WorldWideScience

Sample records for normal coordinate analysis

  1. Normal co-ordinate analysis of 1, 8-dibromooctane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devinder; Jaggi, Neena; Singh, Nafa

    2010-02-01

    The organic compound 1,8-dibromooctane (1,8-DBO) exists in liquid phase at ambient temperatures and has versatile synthetic applications. In its liquid phase 1,8-DBO has been expected to exist in four most probable conformations, with all its carbon atoms in the same plane, having symmetries C 2h , C i , C 2 and C 1 . In the present study a detailed vibrational analysis in terms of assignment of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman bands of this molecule using normal co-ordinate calculations has been done. A systematic set of symmetry co-ordinates has been constructed for this molecule and normal co-ordinate analysis is carried out using the computer program MOLVIB. The force-field transferred from already studied lower chain bromo-alkanes is subjected to refinement so as to fit the observed infrared and Raman frequencies with those of calculated ones. The potential energy distribution (PED) has also been calculated for each mode of vibration of the molecule for the assumed conformations.

  2. Vibrational spectra and normal co-ordinate analysis of 2-aminopyridine and 2-amino picoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Sujin P; Mohan, S

    2006-05-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman (FT-R) spectra of 2-aminopyridine and 2-amino picoline were recorded and the observed frequencies were assigned to various modes of vibration in terms of fundamentals by assuming Cs point group symmetry. A normal co-ordinate analysis was also carried out for the proper assignment of the vibrational frequencies using simple valence force field. A complete vibrational analysis is presented here for the molecules and the results are briefly discussed.

  3. Molecular conformational analysis, vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis of trans-1,2-bis(3,5-dimethoxy phenyl)-ethene based on density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Lynnette; Sajan, D; Chaitanya, K; Isac, Jayakumary

    2014-03-25

    The conformational behavior and structural stability of trans-1,2-bis(3,5-dimethoxy phenyl)-ethene (TDBE) were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) method with the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set combination. The vibrational wavenumbers of TDBE were computed at DFT level and complete vibrational assignments were made on the basis of normal coordinate analysis calculations (NCA). The DFT force field transformed to natural internal coordinates was corrected by a well-established set of scale factors that were found to be transferable to the title compound. The infrared and Raman spectra were also predicted from the calculated intensities. The observed Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform (FT) Raman vibrational wavenumbers were analyzed and compared with the theoretically predicted vibrational spectra. Comparison of the simulated spectra with the experimental spectra provides important information about the ability of the computational method to describe the vibrational modes. Information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecules has been obtained by mapping electron density isosurface with electrostatic potential surfaces (ESP). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vibrational spectra, molecular structure, natural bond orbital, first order hyperpolarizability, thermodynamic analysis and normal coordinate analysis of Salicylaldehyde p-methylphenylthiosemicarbazone by density functional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porchelvi, E. Elamurugu; Muthu, S.

    2015-01-01

    The thiosemicarbazone compound, Salicylaldehyde p-methylphenylthiosemicarbazone (abbreviated as SMPTSC) was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman and UV. Density functional (DFT) calculations have been carried out for the title compound by performing DFT level of theory using B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies were calculated and compared with the experimental data. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with aid of normal coordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology. The electronic dipole moment (μD) and the first hyperpolarizability (βtot) values of the investigated molecule were computed using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The stability and charge delocalization of the molecule was studied by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Thearomaticities of the phenyl rings were studied using the standard harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA) index. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. The molecule orbital contributions are studied by density of energy states (DOSs).

  5. Wavefield extrapolation in caustic-free normal ray coordinates

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Normal ray coordinates are conventionally constructed from ray tracing, which inherently requires smooth velocity profiles. To use rays as coordinates, the velocities have to be smoothed further to avoid caustics, which is detrimental to the mapping

  6. Fourier transform infrared and FT-Raman spectra, assignment, ab initio, DFT and normal co-ordinate analysis of 2-chloro-4-methylaniline and 2-chloro-6-methylaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Mohan, S

    2009-03-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectra of 2-chloro-4-methylaniline and 2-chloro-6-methylaniline have been measured in the range 4000-400 and 4000-100cm(-1), respectively. Utilising the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compounds were carried out. The vibrational frequency which were determined experimentally are compared with those obtained theoretically from ab initio HF and DFT gradient calculations employing the HF/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) methods for optimised geometries. The geometries and normal modes of vibration obtained from the HF and DFT methods are in good agreement with the experimental data. The normal co-ordinate analysis was also carried out on the basis of ab initio force fields utilising Wilson's FG matrix method. The manifestations of NH-pi interactions and the influence of bulky chlorine and methyl group on the vibrational modes of the amino group are investigated.

  7. Vibrational spectroscopic investigation and normal coordinate analysis of the fibrate hypolipidemic agent 5-(2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethyl pentanoic acid (Gemfibrozil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, M. Siva; Benitta, T. Asenath; James, C.

    2011-03-01

    Colorless crystals of 5-(2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethyl pentanoic acid were grown by slow evaporation method and the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the sample were recorded in the region 4000-450 cm -1 and 4000-50 cm -1 respectively. Molecular structure is optimized with the help of B3LYP/6-31G (d) density functional theory method. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugation and charge delocalization is confirmed by the natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). The results show that electron density (ED) in the σ ∗ antibonding orbitals and E (2) energies confirms the occurrence of intra-molecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal coordinate analysis following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energy gap shows that charge transfer occurs within the molecule.

  8. Vibrational spectroscopic studies, normal co-ordinate analysis, first order hyperpolarizability, HOMO-LUMO of midodrine by using density functional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidha, R; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Muthu, S

    2015-01-05

    The FTIR (4000-400 cm(-1)), FT-Raman (4000-100 cm(-1)) and UV-Visible (400-200 nm) spectra of midodrine were recorded in the condensed state. The complete vibrational frequencies, optimized geometry, intensity of vibrational bands and atomic charges were obtained by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) with the help of 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The first order hyperpolarizability (β) and related properties (μ, α and Δα) of this molecular system were calculated by using DFT/6-311++G(d,p) method based on the finite-field approach. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal Co-ordinate Analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force methodology. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. From the recorded UV-Visible spectrum, the electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator strength and wavelength are calculated by DFT in water and gas methods using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies confirm that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Besides MEP, NLO and thermodynamic properties were also calculated and interpreted. The electron density-based local reactivity descriptor such as Fukui functions was calculated to explain the chemical selectivity or reactivity site in midodrine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Wavefield extrapolation in caustic-free normal ray coordinates

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2012-11-04

    Normal ray coordinates are conventionally constructed from ray tracing, which inherently requires smooth velocity profiles. To use rays as coordinates, the velocities have to be smoothed further to avoid caustics, which is detrimental to the mapping process. Solving the eikonal equation numerically for a line source at the surface provides a platform to map normal rays in complex unsmoothed velocity models and avoid caustics. We implement reverse-time migration (RTM) and downward continuation in the new ray coordinate system, which allows us to obtain efficient images and avoid some of the dip limitations of downward continuation.

  10. FTIR, FT-RAMAN, NMR, spectra, normal co-ordinate analysis, NBO, NLO and DFT calculation of N,N-diethyl-4-methylpiperazine-1-carboxamide molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, S; Elamurugu Porchelvi, E

    2013-11-01

    The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman of N,N-diethyl-4-methylpiperazine-1-carboxamide (NND4MC) have been recorded and analyzed. The structure of the compound was optimized and the structural characteristics were determined by density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP method with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. The theoretically predicted FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title molecule have been constructed. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with aid of normal coordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that electron density (ED) in the σ(*) and π(*) antibonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies (E2) confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The electronic dipole moment (μD) and the first hyperpolarizability (βtot) values of the investigated molecule were computed using Density Functional Theory (DFT/B3LYP) with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The calculated results also show that the NND4MC molecule may have microscopy nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. Mulliken atomic charges of NND4MC were calculated. The (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. The UV-Vis spectrum of the compound was recorded. The theoretical electronic absorption spectra have been calculated by using CIS, TD-DFT methods. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were also performed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  11. Normalized Index of Synergy for Evaluating the Coordination of Motor Commands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Shunta; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Humans perform various motor tasks by coordinating the redundant motor elements in their bodies. The coordination of motor outputs is produced by motor commands, as well properties of the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this study was to dissociate the coordination of motor commands from motor outputs. First, we conducted simulation experiments where the total elbow torque was generated by a model of a simple human right and left elbow with redundant muscles. The results demonstrated that muscle tension with signal-dependent noise formed a coordinated structure of trial-to-trial variability of muscle tension. Therefore, the removal of signal-dependent noise effects was required to evaluate the coordination of motor commands. We proposed a method to evaluate the coordination of motor commands, which removed signal-dependent noise from the measured variability of muscle tension. We used uncontrolled manifold analysis to calculate a normalized index of synergy. Simulation experiments confirmed that the proposed method could appropriately represent the coordinated structure of the variability of motor commands. We also conducted experiments in which subjects performed the same task as in the simulation experiments. The normalized index of synergy revealed that the subjects coordinated their motor commands to achieve the task. Finally, the normalized index of synergy was applied to a motor learning task to determine the utility of the proposed method. We hypothesized that a large part of the change in the coordination of motor outputs through learning was because of changes in motor commands. In a motor learning task, subjects tracked a target trajectory of the total torque. The change in the coordination of muscle tension through learning was dominated by that of motor commands, which supported the hypothesis. We conclude that the normalized index of synergy can be used to evaluate the coordination of motor commands independently from the properties of the

  12. Normal co-ordinate analysis, molecular structural, non-linear optical, second order perturbation studies of Tizanidine by density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela, N R; Muthu, S; Sampathkrishnan, S; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A

    2015-03-15

    The spectroscopic techniques and semi-empirical molecular calculations have been utilized to analyze the drug Tizanidine (5CDIBTA). The solid phase Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Fourier Transform Raman (FTR) spectral analysis of 5CDIBTA is carried out along with density functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP) with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra of the compound has been made on the basis of the calculated potential energy distribution (PED). The individual atomic charges by NPA using B3LYP method is studied. A study on the Mulliken atomic charges, frontier molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (μ) and the first hyperpolarizability (α) values of the investigated molecule were also computed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantum mechanical, spectroscopic studies (FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, UV) and normal coordinates analysis on 3-([2-(diaminomethyleneamino) thiazol-4-yl] methylthio)-N'-sulfamoylpropanimidamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, S.; Uma Maheswari, J.; Sundius, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Famotidine (3-([2-(diaminomethyleneamino) thiazol-4-yl] methylthio)-N'-sulfamoylpropanimidamide) is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production, and it is commonly used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD/GORD). Quantum chemical calculations of the equilibrium geometry of famotidine in the ground state were carried out using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) with the 6-311G(d,p) basis set. In addition, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman activities were calculated at the same level of theory. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectrum of the drug is also reported. Theoretical simulations of the FT-IR, and FT-Raman spectra of the title compound have been calculated. Good correlations between the experimental 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts and calculated GIAO shielding tensors were found. The results of the energy and oscillator strength calculations by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) supplement the experimental findings. Total and partial density of state (TDOS and PDOS) and also overlap population density of state (COOP or OPDOS) diagrams analysis were presented. The dipole moment, linear polarizability and first order hyperpolarizability values were also computed. The linear polarizability and first order hyperpolarizabilities of the studied molecule indicate that the compound is a good candidate for nonlinear optical materials.

  14. Normal range of facial asymmetry in spherical coordinates: a CBCT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Rui Feng [Research Laboratory Specialist Intermediate, Department of Biologic and Material Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Na, Hee Ja [Dept. ofDental Hygiene, Honam University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Palomo, Juan Matin [Dept. of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States)

    2013-03-15

    This study aimed to measure the bilateral differences of facial lines in spherical coordinates from faces within a normal range of asymmetry utilizing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT scans from 22 females with normal symmetric-looking faces (mean age 24 years and 8 months) were selected for the study. The average menton deviation was 1.01{+-}0.66 mm. The spherical coordinates, length, and midsagittal and coronal inclination angles of the ramal and mandibular lines were calculated from CBCT. The bilateral differences in the facial lines were determined. All of the study subjects had minimal bilateral differences of facial lines. The normal range of facial asymmetry of the ramal and mandibular lines was obtained in spherical coordinates. The normal range of facial asymmetry in the spherical coordinate system in this study should be useful as a reference for diagnosing facial asymmetry.

  15. Method of normal coordinates in the formulation of a system with dissipation: The harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mshelia, E.D.

    1994-07-01

    The method of normal coordinates of the theory of vibrations is used in decoupling the motion of n oscillators (1 ≤ n ≤4) representing intrinsic degrees of freedom coupled to collective motion in a quantum mechanical model that allows the determination of the probability for energy transfer from collective to intrinsic excitations in a dissipative system. (author). 21 refs

  16. Anatomic breast coordinate system for mammogram analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal; Brandt, S.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2011-01-01

    was represented by geodesic distance (s) from nipple and parametric angle (¿) as shown in figure 1. The scoring technique called MTR (mammographic texture resemblance marker) used this breast coordinate system to extract Gaussian derivative features. The features extracted using the (x,y) and the curve......Purpose Many researchers have investigated measures also other than density in the mammogram such as measures based on texture to improve breast cancer risk assessment. However, parenchymal texture characteristics are highly dependent on the orientation of vasculature structure and fibrous tissue...... methodologies as seen from table 2 in given temporal study. Conclusion The curve-linear anatomical breast coordinate system facilitated computerized analysis of mammograms. The proposed coordinate system slightly improved the risk segregation by Mammographic Texture Resemblance and minimized the geometrical...

  17. Comparison of Motor Skills in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Normal Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahel Hemmati

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD is a motor skill disorder which impacts upon a child, s ability to perform age-appropriate activity of daily living and academic performance. They have problems in gross & fine motors, their upper limb coordination are impaired, too. In this way, we decided to compare motors skills with BOTMP test in children with DCD and their normal peers. Methods: In this study 30 children with DCD (age range is 6/5-8/5 have studied and compared with their normal peers. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP was used. Results: The study showed Motor skills in DCD children are significantly poorer than their normal peers. (P<0/001 Gross motor, Fine motor skills and the upper limb coordination are significant impaired in DCD children. Discussion: In the process of evaluation Children with DCD, standard instrument, like BOTMP can be used.BOTMP detected deficiency in gross & fine motor and other area like, upper limb coordination. We need accurate in formations for better treatment. BOTMP can be used in the process of evaluation for every DCD child, after that goals of treatment will be clearer.

  18. The algebra of observables in Gaußian normal spacetime coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodendorfer, Norbert [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093, Warsaw (Poland); Duch, Paweł [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Lewandowski, Jerzy; Świeżewski, Jędrzej [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-01-11

    We discuss the canonical structure of a spacetime version of the radial gauge, i.e. Gaußian normal spacetime coordinates. While it was found for the spatial version of the radial gauge that a “local” algebra of observables can be constructed, it turns out that this is not possible for the spacetime version. The technical reason for this observation is that the new gauge condition needed to upgrade the spatial to a spacetime radial gauge does not Poisson-commute with the previous gauge conditions. It follows that the involved Dirac bracket is inherently non-local in the sense that no complete set of observables can be found which is constructed locally and at the same time has local Dirac brackets. A locally constructed observable here is defined as a finite polynomial of the canonical variables at a given physical point specified by the Gaußian normal spacetime coordinates.

  19. Spectroscopic studies (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible), normal co-ordinate analysis, first-order hyperpolarizability and HOMO, LUMO studies of 3,4-dichlorobenzophenone by using Density Functional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Prasad, K; Samatha, K; Jagadeeswara Rao, D; Santhamma, C; Muthu, S; Mark Heron, B

    2015-01-01

    The vibrational frequencies of 3,4-dichlorobenzophenone (DCLBP) were obtained from the FT-IR and Raman spectral data, and evaluated based on the Density Functional Theory using the standard method B3LYP with 6-311+G(d,p) as the basis set. On the basis of potential energy distribution together with the normal-co-ordinate analysis and following the scaled quantum mechanical force methodology, the assignments for the various frequencies were described. The values of the electric dipole moment (μ) and the first-order hyperpolarizability (β) of the molecule were computed. The UV-absorption spectrum was also recorded to study the electronic transitions. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The NBO analysis, to study the intramolecular hyperconjugative interactions, was carried out. Mulliken's net charges were evaluated. The MEP and thermodynamic properties were also calculated. The electron density-based local reactivity descriptor, such as Fukui functions, was calculated to explain the chemical selectivity or reactivity site in 3,4-dichlorobenzophenone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectroscopic studies (FTIR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible), normal coordinate analysis, NBO analysis, first order hyper polarizability, HOMO and LUMO analysis of (1R)-N-(Prop-2-yn-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine molecule by ab initio HF and density functional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, S; Ramachandran, G

    2014-01-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman of (1R)-N-(Prop-2-yn-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine (1RNPDA) were recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm(-1) and 4000-100 cm(-1) respectively. A complete assignment and analysis of the fundamental vibrational modes of the molecule were carried out. The observed fundamental modes have been compared with the harmonic vibrational frequencies computed using HF method by employing 6-31G(d,p) basis set and DFT(B3LYP) method by employing 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational studies were interpreted in terms of Potential Energy Distribution (PED). The complete vibrational frequency assignments were made by Normal Co-ordinate Analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology (SQMFF). The first order hyper polarizability (β0) of this molecular system and related properties (α, μ, and Δα) are calculated using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method based on the finite-field approach. The thermodynamic functions of the title compound were also performed at the above methods and basis set. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of 1RNPDA is reported. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the GIAO method confirms with the experimental values. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded and electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator strength and wavelength were performed by TD-DFT/B3LYP using 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The HOMO and LUMO energy gap reveals that the energy gap reflects the chemical activity of the molecule. The observed and calculated wave numbers are formed to be in good agreement. The experimental spectra also coincide satisfactorily with those of theoretically constructed spectra. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical fitness in children with probable developmental coordination disorder and normal body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Yukiko Hiraga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n2p182   Changes in body mass index (BMI due to various factors, such as a low level of physical activity, are often associated with poor physical fitness in children with prob-able developmental coordination disorder (pDCD. This study examined whether children with pDCD would show poorer performance in terms of physical fitness when compared with their typically developing (TD peers. Thirty two children with pDCD and normal BMI and other 32 children with TD and normal BMI, matched by gender, age and BMI, performed the sit and reach, standing long jump, curl-up, modified pull-up and 9-min run tests. The children in the pDCD group showed lower explosive power, muscle strength and endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness than children in the TD group. Overall, children with pDCD had lower levels of physical fitness, even with normal BMI.

  2. Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis on structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as high as 840 cm−1. For simple organic chlorine compounds, C–Cl absorptions are in the region 750–700 cm−1 whereas .... Ph.D. Thesis (Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India, 1997). [26] S Xavier Jesu Raja, A William ...

  3. C2 Network Analysis: Insights into Coordination & Understanding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansberger, Jeffrey T; Schreiber, Craig; Spain, Randall D

    2008-01-01

    ...) workload management. This paper will address recent efforts, tools, and approaches on measuring and analyzing two of these distributed cognitive attributes through network analysis, coordination across agents and mental models...

  4. Definition of coordinate system for three-dimensional data analysis in the foot and ankle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Green, Connor

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional data is required to have advanced knowledge of foot and ankle kinematics and morphology. However, studies have been difficult to compare due to a lack of a common coordinate system. Therefore, we present a means to define a coordinate frame in the foot and ankle and its clinical application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out ten CT scans in anatomically normal feet and segmented them in a general purpose segmentation program for grey value images. 3D binary formatted stereolithography files were then create and imported to a shape analysis program for biomechanics which was used to define a coordinate frame and carry out morphological analysis of the forefoot. RESULTS: The coordinate frame had axes standard deviations of 2.36 which are comparable to axes variability of other joint coordinate systems. We showed a strong correlation between the lengths of the metatarsals within and between the columns of the foot and also among the lesser metatarsal lengths. CONCLUSION: We present a reproducible method for construction of a coordinate system for the foot and ankle with low axes variability. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To conduct meaningful comparison between multiple subjects the coordinate system must be constant. This system enables such comparison and therefore will aid morphological data collection and improve preoperative planning accuracy.

  5. Quantum functional analysis non-coordinate approach

    CERN Document Server

    Helemskii, A Ya

    2010-01-01

    This book contains a systematic presentation of quantum functional analysis, a mathematical subject also known as operator space theory. Created in the 1980s, it nowadays is one of the most prominent areas of functional analysis, both as a field of active research and as a source of numerous important applications. The approach taken in this book differs significantly from the standard approach used in studying operator space theory. Instead of viewing "quantized coefficients" as matrices in a fixed basis, in this book they are interpreted as finite rank operators in a fixed Hilbert space. This allows the author to replace matrix computations with algebraic techniques of module theory and tensor products, thus achieving a more invariant approach to the subject. The book can be used by graduate students and research mathematicians interested in functional analysis and related areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Prerequisites include standard courses in abstract algebra and functional analysis.

  6. Synthesis of controllable and normal sublanguages for discrete-event systems using a coordinator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Jan; Masopust, Tomáš; van Schuppen, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 7 (2011), s. 492-502 ISSN 0167-6911 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0517; GA ČR(CZ) GPP202/11/P028 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) EU.ICT.DISC 224498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : discrete-event system * coordination control * coordinator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.222, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167691111000739

  7. Synthesis of controllable and normal sublanguages for discrete-event systems using a coordinator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Jan; Masopust, Tomáš; van Schuppen, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 7 (2011), s. 492-502 ISSN 0167-6911 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0517; GA ČR(CZ) GPP202/11/P028 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) EU. ICT .DISC 224498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : discrete-event system * coordination control * coordinator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.222, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167691111000739

  8. Time Series Analysis of 3D Coordinates Using Nonstochastic Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsink, H.

    2016-01-01

    Adjustment and testing of a combination of stochastic and nonstochastic observations is applied to the deformation analysis of a time series of 3D coordinates. Nonstochastic observations are constant values that are treated as if they were observations. They are used to formulate constraints on

  9. Time Series Analysis of 3D Coordinates Using Nonstochastic Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddo Velsink

    2016-01-01

    From the article: Abstract Adjustment and testing of a combination of stochastic and nonstochastic observations is applied to the deformation analysis of a time series of 3D coordinates. Nonstochastic observations are constant values that are treated as if they were observations. They are used to

  10. Libraries for spectrum identification: Method of normalized coordinates versus linear correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, A.; Lucena, P.; Herrera, R.G.; Dona, A.; Fernandez-Reyes, R.; Laserna, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work it is proposed that an easy solution based directly on linear algebra in order to obtain the relation between a spectrum and a spectrum base. This solution is based on the algebraic determination of an unknown spectrum coordinates with respect to a spectral library base. The identification capacity comparison between this algebraic method and the linear correlation method has been shown using experimental spectra of polymers. Unlike the linear correlation (where the presence of impurities may decrease the discrimination capacity), this method allows to detect quantitatively the existence of a mixture of several substances in a sample and, consequently, to beer in mind impurities for improving the identification

  11. Coordenadas cartesianas moleculares a partir da geometria dos modos normais de vibração Molecular cartesian coordinates from vibrational normal modes geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Borges

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple method to obtain molecular Cartesian coordinates as a function of vibrational normal modes is presented in this work. The method does not require the definition of special matrices, like the F and G of Wilson, neither of group theory. The Eckart's conditions together with the diagonalization of kinetic and potential energy are the only required expressions. This makes the present approach appropriate to be used as a preliminary study for more advanced concepts concerning vibrational analysis. Examples are given for diatomic and triatomic molecules.

  12. Look Together: Analyzing Gaze Coordination with Epistemic Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean eAndrist

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When conversing and collaborating in everyday situations, people naturally and interactively align their behaviors with each other across various communication channels, including speech, gesture, posture, and gaze. Having access to a partner's referential gaze behavior has been shown to be particularly important in achieving collaborative outcomes, but the process in which people's gaze behaviors unfold over the course of an interaction and become tightly coordinated is not well understood. In this paper, we present work to develop a deeper and more nuanced understanding of coordinated referential gaze in collaborating dyads. We recruited 13 dyads to participate in a collaborative sandwich-making task and used dual mobile eye tracking to synchronously record each participant's gaze behavior. We used a relatively new analysis technique—epistemic network analysis—to jointly model the gaze behaviors of both conversational participants. In this analysis, network nodes represent gaze targets for each participant, and edge strengths convey the likelihood of simultaneous gaze to the connected target nodes during a given time-slice. We divided collaborative task sequences into discrete phases to examine how the networks of shared gaze evolved over longer time windows. We conducted three separate analyses of the data to reveal (1 properties and patterns of how gaze coordination unfolds throughout an interaction sequence, (2 optimal time lags of gaze alignment within a dyad at different phases of the interaction, and (3 differences in gaze coordination patterns for interaction sequences that lead to breakdowns and repairs. In addition to contributing to the growing body of knowledge on the coordination of gaze behaviors in joint activities, this work has implications for the design of future technologies that engage in situated interactions with human users.

  13. Common Data Format (CDF) and Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candey, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    The Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb) data browsing system provides plotting, listing and open access v ia FTP, HTTP, and web services (REST, SOAP, OPeNDAP) for data from mo st NASA Heliophysics missions and is heavily used by the community. C ombining data from many instruments and missions enables broad resear ch analysis and correlation and coordination with other experiments a nd missions. Crucial to its effectiveness is the use of a standard se lf-describing data format, in this case, the Common Data Format (CDF) , also developed at the Space Physics Data facility , and the use of metadata standa rds (easily edited with SKTeditor ). CDAweb is based on a set of IDL routines, CDAWlib . . The CDF project also maintains soft ware and services for translating between many standard formats (CDF. netCDF, HDF, FITS, XML) .

  14. Limiting Normal Operator in Quasiconvex Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aussel, D.; Pištěk, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2015), s. 669-685 ISSN 1877-0533 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00735S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Quasiconvex function * Sublevel set * Normal operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/pistek-0453552.pdf

  15. Normal mode analysis for linear resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, W.; Lerbinger, K.; Gruber, R.; Tsunematsu, T.

    1984-10-01

    The compressible, resistive MHD equations are linearized around an equilibrium with cylindrical symmetry and solved numerically as a complex eigenvalue problem. This normal mode code allows to solve for very small resistivity eta proportional 10 -10 . The scaling of growthrates and layer width agrees very well with analytical theory. Especially, both the influence of current and pressure on the instabilities is studied in detail; the effect of resistivity on the ideally unstable internal kink is analyzed. (orig.)

  16. Normal coordinate treatment of liquid water and calculation of vapor pressure isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellai, B.; Van Hook, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    A vibrational analysis of liquid water is reported, assuming a completely hydrogen-bonded network with continuously varying strengths of the hydrogen bonds. Frequency distribution calculations are made for intramolecular stretching and bending modes and for the intramolecular frequency region. The calculated distributions are compared with the experimental spectroscopic ones. As another test, vapor pressure isotope effects are calculated from the theoretical distributions for some isotopic water molecules. Results are compared with those of other authors obtained from a mixture model. (author)

  17. Correlation analysis of respiratory signals by using parallel coordinate plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatci, Esra

    2018-01-01

    The understanding of the bonds and the relationships between the respiratory signals, i.e. the airflow, the mouth pressure, the relative temperature and the relative humidity during breathing may provide the improvement on the measurement methods of respiratory mechanics and sensor designs or the exploration of the several possible applications in the analysis of respiratory disorders. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to propose a new combination of methods in order to determine the relationship between respiratory signals as a multidimensional data. In order to reveal the coupling between the processes two very different methods were used: the well-known statistical correlation analysis (i.e. Pearson's correlation and cross-correlation coefficient) and parallel coordinate plots (PCPs). Curve bundling with the number intersections for the correlation analysis, Least Mean Square Time Delay Estimator (LMS-TDE) for the point delay detection and visual metrics for the recognition of the visual structures were proposed and utilized in PCP. The number of intersections was increased when the correlation coefficient changed from high positive to high negative correlation between the respiratory signals, especially if whole breath was processed. LMS-TDE coefficients plotted in PCP indicated well-matched point delay results to the findings in the correlation analysis. Visual inspection of PCB by visual metrics showed range, dispersions, entropy comparisons and linear and sinusoidal-like relationships between the respiratory signals. It is demonstrated that the basic correlation analysis together with the parallel coordinate plots perceptually motivates the visual metrics in the display and thus can be considered as an aid to the user analysis by providing meaningful views of the data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphosyntactic Neural Analysis for Generalized Lexical Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman-Munk, Samuel Paul

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenal growth of social media, web forums, and online reviews has spurred a growing interest in automated analysis of user-generated text. At the same time, a proliferation of voice recordings and efforts to archive culture heritage documents are fueling demand for effective automatic speech recognition (ASR) and optical character…

  19. About normal distribution on SO(3) group in texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savyolova, T. I.; Filatov, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    This article studies and compares different normal distributions (NDs) on SO(3) group, which are used in texture analysis. Those NDs are: Fisher normal distribution (FND), Bunge normal distribution (BND), central normal distribution (CND) and wrapped normal distribution (WND). All of the previously mentioned NDs are central functions on SO(3) group. CND is a subcase for normal CLT-motivated distributions on SO(3) (CLT here is Parthasarathy’s central limit theorem). WND is motivated by CLT in R 3 and mapped to SO(3) group. A Monte Carlo method for modeling normally distributed values was studied for both CND and WND. All of the NDs mentioned above are used for modeling different components of crystallites orientation distribution function in texture analysis.

