diet was studied in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. The nine protein-rich foods most commonly eaten in the USA--ground beef, beef steak, eggs, pork chops, fried chicken, pot-roasted beef, ham, roast beef and bacon--were examined for their mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA1538 after normal 'household' cooking (deep frying, griddle/pan frying, baking/roasting, broiling, stewing, braising or boiling of 100-475 degrees C). Well-done fried ground beef, beef steak, ham pork chops and bacon showed significant mutagen formation. For chicken and beef steak high-temperature broiling produced the most mutagenicity, followed by baking/roasting and frying. Stewing, braising and deep frying produced little mutagen. Eggs and egg products produced mutagens only after cooking at high temperatures (the yolk to a greater extent than the white). Commercially cooked hamburgers showed a wide range of mutagenic activity. We conclude that mutagen formation following cooking of protein-containing foods is a complex function of food type, cooking time and cooking temperature. It seems clear that all the major protein-rich foods if cooked to a well-done state on the griddle (eggs only at temperatures above 225 degrees C) or by broiling will contain mutagens detectable by the Ames/Salmonella assay. This survey is a step towards determining whether any human health hazard results from cooking protein-rich foods. Further testing in both short- and long-term genotoxicity bioassays and carcinogenesis assays are needed before any human risk extrapolations can be made.

  19. Influence of a School-Based Cooking Course on Students' Food Preferences, Cooking Skills, and Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Rola; Sibeko, Lindiwe

    2017-03-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the influence of Project CHEF, a hands-on cooking and tasting program offered in Vancouver public schools, on students' food preferences, cooking skills, and confidence. Grade 4 and 5 students in an intervention group (n = 68) and a comparison group (n = 32) completed a survey at baseline and 2 to 3 weeks later. Students who participated in Project CHEF reported an increased familiarity and preference for the foods introduced through the program. This was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) for broccoli, swiss chard, carrots, and quinoa. A higher percentage of students exposed to Project CHEF reported a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in: cutting vegetables and fruit (97% vs 81%), measuring ingredients (67% vs 44%), using a knife (94% vs 82%), and making a balanced meal on their own (69% vs 34%). They also reported a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in confidence making the recipes introduced in the program: fruit salad (85% vs 81%), minestrone soup (25% vs 10%), and vegetable tofu stir fry (39% vs 26%). Involving students in hands-on cooking and tasting programs can increase their preferences for unpopular or unfamiliar foods and provide them with the skills and cooking confidence they need to prepare balanced meals.

  20. Cooking Can Be Profitable; Commercial Cooking and Baking 1:9193.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is prepared as a guide for the 10th grade student in Commercial Cooking and Baking or Food Management Production and Service. The course introduces the student to effective production of high quality foods and develops an understanding of high standards in quality food service. Totaling 90 hours of instruction, nine blocks of…

  1. Simply Great Cooking Instruction. A Manual for Teaching Cooking to Non-Reading Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesto, Cameron

    This manual presents a method of teaching cooking to nonreaders. The language of the method consists of visual symbols, such as drawings of bowls, spoons, and ingredients, and color. The "Simply Great" method consists of three basic formats: the one-step booklet, the full-page format, and the simply written for the student with some…

  2. Conference in honor of Kenneth Cooke

    CERN Document Server

    Martelli, Mario

    1991-01-01

    The meeting explored current directions of research in delay differential equations and related dynamical systems and celebrated the contributions of Kenneth Cooke to this field on the occasion of his 65th birthday. The volume contains three survey papers reviewing three areas of current research and seventeen research contributions. The research articles deal with qualitative properties of solutions of delay differential equations and with bifurcation problems for such equations and other dynamical systems. A companion volume in the biomathematics series (LN in Biomathematics, Vol. 22) contains contributions on recent trends in population and mathematical biology.

  3. The enigma of cooking salt crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolskaya, E.

    1987-01-01

    Two Soviet experts, Vladimir Gromov and Valentin Krylov, have discovered an unexpected phenomenon on irradiating cooking salt crystals with electrons. When the crystals are subsequently ground the rate at which they are dissolved increases, but not always. The electrons cause the salt molecules to polarize thus creating an internal electric field. This acts against the double electric layer which is inevitably formed in the part of the solution touching the crystal surface. So, if the permittivity of the solution is much greater than that of the molecules of the crystal, the rate of dissolution is increased, and vice versa. (G.T.H.)

  4. Opportunity Examining Composition of 'Cook Islands' Outcrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This image taken by the front hazard-avoidance camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's arm extended to examine the composition of a rock using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. Opportunity took this image during the 1,826th Martian day, or sol, of the rover's Mars-surface mission (March 13, 2009). The spectrometer is at a target called 'Penrhyn,' on a rock called 'Cook Islands.' As Opportunity makes its way on a long journey from Victoria Crater toward Endeavour Crater, the team is stopping the drive occasionally on the route to check whether the rover finds a trend in the composition of rock exposures.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain among professional cooks working in school lunch services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmyo Yoshiomi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of self-reported low back pain among professional cooks was estimated to examine the effects of daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors on this disorder. Methods Data was collected using a mailed self-administered questionnaire. Results Of 7100 cooks, 5835 (82% replied to the questionnaire, including 1010 men and 4825 women. The mean age was 41.4 for men and 47.5 for women. The prevalence of low back pain during a 1-month period was 72.2% among men and 74.7% among women, with no significant differences between groups. By logistic regression analyses, factors significantly associated with the prevalence of low back pain in 1 month were female gender (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03–1.68, current smoking (PR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.24–1.98, and past smoking (PR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01–1.79. As for job-related factors, the number of cooked lunches per person (PR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05–1.56, breaks in the morning session (PR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13–1.56, kitchen environment (PR 1.09; 95%, CI, 1.03–1.15, and height of cooking equipment (PR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08–1.19 were associated with the prevalence of low back pain. As for psychological factors, job satisfaction (PR 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03–1.45, stress at work (PR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.42–1.99, financial constraints (PR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03–1.47, health-related stress (PR 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08–1.59 and worries about the future (PR 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01–1.52 were similarly associated. Conclusion Daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors are associated with the occurrence of low back pain. It is important to take comprehensive preventive measures to address a range of work and life conditions that can be improved to decrease the incidence of low back pain for professional cooks.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain among professional cooks working in school lunch services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasu, Miwako; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Shigeru; Temmyo, Yoshiomi; Ueno, Mitsuo; Miyagi, Shigeji

    2007-07-24

    The prevalence of self-reported low back pain among professional cooks was estimated to examine the effects of daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors on this disorder. Data was collected using a mailed self-administered questionnaire. Of 7100 cooks, 5835 (82%) replied to the questionnaire, including 1010 men and 4825 women. The mean age was 41.4 for men and 47.5 for women. The prevalence of low back pain during a 1-month period was 72.2% among men and 74.7% among women, with no significant differences between groups. By logistic regression analyses, factors significantly associated with the prevalence of low back pain in 1 month were female gender (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.68), current smoking (PR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.24-1.98), and past smoking (PR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01-1.79). As for job-related factors, the number of cooked lunches per person (PR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.56), breaks in the morning session (PR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13-1.56), kitchen environment (PR 1.09; 95%, CI, 1.03-1.15), and height of cooking equipment (PR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.19) were associated with the prevalence of low back pain. As for psychological factors, job satisfaction (PR 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.45), stress at work (PR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.42-1.99), financial constraints (PR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.47), health-related stress (PR 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.59) and worries about the future (PR 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.52) were similarly associated. Daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors are associated with the occurrence of low back pain. It is important to take comprehensive preventive measures to address a range of work and life conditions that can be improved to decrease the incidence of low back pain for professional cooks.

  7. Influence of infrared final cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirci, Perihan; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze; Onogur, Tomris Altug

    2014-06-01

    Effects of infrared cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooking at a voltage gradient of 15.26V/cm for 92s. Infrared cooking was applied as a final cooking method at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, 8.475kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, 16.5cm) and application durations (4, 8, 12min). PAHs were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector. The total PAH levels were detected to be between 4.47 and 64μg/kg. Benzo[a] pyrene (B[a]P) and PAH4 (sum of B[a]P, chrysene (Chr), benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F)) levels detected in meatballs were below the EC limits. Ohmic pre-cooking followed by infrared cooking may be regarded as a safe cooking procedure of meatballs from a PAH contamination point of view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of pre-cooking protein paste gelation conditions and post-cooking gel storage conditions on gel texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Ilgin; Matak, Kristen E

    2016-01-15

    Gelation conditions affect the setting of myofibrillar fish protein gels. Therefore the impact of widely applied pre-cooking gelation time/temperature strategies and post-cooking period on the texture and color of final protein gels was determined. Four pre-cooking gelation strategies (no setting time, 30 min at 25 °C, 1 h at 40 °C or 24 h at 4 °C) were applied to protein pastes (fish protein concentrate and standard functional additives). After cooking, texture and color were analyzed either directly or after 24 h at 4 °C on gels adjusted to 25 °C. No-set gels were harder, gummier and chewier (P cooking. Gel-setting conditions had a greater (P cooking stored gels in texture and color, depending on the pre-cooking gelation strategy. Pre-cooking gelation conditions will affect final protein gel texture and color, with gel stability benefiting from a gel-setting period. However, post-cooking storage may have a greater impact on final gels, with textural attributes becoming more consistent between all samples. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  10. Efficient utilization of short rotation tree biomass for cooking in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R.; Chauhan, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    The human as well as livestock population increase is phenomenal in developing world including India. The survival of this huge population certainly depends on the carrying capacity of the natural systems, which is essentially determined by the nature itself. Present state of the forests can satisfy the needs of certain population and the demand for wood has rapidly outstripped the sustainability of forests. The fuelwood requirements in the developing world is approximately 80 per cent of total wood requirements and is the major cause of forest degradation. Therefore, there is need to maximize the productivity on one hand and protection/extention of the area on another hand. Wood substitution is an option including shifting from fuelwood for cooking to fossil fuels but in the changing climatic situation, this option is short term alternative. There is need to produce more and use the same efficiently to reduce the demands. Millions of households across the country are using crude cooking stoves for their daily needs which are not only energy inefficient but detrimental to women health also. It has been the policy of Government to encourage trees outside forests to minimize the pressure from forests through meeting requirements outside forests, which is possible through intensively managed short rotation forestry and also some initiatives have been taken to increase the fuelwood efficiency through improved cooking stove, which are working successfully. Woodfuel remained the most important source of household energy in India but regular attempts have not been made to improve the efficiency in its use. This paper will focus on potential of short rotation forestry plantations for energy consumption and its efficient use at domestic scale. This has three fold interrelated economic, environmental and social impact. Key words: Short Rotation Forestry, trees outside forests, wood energy, cooking stove

  11. Domestic cooking and food skills: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Laura; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Lavelle, Fiona; Hollywood, Lynsey; McDowell, Dawn; Spence, Michelle; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Dean, Moira

    2017-07-24

    Domestic cooking skills (CS) and food skills (FS) encompass multiple components, yet there is a lack of consensus on their constituent parts, inter-relatedness, or measurement, leading to limited empirical support for their role in influencing dietary quality. This review assessed the measurement of CS and FS in adults (>16 years); critically examining study designs, psychometric properties of measures, theoretical basis, and associations of CS/FS with diet. Electronic databases (PsychInfo), published reports, and systematic reviews on cooking and home food preparation interventions provided 834 articles of which 26 met the inclusion criteria. Multiple CS/FS measures were identified across three study designs-qualitative, cross-sectional, and dietary interventions-conducted from 1998 to 2013. Most measures were not theory-based, limited psychometric data were available, with little consistency of items or scales used for CS/FS measurements. Some positive associations between CS/FS and fruit and vegetables intake were reported, though lasting dietary changes were uncommon. The role of psycho-social (e.g., gender, attitudes) and external factors (e.g., food availability) on CS/FS is discussed. A conceptual framework of CS/FS components is presented for future measurement facilitation, which highlights the role for CS/FS on food-related behavior and dietary quality. This will aid future dietary intervention design.

  12. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Masamitsu; Meshitsuka, Gyosuke; Ishizu, Atsushi; Nakano, Junzo

    1981-01-01

    Pre-irradiation of wood in alkaline aqueous ethanol increases kraft pulp yield by up to 1.2%, as already reported. In order to clarify the mechanism of the pulp yield gain, the behaviors of lignin and carbohydrates during pre-irradiation and cooking were investigated. The results are summarized as follows: 1) γ-Irradiation of guaiacylethane in alkaline aqueous ethanol produced 5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-guaicylethane, which is formed by radical coupling between α-hydroxyethyl radical from ethanol and guaiacylethane radical having an unpaired electron at C-5. 5,5'-Dehydrodiguaiacylethane, which may be a predominant product produced by γ-irradiation in the absence of ethanol, was also detected. 2) The yield of vanillin obtained by nitrobenzene oxidation of MWL decreased with an increase of γ-ray dosage. The presence of ethanol during γ-irradiation lessened the extent of this decrease and also the degradation of cellobiose. 3) Gel filtration of the products obtained by γ-irradiation of MWL and cellobiose in the presence of 14 C-ethanol showed the possible combination between ethanol and MWL or cellobiose. 4) Molecular weight distributions of kraft lignin obtained from pre-irradiated beech chips were compared with those obtained from unirradiated chips. This result shows that γ-irradiation in the presence of ethanol decreases the ability of lignin to condense during kraft cooking. (author)

  13. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Arsenic species in wheat, raw and cooked rice: Exposure and associated health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Hifza; Kay, Paul; Slack, Rebecca; Gong, Yun Yun

    2018-09-01

    Arsenic concentrations above 10μgL -1 were previously found in 89% of ground water sources in six villages of Pakistan. The present study has ascertained the health risks associated with exposure to total arsenic (tAs) and its species in most frequently consumed foods. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) concentrations were found to be 92.5±41.88μgkg -1 , 79.21±76.42μgkg -1 , and 116.38±51.38μgkg -1 for raw rice, cooked rice and wheat respectively. The mean tAs concentrations were 47.47±30.72μgkg -1 , 71.65±74.7μgkg -1 , 105±61.47μgkg -1 . Wheat is therefore demonstrated to be a significant source of arsenic exposure. Dimethylarsinic acid was the main organic species detected in rice, whilst monomethylarsonic acid was only found at trace levels. Total daily intake of iAs exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intake of 2.1μgkg -1 day -1 body weight in 74% of study participants due to concurrent intake from water (94%), wheat (5%) and raw rice (1%). A significant association between tAs in cooked rice and cooking water resulted in tAs intake 43% higher in cooked rice compared to raw rice. The study suggests that arsenic intake from food, particularly from wheat consumption, holds particular significance where iAs is relatively low in water. Chronic health risks were found to be significantly higher from wheat intake than rice, whilst the risk in terms of acute effects was below the USEPA's limit of 1.0. Children were at significantly higher health risk than adults due to iAs exposure from rice and/or wheat. The dietary exposure of participants to tAs was attributable to staple food intake with ground water iAs iAs in drinking water. Although the daily iAs intake from food was lower than total water intake, the potential health risk from exposure to arsenic and its species still exists and requires exposure control measures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teti, Ermy; Hutabarat, Sakti; Nofionna, Asriati

    2011-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  16. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teti, Ermy; Hutabarat, Sakti; Nofionna, Asriati

    2009-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  17. Cook It Up! A community-based cooking program for at-risk youth: overview of a food literacy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heather MC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are limited occasions for youth, and especially at-risk youth, to participate in cooking programs. The paucity of these programs creates an opportunity for youth-focused cooking programs to be developed, implemented, and evaluated with the goal of providing invaluable life skills and food literacy to this potentially vulnerable group. Thus, an 18-month community-based cooking program for at-risk youth was planned and implemented to improve the development and progression of cooking skills and food literacy. Findings This paper provides an overview of the rationale for and implementation of a cooking skills intervention for at-risk youth. The manuscript provides information about the process of planning and implementing the intervention as well as the evaluation plan. Results of the intervention will be presented elsewhere. Objectives of the intervention included the provision of applied food literacy and cooking skills education taught by local chefs and a Registered Dietitian, and augmented with fieldtrips to community farms to foster an appreciation and understanding of food, from 'gate to plate'. Eight at-risk youth (five girls and three boys, mean age = 14.6 completed the intervention as of November 2010. Pre-test cooking skills assessments were completed for all participants and post-test cooking skills assessments were completed for five of eight participants. Post intervention, five of eight participants completed in-depth interviews about their experience. Discussion The Cook It Up! program can provide an effective template for other agencies and researchers to utilize for enhancing existing programs or to create new applied cooking programs for relevant vulnerable populations. There is also a continued need for applied research in this area to reverse the erosion of cooking skills in Canadian society.

  18. The replacement value of groundnut cake with cooked Bambara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy five day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in which groundnut cake (GNC) was replaced by cooked bambara groundnut meal (CBGM) at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels of inclusion for both starter and finisher phases. Replacement levels of cooked bambara ...

  19. Determination of the optimum dietary levels of cracked and cooked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 35-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimal dietary level(s) of cracked and cooked (CAC) jackbean meal for finisher broilers. Five diets were formulated such that they contained cracked and cooked jackbean meal al 0%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% levels respectively. Each diet was fed to group of 45 ...

  20. Assessment of nutritional quality of cooked Swazi leafy vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brassica oleracea and Spinacia oleracea were also analysed and compared with other vegetables. Sampled vegetables were divided into two categories. All vegetables in category one were cooked without any additives. In category two Hibiscus escolentus and Corchorius olitorus were cooked with bicarbonate of soda ...

  1. A Touching and Contagious Captain Cook: Thinking History through Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Muecke

    2011-04-01

    What, then, is Cook when he is displaced from ‘western’ history and spread around cultures like a virus? How precarious or robust, then, are the historical certainties associated with Cook-monumentalised Kurnell and its place in time as ‘the birthplace of modern Australia’?

  2. Cook & Chill - Rapid Chilling of Food 'in situ'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    for a given product and process and to compare different cooling fluids and methods. Chilling of hot products in professional cooking kettles immediately after cooking is achieved best by using Binary Ice. The paper gives an equation, which describes the cooling velocity for such kettles and other products...

  3. Nutrients and antinutrients composition of raw, cooked and sun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrients and antinutrients composition of raw, cooked and sun-dried sweet potato leaves. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... This study aimed to determine nutrient (iron, calcium, vitamin A and ascorbic acid) and anti-nutrient (oxalates and polyphenols) contents in raw, cooked and dried ...

  4. Impact of Time Expenditure on Household Preferences for Cooking Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Karabee; Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Baruah, Deben C; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2018-01-01

    Access to energy for cooking is one of the major challenges that rural India faces. Most of the rural households of North-Eastern India rely heavily upon fuelwood and traditional open-fire cookstoves for cooking activities. And everyday collection of fuelwood is time-consuming. Hence, women often

  5. Soft condensed matter approach to cooking of meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have viewed cooking meat from the perspective of soft condensed physics and posed that the moisture transport during cooking can be described by Flory-Rehner theory of swelling/shrinking polymer gels. This theory contains the essential physics to describe the transport of liquid moisture due to

  6. Chimpanzee Food Preferences, Associative Learning, and the Origins of Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Hopper, Lydia M.; de Waal, Frans B.M.; Sayers, Ken; Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2015-01-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offer alternate explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees without invoking the understanding of cooking as a process. We discuss broader issues surrounding the use of chimpanzees in modeling hominid behavior and understanding aspects of human evolution. PMID:26659967

  7. Gas cooking, kitchen ventilation, and exposure to combustion products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, SM; Brunekreef, B; Oldenwening, M; Smit, HA; Kerkhof, M; De Vries, H

    We evaluated a questionnaire-based system for classifying homes into groups with distinctly different chances of accumulating combustion products from cooking appliances. The system was based on questions about type of cooking appliance, type and use of ventilation provisions, and kitchen size.

  8. Psychosocial Benefits of Cooking Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Nicole; Touchton-Leonard, Katherine; Ross, Alyson

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Cooking interventions are used in therapeutic and rehabilitative settings; however, little is known about the influence of these interventions on psychosocial outcomes. This systematic review examines the research evidence regarding the influence of cooking interventions on psychosocial outcomes. Methods: A systematic review of the…

  9. The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.; Pellegrini, N.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking induces many chemical and physical modifications in foods; among these the phytochemical content can change. Many authors have studied variations in vegetable nutrients after cooking, and great variability in the data has been reported. In this review more than 100 articles from indexed

  10. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional...

  11. Effects of different traditional cooking methods on nutrients and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of cooking using two different methods of preparing okra soup in Ondo state on nutrient, mineral content including zinc bioavailability of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus. The okra fruits were grated and divided into four lots; two lots were cooked with other ingredients of ...

  12. Development and Performance Evaluation of Charcoal-Fired Cooking Stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndirika, V. I. O.

    2002-01-01

    Three different sizes of cooking stoves which utilizes charcoal as source of fuel with fuel capacities 15.7 kg, 10.6 kg and 3.5 kg for the large, medium and small stoves respectively were designed and fabricated for domestic cooking of food by the rural communities. The stoves were evaluated for performance in terms of fuel efficiency, fuel consumption rate, cooking efficiency and boiling time during testing operation with water. From the result it was revealed that the rate of fuel consumption for the large, medium and small cooking stove were 7.2 kg/h, 5.9 kg/h and 2.3 kg/h respectively, and their fuel efficiencies were 88%, 86% and 82% respectively. Also the cooking efficiencies of these stoves were 94%, 83% and 72% respectively. A comparative evaluation of the cooking efficiencies, fuel efficiencies, fuel consumption rate and cooking time between the three types of stoves and the traditional three stone open fire system, reveals that the cooking efficiencies and fuel efficiencies obtained were greater than the values obtained with the traditional three stone open fire system. But the values of the fuel consumption rate and boiling time obtained for the three stoves were lower than the values obtained with the traditional system. And the difference between their means was statistically significant at 5 % level of significance

  13. Chimpanzee Food Preferences, Associative Learning, and the Origins of Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Beran, Michael J.; Hopper, Lydia M.; de Waal, Frans B.M.; Sayers, Ken; Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2016-01-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offer alternate explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees without invoking the understanding of cooking as a process. We discuss broader issues surrounding the use of chimpanzees in modeling hominid behavior and understanding aspects of human evolution.

  14. Chimpanzee food preferences, associative learning, and the origins of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Hopper, Lydia M; de Waal, Frans B M; Sayers, Ken; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2016-06-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offer alternate explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees, without invoking the understanding of cooking as a process. We discuss broader issues surrounding the use of chimpanzees in modeling hominid behavior and understanding aspects of human evolution.

  15. Applying intercultural markers obtained from cooking in the design process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns, M.; Tomico Plasencia, O.; Kint, J.M.L.; Zampollo, F.; Smith, C.

    2012-01-01

    In post-modern society industrial design has lost many of its cultural values as products are directed to a global market and everybody can understand and use them in the same way. In contrast to the globalization of design, cooking is an activity that is very much embedded in culture. Cooking

  16. Characterization of volatile organic compounds from different cooking emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Gang; Lang, Jianlei; Wen, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqi; Yao, Sen

    2016-11-01

    Cooking fume is regarded as one of the main sources of urban atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its chemical characteristics would be different among various cooking styles. In this study, VOCs emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were collected. VOCs concentrations and emission characteristics were analyzed. The results demonstrated that Barbecue gave the highest VOCs concentrations (3494 ± 1042 μg/m3), followed by Hunan cuisine (494.3 ± 288.8 μg/m3), Home cooking (487.2 ± 139.5 μg/m3), and Shandong cuisine (257.5 ± 98.0 μg/m3). The volume of air drawn through the collection hood over the stove would have a large impact on VOCs concentration in the exhaust. Therefore, VOCs emission rates (ER) and emission factors (EF) were also estimated. Home cooking had the highest ER levels (12.2 kg/a) and Barbecue had the highest EF levels (0.041 g/kg). The abundance of alkanes was higher in Home cooking, Shandong cuisine and Hunan cuisine with the value of 59.4%-63.8%, while Barbecue was mainly composed of alkanes (34.7%) and alkenes (39.9%). The sensitivity species of Home cooking and Hunan cuisine were alkanes, and that of Shandong cuisine and Barbecue were alkenes. The degree of stench pollution from cooking fume was lighter.

  17. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texture is one of the most significant factors for consumers’ experience of foods. Texture difference of cooked quinoa among thirteen different varieties was studied. Correlations between the texture and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking qualities, flour pasting properties and flour th...

  18. assessment of household energy utilized for cooking in ikeja, lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EYERE

    ... of employment affects the choice of fuel used for cooking and the type preferred. ... In India, use of biomass. Nigerian Journal of ... of poverty in Nigeria which has favoured the choice of firewood energy ... The analytical tools employed for the study were descriptive ... cooking energy and the value of men or women's time.

  19. The Daily Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes....... As such, the parts, when taken as a whole, represent an evolving process through which my overall research questions are being filtered and reflected. My scholarly approach builds on the fusing of fashion and dress research and design research, in this way closing a gap between dress practice as...

  20. Radiation in daily life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, P.

    1999-01-01

    The medical community benefits on a daily basis from the ionizing radiations used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The doses received in the medical field are only a small fraction of the total radiation received in a year. This bibliographic review has several objectives. The first one is to present the different components of natural radiation (background radiation). Secondly, it will introduce many consumer products that contain radioactive sources and expose our bodies. Third, arguments to diminish the radiation phobia will be presented and finally an easy to understand dosimetric magnitude will be introduced for the physician, the technologist and the patient. (author) [es

  1. Jamie's Ministry of Food: quasi-experimental evaluation of immediate and sustained impacts of a cooking skills program in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Flego

    Full Text Available To evaluate the immediate and sustained effectiveness of the first Jamie's Ministry of Food Program in Australia on individuals' cooking confidence and positive cooking/eating behaviours.A quasi- experimental repeated measures design was used incorporating a wait-list control group. A questionnaire was developed and administered at baseline (T1, immediately post program (T2 and 6 months post completion (T3 for participants allocated to the intervention group, while wait -list controls completed it 10 weeks prior to program commencement (T1 and just before program commencement (T2. The questionnaire measured: participants' confidence to cook, the frequency of cooking from basic ingredients, and consumption of vegetables, vegetables with the main meal, fruit, ready-made meals and takeaway. Analysis used a linear mixed model approach for repeated measures using all available data to determine mean differences within and between groups over time.All adult participants (≥18 years who registered and subsequently participated in the program in Ipswich, Queensland, between late November 2011- December 2013, were invited to participate.In the intervention group: 694 completed T1, 383 completed T1 and T2 and 214 completed T1, T2 and T3 assessments. In the wait-list group: 237 completed T1 and 149 completed T1 and T2 assessments. Statistically significant increases within the intervention group (P<0.001 and significant group*time interaction effects (P<0.001 were found in all cooking confidence measures between T1 and T2 as well as cooking from basic ingredients, frequency of eating vegetables with the main meal and daily vegetable intake (0.52 serves/day increase. Statistically significant increases at T2 were sustained at 6 months post program in the intervention group.Jamie's Ministry of Food Program, Australia improved individuals' cooking confidence and cooking/eating behaviours contributing to a healthier diet and is a promising community

  2. Restaurant Cooking Trends and Increased Risk for Campylobacter Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna K; Rigby, Dan; Burton, Michael; Millman, Caroline; Williams, Nicola J; Jones, Trevor R; Wigley, Paul; O'Brien, Sarah J; Cross, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the United Kingdom, outbreaks of Campylobacter infection are increasingly attributed to undercooked chicken livers, yet many recipes, including those of top chefs, advocate short cooking times and serving livers pink. During 2015, we studied preferences of chefs and the public in the United Kingdom and investigated the link between liver rareness and survival of Campylobacter. We used photographs to assess chefs' ability to identify chicken livers meeting safe cooking guidelines. To investigate the microbiological safety of livers chefs preferred to serve, we modeled Campylobacter survival in infected chicken livers cooked to various temperatures. Most chefs correctly identified safely cooked livers but overestimated the public's preference for rareness and thus preferred to serve them more rare. We estimated that 19%-52% of livers served commercially in the United Kingdom fail to reach 70°C and that predicted Campylobacter survival rates are 48%-98%. These findings indicate that cooking trends are linked to increasing Campylobacter infections.

  3. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in bakers and pastry cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, V; Calisti, R; Carnovale-Scalzo, C; Nardi, F

    2001-10-01

    The occurrence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) among bakers and pastry cooks has never been documented. We detected eight cases of MPM in bakers, pastry cooks, and biscuit cooks engaged in making, baking/cooking, and selling pastry/bread in two hospital-based series (Rome and Orbassano/Turin, Italy; period 1990-1997; 222 cases). Field-investigations revealed asbestos-containing material (ACM) in ovens for baking bread, that were manufactured prior to the 1980s. It is suggested that there is a possible new association of the risk of having worked as a baker or pastry cook and MPM. Presumptive source of exposure to asbestos was the use of asbestos-insulated ovens. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Cooking does not decrease hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of wild blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rebecca Ree; Renfroe, Michael H; Brevard, Patricia Bowling; Lee, Robert E; Gloeckner, Janet W

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of domestic cooking methods on the hydrophilic antioxidant activity (HAA) of wild blueberries. Baked, microwaved, simmered, and pan-fried frozen wild blueberries, and a thawed uncooked control, were analyzed for HAA using an ABTS/H(2)O(2)/HRP decoloration method. All cooking treatments were derived from recipes using wild blueberries, and were performed in triplicate. A randomized block design was used to determine whether there were statistical differences in antioxidant content after cooking and between each of the trials. There were no statistically significant decreases after cooking the thawed berries. On both a fresh weight and a dry weight basis, pan-fried blueberries had significantly higher HAA than baked, simmered, and control blueberries (Pcooked berries retained significant HAA. Cooked wild blueberries can be recommended as a good source of dietary antioxidants.

  5. Energy conservation options for cooking with biomass in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Næraa, Rikke; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    Cooking is the main energy consuming activity in Ghana. This is mainly due to a generally low material standard of living, but also because the cooking process itself is energy inefficient. The fuel for cooking in Ghana is mainly biomass either in the form of wood, agricultural residues or charcoal....... An energy chain for the cooking process is established and the possible conservation options are surveyed in kitchen performance tests in Abodom in the tropical zone of Ghana. The energy consumption for the food preparation has been measured and energy saving options have been determined for some parts...... point has been reached. Most cooks tend to continue using a high heat supply even though it is not necessary. This process is often carried out without lid on the pot even though the use of lid will reduce the energy loss considerably. It is also concluded that the average fuelwood consumption in Abodom...

  6. Physicochemical properties of foal meat as affected by cooking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Cittadini, Aurora; Munekata, Paulo E; Domínguez, Rubén

    2015-10-01

    The present study deals with the effect of four different cooking techniques (roasting, grilling, microwave baking and frying with olive oil) on physicochemical parameters (cooking loss, WHC, texture and colour) and lipid oxidation (by TBARS measurement) of foal meat. Thermal treatments induced water loss (Pcooked in the grill (25.8%) and higher in foal samples cooked in the microwave (39.5%). As it was expected, all the cooking methods increased TBARS index, since high temperature during cooking seems to cause an increase of the lipid oxidation in foal steaks. Statistical analysis displayed that WHC was affected (Pcooking led to an increase of L*-value (lightness) and b*-value (yellowness), while a*-value (redness) markedly decreased in all samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermy Teti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic Crude Palm Oil price. Finally, the domesticCrude Palm Oil is significantly affected by international Crude Palm Oil price.Keywords: consumption, cooking oil price, crude palm oil price and cooking oil

  8. Modeling emission rates and exposures from outdoor cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Weltman, Robert; Ghasemian, Masoud; Arora, Narendra K.; Bond, Tami

    2017-09-01

    Approximately 3 billion individuals rely on solid fuels for cooking globally. For a large portion of these - an estimated 533 million - cooking is outdoors, where emissions from cookstoves pose a health risk to both cooks and other household and village members. Models that estimate emissions rates from stoves in indoor environments that would meet WHO air quality guidelines (AQG), explicitly don't account for outdoor cooking. The objectives of this paper are to link health based exposure guidelines with emissions from outdoor cookstoves, using a Monte Carlo simulation of cooking times from Haryana India coupled with inverse Gaussian dispersion models. Mean emission rates for outdoor cooking that would result in incremental increases in personal exposure equivalent to the WHO AQG during a 24-h period were 126 ± 13 mg/min for cooking while squatting and 99 ± 10 mg/min while standing. Emission rates modeled for outdoor cooking are substantially higher than emission rates for indoor cooking to meet AQG, because the models estimate impact of emissions on personal exposure concentrations rather than microenvironment concentrations, and because the smoke disperses more readily outdoors compared to indoor environments. As a result, many more stoves including the best performing solid-fuel biomass stoves would meet AQG when cooking outdoors, but may also result in substantial localized neighborhood pollution depending on housing density. Inclusion of the neighborhood impact of pollution should be addressed more formally both in guidelines on emissions rates from stoves that would be protective of health, and also in wider health impact evaluation efforts and burden of disease estimates. Emissions guidelines should better represent the different contexts in which stoves are being used, especially because in these contexts the best performing solid fuel stoves have the potential to provide significant benefits.

  9. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry breakfast strips. 381.150 Section 381.150... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments; Processing...

  10. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  11. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  12. Prevalence and determinants of airflow limitation in urban and rural children exposed to cooking fuels in South-East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguonu, Tagbo; Obumneme-Anyim, Ijeoma N; Eze, Joy N; Ayuk, Adaeze C; Okoli, Chinyere V; Ndu, Ikenna K

    2018-03-15

    Background Biofuels and other cooking fuels are used in households in low- and middle-income countries. Aim To investigate the impact of cooking fuels on lung function in children in urban and rural households in South-East Nigeria. Methods The multi-stage sampling method was used to enroll children exposed to cooking fuel in the communities. Lung function values FEV1, FVC and the FEV1/FVC ratio, were measured with ndd EasyOne R spirometer. Airflow limitation was determined with FEV1/FVC Z-score values at -1.64 as the lower limit of normal (LLN5). The Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 software was used to calculate the lung function indices. Results The median age (range) of the 912 children enrolled was 10.6 years (6-18). Altogether, 468 (51.6%) children lived in rural areas. Seven hundred and thirty-seven (80.7%) were directly exposed to cooking fuels (418/737, 56.5% in rural areas). Wood and kerosene were the dominant fuels in rural and urban households. The respective mean Z-scores of the exposed children in rural and urban were zFEV1 -0.62, FVC -0.21, FEV1/FVC -0.83 and zFEV1 -0.57, zFVC -0.14, FEV1/FVC -0.75. Few (5.2%, 38/737) of the children had airflow limitation. Most of them (60.5%, 25/38) lived in the rural community; the lowest FEV1/FVC Z-scores were those of exposed to a combination of fuels. Conclusion Exposure to cooking fuels affects lung function in children with airway limitation in a small proportion, Control measures are advocated to reduce the morbidity related to cooking fuels exposure.

  13. Individuals with severe mental illnesses have improved eating behaviors and cooking skills after attending a 6-week nutrition cooking class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alena; Bezyak, Jill; Testerman, Nora

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed current meal planning/cooking behaviors and dietary intake of individuals with severe mental illnesses and determined differences after a 6-week nutrition education cooking class. Eighteen individuals with severe mental illnesses participated in a 6-week nutrition education cooking class and completed pre- and posttest 24-hr recalls and a postretrospective survey. Paired samples t tests were used. Participants met their calories needs, but they consumed high amounts of sodium and fat and low amounts of fiber. Significant increases in calcium, vitamin D, grains, and fruit occurred from pre- to posttest (p cooking and grocery shopping skills improved. Participants desire nutrition education programming that includes simple messages, hands-on cooking demonstrations, and health-related incentives. More research is needed to determine how nutrition education programs lead to sustained knowledge and behavior change within this specialized population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Performance assessment of U.S. residential cooking exhaust hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, William W; Singer, Brett C

    2012-06-05

    This study assessed the performance of seven new residential cooking exhaust hoods representing common U.S. designs. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine fan curves relating airflow to duct static pressure, sound levels, and exhaust gas capture efficiency for front and back cooktop burners and the oven. Airflow rate sensitivity to duct flow resistance was higher for axial fan devices than for centrifugal fan devices. Pollutant capture efficiency (CE) ranged from 98%, varying across hoods and with airflow and burner position for each hood. CE was higher for back burners relative to front burners, presumably because most hoods covered only part of the front burners. Open hoods had higher CE than those with grease screen and metal-covered bottoms. The device with the highest CE--exceeding 80% for oven and front burners--had a large, open hood that covered most of the front burners. The airflow rate for this hood surpassed the industry-recommended level of 118 L·s(-1) (250 cfm) and produced sound levels too high for normal conversation. For hoods meeting the sound and fan efficacy criteria for Energy Star, CE was <30% for front and oven burners.

  15. Deployment of commercial energy efficiency cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This research concerned the promotion of energy-efficient wood stoves in commercial and institutional kitchens in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda through technology transfer and training of local commercial stove producers. The key objective of the project was to introduce proven designs of energy-efficient wood stoves to producers in the target countries and train them in the manufacture and marketing of these stoves. The improved designs save 50% of the fuel used by the traditional stoves - a major saving where 10-15% of the kitchen budget is spent on fuel. They also remove smoke more effectively, protect cooks from heat and burns, and are easier to keep clean. The project went well although results have varied from one country to the other. In conclusion, the technology transfer of commercial stove designs can take place between neighbouring countries by a process of training, study visits, prototype development, market surveys and producer support.(author)

  16. A novel solar hot plate for cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A; Osorio Jaramillo, Fidel A [Facultad de Ingenieria, UAEMex, Toluca, Edo. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In Mexico and other developing countries, the use of firewood as combustible for cooking has contributed to deforestation and desertification of large zones. This is due to the lack of alternative combustibles for the poor inhabitants of the countryside and remote areas. In this paper, a new solar hot plate, intended for contributing to solve this problem, is presented. It can be used for cooking not only a great variety of prehispanic and traditional meals, like tortillas, fried meat and vegetables, but also hot cakes, bacon, eggs, steaks and fries. The hot plate solar cooker, called Tolocatzin, consists of a horizontal metallic plate, which is heated from both of its top and bottom surfaces by concentrated sun light from multicompound concentrator based on nonimaging optics, and built with nine ordinary plane glass-silvered, and two curved aluminum mirrors, so it can be manufactured easily in a small factory or at home. For an acceptance angle of 15 Celsius degrees, which allows the concentration of sun light without sun-tracking for about one hour, it can reach temperatures up to 240 Celsius degrees in a few minutes. This temperature is high enough for cooking almost all fried or grilled meals. The design was optimized using ray-trace procedures. The operational experience with early prototypes has shown that the Tolocatzin solar hot plate does an excellent cooking job and could really be massively used in sunny countries. [Spanish] En Mexico y otros paises en desarrollo, el uso de la madera como combustible para cocinar ha contribuido a la deforestacion y desertificacion de grandes zonas. Esto es debido a la falta de combustibles alternativos por parte de los habitantes pobres del campo y de areas remotas. En este articulo se presenta una nueva placa solar que tiene el proposito de contribuir a resolver este problema. Puede ser usada para cocinar no solamente una gran variedad de comidas prehispanicas y tradicionales, como tortillas, carne frita y verduras sino

  17. Food type soybean cooking time: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonisio Destro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an extensive crop that produces more protein per hectare and, compared to other sources, has the lowest proteincost. This turns soybean into one of the basic foods with the potential to fight malnutrition and hunger in the planet. Even though itrepresents the fourth crop in grain production in the world (261 million tons year-1, most of its production is used as animal fodder.Currently, one of the greatest research challenges is to improve soybean production for human consumption. Cooking time is one theseveral characteristics that need improvement so that soybean can be used more extensively in our everyday diet. The objective of thiswork is to carry out a bibliographic review on the topic, to sensitize researchers in the area of soybean breeding about its importance.

  18. [Denaturation of egg antigens by cooking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Akaboshi, Chie; Sekido, Haruko; Tanaka, Kouki; Tanaka, Kazuko; Shimojo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Changes in egg protein contents by cooking were measured with an ELISA kit using Tris-HCl buffer in model foods including cake, meatballs, pasta and pudding made with whole egg, egg-white and egg-yolk. The egg protein contents were lowest in the deep-fried model foods of cakes and meatballs. Ovalbumin (OVA) was undetectable (meatballs, suggesting that processing temperature and uniform heat-treatment affect the detection of egg protein. Furthermore, egg protein contents were below 6 µg/g in the pouched meatballs and pasta made with egg-yolk, and OVA and OVM were not detected by Western blotting analysis with human IgE from patients' serum. On the other hand, processed egg proteins were detected with an ELISA kit using a surfactant and reductant in the extract buffer.

  19. Molecular gastronomy, a scientific look at cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, Hervé

    2009-05-19

    Food preparation is such a routine activity that we often do not question the process. For example, why do we cook as we do? Why do we eat certain foods and avoid other perfectly edible ingredients? To help answer these questions, it is extremely important to study the chemical changes that food undergoes during preparation; even simply cutting a vegetable can lead to enzymatic reactions. For many years, these molecular transformations were neglected by the food science field. In 1988, the scientific discipline called "molecular gastronomy" was created, and the field is now developing in many countries. Its many applications fall into two categories. First, there are technology applications for restaurants, for homes, or even for the food industry. In particular, molecular gastronomy has led to "molecular cooking", a way of food preparation that uses "new" tools, ingredients, and methods. According to a British culinary magazine, the three "top chefs" of the world employ elements of molecular cooking. Second, there are educational applications of molecular gastronomy: new insights into the culinary processes have led to new culinary curricula for chefs in many countries such as France, Canada, Italy, and Finland, as well as educational programs in schools. In this Account, we focus on science, explain why molecular gastronomy had to be created, and consider its tools, concepts, and results. Within the field, conceptual tools have been developed in order to make the necessary studies. The emphasis is on two important parts of recipes: culinary definitions (describing the objective of recipes) and culinary "precisions" (information that includes old wives' tales, methods, tips, and proverbs, for example). As for any science, the main objective of molecular gastronomy is, of course, the discovery of new phenomena and new mechanisms. This explains why culinary precisions are so important: cooks of the past could see, but not interpret, phenomena that awaited scientific

  20. Mutagenicity of cooked foods. Kuumennuskaesiteltyjen elintarvikkeiden mutageenisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikkanen, L. (Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Elintarvikelaboratorio)

    1989-09-01

    In this study the mutagenic activity in different kinds of ordinary Finnish foods was determined using mainly the Ames Salmonella bacterial assay. The purpose of this study was also to acquire the technical capability to study cooked food mutagens and to get basic informavtion about the mutagenic activity of foods under different cooking conditions. The samples tested were different kinds of ready-to-eat foods. Products were industrially heat-processed by frying and roasting, sterilization, smoking, deep-frying, spray-drying and UHT-treatment. According to the results, the majority of the fried and roasted food samples containing meat or fish were clearly or strongly mutagenic. Some of the products processed by sterilization and deep-frying were marginally mutagenic. The effect of the frying temperature on the mutagenicity in the Ames test was studied with minced meat. The mutagenic activity of the fried meat clearly correlated with the frying temperature. There were conspicuous differences in mutagenic activity between different fried and roasted products. Charcoal-grilled fish and the surface layers of the grilled meat and chicken were strongly mutagenic. Meat and fish hamburgers were in most cases only slightly mutagenic. The mutagenic activity was stronger in the surface layers of the products than in the inside. Also reheating by frying increased the mutagenicity of meat patties clearly. Differences in mutagenic activity between equivalent products of different manufacturers were evident in many cases. Variation of the mutagenicity was most conspicuous in the grilled products. This variation indicates that the industrial processing of food has a marked effect on the mutagenic activity of the final product, which thus might be reduced by modifying the process. The solvent extraction method used in this study was more effective than the Blue-Cotton method for the isolation of mutagenic compounds.

  1. New daily persistent headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New daily persistent headache (NDPH is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  2. Making Daily Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon

    elucidate aspects of urban everyday mobility that can be utilized in policy and planning perspectives. This knowledge can aid construction of generalized qualitative scenarios that together with quantitative transport models can serve as wider knowledge foundation in decision making process.......In 2012 the average daily transportation distance for every Dane were 40 km (TU Data). Realising how much of life is spend thinking about, planning and performing mobility practices it becomes evident that it is much more than an instrumental physical phenomenon – it has great repercussions on life......, social networks, understanding of places and ultimately ourselves and others. To successfully accomplish everyday life, households have to cope with large number of different activities and mobility in relation to their children, work, social life, obligations, expectations, needs and wishes. Drawing...

  3. Physics in daily life

    CERN Document Server

    Hermans, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.

  4. Effect of pumpkin powder incorporation on cooking and sensory parameters of pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Minarovičová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasta is commonly consumed and low glycaemic cereal-based food with long shelf life, which is suitable food matrix for substitution with functional ingredients. Pumpkin powder can be considered as suitable component in pasta making. The effect of addition of pumpkin powder at different levels (5, 7.5, and 10% on wheat dough rheology, cooking quality of pasta as well as on sensory properties was evaluated. Pumpkin powder included: 6.1% moisture, 8.2%, protein, 0.7% crude fat, 2.3% ash, 27.4% total dietary fiber which is included soluble (10.2% and insoluble (17.2% dietary fiber. Farinograph properties of pumpkin powder incorporated dough showed increase in water absorption and dough development time while dough stability and mixing tolerance indes were decreased. It was also observed that addition of pumpkin powder significantly altered cooking quality of pasta. Generally, pasta incorporated with pumpkin powder had shorter optimal cooking time. The shortest optimal time (5.9 min was after addition of 10% of pumpkin powder compared with control pasta (7.0 min. From the results also concluded that addition of pumpkin powder significantly increased cooking loss. The highest cooking loss (6.6% was after addition 10% pumpkin powder. Furthermore it could be stated that incorporation of pumpkin powder in pasta increased water absorption of pasta from 181.0% (control to 211.2% (10% of pumpkin powder. From sensory evaluation resulted that pumpkin powder incorporated pasta were characterized by lower colour, flavor and grain taste. On the other hand vegetable taste and granular structure of pasta increased with higher addition level of pumpkin powder. Moreover, it was concluded that pasta with addition level 10% were the most acceptable for accesors. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  5. Spent brewer's yeast extract as an ingredient in cooked hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancrazio, Gaston; Cunha, Sara C; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Loureiro, Mónica; Meireles, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the effect of the incorporation of 1% spent yeast extract into cooked hams. Physical/chemical/sensorial characteristics and changes during 12 and 90days storage were evaluated on control and treated cooked hams processed for 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3h. Spent yeast extract addition increased hardness, chewiness, ash, protein and free amino acid content. Similar volatile profiles were obtained, although there were some quantitative differences. No advantages were observed for increased cooking time. No significant differences were observed for physical and sensorial parameters of cooked hams with spent yeast extract at 12 and 90days post production, but His, aldehydes and esters increased at the end of storage. This behaviour was similar to that observed for control hams. The higher hardness of cooked ham with 1% yeast extract was due to the stronger gel formed during cooking and was maintained during storage. This additive acts as gel stabilizer for cooked ham production and could potentially improve other processing characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Impact of cooking on the content of fish mercury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremiachikh, V A; Tomilina, I I; Komov, V T

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the levels of mercury in the fish inhabiting the water reservoirs of Russia were studied after cooking it in a variety of ways (boiling for different time periods, roasting, and smoking). To have a general idea of the impact of various procedures for cooking the fish on its mercury amount, the authors measured mercury concentrations in smoked perch and manufactured and homemade canned salt-and fresh-water fishes. The absolute content of mercury in the fish is shown to be unchanged during its cooking and not to depend on the procedure and duration of the latter.

  7. Edificio Daily Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Owen

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The building has 18 levels. The Press occupies the 4 basement floors. The ground floor is taken up with the entrance hall, and an indoor carriage way. A snack bar and the telephone operators are situated on the second floor. The production department and the medical services are located on the third storey, whilst the fourth is occupied by the offices and library. The fifth floor is the beginning of the higher section of the building. This floor and up to including the 11th floor are devoted to office space, except for the 10th storey, which contains the office apartments of the directors and the Council Chamber. Equipment related to various services of the building is housed on the 12th storey. Finally, this tall building constitutes a fine landmark in the London skyline. The Daily Mirror building is outstanding for the appropriate nature, the completeness and the quality of its installations, which thus provide the most widely read paper in the world with outstandingly efficient offices.Este edificio consta de 18 plantas. El cuerpo de Prensa se aloja en los cuatro sótanos; los vestíbulos de entrada y una calzada interior para vehículos se hallan en la planta baja; la primera alberga un snack-bar y centralita telefónica; la segunda, el departamento de producción y centro de asistencia médica, y la tercera, las oficinas y biblioteca principales. La cuarta planta señala el comienzo del bloque alto; esta planta, junto con las quinta, sexta, séptima, octava y décima, están dedicadas a oficinas. La novena contiene las oficinas-apartamentos de los directores y salas de Consejo, y la undécima, la maquinaria para las diversas instalaciones del edificio. La elevada torre constituye un grandioso hito de referencia en esta zona de Londres. El «Daily Mirror» se distingue por el acierto, número y perfección de sus instalaciones, que proporcionan, al periódico de mayor actualidad mundial, las más adecuadas y amplias oficinas modernas.

  8. Effect of the callipyge phenotype and cooking method on tenderness of several major lamb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    1997-08-01

    We conducted three experiments to determine the effects of the callipyge phenotype on the tenderness of several major lamb muscles and to determine the effect of method of cookery on the tenderness of callipyge lamb at 7 d postmortem. In Exp. 1, chops from normal (n = 23) and callipyge (n = 16) carcasses were open-hearth-broiled. Warner-Bratzler shear force values of longissimus, gluteus medius, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, adductor, and quadriceps femoris were 123, 44, 28, 26, 19, 16, and 13% greater, respectively, for callipyge (P lamb carcasses (n = 60). Callipyge chops were less tender than normal chops (P cooking method, callipyge samples were less juicy than normal samples (P < .05). These data demonstrate that the callipyge phenotype will likely reduce consumer satisfaction due to reduced tenderness and juiciness; however, reduced tenderness in callipyge leg muscles could be prevented by ovenroasting.

  9. The effect of personality on daily life emotional processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komulainen, Emma; Meskanen, Katarina; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari Marko; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Wichers, Marieke; Isometsä, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Personality features are associated with individual differences in daily emotional life, such as negative and positive affectivity, affect variability and affect reactivity. The existing literature is somewhat mixed and inconclusive about the nature of these associations. The aim of this study was to shed light on what personality features represent in daily life by investigating the effect of the Five Factor traits on different daily emotional processes using an ecologically valid method. The Experience Sampling Method was used to collect repeated reports of daily affect and experiences from 104 healthy university students during one week of their normal lives. Personality traits of the Five Factor model were assessed using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the effect of the personality traits on daily emotional processes. Neuroticism predicted higher negative and lower positive affect, higher affect variability, more negative subjective evaluations of daily incidents, and higher reactivity to stressors. Conscientiousness, by contrast, predicted lower average level, variability, and reactivity of negative affect. Agreeableness was associated with higher positive and lower negative affect, lower variability of sadness, and more positive subjective evaluations of daily incidents. Extraversion predicted higher positive affect and more positive subjective evaluations of daily activities. Openness had no effect on average level of affect, but predicted higher reactivity to daily stressors. The results show that the personality features independently predict different aspects of daily emotional processes. Neuroticism was associated with all of the processes. Identifying these processes can help us to better understand individual differences in daily emotional life.

  10. Approximation of personal exposure to fine particulate matters (PM2.5) during cooking using solid biomass fuels in the kitchens of rural West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, Sukanta; Padhy, Pratap Kumar

    2018-03-27

    More than 85% of the rural Indian households use traditional solid biofuels (SBFs) for daily cooking. Burning of the easily available unprocessed solid fuels in inefficient earthen cooking stoves produce large quantities of particulate matters. Smaller particulates, especially with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM 2.5 ), largely generated during cooking, are considered to be health damaging in nature. In the present study, kitchen level exposure of women cooks to fine particulate matters during lunch preparation was assessed considering kitchen openness as surrogate to the ventilation condition. Two-way ANCOVA analysis considering meal quantity as a covariate revealed no significant interaction between the openness and the seasons explaining the variability of the personal exposure to the fine particulate matters in rural kitchen during cooking. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed the openness as the only significant predictor for personal exposure to the fine particulate matters. In the present study, the annual average fine particulate matter exposure concentration was found to be 974 μg m -3 .