  20. Analysis of the normal optical, Michel and molecular potentials on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6. — journal of. June 2016 physics pp. 1275–1286. Analysis of the normal ... the levels are obtained for the three optical potentials to estimate the quality ... The experimental angular distribution data for the 40Ca(6Li, d)44Ti reaction .... analysed using the normal optical, Michel and molecular potentials within the framework.

  1. Geomorphometric analysis of selected Martian craters using polar coordinate transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Zoltán; Koma, Zsófia; Székely, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    Centrally symmetric landform elements are very common features on the surface of the planet Mars. The most conspicuous ones of them are the impact craters of various size. However, a closer look on these features reveals that they show often asymmetric patterns as well. These are partially related to the geometry of the trajectory of the impacting body, but sometimes it is a result of surface processes (e.g., freeze/thaw cycles, mass movements). Geomorphometric studies have already been carried out to reveal these pecularities. Our approach, the application of polar coordinate transformation (PCT) very sensitively enhances the non-radial and non-circular shapes. We used digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from the ESA Mars Express HRSC imagery. The original DTM or its derivatives (e.g. slope angle or aspect) are PCT transformed. We analyzed the craters inter alia with scattergrams in polar coordinates. The resulting point cloud can be used directly for the analysis, but in some cases an interpolation should be applied to enhance certain non-circular features (especially in case of smaller craters). Visual inspection of the crater slopes, coloured by the aspect, reveals smaller features. Some of them are processing artefacts, but many of them are related to local undulations in the topography or indications of mass movements. In many cases the undulations of the crater rim are due to erosional processes. The drawbacks of the technology are related to the uneven resolution of the projected image: features in the crater centre should be left out from the analysis because PCT has a low resolution around the projection center. Furthermore, the success of the PCT depends on the correct definition of the projection centre: erroneously centered images are not suitable for analysis. The PCT transformed images are also suitable for radial averaging and calculation of standard deviations, resulting in typical, comparable craters shapes. These studies may lead to a deeper

  2. Value-Driven Risk Analysis of Coordination Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionita, Dan; Gordijn, Jaap; Yesuf, Ahmed Seid; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2016-01-01

    Coordination processes are business processes that involve independent profit-and-loss responsible business actors who collectively provide something of value to a customer. Coordination processes are meant to be profitable for the business actors that execute them. However, because business actors

  3. Facilitation of the PED analysis of large molecules by using global coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamróz, Michał H; Ostrowski, Sławomir; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz

    2015-10-05

    Global coordinates have been found to be useful in the potential energy distribution (PED) analyses of the following large molecules: [13]-acene and [33]-helicene. The global coordinate is defined based on much distanced fragments of the analysed molecule, whereas so far, the coordinates used in the analysis were based on stretchings, bendings, or torsions of the adjacent atoms. It has been shown that the PED analyses performed using the global coordinate and the classical ones can lead to exactly the same PED contributions. The global coordinates may significantly improve the facility of the analysis of the vibrational spectra of large molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Normal mode analysis and applications in biological physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Eric C; Sankey, Otto F

    2010-10-27

    Normal mode analysis has become a popular and often used theoretical tool in the study of functional motions in enzymes, viruses, and large protein assemblies. The use of normal modes in the study of these motions is often extremely fruitful since many of the functional motions of large proteins can be described using just a few normal modes which are intimately related to the overall structure of the protein. In this review, we present a broad overview of several popular methods used in the study of normal modes in biological physics including continuum elastic theory, the elastic network model, and a new all-atom method, recently developed, which is capable of computing a subset of the low frequency vibrational modes exactly. After a review of the various methods, we present several examples of applications of normal modes in the study of functional motions, with an emphasis on viral capsids.

  5. Analysis of Key Factors Driving Japan’s Military Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    no change to our policy of not giving in to terrorism.”40 Though the prime minister was democratically supported, Koizumi’s leadership style took...of the key driving factors of Japan’s normalization. The areas of prime ministerial leadership , regional security threats, alliance issues, and...analysis of the key driving factors of Japan’s normalization. The areas of prime ministerial leadership , regional security threats, alliance issues, and

  6. Coordination Analysis Using Global Structural Constraints and Alignment-based Local Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazuo; Shimbo, Masashi; Matsumoto, Yuji

    We propose a hybrid approach to coordinate structure analysis that combines a simple grammar to ensure consistent global structure of coordinations in a sentence, and features based on sequence alignment to capture local symmetry of conjuncts. The weight of the alignment-based features, which in turn determines the score of coordinate structures, is optimized by perceptron training on a given corpus. A bottom-up chart parsing algorithm efficiently finds the best scoring structure, taking both nested or non-overlapping flat coordinations into account. We demonstrate that our approach outperforms existing parsers in coordination scope detection on the Genia corpus.

  7. Explorations in Statistics: The Analysis of Ratios and Normalized Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This ninth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores the analysis of ratios and normalized--or standardized--data. As researchers, we compute a ratio--a numerator divided by a denominator--to compute a…

  8. Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing expression with a reference gene: anomalies due to the influence of the test promoter on the reference promoter. Simran Bhullar Suma Chakravarthy Deepak Pental Pradeep Kumar Burma. Articles Volume 34 Issue 6 December 2009 pp 953-962 ...

  9. Generator Coordinate Method Analysis of Xe and Ba Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Teruya, Eri

    Nuclear structure of Xe and Ba isotopes is studied in terms of the quantum-number projected generator coordinate method (GCM). The GCM reproduces well the energy levels of high-spin states as well as low-lying states. The structure of the low-lying states is analyzed through the GCM wave functions.

  10. An in-depth analysis of theoretical frameworks for the study of care coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Van Houdt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Complex chronic conditions often require long-term care from various healthcare professionals. Thus, maintaining quality care requires care coordination. Concepts for the study of care coordination require clarification to develop, study and evaluate coordination strategies. In 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality defined care coordination and proposed five theoretical frameworks for exploring care coordination. This study aimed to update current theoretical frameworks and clarify key concepts related to care coordination. Methods: We performed a literature review to update existing theoretical frameworks. An in-depth analysis of these theoretical frameworks was conducted to formulate key concepts related to care coordination.Results: Our literature review found seven previously unidentified theoretical frameworks for studying care coordination. The in-depth analysis identified fourteen key concepts that the theoretical frameworks addressed. These were ‘external factors’, ‘structure’, ‘tasks characteristics’, ‘cultural factors’, ‘knowledge and technology’, ‘need for coordination’, ‘administrative operational processes’, ‘exchange of information’, ‘goals’, ‘roles’, ‘quality of relationship’, ‘patient outcome’, ‘team outcome’, and ‘(interorganizational outcome’.Conclusion: These 14 interrelated key concepts provide a base to develop or choose a framework for studying care coordination. The relational coordination theory and the multi-level framework are interesting as these are the most comprehensive.

  11. Dynamic exposure model analysis of continuous laser direct writing in Polar-coordinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan; Lv, Yingjun; Mao, Wenjie

    2018-01-01

    In order to exactly predict the continuous laser direct writing quality in Polar-coordinate, we take into consideration the effect of the photoresist absorbing beam energy, the Gaussian attribute of the writing beam and the dynamic exposure process, and establish a dynamic exposure model to describe the influence of the tangential velocity of the normal incident facular center and laser power on the line width and sidewall angle. Numerical simulation results indicate that while writing velocity remains unchanged, the line width and sidewall angle are all increased as the laser power increases; while laser power remains unchanged, the line width and sidewall angle are all decreased as the writing velocity increases; at the same time the line profile in the exposure section is asymmetry and the center of the line has tiny excursion toward the Polar-coordinate origin compared with the facular center. Then it is necessary to choose the right writing velocity and laser power to obtain the ideal line profile. The model makes up the shortcomings of traditional models that can only predict line width or estimate the profile of the writing line in the absence of photoresist absorption, and can be considered as an effect analysis method for optimizing the parameters of fabrication technique of laser direct writing.

  12. An anatomically oriented breast coordinate system for mammogram analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Sami; Karemore, Gopal; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2011-01-01

    and the shape of the breast boundary because these are the most robust features independent of the breast size and shape. On the basis of these landmarks, we have constructed a nonlinear mapping between the parameter frame and the breast region in the mammogram. This mapping makes it possible to identify...... the corresponding positions and orientations among all of the ML or MLO mammograms, which facilitates an implicit use of the registration, i.e., no explicit image warping is needed. We additionally show how the coordinate transform can be used to extract Gaussian derivative features so that the feature positions...... and orientations are registered and extracted without non-linearly deforming the images. We use the proposed breast coordinate transform in a cross-sectional breast cancer risk assessment study of 490 women, in which we attempt to learn breast cancer risk factors from mammograms that were taken prior to when...

  13. NOLB: Nonlinear Rigid Block Normal Mode Analysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann , Alexandre; Grudinin , Sergei

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We present a new conceptually simple and computationally efficient method for nonlinear normal mode analysis called NOLB. It relies on the rotations-translations of blocks (RTB) theoretical basis developed by Y.-H. Sanejouand and colleagues. We demonstrate how to physically interpret the eigenvalues computed in the RTB basis in terms of angular and linear velocities applied to the rigid blocks and how to construct a nonlinear extrapolation of motion out of these veloci...

  14. Stochastic analysis in discrete and continuous settings with normal martingales

    CERN Document Server

    Privault, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    This volume gives a unified presentation of stochastic analysis for continuous and discontinuous stochastic processes, in both discrete and continuous time. It is mostly self-contained and accessible to graduate students and researchers having already received a basic training in probability. The simultaneous treatment of continuous and jump processes is done in the framework of normal martingales; that includes the Brownian motion and compensated Poisson processes as specific cases. In particular, the basic tools of stochastic analysis (chaos representation, gradient, divergence, integration by parts) are presented in this general setting. Applications are given to functional and deviation inequalities and mathematical finance.

  15. Analysis of coordination polyhedra symmetry in pyrochlore and zirconolite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troole, A.Y.; Stefanovsky, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    Zirconolite and pyrochlore are considered as promising host phases for high level waste (HLW). However, correct information on substitution mechanisms, forms of dopants incorporation in their structures and distortions in coordination polyhedra is presently unavailable. To clarify these points the authors use the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Pyrochlore and three of zirconolite polytypes: zirconolite-2M, zirconolite-3T, and zirconolite-3O are considered. Pyrochlore is the parent structure for zirconolite since any zirconolite variety is produced by means of distortion of the initial pyrochlore structure. Space groups of pyrochlore and basic polymorphous zirconolite varieties found from XRD and TEM data, as well as interatomic distances and angles, were taken from reference data. This allows the determination of the most probable sites for impurities, substitution mechanisms, and local symmetry of coordination polyhedra (initial). Ions chosen for EPR were Gd(III) as an analog of trivalent rare earth and actinide elements which are also occurred in HLW and Fe(III) as a typical corrosion product which occurs in all HLW. For Gd(III) a strong ligand field approximation is suggested, theoretical computation using perturbation theory in this approximation has been carried out. All the non-diagonal members plus magnetic field were chosen as perturbation and formulate for transition frequencies, estimations of fine structure and g-factors parameters in the given approximation have been obtained

  16. Principal Component Analysis for Normal-Distribution-Valued Symbolic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiwen; Chen, Meiling; Shi, Xiaojun; Li, Nan

    2016-02-01

    This paper puts forward a new approach to principal component analysis (PCA) for normal-distribution-valued symbolic data, which has a vast potential of applications in the economic and management field. We derive a full set of numerical characteristics and variance-covariance structure for such data, which forms the foundation for our analytical PCA approach. Our approach is able to use all of the variance information in the original data than the prevailing representative-type approach in the literature which only uses centers, vertices, etc. The paper also provides an accurate approach to constructing the observations in a PC space based on the linear additivity property of normal distribution. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by simulated numerical experiments. At last, our method is applied to explain the puzzle of risk-return tradeoff in China's stock market.

  17. Explorations in statistics: the analysis of ratios and normalized data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This ninth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the analysis of ratios and normalized-or standardized-data. As researchers, we compute a ratio-a numerator divided by a denominator-to compute a proportion for some biological response or to derive some standardized variable. In each situation, we want to control for differences in the denominator when the thing we really care about is the numerator. But there is peril lurking in a ratio: only if the relationship between numerator and denominator is a straight line through the origin will the ratio be meaningful. If not, the ratio will misrepresent the true relationship between numerator and denominator. In contrast, regression techniques-these include analysis of covariance-are versatile: they can accommodate an analysis of the relationship between numerator and denominator when a ratio is useless.

  18. Coordination Frictions and Job Heterogeneity: A Discrete Time Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Le Maire, Christian Daniel

    This paper develops and extends a dynamic, discrete time, job to worker matching model in which jobs are heterogeneous in equilibrium. The key assumptions of this economic environment are (i) matching is directed and (ii) coordination frictions lead to heterogeneous local labor markets. We de- rive...... a number of new theoretical results, which are essential for the empirical application of this type of model to matched employer-employee microdata. First, we o¤er a robust equilibrium concept in which there is a continu- ous dispersion of job productivities and wages. Second, we show that our model can...... of these results preserve the essential tractability of the baseline model with aggregate shocks. Therefore, we o¤er a parsimonious, general equilibrium framework in which to study the process by which the contin- uous dispersion of wages and productivities varies over the business cycle for a large population...

  19. Normality Analysis for RFI Detection in Microwave Radiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Camps

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Radio-frequency interference (RFI present in microwave radiometry measurements leads to erroneous radiometric results. Sources of RFI include spurious signals and harmonics from lower frequency bands, spread-spectrum signals overlapping the “protected” band of operation, or out-of-band emissions not properly rejected by the pre-detection filters due to its finite rejection. The presence of RFI in the radiometric signal modifies the detected power and therefore the estimated antenna temperature from which the geophysical parameters will be retrieved. In recent years, techniques to detect the presence of RFI in radiometric measurements have been developed. They include time- and/or frequency domain analyses, or time and/or frequency domain statistical analysis of the received signal which, in the absence of RFI, must be a zero-mean Gaussian process. Statistical analyses performed to date include the calculation of the Kurtosis, and the Shapiro-Wilk normality test of the received signal. Nevertheless, statistical analysis of the received signal could be more extensive, as reported in the Statistics literature. The objective of this work is the study of the performance of a number of normality tests encountered in the Statistics literature when applied to the detection of the presence of RFI in the radiometric signal, which is Gaussian by nature. A description of the normality tests and the RFI detection results for different kinds of RFI are presented in view of determining an omnibus test that can deal with the blind spots of the currently used methods.

  20. Quantitative analysis of normal thallium-201 tomographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, R.L.; Gober, A.; Cerqueira, M.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the normal (nl) distribution of Tl-201 uptake post exercise (EX) and at redistribution (RD) and nl washout, Tl-201 rotational tomographic (tomo) studies were performed in 40 subjects: 16 angiographic (angio) nls and 24 nl volunteers (12 from Emory and 12 from Yale). Oblique angle short axis slices were subjected to maximal count circumferential profile analysis. Data were displayed as a ''bullseye'' functional map with the apex at the center and base at the periphery. The bullseye was not uniform in all regions because of the variable effects of attenuation and resolution at different view angles. In all studies, the septum: lateral wall ratio was 1.0 in males and approximately equal to 1.0 in females. This occurred predominantly because of anterior defects due to breast soft tissue attenuation. EX and RD bullseyes were similar. Using a bi-exponential model for Tl kinetics, 4 hour normalized washout ranged 49-54% in each group and showed minimal variation between walls throughout the bullseye. Thus, there are well defined variations in Tl-201 uptake in the nl myocardium which must be taken into consideration when analyzing pt data. Because of these defects and the lack of adequate methods for attenuation correction, quantitative analysis of Tl-201 studies must include direct comparison with gender-matched nl data sets

  1. Annual rainfall statistics for stations in the Top End of Australia: normal and log-normal distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardavas, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    A simple procedure is presented for the statistical analysis of measurement data where the primary concern is the determination of the value corresponding to a specified average exceedance probability. The analysis employs the normal and log-normal frequency distributions together with a χ 2 -test and an error analysis. The error analysis introduces the concept of a counting error criterion, or ζ-test, to test whether the data are sufficient to make the Z 2 -test reliable. The procedure is applied to the analysis of annual rainfall data recorded at stations in the tropical Top End of Australia where the Ranger uranium deposit is situated. 9 refs., 12 tabs., 9 figs

  2. Achievements and barriers in the organ donation process: a critical analysis of donation coordinators' discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Martínez, Francisco J; Díaz-Medina, Blanca A; Hernández-Ibarra, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Donation coordinators play an important role in the success or failure of organ donation and transplant programs. Nevertheless, these professionals' perspectives and practices have hardly been explored, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To examine donation coordinators' discourse on the organ donation process and the barriers they perceive. A critical qualitative study was carried out in Guadalajara, Mexico. Twelve donation coordinators from public and private hospitals participated. DATA GATHERING AND ANALYSIS: Data were gathered by using semistructured interviews and critical discourse analysis. Participants indicated that partial results have been achieved in deceased organ donation. Concomitantly, multiple obstacles have adversely affected the process and outcomes: at the structural level, the fragmentation of the health system and the scarcity of financial and material resources; at the relational level, nonegalitarian relationships between coordinators and hospital personnel; at the ideational level, the transplant domain and its specialists overshadow the donation domain and its coordinators. Negative images are associated with donation coordinators. Organ donation faces structural, relational, and ideational barriers; hence, complex interventions should be undertaken. Donation coordinators also should be recognized by the health system.

  3. A coordination class analysis of college students' judgments about animated motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaden-Koch, Thomas Christian

    The coordination class construct was invented by di5essa and Sherin to clarify what it means to learn and use scientific concepts. A coordination class is defined to consist of readout strategies, which guide observation, and the causal net, which contains knowledge necessary for making inferences from observations. A coordination class, as originally specified, reliably extracts a certain class of information from a variety of situations. The coordination class construct is relatively new. To examine its utility, transcripts of interviews with college students were analyzed in terms of the coordination class construct. In the interviews, students judged the realism of several computer animations depicting balls rolling on a pair of tracks. When shown animations with only one ball, students made judgments consistent with focusing on the ball's speed changes. Adding a second ball to each animation strongly affected judgments made by students taking introductory physics courses, but had a smaller effect on judgments made by students taking a psychology course. Reasoning was described in this analysis as the coordination of readouts about animations with causal net elements related to realistic motion. Decision-making was characterized both for individual students and for groups by the causal net elements expressed, by the types of readouts reported, and by the coordination processes involved. The coordination class construct was found useful for describing the elements and processes of student decision-making, but little evidence was found to suggest that the students studied possessed reliable coordination classes. Students' causal nets were found to include several appropriate expectations about realistic motion. Several students reached judgments that appeared contrary to their expectations and reported mutually incompatible expectations. Descriptions of students' decision-making processes often included faulty readouts, or feedback loops in which causal net

  4. Single cell analysis of normal and leukemic hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Benjamin J; Rodriguez-Meira, Alba; Mead, Adam J

    2018-02-01

    The hematopoietic system is well established as a paradigm for the study of cellular hierarchies, their disruption in disease and therapeutic use in regenerative medicine. Traditional approaches to study hematopoiesis involve purification of cell populations based on a small number of surface markers. However, such population-based analysis obscures underlying heterogeneity contained within any phenotypically defined cell population. This heterogeneity can only be resolved through single cell analysis. Recent advances in single cell techniques allow analysis of the genome, transcriptome, epigenome and proteome in single cells at an unprecedented scale. The application of these new single cell methods to investigate the hematopoietic system has led to paradigm shifts in our understanding of cellular heterogeneity in hematopoiesis and how this is disrupted in disease. In this review, we summarize how single cell techniques have been applied to the analysis of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in normal and malignant hematopoiesis, with a particular focus on recent advances in single-cell genomics, including how these might be utilized for clinical application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Pursit-evasion game analysis in a line of sight coordinate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinar, J.; Davidovitz, A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper proposes to use line of sight coordinates for the analysis of pursuit-evasion games. The advantage of this method for two-target games is shown to be evident. As a demonstrative example the game of two identical cars is formulated and solved in such coordinate systems. A new type of singular surface, overlooked in a previous study of the same problem, is discovered as a consequence of the simplicity of the solution.

  6. Log-Normality and Multifractal Analysis of Flame Surface Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhishek; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Law, Chung K.

    2013-11-01

    The turbulent flame surface is typically highly wrinkled and folded at a multitude of scales controlled by various flame properties. It is useful if the information contained in this complex geometry can be projected onto a simpler regular geometry for the use of spectral, wavelet or multifractal analyses. Here we investigate local flame surface statistics of turbulent flame expanding under constant pressure. First the statistics of local length ratio is experimentally obtained from high-speed Mie scattering images. For spherically expanding flame, length ratio on the measurement plane, at predefined equiangular sectors is defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to the length of a circular-arc of radius equal to the average radius of the flame. Assuming isotropic distribution of such flame segments we convolute suitable forms of the length-ratio probability distribution functions (pdfs) to arrive at corresponding area-ratio pdfs. Both the pdfs are found to be near log-normally distributed and shows self-similar behavior with increasing radius. Near log-normality and rather intermittent behavior of the flame-length ratio suggests similarity with dissipation rate quantities which stimulates multifractal analysis. Currently at Indian Institute of Science, India.

  7. Analysis of KNU1 loss of normal feedwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hho-Jung; Chung, Bub-Dong; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Jin-Soo

    1986-01-01

    Simulation of the system thermal-hydraulic parameters was carried out following the KNU1 (Korea Nuclear Unit-1) loss of normal feedwater transient sequence occurred on November 14, 1984. Results were compared with the plant transient data, and good agreements were obtained. Some deviations were found in the parameters such as the steam flowrate and the RCS (Reactor Coolant system) average temperature, around the time of reactor trip. It can be expected since the thermal-hydraulic parameters encounter rapid transitions due to the large reduction of the reactor thermal power in a short period of time and, thereby, the plant data involve transient uncertainties. The analysis was performed using the RELAP5/MOD1/NSC developed through some modifications of the interphase drag and the wall heat transfer modeling routines of the RELAP5/MOD1/CY018. (author)

  8. [Raman, FTIR spectra and normal mode analysis of acetanilide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui-Qin; Tao, Ya-Ping; Han, Li-Gang; Han, Yun-Xia; Mo, Yu-Jun

    2012-10-01

    The Raman and FTIR spectra of acetanilide (ACN) were measured experimentally in the regions of 3 500-50 and 3 500-600 cm(-1) respectively. The equilibrium geometry and vibration frequencies of ACN were calculated based on density functional theory (DFT) method (B3LYP/6-311G(d, p)). The results showed that the theoretical calculation of molecular structure parameters are in good agreement with previous report and better than the ones calculated based on 6-31G(d), and the calculated frequencies agree well with the experimental ones. Potential energy distribution of each frequency was worked out by normal mode analysis, and based on this, a detailed and accurate vibration frequency assignment of ACN was obtained.

  9. Global Analysis of miRNA Gene Clusters and Gene Families Reveals Dynamic and Coordinated Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To further understand the potential expression relationships of miRNAs in miRNA gene clusters and gene families, a global analysis was performed in 4 paired tumor (breast cancer and adjacent normal tissue samples using deep sequencing datasets. The compositions of miRNA gene clusters and families are not random, and clustered and homologous miRNAs may have close relationships with overlapped miRNA species. Members in the miRNA group always had various expression levels, and even some showed larger expression divergence. Despite the dynamic expression as well as individual difference, these miRNAs always indicated consistent or similar deregulation patterns. The consistent deregulation expression may contribute to dynamic and coordinated interaction between different miRNAs in regulatory network. Further, we found that those clustered or homologous miRNAs that were also identified as sense and antisense miRNAs showed larger expression divergence. miRNA gene clusters and families indicated important biological roles, and the specific distribution and expression further enrich and ensure the flexible and robust regulatory network.

  10. Coordinate based random effect size meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tench, C R; Tanasescu, Radu; Constantinescu, C S; Auer, D P; Cottam, W J

    2017-06-01

    Low power in neuroimaging studies can make them difficult to interpret, and Coordinate based meta-analysis (CBMA) may go some way to mitigating this issue. CBMA has been used in many analyses to detect where published functional MRI or voxel-based morphometry studies testing similar hypotheses report significant summary results (coordinates) consistently. Only the reported coordinates and possibly t statistics are analysed, and statistical significance of clusters is determined by coordinate density. Here a method of performing coordinate based random effect size meta-analysis and meta-regression is introduced. The algorithm (ClusterZ) analyses both coordinates and reported t statistic or Z score, standardised by the number of subjects. Statistical significance is determined not by coordinate density, but by a random effects meta-analyses of reported effects performed cluster-wise using standard statistical methods and taking account of censoring inherent in the published summary results. Type 1 error control is achieved using the false cluster discovery rate (FCDR), which is based on the false discovery rate. This controls both the family wise error rate under the null hypothesis that coordinates are randomly drawn from a standard stereotaxic space, and the proportion of significant clusters that are expected under the null. Such control is necessary to avoid propagating and even amplifying the very issues motivating the meta-analysis in the first place. ClusterZ is demonstrated on both numerically simulated data and on real data from reports of grey matter loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) and syndromes suggestive of MS, and of painful stimulus in healthy controls. The software implementation is available to download and use freely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Error Analysis on Plane-to-Plane Linear Approximate Coordinate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, the error analysis has been done for the linear approximate transformation between two tangent planes in celestial sphere in a simple case. The results demonstrate that the error from the linear transformation does not meet the requirement of high-precision astrometry under some conditions, so the ...

  12. Analysis of a renormalization group method and normal form theory for perturbed ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVille, R. E. Lee; Harkin, Anthony; Holzer, Matt; Josić, Krešimir; Kaper, Tasso J.

    2008-06-01

    For singular perturbation problems, the renormalization group (RG) method of Chen, Goldenfeld, and Oono [Phys. Rev. E. 49 (1994) 4502-4511] has been shown to be an effective general approach for deriving reduced or amplitude equations that govern the long time dynamics of the system. It has been applied to a variety of problems traditionally analyzed using disparate methods, including the method of multiple scales, boundary layer theory, the WKBJ method, the Poincaré-Lindstedt method, the method of averaging, and others. In this article, we show how the RG method may be used to generate normal forms for large classes of ordinary differential equations. First, we apply the RG method to systems with autonomous perturbations, and we show that the reduced or amplitude equations generated by the RG method are equivalent to the classical Poincaré-Birkhoff normal forms for these systems up to and including terms of O(ɛ2), where ɛ is the perturbation parameter. This analysis establishes our approach and generalizes to higher order. Second, we apply the RG method to systems with nonautonomous perturbations, and we show that the reduced or amplitude equations so generated constitute time-asymptotic normal forms, which are based on KBM averages. Moreover, for both classes of problems, we show that the main coordinate changes are equivalent, up to translations between the spaces in which they are defined. In this manner, our results show that the RG method offers a new approach for deriving normal forms for nonautonomous systems, and it offers advantages since one can typically more readily identify resonant terms from naive perturbation expansions than from the nonautonomous vector fields themselves. Finally, we establish how well the solution to the RG equations approximates the solution of the original equations on time scales of O(1/ɛ).