  11. Cooking with Kids Positively Affects Fourth Graders' Vegetable Preferences and Attitudes and Self-Efficacy for Food and Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cooking with Kids (CWK), an experiential school-based food education program, has demonstrated modest influence on fruit and vegetable preference, food and cooking attitudes (AT), and self-efficacy (SE) among fourth-grade, mostly low-income Hispanic students in a quasiexperimental study with an inconsistent baseline. Effect was notably strong for boys and those without previous cooking experience. The aim of this project was to assess the effect of CWK with a mostly non-Hispanic white sample that assured no previous CWK exposure. Methods: The randomized, controlled assessment of CWK effect on fourth graders was conducted with 257 students in 12 classes in four public schools. CWK included a 1-hour introductory lesson, three 2-hour cooking classes, and three 1-hour fruit and vegetable tasting sessions led by trained food educators during the school day for one semester. Fruit preference, vegetable preference, and cooking AT and SE were assessed with a tested 35-item measure, shown to have test-retest reliability. Univariate analyses considered gender and previous cooking experience. Results: Intervention efficacy was confirmed in this mostly white sample (75%; 79% with previous cooking experience; 54% girls). Increases in vegetable preference, AT, and SE were all significantly greater in CWK students with ηp 2 of 0.03, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. CWK most strongly improved AT and SE for boys without previous cooking experience. Conclusions: CWK significantly improved fourth-grade students' vegetable preferences, AT, and SE toward food and cooking, which are factors important to healthful eating and obesity prevention. Noncookers, especially boys, benefitted from this intervention. PMID:24320723

  12. 46 CFR 25.45-2 - Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire... REQUIREMENTS Cooking, Heating, and Lighting Systems § 25.45-2 Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire. (a) No fuel may be used in any cooking system on any vessel carrying passengers for hire...

  13. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided with heavy-duty hinges and locking-devices to prevent accidental opening in heavy weather. (b) Each cooking...

  14. Enhancement technology improves palatability of normal and callipyge lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, A K R; Wulf, D M; Wheeler, T L; Everts, A J; Weaver, A D; Daniel, J A

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if BPI Processing Technology (BPT) improved palatability of normal (NN) and callipyge (CN) lamb meat and to determine the mechanism by which palatability was improved. Ten ewe and 10 wether lambs of each phenotype were slaughtered, and carcass traits were assessed by a trained evaluator. The LM was removed at 2 d postmortem. Alternating sides served as controls (CON) or were treated with BPT. Muscles designated BPT were injected to a target 120% by weight with a patented solution containing water, ammonium hydroxide, carbon monoxide, and salt. Muscle pH, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS), sarcomere length, cooked moisture retention, and desmin degradation were measured. A trained sensory panel and a take-home consumer panel evaluated LM chops. Callipyge had a heavier BW and HCW, less adjusted fat thickness, reduced yield grades, and greater conformation scores than NN (P cooked moisture retention, smaller WBS values, greater juiciness ratings, less off-flavors, and greater consumer ratings for raw characteristics (like of portion size, like of color, overall like of appearance) and eating characteristics (like of juiciness, like of flavor) than CON (P lamb by increasing cooked moisture retention, improving consumer acceptability of CN to near-normal levels.

  15. Differences in quality characteristics of normal, PSE and DFD pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, P G; Bolink, A H; Merkus, G S

    1988-01-01

    Differences in water-holding capacity, colour and tenderness/toughness were studied in 21 pork loins belonging to three quality categories, i.e. dark firm dry (DFD), normal and pale soft exudative (PSE). The division into the three groups was based upon the ultimate pH-values of the loins ( 6·4). The PSE loins were characterized by a poor waterholding capacity, higher cooking loss and paler colour in contrast to the DFD category. The normal loins took an intermediate position. Neither sarcomere length, determined on fresh muscle tissue, nor Armour tenderometer values showed significant differences between the various quality categories. This was in contrast to the Warner-Bratzler (W-B) shear force values, determined on cooked loins, which had the lowest values in the DFD category. A strong relationship between the W-B values and the cooking losses was found. It was concluded that neither sarcomere length nor Armour tenderometer measurements were able to predict the shear force values of cooked pork loins. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Determination of optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-González, Argenis; Larsen, Ivy L; Uttaro, Bethany; Juárez, Manuel; Parslow, Joyce; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    In order to determine optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef, the effects of searing at 232 or 260°C for 0, 10, 20 or 30 min, and roasting at 160 or 135°C on semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were evaluated. In addition, the optimum determined cooking method (oven-seared for 10 min at 232°C and roasted at 135°C) was applied to SM roasts varying in weight from 0.5 to 2.5 kg. Mainly, SM muscles seared for 0 or 10 min at 232°C followed by roast at 135°C had lower cooking loss, higher external browning color, more uniform internal color, and were more tender and flavorful (P searing is the recommended oven cooking procedure; with best response from muscle roast weight ≥1 kg.

  17. Improvement of cassava cooking quality through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asare, E.; Safo-Kantanka, O.

    1997-01-01

    Many high-yielding cassava varieties do not have the desired cooking quality. The objective of this project was to induce mutations to produce varieties with improved cooking quality while maintaining the disease-resistance and high-yielding characteristics. A cassava mutant (ISU-W) was obtained after irradiation of a variety from IITA with gamma rays and selection. Cuttings of the mutant were grown for 12 months in a field trial and investigated for tuber yield and cooking quality. Pest and disease incidence were monitored during the entire growth period. The results showed that the mutant retained the high-yield and disease resistant characters of the parent, and had improved cooking quality based on increased smoothness, mealiness and elasticity of the flour. (author). 7 refs, 5 tabs

  18. sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal. 22 .... Trained and consumer pan- els from the local black ... selected as the best formulations or recipes, as judged by the ... loosening of the sausage from the pan with a.

  19. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  20. Virginia Tech's Cook Counseling Center receives international counseling accreditation

    OpenAIRE

    DeLauder, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Thomas E. Cook Counseling Center has been accredited by the International Association of Counseling Services, Inc., an organization of United States, Canadian, and Australian counseling agencies based in Alexandria, Va.

  1. [Cooking quality of pastas supplemented with rice bran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, E; Cafiero, J; Mosqueda, M

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality during and after cooking of four pastas spaghetti type. Rice bran was used as ingredient in order to increase protein and dietetic fiber content. In two of the four formulation, semolina durum was supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. In the other two formulation granular flour was supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. Time cooking, water absorbtion, solid loss, color and hardness, (instrumental and sensory), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Apparent Digestibility in vivo were determined. Acceptability was evaluated by a 35-member consumer panel. Rice bran improved solid loss during cooking and increased cooking time, PERs were not affected significantly but Apparent Digestibility decreased when rice bran was increased. Sensory quality was affected because rice bran made pastas hard and dark but they were comparable to high fiber pasta existing in market.

  2. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  3. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Cook Inlet and Kenai...

  4. physico-chemical and grain cooking characteristics of selected rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Food Science and Technology,. P.O. Box 3006 ... improve the cooking quality parameters, improve production of the local rice cultivars and increase the ... Sample collection and preparation.

  5. [Risk assessment for food preparation, cooking and service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector includes hotels, restaurants, catering, fast food, ecc. The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector form a significant part of the Italian economy; they provide employment for a large number of people, both direct employees as well as part-time and contract staff. In this sector there are many hazards that can lead to a broad range of injuries and/or diseases to the workers. For the safety these hazards principally are slick floors, open flames, high temperature cooking surfaces, steam, knives and other cutting instruments and machineries. For the health: cleaning and disinfecting chemicals substances, cooking fumes and vapors, biological agents, heavy loads handling, thermal comfort, ecc. The paper presents an overview of the hazards in the sector and then make a focus on chemical risks identification and assessment to evaluate the workers' exposure (by skin adsorption and inhalation).

  6. Association studies of dormancy and cooking quality traits in direct ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genome-wide scanning, detected a total of seven significant marker-trait associations. (P < 0.01) ... Assam rice; α-amylase; dormancy; cooking quality; association mapping. ...... resource management, association mapping and crop breed- ing.

  7. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  8. Improvement of cassava cooking quality through mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asare, E; Safo-Kantanka, O [Department of Crop Science, Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana)

    1997-07-01

    Many high-yielding cassava varieties do not have the desired cooking quality. The objective of this project was to induce mutations to produce varieties with improved cooking quality while maintaining the disease-resistance and high-yielding characteristics. A cassava mutant (ISU-W) was obtained after irradiation of a variety from IITA with gamma rays and selection. Cuttings of the mutant were grown for 12 months in a field trial and investigated for tuber yield and cooking quality. Pest and disease incidence were monitored during the entire growth period. The results showed that the mutant retained the high-yield and disease resistant characters of the parent, and had improved cooking quality based on increased smoothness, mealiness and elasticity of the flour. (author). 7 refs, 5 tabs.

  9. AFSC/REFM: Cook Inlet Beluga Whale Economic Survey 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project was to collect data to understand the publics preferences for protecting the Cook Inlet beluga whale (CIBW), a distinct population...

  10. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for razor clams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  11. 75 FR 25309 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook... FHWA is issuing this Notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be... project comprises several elements of the overall Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation...

  12. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for herring spawning areas in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  13. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent...

  14. Analysis and Evaluation of Cooking Parameters for Sweet Bakery Products

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Vignali; Andrea Volpi

    2013-01-01

    Cooking process is essential for the preparation of sweet bakery products, such as Panettone, a typical Italian seasonal dessert. This study is aimed at evaluating the features of the finished product leaving the oven chamber using the Design of Experiments technique. Four features of the product like “water activity”, “humidity”, “pH” and “sensorial judge” have been explained as functions of independent variables: recipe of the dough, affecting the dough strength and cooking process paramete...

  15. Short term exposure to cooking fumes and pulmonary function

    OpenAIRE

    Qvenild Torgunn; Svendsen Kristin; Svedahl Sindre; Sjaastad Ann; Hilt Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. Methods Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B) stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four times during twenty four hours, on one occasion without any exposure, and on another with exposure to controlled level...

  16. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel sau...

  17. Effects of cooking methods on electrophoretic patterns of rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemen Yanar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different cooking methods on the electrophoretic patterns of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fillets using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Raw rainbow trout were deep-fried, microwaved, grilled, and baked and then monitored for changes in the electrophoretic pattern. All cooking methods resulted in significant moisture loss when compared to the raw sample (P

  18. Hindrances to acceptation of precision cooking technique in households

    OpenAIRE

    Borremans, Auriane

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management: Culinary Leadership and Innovation Many technologies have been created in order to simplify our everyday life and technology in the kitchen is not an exception. Indeed, evolution in the dimension of technology is keeping growing up from the first micro wave to the recent induction cooking hobs. The precision cooking method is also part of these new technologies but have not been adopted by many households yet. In this paper,...

  19. Effect of cooking time on the degradation of 14C maneb in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sennaoui, Z.; Bennaceur, M.

    1992-11-01

    The behavior of 14C maneb was studied after cooking of fresh tomato at different times 15mn, 30mn, 45mn, and 60mn. More the time of cooking water is increased, more the migration in cooking water is importement (67% after 15mn and 97% after 60mn). Amount of internals residues decreases with time. Cooking stimulates the formation of ETU. More the time of cooking is increased, more the amount of ETU is important

  20. THE FORM OF THE COOKING VESSEL AND THE ENERGETIC EFFICIENCY OF COOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL KRÄMER

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the contribution of the form of the cooking vessel to the heat transfer efficiency of the stove/pot system. A rounded (convex pot bottom increases the surface available for heat transfer and, hence, heat transfer efficiency. We suggest that combustion-efficient stoves combined with rounded-bottom vessels compare favourably to the same stoves in combination with flat-bottom stoves. Clay pots with a rounded bottom correspond to African traditions. Nowadays metal pots with rounded bottoms are locally produced in some areas. Implications of pot forms for the outcome of Water Boiling Tests are also discussed.

  1. Processamento do presunto "cook-in" de cordeiros Processing of cook-in ham of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Mattos Monteiro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver tecnologia para produto curado (presunto "cook-in", com pernis de cordeiros cruza Texel x Corriedale em associação com tratamentos tecnológicos (massagem em "tumbler" e processo "cook-in". O estudo foi desenvolvido pela EMBRAPA/CPPSUL e Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Após as análises da composição química, a carne foi injetada manualmente com 20 % de salmoura composta por água + gelo 79%, cloreto de sódio 7,52%, condimento para presunto 4,70%, fosfatos 1,97%, sais de cura 1,88%, sacarose 3,38% e glutamato monossódico 0,19 %. Os presuntos foram avaliados quanto à composição química (umidade, proteína, gordura, cinzas, pigmentos totais e pH, parâmetros sensoriais (cor, aroma, sabor, textura e aceitabilidade e rendimento. Uma das principais características dos presuntos obtidos com pernil de cordeiros cruza Texel x Corriedale foi o baixo conteúdo de gordura associado ao bom rendimento e à excelente aceitabilidade.The aim of this study was to develop technology for the curing lambs (cook-in hams which were manufactured from the legs of crossbred Texel x Corriedale lambs in association with technologic treatment (massaging in tumbler and cook-in process. The experiment was conducted at the EMBRAPA-CPPSUL/ UFSM, RS, Brazil. After the evaluation of the chemical composition, the meat was injected with it manually - 20 % of brine containing water 79%, salt 7.52%, curing salts 1.88%, sucrose 3.38%, ham condiments 4.70%, phosphate 1.97% and sodium glutamate 0.19%. The ham quality was evaluated by analysis of its chemical composition (moisture, protein, ash, fat, pH, sensory properties (color, aroma, texture, acceptability and yield. The main characteristics of lamb hams were low fat contents associated with excellent acceptability and good yield.

  2. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  3. EFFECTS OF COOKED LENTILS ON GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND BLOOD LIPIDS OF PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Shams

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    INTRODUCTION: Diabetes control is one of the main conflict issues in diabetes management. Scientists, recently, recommend [increasing low glycemic index (LGI foods in dietary regimen. The effects of cooked lentil as a low glycemic index food on serum blood glucose and lipid profile among type 2 diabetic patients has been investigated in this study.    METHODS: In a randomized cross-over clinical trial which was performed on 30 patients with type II diabetes mellitus, subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A followed the normal diet and Group B followed normal diet with 50gm cooked lentil and 6gm canula oil substitute of 30gm bread and 20gm cheese. After  6 weeks, groups stopped their diets and put on wash out period for 3 weeks and later the  diets where switched between the them. Diet continued for another 6 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes, serum lipids and glucose levels were determined at the beginning and the end of each test period. Data were analyzed by Food Processor II and SPSS-13.    RESULTS: BMI, LDL_C, HDL_C, TG and serum Fructozamine were not significantly affected by dietary regimens. But Total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased significantly in regimen containing lentil (P<0.05.    CONCLUSION: Consumption of cooked lentil as a LGI food in breakfast led to reduction of FBS and TC and improvement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients.      Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Lentil, Lipid profiles, Blood glucose, Glycemic index, Clinical Trial.

  4. Data preprocessing methods of FT-NIR spectral data for the classification cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruah, Mas Ezatul Nadia Mohd; Rasaruddin, Nor Fazila; Fong, Sim Siong; Jaafar, Mohd Zuli

    2014-12-01

    This recent work describes the data pre-processing method of FT-NIR spectroscopy datasets of cooking oil and its quality parameters with chemometrics method. Pre-processing of near-infrared (NIR) spectral data has become an integral part of chemometrics modelling. Hence, this work is dedicated to investigate the utility and effectiveness of pre-processing algorithms namely row scaling, column scaling and single scaling process with Standard Normal Variate (SNV). The combinations of these scaling methods have impact on exploratory analysis and classification via Principle Component Analysis plot (PCA). The samples were divided into palm oil and non-palm cooking oil. The classification model was build using FT-NIR cooking oil spectra datasets in absorbance mode at the range of 4000cm-1-14000cm-1. Savitzky Golay derivative was applied before developing the classification model. Then, the data was separated into two sets which were training set and test set by using Duplex method. The number of each class was kept equal to 2/3 of the class that has the minimum number of sample. Then, the sample was employed t-statistic as variable selection method in order to select which variable is significant towards the classification models. The evaluation of data pre-processing were looking at value of modified silhouette width (mSW), PCA and also Percentage Correctly Classified (%CC). The results show that different data processing strategies resulting to substantial amount of model performances quality. The effects of several data pre-processing i.e. row scaling, column standardisation and single scaling process with Standard Normal Variate indicated by mSW and %CC. At two PCs model, all five classifier gave high %CC except Quadratic Distance Analysis.

  5. Indoor air pollution from gas cooking and infant neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Martinez, David; Aguilera, Inma; Bustamante, Mariona; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Guxens, Mònica; Lertxundi, Nerea; Martinez, M Dolores; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Gas cooking is a main source of indoor air pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide and particles. Because concerns are emerging for neurodevelopmental effects of air pollutants, we examined the relationship between indoor gas cooking during pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment. Pregnant mothers were recruited between 2004 and 2008 to a prospective birth cohort study (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) in Spain during the first trimester of pregnancy. Third-trimester questionnaires collected information about the use of gas appliances at home. At age 11 to 22 months, children were assessed for mental development using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Linear regression models examined the association of gas cooking and standardized mental development scores (n = 1887 mother-child pairs). Gas cookers were present in 44% of homes. Gas cooking was related to a small decrease in the mental development score compared with use of other cookers (-2.5 points [95% confidence interval = -4.0 to -0.9]) independent of social class, maternal education, and other measured potential confounders. This decrease was strongest in children tested after the age of 14 months (-3.1 points [-5.1 to -1.1]) and when gas cooking was combined with less frequent use of an extractor fan. The negative association with gas cooking was relatively consistent across strata defined by social class, education, and other covariates. This study suggests a small adverse effect of indoor air pollution from gas cookers on the mental development of young children.

  6. An evidence-based conceptual framework of healthy cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Raber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating out of the home has been positively associated with body weight, obesity, and poor diet quality. While cooking at home has declined steadily over the last several decades, the benefits of home cooking have gained attention in recent years and many healthy cooking projects have emerged around the United States. The purpose of this study was to develop an evidence-based conceptual framework of healthy cooking behavior in relation to chronic disease prevention. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using broad search terms. Studies analyzing the impact of cooking behaviors across a range of disciplines were included. Experts in the field reviewed the resulting constructs in a small focus group. The model was developed from the extant literature on the subject with 59 studies informing 5 individual constructs (frequency, techniques and methods, minimal usage, flavoring, and ingredient additions/replacements, further defined by a series of individual behaviors. Face validity of these constructs was supported by the focus group. A validated conceptual model is a significant step toward better understanding the relationship between cooking, disease and disease prevention and may serve as a base for future assessment tools and curricula.

  7. Exposure to airborne ultrafine particles from cooking in Portuguese homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordado, J C; Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C

    2012-10-01

    Cooking was found to be a main source of submicrometer and ultrafine aerosols from gas combustion in stoves. Therefore, this study consisted of the determination of the alveolar deposited surface area due to aerosols resulting from common domestic cooking activities (boiling fish, vegetables, or pasta, and frying hamburgers and eggs). The concentration of ultrafine particles during the cooking events significantly increased from a baseline of 42.7 microm2/cm3 (increased to 72.9 microm2/cm3 due to gas burning) to a maximum of 890.3 microm2/cm3 measured during fish boiling in water and a maximum of 4500 microm2/cm3 during meat frying. This clearly shows that a domestic activity such as cooking can lead to exposures as high as those of occupational exposure activities. The approach of this study considers the determination of alveolar deposited surface area of aerosols generated from cooking activities, namely, typical Portuguese dishes. This type of measurement has not been done so far, in spite of the recognition that cooking activity is a main source of submicrometer and ultrafine aerosols. The results have shown that the levels of generated aerosols surpass the outdoor concentrations in a major European town, which calls for further determinations, contributing to a better assessment of exposure of individuals to domestic activities such as this one.

  8. Dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines in high-temperature cooked meat and fish in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Jinap, S; Ang, S J; Abdul-Hamid, A; Hajeb, P; Lioe, H N; Zaidul, I S M

    2010-08-01

    The intake of heterocyclic amines is influenced by the amount and type of meat and fish ingested, frequency of consumption, cooking methods, cooking temperature, and duration of cooking. In this study, the dietary intake of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia and their main sources were investigated. Forty-two samples of meat and fish were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector to determine the concentration of the six predominant heterocyclic amines, namely: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline(MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Dietary intake data were obtained using a food-frequency questionnaire when interviewing 600 Malaysian respondents. The level of total heterocyclic amines in food samples studies ranged from not detected to 38.7 ng g(-1). The average daily intake level of heterocyclic amine was 553.7 ng per capita day(-1). The intake of PhIP was the highest, followed by MeIQx and MeIQ. The results reveal that fried and grilled chicken were the major dietary source of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia. However, the heterocyclic amine intake by the Malaysian population was lower than those reported from other regions.

  9. IRON CONTENT OF FOOD COOKED IN IRON UTENSILS: A TRADITIONAL INDIAN WAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibifatima Bawakhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since most of the Indian population depends on vegetarian diet, prevalence of iron deficiency status is higher in India compared to other developing countries. In spite of many national programs and treatment options available in correcting this, the incidence is increasing due to poor patient compliance and intolerance to treatment. This study was an effort to show how iron content of Indian food can be increased just by following the traditional way of cooking. OBJECTIVE To compare the iron levels in the Jowar roti cooked in iron and non-iron utensils. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional study was conducted at KIMS, Hubli. Jowar rotis were prepared from equal quantity of jowar flour in iron and non-iron tawa. Another sample of roti was prepared in iron tawa after treating with lemon juice. Six samples were homogenised and filtered. The filtrates were replicated and analysed for iron levels by FerroZine method. RESULTS In the present study, we found no change in iron levels in the roti prepared in non-iron utensil, 1.45 and 1.94 fold increase in the roti prepared in new iron tawa without water boiled in it and with water boiled in it for dough preparation respectively when compared with iron levels of plain jowar flour. There was 5.77 fold rise in iron levels in lemon juice treated roti which signifies the bioavailability of iron in food. The study showed statistical significance at ‘p’- value < 0.05. CONCLUSION Several studies have shown the similar results and this was done to strengthen the findings in our staple food. Hence, the daily iron requirement can be met easily and effectively by taking the food cooked with lemon juice in iron utensils.

  10. The impact of cooking methods on the nutritional quality and safety of chicken breaded nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Albuquerque, Tânia; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Cristina Bento, Ana; Costa, Helena S

    2016-06-15

    The impact of cooking methods (industrial pre-frying, deep-fat frying and baking) on the nutritional quality and safety of chicken breaded nugget samples from supermarket and commercial brands was evaluated. The changes in the quality characteristics (nutritional composition, fatty acids profile, cholesterol and salt) of the fried food and frying oil, after ten consecutive frying operations, were evaluated. The total fat content of nuggets varied between 10.9 and 22.7 g per 100 g of edible portion and the salt content ranged from 0.873 to 1.63 g per 100 g. Taking into account one portion of nuggets, the daily intake of salt can reach 49%, which can have a significant impact on the health of those who regularly consume this type of food, especially considering the prevalence of hypertension around the world. The analysed chicken breaded nuggets are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, which have been related with potential health benefits, namely regarding cardiovascular diseases. The cholesterol content of baked samples was two times higher when compared with the fried ones. The trans fatty acids and polar compounds contents of the frying oil used for frying significantly increased, but the values were still away from the maximum recommended by legal entities for its rejection. From a nutritional point of view, it is possible to conclude that the applied cooking methods can significantly influence the nutritional quality and safety of the analysed chicken breaded nuggets. This study will contribute to important knowledge on how the applied cooking methods can change the nutritional quality and safety of foods, namely of chicken nuggets, and can be very useful for dietary recommendations and nutritional assessment.

  11. Variations au cours de la journée de l'incorporation in vivo de la leucine tritiée dans les protéines du cervelet et du cerveau du jeune rat normal et hypothyroïdien. Daily variations of the in vivo [3H] leucine incorporation into the cerebellar and cerebral proteins of the normal and hypothyroid young rat [(author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainat, J; Rebière, A

    1978-02-15

    In the normal and hypothyroid 6-day-old rat, the specific radioactivity (RSA) and the relative RSA (ratio of the RSA to the [3H] lecine concentration of the acido soluble phase) of the cerebral and cerebellar proteins, changes during the day synchronally. They show a maximum at 15.00 h and a minimum at 0.300 h. At all stages studied, these values are significantly lower in the hyothyroid animals than in normal ones.

  12. Maagiliste momentide mütoloogia : intervjuu Peter Cook'iga / Peter Cook ; interv. Vilen Künnapu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cook, Peter

    2002-01-01

    5. Põhja- ja Baltimaade Arhitektuuritriennaalil esinenud inglise arhitekt P. Cook endast, oma loomingust, rühmitusest Archigram, mis pälvis 2002. a. RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) kuldmedali, Tallinnast jm. Kommenteerinud Triin Ojari

  13. Determination of several families of phytochemicals in different pre-cooked convenience vegetables: effect of lifetime and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Flores, M Isabel; Hernández-Sánchez, Francisco; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, J Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2014-11-01

    Phytochemicals content, including several families such as phenolic acids, isoflavones, flavones, flavonols, isothiocyanates, and glucosinolates, was determined in pre-cooked convenience vegetables by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS). It was observed that there is not a common behavior of the individual concentration of phytochemicals during the lifetime and cooking of the matrix, and compounds change their concentration without a specific trend. It was observed that neither lifetime nor cooking process have significant effects on the total content of phytochemicals except in broccoli, although some changes in the individual content of the target compounds were observed, suggesting that interconversion processes could be performed during the lifetime and/or cooking process of the product.

  14. Daily transactional and transformational leadership and daily employee engament

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A.B.; Hetland, Jorn; Demerouti, E.; Olsen, O.K.; Espevik, R.

    2014-01-01

    This diary study adds to the leadership literature by examining the daily influence of transformational leadership, contingent reward, and active management-by-exception (MBE active) on followers' daily work engagement. We compare the unique contribution of these leadership behaviours and focus on

  15. Comparison of Biodiesel Obtained from Virgin Cooking Oil and Waste Cooking Oil Using Supercritical and Catalytic Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeban Poudel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of transesterification of virgin cooking oil (VCO and waste cooking oil (WCO in catalyzed and supercritical transesterification process using methanol and ethanol as solvents has been conducted in this study. The luminous point of this research was the direct comparison of catalytic and supercritical process using the ester composition obtained from virgin cooking oil and waste cooking oil transesterification. Oil to alcohol molar ratio of 1:6 and reaction condition of 65 °C and 1 bar pressure were considered for the catalytic process, while 260 °C and high pressure (65 and 75 bar for methanol and ethanol, respectively were accounted for the supercritical process. Distinct layer separation was observed for both processes. Ester, fatty acid and glycerol composition was studied for both the upper and lower layers separately, from which 100% ester composition in the upper layer and a mixture of ester and other composition in the lower layer was obtained for the catalytic process owing to succeeding filtration and washing. However, mixture of ester (>75% and other composition was obtained in both layers for the supercritical process where purification process was not implemented. The similarity in the result obtained demonstrates the superiority of waste cooking oil compared to virgin cooking oil, taking cost into consideration.