  13. Towards successful coordination of electronic health record based-referrals: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Esquivel, Adol; Sittig, Dean F; Paul, Lindsey A; Espadas, Donna; Singh, Simran; Singh, Hardeep

    2011-07-27

    Successful subspecialty referrals require considerable coordination and interactive communication among the primary care provider (PCP), the subspecialist, and the patient, which may be challenging in the outpatient setting. Even when referrals are facilitated by electronic health records (EHRs) (i.e., e-referrals), lapses in patient follow-up might occur. Although compelling reasons exist why referral coordination should be improved, little is known about which elements of the complex referral coordination process should be targeted for improvement. Using Okhuysen & Bechky's coordination framework, this paper aims to understand the barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving communication and coordination of EHR-based referrals in an integrated healthcare system. We conducted a qualitative study to understand coordination breakdowns related to e-referrals in an integrated healthcare system and examined work-system factors that affect the timely receipt of subspecialty care. We conducted interviews with seven subject matter experts and six focus groups with a total of 30 PCPs and subspecialists at two tertiary care Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers. Using techniques from grounded theory and content analysis, we identified organizational themes that affected the referral process. Four themes emerged: lack of an institutional referral policy, lack of standardization in certain referral procedures, ambiguity in roles and responsibilities, and inadequate resources to adapt and respond to referral requests effectively. Marked differences in PCPs' and subspecialists' communication styles and individual mental models of the referral processes likely precluded the development of a shared mental model to facilitate coordination and successful referral completion. Notably, very few barriers related to the EHR were reported. Despite facilitating information transfer between PCPs and subspecialists, e-referrals remain prone to coordination

  14. Towards successful coordination of electronic health record based-referrals: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lindsey A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful subspecialty referrals require considerable coordination and interactive communication among the primary care provider (PCP, the subspecialist, and the patient, which may be challenging in the outpatient setting. Even when referrals are facilitated by electronic health records (EHRs (i.e., e-referrals, lapses in patient follow-up might occur. Although compelling reasons exist why referral coordination should be improved, little is known about which elements of the complex referral coordination process should be targeted for improvement. Using Okhuysen & Bechky's coordination framework, this paper aims to understand the barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving communication and coordination of EHR-based referrals in an integrated healthcare system. Methods We conducted a qualitative study to understand coordination breakdowns related to e-referrals in an integrated healthcare system and examined work-system factors that affect the timely receipt of subspecialty care. We conducted interviews with seven subject matter experts and six focus groups with a total of 30 PCPs and subspecialists at two tertiary care Department of Veterans Affairs (VA medical centers. Using techniques from grounded theory and content analysis, we identified organizational themes that affected the referral process. Results Four themes emerged: lack of an institutional referral policy, lack of standardization in certain referral procedures, ambiguity in roles and responsibilities, and inadequate resources to adapt and respond to referral requests effectively. Marked differences in PCPs' and subspecialists' communication styles and individual mental models of the referral processes likely precluded the development of a shared mental model to facilitate coordination and successful referral completion. Notably, very few barriers related to the EHR were reported. Conclusions Despite facilitating information transfer between PCPs and

  15. Connexin 39.9 Protein Is Necessary for Coordinated Activation of Slow-twitch Muscle and Normal Behavior in Zebrafish*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiromi; Wen, Hua; Kawakami, Yu; Naganawa, Yuriko; Ogino, Kazutoyo; Yamada, Kenta; Saint-Amant, Louis; Low, Sean E.; Cui, Wilson W.; Zhou, Weibin; Sprague, Shawn M.; Asakawa, Kazuhide; Muto, Akira; Kawakami, Koichi; Kuwada, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    In many tissues and organs, connexin proteins assemble between neighboring cells to form gap junctions. These gap junctions facilitate direct intercellular communication between adjoining cells, allowing for the transmission of both chemical and electrical signals. In rodents, gap junctions are found in differentiating myoblasts and are important for myogenesis. Although gap junctions were once believed to be absent from differentiated skeletal muscle in mammals, recent studies in teleosts revealed that differentiated muscle does express connexins and is electrically coupled, at least at the larval stage. These findings raised questions regarding the functional significance of gap junctions in differentiated muscle. Our analysis of gap junctions in muscle began with the isolation of a zebrafish motor mutant that displayed weak coiling at day 1 of development, a behavior known to be driven by slow-twitch muscle (slow muscle). We identified a missense mutation in the gene encoding Connexin 39.9. In situ hybridization found connexin 39.9 to be expressed by slow muscle. Paired muscle recordings uncovered that wild-type slow muscles are electrically coupled, whereas mutant slow muscles are not. The further examination of cellular activity revealed aberrant, arrhythmic touch-evoked Ca2+ transients in mutant slow muscle and a reduction in the number of muscle fibers contracting in response to touch in mutants. These results indicate that Connexin 39.9 facilitates the spreading of neuronal inputs, which is irregular during motor development, beyond the muscle cells and that gap junctions play an essential role in the efficient recruitment of slow muscle fibers. PMID:22075003

  16. Normal coordinate analysis and quantum chemical study of tris(p ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The crystal structure of the title compound tris(p-flourophenyl)antimony di(N- phenylglycinate) ..... in the present compound and presence of nitrogen atoms as well. ... [7] L Yu, Y Q Ma, G C Wang and J S Li, Heteroatom Chem. 15, 32 (2004).

  17. Normal coordinate treatment and Raman intensity analysis of yttrium vanadate and calcium tungstate crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budha Addepalli, V; Kumar, S P; Padma, V A; Rajeswara Rao, N [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Physics

    1976-09-01

    Raman scattering tensors of crystalline YVO/sub 4/ and CaWO/sub 4/ are derived. Using the spectra of YVO/sub 4/, the intensities are substituted in the formulae. They are used to determine the polarizability derivatives of V-O bond. Substituting them back into the intensity formulae, a number of equations involving the L elements are obtained. Supplementing them with the matrix equation LL' = G, and using L'FL = ..gamma.., a-l the F-elements are determined. It is observed that the force constants relating to the translations of the group YVO/sub 4/ are quite high, explaining the high melting point of the crystal.

  18. Analysis of WWER-440 fuel performance under normal operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunduz, Oe; Koese, S; Akbas, T [Atomenerjisi Komisyonu, Ankara (Turkey); Colak, Ue [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (Turkey)

    1994-12-31

    FRAPCON-2 code originally developed for LWR fuel behaviour simulation is used to analyse the WWER-440 fuel rod behaviour at normal operational conditions. The code is capable of utilizing different models for mechanical analysis and gas release calculations. Heat transfer calculations are accomplished through a collocation technique by the method of weighted residuals. Temperature and burnup element properties are evaluated using MATPRO package. As the material properties of Zr-1%Nb used as cladding in WWER-440s are not provided in the code, Zircaloy-4 is used as a substitute for Zr-1%Nb. Mac-Donald-Weisman model is used for gas release calculation. FRACAS-1 and FRACAS-2 models are used in the mechanical calculations. It is assumed that the reactor was operated for 920 days (three consecutive cycles), the burnup being 42000 Mwd/t U. Results of the fuel rod behaviour analysis are given for three axial nodes: bottom node, central node and top node. The variations of the following characteristic fuel rod parameters are studied through the prescribed power history: unmoved gap thickness, gap heat transfer coefficient, fuel axial elongation, cladding axial elongation, fuel centerline temperature and ZrO-thickness at cladding surface. The value of each parameter is calculated as a function of the effective power days for the three nodes by using FRACAS-1 and FRACAS-2 codes for comparison.The results show that calculations with deformable pellet approximation with FRACAS-II model could provide better information for the behaviour of a typical fuel rod. Calculations indicate that fuel rod failure is not observed during the operation. All fuel rod parameters investigated are found to be within the safety limits. It is concluded, however, that for better assessment of reactor safety these calculations should be extended for transient conditions such as LOCA. 1 tab., 10 figs., 4 refs.

  19. Comparative analysis of the essential oils from normal and hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oils were extracted with steam distillation from normal and hairy roots of Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer. The constituents of essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that 40 and 46 kinds of compounds were identified from the essential oils of normal ...

  20. Principal coordinate analysis assisted chromatographic analysis of bacterial cell wall collection: A robust classification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Keshav; Cava, Felipe

    2018-04-10

    In the present work, Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) is introduced to develop a robust model to classify the chromatographic data sets of peptidoglycan sample. PcoA captures the heterogeneity present in the data sets by using the dissimilarity matrix as input. Thus, in principle, it can even capture the subtle differences in the bacterial peptidoglycan composition and can provide a more robust and fast approach for classifying the bacterial collection and identifying the novel cell wall targets for further biological and clinical studies. The utility of the proposed approach is successfully demonstrated by analysing the two different kind of bacterial collections. The first set comprised of peptidoglycan sample belonging to different subclasses of Alphaproteobacteria. Whereas, the second set that is relatively more intricate for the chemometric analysis consist of different wild type Vibrio Cholerae and its mutants having subtle differences in their peptidoglycan composition. The present work clearly proposes a useful approach that can classify the chromatographic data sets of chromatographic peptidoglycan samples having subtle differences. Furthermore, present work clearly suggest that PCoA can be a method of choice in any data analysis workflow. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Visual Analysis of North Atlantic Hurricane Trends Using Parallel Coordinates and Statistical Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steed, Chad A; Fitzpatrick, Patrick J; Jankun-Kelly, T. J; Swan II, J. E

    2008-01-01

    ... for a particular dependent variable. These capabilities are combined into a unique visualization system that is demonstrated via a North Atlantic hurricane climate study using a systematic workflow. This research corroborates the notion that enhanced parallel coordinates coupled with statistical analysis can be used for more effective knowledge discovery and confirmation in complex, real-world data sets.

  2. Aerothermoelastic analysis of panel flutter based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Laith K., E-mail: laithabbass@yahoo.com; Rui, Xiaoting, E-mail: ruixt@163.com [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Institute of Launch Dynamics (China); Marzocca, Piergiovanni, E-mail: pmarzocc@clarkson.edu [Clarkson University, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Panels of reentry vehicles are subjected to a wide range of flow conditions during ascent and reentry phases. The flow can vary from subsonic continuum flow to hypersonic rarefied flow with wide ranging dynamic pressure and associated aerodynamic heating. One of the main design considerations is the assurance of safety against panel flutter under the flow conditions characterized by sever thermal environment. This paper deals with supersonic/hypersonic flutter analysis of panels exposed to a temperature field. A 3-D rectangular plate element of variable thickness based on absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) has been developed for the structural model and subjected to an assumed thermal profile that can result from any residual heat seeping into the metallic panels through the thermal protection systems. A continuum mechanics approach for the definition of the elastic forces within the finite element is considered. Both shear strain and transverse normal strain are taken into account. The aerodynamic force is evaluated by considering the first-order piston theory to linearize the potential flow and is coupled with the structural model to account for pressure loading. A provision is made to take into account the effect of arbitrary flow directions with respect to the panel edges. Aerothermoelastic equations using ANCF are derived and solved numerically. Values of critical dynamic pressure are obtained by a modal approach, in which the mode shapes are obtained by ANCF. A detailed parametric study is carried out to observe the effects of different temperature loadings, flow angle directions, and aspect ratios on the flutter boundary.

  3. Aerothermoelastic analysis of panel flutter based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Laith K.; Rui, Xiaoting; Marzocca, Piergiovanni

    2015-01-01

    Panels of reentry vehicles are subjected to a wide range of flow conditions during ascent and reentry phases. The flow can vary from subsonic continuum flow to hypersonic rarefied flow with wide ranging dynamic pressure and associated aerodynamic heating. One of the main design considerations is the assurance of safety against panel flutter under the flow conditions characterized by sever thermal environment. This paper deals with supersonic/hypersonic flutter analysis of panels exposed to a temperature field. A 3-D rectangular plate element of variable thickness based on absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) has been developed for the structural model and subjected to an assumed thermal profile that can result from any residual heat seeping into the metallic panels through the thermal protection systems. A continuum mechanics approach for the definition of the elastic forces within the finite element is considered. Both shear strain and transverse normal strain are taken into account. The aerodynamic force is evaluated by considering the first-order piston theory to linearize the potential flow and is coupled with the structural model to account for pressure loading. A provision is made to take into account the effect of arbitrary flow directions with respect to the panel edges. Aerothermoelastic equations using ANCF are derived and solved numerically. Values of critical dynamic pressure are obtained by a modal approach, in which the mode shapes are obtained by ANCF. A detailed parametric study is carried out to observe the effects of different temperature loadings, flow angle directions, and aspect ratios on the flutter boundary

  4. Molecular analysis of quality protein (QPM) and normal maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... genetic variation among QPM and normal maize varieties is important for an efficient selection and .... olymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifications of RAPD and ISSR ..... Genetic characterization of Malawian cowpea.

  5. Static analysis of large-scale multibody system using joint coordinates and spatial algebra operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Initial transient oscillations inhibited in the dynamic simulations responses of multibody systems can lead to inaccurate results, unrealistic load prediction, or simulation failure. These transients could result from incompatible initial conditions, initial constraints violation, and inadequate kinematic assembly. Performing static equilibrium analysis before the dynamic simulation can eliminate these transients and lead to stable simulation. Most exiting multibody formulations determine the static equilibrium position by minimizing the system potential energy. This paper presents a new general purpose approach for solving the static equilibrium in large-scale articulated multibody. The proposed approach introduces an energy drainage mechanism based on Baumgarte constraint stabilization approach to determine the static equilibrium position. The spatial algebra operator is used to express the kinematic and dynamic equations of the closed-loop multibody system. The proposed multibody system formulation utilizes the joint coordinates and modal elastic coordinates as the system generalized coordinates. The recursive nonlinear equations of motion are formulated using the Cartesian coordinates and the joint coordinates to form an augmented set of differential algebraic equations. Then system connectivity matrix is derived from the system topological relations and used to project the Cartesian quantities into the joint subspace leading to minimum set of differential equations.

  6. Mathematical analysis of the normal anatomy of the aging fovea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Brooke; Gupta, Akash; Strange, Taylor; Schaal, Yuval; Schaal, Shlomit

    2014-08-28

    To mathematically analyze anatomical changes that occur in the normal fovea during aging. A total of 2912 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) normal foveal scans were analyzed. Subjects were healthy individuals, aged 13 to 97 years, with visual acuity ≥20/40 and without evidence of foveal pathology. Using automated symbolic regression software Eureqa (version 0.98), foveal thickness maps of 390 eyes were analyzed using several measurements: parafoveal retinal thickness at 50 μm consecutive intervals, parafoveal maximum retinal thickness at two points lateral to central foveal depression, distance between two points of maximum retinal thickness, maximal foveal slope at two intervals lateral to central foveal depression, and central length of foveal depression. A unique mathematical equation representing the mathematical analog of foveal anatomy was derived for every decade, between 10 and 100 years. The mathematical regression function for normal fovea followed first order sine curve of level 10 complexity for the second decade of life. The mathematical regression function became more complex with normal aging, up to level 43 complexity (0.085 fit; P < 0.05). Young foveas had higher symmetry (0.92 ± 0.10) along midline, whereas aged foveas had significantly less symmetry (0.76 ± 0.27, P < 0.01) along midline and steeper maximal slopes (29 ± 32°, P < 0.01). Normal foveal anatomical configuration changes with age. Normal aged foveas are less symmetric along midline with steeper slopes. Differentiating between normal aging and pathologic changes using SD-OCT scans may allow early diagnosis, follow-up, and better management of the aging population. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  7. Cy5 total protein normalization in Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Laurin, Ylva; Larsson, Anita; Bjerneld, Erik J; Rönn, Ola

    2015-10-01

    Western blotting is a widely used method for analyzing specific target proteins in complex protein samples. Housekeeping proteins are often used for normalization to correct for uneven sample loads, but these require careful validation since expression levels may vary with cell type and treatment. We present a new, more reliable method for normalization using Cy5-prelabeled total protein as a loading control. We used a prelabeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide ester labeling that produces a linear signal response. We obtained a low coefficient of variation (CV) of 7% between the ratio of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) target to Cy5 total protein control signals over the whole loading range from 2.5 to 20.0μg of Chinese hamster ovary cell lysate protein. Corresponding experiments using actin or tubulin as controls for normalization resulted in CVs of 13 and 18%, respectively. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase did not produce a proportional signal and was not suitable for normalization in these cells. A comparison of ERK1/2 signals from labeled and unlabeled samples showed that Cy5 prelabeling did not affect antibody binding. By using total protein normalization we analyzed PP2A and Smad2/3 levels with high confidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Non normal modal analysis of oscillations in boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.suarez@miem.gub.uy [Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria (MIEM), Montevideo (Uruguay); Flores-Godoy, Jose-Job, E-mail: job.flores@ibero.mx [Universidad Iberoamericana (UIA), Mexico, DF (Mexico). Dept. de Fisica Y Matematicas

    2013-07-01

    The first objective of the present work is to construct a simple reduced order model for BWR stability analysis, combining a two nodes nodal model of the thermal hydraulics with a two modes modal model of the neutronics. Two coupled non-linear integral-differential equations are obtained, in terms of one global (in phase) and one local (out of phase) power amplitude, with direct and cross feedback reactivities given as functions of thermal hydraulics core variables (void fractions and temperatures). The second objective is to apply the effective life time approximation to further simplify the nonlinear equations. Linear approximations for the equations of the amplitudes of the global and regional modes are derived. The linearized equation for the amplitude of the global mode corresponds to a decoupled and damped harmonic oscillator. An analytical closed form formula for the damping coefficient, as a function of the parameters space of the BWR, is obtained. The coefficient changes its sign (with the corresponding modification in the decay ratio) when a stability boundary is crossed. This produces a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, with the steady state power of the reactor as the bifurcation parameter. However, the linearized equation for the amplitude of the regional mode corresponds always to an over-damped and always coupled (with the amplitude of the global mode) harmonic oscillator, for every set of possible values of core parameters (including the steady state power of the reactor) in the framework of the present mathematical model. The equation for the above mentioned over damped linear oscillator is closely connected with a non-normal operator. Due to this connection, there could be a significant transient growth of some solutions of the linear equation. This behavior allows a significant shrinking of the basin of attraction of the equilibrium state. The third objective is to apply the above approach to partially study the stability of the regional mode and

  9. Development of a universal measure of quadrupedal forelimb-hindlimb coordination using digital motion capture and computerised analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Nick D

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical spinal cord injury in domestic dogs provides a model population in which to test the efficacy of putative therapeutic interventions for human spinal cord injury. To achieve this potential a robust method of functional analysis is required so that statistical comparison of numerical data derived from treated and control animals can be achieved. Results In this study we describe the use of digital motion capture equipment combined with mathematical analysis to derive a simple quantitative parameter – 'the mean diagonal coupling interval' – to describe coordination between forelimb and hindlimb movement. In normal dogs this parameter is independent of size, conformation, speed of walking or gait pattern. We show here that mean diagonal coupling interval is highly sensitive to alterations in forelimb-hindlimb coordination in dogs that have suffered spinal cord injury, and can be accurately quantified, but is unaffected by orthopaedic perturbations of gait. Conclusion Mean diagonal coupling interval is an easily derived, highly robust measurement that provides an ideal method to compare the functional effect of therapeutic interventions after spinal cord injury in quadrupeds.

  10. Effect analysis of core barrel openings under CEFR normal condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yabo; Yang Hongyi

    2008-01-01

    Openings on the bottom of core barrel are important part of the decay heat removal system of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR), which are designed to discharge the decay heat from reactor under accident condition. This paper analyses the effect of the openings design on the normal operation condition using the famouse CFD code CFX. The result indicates that the decay heat can be discharged safely and at the same time the effect of core barrel openings on the normal operation condition is acceptable. (authors)

  11. CASTOR: Normal-mode analysis of resistive MHD plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerner, W.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Huysmans, G. T. A.; Poedts, S.; Schwarz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The CASTOR (complex Alfven spectrum of toroidal plasmas) code computes the entire spectrum of normal-modes in resistive MHD for general tokamak configurations. The applied Galerkin method, in conjunction with a Fourier finite-element discretisation, leads to a large scale eigenvalue problem A (x)

  12. Identification of a cis-regulatory element by transient analysis of co-ordinately regulated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Andrew C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors (TFs co-ordinately regulate target genes that are dispersed throughout the genome. This co-ordinate regulation is achieved, in part, through the interaction of transcription factors with conserved cis-regulatory motifs that are in close proximity to the target genes. While much is known about the families of transcription factors that regulate gene expression in plants, there are few well characterised cis-regulatory motifs. In Arabidopsis, over-expression of the MYB transcription factor PAP1 (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT 1 leads to transgenic plants with elevated anthocyanin levels due to the co-ordinated up-regulation of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. In addition to the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, there are a number of un-associated genes that also change in expression level. This may be a direct or indirect consequence of the over-expression of PAP1. Results Oligo array analysis of PAP1 over-expression Arabidopsis plants identified genes co-ordinately up-regulated in response to the elevated expression of this transcription factor. Transient assays on the promoter regions of 33 of these up-regulated genes identified eight promoter fragments that were transactivated by PAP1. Bioinformatic analysis on these promoters revealed a common cis-regulatory motif that we showed is required for PAP1 dependent transactivation. Conclusion Co-ordinated gene regulation by individual transcription factors is a complex collection of both direct and indirect effects. Transient transactivation assays provide a rapid method to identify direct target genes from indirect target genes. Bioinformatic analysis of the promoters of these direct target genes is able to locate motifs that are common to this sub-set of promoters, which is impossible to identify with the larger set of direct and indirect target genes. While this type of analysis does not prove a direct interaction between protein and DNA

  13. Third research coordination meeting on reference database for neutron activation analysis. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellett, M.A.

    2009-12-01

    The third meeting of the Co-ordinated Research Project on 'Reference Database for Neutron Activation Analysis' was held at the IAEA, Vienna from 17-19 November 2008. A summary of presentations made by participants is given, reports on specific tasks and subsequent discussions. With the aim of finalising the work of this CRP and in order to meet initial objectives, outputs were discussed and detailed task assignments agreed upon. (author)

  14. Dynamic Analysis of Offshore Oil Pipe Installation Using the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy D; Madsen, Søren B; Hyldahl, Per Christian

    2013-01-01

    The Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation (ANCF) has shown promising results in dynamic analysis of structures that undergo large deformation. The method relaxes the assumption of infinitesimal rotations. Being based in a fixed inertial reference frame leads to a constant mass matrix and zero......, are included to mimic the external forces acting on the pipe during installation. The scope of this investigation is to demonstrate the ability using the ANCF to analyze the dynamic behavior of an offshore oil pipe during installation...

  15. Analysis of assistance procedures to normal birth in primiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Luiz Vieira Garcia Novo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current medical technologies in care in birth increased maternal and fetal benefits persist, despite numerous unnecessary procedures. The purpose of the normal childbirth care is to have healthy women and newborns, using a minimum of safe interventions. Objective: To analyze the assistance to normal delivery in secondary care maternity. Methodology: A total of 100 primiparous mothers who had vaginal delivery were included, in which care practices used were categorized: 1 according to the WHO classification for assistance to normal childbirth: effective, harmful, used with caution and used inappropriately; 2 associating calculations with the Bologna Index parameters: presence of a birth partner, partograph, no stimulation of labor, delivery in non-supine position, and mother-newborn skin-to-skin contact. Results: Birth partners (85%, correctly filled partographs (62%, mother-newborn skin-to-skin contact (36%, use of oxytocin (87%, use of parenteral nutrition during labor (86% and at delivery (74%, episiotomy (94% and uterine fundal pressure in the expulsion stage (58%. The overall average value of the Bologna Index of the mothers analyzed was 1.95. Conclusions: Some effective procedures recommended by WHO (presence of a birth partner, some effective and mandatory practices were not complied with (partograph completely filled, potentially harmful or ineffective procedures were used (oxytocin in labor/post-partum, as well as inadequate procedures (uterine fundal pressure during the expulsion stage, use of forceps and episiotomy. The maternity’s care model did not offer excellence procedures in natural birth to their mothers in primiparity, (BI=1.95.

  16. DSA analysis of the normal and variant hepatic arterial anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Penghua; Wang Jie; Shi Haibing; Feng Yaoliang; Chen Huizhu; Chen Yuqin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe and analyze the normal and variant hepatic arterial anatomy by DSA. Methods: One thousand and two hundreds patients with routine celiac and/or selective hepatic arteriography from November 1994 to March 2003 were retrospectively analyzed, some of them were further simultaneously undergone superior mesenteric arteriography, left gastric arteriography or inferior phrenic arteriography etc. Results: 873 (72.8%) patients had the standard hepatic arterial anatomy. 156(13.0%) patients had variant left hepatic arteries (LHAs), 120(10.0%) with variant right hepatic arteries (RHAs) and 21 (1.8%) of a variant anatomy involving both LHA and RHA. The common hepatic artery (CHA) of 1170 (97.5%) patients originated from the celiac artery. 92.0% proper hepatic artery (PHA) was the direct extension of CHA. The RHA was mainly (89.8%) derived from the PHA. There was some variation of the middle hepatic artery (MHA) with more than 62.2% arising from the LHA. The LHA was derived from the PHA (44.6%) or the RHA(30.2%) or other arteries (25.2%). Conclusions: The knowledge of normal and variant anatomy of hepatic vasculature by DSA may be very helpful for intervention therapy and hepatosurgery. (authors)

  17. Discriminant analysis of normal and malignant breast tissue based upon INAA investigation of elemental concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwanhoong Ng; Senghuat Ong; Bradley, D.A.; Laimeng Looi

    1997-01-01

    Discriminant analysis of six trace element concentrations measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in 26 paired-samples of malignant and histologically normal human breast tissues shows the technique to be a potentially valuable clinical tool for making malignant-normal classification. Nonparametric discriminant analysis is performed for the data obtained. Linear and quadratic discriminant analyses are also carried out for comparison. For this data set a formal analysis shows that the elements which may be useful in distinguishing between malignant and normal tissues are Ca, Rb and Br, providing correct classification for 24 out of 26 normal samples and 22 out of 26 malignant samples. (Author)

  18. Illustration and analysis of a coordinated approach to an effective forensic trace evidence capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, David A; Stoney, Paul L

    2015-08-01

    An effective trace evidence capability is defined as one that exploits all useful particle types, chooses appropriate technologies to do so, and directly integrates the findings with case-specific problems. Limitations of current approaches inhibit the attainment of an effective capability and it has been strongly argued that a new approach to trace evidence analysis is essential. A hypothetical case example is presented to illustrate and analyze how forensic particle analysis can be used as a powerful practical tool in forensic investigations. The specifics in this example, including the casework investigation, laboratory analyses, and close professional interactions, provide focal points for subsequent analysis of how this outcome can be achieved. This leads to the specification of five key elements that are deemed necessary and sufficient for effective forensic particle analysis: (1) a dynamic forensic analytical approach, (2) concise and efficient protocols addressing particle combinations, (3) multidisciplinary capabilities of analysis and interpretation, (4) readily accessible external specialist resources, and (5) information integration and communication. A coordinating role, absent in current approaches to trace evidence analysis, is essential to achieving these elements. However, the level of expertise required for the coordinating role is readily attainable. Some additional laboratory protocols are also essential. However, none of these has greater staffing requirements than those routinely met by existing forensic trace evidence practitioners. The major challenges that remain are organizational acceptance, planning and implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of a Unilateral Contact Problem with Normal Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touzaline Arezki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of a quasistatic unilateral contact problem between a nonlinear elastic body and a foundation. The contact is modelled with a normal compliance condition associated to unilateral constraint and the Coulomb's friction law. The adhesion between contact surfaces is taken into account and is modelled with a surface variable, the bonding field, whose evolution is described by a first-order differential equation. We establish a variational formulation of the mechanical problem and prove an existence and uniqueness result in the case where the coefficient of friction is bounded by a certain constant. The technique of the proof is based on arguments of time-dependent variational inequalities, differential equations and fixed-point theorem.

  20. Stability analysis of rough surfaces in adhesive normal contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Valentine; Bleyer, Jeremy

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with adhesive frictionless normal contact between one elastic flat solid and one stiff solid with rough surface. After computation of the equilibrium solution of the energy minimization principle and respecting the contact constraints, we aim at studying the stability of this equilibrium solution. This study of stability implies solving an eigenvalue problem with inequality constraints. To achieve this goal, we propose a proximal algorithm which enables qualifying the solution as stable or unstable and that gives the instability modes. This method has a low computational cost since no linear system inversion is required and is also suitable for parallel implementation. Illustrations are given for the Hertzian contact and for rough contact.

  1. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Presenting with Normal CSF Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.; Kiani, I. G.; Shah, F.; Rehman, R. N.; Haq, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    A 28 years old female presented with headache, fever, altered sensorium and right side weakness for one week. She was febrile and drowsy with right sided hemiplegia and papilledema. Tuberculous or bacterial meningitis, tuberculoma and abscess were at the top of the diagnosis list followed by Herpes simplex meningo-encephalitis (HSE). MRI showed abnormal signal intensity of left temporal lobe without significant post-contrast enhancement and midline shift. CSF examination was normal, gram stain and Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed no micro-organism, or acid fast bacilli. CSF for MTB PCR was negative. PCR DNA for Herpes simplex 1 on CSF was detected. Acyclovir was started and the patient was discharged after full recovery. A high index of suspicion is required for HSE diagnosis in Pakistan where other infections predominantly affect the brain and HSE may be overlooked as a potential diagnosis. (author)

  2. Development of a reference database for ion beam analysis. Summary report of the first research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickridge, I.; Schwerer, O.

    2006-01-01

    A summary is given of the First Research Coordination Meeting on the Development of a Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis, including background information, objectives, recommendations for measurements, and a list of tasks assigned to participants. The next research co-ordination meeting will be held in May 2007. (author)

  3. Analysis of normal tongue by dynamic enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Shimahara, Masashi

    2003-01-01

    We qualitatively evaluated dynamic enhanced MR images of normal tongues of 26 patients without oral malignancy, inflammatory diseases or systemic diseases. The selected slices were not affected by apparent artifacts including motion and susceptibility, and the tongue shape was delineated as symmetrical on coronal images, which were obtained using a T1 weighted spin echo pulse sequence (repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=200/20). Slices at the incisor and molar levels were evaluated. Structures that could be identified on each pre-contrast image could also be identified on the post-contrast dynamic enhanced image. However, identification of the intrinsic tongue musculature was impossible on the images that were composed of symmetrical, relatively high signal areas surrounded by a low signal area. Both areas were gradually but apparently enhanced. The sublingual space was easily identified at the molar level, as it was rapidly enhanced and symmetrically delineated on each image, however, it was difficult to determine at the incisor level. Further, the lingual septum could also be identified in almost all images at the molar level, and showed no enhancement pattern, whereas, the mucosal surface of the dorsum tongue was rapidly enhanced, and identified on each image. (author)

  4. Supply Chain Contracts in Fashion Department Stores: Coordination and Risk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the fashion industry, department stores normally trade with suppliers of national brands by markdown contract whilst developing private labels with cooperated designers by profit sharing contract. Motivated by this real industrial practice, we study a single-supplier single-retailer two-echelon fashion supply chain selling a short-life fashion product of either a national brand or a private label. The supplier refers to the national/designer brand owner and the retailer refers to the department store. We investigate the supply chain coordination issue and examine the supply chain agents’ performances under the mentioned two contracts. We find the analytical evidence that there is a similar relative risk performance but different absolute risk performances between the national brand and the private label. This finding provides an important implication in strategic interaction for the risk-averse department stores in product assortment and brand management. Furthermore, we explore the impact of sales effort on the supply chain system and find that the supply chain is able to achieve coordination if and only if the supplier (i.e., the national brand or the private label is willing to share the cost of the sales effort.

  5. Metal–organic coordinated multilayer film formation: Quantitative analysis of composition and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Alexandra S.; Elinski, Meagan B.; Ohnsorg, Monica L.; Beaudoin, Christopher K.; Alexander, Kyle A.; Peaslee, Graham F.; DeYoung, Paul A.; Anderson, Mary E., E-mail: meanderson@hope.edu

    2015-09-01

    Metal–organic coordinated multilayers are self-assembled thin films fabricated by alternating solution–phase deposition of bifunctional organic molecules and metal ions. The multilayer film composed of α,ω-mercaptoalkanoic acid and Cu (II) has been the focus of fundamental and applied research with its robust reproducibility and seemingly simple hierarchical architecture. However, internal structure and composition have not been unambiguously established. The composition of films up to thirty layers thick was investigated using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and particle induced X-ray emission. Findings show these films are copper enriched, elucidating a 2:1 ratio for the ion to molecule complexation at the metal–organic interface. Results also reveal that these films have an average layer density similar to literature values established for a self-assembled monolayer, indicating a robust and stable structure. The surface structures of multilayer films have been characterized by contact angle goniometry, ellipsometry, and scanning probe microscopy. A morphological transition is observed as film thickness increases from the first few foundational layers to films containing five or more layers. Surface roughness analysis quantifies this evolution as the film initially increases in roughness before obtaining a lower roughness comparable to the underlying gold substrate. Quantitative analysis of topographical structure and internal composition for metal–organic coordinated multilayers as a function of number of deposited layers has implications for their incorporation in the fields of photonics and nanolithography. - Highlights: • Layer-by-layer deposition is examined by scanning probe microscopy and ion beam analysis. • Film growth undergoes morphological evolution during foundational layer deposition. • Image analysis quantified surface features such as roughness, grain size, and coverage. • Molecular density of each film layer is found to

  6. Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hlava, Kevin J.; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B.; Zvolanek, Emily A.

    2014-02-24

    This report, Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). The intent of WECC’s work was to identify planning-level energy corridors that the Department of Energy (DOE) and its affiliates could study in greater detail. Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the WECC Proposed Energy Corridors in five topic areas for use in reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. In compliance with Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Interior (Secretaries) published a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in 2008 to address the proposed designation of energy transport corridors on federal lands in the 11 western states. Subsequently, Records of Decision designating the corridors were issued in 2009 by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The 2012 settlement of a lawsuit, brought by The Wilderness Society and others against the United States, which identified environmental concerns for many of the corridors requires, among other things, periodic reviews of the corridors to assess the need for revisions, deletions, or additions. A 2013 Presidential Memorandum requires the Secretaries to undertake a continuing effort to identify and designate energy corridors. The WECC Proposed Energy Corridors and their analyses in this report provide key information for reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. Load centers and generation hubs identified in the WECC analysis, particularly as they reflect renewable energy development, would be useful in reviewing and potentially updating the designated Section 368 corridor network. Argonne used Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to

  7. Coordinated voltage control for multiple wind plants in Eastern Wyoming. Analysis, field experience and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Nicholas; MacDowell, Jason; Chmiel, Gary; Konopinski, Ryan; Gautam, Durga [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States); Laughter, Grant; Hagen, Dave [PacifiCorp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-07-01

    At high levels of wind power penetration, multiple wind plants may be the predominant generation resource over large geographic areas. Thus, not only do wind plants need to provide a high level of functionality, they must coordinate properly with each other. This paper describes the analysis and field testing of wind plant voltage controllers designed to improve system voltage performance through passive coordination. The described wind power plant controls can coordinate the real and reactive power response of multiple wind turbines and thereby make the plant function as a single ''grid friendly'' power generation source. For this application, involving seven large wind plants with predominantly GE wind turbines in Eastern Wyoming, the voltage portion of the controllers were configured and tuned to allow the collective reactive power response of multiple wind plants in the region to work well together. This paper presents the results of the initial configuration and tuning study, and the results of the subsequent field tuning and testing of the modified controls. The paper also presents some comparisons of the measured field performance with the stability simulation models, which show that the available wind plant models provide accurate, high fidelity results for actual operating conditions of commercial wind power plants. (orig.)

  8. Motion Intention Analysis-Based Coordinated Control for Amputee-Prosthesis Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To study amputee-prosthesis (AP interaction, a novel reconfigurable biped robot was designed and fabricated. In homogeneous configuration, two identical artificial legs (ALs were used to simulate the symmetrical lower limbs of a healthy person. Linear inverted pendulum model combining with ZMP stability criterion was used to generate the gait trajectories of ALs. To acquire interjoint coordination for healthy gait, rate gyroscopes were mounted on CoGs of thigh and shank of both legs. By employing principal component analysis, the measured angular velocities were processed and the motion synergy was obtained in the final. Then, one of two ALs was replaced by a bionic leg (BL, and the biped robot was changed into heterogeneous configuration to simulate the AP coupling system. To realize symmetrical stable walking, master/slave coordinated control strategy is proposed. According to information acquired by gyroscopes, BL recognized the motion intention of AL and reconstructed its kinematic variables based on interjoint coordination. By employing iterative learning control, gait tracking of BL to AL was archived. Real environment robot walking experiments validated the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  9. Spatial Bayesian latent factor regression modeling of coordinate-based meta-analysis data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Silvia; Wager, Tor; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Johnson, Timothy D; Nichols, Thomas E

    2018-03-01

    Now over 20 years old, functional MRI (fMRI) has a large and growing literature that is best synthesised with meta-analytic tools. As most authors do not share image data, only the peak activation coordinates (foci) reported in the article are available for Coordinate-Based Meta-Analysis (CBMA). Neuroimaging meta-analysis is used to (i) identify areas of consistent activation; and (ii) build a predictive model of task type or cognitive process for new studies (reverse inference). To simultaneously address these aims, we propose a Bayesian point process hierarchical model for CBMA. We model the foci from each study as a doubly stochastic Poisson process, where the study-specific log intensity function is characterized as a linear combination of a high-dimensional basis set. A sparse representation of the intensities is guaranteed through latent factor modeling of the basis coefficients. Within our framework, it is also possible to account for the effect of study-level covariates (meta-regression), significantly expanding the capabilities of the current neuroimaging meta-analysis methods available. We apply our methodology to synthetic data and neuroimaging meta-analysis datasets. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Spatial Bayesian Latent Factor Regression Modeling of Coordinate-based Meta-analysis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Silvia; Wager, Tor; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Now over 20 years old, functional MRI (fMRI) has a large and growing literature that is best synthesised with meta-analytic tools. As most authors do not share image data, only the peak activation coordinates (foci) reported in the paper are available for Coordinate-Based Meta-Analysis (CBMA). Neuroimaging meta-analysis is used to 1) identify areas of consistent activation; and 2) build a predictive model of task type or cognitive process for new studies (reverse inference). To simultaneously address these aims, we propose a Bayesian point process hierarchical model for CBMA. We model the foci from each study as a doubly stochastic Poisson process, where the study-specific log intensity function is characterised as a linear combination of a high-dimensional basis set. A sparse representation of the intensities is guaranteed through latent factor modeling of the basis coefficients. Within our framework, it is also possible to account for the effect of study-level covariates (meta-regression), significantly expanding the capabilities of the current neuroimaging meta-analysis methods available. We apply our methodology to synthetic data and neuroimaging meta-analysis datasets. PMID:28498564

  11. Mathematical and numerical analysis of systems of compressible hydrodynamics and photonics with polar coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meltz, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the mathematical and numerical analysis of the systems of compressible hydrodynamics and radiative transfer. More precisely, we study the derivation of numerical methods with 2D polar coordinates (one for the radius, one for the angle) where equations are discretized on regular polar grids. On one hand, these methods are well-suited for the simulation of flows with polar symmetries since they preserve these symmetries by construction. On the other hand, such coordinates systems introduce geometrical singularities as well as geometrical source terms which must be carefully treated. The first part of this document is devoted to the study of hydrodynamics equations, or Euler equations. We propose a new class of arbitrary high-order numerical schemes in both space and time and rely on directional splitting methods for the resolution of 2D equations. Each sub-system is solved using a Lagrange+Remap solver. We study the influence of the r=0 geometrical singularities of the cylindrical and spherical coordinates systems on the precision of the 2D numerical solutions. The second part of this document is devoted to the study of radiative transfer equations. In these equations, the unknowns depend on a large number of variables and a stiff source term is involved. The main difficulty consists in capturing the correct asymptotic behavior on coarse grids. We first construct a class of models where the radiative intensity is projected on a truncated spherical harmonics basis in order to lower the number of mathematical dimensions. Then we propose an Asymptotic Preserving scheme built in polar coordinates and we show that the scheme capture the correct diffusion limit in the radial direction as well as in the polar direction. (author) [fr

  12. Coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere - CDAW 6. [Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Slavin, J. A.; Kamide, Y.; Zwickl, R. D.; King, J. H.; Russell, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that an extensive study of the causes and manifestations of geomagnetic activity has been carried out as part of the sixth Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop, CDAW 6. The present investigation has the objective to determine the coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere for the two selected analysis intervals, taking into account, as a basis for the study, the interplanetary field and plasma observations from ISEE 3 and IMP 8 and the geomagnetic activity indicators developed by CDAW 6 participants. The method of analysis employed is discussed, giving attention to geomagnetic indices, upstream parameters, and a cross-correlation analysis. In a description of the obtained results, the March 22, 1979 event is considered along with the March 31 to April 1, 1979 event, and an intercomparison of the events. The relationship between interplanetary indices and the resulting geomagnetic activity for the two CDAW 6 intervals is illustrated.

  13. Detecting coordinated regulation of multi-protein complexes using logic analysis of gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeates Todd O

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many of the functional units in cells are multi-protein complexes such as RNA polymerase, the ribosome, and the proteasome. For such units to work together, one might expect a high level of regulation to enable co-appearance or repression of sets of complexes at the required time. However, this type of coordinated regulation between whole complexes is difficult to detect by existing methods for analyzing mRNA co-expression. We propose a new methodology that is able to detect such higher order relationships. Results We detect coordinated regulation of multiple protein complexes using logic analysis of gene expression data. Specifically, we identify gene triplets composed of genes whose expression profiles are found to be related by various types of logic functions. In order to focus on complexes, we associate the members of a gene triplet with the distinct protein complexes to which they belong. In this way, we identify complexes related by specific kinds of regulatory relationships. For example, we may find that the transcription of complex C is increased only if the transcription of both complex A AND complex B is repressed. We identify hundreds of examples of coordinated regulation among complexes under various stress conditions. Many of these examples involve the ribosome. Some of our examples have been previously identified in the literature, while others are novel. One notable example is the relationship between the transcription of the ribosome, RNA polymerase and mannosyltransferase II, which is involved in N-linked glycan processing in the Golgi. Conclusions The analysis proposed here focuses on relationships among triplets of genes that are not evident when genes are examined in a pairwise fashion as in typical clustering methods. By grouping gene triplets, we are able to decipher coordinated regulation among sets of three complexes. Moreover, using all triplets that involve coordinated regulation with the ribosome

  14. Functional Data Analysis of Spaceflight-Induced Changes in Coordination and Phase in Head Pitch Acceleration During Treadmill Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher; Peters, Brian; Feiveson, Alan; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts returning from spaceflight experience neurovestibular disturbances during head movements and attempt to mitigate them by limiting head motion. Analyses to date of the head movements made during walking have concentrated on amplitude and variability measures extracted from ensemble averages of individual gait cycles. Phase shifts within each gait cycle can be determined by functional data analysis through the computation of time-warping functions. Large, localized variations in the timing of peaks in head kinematics may indicate changes in coordination. The purpose of this study was to determine timing changes in head pitch acceleration of astronauts during treadmill walking before and after flight. Six astronauts (5M/1F; age = 43.5+/-6.4yr) participated in the study. Subjects walked at 1.8 m/sec (4 mph) on a motorized treadmill while reading optotypes displayed on a computer screen 4 m in front of their eyes. Three-dimensional motion of the subject s head was recorded with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) device. Data were recorded twice before flight and four times after landing. The head pitch acceleration was calculated by taking the time derivative of the pitch velocity data from the IMU. Data for each session with each subject were time-normalized into gait cycles, then registered to align significant features and create a mean curve. The mean curves of each postflight session for each subject were re-registered based on their preflight mean curve to create time-warping functions. The root mean squares (RMS) of these warping functions were calculated to assess the deviation of head pitch acceleration mean curves in each postflight session from the preflight mean curve. After landing, most crewmembers exhibited localized shifts within their head pitch acceleration regimes, with the greatest deviations in RMS occurring on landing day or 1 day after landing. These results show that the alteration of head pitch coordination due to spaceflight may be

  15. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  16. Study on coordination of ventricular contraction by a phase analysis method in tetralogy of Fallot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xianying; Zhu Hongyu; Li Xinmin; Wang Zhiguo; Zhang Guoxu; Zhang Zhaozhong; Wang Kaigeng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Quantitative study on the characters of left ventricular (LV) wall motion and assessing degree of satisfaction of surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot with phase standard deviation (PSD). Methods: PSD was calculated by equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography in 24 normal controls and 59 patients of tetralogy of Fallot before and after operation. Results: LV PSD was (9.7 +- 2.8) degree in 24 normal controls and (20.5 +- 15.5) degree and (10.0 +- 7.2) degree in 51(86.4%) of 59 patients of tetralogy of Fallot before and after surgical repair, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). LV PSD was (11.2 +- 7.8) degree and (21.3 +- 9.3) degree, respectively before and after surgical repair in the remaining 8(13.4%) patients and the LV PSD was increased significantly after operation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: LV PSD is coordinate with improving degree of ventricular wall motion and heart function after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot. PSD is one of the heart function parameters for reflecting the degree of satisfaction of the surgical repair

  17. Normal mode analysis as a method to derive protein dynamics information from the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Hiroshi; Endo, Shigeru

    2017-12-01

    Normal mode analysis (NMA) can facilitate quick and systematic investigation of protein dynamics using data from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We developed an elastic network model-based NMA program using dihedral angles as independent variables. Compared to the NMA programs that use Cartesian coordinates as independent variables, key attributes of the proposed program are as follows: (1) chain connectivity related to the folding pattern of a polypeptide chain is naturally embedded in the model; (2) the full-atom system is acceptable, and owing to a considerably smaller number of independent variables, the PDB data can be used without further manipulation; (3) the number of variables can be easily reduced by some of the rotatable dihedral angles; (4) the PDB data for any molecule besides proteins can be considered without coarse-graining; and (5) individual motions of constituent subunits and ligand molecules can be easily decomposed into external and internal motions to examine their mutual and intrinsic motions. Its performance is illustrated with an example of a DNA-binding allosteric protein, a catabolite activator protein. In particular, the focus is on the conformational change upon cAMP and DNA binding, and on the communication between their binding sites remotely located from each other. In this illustration, NMA creates a vivid picture of the protein dynamics at various levels of the structures, i.e., atoms, residues, secondary structures, domains, subunits, and the complete system, including DNA and cAMP. Comparative studies of the specific protein in different states, e.g., apo- and holo-conformations, and free and complexed configurations, provide useful information for studying structurally and functionally important aspects of the protein.

  18. Normal mode analysis of macromolecular systems with the mobile block Hessian method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghysels, An; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van Neck, Dimitri; Waroquier, Michel; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, normal mode analysis (NMA) was limited to small proteins, not only because the required energy minimization is a computationally exhausting task, but also because NMA requires the expensive diagonalization of a 3N a ×3N a matrix with N a the number of atoms. A series of simplified models has been proposed, in particular the Rotation-Translation Blocks (RTB) method by Tama et al. for the simulation of proteins. It makes use of the concept that a peptide chain or protein can be seen as a subsequent set of rigid components, i.e. the peptide units. A peptide chain is thus divided into rigid blocks with six degrees of freedom each. Recently we developed the Mobile Block Hessian (MBH) method, which in a sense has similar features as the RTB method. The main difference is that MBH was developed to deal with partially optimized systems. The position/orientation of each block is optimized while the internal geometry is kept fixed at a plausible - but not necessarily optimized - geometry. This reduces the computational cost of the energy minimization. Applying the standard NMA on a partially optimized structure however results in spurious imaginary frequencies and unwanted coordinate dependence. The MBH avoids these unphysical effects by taking into account energy gradient corrections. Moreover the number of variables is reduced, which facilitates the diagonalization of the Hessian. In the original implementation of MBH, atoms could only be part of one rigid block. The MBH is now extended to the case where atoms can be part of two or more blocks. Two basic linkages can be realized: (1) blocks connected by one link atom, or (2) by two link atoms, where the latter is referred to as the hinge type connection. In this work we present the MBH concept and illustrate its performance with the crambin protein as an example

  19. Cadmium, cobalt and lead cause stress response, cell cycle deregulation and increased steroid as well as xenobiotic metabolism in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells which is coordinated by at least nine transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glahn, Felix; Wiese, Jan; Foth, Heidi [Martin-Luther-University, Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Halle/Saale (Germany); Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Guthke, Reinhard [Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knoell Institute, Jena (Germany); Zellmer, Sebastian; Gebhardt, Rolf [University of Leipzig, Institute of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Leipzig (Germany); Golka, Klaus; Degen, Gisela H.; Hermes, Matthias; Schormann, Wiebke; Brulport, Marc; Bauer, Alexander; Bedawy, Essam [IfADo, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund (Germany); Hergenroeder, Roland [ISAS, Institute for Analytical Sciences, Dortmund (Germany); Lehmann, Thomas [Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Hengstler, Jan G. [IfADo, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Workers occupationally exposed to cadmium, cobalt and lead have been reported to have increased levels of DNA damage. To analyze whether in vivo relevant concentrations of heavy metals cause systematic alterations in RNA expression patterns, we performed a gene array study using primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Cells were incubated with 15{mu}g/l Cd(II), 25{mu}g/l Co(II) and 550{mu}g/l Pb(II) either with individual substances or in combination. Differentially expressed genes were filtered out and used to identify enriched GO categories as well as KEGG pathways and to identify transcription factors whose binding sites are enriched in a given set of promoters. Interestingly, combined exposure to Cd(II), Co(II) and Pb(II) caused a coordinated response of at least seven stress response-related transcription factors, namely Oct-1, HIC1, TGIF, CREB, ATF4, SRF and YY1. A stress response was further corroborated by up regulation of genes involved in glutathione metabolism. A second major response to heavy metal exposure was deregulation of the cell cycle as evidenced by down regulation of the transcription factors ELK-1 and the Ets transcription factor GABP, as well as deregulation of genes involved in purine and pyrimidine metabolism. A third and surprising response was up regulation of genes involved in steroid metabolism, whereby promoter analysis identified up regulation of SRY that is known to play a role in sex determination. A forth response was up regulation of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes, particularly of dihydrodiol dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (AKR1C1, AKR1C2). Incubations with individual heavy metals showed that the response of AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 was predominantly caused by lead. In conclusion, we have shown that in vivo relevant concentrations of Cd(II), Co(II) and Pb(II) cause a complex and coordinated response in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. This study gives an overview of the most responsive genes. (orig.)

  20. Comparative Study of Various Normal Mode Analysis Techniques Based on Partial Hessians

    OpenAIRE

    GHYSELS, AN; VAN SPEYBROECK, VERONIQUE; PAUWELS, EWALD; CATAK, SARON; BROOKS, BERNARD R.; VAN NECK, DIMITRI; WAROQUIER, MICHEL

    2010-01-01

    Standard normal mode analysis becomes problematic for complex molecular systems, as a result of both the high computational cost and the excessive amount of information when the full Hessian matrix is used. Several partial Hessian methods have been proposed in the literature, yielding approximate normal modes. These methods aim at reducing the computational load and/or calculating only the relevant normal modes of interest in a specific application. Each method has its own (dis)advantages and...

  1. First order sensitivity analysis of flexible multibody systems using absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi Ting; Zhang Yunqing; Chen Liping

    2012-01-01

    Design sensitivity analysis of flexible multibody systems is important in optimizing the performance of mechanical systems. The choice of coordinates to describe the motion of multibody systems has a great influence on the efficiency and accuracy of both the dynamic and sensitivity analysis. In the flexible multibody system dynamics, both the floating frame of reference formulation (FFRF) and absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) are frequently utilized to describe flexibility, however, only the former has been used in design sensitivity analysis. In this article, ANCF, which has been recently developed and focuses on modeling of beams and plates in large deformation problems, is extended into design sensitivity analysis of flexible multibody systems. The Motion equations of a constrained flexible multibody system are expressed as a set of index-3 differential algebraic equations (DAEs), in which the element elastic forces are defined using nonlinear strain-displacement relations. Both the direct differentiation method and adjoint variable method are performed to do sensitivity analysis and the related dynamic and sensitivity equations are integrated with HHT-I3 algorithm. In this paper, a new method to deduce system sensitivity equations is proposed. With this approach, the system sensitivity equations are constructed by assembling the element sensitivity equations with the help of invariant matrices, which results in the advantage that the complex symbolic differentiation of the dynamic equations is avoided when the flexible multibody system model is changed. Besides that, the dynamic and sensitivity equations formed with the proposed method can be efficiently integrated using HHT-I3 method, which makes the efficiency of the direct differentiation method comparable to that of the adjoint variable method when the number of design variables is not extremely large. All these improvements greatly enhance the application value of the direct differentiation

  2. Optimal consistency in microRNA expression analysis using reference-gene-based normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Gardiner, Erin J; Cairns, Murray J

    2015-05-01

    Normalization of high-throughput molecular expression profiles secures differential expression analysis between samples of different phenotypes or biological conditions, and facilitates comparison between experimental batches. While the same general principles apply to microRNA (miRNA) normalization, there is mounting evidence that global shifts in their expression patterns occur in specific circumstances, which pose a challenge for normalizing miRNA expression data. As an alternative to global normalization, which has the propensity to flatten large trends, normalization against constitutively expressed reference genes presents an advantage through their relative independence. Here we investigated the performance of reference-gene-based (RGB) normalization for differential miRNA expression analysis of microarray expression data, and compared the results with other normalization methods, including: quantile, variance stabilization, robust spline, simple scaling, rank invariant, and Loess regression. The comparative analyses were executed using miRNA expression in tissue samples derived from subjects with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. We proposed a consistency criterion for evaluating methods by examining the overlapping of differentially expressed miRNAs detected using different partitions of the whole data. Based on this criterion, we found that RGB normalization generally outperformed global normalization methods. Thus we recommend the application of RGB normalization for miRNA expression data sets, and believe that this will yield a more consistent and useful readout of differentially expressed miRNAs, particularly in biological conditions characterized by large shifts in miRNA expression.

  3. Analysis of the coupling coordination between transportation infrastructure investment and economic development in Hubei province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Zhai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between transportation infrastructure investment and regional economic growth has been the focus of domestic and foreign academic research. Using the models of coupling degree and coupling coordination degree, this paper calculated the coupling degree and coupling coordination degree between the comprehensive level of transportation infrastructure investment and economic development in Hubei province and its 17 cities, and analyzed its temporal and spatial characteristics. The result showed that, from 2001 to 2013, the coupling and coupling coordination between transportation infrastructure investment and economic development in Hubei province were on a steady rise in the time sequence characteristics. It experienced the upgrade from the uncoordinated – nearly uncoordinated – barely coordinated – intermediately coordinated stages. In the year of 2013, the coupling and coupling coordination of transportation infrastructure investment and economic development in the 17 prefecture-level cities of Hubei Province showed a very uneven spatial difference. Good coordination, primary coordination, barely coordinate, and barely in-coordination are distributed in the province. The average coordination degree of the 17 prefecture-level cities in Hubei is relatively low, and there is a negative tend to expand the difference. This study has confirmed the relationship between transportation infrastructure investment and the economic development to be in an interactive coupling and coordination, but in different regions and different stages, the degree of coordination has obvious spatial and temporal differences.

  4. Partnership effectiveness in primary community care networks: A national empirical analysis of partners' coordination infrastructure designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Yung-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical and managerial studies have ignored the effectiveness of integrated health networks. It has been argued that the varying definitions and strategic imperatives of integrated organizations may have complicated the assessment of the outcomes/performance of varying models, particularly when their market structures and contexts differed. This study aimed to empirically verify a theoretical perspective on the coordination infrastructure designs and the effectiveness of the primary community care networks (PCCNs) formed and funded by the Bureau of National Health Insurance since March 2003. The PCCNs present a model to replace the traditional fragmented providers in Taiwan's health care. The study used a cross-sectional mailed survey designed to ascertain partnership coordination infrastructure and integration of governance, clinical care, bonding, finances, and information. The outcome indicators were PCCNs' perceived performance and willingness to remain within the network. Structural equation modeling examined the causal relationships, controlling for organizational and environmental factors. Primary data collection occurred from February through December 2005, via structured questionnaires sent to 172 PCCNs. Using the individual PCCN as the unit of analysis, the results found that a network's efforts regarding coordination infrastructures were positively related to the PCCN's perceived performance and willingness to remain within the network. In addition, PCCNs practicing in rural areas and in areas with higher density of medical resources had better perceived effectiveness and willingness to cooperate in the network.Practical Implication: The lack of both an operational definition and an information about system-wide integration may have obstructed understanding of integrated health networks' organizational dynamics. This study empirically examined individual PCCNs and offers new insights on how to improve networks' organizational design and

  5. Normality Tests for Statistical Analysis: A Guide for Non-Statisticians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Asghar; Zahediasl, Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Statistical errors are common in scientific literature and about 50% of the published articles have at least one error. The assumption of normality needs to be checked for many statistical procedures, namely parametric tests, because their validity depends on it. The aim of this commentary is to overview checking for normality in statistical analysis using SPSS. PMID:23843808

  6. An Evaluation of Normal versus Lognormal Distribution in Data Description and Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Rekha

    2017-01-01

    Many existing methods of statistical inference and analysis rely heavily on the assumption that the data are normally distributed. However, the normality assumption is not fulfilled when dealing with data which does not contain negative values or are otherwise skewed--a common occurrence in diverse disciplines such as finance, economics, political…

  7. Analysis of an intervention directed to the development of balance and gross and fine motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Carrillo Maronesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children’s motor skills evolve according to age and the continuing influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that cause variations from one child to another; this makes the course of development unique in each child. Objective: To develop an intervention for a child with delays in fine motor coordination, gross motor coordination and balance and analyze its impact on the child’s development. Methods: Pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design. The instrument used was the Motor Development Scale applied to a 4 year old child. An intervention plan was developed based on the results obtained throught the tests. The plan consists of activities designed to stimulate the aforementioned acquisitions. The implementation of the intervention plan lasted two months. The child was tested at the beginning and at the end of the intervention to determine whether there was gain in the stimulated acquisitions. The JT method was adopted for data analysis and verification of occurrence of reliable and clinically relevant positive changes. Results: The results of this study demonstrate that reliable positive changes occurred with respect to the psychomotor items that underwent stimulation. Conclusion: It is possible to infer that this intervention had a positive effect on the child’s development . Hence, this study contributes to improve the care provided to children with delayed psychomotor development, illustrating possibilities of strategies and activities. It also allows the recognition of the action of occupational therapists as one of the professionals who compose the multidisciplinary team focused on early intervention.

  8. Cluster protein structures using recurrence quantification analysis on coordinates of alpha-carbon atoms of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yu; Yu Zuguo; Anh, Vo

    2007-01-01

    The 3-dimensional coordinates of alpha-carbon atoms of proteins are used to distinguish the protein structural classes based on recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). We consider two independent variables from RQA of coordinates of alpha-carbon atoms, %determ1 and %determ2, which were defined by Webber et al. [C.L. Webber Jr., A. Giuliani, J.P. Zbilut, A. Colosimo, Proteins Struct. Funct. Genet. 44 (2001) 292]. The variable %determ2 is used to define two new variables, %determ2 1 and %determ2 2 . Then three variables %determ1, %determ2 1 and %determ2 2 are used to construct a 3-dimensional variable space. Each protein is represented by a point in this variable space. The points corresponding to proteins from the α, β, α+β and α/β structural classes position into different areas in this variable space. In order to give a quantitative assessment of our clustering on the selected proteins, Fisher's discriminant algorithm is used. Numerical results indicate that the discriminant accuracies are very high and satisfactory

  9. Coordinated analysis of age, sex, and education effects on change in MMSE scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinin, Andrea M; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Clouston, Sean; Reynolds, Chandra A; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Deary, Ian J; Deeg, Dorly J H; Johansson, Boo; Mackinnon, Andrew; Spiro, Avron; Starr, John M; Skoog, Ingmar; Hofer, Scott M

    2013-05-01

    We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ.

  10. Identification of surface species by vibrational normal mode analysis. A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jian; Genest, Alexander; Rösch, Notker

    2017-10-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is an important experimental tool for identifying molecular species adsorbed on a metal surface that can be used in situ. Often vibrational modes in such IR spectra of surface species are assigned and identified by comparison with vibrational spectra of related (molecular) compounds of known structure, e. g., an organometallic cluster analogue. To check the validity of this strategy, we carried out a computational study where we compared the normal modes of three C2Hx species (x = 3, 4) in two types of systems, as adsorbates on the Pt(111) surface and as ligands in an organometallic cluster compound. The results of our DFT calculations reproduce the experimental observed frequencies with deviations of at most 50 cm-1. However, the frequencies of the C2Hx species in both types of systems have to be interpreted with due caution if the coordination mode is unknown. The comparative identification strategy works satisfactorily when the coordination mode of the molecular species (ethylidyne) is similar on the surface and in the metal cluster. However, large shifts are encountered when the molecular species (vinyl) exhibits different coordination modes on both types of substrates.