  16. Associations between daily musicking and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Juel, Knud; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2016-01-01

    musically, while this pattern was not found among men. CONCLUSIONS GENDER SEEMS TO PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MUSICKING AND HEALTH, BUT MORE RESEARCH IS NEEDED TO UNDERSTAND THESE DIFFERENCES AND THE UNDERLYING MECHANISMS IN ADDITION, LONGITUDINAL STUDIES ARE WARRANTED TO EXAMINE......AIMS: To examine the associations between singing/playing musical instruments daily and various outcomes such as health-related quality of life and health behaviour. METHODS: Data originates from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013. The survey was based on a random sample of 25,000 adult...... Danes (response rate: 57%). Besides standard health-related questions the survey included eight specific music questions, based on a review of the sparse literature on music and health. On the same basis, 'daily musicking' was defined as normally singing/playing musical instruments at least 1 h...

  17. 76 FR 2708 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    .... 701- TA-267 and 731-TA-304 (Third Review)] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From Korea AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...-steel cooking ware from Taiwan and the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on imports of top-of...

  18. 75 FR 62144 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China and Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ...); (Investigation Nos. 701-TA-267 and 731-TA-304 (Third Review))] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China and Taiwan; Top-of- the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From Korea AGENCY: United States International... porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from China and Taiwan and the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on...

  19. Essential trace elements content in a sudanese meal of cooked Hibiscus Sp. leaves as determined by both X-ray florescence and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.M; Taha, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Essential trace elements content of a Sudanese meal of cooked Karkadi plant leaves (Hibiscus Sp)was determined and found to be several folds higher than the average trace element content of Sudanese food as determined in twenty nine daily consumed mixed diets. Therefore, this plant can act as a promising natural supplement in cases of deficiency provided it is grown in a trace element rich soil. (Author)

  20. Household energy preferences for cooking in urban Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Boukary

    2006-01-01

    An extensive survey on household expenditures in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, was used to analyze the factors determining urban household energy choices using a multinomial logit model. Wood-energy remains the preferred fuel of most urban households in the country; though rational, the choice is not sustainable as it portends a threat to the savanna woodlands and the economy. Many important policies have been adopted by public authorities to minimize household wood-energy consumption and to substitute it by alternative fuel. Despite the magnitude of all these policies, the depletion rate of the forest resource is increasing. A kind of inertia is thus observed for household preferences for cooking fuel. This model analyzes the sociological and economic variables of household energy preferences for cooking in Ouagadougou. The analyses show that the inertia of household cooking energy preferences are due to poverty factors such as low income, poor household access to electricity for primary and secondary energy, low house standard, household size, high frequency of cooking certain meals using woodfuel as cooking energy. The descriptive analyses show that the domestic demand for wood-energy is strongly related to household income. The firewood utilization rate decreases with increasing household income. In other words, this fuel appears as a 'transition good' for these households which aim for other sources of energy for cooking that are more adapted for urban consumption. This implies that a price subsidy policy for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and its cook stoves could significantly decrease the utilization rate of wood-energy

  1. Screening for heterocyclic amines in chicken cooked in various ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solyakov, A; Skog, K

    2002-08-01

    Chicken cooked under well-controlled conditions and commercial chicken products were screened for heterocyclic amines (HAs). Chicken samples were boiled, deep-fried, pan-fried, oven-roasted, cooked in an unglazed clay pot or in a roasting bag in the oven, and oven broiled. 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman) and 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman) were identified in several samples. Chicken cooked at low temperatures contained low amounts of HAs. In pan-fried chicken breasts, MeIQx was detected in amounts below 2 ng/g, 4,8-DiMeIQx below 0.6 ng/g, and PhIP in amounts up to 38 ng/g. Harman and norharman were detected in almost all samples (below 15 ng/g). In skin from a commercially barbecued chicken, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx and PhIP were detected, while only traces of MeIQx were detected in the meat. MeIQx was detected in a commercial chicken flavour, 0.1 ng/ml. No HAs were detected in pan-fried chicken liver. The results show that the content of HAs in chicken cooked in various ways is low if prepared at low temperatures, and increases with increasing cooking temperature. PhIP formation seems to start accelerating at cooking temperatures around or above 200 degrees C. Colour development increases with cooking temperature, but no correlation with HA content was observed.

  2. Organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor in dry fish: Traditional washing and cooking effect on dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiur Rahim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor were investigated to estimate the effect of various washing and boiling/cooking to elucidate the concentration level we intake actually. For this study five most popular dry fish samples namely bombay duck (loittya, ribbon fish (chhuri, shrimp (chingri, chinese pomfret (rupchanda and Indian salmon (lakhua were analyzed. The highest concentrations of DDT and heptachlor were found 737.238 ppb (Indian salmon, normal and 44.806 ppb (shrimp, normal respectively; after boiling treatment a big amount was washed out and remained only 135.516 ppb and 16.868 ppb respectively. Boiling treatment was found more effective than the others.

  3. Organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor in dry fish: traditional washing and cooking effect on dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. Nurul Huda Bhuiyan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor were investigated to estimate the effect of various washing and boiling/cooking to elucidate the concentration level we intake actually. For this study five most popular dry fish samples namely bombay duck (loittya, ribbon fish (chhuri, shrimp (chingri, chinese pomfret (rupchanda and Indian salmon (lakhua were analyzed. The highest concentrations of DDT and heptachlor were found 737.238 ppb (Indian salmon, normal and 44.806 ppb (shrimp, normal respectively; after boiling treatment a big amount was washed out and remained only 135.516 ppb and 16.868 ppb respectively. Boiling treatment was found more effective than the others.

  4. Logistiline Daily Service / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Sügisel ostis Leedu endise majandusministri Valetntinas Milaknise firma Daily Service ära kõik bürootarvetemüüja Reval Impexi aktsiad. 300 miljoni kroonise aastakäibega firma Eesti tütarettevõte prognoosib oma tänavuseks käibeks 31,2 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Daily Service'i struktuur

  5. Validation of cooking methods using shell eggs inoculated with Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis and Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A L; Curtis, P A; Conner, D E; McKee, S R; Kerth, L K

    2008-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has long been associated with eggs, and more recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg has also become associated with eggs. This study was undertaken to determine whether Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg are effectively eliminated from eggs by various cooking methods. Seven cooking methods were chosen--hard and soft cooked, scrambled, over easy, sunny-side up, poached, and free poached--and a pan insert and the free-flowing method were used. Shell eggs, purchased from a grocery store, were inoculated with Salmonella and cooked. The cooked eggs were analyzed by USDA-approved methods for Salmonella recovery. Findings indicated that existing cooking methods for the hard-cooked, soft-cooked, and poaching methods were safe. However, the same was not true for the current sunny-side-up, over-easy, and scrambled egg cooking methods.

  6. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns

  7. Effect of electrical stimulation and cooking temperature on the within-sample variation of cooking loss and shear force of lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P K; Babiker, S A

    1983-01-01

    Electrical stimulation decreased the shear force and increased the cooking loss in seven paired lamb Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles. This treatment did not have any effect on the within-sample variation. Cooking in 55°, 65° and 75°C water baths for 90 min caused a linear increase in the cooking loss and shear force. There was no stimulation-cooking temperature interaction observed. Cooking temperature also had no effect on the within-sample variation. A possible explanation as to why electrical stimulation did not affect the within-sample variation is given. Copyright © 1983. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Advanced glycation end products, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of cooked lamb loins affected by cooking method and addition of flavour precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan, Mar; Loebner, Jürgen; Degen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the addition of a flavour enhancer solution (FES) (d-glucose, d-ribose, l-cysteine and thiamin) and of sous-vide cooking or roasting on moisture, cooking loss, instrumental colour, sensory characteristics and formation of Maillard reaction (MR) compounds in lamb loins was studied....... FES reduced cooking loss and increased water content in sous-vide samples. FES and cooking method showed a marked effect on browning development, both on the meat surface and within. FES led to tougher and chewier texture in sous-vide cooked lamb, and enhanced flavour scores of sous-vide samples more...

  9. Short term exposure to cooking fumes and pulmonary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qvenild Torgunn

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. Methods Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four times during twenty four hours, on one occasion without any exposure, and on another with exposure to controlled levels of cooking fumes. Results The change in spirometric values during the day with exposure to cooking fumes, were not statistically significantly different from the changes during the day without exposure, with the exception of forced expiratory time (FET. The change in FET from entering the kitchen until six hours later, was significantly prolonged between the exposed and the unexposed day with a 15.7% increase on the exposed day, compared to a 3.2% decrease during the unexposed day (p-value = 0.03. The same tendency could be seen for FET measurements done immediately after the exposure and on the next morning, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion In our experimental setting, there seems to be minor short term spirometric effects, mainly affecting FET, from short term exposure to cooking fumes.

  10. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC 50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries. - Highlights: ► Radiation was applied for the hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein. ► The degree of hydrolysis were increased by irradiation and the antioxidant activity of hydrolysate was higher than protein. ► This result suggest that radiation is useful method for the hydrolysis of protein.

  11. Biodiesel from waste cooking oils via direct sonication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Grant, Georgene Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal effects of direct sonication on transesterification reaction were studied. • Ultrasonics may effectively transesterify waste oils without external heating. • Intense mixing with temperature rise completes transesterification instantly. • Plug flow process reactor design with ultrasound may prove energy efficient. • Process optimization and biodiesel conversion analysis was presented. - Abstract: This study investigates the effect of direct sonication in conversion of waste cooking oil into biodiesel. Waste cooking oils may cause environmental hazards if not disposed properly. However, waste cooking oils can serve as low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Ultrasonics, a non-conventional process technique, was applied to directly convert waste cooking oil into biodiesel in a single step. Ultrasonics transesterify waste cooking oils very efficiently due to increased mass/heat transfer phenomena and specific thermal/athermal effects at molecular levels. Thus, energy and chemical consumption in the overall process is greatly reduced compared to conventional biodiesel processes. Specific to this research, thermal effects of ultrasonics in transesterification reaction without external conventional heating along with effects of different ultrasonic, energy intensities and energy density are reported. Optimization of process parameters such as methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time are also presented. It was observed that small reactor design such as plug-flow or contact-type reactor design may improve overall ultrasonic utilization in the transesterification reaction due to increased energy density and ultrasonic intensity

  12. Household cooking fuels and technologies in developing economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foell, Wesley; Pachauri, Shonali; Spreng, Daniel; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    A major energy challenge of the 21st century is the health and welfare of 2.7 billion people worldwide, who currently rely on burning biomass in traditional household cooking systems. This Special Issue on Clean Cooking Fuels and Technologies in Developing Economies builds upon an IAEE workshop on this subject, held in Istanbul in 2008. It includes several papers from that workshop plus papers commissioned afterwards. The major themes of that workshop and this Special Issue are: •Analytical and decision frameworks for analysis and policy development for clean cooking fuels. •Making energy provisioning a central component of development strategies. •Strategies/business models of suppliers of modern fuels and technologies. •Analysis of successes/failures of past policies and programs to improve access to clean cooking. This introductory paper serves as a preamble to the 11 papers in this Special Issue. It provides a brief background on household cooking fuels and technologies, including: (1) their implications for sustainable development, health and welfare, gender impacts, and environment/climate issues; (2) options and scenarios for improved household cooling systems; and (3) discussions of institutions, programs and markets. It closes with “Research and Action Agendas”, initially developed during the 2008 workshop.

  13. Cooking decreases observed perfluorinated compound concentrations in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gobbo, Liana; Tittlemier, Sheryl; Diamond, Miriam; Pepper, Karen; Tague, Brett; Yeudall, Fiona; Vanderlinden, Loren

    2008-08-27

    Dietary intake is a major route of exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Although fish and seafood contribute significantly to total dietary exposure to these compounds, there is uncertainty with respect to the effect of cooking on PFC concentrations in these foods. Eighteen fish species purchased from markets in Toronto, Mississauga, and Ottawa, Canada were analyzed for perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSAs)-based fluorochemicals and perfluorinated acids (PFAs) in raw and cooked (baked, boiled, fried) samples. Of 17 analytes, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was detected most frequently; concentrations ranged from 0.21 to 1.68 ng/g ww in raw and cooked samples. PFOSAs were detected only in scallops at concentrations ranging from 0.20 ng/g ww to 0.76 ng/g ww. Total concentrations of PFAs in samples were 0.21 to 9.20 ng/g ww, respectively, consistent with previous studies. All cooking methods reduced PFA concentrations. Baking appeared to be the most effective cooking method; after baking samples for 15 min at 163 C (325 degrees F), PFAs were not detected in any of the samples. The margin of exposures (MOE) between the toxicological points of reference and the dietary intake of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and PFOS in fish and seafood muscle tissue were greater than 4 orders of magnitude. This indicates that reducing consumption of fish muscle tissue is not warranted on the basis of PFC exposure concerns at the reported levels of contamination, even for high fish consuming populations.

  14. Genetic Evidence of Human Adaptation to a Cooked Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Dannemann, Michael; Briggs, Adrian W; Nickel, Birgit; Groopman, Emily E; Wrangham, Richard W; Kelso, Janet

    2016-04-13

    Humans have been argued to be biologically adapted to a cooked diet, but this hypothesis has not been tested at the molecular level. Here, we combine controlled feeding experiments in mice with comparative primate genomics to show that consumption of a cooked diet influences gene expression and that affected genes bear signals of positive selection in the human lineage. Liver gene expression profiles in mice fed standardized diets of meat or tuber were affected by food type and cooking, but not by caloric intake or consumer energy balance. Genes affected by cooking were highly correlated with genes known to be differentially expressed in liver between humans and other primates, and more genes in this overlap set show signals of positive selection in humans than would be expected by chance. Sequence changes in the genes under selection appear before the split between modern humans and two archaic human groups, Neandertals and Denisovans, supporting the idea that human adaptation to a cooked diet had begun by at least 275,000 years ago. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Occurrence of heterocyclic amines in cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Gadgil, Priyadarshini; Houser, Terry A; Hunt, Melvin C; Smith, J Scott

    2012-03-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), potent mutagens and a risk factor for human cancers, are produced in meats cooked at high temperature. The aim of this study was to determine the HCA content in cooked meat products (beef, chicken, pork, fish) prepared by various cooking methods (pan frying, oven broiling, and oven baking at 170 to 230°C) that are preferred by U.S. meat consumers. The primary HCAs in these samples were PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine) (1.49-10.89ng/g), MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-4.0ng/g), and DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-3.57ng/g). Type and content of HCAs in cooked meat samples were highly dependent on cooking conditions. The total HCA content in well-done meat was 3.5 times higher than that of medium-rare meat. Fried pork (13.91ng/g) had higher levels of total HCAs than fried beef (8.92ng/g) and fried chicken (7.00ng/g). Among the samples, fried bacon contained the highest total HCA content (17.59ng/g). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in bluefish before and after cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, W J; Corneliussen, P E; Laski, R R; Vannelli, J J

    1989-01-01

    Similar levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, and fat were found in 20 correlated uncooked and cooked (baked) bluefish fillets. Fillets averaged 2.5 ppm PCBs as Aroclor 1254 (whole basis) before cooking; after cooking, with the oil drippings and skin discarded, the average PCB level was 2.7 ppm. Although PCBs, lipophilic pesticides, and fat were lost along with oil drippings and skin that were discarded after cooking, the moisture loss in the fillets during cooking compensated for these weight losses almost completely. After the fillets were cooked and the oil drippings and skin were discarded, the PCB content of the fillets was 27% lower on the average.

  17. Outgoing Longwave Radiation Daily Climate Data Record (OLR Daily CDR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The product contains the 1-degree by 1-degree daily mean outgoing longwave radiation flux at the top of the atmosphere derived from HIRS radiance observations...

  18. Daily and Sub-daily Precipitation for the Former USSR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily and hourly meteorological observations for the former USSR initially obtained within the framework of several joint...

  19. Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

  20. Postrigor citric acid enhancement can alter cooked color but not fresh color of dark-cutting beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, R J; Apple, J K; Yancey, J W S; Keys, C A; Johnson, T M; Mehall, L N

    2016-04-01

    In 2 experiments, dark-cutting (DC) beef strip loins were used to test the effects of citric acid-enhancement pH on visual and instrumental color of fresh and cooked steaks. In Exp. 1 and 2, each DC (mean pH = 6.57 and 6.65, respectively) and normal-pH, low USDA Choice (CH; mean pH = 5.48 and 5.51, respectively) strip loin was cut into 2 equal-length sections, and DC sections were injected to 111% of raw section weight with pH 3.5 to 5.0 (Exp. 1) or pH 2.0 to 3.5 (Exp. 2) solutions made by mixing citric acid in either 0.05% orthophosphate (PO) solution or tap water (HO) base solutions (Exp. 1) and 0.5% PO or 0.5% tripolyphosphate solution base solutions (Exp. 2). After enhancement, sections were cut into steaks, which were assigned to either 5 d of simulated retail display or cooked to 71°C for cooked color measurement. Postenhancement pH of DC steaks enhanced with pH 3.5 to 5.0 solutions did not ( ≥ 0.180) differ from that of nonenhanced DC steaks (Exp. 1) but linearly decreased ( citric acid enhancement over untreated DC steaks during the first 3 d of display, fresh steak color never ( citric acid enhancement solutions, regardless of base solution, were insufficient to improve the fresh color of DC beef; however, enhancement with pH 2.5 citric acid solutions effectively eliminated the persistent red cooked color typically associated with DC beef comparable with that of normal-pH beef.

  1. Solar cooking in Mozambique—an investigation of end-user's needs for the design of solar cookers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, Pia Piroschka

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by insufficient access to modern energy. One solution to this problem could be the use of solar energy to satisfy the current energy demand. However, solar energy technologies have shown limited success up to now. In the literature it is argued that solar cookers are often implemented as a “solution looking for a problem”, without consideration of the end-user needs. This study contributes to this debate by investigating the energy patterns and cooking profiles of public institutions for the design and implementation of solar cookers in the case of Mozambique. Interviews were conducted with 12 health institutions in Maputo and Sofala province in Mozambique. The paper concludes that solar cooking presents one solution to overcome the energy crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa but not the only solution. Solar cookers could improve the current cooking situation if combined with heat storage, back up, or a hybrid system that ensures reliability also during evening hours and rainy days. In general we could see that solar cookers should fulfill a variety of requirements related to cooking habits, schedule of daily routine and performance that are considered to enhance levels of use. - Highlights: • The study investigates energy patterns of public health institutions in Mozambique. • The aim is to find out how a solar cooker should be designed for implementation. • Solar cookers should be reliable and lead to economic savings. • Users are skeptical towards the use of solar cookers during the rainy season. • Solar cookers need to be combined with other energy sources to be successful

  2. Dutch Cooking and baking customers under the magnifying glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worm, J.

    1980-10-01

    Sponsored by VEGIN, the Amsterdam bureau Centrum interviewed 400 people, aged 18-60 and using gas stoves less than 15 years old, about their cooking habits on gas stoves. For reasons of energy conservation or burner malfunction, over half of the interviewees do not use the ignition burner. Foreign dishes are becoming more popular (prepared by 64% of the respondents). Some 60% use the oven for baking or for heating prepared meals, not particularly for preparing their own dishes. The growing tendency to use only the front burner (for convenience of stirring) appears universal except in homes where such practice would be hazardous to children. Over 95% of those interviewed are married or living together. About 18% of the men cook regularly, 26% occasionally, and 54% never. Those men who do cook are generally younger and in two-person households. Only 6% of the respondents have their stoves regularly checked by professionals.

  3. Effect of irradiation on microbiological safety of chilled cooked dumpling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Chunfeng; Jia Yingmin; Gao Meixu; Sun Baozhong

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Dumplings are popular ethnic prepared meal in China. The effects of irradiation on the survival of Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, which are possible pathogenic bacteria in the chilled and cooked dumpling with vacuum package, were studied. The results showed that the D 10 values of Sal. enteritidis, Staph. aureus and L. monocytogenes were 0.31, 0.44 and 0.45 kGy, respectively. After 4 kGy irradiation, the hygienic and safe characters of the chilled and cooked dumpling were acceptable according to our national industrial standard. So the vacuum packaging and 4 kGy irradiation treatment might insure the safety of the chilled and cooked dumpling. (authors)

  4. Antioxidant activity in cooked and simulated digested eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remanan, M K; Wu, J

    2014-07-25

    The avian egg is an excellent source of nutrients consisting of components with beneficial properties but there is limited knowledge on the effect of cooking methods and gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant activity of eggs. The present study was focused on the effect of cooking and simulated gastrointestinal digestion on antioxidant activity of eggs using ORAC, ABTS and DPPH assays. The results suggest that fresh egg yolk has higher antioxidant activity than fresh egg white and whole eggs. Cooking reduced whereas simulated gastrointestinal digestion increased the antioxidant activity of eggs. Boiled egg white hydrolysate showed the highest antioxidant activity; a total of 63 peptides were identified, indicative of the formation of novel antioxidant peptides upon simulated gastrointestinal digestion. This study suggests the potential role of eggs as a dietary source of antioxidants.

  5. Effect of consumer cooking on furan in convenience foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D; Crews, C; Grundy, H; Mills, C; Matthews, W

    2008-01-01

    The effect of domestic preparation regimes on the level of the heat-formed toxicant furan was studied to provide useful information for exposure assessment and advice for manufacturers and consumers. Foods were cooked in a saucepan on a gas hob or microwaved and furan was determined by headspace sampling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In general, furan levels did not decrease as much when foods were cooked in a microwave oven when compared with the same foods cooked in a saucepan. Furan levels decreased in most canned and jarred foods after heating in a saucepan. Low levels of furan in soups in cartons were not changed by any procedure. Furan decreased slightly in foods on standing before consumption, but did so more rapidly on stirring. The levels also decreased slightly when foods were left to stand on plates; this observation is attributed to the volatility of furan.

  6. RESIZING AND AUTOMATION OF COOKING OF COLD CUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício da Cunha Müller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooking using steam, at an industrial level, should be a reliable and safe process regarding operational repeatability of pre-set parameters. This work aims to implement an automatic system for direct steam injection , for cooking salamis at an industry of Rio Grande do Sul. Costs of losses of cold cuts have been measured before and after the implementation of the project and also calculations of transfer of heat and mass have been performed - application of letters of Heisler - to obtain the correct time and temperatures for this kind of food, resulting in a project of a vapor distributor with temperature and time controls, guaranteeing a product with uniform cooking and, therefore, quality. The realignment of the project proposed in this study resulted in the reduction of direct losses of discarded products at 98 % , with consequent reduction in operational and energy costs.

  7. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  8. Effect of added phosphate and type of cooking method on physico-chemical and sensory features of cooked lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of brining with phosphates on the physico-chemical and sensory features of sous-vide and roasted cooked lamb. Lamb loins (n=48) were injected with either 10% w/w of distilled water or a solution containing 0.2% or 0.4% (w/v) of a mixture of phosphate salts. After injection, samples were either sous-vide cooked (12h-60°C) or oven roasted (180°C until 73°C of core temp.). Expressible moisture, cooking loss, instrumental color, pH, water holding capacity, instrumental texture and sensory properties were evaluated. Brining with phosphates led to lower cooking loss in both sous-vide and oven roasted samples, but only the former showed significantly higher moisture content. Phosphates increased instrumental hardness and shear force values in sous-vide samples, while this effect was not as evident in roasted ones. Toughness was reduced and juiciness was improved as a consequence of phosphate addition. Overall, injection of a phosphate solution appears as a potential procedure for improving sensory textural features of cooked lamb whole cuts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Residential Cooking Behavior in the United States: Data Collected from a Web-Based Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y. W; Andrew, E. E; Hu, T. C; Singer, B. C; Ding, L.; Logue, J. M

    2014-08-01

    Cooking has a significant impact on indoor air quality. When cooking occurs, how foods are cooked, and the types of food that are cooked have all been shown to impact the rate at which occupants are exposed to pollutants. Home occupancy characteristics impact how concentrations in the home translate into exposures for the occupants. With the intent of expanding our understanding of cooking behavior in the U.S., we developed and advertised an online survey to collect household cooking behavior for the 24 hrs prior to taking the survey. The survey questions were designed to address gaps in knowledge needed to predict the impact of cooking on indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and other pollutants. The survey included the following questions: 1) which meals households ate at home; 2) number of household members at home during cooking; 3) the type of oil used for cooking; 4) the type of foods cooked at each meal; 5) the type of cooking devices used; and 6) the methods selected for food preparation. We also collected information on household characteristics such as their location (zip code), ethnicity, and ages of family members. We analyzed the variability in home cooking characteristics for households in different climate zones and with four different types of family compositions: 1 senior living alone, 1 adult living alone, 2 or more adults/seniors, and families with children. We used simple statistical tests to determine if the probability of certain cooking behaviors differed between these subgroups.

  10. Assessment of carotenoids in pumpkins after different home cooking conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria Jaeger de Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids have antioxidant activity, but few are converted by the body into retinol, the active form of vitamin A. Among the 600 carotenoids with pro-vitamin A activity, the most common are α- and β-carotene. These carotenoids are susceptible to degradation (e.g., isomerization and oxidation during cooking. The aim of this study was to assess the total carotenoid, α- and β-carotene, and 9 and 13-Z- β-carotene isomer contents in C. moschata after different cooking processes. The raw pumpkin samples contained 236.10, 172.20, 39.95, 3.64 and 0.8610 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene, 13-cis-β-carotene, and 9-Z-β-carotene, respectively. The samples cooked in boiling water contained 258.50, 184.80, 43.97, 6.80, and 0.77 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene, 13-Z-β-carotene, and 9-Z-β-carotene, respectively. The steamed samples contained 280.77, 202.00, 47.09, 8.23, and 1.247 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene,13-Z-β-carotene, and 9-Z-β-carotene, respectively. The samples cooked with added sugar contained 259.90, 168.80, 45.68, 8.31, and 2.03 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoid, β-carotene, α-carotene, 13-Z- β-carotene, and 9-Z- β-carotene, respectively. These results are promising considering that E- β-carotene has 100% pro-vitamin A activity. The total carotenoid and carotenoid isomers increased after the cooking methods, most likely as a result of a higher availability induced by the cooking processes.