  11. EMERALD-NORMAL, Routine Radiation Release and Dose for PWR Design Analysis and Operation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, S.G.; Brunot, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: EMERALD-NORMAL is designed for the calculation of radiation releases and exposures resulting from normal operation of a large pressurized water reactor. The approach used is similar to an analog simulation of a real system. Each component or volume in the plant which contains a radioactive material is represented by a subroutine which keeps track of the production, transfer, decay, and absorption of radioactivity in that volume. During the course of the analysis, activity is transferred from subroutine to subroutine in the program as it would be transferred from place to place in the plant. Some of this activity is then released to the atmosphere and to the discharge canal. The rates of transfer, leakage, production, cleanup, decay, and release are read as input to the program. Subroutines are also included which calculate the off-site radiation exposures at various distances for individual isotopes and sums of isotopes. The program contains a library of physical data for the forty isotopes of most interest in licensing calculations, and other isotopes can be added or substituted. Because of the flexible nature of the simulation approach, the EMERALD-NORMAL program can be used for most calculations involving the production and release of radioactive material. These include design, operation, and licensing studies. 2 - Method of solution: Explicit solutions of first-order linear differential equations are included. In addition, a subroutine is provided which solves a set of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Many parameters and systems included in the program, particularly the radiation waste-treatment system, are unique to the PG and E Diablo Canyon PWR plant. Maxima of: 50 isotopes, 9 distances, 16 angular sectors, 1 operating period, 1 reactor power level

  12. Coordinated clinical and financial analysis as a powerful tool to influence vendor pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Catherine A; Wu, Roger Y; Mulley, Debra; Smith, Paul C; Schwaitzberg, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    As costs continue to outpace reimbursements, hospital administrators and clinicians face increasing pressure to justify new capital purchases. Massachusetts Health Care Reform has added further economic challenges for Disproportionate Share Hospitals (DSH), as resources formerly available to treat the uninsured have been redirected. In this challenging climate, many hospitals still lack a standardized process for technology planning and/or vendor negotiation. : The purpose of this study was to determine whether a simple, coordinated clinical and financial analysis of a technology, Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release (ECTR), is sufficient to impact vendor pricing at Cambridge Health Alliance (CHA), a disproportionate share hospital (DSH) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. This case study addressed the topic of technology adoption, a complex decision-making process every hospital administration faces. Taking note of other hospitals approaches to instill a strategic management culture, CHA combined a literature review on clinical outcomes and financial analysis on profitability. Clinical effectiveness was evaluated through a literature review. The financial analysis was based on a retrospective inquiry of fixed and variable costs, reimbursement rates, actual payer mix, and profitability of adopting ECTR over open carpal tunnel release at CHA. This clinical and financial analysis was then shared with the vendor. A literature review revealed that although there are short-term benefits to ECTR, there is little to no difference in long-term outcomes to justify a calculated incremental loss of $91.49 in revenue per case. Sharing this analysis with the vendor resulted in a 30% price reduction. A revised cost analysis demonstrated a $53.51 incremental gain in revenue per case. CHA has since elected to offer ECTR to its patients. Smaller hospital systems often have modest leverage in vendor negotiations. Our results suggest that the development of adoption criteria and an evidence

  13. Optimal Coordinated Strategy Analysis for the Procurement Logistics of a Steel Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the optimization of an internal coordinated procurement logistics system in a steel group and the decision on the coordinated procurement strategy by minimizing the logistics costs. Considering the coordinated procurement strategy and the procurement logistics costs, the aim of the optimization model was to maximize the degree of quality satisfaction and to minimize the procurement logistics costs. The model was transformed into a single-objective model and solved using a simulated annealing algorithm. In the algorithm, the supplier of each subsidiary was selected according to the evaluation result for independent procurement. Finally, the effect of different parameters on the coordinated procurement strategy was analysed. The results showed that the coordinated strategy can clearly save procurement costs; that the strategy appears to be more cooperative when the quality requirement is not stricter; and that the coordinated costs have a strong effect on the coordinated procurement strategy.

  14. Structure of the alexithymic brain: A parametric coordinate-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengfei; Opmeer, Esther M; van Tol, Marie-José; Goerlich, Katharina S; Aleman, André

    2018-04-01

    Alexithymia refers to deficiencies in identifying and expressing emotions. This might be related to changes in structural brain volumes, but its neuroanatomical basis remains uncertain as studies have shown heterogeneous findings. Therefore, we conducted a parametric coordinate-based meta-analysis. We identified seventeen structural neuroimaging studies (including a total of 2586 individuals with different levels of alexithymia) investigating the association between gray matter volume and alexithymia. Volumes of the left insula, left amygdala, orbital frontal cortex and striatum were consistently smaller in people with high levels of alexithymia. These areas are important for emotion perception and emotional experience. Smaller volumes in these areas might lead to deficiencies in appropriately identifying and expressing emotions. These findings provide the first quantitative integration of results pertaining to the structural neuroanatomical basis of alexithymia. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Coordinated Analysis 101: A Joint Training Session Sponsored by LPI and ARES/JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, D. S.; Treiman, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), co-sponsored a training session in November 2016 for four early-career scientists in the techniques of coordinated analysis. Coordinated analysis refers to the approach of systematically performing high-resolution and -precision analytical studies on astromaterials, particularly the very small particles typical of recent and near-future sample return missions such as Stardust, Hayabusa, Hayabusa2, and OSIRIS-REx. A series of successive analytical steps is chosen to be performed on the same particle, as opposed to separate subsections of a sample, in such a way that the initial steps do not compromise the results from later steps in the sequence. The data from the entire series can then be integrated for these individual specimens, revealing important in-sights obtainable no other way. ARES/JSC scientists have played a leading role in the development and application of this approach for many years. Because the coming years will bring new sample collections from these and other planned NASA and international exploration missions, it is timely to begin disseminating specialized techniques for the study of small and precious astromaterial samples. As part of the Cooperative Agreement between NASA and the LPI, this training workshop was intended as the first in a series of similar training exercises that the two organizations will jointly sponsor in the coming years. These workshops will span the range of analytical capabilities and sample types available at ARES/JSC in the Astromaterials Research and Astro-materials Acquisition and Curation Offices. Here we summarize the activities and participants in this initial training.

  16. HTGR reactor physics, thermal-hydraulics and depletion uncertainty analysis: a proposed IAEA coordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyobeka, Bismark; Reitsma, Frederik; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2011-01-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of HTGR design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The predictive capability of coupled neutronics/thermal hydraulics and depletion simulations for reactor design and safety analysis can be assessed with sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis methods. In order to benefit from recent advances in modeling and simulation and the availability of new covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) extensive sensitivity and uncertainty studies are needed for quantification of the impact of different sources of uncertainties on the design and safety parameters of HTGRs. Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are an essential component of any significant effort in data and simulation improvement. In February 2009, the Technical Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors recommended that the proposed IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling be implemented. In the paper the current status and plan are presented. The CRP will also benefit from interactions with the currently ongoing OECD/NEA Light Water Reactor (LWR) UAM benchmark activity by taking into consideration the peculiarities of HTGR designs and simulation requirements. (author)

  17. New approach to accuracy verification of 3D surface models: An analysis of point cloud coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan-Sun; Park, Jong-Kyoung; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Woong-Chul; Yu, Chin-Ho

    2016-04-01

    The precision of two types of surface digitization devices, i.e., a contact probe scanner and an optical scanner, and the trueness of two types of stone replicas, i.e., one without an imaging powder (SR/NP) and one with an imaging powder (SR/P), were evaluated using a computer-aided analysis. A master die was fabricated from stainless steel. Ten impressions were taken, and ten stone replicas were prepared from Type IV stone (Fujirock EP, GC, Leuven, Belgium). The precision of two types of scanners was analyzed using the root mean square (RMS), measurement error (ME), and limits of agreement (LoA) at each coordinate. The trueness of the stone replicas was evaluated using the total deviation. A Student's t-test was applied to compare the discrepancies between the CAD-reference-models of the master die (m-CRM) and point clouds for the two types of stone replicas (α=.05). The RMS values for the precision were 1.58, 1.28, and 0.98μm along the x-, y-, and z-axes in the contact probe scanner and 1.97, 1.32, and 1.33μm along the x-, y-, and z-axes in the optical scanner, respectively. A comparison with m-CRM revealed a trueness of 7.10μm for SR/NP and 8.65μm for SR/P. The precision at each coordinate (x-, y-, and z-axes) was revealed to be higher than the one assessed in the previous method (overall offset differences). A comparison between the m-CRM and 3D surface models of the stone replicas revealed a greater dimensional change in SR/P than in SR/NP. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coordination failure caused by sunspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugnot, Julie; Gürgüç, Zeynep; Øvlisen, Frederik Roose

    2012-01-01

    on the efficient equilibrium, we consider sunspots as a potential reason for coordination failure. We conduct an experiment with a three player 2x2x2 game in which coordination on the efficient equilibrium is easy and should normally occur. In the control session, we find almost perfect coordination on the payoff......-dominant equilibrium, but in the sunspot treatment, dis-coordination is frequent. Sunspots lead to significant inefficiency, and we conclude that sunspots can indeed cause coordination failure....

  19. An individual urinary proteome analysis in normal human beings to define the minimal sample number to represent the normal urinary proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xuejiao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The urinary proteome has been widely used for biomarker discovery. A urinary proteome database from normal humans can provide a background for discovery proteomics and candidate proteins/peptides for targeted proteomics. Therefore, it is necessary to define the minimum number of individuals required for sampling to represent the normal urinary proteome. Methods In this study, inter-individual and inter-gender variations of urinary proteome were taken into consideration to achieve a representative database. An individual analysis was performed on overnight urine samples from 20 normal volunteers (10 males and 10 females by 1DLC/MS/MS. To obtain a representative result of each sample, a replicate 1DLCMS/MS analysis was performed. The minimal sample number was estimated by statistical analysis. Results For qualitative analysis, less than 5% of new proteins/peptides were identified in a male/female normal group by adding a new sample when the sample number exceeded nine. In addition, in a normal group, the percentage of newly identified proteins/peptides was less than 5% upon adding a new sample when the sample number reached 10. Furthermore, a statistical analysis indicated that urinary proteomes from normal males and females showed different patterns. For quantitative analysis, the variation of protein abundance was defined by spectrum count and western blotting methods. And then the minimal sample number for quantitative proteomic analysis was identified. Conclusions For qualitative analysis, when considering the inter-individual and inter-gender variations, the minimum sample number is 10 and requires a balanced number of males and females in order to obtain a representative normal human urinary proteome. For quantitative analysis, the minimal sample number is much greater than that for qualitative analysis and depends on the experimental methods used for quantification.

  20. Specific solvent effect on lumazine photophysics: A combined fluorescence and intrinsic reaction coordinate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyon, N. Shaemningwar; Gashnga, Pynsakhiat Miki; Phukan, Smritakshi; Mitra, Sivaprasad, E-mail: smitra@nehu.ac.in

    2013-06-27

    Highlights: • Correlation of lumazine photophysics with multiparametric Kamlet–Taft equation. • Solvent basicity (β) contributes maximum towards the hydrogen bonding (HB) effect. • HB interaction occurs at N1 and N3 proton in S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} state, respectively. • IRC calculation for different tautomerization processes both in S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} states. • Process related to riboflavin biosynthesis is thermodynamically feasible. - Abstract: The photophysical properties and tautomerization behavior of neutral lumazine were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and density functional theory calculation. A quantitative estimation of the contributions from different solvatochromic parameters, like solvent polarizibility (π{sup ∗}), hydrogen bond donation (α) and hydrogen bond accepting (β) ability of the solvent, was made using linear free energy relationships based on the Kamlet–Taft equation. The analysis reveals that the hydrogen bond acceptance ability of the solvent is the most important parameter characterizing the excited state behavior of lumazine. Theoretical calculations result predict an extensive charge redistribution of lumazine upon excitation corresponding to the N3 and N1 proton dissociation sites by solvents in the ground and excited states, respectively. Comparison of S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} state potential energy curves constructed for several water mediated tautomerization processes by intrinsic reaction coordinate analysis of lumazine-H{sub 2}O cluster shows that (3,2) and (1,8) hydrogen migrations are the most favorable processes upon excitation.

  1. Development of sodium droplet combustion analysis methodology using direct numerical simulation in 3-dimensional coordinate (COMET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Ohira, Hiroaki

    1998-08-01

    In the early stage of sodium leak event of liquid metal fast breeder reactor, LMFBR, liquid sodium flows out from a piping, and ignition and combustion of liquid sodium droplet might occur under certain environmental condition. Compressible forced air flow, diffusion of chemical species, liquid sodium droplet behavior, chemical reactions and thermodynamic properties should be evaluated with considering physical dependence and numerical connection among them for analyzing combustion of sodium liquid droplet. A direct numerical simulation code was developed for numerical analysis of sodium liquid droplet in forced convection air flow. The numerical code named COMET, 'Sodium Droplet COmbustion Analysis METhodology using Direct Numerical Simulation in 3-Dimensional Coordinate'. The extended MAC method was used to calculate compressible forced air flow. Counter diffusion among chemical species is also calculated. Transport models of mass and energy between droplet and surrounding atmospheric air were developed. Equation-solving methods were used for computing multiphase equilibrium between sodium and air. Thermodynamic properties of chemical species were evaluated using dynamic theory of gases. Combustion of single sphere liquid sodium droplet in forced convection, constant velocity, uniform air flow was numerically simulated using COMET. Change of droplet diameter with time was closely agree with d 2 -law of droplet combustion theory. Spatial distributions of combustion rate and heat generation and formation, decomposition and movement of chemical species were analyzed. Quantitative calculations of heat generation and chemical species formation in spray combustion are enabled for various kinds of environmental condition by simulating liquid sodium droplet combustion using COMET. (author)

  2. Goal scoring in soccer: A polar coordinate analysis of motor skills used by Lionel Messi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eCastañer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Soccer research has traditionally focused on technical and tactical aspects of team play, but few studies have analyzed motor skills in individual actions, such as goal scoring. The objective of this study was to investigate how Lionel Messi, one of the world’s top soccer players, uses his motor skills and laterality in individual attacking actions resulting in a goal. We analyzed 103 goals scored by Messi between over a decade in three competitions: La Liga (n = 74, Copa del Rey (n = 8, and the UEFA Champions League (n = 21. We used an ad hoc observation instrument (OSMOS-soccer player comprising 10 criteria and 50 categories; polar coordinate analysis, a powerful data reduction technique, revealed significant associations for body part and orientation, foot contact zone, turn direction, and locomotion. No significant associations were observed for pitch area or interaction with opponents. Our analysis confirms significant associations between different aspects of motor skill use by Messi immediately before scoring, namely use of lower limbs, foot contact zones, turn direction, use of wings, and orientation of body to move towards the goal. Studies of motor skills in soccer could shed light on the qualities that make certain players unique.

  3. Vertical Coordination in Organic Food Chains: A Survey Based Analysis in France, Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Cavaliere

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses characteristics of vertical relationships of organic supply chains with a specific focus on the processing and retailing sectors. The analysis takes into account different regions of the EU Mediterranean area. Data were collected through interviews using an ad hoc questionnaire. The survey was based on a sample of 306 firms, including processors and retailers. The analysis revealed that a relevant aspect for the processing firms of organic products concerns the guaranteeing of safety and quality levels for the products. The main tools to implement the quality management are based on the adoption of specific production regulations and quality controls. The premium price most frequently applied by processors ranges from 10% to 40% and similar values are revealed for retailers. The diffusion of supply contracts allows the vertical coordination between agriculture and processing firms in the organic supply chains. The main distribution channels for the processing firms are represented by specialised shops in organic products, direct sales and supermarkets.

  4. Assessment of 1H NMR-based metabolomics analysis for normalization of urinary metals against creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiède, Marc; Nair, Sindhu; Dueck, Meghan; Mino, James; McKay, Ryan; Mercier, Pascal; Quémerais, Bernadette; Lacy, Paige

    2017-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR, or NMR) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are commonly used for metabolomics and metal analysis in urine samples. However, creatinine quantification by NMR for the purpose of normalization of urinary metals has not been validated. We assessed the validity of using NMR analysis for creatinine quantification in human urine samples in order to allow normalization of urinary metal concentrations. NMR and ICP-MS techniques were used to measure metabolite and metal concentrations in urine samples from 10 healthy subjects. For metabolite analysis, two magnetic field strengths (600 and 700MHz) were utilized. In addition, creatinine concentrations were determined by using the Jaffe method. Creatinine levels were strongly correlated (R 2 =0.99) between NMR and Jaffe methods. The NMR spectra were deconvoluted with a target database containing 151 metabolites that are present in urine. A total of 50 metabolites showed good correlation (R 2 =0.7-1.0) at 600 and 700MHz. Metal concentrations determined after NMR-measured creatinine normalization were comparable to previous reports. NMR analysis provided robust urinary creatinine quantification, and was sufficient for normalization of urinary metal concentrations. We found that NMR-measured creatinine-normalized urinary metal concentrations in our control subjects were similar to general population levels in Canada and the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. On the sensitivity of protein data bank normal mode analysis: an application to GH10 xylanases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirion, Monique M.

    2015-12-01

    Protein data bank entries obtain distinct, reproducible flexibility characteristics determined by normal mode analyses of their three dimensional coordinate files. We study the effectiveness and sensitivity of this technique by analyzing the results on one class of glycosidases: family 10 xylanases. A conserved tryptophan that appears to affect access to the active site can be in one of two conformations according to x-ray crystallographic electron density data. The two alternate orientations of this active site tryptophan lead to distinct flexibility spectra, with one orientation thwarting the oscillations seen in the other. The particular orientation of this sidechain furthermore affects the appearance of the motility of a distant, C terminal region we term the mallet. The mallet region is known to separate members of this family of enzymes into two classes.

  6. On the sensitivity of protein data bank normal mode analysis: an application to GH10 xylanases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirion, Monique M

    2015-01-01

    Protein data bank entries obtain distinct, reproducible flexibility characteristics determined by normal mode analyses of their three dimensional coordinate files. We study the effectiveness and sensitivity of this technique by analyzing the results on one class of glycosidases: family 10 xylanases. A conserved tryptophan that appears to affect access to the active site can be in one of two conformations according to x-ray crystallographic electron density data. The two alternate orientations of this active site tryptophan lead to distinct flexibility spectra, with one orientation thwarting the oscillations seen in the other. The particular orientation of this sidechain furthermore affects the appearance of the motility of a distant, C terminal region we term the mallet. The mallet region is known to separate members of this family of enzymes into two classes. (paper)

  7. Immunological investigations of antigens released by normal and irradiated schistosomasa mansoni cercariae in vitro. Part of a coordinated programme on preparation of irradiated vaccines against some human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catty, D.

    1982-07-01

    S.mansoni cercariae were γ-irradiated at 1-15 K rads, syringe transformed, and injected into groups of 20 mice (200 dose), with unirradiated controls. Aliquots of 1,500 cercariae irradiated at 1-40 K rads (plus unirradiated controls) were cultured in serum-free medium. It was found that irradiation does not inhibit release of a broad spectrum of antigens in culture over 6 hours until 20 K rads is delivered. Mice used as hosts for the graded cercarial irradiation vaccine were subdivided into groups of 10 and either left unchallenged or challenged at 6 weeks with a normal infection of 200 cercariae. Serum samples were taken from every mouse at regular intervals and antibodies titrated by solid phase radioimmunoassay. Injected parasites, whether irradiated or normal, always gave higher antibody titres to cercarial and egg antigens than the equivalent dose of normal (challenge) parasites infecting by the natural route. Challenge infection depressed anti-cercarial responses in mice exposed to irradiated larvae but boosted the response to normal injected parasites. Antibodies to SEA were in lower titre in all groups but rose from week 7 (1 week post-challenge) in the groups injected with normal and 1 K rad-treated parasites, where adults were previously established in the hosts. At 12 weeks all mice were sacrificed and perfused for adults. Egg yields in liver and intestine were determined. There was no evidence of protective immunity to challenge infection induced by injected unirradiated or 1 K rad-irradiated, transformed, cercariae, even though both sources of parasite gave rise to egg-laying adults. By contrast, the 5, 10 and 15 K rad vaccines gave protection of 36-49%, even though they gave rise to no persistent adults or any deposited eggs. The protective (immunising) properties of irradiation-attenuated vaccines of S.mansoni cercariae can thus be clearly correlated with their capacity to release antigens in the immediate post irradiation period

  8. Review of methodologies for analysis of safety incidents at NPPs. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1998-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants around the world and the prevention of incidents in these installations remain key concerns for the nuclear community. In this connection, the feedback of operating experience plays a major role: every nuclear power plant or nuclear utility needs to have a system in place for collecting information on unusual events, whether these are incidents or merely deviations from normal operation. Reporting to the regulatory body of important events and lessons learned is normally carried out through the national reporting schemes based on regulatory reporting requirements. The most important lessons learned are further shared internationally, through, for example, the Joint IAEA/NEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) or the event information exchange of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). In order to properly assess the event, an adequate event investigation methodology has to be applied, which leads to the identification of correct root causes. Once these root causes have been ascertained, appropriate corrective actions can be established and corresponding lessons can be drawn. The overall goal of root cause analysis is the prevention of events or their recurrence and thus the overall improvement in plant safety. In 1998, the IAEA established a co-ordinated research project with the objective of exploring root cause methodologies and techniques currently in use in Member States, evaluating their strengths and limitations and developing criteria for appropriate event investigation methodologies. This report is the outcome of four years of co-ordinated research which involved 15 national and international research organizations

  9. Evaluation of Coordination of Emergency Response Team through the Social Network Analysis. Case Study: Oil and Gas Refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Bastani, Susan; Esaghi, Mahbobeh; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Saee, Ali

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cohesions status of the coordination within response teams in the emergency response team (ERT) in a refinery. For this study, cohesion indicators of social network analysis (SNA; density, degree centrality, reciprocity, and transitivity) were utilized to examine the coordination of the response teams as a whole network. The ERT of this research, which was a case study, included seven teams consisting of 152 members. The required data were collected through structured interviews and were analyzed using the UCINET 6.0 Social Network Analysis Program. The results reported a relatively low number of triple connections, poor coordination with key members, and a high level of mutual relations in the network with low density, all implying that there were low cohesions of coordination in the ERT. The results showed that SNA provided a quantitative and logical approach for the examination of the coordination status among response teams and it also provided a main opportunity for managers and planners to have a clear understanding of the presented status. The research concluded that fundamental efforts were needed to improve the presented situations.

  10. Analysis of EMG Signals in Aggressive and Normal Activities by Using Higher-Order Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin Sezgin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and classification of electromyography (EMG signals are very important in order to detect some symptoms of diseases, prosthetic arm/leg control, and so on. In this study, an EMG signal was analyzed using bispectrum, which belongs to a family of higher-order spectra. An EMG signal is the electrical potential difference of muscle cells. The EMG signals used in the present study are aggressive or normal actions. The EMG dataset was obtained from the machine learning repository. First, the aggressive and normal EMG activities were analyzed using bispectrum and the quadratic phase coupling of each EMG episode was determined. Next, the features of the analyzed EMG signals were fed into learning machines to separate the aggressive and normal actions. The best classification result was 99.75%, which is sufficient to significantly classify the aggressive and normal actions.

  11. Analysis of EMG Signals in Aggressive and Normal Activities by Using Higher-Order Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Necmettin

    2012-01-01

    The analysis and classification of electromyography (EMG) signals are very important in order to detect some symptoms of diseases, prosthetic arm/leg control, and so on. In this study, an EMG signal was analyzed using bispectrum, which belongs to a family of higher-order spectra. An EMG signal is the electrical potential difference of muscle cells. The EMG signals used in the present study are aggressive or normal actions. The EMG dataset was obtained from the machine learning repository. First, the aggressive and normal EMG activities were analyzed using bispectrum and the quadratic phase coupling of each EMG episode was determined. Next, the features of the analyzed EMG signals were fed into learning machines to separate the aggressive and normal actions. The best classification result was 99.75%, which is sufficient to significantly classify the aggressive and normal actions. PMID:23193379

  12. Is Middle-Upper Arm Circumference "normally" distributed? Secondary data analysis of 852 nutrition surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Severine; Checchi, Francesco; Kerac, Marko; Nicholas, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Wasting is a major public health issue throughout the developing world. Out of the 6.9 million estimated deaths among children under five annually, over 800,000 deaths (11.6 %) are attributed to wasting. Wasting is quantified as low Weight-For-Height (WFH) and/or low Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) (since 2005). Many statistical procedures are based on the assumption that the data used are normally distributed. Analyses have been conducted on the distribution of WFH but there are no equivalent studies on the distribution of MUAC. This secondary data analysis assesses the normality of the MUAC distributions of 852 nutrition cross-sectional survey datasets of children from 6 to 59 months old and examines different approaches to normalise "non-normal" distributions. The distribution of MUAC showed no departure from a normal distribution in 319 (37.7 %) distributions using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Out of the 533 surveys showing departure from a normal distribution, 183 (34.3 %) were skewed (D'Agostino test) and 196 (36.8 %) had a kurtosis different to the one observed in the normal distribution (Anscombe-Glynn test). Testing for normality can be sensitive to data quality, design effect and sample size. Out of the 533 surveys showing departure from a normal distribution, 294 (55.2 %) showed high digit preference, 164 (30.8 %) had a large design effect, and 204 (38.3 %) a large sample size. Spline and LOESS smoothing techniques were explored and both techniques work well. After Spline smoothing, 56.7 % of the MUAC distributions showing departure from normality were "normalised" and 59.7 % after LOESS. Box-Cox power transformation had similar results on distributions showing departure from normality with 57 % of distributions approximating "normal" after transformation. Applying Box-Cox transformation after Spline or Loess smoothing techniques increased that proportion to 82.4 and 82.7 % respectively. This suggests that statistical approaches relying on the

  13. Evaluation of aggregate stability of Haplic Stagnosols using dynamic light scattering, phase analysis light scattering and color coordinates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Artemyeva, Z.; Žigová, Anna; Kirillova, N.; Šťastný, Martin; Holubík, O.; Podrázský, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 13 (2017), s. 1838-1851 ISSN 0365-0340 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : land use * aggregate stability * organo-clay complexes * dynamic light scattering * phase analysis light scattering * color coordinates Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 2.137, year: 2016

  14. Social Activity and Cognitive Functioning Over Time: A Coordinated Analysis of Four Longitudinal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social activity is typically viewed as part of an engaged lifestyle that may help mitigate the deleterious effects of advanced age on cognitive function. As such, social activity has been examined in relation to cognitive abilities later in life. However, longitudinal evidence for this hypothesis thus far remains inconclusive. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between social activity and cognitive function over time using a coordinated data analysis approach across four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with social activity included as a covariate is presented. Four domains of cognitive function were assessed: reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge. Results suggest that baseline social activity is related to some, but not all, cognitive functions. Baseline social activity levels failed to predict rate of decline in most cognitive abilities. Changes in social activity were not consistently associated with cognitive functioning. Our findings do not provide consistent evidence that changes in social activity correspond to immediate benefits in cognitive functioning, except perhaps for verbal fluency.

  15. A Network Analysis Perspective to Implementation: The Example of Health Links to Promote Coordinated Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi Nooraie, Reza; Khan, Sobia; Gutberg, Jennifer; Baker, G Ross

    2018-01-01

    Although implementation models broadly recognize the importance of social relationships, our knowledge about applying social network analysis (SNA) to formative, process, and outcome evaluations of health system interventions is limited. We explored applications of adopting an SNA lens to inform implementation planning, engagement and execution, and evaluation. We used Health Links, a province-wide program in Canada aiming to improve care coordination among multiple providers of high-needs patients, as an example of a health system intervention. At the planning phase, an SNA can depict the structure, network influencers, and composition of clusters at various levels. It can inform the engagement and execution by identifying potential targets (e.g., opinion leaders) and by revealing structural gaps and clusters. It can also be used to assess the outcomes of the intervention, such as its success in increasing network connectivity; changing the position of certain actors; and bridging across specialties, organizations, and sectors. We provided an overview of how an SNA lens can shed light on the complexity of implementation along the entire implementation pathway, by revealing the relational barriers and facilitators, the application of network-informed and network-altering interventions, and testing hypotheses on network consequences of the implementation.

  16. IAEA Coordinated Research Project on HTGR Reactor Physics, Thermal-hydraulics and Depletion Uncertainty Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bostelmann, F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of HTGR design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The predictive capability of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations for reactor design and safety analysis can be assessed with sensitivity analysis (SA) and uncertainty analysis (UA) methods. Uncertainty originates from errors in physical data, manufacturing uncertainties, modelling and computational algorithms. (The interested reader is referred to the large body of published SA and UA literature for a more complete overview of the various types of uncertainties, methodologies and results obtained). SA is helpful for ranking the various sources of uncertainty and error in the results of core analyses. SA and UA are required to address cost, safety, and licensing needs and should be applied to all aspects of reactor multi-physics simulation. SA and UA can guide experimental, modelling, and algorithm research and development. Current SA and UA rely either on derivative-based methods such as stochastic sampling methods or on generalized perturbation theory to obtain sensitivity coefficients. Neither approach addresses all needs. In order to benefit from recent advances in modelling and simulation and the availability of new covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) extensive sensitivity and uncertainty studies are needed for quantification of the impact of different sources of uncertainties on the design and safety parameters of HTGRs. Only a parallel effort in advanced simulation and in nuclear data improvement will be able to provide designers with more robust and well validated calculation tools to meet design target accuracies. In February 2009, the Technical Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (TWG-GCR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommended that the proposed Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on

  17. Comparison of normalization methods for the analysis of metagenomic gene abundance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mariana Buongermino; Wallroth, Mikael; Jonsson, Viktor; Kristiansson, Erik

    2018-04-20

    In shotgun metagenomics, microbial communities are studied through direct sequencing of DNA without any prior cultivation. By comparing gene abundances estimated from the generated sequencing reads, functional differences between the communities can be identified. However, gene abundance data is affected by high levels of systematic variability, which can greatly reduce the statistical power and introduce false positives. Normalization, which is the process where systematic variability is identified and removed, is therefore a vital part of the data analysis. A wide range of normalization methods for high-dimensional count data has been proposed but their performance on the analysis of shotgun metagenomic data has not been evaluated. Here, we present a systematic evaluation of nine normalization methods for gene abundance data. The methods were evaluated through resampling of three comprehensive datasets, creating a realistic setting that preserved the unique characteristics of metagenomic data. Performance was measured in terms of the methods ability to identify differentially abundant genes (DAGs), correctly calculate unbiased p-values and control the false discovery rate (FDR). Our results showed that the choice of normalization method has a large impact on the end results. When the DAGs were asymmetrically present between the experimental conditions, many normalization methods had a reduced true positive rate (TPR) and a high false positive rate (FPR). The methods trimmed mean of M-values (TMM) and relative log expression (RLE) had the overall highest performance and are therefore recommended for the analysis of gene abundance data. For larger sample sizes, CSS also showed satisfactory performance. This study emphasizes the importance of selecting a suitable normalization methods in the analysis of data from shotgun metagenomics. Our results also demonstrate that improper methods may result in unacceptably high levels of false positives, which in turn may lead

  18. Coordinated Pitch & Torque Control of Large-Scale Wind Turbine Based on Pareto Eciency Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhongwei; Chen, Zhenyu; Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    For the existing pitch and torque control of the wind turbine generator system (WTGS), further development on coordinated control is necessary to improve effectiveness for practical applications. In this paper, the WTGS is modeled as a coupling combination of two subsystems: the generator torque...... control subsystem and blade pitch control subsystem. Then, the pole positions in each control subsystem are adjusted coordinately to evaluate the controller participation and used as the objective of optimization. A two-level parameters-controllers coordinated optimization scheme is proposed and applied...... to optimize the controller coordination based on the Pareto optimization theory. Three solutions are obtained through optimization, which includes the optimal torque solution, optimal power solution, and satisfactory solution. Detailed comparisons evaluate the performance of the three selected solutions...

  19. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Outcome of Myocardial Infarction with Angiographically Normal and Near-Normal Coronary Arteries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ghaffari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Coronary artery diseases are mostly detected using angiographic methods demonstrating arteries status. Nevertheless, Myocardial Infarction (MI may occur in the presence of angiographically normal coronary arteries. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of MI with normal angiography and its possible etiologies in a systematic review. Evidence Acquisition: In this meta-analysis, the required data were collected from PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scopus, Magiran, Scientific Information Database, and Medlib databases using the following keywords: “coronary angiograph”, “normal coronary arteries”, “near-normal coronary arteries”, “heart diseases”, “coronary artery disease”, “coronary disease”, “cardiac troponin I”, “Myocardial infarction”, “risk factor”, “prevalence”, “outcome”, and their Persian equivalents. Then, Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software, version 2 using randomized model was employed to determine the prevalence of each complication and perform the meta-analysis. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: Totally, 20 studies including 139957 patients were entered into the analysis. The patients’ mean age was 47.62 ± 6.63 years and 64.4% of the patients were male. The prevalence of MI with normal or near-normal coronary arteries was 3.5% (CI = 95%, min = 2.2%, and max = 5.7%. Additionally, smoking and family history of cardiovascular diseases were the most important risk factors. The results showed no significant difference between MIs with normal angiography and 1- or 2-vessel involvement regarding the frequency of major adverse cardiac events (5.4% vs. 7.3%, P = 0.32. However, a significant difference was found between the patients with normal angiography and those with 3-vessel involvement in this regard (5.4% vs. 20.2%, P < 0.001. Conclusions: Although angiographic studies are required to assess the underlying

  20. Structure analysis in algorithms and programs. Generator of coordinates of equivalent points. (Collected programs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyushenko, N.N.; Titov, Yu.G.

    1982-01-01

    Programs of atom coordinate generation and space symmetry groups in a form of equivalent point systems are presented. Programs of generation and coordinate output from an on-line storage are written in the FORTRAN language for the ES computer. They may be used in laboratories specialized in studying atomic structure and material properties, in colleges and by specialists in other fields of physics and chemistry

  1. Genetic Analysis of Somatic Cell Score in Danish Holsteins Using a Liability-Normal Mixture Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P; Shariati, M M; Ødegård, J

    2008-01-01

    Mixture models are appealing for identifying hidden structures affecting somatic cell score (SCS) data, such as unrecorded cases of subclinical mastitis. Thus, liability-normal mixture (LNM) models were used for genetic analysis of SCS data, with the aim of predicting breeding values for such cas...

  2. Normalization of RNA-seq data using factor analysis of control genes or samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, Davide; Ngai, John; Speed, Terence P.; Dudoit, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Normalization of RNA-seq data has proven essential to ensure accurate inference of expression levels. Here we show that usual normalization approaches mostly account for sequencing depth and fail to correct for library preparation and other more-complex unwanted effects. We evaluate the performance of the External RNA Control Consortium (ERCC) spike-in controls and investigate the possibility of using them directly for normalization. We show that the spike-ins are not reliable enough to be used in standard global-scaling or regression-based normalization procedures. We propose a normalization strategy, remove unwanted variation (RUV), that adjusts for nuisance technical effects by performing factor analysis on suitable sets of control genes (e.g., ERCC spike-ins) or samples (e.g., replicate libraries). Our approach leads to more-accurate estimates of expression fold-changes and tests of differential expression compared to state-of-the-art normalization methods. In particular, RUV promises to be valuable for large collaborative projects involving multiple labs, technicians, and/or platforms. PMID:25150836

  3. Coordination analysis of players' distribution in football using cross-correlation and vector coding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Felipe Arruda; van Emmerik, Richard E A; Santana, Juliana Exel; Martins, Luiz Eduardo Barreto; Barros, Ricardo Machado Leite de; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the coordination between teams spread during football matches using cross-correlation and vector coding techniques. Using a video-based tracking system, we obtained the trajectories of 257 players during 10 matches. Team spread was calculated as functions of time. For a general coordination description, we calculated the cross-correlation between the signals. Vector coding was used to identify the coordination patterns between teams during offensive sequences that ended in shots on goal or defensive tackles. Cross-correlation showed that opponent teams have a tendency to present in-phase coordination, with a short time lag. During offensive sequences, vector coding results showed that, although in-phase coordination dominated, other patterns were observed. We verified that during the early stages, offensive sequences ending in shots on goal present greater anti-phase and attacking team phase periods, compared to sequences ending in tackles. Results suggest that the attacking team may seek to present a contrary behaviour of its opponent (or may lead the adversary behaviour) in the beginning of the attacking play, regarding to the distribution strategy, to increase the chances of a shot on goal. The techniques allowed detecting the coordination patterns between teams, providing additional information about football dynamics and players' interaction.

  4. Recent progresses in ion beam analysis of aerosol at tandetron laboratory of Beijing Normal University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangfu; Lu Yongfang; Zhu Guanghua

    2007-01-01

    PIXE analysis of aerosol samples for measuring concentrations of elements with Z>12 is one of major applications at the GIC4117 Tandetron in Beijing Normal University. In order to measure H, C, N and O concentration in aerosol samples, proton non-Rutherford back scattering spectrometry (PNBS) and proton elastic scattering analysis(PESA) were employed with two Au(Si) surface barrier detectors at angles of 160 degree and 40 degree in the PIXE chamber. (authors)

  5. Coordination of care in the Chinese health care systems: a gap analysis of service delivery from a provider perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Birch, Stephen; Zhu, Weiming; Ma, Huifen; Embrett, Mark; Meng, Qingyue

    2016-10-12

    Increases in health care utilization and costs, resulting from the rising prevalence of chronic conditions related to the aging population, is exacerbated by a high level of fragmentation that characterizes health care systems in China. There have been several pilot studies in China, aimed at system-level care coordination and its impact on the full integration of health care system, but little is known about their practical effects. Huangzhong County is one of the pilot study sites that introduced organizational integration (a dimension of integrated care) among health care institutions as a means to improve system-level care coordination. The purposes of this study are to examine the effect of organizational integration on system-level care coordination and to identify factors influencing care coordination and hence full integration of county health care systems in rural China. We chose Huangzhong and Hualong counties in Qinghai province as study sites, with only Huangzhong having implemented organizational integration. A mixed methods approach was used based on (1) document analysis and expert consultation to develop Best Practice intervention packages; (2) doctor questionnaires, identifying care coordination from the perspective of service provision. We measured service provision with gap index, overlap index and over-provision index, by comparing observed performance with Best Practice; (3) semi-structured interviews with Chiefs of Medicine in each institution to identify barriers to system-level care coordination. Twenty-nine institutions (11 at county-level, 6 at township-level and 12 at village-level) were selected producing surveys with a total of 19 schizophrenia doctors, 23 diabetes doctors and 29 Chiefs of Medicine. There were more care discontinuities for both diabetes and schizophrenia in Huangzhong than in Hualong. Overall, all three index scores (measuring service gaps, overlaps and over-provision) showed similar tendencies for the two conditions

  6. Economic analysis of the cross-border coordination of operation in the European power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Tanguy

    2014-01-01

    The electricity high voltage transmission networks are interconnected over most of the continents but this is not the case of the power system organizations. Indeed, as described with the concept of integrated power system, the organization over these large networks is divided by several kinds of internal borders. In this context, the research object, the cross-border coordination of operation, is a set of coordination arrangements over internal borders between differing regulatory, technical and market designs. These arrangements can include for instance the famous market couplings, some cost-sharing agreements or common security assessments among several other solutions. The existence and improvement of the cross-border coordination of operation can be beneficial to the whole integrated power system. This statement is verified in the European case as in 2012 where several regional and continental coordination arrangements are successfully implemented.In order to benefit from the European experience and contribute to support the European improvement process, this thesis investigates the cross-border coordination of operation in the European case with four angles of study. First, a modular framework is built to describe the existing solutions and the implementation choices from a regulatory point of view. Second, the thesis analyses the tools available to assess the impact of an evolution of the cross-border coordination. Third, the role of the European Union (EU) is described as critical both for the existing arrangements and to support the improvement process. The last angle of study focuses on two dimensions of the economic modes of coordination between transmission system operators. (author)

  7. Modal analysis of inter-area oscillations using the theory of normal modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, R.J. [School of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Colima, Manzanillo, Col. 28860 (Mexico); Barocio, E. [CUCEI, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jal. 44480 (Mexico); Messina, A.R. [Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Cinvestav, Guadalajara, Jal. 45015 (Mexico); Martinez, I. [State Autonomous University of Mexico, Toluca, Edo. Mex. 50110 (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    Based on the notion of normal modes in mechanical systems, a method is proposed for the analysis and characterization of oscillatory processes in power systems. The method is based on the property of invariance of modal subspaces and can be used to represent complex power system modal behavior by a set of decoupled, two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear oscillator equations. Using techniques from nonlinear mechanics, a new approach is outlined, for determining the normal modes (NMs) of motion of a general n-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system. Equations relating the normal modes and the physical velocities and displacements are developed from the linearized system model and numerical issues associated with the application of the technique are discussed. In addition to qualitative insight, this method can be utilized in the study of nonlinear behavior and bifurcation analyses. The application of these procedures is illustrated on a planning model of the Mexican interconnected system using a quadratic nonlinear model. Specifically, the use of normal mode analysis as a basis for identifying modal parameters, including natural frequencies and damping ratios of general, linear systems with n degrees of freedom is discussed. Comparisons to conventional linear analysis techniques demonstrate the ability of the proposed technique to extract the different oscillation modes embedded in the oscillation. (author)

  8. The Impact of Normalization Methods on RNA-Seq Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyprych-Walczak, J.; Szabelska, A.; Handschuh, L.; Górczak, K.; Klamecka, K.; Figlerowicz, M.; Siatkowski, I.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies, such as the Illumina Hi-seq, are powerful new tools for investigating a wide range of biological and medical problems. Massive and complex data sets produced by the sequencers create a need for development of statistical and computational methods that can tackle the analysis and management of data. The data normalization is one of the most crucial steps of data processing and this process must be carefully considered as it has a profound effect on the results of the analysis. In this work, we focus on a comprehensive comparison of five normalization methods related to sequencing depth, widely used for transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data, and their impact on the results of gene expression analysis. Based on this study, we suggest a universal workflow that can be applied for the selection of the optimal normalization procedure for any particular data set. The described workflow includes calculation of the bias and variance values for the control genes, sensitivity and specificity of the methods, and classification errors as well as generation of the diagnostic plots. Combining the above information facilitates the selection of the most appropriate normalization method for the studied data sets and determines which methods can be used interchangeably. PMID:26176014

  9. Neural signatures of trust in reciprocity: A coordinate-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Gabriele; Chernyak, Sergey V; Goodyear, Kimberly; Eickhoff, Simon B; Krueger, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Trust in reciprocity (TR) is defined as the risky decision to invest valued resources in another party with the hope of mutual benefit. Several fMRI studies have investigated the neural correlates of TR in one-shot and multiround versions of the investment game (IG). However, an overall characterization of the underlying neural networks remains elusive. Here, a coordinate-based meta-analysis was employed (activation likelihood estimation method, 30 articles) to investigate consistent brain activations in each of the IG stages (i.e., the trust, reciprocity and feedback stage). Results showed consistent activations in the anterior insula (AI) during trust decisions in the one-shot IG and decisions to reciprocate in the multiround IG, likely related to representations of aversive feelings. Moreover, decisions to reciprocate also consistently engaged the intraparietal sulcus, probably involved in evaluations of the reciprocity options. On the contrary, trust decisions in the multiround IG consistently activated the ventral striatum, likely associated with reward prediction error signals. Finally, the dorsal striatum was found consistently recruited during the feedback stage of the multiround IG, likely related to reinforcement learning. In conclusion, our results indicate different neural networks underlying trust, reciprocity, and feedback learning. These findings suggest that although decisions to trust and reciprocate may elicit aversive feelings likely evoked by the uncertainty about the decision outcomes and the pressing requirements of social standards, multiple interactions allow people to build interpersonal trust for cooperation via a learning mechanism by which they arguably learn to distinguish trustworthy from untrustworthy partners. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1233-1248, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Teacher Perspectives of Interdisciplinary Coteaching Relationships in a Clinical Skills Course: A Relational Coordination Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michelle M; Ross, Paula; Stalmeijer, Renée E; de Grave, Willem

    2018-01-01

    Phenomenon: Interdisciplinary coteaching has become a popular pedagogic model in medical education, yet there is insufficient research to guide effective practices in this context. Coteaching relationships are not always effective, which has the potential to affect the student experience. The purpose of this study was to explore interdisciplinary coteaching relationships between a physician (MD) and social behavioral scientist (SBS) in an undergraduate clinical skills course. We aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of what teachers perceive as influencing the quality of relationships to begin to construct a framework for collaborative teaching in medical education. A qualitative study was conducted consisting of 12 semistructured interviews (6 MD and 6 SBS) and 2 monodisciplinary focus groups. Sampling was purposive and aimed at maximal variation from among 64 possible faculty. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method to develop a grounded theory. Five major themes resulted from the analysis that outline a framework for interdisciplinary coteaching: respect, shared goals, shared knowledge and understanding, communication, and complementary pairings. Insights: The first 4 themes align with elements of relational coordination theory, an organizational theory of collaborative practice that describes how work roles interact. The complementary pairings extend this theory from work roles to individuals, with unique identities and personal beliefs and values about teaching. Prior studies on coteaching have not provided a clear linkage to theory. The conceptual framework helps suggest future directions for coteaching research and has practical implications for administrative practices and faculty development. These findings contribute to the sparse research in medical education on interdisciplinary coteaching relationships.

  11. Analysis of a Dynamic Viscoelastic Contact Problem with Normal Compliance, Normal Damped Response, and Nonmonotone Slip Rate Dependent Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaël Barboteu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model which describes the dynamic evolution of a viscoelastic body in frictional contact with an obstacle. The contact is modelled with a combination of a normal compliance and a normal damped response law associated with a slip rate-dependent version of Coulomb’s law of dry friction. We derive a variational formulation and an existence and uniqueness result of the weak solution of the problem is presented. Next, we introduce a fully discrete approximation of the variational problem based on a finite element method and on an implicit time integration scheme. We study this fully discrete approximation schemes and bound the errors of the approximate solutions. Under regularity assumptions imposed on the exact solution, optimal order error estimates are derived for the fully discrete solution. Finally, after recalling the solution of the frictional contact problem, some numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate both the behavior of the solution related to the frictional contact conditions and the theoretical error estimate result.

  12. Datum Feature Extraction and Deformation Analysis Method Based on Normal Vector of Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Wang, J.; Jin, F.; Liang, Z.; Yang, Y.

    2018-04-01

    In order to solve the problem lacking applicable analysis method in the application of three-dimensional laser scanning technology to the field of deformation monitoring, an efficient method extracting datum feature and analysing deformation based on normal vector of point cloud was proposed. Firstly, the kd-tree is used to establish the topological relation. Datum points are detected by tracking the normal vector of point cloud determined by the normal vector of local planar. Then, the cubic B-spline curve fitting is performed on the datum points. Finally, datum elevation and the inclination angle of the radial point are calculated according to the fitted curve and then the deformation information was analyzed. The proposed approach was verified on real large-scale tank data set captured with terrestrial laser scanner in a chemical plant. The results show that the method could obtain the entire information of the monitor object quickly and comprehensively, and reflect accurately the datum feature deformation.

  13. Data analysis of x-ray fluorescence holography by subtracting normal component from inverse hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happo, Naohisa; Hayashi, Kouichi; Hosokawa, Shinya

    2010-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a powerful technique for determining three-dimensional local atomic arrangements around a specific fluorescing element. However, the raw experimental hologram is predominantly a mixed hologram, i.e., a mixture of hologram generated in both normal and inverse modes, which produces unreliable atomic images. In this paper, we propose a practical subtraction method of the normal component from the inverse XFH data by a Fourier transform for the calculated hologram of a model ZnTe cluster. Many spots originating from the normal components could be properly removed using a mask function, and clear atomic images were reconstructed at adequate positions of the model cluster. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of experimental ZnTe single crystal XFH data. (author)

  14. Principal coordinate analysis of genotype × environment interaction for grain yield of bread wheat in the semi-arid regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabaghnia Naser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-environmental trials have significant main effects and significant multiplicative genotype × environment (GE interaction effect. Principal coordinate analysis (PCOA offers a more appropriate statistical analysis to deal with such situations, compared to traditional statistical methods. Eighteen bread wheat genotypes were grown in four semi-arid regions over three year seasons to study the GE interaction and yield stability and obtained data on grain yield were analyzed using PCOA. Combined analysis of variance indicated that all of the studied effects including the main effects of genotype and environments as well as the GE interaction were highly significant. According to grand means and total mean yield, test environments were grouped to two main groups as high mean yield (H and low mean yield (L. There were five H test environments and six L test environments which analyzed in the sequential cycles. For each cycle, both scatter point diagram and minimum spanning tree plot were drawn. The identified most stable genotypes with dynamic stability concept and based on the minimum spanning tree plots and centroid distances were G1 (3310.2 kg ha-1 and G5 (3065.6 kg ha-1, and therefore could be recommended for unfavorable or poor conditions. Also, genotypes G7 (3047.2 kg ha-1 and G16 (3132.3 kg ha-1 were located several times in the vertex positions of high cycles according to the principal coordinates analysis. The principal coordinates analysis provided useful and interesting ways of investigating GE interaction of barley genotypes. Finally, the results of principal coordinates analysis in general confirmed the breeding value of the genotypes, obtained on the basis of the yield stability evaluation.

  15. CONSTRUCTION THEORY AND NOISE ANALYSIS METHOD OF GLOBAL CGCS2000 COORDINATE FRAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The definition, renewal and maintenance of geodetic datum has been international hot issue. In recent years, many countries have been studying and implementing modernization and renewal of local geodetic reference coordinate frame. Based on the precise result of continuous observation for recent 15 years from state CORS (continuously operating reference system network and the mainland GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System network between 1999 and 2007, this paper studies the construction of mathematical model of the Global CGCS2000 frame, mainly analyzes the theory and algorithm of two-step method for Global CGCS2000 Coordinate Frame formulation. Finally, the noise characteristic of the coordinate time series are estimated quantitatively with the criterion of maximum likelihood estimation.

  16. Elemental analysis of the frontal lobe of 'normal' brain tissue and that affected by Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    'Normal' brain tissue and brain tissue affected by Alzheimer's disease has been taken from the frontal lobe of both hemispheres and their elemental compositions in terms of major, minor and trace elements compared. Brain samples were obtained from the MRC Alzheimer's Disease Brain Bank, London. 25 samples were taken from 18 individuals (5 males and 13 females) of mean age 79.9 ± 7.3 years with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease and 26 samples from 15 individuals (8 males and 7 females) of mean age 71.8 ± 13.0 years with no pathological sings of Alzheimer's disease ('normals'). The elemental concentration of the samples were determined by the techniques of Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analysis, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Sc, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Cs were detected by INAA and significant differences in concentrations were found between concentrations in normal and Alzheimer tissue for the elements. Na, Cl, K, Se, Br and Rb, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cd were detected by PIXE analysis and significant differences found for the elements P, S, Cl, K and Ca. (author)

  17. Comparative study of various normal mode analysis techniques based on partial Hessians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghysels, An; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Pauwels, Ewald; Catak, Saron; Brooks, Bernard R; Van Neck, Dimitri; Waroquier, Michel

    2010-04-15

    Standard normal mode analysis becomes problematic for complex molecular systems, as a result of both the high computational cost and the excessive amount of information when the full Hessian matrix is used. Several partial Hessian methods have been proposed in the literature, yielding approximate normal modes. These methods aim at reducing the computational load and/or calculating only the relevant normal modes of interest in a specific application. Each method has its own (dis)advantages and application field but guidelines for the most suitable choice are lacking. We have investigated several partial Hessian methods, including the Partial Hessian Vibrational Analysis (PHVA), the Mobile Block Hessian (MBH), and the Vibrational Subsystem Analysis (VSA). In this article, we focus on the benefits and drawbacks of these methods, in terms of the reproduction of localized modes, collective modes, and the performance in partially optimized structures. We find that the PHVA is suitable for describing localized modes, that the MBH not only reproduces localized and global modes but also serves as an analysis tool of the spectrum, and that the VSA is mostly useful for the reproduction of the low frequency spectrum. These guidelines are illustrated with the reproduction of the localized amine-stretch, the spectrum of quinine and a bis-cinchona derivative, and the low frequency modes of the LAO binding protein. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Analysis of normalized-characteristic curves and determination of the granulometric state of dissolved uranium dioxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melichar, F.; Neumann, L.

    1977-01-01

    Methods are presented for the analysis of normalized-characteristic curves, which make it possible to determine the granulometric composition of a dissolved polydispersion - the cumulative mass distribution of particles - as a function of the relative particle size. If the size of the largest particle in the dissolved polydispersion is known, these methods allow the determination of the dependence of cumulative mass ratios of particles on their absolute sizes. In the inverse method of the geometrical model for determining the granulometric composition of a dissolved polydispersion, the polydispersion is represented by a finite number of monodispersions. An accurate analysis of normalized-characteristic equations leads to the Akselrud dissolution model. As against the other two methods, the latter allows the determination of the granulometric composition for an arbitrary number of particle sizes. The method of the granulometric atlas is a method for estimating the granulometric composition of a dissolved polydispersion and is based on comparison of a normalized-characteristic curve for an unknown granulometric composition with an atlas of normalized-characteristic curves for selected granulometric spectra of polydispersions. (author)

  19. Super-delta: a new differential gene expression analysis procedure with robust data normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhang; Zhang, Jinfeng; Qiu, Xing

    2017-12-21

    Normalization is an important data preparation step in gene expression analyses, designed to remove various systematic noise. Sample variance is greatly reduced after normalization, hence the power of subsequent statistical analyses is likely to increase. On the other hand, variance reduction is made possible by borrowing information across all genes, including differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and outliers, which will inevitably introduce some bias. This bias typically inflates type I error; and can reduce statistical power in certain situations. In this study we propose a new differential expression analysis pipeline, dubbed as super-delta, that consists of a multivariate extension of the global normalization and a modified t-test. A robust procedure is designed to minimize the bias introduced by DEGs in the normalization step. The modified t-test is derived based on asymptotic theory for hypothesis testing that suitably pairs with the proposed robust normalization. We first compared super-delta with four commonly used normalization methods: global, median-IQR, quantile, and cyclic loess normalization in simulation studies. Super-delta was shown to have better statistical power with tighter control of type I error rate than its competitors. In many cases, the performance of super-delta is close to that of an oracle test in which datasets without technical noise were used. We then applied all methods to a collection of gene expression datasets on breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. While there is a substantial overlap of the DEGs identified by all of them, super-delta were able to identify comparatively more DEGs than its competitors. Downstream gene set enrichment analysis confirmed that all these methods selected largely consistent pathways. Detailed investigations on the relatively small differences showed that pathways identified by super-delta have better connections to breast cancer than other methods. As a new pipeline, super

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of Success Stories from Michiana Coordinated School Health Leadership Institute Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Natalie; Lohrmann, David K.; O'Neill, James; Clark, Jeffrey K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to detect and document common themes among success stories, along with challenges, as related by participants in the Michiana Coordinated School Health Leadership Institute. Four-member teams from 18 Michigan and Indiana school districts participated in semiannual Institute workshops over a 3-year period…

  1. Final report of coordination and cooperation with the European Union on embankment failure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been an emphasis in the European Union (EU) community on the investigation of extreme flood processes and the uncertainties related to these processes. Over a 3-year period, the EU and the U.S. dam safety community (1) coordinated their efforts and collected information needed to integrate...

  2. Performance analysis of coordination strategies in two-tier Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Boukhedimi, Ikram

    2016-08-11

    Large scale multi-tier Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) are expected to ensure a consistent quality of service (QoS) in 5G systems. Such networks consist of a macro base station (BS) equipped with a large number of antennas and a dense overlay of small cells. The small cells could be deployed within the same coverage of the macro-cell BS, thereby causing high levels of inter-cell interference. In this regard, coordinated beamforming techniques are considered as a viable solution to counteract the arising interference. The goal of this work is to analyze the efficiency of coordinated beamforming techniques in mitigating both intra-cell and inter-cell interference. In particular, we consider the downlink of a Time-division duplexing (TDD) massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) tier-HetNet and analyze different beamforming schemes together with different degrees of coordination between the BSs. We exploit random matrix theory tools in order to provide, in explicit form, deterministic equivalents for the average achievable rates in the macro-cell and the micro-cells. We prove that our theoretical derivations allow us to draw some conclusions regarding the role played by coordination strategies in reducing the inter-cell interference. These findings are finally validated by a selection of some numerical results. © 2016 IEEE.

  3. Performance analysis of coordination strategies in two-tier Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Boukhedimi, Ikram; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Large scale multi-tier Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) are expected to ensure a consistent quality of service (QoS) in 5G systems. Such networks consist of a macro base station (BS) equipped with a large number of antennas and a dense overlay of small cells. The small cells could be deployed within the same coverage of the macro-cell BS, thereby causing high levels of inter-cell interference. In this regard, coordinated beamforming techniques are considered as a viable solution to counteract the arising interference. The goal of this work is to analyze the efficiency of coordinated beamforming techniques in mitigating both intra-cell and inter-cell interference. In particular, we consider the downlink of a Time-division duplexing (TDD) massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) tier-HetNet and analyze different beamforming schemes together with different degrees of coordination between the BSs. We exploit random matrix theory tools in order to provide, in explicit form, deterministic equivalents for the average achievable rates in the macro-cell and the micro-cells. We prove that our theoretical derivations allow us to draw some conclusions regarding the role played by coordination strategies in reducing the inter-cell interference. These findings are finally validated by a selection of some numerical results. © 2016 IEEE.

  4. Investigation, Modeling, and Analysis of Integrated Metroplex Arrival and Departure Coordination Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John-Paul B.; Brooks, James; McClain, Evan; Paladhi, Anwesha Roy; Li, Leihong; Schleicher, David; Saraf, Aditya; Timar, Sebastian; Crisp, Don; Bertino, Jason; hide

    2012-01-01

    This work involves the development of a concept that enhances integrated metroplex arrival and departure coordination, determines the temporal (the use of time separation for aircraft sharing the same airspace resources) and spatial (the use of different routes or vertical profiles for aircraft streams at any given time) impact of metroplex traffic coordination within the National Airspace System (NAS), and quantifies the benefits of the most desirable metroplex traffic coordination concept. Researching and developing metroplex concepts is addressed in this work that broadly applies across the range of airspace and airport demand characteristics envisioned for NextGen metroplex operations. The objective of this work is to investigate, formulate, develop models, and analyze an operational concept that mitigates issues specific to the metroplex or that takes advantage of unique characteristics of metroplex airports to improve efficiencies. The concept is an innovative approach allowing the NAS to mitigate metroplex interdependencies between airports, optimize metroplex arrival and departure coordination among airports, maximize metroplex airport throughput, minimize delay due to airport runway configuration changes, increase resiliency to disruptions, and increase the tolerance of the system to degrade gracefully under adverse conditions such as weather, traffic management initiatives, and delays in general.