  11. Microwave Cooking Practices in Minnesota Food Service Establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedeen, Nicole; Reimann, David; Everstine, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Uneven cooking due to consumer use of microwave ovens to cook food products that have been prepared but are not ready to eat has been a documented risk factor in several foodborne disease outbreaks. However, the use of microwave ovens in restaurants and other food service establishments has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to describe the types of food service establishments that use microwave ovens, how these ovens are used, types of foods heated or cooked in these ovens, types of microwave ovens used in food service establishments, and the level of compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. From 2008 to 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health collected data from a convenience sample of 60 food establishments within the state. Facility types included fast-food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, school food service, nursing homes, hotels and motels, and daycare centers. Food preparation practices were classified as prep-serve, cookserve, or complex. Minnesota environmental health specialists administered a study questionnaire to managers during routine inspections. Establishments included in this study reported using microwave ovens primarily to warm commercial ready-to-eat products (67%) and to warm foods for palatability (50%). No minimum temperatures are required for these processes because these foods do not require pathogen destruction. However, food establishments using complex preparation practices more often reported using microwave ovens for multiple processes and for processes that require pathogen destruction. For establishments that did report microwave oven use for food requiring pathogen destruction, the majority of managers reported following most FDA recommendations for cooking and reheating for hot-holding potentially hazardous foods, but many did not report letting food stand for 2 min after cooking. Additional training on stand time after microwave cooking could be beneficial because of low reporting

  12. Outlook for modern cooking energy access in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Central American nations of Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua are among the poorest in the Americas. While the fraction of population dependent on solid fuels has declined in these nations over the last 25 years, the number of people using them has risen. Here, we first assess current patterns of cooking energy use in these nations. We then apply a discrete model of household cooking choices and demand to simulate future pathways of clean cooking uptake and the outlook for achieving target 7.1 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), which aims to ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services by 2030. We find that by 2030, ensuing income growth is likely to enable 90% of urban populations in these nations to switch to using modern cooking energy services. However, without supporting policies, between 40% to 50% of rural Guatemalans and Hondurans, while over two-thirds of rural Nicaraguans, are likely to find clean fuels or stoves unaffordable in 2030. A targeted subsidy on modern fuels, like liquid petroleum gas (LPG), is the most effective policy mechanism we studied that could provide such support. A 50% subsidy policy on LPG targeted to the rural and urban poor population could, by 2030, make cooking with LPG affordable to an additional 7.3 million people in these countries. We estimate that such a policy would cost about $250 million per year and would have negligible greenhouse gas emissions impacts. Such a policy could also have significant health benefits, preventing about 8,890 premature deaths annually from reduced exposure to cooking-related household pollution in 2030. PMID:29883457

  13. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Pan, D; Wang, G

    1994-01-01

    Various samples of cooking oil fumes were analyzed to an effort to study the relationship between the high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in Chinese women and cooking oil fumes in the kitchen. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of cooking oil fumes were extracted, chromatographed, and measured by fluorescence spectrophotometer. The samples included oil fumes from three commercial cooking oils and fumes from three catering shops. All samples contained benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dibenzo (a,h)anthracene (DBahA). In addition, the concentration of DBahA was 5.7 to 22.8 times higher than that of BaP in the fume samples. Concentrations of BaP and DBahA were, respectively, 0.463 and 5.736 micrograms/g in refined vegetable oil, 0.341 and 3.725 micrograms/g in soybean oil, and 0.305 and 4.565 micrograms/g in vegetable oil. Investigation of PAH concentrations at three catering shops showed that the level of BaP at a Youtiao (deep-fried twisted dough sticks) shop was 4.18 micrograms/100 m3, 2.28 micrograms/100 m3 at a Seqenma (candied fritters) workshop, and 0.49 micrograms/100 m3 at a kitchen of a restaurant; concentrations of DBahA were 33.80, 14.41, and 3.03 micrograms/100 m3, respectively. The high concentration of carcinogens, such as BaP and DBahA, in cooking oil fumes might help explain why Chinese women, who spend more time exposed to cooking oil fumes than men, have a high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

  14. Lightship Daily Observations - NARA Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1893 - 1943. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  15. Allegheny County Jail Daily Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A daily census of the inmates at the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). Includes gender, race, age at booking, and current age. The records for each month contain a...

  16. Determination of optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef products

    OpenAIRE

    Rodas?Gonz?lez, Argenis; Larsen, Ivy L.; Uttaro, Bethany; Ju?rez, Manuel; Parslow, Joyce; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In order to determine optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef, the effects of searing at 232 or 260?C for 0, 10, 20 or 30?min, and roasting at 160 or 135?C on semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were evaluated. In addition, the optimum determined cooking method (oven?seared for 10?min at 232?C and roasted at 135?C) was applied to SM roasts varying in weight from 0.5 to 2.5?kg. Mainly, SM muscles seared for 0 or 10?min at 232?C followed by roast at 135?C h...

  17. From Solar Cookers Towards Viable Solar Cooking Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    A broader concept of technology encompassing the technical and the societal aspects is introduced. Viability of technology and technological development process from a socio-technical view- point is discussed. Based on the above, the question of securing viability of solar cooking technology...... is taken up. It is discussed that actor- approach can operationally relate the abstract societal factors with those of technical aspects. Some concrete measures regarding application of solar cooker projects are drawn from the discussion: solar cooking projects should a) be based on user and producer...

  18. When cooking fish wreaks havoc in Danish kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel

    2008-01-01

    Ignorance about the purchase and cooking of fish hampers consumption of fish in Denmark. A new research project shows that this ignorance is likely to produce many chaotic incidents in Danish kitchens, but also that relatively simple measures can combat the lack of knowhow.......Ignorance about the purchase and cooking of fish hampers consumption of fish in Denmark. A new research project shows that this ignorance is likely to produce many chaotic incidents in Danish kitchens, but also that relatively simple measures can combat the lack of knowhow....

  19. NOTES ON RESUPINATE HYMENOMYCETES—I On Pellicularia Cooke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. DONK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The author concludes that Pellicularia Cooke is to be regarded as the name ofan inseparable mixtum compositum (nomen confusum and hence as illegitimate (im-priorable. He believes that, apart from a hypothetical gelatinous medium, Cooke'soriginal material consisted of the combination of the vegetative hyphae of a resupinatehymenomycete and the spores of a pervading imperfect fungus. If one of these con-stituent elements were to be selected as type, the choice would be the spores ratherthan the vegetative hyphae selected by Rogers.

  20. Supersymmetry in the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, W.; Batrouni, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate that the early stage of spinodal decomposition and continuous ordering is supersymmetric in systems with long-range interactions. Indeed, the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook linear theory can be described equivalently as an evolution of the order parameter (bosons) or objects that obey an exclusion principle (fermions). Coupled with a cluster representation of the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook theory, supersymmetry suggests a new physical picture of the early stage of spinodal decomposition and continuous ordering that provides a greater understanding of early-stage morphology, and could provide a basis for an improved description of the nonlinear regime

  1. Influence of rice straw cooking conditions in the soda-ethanol-water pulping on the mechanical properties of produced paper sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaee-Ardeh, S; Mohammadi-Rovshandeh, J; Pourjoozi, M

    2004-03-01

    A normalized design was used to examine the influence of independent variables (alcohol concentration, cooking time and temperature) in the catalytic soda-ethanol pulping of rice straw on various mechanical properties (breaking length, burst, tear index and folding endurance) of paper sheets obtained from each pulping process. An equation of each dependent variable as a function of cooking variables (independent variables) was obtained by multiple non-linear regression using the least square method by MATLAB software for developing of empirical models. The ranges of alcohol concentration, cooking time and temperature were 40-65% (w/w), 150-180 min and 195-210 degrees C, respectively. Three-dimensional graphs of dependent variables were also plotted versus independent variables. The optimum values of breaking length, burst and tear index and folding endurance were 4683.7 (m), 30.99 (kN/g), 376.93 (mN m2/g) and 27.31, respectively. However, short cooking time (150 min), high ethanol concentration (65%) and high temperature (210 degrees C) could be used to produce papers with suitable burst and tear index. However, for papers with best breaking length and folding endurance low temperature (195 degrees C) was desirable. Differences between optimum values of dependent variables obtained by normalized design and experimental data were less than 20%.

  2. Relationships Among Nightly Sleep Quality, Daily Stress, and Daily Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxton, Jessica M; Bergeman, Cindy S; Whitehead, Brenda R; Braun, Marcia E; Payne, Jessic D

    2017-05-01

    We explored the prospective, microlevel relationship between nightly sleep quality (SQ) and the subsequent day's stress on positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as the moderating relationships between nightly SQ, subsequent stress, and subsequent PA on NA. We investigated whether age moderated these relationships. We collected 56 days of sleep, stress, and affect data using daily diary questionnaires (N = 552). We used multilevel modeling to assess relationships at the between- and within-person levels. Daily increases in SQ and decreases in stress interacted to predict higher daily PA and lower daily NA. Better SQ in older adults enhanced the benefits of PA on the stress-NA relationship more during times of low stress, whereas better sleep in younger adults enhanced the benefits of PA more during times of high stress. Between-person effects were stronger predictors of well-being outcomes than within-person variability. The combination of good SQ and higher PA buffered the impact of stress on NA. The moderating impact of age suggests that sleep and stress play different roles across adulthood. Targeting intervention and prevention strategies to improve SQ and enhance PA could disrupt the detrimental relationship between daily stress and NA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Sensory quality, colour and oxidative stability of cured cooked ham with propolis extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 0.06% propolis ethanol extract on the sensory quality, colour and oxidative stability of cured cooked ham was evaluated. Half of the experimentally processed hams treated with 0.06% ethanolic extract of propolis with ascorbic acid (EEP, only with ascorbic acid (AA and control samples (C were sliced and vacuum packaged. Samples were kept at 4 °C 21 days (sliced respectively 20, 50 and 100 days (unsliced. The results revealed that all samples were characterized without any significant colour discrepancies. In general, the thiobarbituric acid value (mg malondialdehyde/kg increased gradually in all samples examined, with a significantly lower (P <0.05 level for treated samples than for controls. The significantly lowest (P <0.05 sensory parameters in comparison to unsliced hams were observed in sliced hams packaged in vacuum. Sliced hams with EEP were characterized with significantly lowest (P <0.05 intensity of characteristic aroma. Undesirable taste was detected in control sliced hams after storage period. Significantly (P <0.05 more desirable taste of sliced hams was observed in those with only ascorbic acid in comparison with EEP. In our study was demonstrated that 0.06% ethanol extract of propolis positive affected oxidation stability and not negative affected others technological (pH, colour and sensory characteristics of poultry meat product - cured cooked ham. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  4. The potential of virtual reality-based training to enhance the functional autonomy of Alzheimer's disease patients in cooking activities: A single case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foloppe, Déborah A; Richard, Paul; Yamaguchi, Takehiko; Etcharry-Bouyx, Frédérique; Allain, Philippe

    2018-07-01

    Impairments in performing activities of daily living occur early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is a great need to develop non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions likely to reduce dependency in everyday activities in AD patients. This study investigated whether it was possible to increase autonomy in these patients in cooking activities using interventions based on errorless learning, vanishing-cue, and virtual reality techniques. We recruited a 79-year-old woman who met NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for probable AD. She was trained in four cooking tasks for four days per task, one hour per day, in virtual and in real conditions. Outcome measures included subjective data concerning the therapeutic intervention and the experience of virtual reality, repeated assessments of training activities, neuropsychological scores, and self-esteem and quality of life measures. The results indicated that our patient could relearn some cooking activities using virtual reality techniques. Transfer to real life was also observed. Improvement of the task performance remained stable over time. This case report supports the value of a non-immersive virtual kitchen to help people with AD to relearn cooking activities.

  5. Effect of different cooking methods on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Bai, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2014-11-01

    The influences of cooking methods (steaming, pressure-cooking, microwaving, frying and boiling) on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruit body of Boletus mushrooms (B. aereus, B. badius, B. pinophilus and B. edulis) have been evaluated. The results showed that microwaving was better in retention of total phenolics than other cooking methods, while boiling significantly decreased the contents of total phenolics in samples under study. Effects of different cooking methods on phenolic acids profiles of Boletus mushrooms showed varieties with both the species of mushroom and the cooking method. Effects of cooking treatments on antioxidant activities of Boletus mushrooms were evaluated by in vitro assays of hydroxyl radical (OH·) -scavenging activity, reducing power and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH·) -scavenging activity. Results indicated the changes of antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms were different in five cooking methods. This study could provide some information to encourage food industry to recommend particular cooking methods.

  6. The effect of gas cooking on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the role of immunoglobulin E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M; de Monchy, JGR; Rijken, B; Schouten, JP

    1999-01-01

    Some studies have shown an association between gas cooking and respiratory symptoms. This study investigated whether gas cooking affects bronchial responsiveness and whether particular subjects are more sensitive to this effect. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the

  7. 29 CFR 778.202 - Premium pay for hours in excess of a daily or weekly standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... normal or regular working hours. Similarly, where the employee's normal or regular daily or weekly working hours are greater or less than 8 hours and 40 hours respectively and his contract provides for the... excess of his normal or regular daily working hours), his employer may exclude the premium portion of the...

  8. A solar oven for intertropical zones: Evaluation of the cooking process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Luna, G.; Huelsz, G.

    2008-01-01

    The construction and the evaluation of the cooking process of a solar oven prototype are presented, the optogeometrical design of this oven was optimized for the intertropical zone. The cooking tests demonstrated that the oven prototype, which needs only four simple movements throughout the year, is suitable to cook three basic Mexican meals: beans, nixtamal, and corncobs. The potential quantity of wood savings per year if this oven would be used to cook meals in a rural zone of Mexico is estimated

  9. Arsenic species in raw and cooked rice: Implications for human health in rural Bengal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Dipti, E-mail: dipti@kth.se [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, 741 235, West Bengal (India); Biswas, Ashis [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, 741 235, West Bengal (India); Šlejkovec, Zdenka [Environmental Sciences Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Chatterjee, Debashis [Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, 741 235, West Bengal (India); Nriagu, Jerome [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Jacks, Gunnar; Bhattacharya, Prosun [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-11-01

    This study compares the concentrations of total and different species of arsenic (As) in 29 pairs of raw and cooked rice samples collected from households in an area of West Bengal affected by endemic arsenicism. The aim is to investigate the effects of indigenous cooking practice of the rural villagers on As accumulation and speciation in cooked rice. It is found that inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). Cooking of rice with water low in As (< 10 μg L{sup −1}) significantly decreases the total and inorganic As content in cooked rice compared to raw rice. Arsenic concentration is mainly decreased during boiling of rice grains with excess water. Washing of rice grains with low As water has negligible effect on grain As concentration. The study suggests that rice cooking with low As water by the villagers is a beneficial risk reduction strategy. Despite reductions in As content in cooked rice because of cooking with low As water, the consumption of cooked rice represents a significant health threat (in terms of chronic As toxicity) to the study population. - Highlights: • Pairs of raw and cooked rice samples are collected from households. • Total and different species of As in raw and cooked rice samples are compared. • Cooking with As safe water reduces total and inorganic As contents in cooked rice. • Inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). • Risks of As exposure from cooked rice consumption exceed the safety standards.

  10. Arsenic species in raw and cooked rice: Implications for human health in rural Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halder, Dipti; Biswas, Ashis; Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Chatterjee, Debashis; Nriagu, Jerome; Jacks, Gunnar; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the concentrations of total and different species of arsenic (As) in 29 pairs of raw and cooked rice samples collected from households in an area of West Bengal affected by endemic arsenicism. The aim is to investigate the effects of indigenous cooking practice of the rural villagers on As accumulation and speciation in cooked rice. It is found that inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). Cooking of rice with water low in As (< 10 μg L −1 ) significantly decreases the total and inorganic As content in cooked rice compared to raw rice. Arsenic concentration is mainly decreased during boiling of rice grains with excess water. Washing of rice grains with low As water has negligible effect on grain As concentration. The study suggests that rice cooking with low As water by the villagers is a beneficial risk reduction strategy. Despite reductions in As content in cooked rice because of cooking with low As water, the consumption of cooked rice represents a significant health threat (in terms of chronic As toxicity) to the study population. - Highlights: • Pairs of raw and cooked rice samples are collected from households. • Total and different species of As in raw and cooked rice samples are compared. • Cooking with As safe water reduces total and inorganic As contents in cooked rice. • Inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). • Risks of As exposure from cooked rice consumption exceed the safety standards

  11. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  12. Cooking behaviour of different ethnic groups residing in and around lowland rainforests of Sumatra, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Wahyudi; Widianingsih, Nayu Nuringdati; Ardiansyah

    2017-01-01

    Cooking behaviour can reflect how natural resources have been converted into human nutrition. Cooking is activity from collecting to preparing food. Cooking competencies reflect the ability of people to provide for their food-based needs. Harapan Rainforest is a restoration forest with limited fo...

  13. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alaska) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...

  14. 46 CFR 147.50 - Fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cargo vessels. (b) Fluid alcohol is prohibited for cooking, heating, or lighting on ferry vessels. Fluid... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting. 147.50 Section... SHIPS' STORES Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.50 Fuel for cooking...

  15. A Sociocultural Analysis of Social Interaction and Collaboration within the Cooking Practices of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligh, Caroline Adele; Fathima, Monalisa

    2017-01-01

    This article applies sociocultural theorizing as a tool to analyze children's collaborative cooking practices through the key sociocultural concepts of social interaction and collaboration within a school cooking club. The "everyday" activity of cooking is examined using field notes gathered through participant observations, diary…

  16. 77 FR 49063 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers and Cooking Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers and Cooking Products; Proposed...-AC01 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers and Cooking Products... procedures for both dishwashers and conventional cooking products for the measurement of energy use in fan...

  17. 9 CFR 310.6 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.6 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking shall be marked conspicuously on the surface tissues thereof by a...

  18. Study of sugar cooking degree to sugar obtention using gamma attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda Cavalcanti, J. de.

    1984-01-01

    The application of gamma radiation attenuation methodology in the determination of sugar cooking degree is studied. Several experiments with samples of vacuum equipment during the cooking were made, based on beam intensity variations of a radioactive source of Americium 241. One sensible difference between the sirup emergent radiation and the cooked mass was observed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. 36 CFR 13.320 - Preference to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Region, Incorporated. 13.320 Section 13.320 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated. (a) The Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated (CIRI), in cooperation with village corporations within the Cook Inlet region when appropriate, will have a right of first...

  20. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  1. Bioremediation of cooking oil waste using lipases from wastes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Hamaio Okino-Delgado

    Full Text Available Cooking oil waste leads to well-known environmental impacts and its bioremediation by lipase-based enzymatic activity can minimize the high cytotoxic potential. In addition, they are among the biocatalysts most commercialized worldwide due to the versatility of reactions and substrates. However, although lipases are able to process cooking oil wastes, the products generated from this process do not necessarily become less toxic. Thus, the aim of the current study is to analyze the bioremediation of lipase-catalyzed cooking oil wastes, as well as their effect on the cytotoxicity of both the oil and its waste before and after enzymatic treatment. Thus, assessed the post-frying modification in soybean oil and in its waste, which was caused by hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by commercial and home-made lipases. The presence of lipases in the extracts obtained from orange wastes was identified by zymography. The profile of the fatty acid esters formed after these reactions was detected and quantified through gas chromatography and fatty acids profile compared through multivariate statistical analyses. Finally, the soybean oil and its waste, with and without enzymatic treatment, were assessed for toxicity in cytotoxicity assays conducted in vitro using fibroblast cell culture. The soybean oil wastes treated with core and frit lipases through transesterification reaction were less toxic than the untreated oils, thus confirming that cooking oil wastes can be bioremediated using orange lipases.

  2. Cooking and Science. Ideas in Science. Notes for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Pat, Ed.

    Presented are seven articles (reprinted from "The Exploratorium" magazine) which focus on the scientific explanations for the specific (and oftentimes peculiar) instructions and procedures called for in many recipes. "Baking, Boiling, and Other Hot Topics" (Joel Myerson) discusses different methods of cooking. "The…

  3. Emission characteristics of a diesel engine using waste cooking oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) methyl ester as an alternative fuel in a four-stroke turbo diesel engine with four cylinders, direct injection and 85 HP was analyzed. A test was applied in which an engine was fueled with diesel and three different blends of diesel/biodiesel (B25, B50 and B75) made from WCO.

  4. Investigation on Furan Levels in Pressure-Cooked Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana P. Arisseto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Furan is a food processing contaminant classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. As the occurrence of furan has been reported in a variety of foods processed in sealed containers, the objective of this work was to investigate if the contaminant can be found in home-cooked foods prepared in a pressure cooker. For that, several foods including beans, soy beans, whole rice, beef, pork, potato, and cassava were pressure-cooked and analyzed for the furan content by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry preceded by a headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC/MS. Furan was not found above the limit of quantification in the pressure-cooked samples. No furan has either been found in reheated samples after 24 hours under cold storage. Although levels up to 173 μg/kg were already reported for commercial canned/jarred foods, it seems that the cooking in a pressure cooker may not represent a concern in relation to the occurrence of furan in foods.

  5. Factors influencing the diffusion of cooking banana in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As an interim measure in combating the incidence of black Sigatoka disease on plantain, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture introduced cooking banana in Southeast Nigeria in the late 1980s. This was multiplied and distributed to farmers through the extension systems of both governmental and ...

  6. Factors driving the adoption of cooking banana processing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of efforts in realising her aim of introducing cooking banana into Nigeria, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) mounted training and awareness campaigns on its utilisation in collaboration with Shell and Agip Oil companies between 1991 and 1997. This study looked into the adoption profile of the ...

  7. Balancing food values : Making sustainable choices within cooking practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, A.; Kuijer, S.C.; Rydell, T.

    2013-01-01

    Within user-centred design and topics such as persuasive design, pleasurable products, and design for sustainable behaviour, there is a danger of over-determining, pacifying or reducing people’s diversity. Taking the case of sustainable food, we have looked into the social aspects of cooking at

  8. Note by Note: a New Revolution in Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Roisin; Danaher, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Note by note cooking is an application of Molecular Gastronomy. It was first proposed by French Physical Chemist and Molecular Gastronomy Co-founder, Hervé This. Note by Note dishes are being created as part of Ph.D. research in the Dublin Institute of Technology, Cathal Brugha Street.

  9. Cooking verbs and metaphor Contrastive study of Greek and French

    OpenAIRE

    Tsaknaki, Olympia

    2016-01-01

    The present cross-linguistic study deals with cooking verbs in Greek and French in the light of the Conceptual Metaphor Theory. It intends to explore uniformity and diversity in metaphorical conceptualizations and the lexical choices they underlie. It also discusses the significance of metaphor awareness in foreign language teaching.

  10. Community Living Skills Guide: Cooking/Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickovich, Marti; Kreps, Alice Roelofs

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Cooking/Food Preparation. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized…

  11. Kitchen Magic: A Nutrition and Cooking Activities Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Mary Jo; And Others

    This handbook on nutrition and cooking is one of a series written especially for parents and other caregivers. Contents include: (1) the importance of nutrition, (2) the four basic food groups in terms of serving size, menu planning, and major nutrients, (3) ways to build healthy attitudes toward food, (4) unsafe foods which have the potential to…

  12. Traditional Bulgarian Hunter's Cuisine (Hunter's Cooking Book (1939 [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petrushev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This very rare book was published in Belogradchik in 1939. The publisher is Stamen Kamenov. Stamen Kamenov owned a printing press, where several books of local and national importance were printed. This is a cookbook with recipes for cooking wild game. The book is relevant to modern man because it shows what has been the cuisine of old Bulgarians.

  13. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  14. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the cooking and eating quality of mutant lines obtained from irradiating a local cultivar, Supa. Five early maturing mutant lines plus two controls, IR! 53234-27-1 and Supa were evaluated for their physical grain characteristics including length and shape of grain kernel, translucence and ...

  15. Haptic Routes and digestive destinations in cooking series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jørgensen, Ulla Angkjær

    2010-01-01

    and the media in which aesthetical, cultural and symbolic values are related to the way food is mediatised. The main argument is that cooking television series produce haptic images of place and food that include a specific sensuous and emotional relation between screen and viewer. The haptic imagery...

  16. Neurophysiological responses during cooking food associated with different emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Grootjen, M.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Zandstra, E.H.

    2017-01-01

    Neurophysiological correlates of affective experience could potentially provide continuous information about a person’s experience when cooking and tasting food, without explicitly verbalizing this. Such measures would be helpful to understand people’s implicit food preferences and choices. This

  17. Understanding Diffusion Theory and Fick's Law through Food and Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Larissa; Nyberg, Kendra; Rowat, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion is critical to physiological processes ranging from gas exchange across alveoli to transport within individual cells. In the classroom, however, it can be challenging to convey the concept of diffusion on the microscopic scale. In this article, we present a series of three exercises that use food and cooking to illustrate diffusion…

  18. Radiotreatment of dishes cooked : Royal cutlets of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousselmi, Mehrez

    2006-01-01

    The cooked dishes often present themselves as the complex products of microbiological, biochemival view point and organoleptic.However, the demand of the local and international market stops showing a tendency toward use increased of these cooked dishes of which problems to get round are very delicate. The ionization can be an alternative of conservation since it is characterized bye one fashion of action fundamentally different of the classic techniques: it is about exposing during a determined length, of the wrapped food commodities or in a jumble to doses of ionising radiance carefully controlled in order to get the sought-after effect. The irradiation showed a big efficiency therefore on the plan microbiology.Indeed the dose 1 KGy destroyed all present microorganisms in dishes cooked pasteurized. whereas, for dishes cooked non pasteurized, a dose of 2 KGy destroyed completely the flora of contamination. Besides, the irradiation entails a light reduction of the biochemical composition, while keeping qualities intact organoleptic for all analyzed samples. As a conclusion, the irradiation increases the length of conservation, what confirms the reliability of such a process, in addition of his/her/its weak energizing cost. (author)

  19. Effects of pan cooking on micropollutants in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Christelle; Ratel, Jérémy; Blinet, Patrick; Mercier, Frédéric; Angénieux, Magaly; Chafey, Claude; Zinck, Julie; Marchond, Nathalie; Chevolleau, Sylvie; Marchand, Philippe; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Guérin, Thierry; Debrauwer, Laurent; Engel, Erwan

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the effects of pan cooking on PCBs, PCDD/Fs, pesticides and trace elements in meat from a risk assessment perspective. Three different realistic cooking intensities were studied. A GC×GC-TOF/MS method was set up for the multiresidue analysis of 189 PCBs, 17 PCDD/Fs and 16 pesticides whereas Cd, As, Pb and Hg were assayed by ICP-MS. In terms of quantity, average PCB losses after cooking were 18±5% for rare, 30±3% for medium, and 48±2% for well-done meat. In contrast, average PCDD/F losses were not significant. For pesticides, no loss occurred for aldrin, lindane, DDE or DDD, whereas losses exceeding 80% were found for dieldrin, sulfotep or phorate. Losses close to the margin of error were observed for trace elements. These results are discussed in light of the physicochemical properties of the micropollutants as well as of water and fat losses into cooking juice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of juiciness intensity of cooked chicken pectoralis major

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to assess sensory descriptive juiciness of cooked chicken breast meat (pectoralis major) during the entire process of consumption and to determine the relationship between sensory juiciness intensity scores during eating and raw meat characteristics. Chicken breast fillets were c...