  5. Analysis of Large Flexible Body Deformation in Multibody Systems Using Absolute Coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrowski, Stefan von [Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics, German Aerospace Center (DLR) (Germany)], E-mail: stefan.von.dombrowski@dlr.de

    2002-11-15

    To consider large deformation problems in multibody system simulations a finite element approach, called absolute nodal coordinate.formulation,has been proposed. In this formulation absolute nodal coordinates and their material derivatives are applied to represent both deformation and rigid body motion. The choice of nodal variables allows a fully nonlinear representation of rigid body motion and can provide the exact rigid body inertia in the case of large rotations. The methodology is especially suited for but not limited to modeling of beams, cables and shells in multibody dynamics.This paper summarizes the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for a 3D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, in particular the definition of nodal variables, corresponding generalized elastic and inertia forces and equations of motion. The element stiffness matrix is a nonlinear function of the nodal variables even in the case of linearized strain/displacement relations. Nonlinear strain/displacement relations can be calculated from the global displacements using quadrature formulae.Computational examples are given which demonstrate the capabilities of the applied methodology. Consequences of the choice of shape.functions on the representation of internal forces are discussed. Linearized strain/displacement modeling is compared to the nonlinear approach and significant advantages of the latter, when using the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, are outlined.

  6. Analysis of Large Flexible Body Deformation in Multibody Systems Using Absolute Coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowski, Stefan von

    2002-01-01

    To consider large deformation problems in multibody system simulations a finite element approach, called absolute nodal coordinate.formulation,has been proposed. In this formulation absolute nodal coordinates and their material derivatives are applied to represent both deformation and rigid body motion. The choice of nodal variables allows a fully nonlinear representation of rigid body motion and can provide the exact rigid body inertia in the case of large rotations. The methodology is especially suited for but not limited to modeling of beams, cables and shells in multibody dynamics.This paper summarizes the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for a 3D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, in particular the definition of nodal variables, corresponding generalized elastic and inertia forces and equations of motion. The element stiffness matrix is a nonlinear function of the nodal variables even in the case of linearized strain/displacement relations. Nonlinear strain/displacement relations can be calculated from the global displacements using quadrature formulae.Computational examples are given which demonstrate the capabilities of the applied methodology. Consequences of the choice of shape.functions on the representation of internal forces are discussed. Linearized strain/displacement modeling is compared to the nonlinear approach and significant advantages of the latter, when using the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, are outlined

  7. Development of a database for prompt γ-ray neutron activation analysis: Summary report of the third research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, Richard M.; Firestone, Richard B.; Paviotti-Corcuera, R.

    2003-01-01

    The main discussions and conclusions from the Third Co-ordination Meeting on the Development of a Database for Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis are summarized in this report. All results were reviewed in detail, and the final version of the TECDOC and the corresponding software were agreed upon and approved for preparation. Actions were formulated with the aim of completing the final version of the TECDOC and associated software by May 2003

  8. Development of a database for prompt γ-ray neutron activation analysis. Summary report of the second research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lone, M.A.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Paviotti-Corcuera, R.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the presentations, recommendations and conclusions of the Second Research Co-ordination Meeting on Development of a Database for Prompt γ-ray Neutron Activation Analysis. The purpose of this meeting was to review results achieved on the development of the database, discuss further developments and planning of the products ol this CRP. Actions to be taken were agreed upon with the aim to complete the project by the end of 2002. (author)

  9. Development of a database for prompt γ-ray neutron activation analysis. Summary report of the third research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstorm, Richard M.; Firestone, Richard B.; Paviotti-Corcuera, R.

    2003-04-01

    The main discussions and conclusions from the Third Co-ordination Meeting on the Development of a Database for Prompt γ-ray Neutron Activation Analysis are summarised in this report. All results were reviewed in detail, and the final version of the TECDOC and the corresponding software were agreed upon and approved for preparation. Actions were formulated with the aim of completing the final version of the TECDOC and associated software by May 2003. (author)

  10. Analysis of AHWR downcomer piping supported on elastoplastic dampers and subjected to normal and earthquake loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, P.N.; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2010-05-01

    Three layouts have been considered for AHWR downcomer for codal qualification in order to ensure its structural integrity under normal and occasional loads. In addition to codal qualification a good piping layout should have less number of bends and weld joints in order to reduce the in-service inspection cost. Less number of bends will reduce the pressure drop in natural circulation and lesser number of weld joints will reduce the total time of in-service inspection that finally reduces the radiation dose to the workers. Conventional seismic design approach of piping with snubbers leads to high cost, maintenance and possible locking causing undue higher thermal stress during normal operation. New seismic supports in the form of Elasto-Plastic Damper (EPD) are the best suited for nuclear piping because of their simple design, low cost, passive nature and ease in installation. In this report the characteristics of EPD obtained from theory, finite element analysis and tests have been presented and comparison has also been made among the three. Analysis method and code qualification of AHWR downcomer piping considering the loadings due to normal operating and occasional loads such as earthquake have been discussed in detail. This report also explains the concept of single support and multi-support response spectrum analysis methods. The results obtained by using both types of supports i.e. conventional and EPD supports have been compared and use of EPD supports in AHWR downcomer pipe is recommended. (author)

  11. EMG normalization method based on grade 3 of manual muscle testing: Within- and between-day reliability of normalization tasks and application to gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabard-Fougère, Anne; Rose-Dulcina, Kevin; Pittet, Vincent; Dayer, Romain; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Armand, Stéphane

    2018-02-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is an important parameter in Clinical Gait Analysis (CGA), and is generally interpreted with timing of activation. EMG amplitude comparisons between individuals, muscles or days need normalization. There is no consensus on existing methods. The gold standard, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), is not adapted to pathological populations because patients are often unable to perform an MVIC. The normalization method inspired by the isometric grade 3 of manual muscle testing (isoMMT3), which is the ability of a muscle to maintain a position against gravity, could be an interesting alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the within- and between-day reliability of the isoMMT3 EMG normalizing method during gait compared with the conventional MVIC method. Lower limb muscles EMG (gluteus medius, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus) were recorded bilaterally in nine healthy participants (five males, aged 29.7±6.2years, BMI 22.7±3.3kgm -2 ) giving a total of 18 independent legs. Three repeated measurements of the isoMMT3 and MVIC exercises were performed with an EMG recording. EMG amplitude of the muscles during gait was normalized by these two methods. This protocol was repeated one week later. Within- and between-day reliability of normalization tasks were similar for isoMMT3 and MVIC methods. Within- and between-day reliability of gait EMG normalized by isoMMT3 was higher than with MVIC normalization. These results indicate that EMG normalization using isoMMT3 is a reliable method with no special equipment needed and will support CGA interpretation. The next step will be to evaluate this method in pathological populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Digital fringe projection for hand surface coordinate variation analysis caused by osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Haimi, Wan Mokhdzani Wan; Hau Tan, Cheek; Retnasamy, Vithyacharan; Vairavan, Rajendaran; Sauli, Zaliman; Roshidah Yusof, Nor; Hambali, Nor Azura Malini Ahmad; Aziz, Muhammad Hafiz Ab; Bakhit, Ahmad Syahir Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Hand osteoarthritis is one of the most common forms of arthritis which impact millions of people worldwide. The disabling problem occurs when the protective cartilage on the boundaries of bones wear off over time. Currently, in order to identify hand osteoarthritis, special instruments namely X-ray scanning and MRI are used for the detection but it also has its limitations such as radiation exposure and can be quite costly. In this work, an optical metrology system based on digital fringe projection which comprises of an LCD projector, CCD camera and a personal computer has been developed to anticipate abnormal growth or deformation on the joints of the hand which are common symptoms of osteoarthritis. The main concept of this optical metrology system is to apply structured light as imaging source for surface change detection. The imaging source utilizes fringe patterns generated by C++ programming and is shifted by 3 phase shifts based on the 3 steps 2 shifts method. Phase wrapping technique and analysis were applied in order to detect the deformation of live subjects. The result has demonstrated a successful method of hand deformation detection based on the pixel tracking differences of a normal and deformed state.

  13. Restoring normal eating behaviour in adolescents with anorexia nervosa: A video analysis of nursing interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukers, Laura; Berends, Tamara; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; van Meijel, Berno

    2015-12-01

    An important part of inpatient treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa is to restore normal eating behaviour. Health-care professionals play a significant role in this process, but little is known about their interventions during patients' meals. The purpose of the present study was to describe nursing interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour in patients with anorexia nervosa. The main research question was: 'Which interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour do health-care professionals in a specialist eating disorder centre use during meal times for adolescents diagnosed with anorexia nervosa? The present study was a qualitative, descriptive study that used video recordings made during mealtimes. Thematic data analysis was applied. Four categories of interventions emerged from the data: (i) monitoring and instructing; (ii) encouraging and motivating; (iii) supporting and understanding; and (iv) educating. The data revealed a directive attitude aimed at promoting behavioural change, but always in combination with empathy and understanding. In the first stage of clinical treatment, health-care professionals focus primarily on changing patients' eating behaviour. However, they also address the psychosocial needs that become visible in patients as they struggle to restore normal eating behaviour. The findings of the present study can be used to assist health-care professionals, and improve multidisciplinary guidelines and health-care professionals' training programmes. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  14. A phylogenetic analysis of normal modes evolution in enzymes and its relationship to enzyme function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jason; Jin, Jing; Kubelka, Jan; Liberles, David A

    2012-09-21

    Since the dynamic nature of protein structures is essential for enzymatic function, it is expected that functional evolution can be inferred from the changes in protein dynamics. However, dynamics can also diverge neutrally with sequence substitution between enzymes without changes of function. In this study, a phylogenetic approach is implemented to explore the relationship between enzyme dynamics and function through evolutionary history. Protein dynamics are described by normal mode analysis based on a simplified harmonic potential force field applied to the reduced C(α) representation of the protein structure while enzymatic function is described by Enzyme Commission numbers. Similarity of the binding pocket dynamics at each branch of the protein family's phylogeny was analyzed in two ways: (1) explicitly by quantifying the normal mode overlap calculated for the reconstructed ancestral proteins at each end and (2) implicitly using a diffusion model to obtain the reconstructed lineage-specific changes in the normal modes. Both explicit and implicit ancestral reconstruction identified generally faster rates of change in dynamics compared with the expected change from neutral evolution at the branches of potential functional divergences for the α-amylase, D-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, and copper-containing amine oxidase protein families. Normal mode analysis added additional information over just comparing the RMSD of static structures. However, the branch-specific changes were not statistically significant compared to background function-independent neutral rates of change of dynamic properties and blind application of the analysis would not enable prediction of changes in enzyme specificity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bulk hydrogen analysis, using neutrons. Final report of the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The aims of the Second Co-ordination Meting (RCM) of the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) were to report on and review progress against the work programme set at the beginning of the CRP and to discuss the work plans for the second half of the programme. In many cases hydrogen is required to be measured in a bulk medium rather than merely at a surface. For this reason neutrons are used due to their high penetrating power in dense material. In addition, the mass attenuation coefficient for neutrons in hydrogen is significantly larger than for all other elements, meaning that neutrons have a higher probability of interacting with hydrogen than with other elements in the sample matrix. Neutrons have been used in the following areas: Fast Neutron Transmission, Scattering and Activation Technique; Digital Neutron Imaging; Hydrogen Detection by Epithermal Neutrons; Microscopic Behaviour of Hydrogen in Bulk Materials

  16. Analysis of carboxylate coordination function of the isomeric lanthanide pyridinedicarboxylates by means of vibration spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puntus, L.; Zolin, V.; Kudryashova, V.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of IR spectra of salts of six isomers of pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDA): 2,3-, 2,4-, 2,5-, 2,6-, 3,4- and 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acids, have demonstrated that properties of these salts are dependent on the bonding manner of carboxylate groups and on coordination of heterocyclic nitrogen atom. The most prominent differences in properties and spectra of 2,6- and 3,4-PDA salts are conditioned correspondingly by monodentate and bidentate coordination functions of the carboxylate groups in these compounds. The correlation of the breathing vibration frequency, reflecting the rigidity of the heterocyclic ring, with position of the carboxylate substituents, conditioning intramolecular charge transfer (CT), was postulated and proved by shifts of the breathing vibration frequency dependent on the structure of isomeric ligand

  17. Geometrically motivated hyperbolic coordinate conditions for numerical relativity: Analysis, issues and implementations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bona, Carles; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela-Luque, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    We study the implications of adopting hyperbolic-driver coordinate conditions motivated by geometrical considerations. In particular, conditions that minimize the rate of change of the metric variables. We analyze the properties of the resulting system of equations and their effect when implementing excision techniques. We find that commonly used coordinate conditions lead to a characteristic structure at the excision surface where some modes are not of outflow type with respect to any excision boundary chosen inside the horizon. Thus, boundary conditions are required for these modes. Unfortunately, the specification of these conditions is a delicate issue as the outflow modes involve both gauge and main variables. As an alternative to these driver equations, we examine conditions derived from extremizing a scalar constructed from Killing's equation and present specific numerical examples

  18. Biopower, Normalization, and HPV: A Foucauldian Analysis of the HPV Vaccine Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Kimberly S

    2016-09-01

    This article utilizes the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization to give an analysis of the debate surrounding the controversial administration of the HPV vaccine to adolescents. My intention is not to solve the problem, rather to utilize a Foucauldian framework to bring various facets of the issue to light, specifically the way the vaccine contributes to strategies of power in reference to how young adults develop within relationships of power. To begin, the article provides an overview of the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization, including how these two strategies of power were present in the administration of the smallpox vaccine in the 19th century. Next, information about HPV and the history of the current controversy in the United States is presented. Lastly, the article presents an analysis of the strategies of biopower and normalization present in the debate on HPV, including an emphasis on how the vaccination is similar to, and different from, 19th century smallpox vaccination. It also explores the way that mechanisms of disease control affect and are affected by individual subjects, in this case, adolescents.

  19. Fast Edge Detection and Segmentation of Terrestrial Laser Scans Through Normal Variation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, E.; Olsen, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) utilizes light detection and ranging (lidar) to effectively and efficiently acquire point cloud data for a wide variety of applications. Segmentation is a common procedure of post-processing to group the point cloud into a number of clusters to simplify the data for the sequential modelling and analysis needed for most applications. This paper presents a novel method to rapidly segment TLS data based on edge detection and region growing. First, by computing the projected incidence angles and performing the normal variation analysis, the silhouette edges and intersection edges are separated from the smooth surfaces. Then a modified region growing algorithm groups the points lying on the same smooth surface. The proposed method efficiently exploits the gridded scan pattern utilized during acquisition of TLS data from most sensors and takes advantage of parallel programming to process approximately 1 million points per second. Moreover, the proposed segmentation does not require estimation of the normal at each point, which limits the errors in normal estimation propagating to segmentation. Both an indoor and outdoor scene are used for an experiment to demonstrate and discuss the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed segmentation method.

  20. Evaluation of Different Normalization and Analysis Procedures for Illumina Gene Expression Microarray Data Involving Small Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Daniel M.; Riveros, Carlos; Heidari, Moones; Graham, Ross M.; Trinder, Debbie; Berretta, Regina; Olynyk, John K.; Scott, Rodney J.; Moscato, Pablo; Milward, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    While Illumina microarrays can be used successfully for detecting small gene expression changes due to their high degree of technical replicability, there is little information on how different normalization and differential expression analysis strategies affect outcomes. To evaluate this, we assessed concordance across gene lists generated by applying different combinations of normalization strategy and analytical approach to two Illumina datasets with modest expression changes. In addition to using traditional statistical approaches, we also tested an approach based on combinatorial optimization. We found that the choice of both normalization strategy and analytical approach considerably affected outcomes, in some cases leading to substantial differences in gene lists and subsequent pathway analysis results. Our findings suggest that important biological phenomena may be overlooked when there is a routine practice of using only one approach to investigate all microarray datasets. Analytical artefacts of this kind are likely to be especially relevant for datasets involving small fold changes, where inherent technical variation—if not adequately minimized by effective normalization—may overshadow true biological variation. This report provides some basic guidelines for optimizing outcomes when working with Illumina datasets involving small expression changes. PMID:27605185

  1. Visual Analysis of North Atlantic Hurricane Trends Using Parallel Coordinates and Statistical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-07

    analyzing multivariate data sets. The system was developed using the Java Development Kit (JDK) version 1.5; and it yields interactive performance on a... script and captures output from the MATLAB’s “regress” and “stepwisefit” utilities that perform simple and stepwise regression, respectively. The MATLAB...Statistical Association, vol. 85, no. 411, pp. 664–675, 1990. [9] H. Hauser, F. Ledermann, and H. Doleisch, “ Angular brushing of extended parallel coordinates

  2. Coordination activities of human planners during rescheduling: Case analysis and event handling procedure

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper addresses the process of event handling and rescheduling in manufacturing practice. Firms are confronted with many diverse events, like new or changed orders, machine breakdowns, and material shortages. These events influence the feasibility and optimality of schedules, and thus induce rescheduling. In many manufacturing firms, schedules are created by several human planners. Coordination between them is needed to respond to events adequately. In this paper,...

  3. Speciation analysis of arsenic, chromium and selenium in aquatic media. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    The initiation of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development and Validation of Speciation Analysis using Nuclear Techniques resulted from the recognition that knowledge of total element concentration does not provide adequate information to understand the effects of trace and heavy metals observed in the environment and in living systems. Their toxicity, bioavailability, physiological and metabolic processes, mobility and distribution are greatly dependent on the specific chemical form of the element. Speciation analysis has yet to be developed to its full potential for biochemical, clinical and environmental investigations and still more work is needed in the near future. Seven participants from seven countries participated in this CRP covering a range of analytical techniques including GC, HPLC, AAS, and ICP-MS. The first Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) of the Coordinated Research Project on the Development and Validation of Speciation Analysis using Nuclear Techniques was held at the Reactor Centre of the Jozef Stefan Institute, Podgorica (near Ljubljana), Slovenia, 20-23 June 2001. The second RCM was held at the Technical University of Vienna, 18-22 November 2002, where, in addition to the participants, two external researchers could present their views and experience in the field. The last RCM was held in Vienna, 26-29 April 2004, and this publication is a summary of the results achieved and presented at this last RCM. The participants have developed several new procedures for the reliable analysis of As, Cr, and Se species, mainly in aquatic media. A new instrument was designed and several recommendations for speciation analysis were issued. It is hoped that this publication will make a contribution to enhancing the awareness of the importance of speciation analysis and add to the reliability of speciation results in Member State laboratories

  4. [Health projects managed by Nursing Coordinators: an analysis of contents and degree of success].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Bresciani, Federica; Brutti, Caterina; Chiari, Ileana; Fontana, Luciana; Fronza, Ornella; Gasperi, Giuseppina; Gheno, Oscar; Guarese, Olga; Leali, Anna; Mansueti, Nadia; Masieri, Enrico; Messina, Laura; Munaretto, Gabriella; Paoli, Claudia; Perusi, Chiara; Randon, Giulia; Rossi, Gloria; Solazzo, Pasquale; Telli, Debora; Trenti, Giuliano; Veronese, Elisabetta; Saiani, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    To describe the evolution and results of health projects run in hospitals and managed by Nursing Coordinators. A convenience sample of 13 north Italian hospital, and a sample of 56 Nursing Coordinators with a permanent position from at least 1 year, was contacted. The following information was collected with a structured interview: projects run in 2009, topic, if bottom up or top down, number of staff involved and state (ended, still running, stopped). In 2009 Nursing Coordinators started 114 projects (mean 1.8±1.2 each): 94 (82.5%) were improvement projects, 17 (14.9%) accreditation, and 3 (2.6%) research. The projects involved 2.732 staff members (73.7%; average commitment 84 hours); 55 (48.2%) projects were still running, 52 (45.6%) completed, for 5 (4.4%) there was no assessment and 2 (1.8%) had been stopped. Nurses are regularly involved in several projects. A systematic monitoring of the results obtained and stabilization strategies are scarce. Due to the large number of resources invested, a correct management and the choice of areas relevant for patients' problems and needs are pivotal.

  5. Coordinated Control Design for the HTR-PM Plant: From Theoretic Analysis to Simulation Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Zhe; Huang Xiaojin

    2014-01-01

    HTR-PM plant is a two-modular nuclear power plant based on pebble bed modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR), and adopts operation scheme of two nuclear steam supplying systems (NSSSs) driving one turbine. Here, an NSSS is composed of an MHTGR, a once-through steam generator (OTSG) and some connecting pipes. Due to the coupling effect induced by two NSSSs driving one common turbine and that between the MHTGR and OTSG given by common helium flow, it is necessary to design a coordinated control for the safe, stable and efficient operation of the HTR-PM plant. In this paper, the design of the feedback loops and control algorithms of the coordinated plant control law is firstly given. Then, the hardware-in-loop (HIL) system for verifying the feasibility and performance of this control strategy is introduced. Finally, some HIL simulation results are given, which preliminarily show that this coordinated control law can be implemented practically. (author)

  6. Analysis of errors introduced by geographic coordinate systems on weather numeric prediction modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Most atmospheric models, including the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, use a spherical geographic coordinate system to internally represent input data and perform computations. However, most geographic information system (GIS input data used by the models are based on a spheroid datum because it better represents the actual geometry of the earth. WRF and other atmospheric models use these GIS input layers as if they were in a spherical coordinate system without accounting for the difference in datum. When GIS layers are not properly reprojected, latitudinal errors of up to 21 km in the midlatitudes are introduced. Recent studies have suggested that for very high-resolution applications, the difference in datum in the GIS input data (e.g., terrain land use, orography should be taken into account. However, the magnitude of errors introduced by the difference in coordinate systems remains unclear. This research quantifies the effect of using a spherical vs. a spheroid datum for the input GIS layers used by WRF to study greenhouse gas transport and dispersion in northeast Pennsylvania.

  7. Normal levels of total body sodium and chlorine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, N.S.J.; Eastell, R.; Smith, M.A.; Tothill, P.

    1983-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis was used to measure total body sodium and chlorine in 18 male and 18 female normal adults. Corrections for body size were developed. Normalisation factors were derived which enable the prediction of the normal levels of sodium and chlorine in a subject. The coefficient of variation of normalised sodium was 5.9% in men and 6.9% in women, and of normalised chlorine 9.3% in men and 5.5% in women. In the range examined (40-70 years) no significant age dependence was observed for either element. Total body sodium was correlated with total body chlorine and total body calcium. Sodium excess, defined as the amount of body sodium in excess of that associated with chlorine, also correlated well with total body calcium. In females there was a mean annual loss of sodium excess of 1.2% after the menopause, similar to the loss of calcium. (author)

  8. Dynamic analysis of elastic rubber tired car wheel breaking under variable normal load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Zedgenizov, V. G.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze the dynamics of the braking of the wheel under normal load variations. The paper uses a mathematical simulation method according to which the calculation model of an object as a mechanical system is associated with a dynamically equivalent schematic structure of the automatic control. Transfer function tool analyzing structural and technical characteristics of an object as well as force disturbances were used. It was proved that the analysis of dynamic characteristics of the wheel subjected to external force disturbances has to take into account amplitude and phase-frequency characteristics. Normal load variations impact car wheel braking subjected to disturbances. The closer slip to the critical point is, the higher the impact is. In the super-critical area, load variations cause fast wheel blocking.

  9. Normal Mode Analysis to a Poroelastic Half-Space Problem under Generalized Thermoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunbao Xiong

    Full Text Available Abstract The thermo-hydro-mechanical problems associated with a poroelastic half-space soil medium with variable properties under generalized thermoelasticity theory were investigated in this study. By remaining faithful to Biot’s theory of dynamic poroelasticity, we idealized the foundation material as a uniform, fully saturated, poroelastic half-space medium. We first subjected this medium to time harmonic loads consisting of normal or thermal loads, then investigated the differences between the coupled thermohydro-mechanical dynamic models and the thermo-elastic dynamic models. We used normal mode analysis to solve the resulting non-dimensional coupled equations, then investigated the effects that non-dimensional vertical displacement, excess pore water pressure, vertical stress, and temperature distribution exerted on the poroelastic half-space medium and represented them graphically.

  10. Characteristic analysis on UAV-MIMO channel based on normalized correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xi jun; Chen, Zi li; Hu, Yong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the three-dimensional GBSBCM (geometrically based double bounce cylinder model) channel model of MIMO for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the simple form of UAV space-time-frequency channel correlation function which includes the LOS, SPE, and DIF components is presented. By the methods of channel matrix decomposition and coefficient normalization, the analytic formula of UAV-MIMO normalized correlation matrix is deduced. This formula can be used directly to analyze the condition number of UAV-MIMO channel matrix, the channel capacity, and other characteristic parameters. The simulation results show that this channel correlation matrix can be applied to describe the changes of UAV-MIMO channel characteristics under different parameter settings comprehensively. This analysis method provides a theoretical basis for improving the transmission performance of UAV-MIMO channel. The development of MIMO technology shows practical application value in the field of UAV communication.

  11. 3. research coordination meeting on development of a reference data base for ion beam analysis. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abriola, D.; Vickridge, I.

    2009-12-01

    Highlights of the third and last Research Coordination Meeting are given with respect to the progress achieved in the Co-ordinated Research Project on Development of a Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis. The meeting took place at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna from 27 March to 3 April 2009. Participants presented the results of their work and identified and assigned key tasks in pursuance of the final output of the CRP, in particular the update of the IBANDL library and the drafting of the final Technical Report of the CRP. In addition, a number of productive discussions took place concerning issues such as measurements, assessments, evaluations, benchmarks and recommendations. The main conclusions as well as lists of responsibilities and tasks towards the production of the final report are presented. (author)

  12. Summary report of second research coordination meeting on development of a reference database for ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickridge, Ian; Schwerer, Otto

    2007-07-01

    Highlights of the 2nd Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) are given with respect to the progress achieved in the first 1 1/2 years of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of a Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis. Participants presented the results of their work to date, and identified and assigned key tasks required to ensure that the final output of the CRP is achieved. In addition, a number of lively and productive discussions took place concerning technical issues such as accelerator energy calibration, error reporting, accuracy of the existing IBANDL and EXFOR datasets for IBA, and procedures for producing recommended cross-section data. The main conclusions as well as lists of actions and tasks are presented in this report. (author)

  13. Usual normalization strategies for gene expression studies impair the detection and analysis of circadian patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Diego de Siqueira; Barbosa, Mayara Rodrigues; Coimbra, Daniel Gomes; Dos Santos, José Luiz Araújo; Costa, Ellyda Fernanda Lopes; Koike, Bruna Del Vechio; Alexandre Moreira, Magna Suzana; de Andrade, Tiago Gomes

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that transcriptomes from different tissues present circadian oscillations. Therefore, the endogenous variation of total RNA should be considered as a potential bias in circadian studies of gene expression. However, normalization strategies generally include the equalization of total RNA concentration between samples prior to cDNA synthesis. Moreover, endogenous housekeeping genes (HKGs) frequently used for data normalization may exhibit circadian variation and distort experimental results if not detected or considered. In this study, we controlled experimental conditions from the amount of initial brain tissue samples through extraction steps, cDNA synthesis, and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) to demonstrate a circadian oscillation of total RNA concentration. We also identified that the normalization of the RNA's yield affected the rhythmic profiles of different genes, including Per1-2 and Bmal1. Five widely used HKGs (Actb, Eif2a, Gapdh, Hprt1, and B2m) also presented rhythmic variations not detected by geNorm algorithm. In addition, the analysis of exogenous microRNAs (Cel-miR-54 and Cel-miR-39) spiked during RNA extraction suggests that the yield was affected by total RNA concentration, which may impact circadian studies of small RNAs. The results indicate that the approach of tissue normalization without total RNA equalization prior to cDNA synthesis can avoid bias from endogenous broad variations in transcript levels. Also, the circadian analysis of 2 -Cycle threshold (Ct) data, without HKGs, may be an alternative for chronobiological studies under controlled experimental conditions.