  1. Effect of cooking on enrofloxacin residues in chicken tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolo, M; Pedreira, S; Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B I; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A; Fente, C

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different cooking processes (microwaving, roasting, boiling, grilling and frying) on naturally incurred enrofloxacin residues in chicken muscle. Enrofloxacin and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were analysed using a validated LC-MS method with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), respectively, of 2 and 5 ng g-1 quinolones in muscle samples. The method was shown to be linear over the range 5-500 ng g-1. Mean intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) at a concentration of 50 ng g-1 (n = 6) was 6%; inter-day RSD was 12%. A recovery study demonstrated that 65-101%, of the drug and metabolite could be recovered from the tissue. The RSD with naturally incurred roasted chicken breast was 9.18% at a concentration of 11 +/- 1.01 ng g-1 (n = 6). In water, enrofloxacin remained stable for 3 h when heated at 100 degrees C. It was concluded that residue data from raw tissue are valid for estimation of consumer exposure to this drug, as well as the ADI calculations because cooking procedures did not affect enrofloxacin residues, which remained stable during heating. However, there was an apparent decrease in quinolone concentration in tissue because some was lost by exudation into the liquid used for cooking. Conversely, for a cooking procedure with water loss, there was an apparent increase in residue concentration.

  2. Factors Affecting Utilization of Cooking Banana among Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated factors affecting utilization of cooking banana among households in Oguta area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 84 randomly selected respondents from six communities in the study area who were administered with structured questionnaire. Data analysis was by use of descriptive ...

  3. Recipe for success: cooking and food in business metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Oana Nicolae

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article sets out to disclose the range of applications and implications of the business media metaphors that draw on the more familiar cognitive domain related to food and cooking. The conclusions rely on a corpus-based approach, while the theoretical framework is provided by cognitive semantics.

  4. Literature, Science, and Cooking in the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Mildred R.

    Since the balanced literacy program presently mandated in California makes literature an integral part of the curriculum and leaves even less time for study of the sciences, this annotated bibliography provides some recommended literature together with the science concepts that evolve from those books. The bibliography also offers cooking recipes…

  5. Information activities and resources in an episode of gourmet cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hartel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper contributes to what is known about everyday life information seeking within serious leisure. It is the first case study of a making and tinkering (or craft hobby, gourmet cooking. The central activity of the hobby is described and serves as a context to relate and locate information activities and information resources. Method. In this scientific ethnography, twenty gourmet cooks from Boston and Los Angeles, USA were interviewed in their homes about their pursuit of the hobby and its associated information phenomena. Then, domestic culinary information resources and spaces were documented via a photographic inventory. Analysis. Interview transcripts and field notes were studied for themes through an iterative process of inductive and deductive analysis. A visual analysis process was performed on the photographs. Results. Hands-on cooking takes the form of a nine step episode. Information activities and resources are instrumental, interwoven, and varied across the process. In any cooking episode use and re-use are the prevailing information activities; the hobbyist is an active producer and manager of information; and the recipe is a primary document. Conclusion. The study demonstrates how to explicate and conceptualize information phenomena in serious leisure, and sets up lines of inquiry to explore in future research.

  6. Implications of Different Household Cooking Energy on Indoor Air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Energy is a basic necessity of life for meeting domestic, social and industrial needs of man. ... The cooking methods sampled were firewood stove, kerosene stove, charcoal stove, electricity stove and gas cooker. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. Effect of domestic cooking methods on egg yolk xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Lopes-Lutz, Daise; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2012-12-26

    Xanthophylls are a class of bioactive compounds known to play an important role in preventing age-related macular degeneration. Egg yolk is a rich source of highly bioavailable xanthophylls including lutein and zeaxanthin. The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, frying, microwaving) on egg yolk xanthophyll content were investigated. A LC-(APCI)-MS/MS method was used to identify and quantify all-E- and Z-isomers of lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and β-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester in fresh and cooked egg yolks. Both fresh and cooked yolks showed similar xanthophyll profiles but with higher contents of Z-isomers in cooked samples. All-E-lutein was the most affected, with 22.5%, 16.7%, and 19.3% reductions in boiled, microwaved, and fried yolk extracts, respectively. Total xanthophyll losses ranged from 6% to 18%. The results presented here could be useful in calculating the dietary intake of xanthophylls and also in assessing the xanthophyll profiles and contents of egg-containing products.

  8. 78 FR 20714 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook... Department of Transportation, is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to improve.... SUMMARY: The FHWA is issuing this revised notice of intent to advise the public that an environmental...

  9. Cooking, industrial processing and caloric density of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    During human evolution, the development of a wide range of cooking processing techniques enabled humans to provide their social group with maximum benefits from limited food resources. Industrial processing and mass market distribution made available high food calorie density foods to the world

  10. Effect of cooking methods on available and unavailable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... treatment. Key words: Legume grains, available and unavailable carbohydrates, cooking, autoclaving. INTRODUCTION. Grain legumes are foodstuffs of great nutritional signifi- cance to .... amount of disaccharide sucrose, accounting for 3.76 g/100 .... organoleptic properties of food (Tharanathan and.

  11. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooking and Eating Quantity of Rice Yellow Mottle 195 varieties often out compete introduced varieties on local markets; even though the former have lower yield potential. Breeding work incorporating grain quality was started in 1972 with the aim of developing varieties which combine high grain yield and grain quality ...

  12. 46 CFR 129.550 - Power for cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.550 Power for cooking and heating. (a) Equipment for... with a thermal cut-out to prevent overheating. (e) Each element of an electric space-heater must be enclosed, and the case or jacket of the element made of a corrosion-resistant material. (f) Each electrical...

  13. Traders' Perception of Cooking Smoke as a Risk Factor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood pneumonia is the foremost killer of under-fives. Indoor air pollution by smoke from cooking fuel is a major risk factor for childhood pneumonia. The knowledge of caregivers about risk factors can facilitate the practice of appropriate preventive measures. This study set out to evaluate the perception of ...

  14. Effect Of Dietary Raw, Cooked And Toasted Mucuna Pruriens Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 5-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect or dietary raw, cooked and toasted Mucuna pruriens seeds (velvet bean) on the performance of finisher broilers. Raw Mucuna pruriens seeds contained 30.3% crude protein. At 10% dietary level, raw and toasted Mucuna pruriens seed meals significantly (P ...

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of single rice kernels during cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohoric, A.; Vergeldt, F.J.; Gerkema, E.; Jager, de P.A.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Dalen, van G.; As, van H.

    2004-01-01

    The RARE imaging method was used to monitor the cooking of single rice kernels in real time and with high spatial resolution in three dimensions. The imaging sequence is optimized for rapid acquisition of signals with short relaxation times using centered out RARE. Short scan time and high spatial

  16. Unit Root Testing and Estimation in Nonlinear ESTAR Models with Normal and Non-Normal Errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Khalil

    Full Text Available Exponential Smooth Transition Autoregressive (ESTAR models can capture non-linear adjustment of the deviations from equilibrium conditions which may explain the economic behavior of many variables that appear non stationary from a linear viewpoint. Many researchers employ the Kapetanios test which has a unit root as the null and a stationary nonlinear model as the alternative. However this test statistics is based on the assumption of normally distributed errors in the DGP. Cook has analyzed the size of the nonlinear unit root of this test in the presence of heavy-tailed innovation process and obtained the critical values for both finite variance and infinite variance cases. However the test statistics of Cook are oversized. It has been found by researchers that using conventional tests is dangerous though the best performance among these is a HCCME. The over sizing for LM tests can be reduced by employing fixed design wild bootstrap remedies which provide a valuable alternative to the conventional tests. In this paper the size of the Kapetanios test statistic employing hetroscedastic consistent covariance matrices has been derived and the results are reported for various sample sizes in which size distortion is reduced. The properties for estimates of ESTAR models have been investigated when errors are assumed non-normal. We compare the results obtained through the fitting of nonlinear least square with that of the quantile regression fitting in the presence of outliers and the error distribution was considered to be from t-distribution for various sample sizes.

  17. Fitting the Statistical Distribution for Daily Rainfall in Ibadan, Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Abstract. This paper presents several types of statistical distributions to describe rainfall distribution in Ibadan metropolis over a period of 30 years. The exponential, gamma, normal and poison distributions are compared to identify the optimal model for daily rainfall amount based on data recorded at rain ...

  18. Adolescent Cooking Abilities and Behaviors: Associations With Nutrition and Emotional Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Lucassen, Mathijs; Dyson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    To determine the relationship between cooking and selected indicators of diet quality, mental well-being, and family relationships. Data were collected as part of Youth'12, a nationally representative health and well-being survey. Secondary schools in New Zealand. A total of 8,500 students. Cooking ability and frequency of cooking, nutritional behaviors, mental well-being, depressive symptoms, and family connections. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between cooking ability/frequency and indicators of health and well-being, controlling for the sociodemographic characteristics of students. Approximately 80% of students reported that they can cook a meal from basic ingredients either fairly or very easily. Reported cooking ability was positively associated with better nutritional indicators, better mental health indicators, and stronger family connections (P = .01). For example, adolescents reporting the greatest cooking abilities were approximately twice as likely to meet the recommendations for fruits and vegetables (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.8). Likewise, adolescents reporting the greatest cooking abilities also reported lower levels of depressive symptoms (P cooking ability. However, greater cooking ability was also associated with higher body mass index (P cooking, although not for young people who cook most days. Learning to cook and having the opportunity to cook may provide a unique means for adolescents to develop life skills and contribute positively to their families. Future research examining the relationships between cooking and health may include measures beyond nutrition, such as social relationships and emotional well-being. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Culinary Education in Food and Cooking Research Societies Organized by Professional Cooks and Cookery Lovers in the Mid-Meiji Era, Report 1

    OpenAIRE

    今井, 美樹; Miki, IMAI; 昭和女子大学初等教育学科

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the magazine Hocho-Ambai(Wielding Your Kitchen Knives, all 37 issues published from 1886 to 1891)to explore the activities of societies of culinary education for food and cooking in the mid-Meiji era. The author, from the viewpoint of gender, reviewed, selected and analyzed articles describing the activities of the Society of Art of Cooking Research and the Society of Food Research organized by professional cooks and cookery lovers in the period. The following results were...

  20. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY... OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.17 Requirements for the... must include a cooking step. Controlled intermediate step(s) applied to raw product may form part of...

  1. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Microwave Cooked Catfish Fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US market place there are many examples of precooked poultry products designed to be reheated in a microwave oven and to a lesser extent fish products such as tilapia. However, there are few US catfish products designed to be microwave cooked or reheated in the market place. The first objecti...

  2. Who Is Chester Cook? The Story Behind the Plaques on the 16-inch f/18 Cassegrain Cook Memorial Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaric Hillier, Anna

    2010-01-01

    How did the public telescope on the mall become dedicated to Chester Sheldon Cook? He was a mulitfacted individual with qualities to be a musician and optician. His musical ablities went hand in hand with his optical work at Harvard College Observatory. His interactions with Donald Menzel and James G. Baker are explored in this oral presentation.

  3. {sup 137}Cs Absorption factors (Afs) some vegetable and protein samples in cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, M A [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Nakahara, M [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka City (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Full text: The human race uses fresh water for cooking, drinking and washing purposes. The source of fresh water may be radioactively contaminated by various sources of contaminants. With the increased use of radioisotopes, nuclear testing, possible nuclear warfare and terror activities, the apprehension of widespread contamination of the surface and ground water is increasing day by day. In the case of widespread contamination of freshwater sources, people may be compelled to use the contaminated water. The radionuclides in fresh water may enter the human body through two major routes: drinking and cooking food with the water. During cooking, the radionuclide present in the water may be transferred to the various ingredients of the cooked dish. The degree of contamination in the ingredients during the cooking depends on the absorption power of the individual ingredients and on the level of radionuclide present in the water. The ratio of the concentration of the radionuclide absorbed in the ingredients to the concentration in the water can be designated as the 'Absorption factor' (Af). A consumer always has the choice of eating either the whole dish or a part of the dish. The Af of every consumed ingredient can be used to predict the radionuclide absorbed by the individual ingredients cooked with contaminated water, and as such to predict the dose to the consumer. The factor can also be used to assess the dispersion of radionuclide from the water used in cooking to the ingredients in the cooked dish. A better understanding of variables in the cooking that affect the Af in various ingredients is central to deriving the contamination level of the ingredients. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation on this topic has been conducted before. In order to assess this topic and for obtaining base line data, a research project was undertaken to determine the Afs of some vegetable and protein samples, and to investigate the effects of salinity and cooling on Af

  4. [Effects of traditional cooking on antinutritional factors of the black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, A R; Calzada, C; Cooke, R

    1991-12-01

    Trypsin inhibitors, alfa amylase inhibitors and hemagglutinins were determined in black beans (P. vulgaris) produced in Costa Rica. The effect of the traditional cooking on such antinutritional factors was also studied. The antinutritional factors were analyzed spectrophotometrically in the raw beans, as well as after several cooking periods of time. The results showed that alfa-amylase inhibitors were the most thermoresistant. After 30 min of cooking time there was a 33% of activity left from the initial activity of the raw beans. Approximately 80% of the antitryptic activity was destroyed at 9 min of cooking time. After 10 min of cooking time, only 1% of hemagglutinin activity was present.

  5. Transfer of 137Cs from cooking water to some green-stuffs samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The radionuclide in contaminated freshwater may directly gain access to the human body by drinking fresh water and cooking food with such water. During cooking, the radionuclide present in the water may be transferred to the various ingredients of the cooked food. The ratio of the concentration of the radionuclide absorbed in the individual ingredients to the concentration in the cooking water can be designated as the Transfer factor in cooking (TFC). The TFC's of 137 Cs in some green-stuffs have been determined and reported in this paper. (author)

  6. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  7. Daily Physical Activity Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Survey was to gather school-level information from teachers and principals regarding their perceptions of DPA, thus providing a greater understanding of DPA implementation in grades 1 to 9. This study aimed to help identify the many variables that influence the attainment of the DPA outcomes and…

  8. Validation of a combi oven cooking method for preparation of chicken breast meat for quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, H; Savage, E M

    2008-10-01

    Quality assessment results of cooked meat can be significantly affected by sample preparation with different cooking techniques. A combi oven is a relatively new cooking technique in the U.S. market. However, there was a lack of published data about its effect on quality measurements of chicken meat. Broiler breast fillets deboned at 24-h postmortem were cooked with one of the 3 methods to the core temperature of 80 degrees C. Cooking methods were evaluated based on cooking operation requirements, sensory profiles, Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear and cooking loss. Our results show that the average cooking time for the combi oven was 17 min compared with 31 min for the commercial oven method and 16 min for the hot water method. The combi oven did not result in a significant difference in the WB shear force values, although the cooking loss of the combi oven samples was significantly lower than the commercial oven and hot water samples. Sensory profiles of the combi oven samples did not significantly differ from those of the commercial oven and hot water samples. These results demonstrate that combi oven cooking did not significantly affect sensory profiles and WB shear force measurements of chicken breast muscle compared to the other 2 cooking methods. The combi oven method appears to be an acceptable alternative for preparing chicken breast fillets in a quality assessment.

  9. The impact of video technology on learning: A cooking skills experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Dawn; Hollywood, Lynsey; Furey, Sinéad; Lavelle, Fiona; McGowan, Laura; Spence, Michelle; Raats, Monique; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Dean, Moira

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the role of video technology in the development of cooking skills. The study explored the views of 141 female participants on whether video technology can promote confidence in learning new cooking skills to assist in meal preparation. Prior to each focus group participants took part in a cooking experiment to assess the most effective method of learning for low-skilled cooks across four experimental conditions (recipe card only; recipe card plus video demonstration; recipe card plus video demonstration conducted in segmented stages; and recipe card plus video demonstration whereby participants freely accessed video demonstrations as and when needed). Focus group findings revealed that video technology was perceived to assist learning in the cooking process in the following ways: (1) improved comprehension of the cooking process; (2) real-time reassurance in the cooking process; (3) assisting the acquisition of new cooking skills; and (4) enhancing the enjoyment of the cooking process. These findings display the potential for video technology to promote motivation and confidence as well as enhancing cooking skills among low-skilled individuals wishing to cook from scratch using fresh ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of cooking energy cost, efficiency, impact on air pollution and policy in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anozie, A.N.; Bakare, A.R.; Sonibare, J.A.; Oyebisi, T.O.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the cooking energy costs and efficiencies, the air pollution impacts of cooking energy consumption and the impact of the energy policy in the cooking energy sector in Nigeria. Water boiling and cooking experiments using the common cooking energy sources (fuel wood, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity) and common food items (water, yam and beans) were carried out. Energy surveys were carried out to determine the cooking energy use patterns in the urban and rural areas. It was found that fuel wood is the least expensive cooking energy source and LPG is the most expensive. Energy use efficiencies for boiling water were estimated at 25%, 46%, 73%, 79%, 66% and 90% for fuel wood, kerosene, gas, electric immersion coil, electric heating coil and electric hot plate, respectively. Energy intensity was found to be a comparative measure of energy efficiency. The impacts of air pollution from household cooking suggested a possibility of significant air pollutants contribution to the ambient environment using any of the energy carriers considered except electricity. The cooking energy use patterns showed that fuel wood is the predominant energy source for cooking in the rural areas while kerosene is the predominant energy source in the urban areas, revealing that the energy policy in the country had made no impact in the cooking energy sector. Recommendations for improving the energy supply situation were given and for removing the barriers that prevent the implementation of the recommendations

  11. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakotr, Bhornchai; Suriharn, Bhalang; Tangwongchai, Ratchada; Scott, Marvin Paul; Lertrat, Kamol

    2014-12-01

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p⩽0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound and antioxidant activity. Steam cooking preserved more antioxidant compounds than boiling. Boiling caused a significant loss of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds into the cooking water. This cooking water is a valuable co-product because it is a good source of purple pigment. By comparing levels of antioxidant compounds in raw and cooked corn, we determined that degradation results in greater loss than leaching or diffusion into cooking water. Additionally, separation of kernels from the cob prior to cooking caused increased loss of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the amino acid contents of seafood cooking drips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Yun Joo; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Kwon, Joong Ho; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Chun, Byung Soo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the change of structural and free amino acids contents of cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis (HF) and Enteroctopus dofleini (ED) were investigated. The main structural amino acids were glutamic acid in HF cooking drip, and glutamic acid, glycine, arginine and aspartic acid in ED cooking drip, respectively. The concentrations of structural amino acids in both cooking drip extracts were decreased by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 kGy. Especially, the sulfur-containing amino acids were severely degraded by the irradiation. In free amino acid, ED cooking drip extract was contained the larger amount of free amino acid than that of HF cooking drip affecting its rich flavor. The free amino acid concentrations of cooking drips extracts from HF and ED were both increased by irradiation, and it explained the higher protein content by the irradiation

  13. Large neutral amino acids in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahring, Kirsten Kiær

    2010-12-01

    At the Kennedy Centre for Phenylketonuria, Denmark, large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) are being used to treat adult and adolescent patients who are nonadherent to dietary treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). At the start of treatment, a patient must undergo dietary analysis and regular blood sampling to measure plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations. The aim of this analysis and treatment is that the patient receives 25-30% of the daily protein requirement from LNAA supplementation and the remaining 70-75% from natural, low-phenylalanine proteins (although some patients have difficulties in maintaining this level of protein intake). Patients are therefore able to follow a more "normal" diet than those adhering to a PKU diet with AA supplementation (in which only 20% of the daily protein requirement is provided from the diet and 80% from AA supplementation). LNAAs have also been used to treat older patients with untreated/late-diagnosed PKU who show profound intellectual, psychological, and behavioral impairments. Treatment with LNAAs has been shown to improve measures of concentration and awareness of external stimuli in some of these patients and thus enhance their socialization, emotionality, frustration tolerance, and mood.

  14. Factors affecting Cook Gunther Tulip and Cook Celect inferior vena cava filter retrieval success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocker, Roan J; Novak, Zdenek; Matthews, Thomas C; Patterson, Mark A; Jordan, William D; Pearce, Benjamin J; Passman, Marc A

    2014-01-01

    Success rates vary for the retrieval of inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs). The optimal retrieval time and factors influencing retrieval success remain unproven. This study aims to determine optimal time and evaluate factors related to successful IVCF retrieval. An institutional prospectively maintained database was reviewed for all IVCF retrieval attempts from 2006 to 2012. Patient demographics, comorbidities, indications for procedure, placement technique, IVCF type, presence of angulation, and time to retrieval were evaluated with respect to success or failure of retrieval. Statistical analyses (t-test, χ(2), correlations, and Kaplan-Meier plots) were performed comparing successful and unsuccessful retrievals. Of 121 attempted IVCF retrievals, 92 (76%) were successful and 29 (24%) were unsuccessful. There were no significant differences between the successful and unsuccessful attempts in terms of patient demographics, comorbidities, indications for procedure, placement technique, or IVCF type, which included 93 Celect (77%) and 28 Gunther Tulip (23%). Time since IVCF placement was significantly different (P = .025) between the successful and unsuccessful retrieval groups (medians were 105 [7-368] and 162 [43-379] days, respectively). Time since IVCF placement greater than 117 days correlated significantly with unsuccessful IVCF retrieval (R = 0.218; P = .017; odds ratio, 2.88; P = .02). Angulation greater than 20 degrees on anteroposterior radiograph was noted in seven of 29 (24%) unsuccessful retrievals compared with seven of 92 (8%) successful retrievals and was significant (P = .012). Cook Gunther Tulip and Celect IVCF retrieval is most likely to be successful within 3 to 4 months of placement. Unsuccessful retrieval attempts are more likely to occur when IVCF position is angulated. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hot-boning enhances cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, H; Bowker, B C; Buhr, R J; Brambila, G Sanchez

    2014-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of postmortem deboning time on cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs. In experiment 1, chicken thigh meat was deboned at 0.75 (hot-bone), 2, and 24 h postmortem (PM) and trimmed to obtain mainly iliotibialis muscle. Samples were cooked directly from a frozen state. Cook yield of the muscle was significantly influenced by PM deboning time. Hot-boned thighs exhibited a 7% greater cook yield than the samples deboned at 24 h. In experiment 2, boneless skinless chicken thighs were deboned at 0.3, 2, and 24 h PM and cooked directly from a fresh, never-frozen state at 24 h PM. Cook yield of the hot-boned thighs was significantly higher than those of the 2 and 24 h deboned samples, which did not differ from each other. In experiment 3, whole legs (thigh + drumstick) were cut from the carcass backbone at 0.3 (hot-cut), 2, and 24 h PM. Thighs were separated from the legs (drumsticks) at either the same time the whole legs were removed from the carcasses or at 24 h PM. Intact thighs (bone in) were cooked fresh at 24 h PM. Color of fresh thigh muscles, cook yield, and Warner-Bratzler shear force of cooked samples were measured. Cook yield of the thighs cut from the backbone before chilling was significantly higher than those cut from the carcasses at 2 and 24 h PM, which did not differ from each other. The PM time at which intact thighs were separated from the leg (drumstick) did not influence cook yield. These results demonstrate that postmortem deboning time can significantly affect cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thigh products. Deboning chicken thighs after chilling reduces the cook yield. Differences in the cook yield of thighs may also result from the removal of whole chicken legs from the carcass backbone. Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Barriers and facilitators to cooking from 'scratch' using basic or raw ingredients: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Fiona; McGowan, Laura; Spence, Michelle; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique M; Hollywood, Lynsey; McDowell, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Dean, Moira

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has highlighted an ambiguity in understanding cooking related terminology and a number of barriers and facilitators to home meal preparation. However, meals prepared in the home still include convenience products (typically high in sugars, fats and sodium) which can have negative effects on health. Therefore, this study aimed to qualitatively explore: (1) how individuals define cooking from 'scratch', and (2) their barriers and facilitators to cooking with basic ingredients. 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants (aged 18-58 years) living on the island of Ireland, eliciting definitions of 'cooking from scratch' and exploring the reasons participants cook in a particular way. The interviews were professionally transcribed verbatim and Nvivo 10 was used for an inductive thematic analysis. Our results highlighted that although cooking from 'scratch' lacks a single definition, participants viewed it as optimal cooking. Barriers to cooking with raw ingredients included: 1) time pressures; (2) desire to save money; (3) desire for effortless meals; (4) family food preferences; and (5) effect of kitchen disasters. Facilitators included: 1) desire to eat for health and well-being; (2) creative inspiration; (3) ability to plan and prepare meals ahead of time; and (4) greater self-efficacy in one's cooking ability. Our findings contribute to understanding how individuals define cooking from 'scratch', and barriers and facilitators to cooking with raw ingredients. Interventions should focus on practical sessions to increase cooking self-efficacy; highlight the importance of planning ahead and teach methods such as batch cooking and freezing to facilitate cooking from scratch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Cooking (Microwaving and Broiling) on Cylindrospermopsin Concentration in Muscle of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Characterization of Decomposition Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ana I; Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Valderrama-Fernández, Rocío; Jos, Ángeles; Cameán, Ana M

    2017-05-26

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has become increasingly important as a freshwater algal toxin, showing cytotoxic effects. This toxin is able to bioaccumulate in freshwater food webs, representing a serious human health problem. Normally, fish is cooked before consumption, and CYN concentration can be altered. For the first time, the effects of microwaving and broiling for 1 and 2 min on CYN concentration and its decomposition products in fish muscle ( Oreochromis niloticus ) contaminated in the laboratory were investigated, using UPLC-MS/MS and Orbitrap. The results show that cooking the fish reduced unconjugated CYN levels by 11, 10 and 15% after microwaving for 1 and 2 min, and broiling for 2 min, respectively, compared to control fish. Different CYN decomposition products with m / z 416.1234 (7-epi-CYN) and m / z 336.16663 (diasteroisomers C-3A, C-3C, C-3D, C-3E, C-3F) are generated in fish samples submitted to cooking. Based on the relative abundance of the decomposition products, the possible degradation pathways taking place by microwaving may be through the formation of 7-epi-CYN and m / z 336.16663 compounds, whereas in the case of broiling the last route is the only one observed in this study. The influence of cooking and the toxicity characterization of the degradation products generated in CYN-contaminated fish are of importance for more realistic risk evaluation related to their consumption.

  18. Polar and non-polar heterocyclic amines in cooked fish and meat products and their corresponding pan residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skog, K; Augustsson, K; Steineck, G; Stenberg, M; Jägerstad, M

    1997-06-01

    Fourteen cooked dishes with their corresponding pan residues were analysed for polar and non-polar heterocyclic amines using HPLC. The choice of foods, including beef, pork, poultry, game, fish, egg and sausages, was based on an investigation of an elderly population in Stockholm participating in an analytical epidemiological case-control study on cancer risks after intake of heterocyclic amines. The food items were prepared using normal household cooking practices, and to reflect the wide range of surface browning of the cooked dishes that would be encountered in this population, four cooking temperatures were used in the range 150-225 degrees C. For all food samples, the total amount of heterocyclic amines formed at 150 degrees C was less than 1 ng/g cooked product, and at 175 degrees C less than 2 ng/g. The highest concentrations of heterocyclic amines were detected in fillet of pork, reindeer meat and chicken breast fried at 200 and 225 degrees C and their corresponding pan residues. The total sum of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine was about 1 microgram per 100 g portion (including pan residues) for reindeer meat and chicken breast, and between 1.9 and 6.3 micrograms per 100-g portion for fillet of pork. PhIP was the most abundant heterocyclic amine, identified in 73 of 84 samples, and the highest concentration of PhIP, 32.0 ng/g, was found in the pan residue from fillet of pork cooked at 225 degrees C. The non-polar heterocyclic amines 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole were detected in the range of 0.5-7.4 ng/g in most foods cooked at 225 degrees C, and also in meat sauce prepared at 200 and 175 degrees C. The other heterocyclic amines tested for: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-6-methyl-pyrido-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]-imidazole and 2

  19. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  20. Effects of four different cooking methods on some quality characteristics of low fat Inegol meatball enriched with flaxseed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turp, Gulen Yildiz

    2016-11-01

    The present study is concerned with the effects of four different cooking methods (grill, oven, pan and ohmic cooking) on physicochemical parameters (cooking yield moisture retention, fat retention, color, texture), fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of low fat Turkish traditional Inegol meatball. Flaxseed flour was used as a fat substitute in the production of meatballs. Meatball proximate composition was affected by the cooking methods mainly as a consequence of the weight losses. The highest cooking yield was found in samples cooked in the oven. Flaxseed flour contains high amount of α-linolenic acid and ohmic cooking seems to be the best cooking method in terms of retaining this fatty acid in meatballs enriched with flaxseed flour. However ohmic cooked meatball samples had a brighter surface color and harder texture in comparison with meatball samples cooked via traditional methods. There was no significant difference between the sensory evaluation scores of meatballs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Excavations at Cook's Cove, Tolaga Bay, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.; Jacomb, C.; Brooks, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Cook's Cove site (Z17/311) on the East Coast of the North Island of New Zealand is an unusual example of an archaeological site spanning close to the full duration of the New Zealand prehistoric sequence. In addition to a record of Polynesian activities, the site is also well known as the type site for the North Island Holocene stratigraphy. Recent excavations at Cook's Cove have resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature of Polynesian occupation and adaptation in this part of the North Island. The application of an 'event phase' interpretative approach provides the means for reconstructing a detailed history of environmental processes and their relationships to cultural activities over a period of 700 years. (author). 61 refs., 17 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Cooking smoke and respiratory symptoms of restaurant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntarawijit, Chudchawal; Juntarawijit, Yuwayong

    2017-02-17

    Restaurant workers are at risk from exposure to toxic compounds from burning of fuel and fumes from cooking. However, the literature is almost silent on the issue. What discussion that can be found in the literature focuses on the potential effects from biomass smoke exposure in the home kitchen, and does not address the problem as occurring in the workplace, particularly in restaurants. This was a cross-sectional survey of 224 worker from 142 food restaurants in the Tha Pho sub-district of Phitsanulok, a province in Thailand. The standard questionnaire from the British Medical Research Council was used to collect data on chronic respiratory symptoms, including cough, phlegm, dyspnea, severe dyspnea, stuffy nose in the participating workers. Data on their health symptoms experienced in the past 30 days was also asked. A constructed questionnaire was used to collect exposure data, including type of job, time in the kitchen, the frequency of frying food, tears while cooking (TWC), the type of restaurant, fuel used for cooking, the size and location of the kitchen, and the exhaust system and ventilation. The prevalence of the symptoms was compared with those obtained from 395 controls, who were neighbors of the participants who do not work in a restaurant. In comparison to the control group, the restaurant workers had twice or more the prevalence on most of the chronic health symptoms. Men had a higher risk for "dyspnea", "stuffy nose" and "wheeze" while women had higher risk of "cough". A Rate Ratio (RR) of susceptibility was established, which ranged from 1.4 up to 9.9. The minimum RR was for women with "severe dyspnea" (RR of 1.4, 95%CI 0.8, 2.5) while the men showed the maximum RR of 9.9 (95%CI 4.5-22.0) for "wheeze". Possible risk factors identified were job description, job period, size of restaurant, kitchen location, type of cooking oil, hours of stay in the kitchen area, number of fry dishes prepared, frequency of occurrence of TWC, and additional cooking at

  3. Misterchef? Cooks, Chefs and Gender in MasterChef Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herkes Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available MasterChef Australia is the most popular television series in Australian history. It gives a wide range of ordinary people the chance to show they can master culinary arts to a professional standard. Through content and textual analysis of seven seasons of the show this article examines gendered patterns in its representation of participants and culinary professionals. Women are often depicted as home cooks by inclination while the figure of the professional chef remains almost exclusively male. Despite its rhetoric of inclusivity, MCA does little to challenge norms of the professional gastronomic field that have devalued women’s cooking while valorising “hard” masculinized culinary cultures led by men.

  4. Dayak and Their Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Darmadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article titled "Dayak and Daily Life" This paper aims to reveal the Dayak and in their daily life. Dayak is a native of Borneo has its own characteristics. Dayak, divided into 405 sub-sub clans [1]. Each sub Dayak both Indonesia and Malaysia are identical. Dayak customs and culture comes from the word "Power" which means upstream, to refer to people who live in inland areas or in the interior of Borneo. In the arsenal of art and culture, Dayak has many similarities such as; saber, chopsticks, beliong, betang, cupai, renjung, empajang and others. Dayak indigenous religion is Kaharingan which is the original religion born of the cultural ancestors of the Dayaks. Most of the Dayak people still adhere to the belief of the existence of unseen objects in certain places such as rocks, large trees, planting gardens in the forest, lakes, pools, and others are believed to have "magical powers". Daily life of the Dayaks in general farming, farming. When will open farming land, farming they held ritual.

  5. Sensory Evaluation of Cooked Sausages with Legumes Additive

    OpenAIRE

    Ilze Gramatina; Jelena Zagorska; Evita Straumite; Svetlana Sarvi

    2012-01-01

    In the meat processing industry the substitution of meat with non-meat ingredients is considered an important strategy for reducing overall production costs. The main purpose of the current research was to evaluate differences in physical-chemical composition of cooked sausage with different legumes additions. Peas (Pisum sativum), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lentil (Lens culinaris) were used in preparation of sausages. The legumes at proportion of 20% of the total wei...

  6. Advanced plant design recommendations from Cook Nuclear Plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    A project in the American Electric Power Service Corporation to review operating and maintenance experience at Cook Nuclear Plant to identify recommendations for advanced nuclear plant design is described. Recommendations so gathered in the areas of plant fluid systems, instrument and control, testing and surveillance provisions, plant layout of equipment, provisions to enhance effective maintenance, ventilation systems, radiological protection, and construction, are presented accordingly. An example for a design review checklist for effective plant operations and maintenance is suggested

  7. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Hydrodinamic Cavitation

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Supardan; Satriana Satriana; Mahlinda Mahlinda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study biodiesel production from low cost feedstock of waste cooking oil (WCO) using hydrodynamic cavitation apparatus. A two-step processes esterification process and transesterification process using hydrodynamic cavitation for the production of biodiesel from WCO is presented. The first step is acid-catalyzed esteri-fication process for reducing free fatty acid (FFA) content of WCO and followed by base-catalyzed transesterification process for converting WCO ...

  8. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun B. Chhetri; K. Chris Watts; M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-01-01

    As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester) was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was ...

  9. Physicochemical evaluation of cooking and dessert bananas (Musa sp.) varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales-Reynoso, O. Lidia; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Aguirre-Cruz, Andres; Bello-Perez, Luis A.; Dufour, Dominique; Gibert, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In México, banana (Musa sp.) varieties ate used for human consumption as well as for traditional medicine, but the literature lacks information on local diversity and functional justification for their use. Three varieties of dessert bananas (Valery, Morado, and Enano) and one cooking banana (Macho) were collected in a commercial farm in Tuxtepec, Oaxaca, México, at the agronomic maturity stage, and they were physically and chemically evaluated. A random sampling, ANOVA, and Tukey tests were ...

  10. Misterchef? Cooks, Chefs and Gender in MasterChef Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Herkes Ellen; Redden Guy

    2017-01-01

    MasterChef Australia is the most popular television series in Australian history. It gives a wide range of ordinary people the chance to show they can master culinary arts to a professional standard. Through content and textual analysis of seven seasons of the show this article examines gendered patterns in its representation of participants and culinary professionals. Women are often depicted as home cooks by inclination while the figure of the professional chef remains almost exclusively ma...

  11. Production possibility frontier analysis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, Shigemi; Takezono, Kanako; Suh, Sangwon; Kudoh, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant in Japan using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The empirical analysis uses monthly input data (waste cooking oil, methanol, potassium hydroxide, power consumption, and the truck diesel fuel used for the procurement of waste cooking oil) and output data (biodiesel) of a biodiesel fuel plant for August 2008–July 2010. The results of this study show that the production activity with the lowest cost on the biodiesel production possibility frontier occurred in March 2010 (production activity used 1.41 kL of waste cooking oil, 0.18 kL of MeOH, 16.33 kg of KOH, and 5.45 kW h of power), and the unit production cost in that month was 18,517 yen/kL. Comparing this efficient production cost to the mean unit production cost on the production possibility frontier at 19,712 yen/kL, revealed that the cost of producing 1 kL of biodiesel could be reduced by as much as 1195 yen. We also find that the efficiency improvement will contribute to decreasing the cost ratio (cost per sale) of the biodiesel production by approximately 1% during the study period (24 months) between August 2008 and July 2010. - Highlights: ► This paper analyzes the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant using DEA. ► We examine the optimal production activities of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. ► Considering the production frontier, the unit cost of biodiesel could be reduced by 1195 yen. ► The efficiency improvement contributes to decreasing the cost ratio of the biodiesel by 1%

  12. Childhood asthma and indoor woodsmoke from cooking in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Morten A; Hessen, Jens O; Smith, Kirk R; Bruce, Nigel; McCracken, John; Lopez, Victorina

    2004-01-01

    We estimated the prevalence and severity of asthma, and the association with cooking on open wood fires, as preparation for a large-scale randomized field trial on effects of indoor air pollution and child health. This is one of the first systematic studies of asthma and indoor wood-smoke pollution and to our knowledge the first asthma study in a purely indigeneous population in Latin America. The mothers of 1058 children aged 4-6 years were interviewed, using the standardized ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) procedures and questionnaire. The study population is a Mam-speaking (Maya), indigenous group living at relatively high altitude (2000 m) in Western Guatemalan Highlands. We found that asthma prevalence is low among indigenous children in Guatemala, compared to other populations in Latin America. Only 3.3% of the children reported wheezing symptoms in the last 12 months, and 72% wheezing symptoms ever. The majority of the current wheezers had at least one of the criteria for severe asthma. The prevalence of all the symptoms of asthma was higher in children from households that used open fires compared to improved stoves with chimneys. In a logistic regression model, use of open fire for cooking was a significant risk factor for a number of asthma symptoms, with odds ratios varying from 2.0 to 3.5. Among the different cooking technologies (1-improved stove with chimney, 2-mixture of gas and open fire, 3-open fire) trends of higher prevalence with more pollution was found for some of the symptoms. Hence use of open fire for cooking, may be an important risk factor for asthma symptoms and severity.

  13. WEO-2006 Fact Sheet: Energy for Cooking in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Bringing modern energy to the world's poor is an urgent necessity. Although steady progress is made in expanding the use of modern household energy services in developing countries, in both scenarios many people still depend on traditional biomass in 2030. Action to encourage more efficient and sustainable use of traditional biomass and help people switch to modern cooking fuels and technologies is therefore urgent.

  14. Cooking smoke and respiratory symptoms of restaurant workers in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Juntarawijit, Chudchawal; Juntarawijit, Yuwayong

    2017-01-01

    Background Restaurant workers are at risk from exposure to toxic compounds from burning of fuel and fumes from cooking. However, the literature is almost silent on the issue. What discussion that can be found in the literature focuses on the potential effects from biomass smoke exposure in the home kitchen, and does not address the problem as occurring in the workplace, particularly in restaurants. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 224 worker from 142 food restaurants in the Tha Ph...

  15. Germinated, toasted and cooked chickpea as ingredients for breadmaking

    OpenAIRE

    Ouazib, Meriem; Garzón, Raquel; Farid Zaidi, Farid; Rosell, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of processing (germination, toasting and cooking) of chickpea beans was investigated on the resulting flours characteristics and their potential for obtaining gluten free breads. Rheological properties of dough were recorded using Mixolab�� and breads were analyzed for their instrumental quality, nutritional and sensory properties. Chickpea based doughs showed low consistency and their rheological behavior was defined by the starch gelatinization and gelification. The bread made wi...

  16. [Analysis on oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, De-Sheng; Kuang, Yuan-Cheng; Liu, Xin; Dai, Fei-Hong

    2012-06-01

    By measuring the particulate matter of oil fume which is over 10 microm or below 10 microm separately and using microradiography and Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI), it is found out the distributing characteristic of oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission. The result shows that the diameter of the oil fume particles which was sedimentated in the kitchen is between 10-400 microm, the concentration peak value is between 10-100 microm. The diameter of oil fume aerosol is mostly smaller than 1 microm, while the concentration peak value is between 0.063-0.109 microm. In addition, the mass concentration peak value is between 6.560-9.990 microm. Through the analysis to the physical characteristics of oil fume from catering industry cooking emissions, the eigenvalue of the oil fume has been found and the feature matter for monitoring the oil fume has been discovered to provide a reasonable standard for controlling and monitoring the catering industry cooking emission.

  17. Optical and Chemical Characterization of Aerosols Produced from Cooked Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Foreman, E.; Blanc, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Cooking processes can release a variety compounds into the air immediately above a cooking surface. The distribution of compounds will largely depend on the type of food that is being processed and the temperatures at which the food is prepared. High temperatures release compounds from foods like meats and carry them away from the preparation surface into cooler regions where condensation into particles can occur. Aerosols formed in this manner can impact air quality, particularly in urban areas where the amount of food preparation is high. Reported here are the results of laboratory experiments designed to optically and chemically characterize aerosols derived from cooking several types of meats including ground beef, salmon, chicken, and pork both in an inert atmosphere and in synthetic air. The laboratory-generated aerosols are studied using a laminar flow cell that is configured to accommodate simultaneous optical characterization in the mid-infrared and collection of particles for subsequent chemical analysis by gas chromatography. Preliminary optical results in the visible and ultra-violet will also be presented.

  18. PERANAN COOK DI EVENT KITCHEN HOTEL HYATT REGENCY BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Firdaus

    2016-03-01

      Abstrak - Hotel merupakan salah satu pendukung pariwisata, dimana keberadaanya begitu penting untuk mengakomodir kebutuhan-kebutuhan wisatawan yang berkaitan dengan penginapan, restoran, penyelenggaraan event dan hiburan, sehingga faktor kualitas pelayanan yang diberikan menjadi kunci keberhasilan dari suatu hotel. Penyelenggaraan event di hotel menjadi tren tersendiri dan sangat berpotensi untuk terus dikembangkan, salah satu kualitas pelayanan yang sangat penting yaitu penyediaan hidangan bagi kegiatan event, maka peran cook di event kitchen menjadi aspek yang dapat menentukan baik tidaknya event terlaksana. Hotel Hyatt Regency Bandung sebagai hotel bintang 5 memiliki 6 outlet untuk mendukung pelayanan hidangan bagi event yang diselenggarakan di hotel tersebut. Keenam outlet tersebut yaitu outlet Banquet Kitchen, outlet Taruma Café Kitchen, outlet Regecy Kitchen, outlet Cha Yuen Kitchen, outlet Commissary Kitchen dan outlet Simider Kitchen. Dalam suatu outlet biasanya terdiri dari 6 sampai 7 cook. Dimana mereka memiliki tugas masing-masing, seperti bagian chef de partie yang bertugas untuk menyediakan dan mengawasi pengadaan kebutuhan bahan makanan, dan ada pula bagian commis yang bertugas untuk mengolah bahan makanan menjadi masakan yang dapat disajikan untuk kegiatan event. Peran dari masing-masing bagian begitu penting bagi kelancaran event yang terlaksana, dan kelancaran suatu event yang terlaksana berdampak baik pada image hotel dimata konsumen.   Kata Kunci : Hotel, Even Kitchen, Cook.

  19. Reduction of aflatoxin in rice by different cooking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Ali Mohamadi; Azizi, Eisa Gholampour; Salehi, Esmaeel Ataye; Rahimi, Khadije

    2014-07-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa Linn) is one of the basic diets in the north of Iran. The aim of present study was to detect total aflatoxin (AFT) in domestic and imported rice in Amol (in the north of Iran) and to evaluate the effect of different cooking methods on the levels of the toxin. For this purpose, 42 rice samples were collected from retail stores. The raw samples were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique for toxin assessment and then submitted to two different cooking methods including traditional local method and in rice cooker. After treatment, AFT was determined. Results show that the average concentration of AFT in domestic and imported samples was 1.08 ± 0.02 and 1.89 ± 0.87 ppb, respectively, which is lower than national and European Union standards. The highest AFT reduction (24.8%) was observed when rice samples were cooked by rice cooker but the difference with local method was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). © The Author(s) 2012.

  20. Compliance With Recommended Food Safety Practices in Television Cooking Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nancy L; Olson, Rita Brennan

    Examine compliance with recommended food safety practices in television cooking shows. Using a tool based on the Massachusetts Food Establishment Inspection Report, raters examined 39 episodes from 10 television cooking shows. Chefs demonstrated conformance with good retail practices for proper use and storage of utensils in 78% of episodes; preventing contamination (62%), and fingernail care (82%). However, 50% to 88% of episodes were found to be out of compliance with other personal hygiene practices, proper use of gloves and barriers (85% to 100%), and maintaining proper time and temperature controls (93%). Over 90% failed to conform to recommendations regarding preventing contamination through wiping cloths and washing produce. In only 13% of episodes were food safety practices mentioned. There appears to be little attention to food safety during most cooking shows. Celebrity and competing chefs have the opportunity to model and teach good food safety practices for millions of viewers. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Past, present, and future of mutagens in cooked foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, T

    1986-08-01

    Mutation assay with Salmonella typhimurium enabled us to detect various types of mutagens in cooked foods. A series of mutagenic heterocyclic amines has been isolated and identified in broiled fish and meat and in pyrolyzates of amino acids and proteins. Feeding experiments showed these mutagens to be carcinogenic in mice and rats. The mechanism of formation and pathway of metabolic activation of these heterocyclic amines have been elucidated. Their contents in various cooked foods have been determined. The presence of mutagenic nitropyrenes (some of which were confirmed as carcinogens) in grilled chicken was also established. Roasted coffee beans also yield mutagens such as methylglyoxal. The formation of mutagen precursors, including beta-carboline derivatives and tyramine which become mutagens with nitrite treatment, was found during food processing. Oncogene activation in animal tumors induced by some of these food mutagens/carcinogens has been confirmed. The role of mutagens/carcinogens in cooked foods in human cancer development has not yet been exactly evaluated. In order to do this, more information on their carcinogenic potency, human intake, metabolism in the human body, and the effects of combined administration with other initiators, promoters and other modifying factors in food is required.

  2. Treatment of tuna cooking juices by nano filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walha, K. a.; Ben Amar, R.; Bourseau, P.; Jaouen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Canned tuna is among the largest commercial canned fishery product in Tunisia. This industry rejects many aqueous effluents (washing, thawing, rinsing and cooking waters). Cooking juice represents 50 pour cent of the total effluent volume. It has a high organic load and a very high salt content. For consequence, discarding directly the effluent in the environment is not possible and need further treatment. However, the juice seems to contain interesting flavour compounds. In this work, a membrane process system consisting in nano filtration was used to reduce the pollution load and to concentrate flavour compounds of tuna cooking juice. The NF membrane tested in this work concentrate the organic matter since the retentions are high, starting at 74 pour cent for total circulation and increasing up to 85 pour cent for volume reduction factor (VRF) of 5. The membrane undergoes severe fouling, it can be effectively cleaned through a complete basic-acid washing cycle. The effect of three chemical reagents was studied for the regeneration of the fouled membrane. In the future, we will focus on the concentrates obtained by NF: sensory analysis with a panel of trained tasters and analysis of aromatic molecules should allow to value the quality of the flavouring concentrates.

  3. A semi-automatic annotation tool for cooking video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Napoletano, Paolo; Schettini, Raimondo; Margherita, Roberto; Marini, Gianluca; Gianforme, Giorgio; Pantaleo, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    In order to create a cooking assistant application to guide the users in the preparation of the dishes relevant to their profile diets and food preferences, it is necessary to accurately annotate the video recipes, identifying and tracking the foods of the cook. These videos present particular annotation challenges such as frequent occlusions, food appearance changes, etc. Manually annotate the videos is a time-consuming, tedious and error-prone task. Fully automatic tools that integrate computer vision algorithms to extract and identify the elements of interest are not error free, and false positive and false negative detections need to be corrected in a post-processing stage. We present an interactive, semi-automatic tool for the annotation of cooking videos that integrates computer vision techniques under the supervision of the user. The annotation accuracy is increased with respect to completely automatic tools and the human effort is reduced with respect to completely manual ones. The performance and usability of the proposed tool are evaluated on the basis of the time and effort required to annotate the same video sequences.

  4. Effect of Conventional and Microwave Cooking Methods on Some Nutritive Contents and Quality Properties of Chicken Meat

    OpenAIRE

    SOYER, Ayla; KOLSARICI, Nuray; CANDOĞAN, Kezban

    1998-01-01

    Chicken leg and breast meat samples were cooked in a microwave oven, electric oven and boiling water, and cooking loss, yield, nutritive contents and their retentions after cooking, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, total mesophile aerobic bacterial (TMAB) counts and sensory properties were determined. Cooking losses of leg and breast meat were 29.20% and 24.80% respectively. The highest yield (79.69%) was in a breast meat cooked in a microwave oven (P

  5. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Catfish Fillets Cooked in Pouch in Boiling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking or reheating food in a vacuum sealed bag has been a common method of preparing vegetables, meat and poultry products. There are very few examples of vacuum sealed bags designed for cooking or reheating catfish fillets. The objective of the present study was to examine the properties of raw f...

  6. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  7. Impact of the degree of cooking on starch digestibility of rice - An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masatsugu; Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2016-01-15

    The impact of cooking degree on the starch digestibility of a non-waxy, cooked rice was examined through a simulated gastro-small intestinal in vitro digestion model. The starch hydrolysis of both non-homogenised and homogenised cooked rice samples during simulated digestion was also compared in order to examine the impact of grain structure on starch digestibility. Polished rice grains were cooked in boiling water for 10min (partially cooked) and 20min (fully cooked) to obtain samples of different cooking degree. No significant differences in the equilibrium starch hydrolysis (%) were observed among the partially and fully cooked grains, although significant differences were observed among the uncooked and cooked samples. The equilibrium starch hydrolysis (%) of homogenised rice was higher than its non-homogenised counterpart. These results showed that rice starch digestibility should not be affected by the cooking degrees related to starch gelatinisation, but was influenced by the modification/destruction of the grain structure during mechanical processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The cost of cooking a meal. The case of Nyeri County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuso Nerini, Francesco; Ray, Charlotte; Boulkaid, Youssef

    2017-06-01

    Energy for cooking is considered essential in achieving modern energy access. Despite this, almost three billion people worldwide still use solid fuels to meet their cooking needs. To better support practitioners and policy-makers, this paper presents a new model for comparing cooking solutions and its key output metric: the ‘levelized cost of cooking a meal’ (LCCM). The model is applied to compare several cooking solutions in the case study area of Nyeri County in Kenya. The cooking access targets are connected to the International Workshop Agreement and Global Tracking Framework’s tiers of cooking energy access. Results show how an increased energy access with improved firewood and charcoal cookstoves could reduce both household’s LCCMs and the total costs compared to traditional firewood cooking over the modelling period. On the other hand, switching to cleaner cooking solutions, such as LPG- and electricity, would result in higher costs for the end-user highlighting that this transition is not straightforward. The paper also contextualizes the results into the wider socio-economic context. It finds that a tradeoff is present between minimizing costs for households and meeting household priorities, thus maximizing the potential benefits of clean cooking without dismissing the use of biomass altogether.

  9. Examining daily activity routines of older adults using workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jane; Ozkaynak, Mustafa; Demiris, George

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated the value of workflow analysis supported by a novel visualization technique to better understand the daily routines of older adults and highlight their patterns of daily activities and normal variability in physical functions. We used a self-reported activity diary to obtain data from six community-dwelling older adults for 14 consecutive days. Workflow for daily routine was analyzed using the EventFlow tool, which aggregates workflow information to highlight patterns and variabilities. A total of 1453 events were included in the data analysis. To demonstrate the patterns and variability of each individual's daily activities, participant activity workflows were visualized and compared. The workflow analysis revealed great variability in activity types, regularity, frequency, duration, and timing of performing certain activities across individuals. Also, when workflow approach was applied to spatial information of activities, the analysis revealed the ability to provide meaningful data on individuals' mobility in different levels of life spaces from home to community. Results suggest that using workflows to characterize the daily activities of older adults will be helpful for clinicians and researchers in understanding their daily routines and preparing education and prevention strategies tailored to each individual's activity level. This tool also has the potential to be integrated into consumer informatics technologies, such as patient portals or personal health records, so that consumers may be encouraged to become actively involved in monitoring and managing their health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rethinking Rice Preparation for Highly Efficient Removal of Inorganic Arsenic Using Percolating Cooking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Manus; Jiujin, Xiao; Gomes Farias, Júlia; Meharg, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    A novel way of cooking rice to maximize the removal of the carcinogen inorganic arsenic (Asi) is presented here. In conventional rice cooking water and grain are in continuous contact, and it is known that the larger the water:rice cooking ratio, the more Asi removed by cooking, suggesting that the Asi in the grain is mobile in water. Experiments were designed where rice is cooked in a continual stream of percolating near boiling water, either low in Asi, or Asi free. This has the advantage of not only exposing grain to large volumes of cooking water, but also physically removes any Asi leached from the grain into the water receiving vessel. The relationship between cooking water volume and Asi removal in conventional rice cooking was demonstrated for the rice types under study. At a water-to-rice cooking ratio of 12:1, 57±5% of Asi could be removed, average of 6 wholegrain and 6 polished rice samples. Two types of percolating technology were tested, one where the cooking water was recycled through condensing boiling water steam and passing the freshly distilled hot water through the grain in a laboratory setting, and one where tap water was used to cook the rice held in an off-the-shelf coffee percolator in a domestic setting. Both approaches proved highly effective in removing Asi from the cooking rice, with up to 85% of Asi removed from individual rice types. For the recycled water experiment 59±8% and 69±10% of Asi was removed, on average, compared to uncooked rice for polished (n=27) and wholegrain (n=13) rice, respectively. For coffee percolation there was no difference between wholegrain and polished rice, and the effectiveness of Asi removal was 49±7% across 6 wholegrain and 6 polished rice samples. The manuscript explores the potential applications and further optimization of this percolating cooking water, high Asi removal, discovery.

  11. Increasing intention to cook from basic ingredients: A randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Fiona; Hollywood, Lynsey; Caraher, Martin; McGowan, Laura; Spence, Michelle; Surgenor, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Raats, Monique; Dean, Moira

    2017-09-01

    The promotion of home cooking is a strategy used to improve diet quality and health. However, modern home cooking typically includes the use of processed food which can lead to negative outcomes including weight gain. In addition, interventions to improve cooking skills do not always explain how theory informed their design and implementation. The Behaviour Change Technique (BCT) taxonomy successfully employed in other areas has identified essential elements for interventions. This study investigated the effectiveness of different instructional modes for learning to cook a meal, designed using an accumulating number of BCTs, on participant's perceived difficulty, enjoyment, confidence and intention to cook from basic ingredients. 141 mothers aged between 20 and 39 years from the island of Ireland were randomised to one of four conditions based on BCTs (1) recipe card only [control condition]; (2) recipe card plus video modelling; (3) recipe card plus video prompting; (4) recipe card plus video elements. Participants rated their enjoyment, perceived difficulty, confidence and intention to cook again pre, mid and post experiment. Repeated one-way factorial ANOVAs, correlations and a hierarchical regression model were conducted. Despite no significant differences between the different conditions, there was a significant increase in enjoyment (P cook from basics again (P cook from basics pre-experiment, and confidence and enjoyment (both pre and post experiment) significantly contributed to the final regression model explaining 42% of the variance in intention to cook from basics again. Cooking interventions should focus on practical cooking and increasing participants' enjoyment and confidence during cooking to increase intention to cook from basic ingredients at home. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recommended alternative daily intake of fruits and vegetables for Indonesian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2014-08-01

    could be analyzed was 7087 subjects. The study found the five most frequently consumed fruits were bananas, oranges, papayas, apples, and watermelons. Five most frequently consumed vegetables dishes were cooked spinach, water spinach (kangkung, cassava leaves, tamarind vegetable dish and vegetable soup. The alternative amount of fruits and vegetables consumption for 65 year-olds and above is 300 grams of cooked vegetables and 200-400 grams of fruits.Conclusion: Alternative fruits and cooked vegetables consumptions for 65 year-old and above Indonesians were 300 grams (3 bowls grams of cooked vegetables and 200-300 grams (2-4 pieces of fruits. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:30-4Key words: daily consumption guide, fruits, vegetables, elderly

  13. Cooking Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Rice-Barley Mix at Different Cooking Method and Mixing Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Koan Sik; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Ji Hae; Ko, Jee Yeon; Lee, Byong Won; Lee, Byoung Kyu

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of barley at different proportion (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%), and using different cooking methods. The grains used in this experiment are barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Huinchalssal) and Samkwang rice. The rice-barley mixture was cooked using general and high pressure cooking methods with and without fermented alcohol. The quality characteristics such as water binding capacity, pasting characteristic, water solubility, and swelling power of different proportions of barley were evaluated. The antioxidant characteristics evaluated are total polyphenol, flavonoid contents, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) diammonium salt radical scavenging activities. Results showed that peak [195.0~184.0 rapid visco units (RVU)], trough (130.0~116.2 RVU), final (252.0~221.8 RVU), and setback viscosity (57.0~37.5 RVU) decreased correspondingly with the increase in the amount of barley. Water binding capacity (187.31~136.01%) and swelling power (162.37~127.58%) decreased as amounts of barley increases, however the water solubility (5.35~6.89%) increased. Moreover, the total polyphenol and flavonoid, and the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities contents increased as the amounts of barley in the mixture increases. This study generally aims to provide useful information for the manufacturing of processed products.

  14. Chronic and Daily Stressors Along With Negative Affect Interact to Predict Daily Tiredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsell, Elizabeth N; Neupert, Shevaun D

    2017-11-01

    The present study examines the within-person relationship of daily stressors and tiredness and whether this depends on daily negative affect and individual differences in chronic stress. One hundred sixteen older adult participants were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk for a 9-day daily diary study. Daily tiredness, daily stressors, and negative affect were measured each day, and chronic stress was measured at baseline. Daily stressors, daily negative affect, and chronic stress interacted to predict daily tiredness. People with high chronic stress who experienced an increase in daily negative affect were the most reactive to daily stressors in terms of experiencing an increase in daily tiredness. We also found that people with low levels of chronic stress were the most reactive to daily stressors when they experienced low levels of daily negative affect. Our results highlight the need for individualized and contextualized approaches to combating daily tiredness in older adults.

  15. Digital daily cycles of individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader...... day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We...

  16. Effect of cooking on functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapanan Konwatchara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the changes in functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012 after cooking. Black glutinous rice grains were obtained from Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The rough grains were soaked for 12 hrs, then germinated for 30 hrs at 35±2°C (95%RH, dried at 45±2°C for 8 hrs, dehusked and cooked either using a microwave oven or a pressure cooker. The cooked grains were dehydrated in two stages, 85±2°C for 1 hr and 45±2°C for 12 hrs until the final moisture content was 10±2%wb. The antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, GABA and -oryzanol contents, and the microstructure of the dehydrated grains were then characterized. Germination process induced a 2.55 fold increase in GABA content compared to non-germinated KKU-ULR012. The germinated KKU-ULR012 gave DPPH value, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 33.74±0.15 mgTrolox/100gdb, 182.89±0.48 mg/100gdb and 37.72±0.16 mg/100gdb, respectively. Anthocyanins in cooked germinated KKU-ULR012 diminished almost 88-89% after cooking. The cooking methods employed strongly influenced the antioxidant activity and anthocyanins content that the pressure cooking tended to prevent loss of anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. The GABA, -oryzanol and antho-cyanins contents and antioxidant activity of germinated grains cooked in the pressure cooker were higher than the samples cooked in the microwave oven (p<0.05. For pressure cooking, the cooked grains gave DPPH, ABTS, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 9.89±0.35 mgTrolox/100gdb, 1.79±0.04 mgTrolox/100gdb, 21.60±0.14 mg/100gdb and 37.16±0.70 mg/100gdb, respectively. The rice grains cooked by pressure cooking were more moist and sticky than the grains cooked by microwave cooking. The microstructure examined by SEM showed that the center of the dehydrated cooked rice grain was smooth indicating starch gelatinization whereas the surface revealed

  17. Learning cooking skills at different ages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Fiona; Spence, Michelle; Hollywood, Lynsey; McGowan, Laura; Surgenor, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Dean, Moira

    2016-11-14

    Cooking skills are increasingly included in strategies to prevent and reduce chronic diet-related diseases and obesity. While cooking interventions target all age groups (Child, Teen and Adult), the optimal age for learning these skills on: 1) skills retention, 2) cooking practices, 3) cooking attitudes, 4) diet quality and 5) health is unknown. Similarly, although the source of learning cooking skills has been previously studied, the differences in learning from these different sources has not been considered. This research investigated the associations of the age and source of learning with the aforementioned five factors. A nationally representative (Northern/Republic of Ireland) cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 1049 adults aged between 20-60 years. The survey included both measures developed and tested by the researchers as well as validated measures of cooking (e.g. chopping) and food skills (e.g. budgeting), cooking practices (e.g. food safety), cooking attitudes, diet quality and health. Respondents also stated when they learnt the majority of their skills and their sources of learning. The data was analysed using ANOVAs with post-hoc analysis and Chi 2 crosstabs with a significance level of 0.05. Results showed that child (skills, cooking practices, cooking attitudes, diet quality (with the exception of fibre intake where adult learners were higher) and health. Mother was the primary source of learning and those who learnt only from this source had significantly better outcomes on 12 of the 23 measures. This research highlights the importance of learning cooking skills at an early age for skill retention, confidence, cooking practices, cooking attitude and diet quality. Mother remained the primary source of learning, however, as there is a reported deskilling of domestic cooks, mothers may no longer have the ability to teach cooking skills to the next generation. A focus on alternative sources including practical cooking skills education starting

  18. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  19. Effects of cooking methods and temperatures on nutritional and quality characteristics of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uran, Harun; Gokoglu, Nalan

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional and quality characteristics of anchovy after cooking. The fish were cooked by different methods (frying, baking and grilling) at two different temperatures (160 °C, 180 °C). Crude ash, crude protein and crude fat contents of cooked fish increased due to rise in dry matter contents. While cooking methods affected mineral content of anchovy, cooking temperature did not affect. The highest values of monounsaturated fatty acids were found in baked samples. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in baked samples were also high and similar in fried samples. Fried samples, which were the most preferred, lost its nutritional characteristics more than baked and grilled samples. Grilled and baked fish samples can be recommended for healthy consumption. However, grilled fish samples had hard texture due to more moisture loss than other methods. Therefore, it is concluded that baking is the best cooking method for anchovy.

  20. Genotoxicological safety of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Hee Sub; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo; Chun, Byung Soo; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kee Hyuk

    2008-01-01

    Although seafood cooking drips were the byproducts from the fishery industry it was known that the cooking drips had many nutrients and could be used as functional materials. Previously, the physiological properties of cooking drips were shown to be increased by a gamma irradiation. But, there was no report on the safe for the genotoxicity on the irradiation. In this study, the genotoxicity of the cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleni and Thunnus thynnus was evaluated by the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay) and the SOS chromotest. The results from all samples were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay, both with and without metabolic activation. The SOS chromotest also indicated that the gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips did not show any mutagenicity. Therefore, this study indicated that gamma irradiation could be used for the hygiene, functional properties and processibility of seafood cooking drips

  1. Glycaemic index values and physicochemical properties of five brown rice varieties cooked by different domestic cooking methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Kumar Chapagai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes has increased dramatically in recent decades in the regions where people excessively consume white rice. Due to higher nutritional values and bioactive components, low to medium glycaemic index (GI brown rice could be a potential alternative to white rice in these regions. Methods: Five varieties, Chiang (CH, Sungyod (SY, Lepnok (LP from Thailand, Long grain specialty 1 (LS 1 and Long grain specialty 2 (LS 2 from Malaysia were tested for GI. Ten test foods were prepared from 5 varieties by 2 cooking techniques (pressure cooker, PC and rice cooker, RC. Overnight fasted 10 healthy subjects were fed with 25 g glucose as a reference food (RF on 3 occasions and amount equivalent to 25 g available carbohydrate portion of test food (TF on 1 occasion in separate days. Fasting and post-prandial capillary blood glucose was measured via finger-prick methods at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, and the incremental area under curve (iAUC was determined. The GI of each TF was calculated as percentage of incremental area under curve (iAUC of TF over RF. Results: The mean GI values of SY (72 – 81, high, CH and LP (59 – 65, medium and LS 1 and LS 2 (64 – 73, medium to high for cooking were discovered by PC and RC methods. The GI did not vary significantly (p>0.05 among varieties as well as between cooking methods. GI showed a significant negative correlation with the amylose content (r = –0.70, p<0.05 and significant positive correlation with cold peak viscosity (r = 0.80, p<0.01. Conclusions: All five rice varieties irrespectively of the cooking method used are classified as medium to high GI foods. Medium GI varieties could have potential of being used in diabetic diet. Cooking methods did not significantly alter the glycaemic characteristics of the studied varieties. Amylose content and pasting properties can be used for predicting GI of brown rice. It is urgent to explore low GI brown rice varieties in these

  2. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgueño, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Lana, X., E-mail: francisco.javier.lana@upc.edu [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Serra, C. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, M.D. [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  3. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgueño, A.; Lana, X.; Serra, C.; Martínez, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  4. The benefit of daily photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, Sophie; Fourtanier, Anny M A

    2008-05-01

    It is now recognized that both ultraviolet (UV)-A and UVB wavelengths participate in the generation of photodamaged human skin during sun exposure. During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular, and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. This study was designed to evaluate in human beings the protection afforded by a day cream containing a photostable combination of UVB and UVA filters and thus protect against the UV-induced skin alterations. In solar-simulated radiation exposed and unprotected skin sites we observed melanization. The epidermis revealed a significant increase in stratum corneum and stratum granulosum thickness. In the dermis, an enhanced expression of tenascin and a reduced expression of type I procollagen were evidenced just below the dermoepidermal junction. Although no change in elastic fibers in exposed buttock skin was seen, a slightly increased deposit of lysozyme and alpha-1 antitrypsin on elastin fibers was observed using immunofluorescence techniques. A day cream with photoprotection properties was shown to prevent all of the above-described alterations. This study was performed on a limited number of patients (n = 12) with specific characteristics (20-35 years old and skin type II and III). Two dermal alterations were evaluated by visual assessment and not by computer-assisted image analysis quantification. Our in vivo results demonstrate the benefits of daily photoprotection using a day cream containing appropriate broad-spectrum sunscreens, which prevent solar UV-induced skin damages.

  5. Preferred delivery method and acceptability of Wheat-Soy Blend (WSB++) as a daily complementary food supplement in northwest Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Hanif, Abu A M; Merrill, Rebecca D; Campbell, Rebecca K; Kumkum, Mehnaz Alam; Shaikh, Saijuddin; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Parveen, Monira; Mehra, Sucheta; Klemm, Rolf D W; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are widely used to prevent undernutrition in early childhood in food-insecure settings. We field tested enhanced Wheat Soy Blend (WSB++)-a FBF fortified with micronutrients, milk powder, sugar, and oil-in preparation for a complementary food supplement (CFS) trial in rural northwestern Bangladesh. Formative work was conducted to determine the optimal delivery method (cooked vs. not) for this CFS, to examine mothers' child feeding practices with and acceptance of the WSB++, and to identify potential barriers to adherence. Our results suggest WSB++ is an acceptable CFS in rural Bangladesh and the requirement for mothers to cook WSB++ at home is unlikely to be a barrier to its daily use as a CFS in this population.

  6. Digital Materials Related to Food Science and Cooking Methods for Preparing Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    沼田, 貴美子; 渡邉, 美奈; ヌマタ, キミコ; ワタナベ, ミナ; Numata, Kimiko; Watanabe, Mina

    2009-01-01

    We studied methods that were effective for teaching cooking to elementary school pupils using home economics materials. The subject was "Iritamago (scrambled eggs)". We researched the relationship between cookery science and experimental methods of making Iritamago. The various differences in condition and texture of Iritamago were compared among the different cooking utensils, conditions, and preparations of eggs. We created digital materials related to cookery science and the cooking method...

  7. Effect of conventional cooking methods on lipid oxidation indices in lamb meat

    OpenAIRE

    A Pourkhalili; M Mirlohi; E Rahimi; M Hojatoleslami

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the most deteriorative reactions occurred in foodstuff which has harmful impacts on the both food quality and consumer's health. This study was designed to speculate the influence of three conventional cooking methods including boiling, frying and grilling on lipid oxidation parameters in cooked lamb meat. Sections of lamb meat from longissimus dorsi muscle, taken from native Lori-Bakhtiary sheep species were cut into uniform pieces and cooked using boiling, frying a...

  8. The Cook Formation Reservoir Architecture, Stratigraphy and Paleogeography in the Tampen Spur Area

    OpenAIRE

    Kvalvåg, Silje Dahle

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum geosciences engineering This thesis describes the development of the prograding and aggrading, Lower Jurassic Cook Formation across Knarr Field and Garantiana discovery located in the Tampen Spur area in the Northern North Sea. 11 facies, 5 depositional element and 7 facies association has been combined to established three correlation. The Cook Formation has been divided into three higher order sequences lower middle and upper Cook member. The Lower and Middle...

  9. Optimisation of FAME production from waste cooking oil for biodiesel use

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Luis Fernando; Vicente, Gemma; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Pacheco, María

    2009-01-01

    This study consists of the development and optimisation of the potassium hydroxide-catalysed synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from waste cooking oil. A factorial design of experiments and a central composite design have been used. The variables chosen were fatty acid concentration in the waste cooking oil, temperature and initial catalyst concentration by weight of waste cooking oil, while the responses were FAME purity and yield. The initial catalyst concentration is the most imp...

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation and different modes of cooking on vitamin C content of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Changes in reduced and total ascorbic acid content in control and gamma irradiated potatoes of four cultivars were studied during 15 degC storage and after cooking by different methods. Under identical prolonged storage conditions, control tubers suffered heavy losses of vitamin C and total marketability due to sprouting and shrinkage unlike irradiated tubers. Time consuming cooking destroys more vitamin C as compared to faster cooking methods. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig

  11. Policy trade-offs between climate mitigation and clean cook-stove access in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, C.; Pachauri, S.; Rao, N.; McCollum, D.; Rogelj, J.; Riahi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution from traditional cook stoves presents a greater health hazard than any other environmental factor. Despite government efforts to support clean-burning cooking fuels, over 700 million people in South Asia could still rely on traditional stoves in 2030. This number could rise if climate change mitigation efforts increase energy costs. Here we quantify the costs of support policies to make clean cooking affordable to all South Asians under four increasingly stringent c...

  12. Effects of moist- and dry-heat cooking on the meat quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Chih-Feng; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of moist- (water-cooking; WC) and dry-heat (oven-cooking; OC) on the quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken breast meat. The results revealed that OC meat had a significantly higher cooking time, cooking loss, and shear force values and lower L* values. Protein solubility decreased after cooking in both cooking methods; however, no statistical difference was observed between WC and OC meats, whereas collagen solubility and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) increased after cooking and WC meat exhibited higher collagen solubility and MFI (P cooking, and fibril shrinkage was noticeable in OC meat (P cooking methods to optimize native chicken meat quality. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Daily dialysis reduces pulse wave velocity in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Micco, Lucia; Torraca, Serena; Sirico, Maria Luisa; Tartaglia, Domenico; Di Iorio, Biagio

    2012-05-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Dialysis patients show cyclic changes in PWV related to their hydration status and blood pressure. Our aim is to assess the impact of daily dialysis on PWV. We performed a randomized crossover study of 60 patients who underwent standard hemodialysis (HD) three times per week for at least 6 months. Patients were classified into three groups according to their PWV values before (pre-) and after (post-) HD, with a cutoff value of 12 m s(-1), as follows: the low-low (LL) group had normal pre-HD and post-HD PWV; the high-low (HL) group had high pre-HD PWV and normal post-HD PWV; and the high-high (HH) group had high pre- and post-HD PWV. All patients continued standard HD for 2 weeks. A total of 10 patients from each group were randomly assigned to continue standard HD for 1 week and then underwent daily dialysis for 1 week. The remaining 10 patients underwent daily dialysis for 1 week and then underwent standard HD for 1 week. PWV values were measured before and 1 h after each dialysis session. With daily dialysis treatment, 2 of 20 patients (10%) moved from the PWV-HH group to the PWV-HL group, whereas 18 of 20 patients (90%) moved from the PWV-HL group to the PWV-LL group (P = 0.030). Daily dialysis reduces PWV in the ESRD patients. As PWV is a strong predictor of mortality in ESRD and has cyclic variations in patients who are on standard HD, we believe that daily dialysis may be used in patients with high PWV levels to reduce their mortality risk.

  14. Automatic heart rate normalization for accurate energy expenditure normalization : an analysis of activities of daily living and heart rate features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altini, M.; Penders, J.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Amft, O.D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Pervasive Intelligent Technologies for Health". Background: Energy Expenditure (EE) estimation algorithms using Heart Rate (HR) or a combination of accelerometer and HR data suffer from large error due to

  15. Daily intakes of radionuclides in Japanese standard diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, H.; Sugiyama, H.; Iijima, I.; Isomura, K.; Kobayashi, J.

    2005-01-01

    Daily intakes of radionuclides in Japanese standard diets were investigated. Food samples were collected from 9 cities of Japan using the market basket method according to the reports of National Nutrition Study in Japan (2000). These samples were categorized the following 14 groups; Group l: rice, rice products; Group 2: grain, seeds, potato; Group 3: sugar, confectionery; Group 4: oils and fats; Group 5: beans; Group 6: fruits; Group 7: green and yellow vegetables; Group 8: other vegetables; mushrooms, seaweed; Group 9: seasoning, drinks; Group 10: fish and shellfish; Group 11: meat, eggs; Group 12: milk, milk products; Group 13: other foods; and Group 14 was drinking water. Each group was homogenized separately after cooking the food materials. Determination of radioactivity was performed by gamma ray spectrometry. The only artificial radionuclide detected from gamma ray spectrometry was 137 CS, and its concentrations of each sample were almost less than 0.1 Bq/kg. Strontium-90 and 238 U concentrations of the total diet samples were analyzed with chemical separation. The concentrations of 90 Sr and 238 U were in the range of 0.013-0.031 Bq/kg, 0.0039-0.014 Bq/kg respectively, and a large difference was not found among the concentrations of each nuclide in 9 cities. We would like to estimate internal radiation dose to Japanese population from the dietary intakes of these radionuclides.

  16. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  17. Effect of cooking on14 C-tetrachlorvinphos residues in faba beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of cooking on 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos in stored vicia faba beans was studied. The results indicated that over 50% of the dose originally present inside the grains (37 ppm), could be recovered in the aqueous extract of the cooked grains. Considerable portion of radioactivity (About 22%) was associated with the grains in a non-extractable from. Residues in cooked beans included, in addition to a small amount of the parent insecticide, desmethyl tetrachlorvinphos, mono methyl phosphate and dimethyl phosphate. The results obtained indicate that tetrachlorvinphos residues are not appreciably affected by cooking. 1 tab

  18. Insulated Solar Electric Cooking – Tomorrow's healthy affordable stoves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Watkins

    Full Text Available We present a cooking technology consisting of a solar panel directly connected to an electric heater inside of a well-insulated chamber. Assuming continued decrease in solar panel prices, we anticipate that in a few decades Solar Electric Cooking (SEC technologies will be the most common cooking technology for the poor. Appropriate use of insulation reduces the power demand making low-power Insulated Solar Electric Cooking (ISEC systems already cost competitive. We present a $100 prototype and preliminary results of two implementations in Uganda.

  19. Nutritional value and digestion rate of rhea meat proteins in association with storage and cooking processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueras, Renata S; Gatellier, Philippe; Ferreira, Claude; Zambiazi, Rui C; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2011-09-01

    The nutritional value of proteins was investigated after the storage and cooking of rhea M. Gastrocnemius pars interna. Oxidation of basic and aromatic amino acids, surface hydrophobicity and aggregation state of proteins, were determined in raw and cooked meat. In addition, myofibrillar proteins were exposed in vitro to proteases of the digestive tract. Cooking markedly affected the protein surface hydrophobicity. The BBP bound content was three times greater in cooked than in fresh rhea meat. A small increment in tryptophan content after cooking was observed. Storage influenced Schiff bases formation indicating the presence of protein-aldehyde adducts after cooking. High content of Schiff bases was found after cooking of samples stored for 5 days, demonstrating a probable implication of free amino groups, most likely from lysine. Cooking decreased the myofibrillar protein susceptibility to pepsin activity. After cooking, the proteolysis rate by pancreatic enzymes increased. Our findings support the importance of protein aggregation in the nutritional value of meat proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of owner experiences and adherence to home-cooked diet recipes for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L N; Linder, D E; Heinze, C R; Kehs, R L; Freeman, L M

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate owner experiences and adherence to home-cooked diet recipes for dogs. Clients of a veterinary teaching hospital clinical nutrition service who had a home-cooked diet recipe formulated for their dogs between March 2011 and December 2013 were given a survey by email, postal mail and telephone. Survey questions addressed motivations, positive and negative aspects of feeding home-cooked diets and current feeding practices. Responses were compared to animals' medical records to determine adherence. Of the 93 owners who were contacted, 53 (57%) completed the survey. Of the 53 respondents, 43 owners (81%) reported that they were still feeding an home-cooked diet or had fed an home-cooked diet until the time of their dogs' deaths. The most common motivation for feeding a home-cooked diet was suitability for specific medical needs. Of the 30 surveys that included a complete diet history, only four (13%) demonstrated exact adherence to home-cooked diet recipes. Most respondents liked and continued to feed a home-cooked diet, but few owners adhered to prescribed recipes and many dogs required recipe modifications. It is important to counsel dog owners about benefits and drawbacks of feeding home-cooked diets, importance of recipe adherence and necessity for follow-up after diet formulation with a board-certified veterinary nutritionist. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.