  14. Cancer care coordinators in stage III colon cancer: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Tony; Collinson, Lucie; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Nair, Nisha; Foster, Rachel; Dennett, Elizabeth; Sarfati, Diana

    2015-08-05

    There is momentum internationally to improve coordination of complex care pathways. Robust evaluations of such interventions are scarce. This paper evaluates the cost-utility of cancer care coordinators for stage III colon cancer patients, who generally require surgery followed by chemotherapy. We compared a hospital-based nurse cancer care coordinator (CCC) with 'business-as-usual' (no dedicated coordination service) in stage III colon cancer patients in New Zealand. A discrete event microsimulation model was constructed to estimate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and costs from a health system perspective. We used New Zealand data on colon cancer incidence, survival, and mortality as baseline input parameters for the model. We specified intervention input parameters using available literature and expert estimates. For example, that a CCC would improve the coverage of chemotherapy by 33% (ranging from 9 to 65%), reduce the time to surgery by 20% (3 to 48%), reduce the time to chemotherapy by 20% (3 to 48%), and reduce patient anxiety (reduction in disability weight of 33%, ranging from 0 to 55%). Much of the direct cost of a nurse CCC was balanced by savings in business-as-usual care coordination. Much of the health gain was through increased coverage of chemotherapy with a CCC (especially older patients), and reduced time to chemotherapy. Compared to 'business-as-usual', the cost per QALY of the CCC programme was $NZ 18,900 (≈ $US 15,600; 95% UI: $NZ 13,400 to 24,600). By age, the CCC intervention was more cost-effective for colon cancer patients costs, meaning the cost-effectiveness was roughly comparable between ethnic groups. Such a nurse-led CCC intervention in New Zealand has acceptable cost-effectiveness for stage III colon cancer, meaning it probably merits funding. Each CCC programme will differ in its likely health gains and costs, making generalisation from this evaluation to other CCC interventions difficult. However, this evaluation suggests

  15. Comparative Analysis of Indicators of Coordination Abilities Development in 5th-7th Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Приходько

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to determine the regularities of coordination abilities development in 5th-7th-grade boys.  Materials and methods. The participants in the research were boys of the 5th grade (n = 21, 6th grade (n = 20, 7th grade (n = 19. To achieve the tasks outlined, the research used the following methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical testing, pedagogical observation, methods of mathematical statistics. Research results. The 5th-6th-grade boys show a statistically significant difference between their results in the following tests: “Standing long jump (cm” (p < 0.002; “Six standing accuracy ball handlings to a partner from a 7 m distance using one of the techniques learned” (p < 0.049; “Rhythmic hand tapping” (p < 0.044; “Rhythmic movements of upper and lower limbs” (p < 0.042 (p < 0.05; “Height (cm”; “Body weight (kg”. The 6th-7th-grade boys — “30 m running (s”; “Standing long jump (cm”; “Sit-ups in 30 seconds”; “Evaluation of static equilibrium by E. Ya. Bondarevsky’s method”; “Evaluation of dynamic equilibrium by the BESS method”; “Rhythmic hand tapping”; “Rhythmic movements of upper and lower limbs”; “Shuttle run (4 × 9 m”; “Tossing rings over a peg”. The 5th-7th-grade boys — “Standing long jump (cm”; “Pull-ups (number of times”; “Evaluation of the ability to differentiate movement speed (accuracy in reproduction of running speed, 90% of maximum”; “Evaluation of static equilibrium by E. Ya. Bondarevsky’s method”; “Evaluation of dynamic equilibrium by the BESS method”; “Rhythmic hand tapping”; “Shuttle run (4 × 9 m”; “Height (cm”; “Body weight (kg”. Conclusions. The research has observed a positive dynamics of the results in the following group of tests: “Standing long jump” by 8.4%, “Rhythmic hand tapping and rhythmic movements of upper and lower

  16. Single-cell analysis of ploidy and centrosomes underscores the peculiarity of normal hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Faggioli

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is the most well recognized feature of the liver. Yet, a quantitative and behavioral analysis of centrosomes and DNA content in normal hepatocytes has been limited by the technical challenges of methods available. By using a novel approach employing FISH for chromosomes 18, X and Y we provide, for the first time, a detailed analysis of DNA copies during physiological development in the liver at single cell level. We demonstrate that aneuploidy and unbalanced DNA content in binucleated hepatocytes are common features in normal adult liver. Despite the common belief that hepatocytes contain 1, 2 or no more than 4 centrosomes, our double staining for centrosome associated proteins reveals extranumerary centrosomes in a high percentage of cells as early as 15 days of age. We show that in murine liver the period between 15 days and 1.5 months marks the transition from a prevalence of mononucleated cells to up to 75% of binucleated cells. Our data demonstrate that this timing correlates with a switch in centrosomes number. At 15 days the expected 1 or 2 centrosomes converge with several hepatocytes that contain 3 centrosomes; at 1.5 months the percentage of cells with 3 centrosomes decreases concomitantly with the increase of cells with more than 4 centrosomes. Our analysis shows that the extranumerary centrosomes emerge in concomitance with the process of binucleation and polyploidization and maintain α-tubulin nucleation activity. Finally, by integrating interphase FISH and immunofluorescent approaches, we detected an imbalance between centrosome number and DNA content in liver cells that deviates from the equilibrium expected in normal cells. We speculate that these unique features are relevant to the peculiar biological function of liver cells which are continuously challenged by stress, a condition that could predispose to genomic instability.

  17. Analysis of radionuclide dispersion at normal condition for AEC 1000 MW reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Kuntjoro

    2010-01-01

    Analysis for radionuclide dispersion for the Atomic Energy Agency (AEC) 3,568 MWth Power Reactor, equal to the 1,000 MWe at normal condition has been done. Analysis was done for two piles that is separated by 500 m distance and angle of 90° one to other. Initial pace in doing the analysis is to determine reactors source term using ORIGEN2 and EMERALD NORMAL. computer code program. ORIGEN2 applied to determine radionuclide inventory emerged in the reactor. Hereinafter, by using Emerald Normal Computer code is calculated source term reaching the reactor stack. To analyze dose received by population is done by using PC-CREAM computer code. Calculation done for one and two PLTN attached in site candidate of plants. The result showed is that the highest radionuclide release for one PLTN is at 1 km distance and to 9 th zone toward ( 19.25° ) and for two PLTN is at 1 km distance and to 10 th zone toward (21.75° ). Radionuclide which up to population through two pathways that are foodstuff and inhalation. To foodstuff comes from radionuclide I 131 , and the biggest passed from milk product with 53.40 % for one and also two PLTN For inhalation pathway the highest radionuclide contribution come from Kr 85m is about 53.80 %. The highest total dose received by population is at 1 Km distance received by baby that is 4.10 µSi and 11.26 µSi for one and two PLTN respectively. Those result are very small compared to the maximum permission dose to population issued by regulatory body that is equal to 1 mSi. (author)

  18. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in normal human trabecular meshwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yutao; Munro, Drew; Layfield, David; Dellinger, Andrew; Walter, Jeffrey; Peterson, Katherine; Rickman, Catherine Bowes; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael A

    2011-04-08

    To identify the genes expressed in normal human trabecular meshwork tissue, a tissue critical to the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Total RNA was extracted from human trabecular meshwork (HTM) harvested from 3 different donors. Extracted RNA was used to synthesize individual SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) libraries using the I-SAGE Long kit from Invitrogen. Libraries were analyzed using SAGE 2000 software to extract the 17 base pair sequence tags. The extracted sequence tags were mapped to the genome using SAGE Genie map. A total of 298,834 SAGE tags were identified from all HTM libraries (96,842, 88,126, and 113,866 tags, respectively). Collectively, there were 107,325 unique tags. There were 10,329 unique tags with a minimum of 2 counts from a single library. These tags were mapped to known unique Unigene clusters. Approximately 29% of the tags (orphan tags) did not map to a known Unigene cluster. Thirteen percent of the tags mapped to at least 2 Unigene clusters. Sequence tags from many glaucoma-related genes, including myocilin, optineurin, and WD repeat domain 36, were identified. This is the first time SAGE analysis has been used to characterize the gene expression profile in normal HTM. SAGE analysis provides an unbiased sampling of gene expression of the target tissue. These data will provide new and valuable information to improve understanding of the biology of human aqueous outflow.

  19. The Open Method of Co-ordination and the Analysis of Mutual Learning Processes of the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address two normative and interlinked methodological and theoretical questions concerning the Open Method of Coordination (OMC): First, what is the most appropriate approach to learning in the analyses of the processes of the European Employment Strategy (EES......)? Second, how should mutual learning processes be diffused among the Member States in order to be efficient? In answering these two questions the paper draws on a social constructivist approach to learning thereby contributing to the debate about learning in the political science literature. At the same...... time, based on the literature and participatory observations, it is concluded that the learning effects of the EES are probably somewhat larger than what is normally suggested, but that successful diffusion still depends on a variety of contextual factors. At the end of the paper a path for empirical...

  20. GC-MS-Based Endometabolome Analysis Differentiates Prostate Cancer from Normal Prostate Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is an important health problem worldwide. Diagnosis and management of PCa is very complex because the detection of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA has several drawbacks. Metabolomics brings promise for cancer biomarker discovery and for better understanding PCa biochemistry. In this study, a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS based metabolomic profiling of PCa cell lines was performed. The cell lines include 22RV1 and LNCaP from PCa with androgen receptor (AR expression, DU145 and PC3 (which lack AR expression, and one normal prostate cell line (PNT2. Regarding the metastatic potential, PC3 is from an adenocarcinoma grade IV with high metastatic potential, DU145 has a moderate metastatic potential, and LNCaP has a low metastatic potential. Using multivariate analysis, alterations in levels of several intracellular metabolites were detected, disclosing the capability of the endometabolome to discriminate all PCa cell lines from the normal prostate cell line. Discriminant metabolites included amino acids, fatty acids, steroids, and sugars. Six stood out for the separation of all the studied PCa cell lines from the normal prostate cell line: ethanolamine, lactic acid, β-Alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, and L-tyrosine.

  1. Research and analysis of contradictions and strategies of Hainan tourism development under the new normal background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Xiangxiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, China’s economic and social development has entered into a new normal state, the construction of Hainan international tourism island also has entered into the middle and late period. Hainan tourism has made brilliant achievements, but the development contradictions have become increasingly serious. Based on the analysis of the current situation and realistic problems of Hainan tourism, this paper points out five principal problems of Hainan tourism development--industrial status, supply-demand relationship, cultural preservation, subject-object relationship and government-business relationship, and it also proposes strategic suggestions on the great tourism, large interconnection, great culture, big Hainan and big special zone.

  2. Self-Normalized Photoacoustic Technique for the Quantitative Analysis of Paper Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-López, J. A.; Gómez y Gómez, Y. M.; Bautista-Ramírez, M. E.; Pescador-Rojas, J. A.; Martínez-Pérez, L.; Lomelí-Mejía, P. A.

    2018-03-01

    A self-normalized photoacoustic technique was applied for quantitative analysis of pigments embedded in solids. Paper samples (filter paper, Whatman No. 1), attached with the pigment: Direct Fast Turquoise Blue GL, were used for this study. This pigment is a blue dye commonly used in industry to dye paper and other fabrics. The optical absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 660 nm, was measured for this pigment at various concentrations in the paper substrate. It was shown that Beer-Lambert model for light absorption applies well for pigments in solid substrates and optical absorption coefficients as large as 220 cm^{-1} can be measured with this photoacoustic technique.

  3. An efficient coordinate transformation technique for unsteady, transonic aerodynamic analysis of low aspect-ratio wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruswamy, G. P.; Goorjian, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    An efficient coordinate transformation technique is presented for constructing grids for unsteady, transonic aerodynamic computations for delta-type wings. The original shearing transformation yielded computations that were numerically unstable and this paper discusses the sources of those instabilities. The new shearing transformation yields computations that are stable, fast, and accurate. Comparisons of those two methods are shown for the flow over the F5 wing that demonstrate the new stability. Also, comparisons are made with experimental data that demonstrate the accuracy of the new method. The computations were made by using a time-accurate, finite-difference, alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) algorithm for the transonic small-disturbance potential equation.

  4. Analysis of the morphology of oral structures from 3-D co-ordinate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovski, V; Lynch, E

    2000-01-01

    A non-intrusive method is described which can be used to determine the forms of oral structures. It is based on the digitising of standard replicas with a co-ordinate-measuring machine. Supporting software permits a mathematical model of the surface to be reconstructed and visualised from captured three-dimensional co-ordinates. A series of surface data sets can be superposed into a common reference frame without the use of extrinsic markers, allowing changes in the shapes of oral structures to be quantified accurately over an extended period of time. The system has found numerous applications.

  5. Decision-Making by Handball Referees: Design of an ad hoc Observation Instrument and Polar Coordinate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, Juan P; Reigal, Rafael E; Hernández-Mendo, Antonio; Montaña, Alejandro; Morales-Sánchez, Verónica

    2017-01-01

    Referees are essential for sports such as handball. However, there are few tools available to analyze the activity of handball referees. The aim of this study was to design an instrument for observing the behavior of referees in handball competitions and to analyze the resulting data by polar coordinate analysis. The instrument contained 6 criteria and 18 categories and can be used to monitor and describe the actions of handball referees according to their role/position on the playing court. For the data quality control analysis, we calculated Pearson's (0.99), Spearman's (0.99), and Tau Kendall's (1.00) correlation coefficients and Cohen's kappa (entre 0.72 y 0.75) and Phi (entre 0.83 y 0.87) coefficients. In the generalizability analysis, the absolute and relative generalizability coefficients were 0.99 in both cases. Polar coordinate analysis of referee decisions showed that correct calls were more common for central court and 7-meter throw calls. Likewise, calls were more likely to be incorrect (in terms of both errors of omission and commission) when taken from the goal-line position.

  6. Decision-Making by Handball Referees: Design of an ad hoc Observation Instrument and Polar Coordinate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Morillo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Referees are essential for sports such as handball. However, there are few tools available to analyze the activity of handball referees. The aim of this study was to design an instrument for observing the behavior of referees in handball competitions and to analyze the resulting data by polar coordinate analysis. The instrument contained 6 criteria and 18 categories and can be used to monitor and describe the actions of handball referees according to their role/position on the playing court. For the data quality control analysis, we calculated Pearson's (0.99, Spearman's (0.99, and Tau Kendall's (1.00 correlation coefficients and Cohen's kappa (entre 0.72 y 0.75 and Phi (entre 0.83 y 0.87 coefficients. In the generalizability analysis, the absolute and relative generalizability coefficients were 0.99 in both cases. Polar coordinate analysis of referee decisions showed that correct calls were more common for central court and 7-meter throw calls. Likewise, calls were more likely to be incorrect (in terms of both errors of omission and commission when taken from the goal-line position.

  7. Performance Analysis of Scheduling Schemes for Femto to Macro Interference Coordination in LTE-Femtocell Deployment Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafina Destiarti Ainul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Deploying femtocells that have low power level in LTE with small coverage area is an alternative solution for mobile operators to improve indoors network coverage area as well as system capacity. However deploying femtocells (HeNB that were used co-channel frequency, can be brought about interference problem to the Macro BTS (eNB. Close Subscriber Group (CSG of HeNB allows only User equipment (UE to access HeNB. HeNB is the source of interference for UE who cannot access it. Therefore it is necessary for interference coordination methods among the HeNB and eNB. The methods are ICIC (Intercell Interference Coordination and eICIC (enhanced Intercell Interference Coordination.  This paper proposed performance analysis of scheduling schemes for Femto to macro interference coordination that allocated resource in the frequency and time domain using LTE-Femtocell suburban and urban deployment scenario. Simulation result using ICIC methods can improve SINR performance 15.77 % in urban and 28.66 % in suburban, throughput performance 10.11 % in urban and 21.05 % in suburban. eICIC methods can improve SINR performance 17.44 % in urban and 31.14 % in suburban, throughput performance 19.83% in urban and 44.39 % in suburban.The result prove using eICIC method in time domain resource have better performance than using ICIC method in frequency resource. However using eICIC method in suburban deployment scenariocan increase the performance of SINR and throughput more effective than using eICIC method in urban deployment scenario.

  8. Mathematical analysis and coordinated current allocation control in battery power module systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weiji; Zhang, Liang

    2017-12-01

    As the major energy storage device and power supply source in numerous energy applications, such as solar panels, wind plants, and electric vehicles, battery systems often face the issue of charge imbalance among battery cells/modules, which can accelerate battery degradation, cause more energy loss, and even incur fire hazard. To tackle this issue, various circuit designs have been developed to enable charge equalization among battery cells/modules. Recently, the battery power module (BPM) design has emerged to be one of the promising solutions for its capability of independent control of individual battery cells/modules. In this paper, we propose a new current allocation method based on charging/discharging space (CDS) for performance control in BPM systems. Based on the proposed method, the properties of CDS-based current allocation with constant parameters are analyzed. Then, real-time external total power requirement is taken into account and an algorithm is developed for coordinated system performance control. By choosing appropriate control parameters, the desired system performance can be achieved by coordinating the module charge balance and total power efficiency. Besides, the proposed algorithm has complete analytical solutions, and thus is very computationally efficient. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using simulations.

  9. Crystal Engineering: Synthesis and Structural Analysis of Coordination Polymers with Wavelike Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matasebia T. Munie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Supramolecular coordination polymers with wavelike structures have been synthesized by self-assembly and their structures analyzed using the sine trigonometric function. Slow evaporation of a methylene chloride-methanol solution of a 1:1 molar mixture of [M(tmhd2], where M = Co or Ni, and quinoxaline; a 1:2:1 molar mixture of [M(acac2], where M = Co or Ni, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptadione and quinoxaline; or a 1:2:1 molar mixture of [Co(acac2], dibenzoylmethane, and quinoxaline, yielded the crystalline coordination polymers. In the presence of the nitrogenous base, ligand scrambling occurs yielding the most insoluble product. The synthesis and structures of the following wavelike polymers are reported: trans-[Co(DBM2(qox]n·nH2O (2, trans-[Co(tmhd2(qox]n (3, trans-[Ni(tmhd2(qox]n (4, where DBM− = dibenzoylmethanate, tmhd− = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptadionate, and qox = quinoxaline. The wavelike structures are generated by intramolecular steric interactions and crystal packing forces between the chains. Some of the tert-butyl groups show a two-fold disorder. The sine function, φ = A sin 2πx/λ, where φ = distance (Ǻ along the polymer backbone, λ = wavelength (Ǻ, A = amplitude (Ǻ, x = distance (Ǻ along the polymer axis, provides a method to approximate and visualize the polymer structures.

  10. High-resolution SNP array analysis of patients with developmental disorder and normal array CGH results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siggberg Linda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic analysis of patients with developmental disorders has improved over recent years largely due to the use of microarray technology. Array methods that facilitate copy number analysis have enabled the diagnosis of up to 20% more patients with previously normal karyotyping results. A substantial number of patients remain undiagnosed, however. Methods and Results Using the Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0, we analyzed 35 patients with a developmental disorder of unknown cause and normal array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH results, in order to characterize previously undefined genomic aberrations. We detected no seemingly pathogenic copy number aberrations. Most of the vast amount of data produced by the array was polymorphic and non-informative. Filtering of this data, based on copy number variant (CNV population frequencies as well as phenotypically relevant genes, enabled pinpointing regions of allelic homozygosity that included candidate genes correlating to the phenotypic features in four patients, but results could not be confirmed. Conclusions In this study, the use of an ultra high-resolution SNP array did not contribute to further diagnose patients with developmental disorders of unknown cause. The statistical power of these results is limited by the small size of the patient cohort, and interpretation of these negative results can only be applied to the patients studied here. We present the results of our study and the recurrence of clustered allelic homozygosity present in this material, as detected by the SNP 6.0 array.

  11. Normal form analysis of linear beam dynamics in a coupled storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, Andrzej; Woodley, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    The techniques of normal form analysis, well known in the literature, can be used to provide a straightforward characterization of linear betatron dynamics in a coupled lattice. Here, we consider both the beam distribution and the betatron oscillations in a storage ring. We find that the beta functions for uncoupled motion generalize in a simple way to the coupled case. Defined in the way that we propose, the beta functions remain well behaved (positive and finite) under all circumstances, and have essentially the same physical significance for the beam size and betatron oscillation amplitude as in the uncoupled case. Application of this analysis to the online modeling of the PEP-II rings is also discussed

  12. Intercomparison of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures. Papers and working materials presented at the 3. research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Coordinated research program on Intercomparison of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures involved participants from Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Russia, United Kingdom, USA, EC. The purpose of the meeting was to review the progress on the finite element prediction of the force-deformation behaviour of seismic isolators and to discuss the first set of analytical results for the prediction of the response of base-oscillated structures to earthquake inputs. The intercomparison of predictions of bearing behaviour has identified important unexpected issues requiring deeper investigation

  13. Poisson Coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Ying; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-02-01

    Harmonic functions are the critical points of a Dirichlet energy functional, the linear projections of conformal maps. They play an important role in computer graphics, particularly for gradient-domain image processing and shape-preserving geometric computation. We propose Poisson coordinates, a novel transfinite interpolation scheme based on the Poisson integral formula, as a rapid way to estimate a harmonic function on a certain domain with desired boundary values. Poisson coordinates are an extension of the Mean Value coordinates (MVCs) which inherit their linear precision, smoothness, and kernel positivity. We give explicit formulas for Poisson coordinates in both continuous and 2D discrete forms. Superior to MVCs, Poisson coordinates are proved to be pseudoharmonic (i.e., they reproduce harmonic functions on n-dimensional balls). Our experimental results show that Poisson coordinates have lower Dirichlet energies than MVCs on a number of typical 2D domains (particularly convex domains). As well as presenting a formula, our approach provides useful insights for further studies on coordinates-based interpolation and fast estimation of harmonic functions.

  14. Identification of Optimal Reference Genes for Normalization of qPCR Analysis during Pepper Fruit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high sensitivity and reproducibility, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is practiced as a useful research tool for targeted gene expression analysis. For qPCR operations, the normalization with suitable reference genes (RGs is a crucial step that eventually determines the reliability of the obtained results. Although pepper is considered an ideal model plant for the study of non-climacteric fruit development, at present no specific RG have been developed or validated for the qPCR analyses of pepper fruit. Therefore, this study aimed to identify stably expressed genes for their potential use as RGs in pepper fruit studies. Initially, a total of 35 putative RGs were selected by mining the pepper transcriptome data sets derived from the PGP (Pepper Genome Platform and PGD (Pepper Genome Database. Their expression stabilities were further measured in a set of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. 007e fruit samples, which represented four different fruit developmental stages (IM: Immature; MG: Mature green; B: Break; MR: Mature red using the qPCR analysis. Then, based on the qPCR results, three different statistical algorithms, namely geNorm, Normfinder, and boxplot, were chosen to evaluate the expression stabilities of these putative RGs. It should be noted that nine genes were proven to be qualified as RGs during pepper fruit development, namely CaREV05 (CA00g79660; CaREV08 (CA06g02180; CaREV09 (CA06g05650; CaREV16 (Capana12g002666; CaREV21 (Capana10g001439; CaREV23 (Capana05g000680; CaREV26 (Capana01g002973; CaREV27 (Capana11g000123; CaREV31 (Capana04g002411; and CaREV33 (Capana08g001826. Further analysis based on geNorm suggested that the application of the two most stably expressed genes (CaREV05 and CaREV08 would provide optimal transcript normalization in the qPCR experiments. Therefore, a new and comprehensive strategy for the identification of optimal RGs was developed. This strategy allowed for the effective normalization of the q

  15. Performance Analysis of enhanced Inter-cell Interference Coordination in LTE-Advanced Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) for Long Term Evolution (LTE)- Advanced with co-channel deployment of both macro and pico is analyzed. The use of pico-cell Range Extension (RE) and time domain eICIC (TDM muting) is combined. The performance is evaluated...... in the downlink by means of extensive system level simulations that follow the 3GPP guidelines. The overall network performance is analyzed for different number of pico-eNBs, transmit power levels, User Equipment (UE) distributions, and packet schedulers. Recommended settings of the RE offset and TDM muting ratio...... in different scenarios are identified. The presented performance results and findings can serve as input to guidelines for co-channel deployment of macro and pico-eNBs with eICIC....

  16. Dynamic analysis of the tether transportation system using absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Xu, Ming; Zhong, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Long space tethers are becoming a rising concern as an alternate way for transportation in space. It benefits from fuel economizing. This paper focuses on the dynamics of the tether transportation system, which consists of two end satellites connected by a flexible tether, and a movable vehicle driven by the actuator carried by itself. The Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation is applied to the establishment of the equation of motion, so that the influence caused by the distributed mass and elasticity of the tether is introduced. Moreover, an approximated method for accelerating the calculation of the generalized gravitational forces on the tether is proposed by substituting the volume integral every step into summation of finite terms. Afterwards, dynamic evolutions of such a system in different configurations are illustrated using numerical simulations. The deflection of the tether and the trajectory of the crawler during the transportation is investigated. Finally, the effect on the orbit of the system due to the crawler is revealed.

  17. Nonlinear Elastodynamic Behaviour Analysis of High-Speed Spatial Parallel Coordinate Measuring Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulong Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the elastodynamic behaviour of 4- universal joints- prismatic pairs- spherical joints / universal joints- prismatic pairs- universal joints 4-UPS-UPU high-speed spatial PCMMs(parallel coordinate measuring machines, the nonlinear time-varying dynamics model, which comprehensively considers geometric nonlinearity and the rigid-flexible coupling effect, is derived by using Lagrange equations and finite element methods. Based on the Newmark method, the kinematics output response of 4-UPS-UPU PCMMs is illustrated through numerical simulation. The results of the simulation show that the flexibility of the links is demonstrated to have a significant impact on the system dynamics response. This research can provide the important theoretical base of the optimization design and vibration control for 4-UPS-UPU PCMMs.

  18. Quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D: application to CT images of normal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Trzaska 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-04-07

    The purpose of this study is to present a framework for quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D. In order to study the properties of such complex 3D structures, we propose two descriptors that capture the characteristics of spinal curvature in 3D. The descriptors are the geometric curvature (GC) and curvature angle (CA), which are independent of the orientation and size of spine anatomy. We demonstrate the two descriptors that characterize the spinal curvature in 3D on 30 computed tomography (CT) images of normal spine and on a scoliotic spine. The descriptors are determined from 3D vertebral body lines, which are obtained by two different methods. The first method is based on the least-squares technique that approximates the manually identified vertebra centroids, while the second method searches for vertebra centroids in an automated optimization scheme, based on computer-assisted image analysis. Polynomial functions of the fourth and fifth degree were used for the description of normal and scoliotic spinal curvature in 3D, respectively. The mean distance to vertebra centroids was 1.1 mm ({+-}0.6 mm) for the first and 2.1 mm ({+-}1.4 mm) for the second method. The distributions of GC and CA values were obtained along the 30 images of normal spine at each vertebral level and show that maximal thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar junction (TJ) and maximal lumbar lordosis (LL) on average occur at T3/T4, T12/L1 and L4/L5, respectively. The main advantage of GC and CA is that the measurements are independent of the orientation and size of the spine, thus allowing objective intra- and inter-subject comparisons. The positions of maximal TK, TJ and maximal LL can be easily identified by observing the GC and CA distributions at different vertebral levels. The obtained courses of the GC and CA for the scoliotic spine were compared to the distributions of GC and CA for the normal spines. The significant difference in values indicates that the descriptors of GC and

  19. Quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D: application to CT images of normal spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a framework for quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D. In order to study the properties of such complex 3D structures, we propose two descriptors that capture the characteristics of spinal curvature in 3D. The descriptors are the geometric curvature (GC) and curvature angle (CA), which are independent of the orientation and size of spine anatomy. We demonstrate the two descriptors that characterize the spinal curvature in 3D on 30 computed tomography (CT) images of normal spine and on a scoliotic spine. The descriptors are determined from 3D vertebral body lines, which are obtained by two different methods. The first method is based on the least-squares technique that approximates the manually identified vertebra centroids, while the second method searches for vertebra centroids in an automated optimization scheme, based on computer-assisted image analysis. Polynomial functions of the fourth and fifth degree were used for the description of normal and scoliotic spinal curvature in 3D, respectively. The mean distance to vertebra centroids was 1.1 mm (±0.6 mm) for the first and 2.1 mm (±1.4 mm) for the second method. The distributions of GC and CA values were obtained along the 30 images of normal spine at each vertebral level and show that maximal thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar junction (TJ) and maximal lumbar lordosis (LL) on average occur at T3/T4, T12/L1 and L4/L5, respectively. The main advantage of GC and CA is that the measurements are independent of the orientation and size of the spine, thus allowing objective intra- and inter-subject comparisons. The positions of maximal TK, TJ and maximal LL can be easily identified by observing the GC and CA distributions at different vertebral levels. The obtained courses of the GC and CA for the scoliotic spine were compared to the distributions of GC and CA for the normal spines. The significant difference in values indicates that the descriptors of GC and CA

  20. On the integration of computer aided design and analysis using the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanborn, Graham G.; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2009-01-01

    For almost a decade, the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) has been used for both geometry and finite element representations. Because of the ANCF isoparametric property in the cases of beams, plates and shells, ANCF finite elements lend themselves easily to the geometric description of curves and surfaces, as demonstrated in the literature. The ANCF finite elements, therefore, are ideal for what is called isogeometric analysis that aims at the integration ofcomputer aided designandanalysis (ICADA), which involves the integration of what is now split into the separate fields of computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided analysis (CAA). The purpose of this investigation is to establish the relationship between the B-spline and NURBS, which are widely used in the geometric modeling, and the ANCF finite elements. It is shown in this study that by using the ANCF finite elements, one can in a straightforward manner obtain the control point representation required for the Bezier, B-spline and NURBS geometry. To this end, a coordinate transformation is used to write the ANCF gradient vectors in terms of control points. Unifying the CAD and CAA will require the use of such coordinate transformations and their inverses in order to transform control points to position vector gradients which are required for the formulation of the element transformations in the case of discontinuities as well as the formulation of the strain measures and the stress forces based on general continuum mechanics theory. In particular, fully parameterized ANCF finite elements can be very powerful in describing curve, surface, and volume geometry, and they can be effectively used to describe discontinuities while maintaining the many ANCF desirable features that include a constant mass matrix, zero Coriolis and centrifugal forces, no restriction on the amount of rotation or deformation within the finite element, ability for straightforward implementation of general

  1. Analysis of serum and cerebrospinal fluid in clinically normal adult miniature donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, A A; Samadieh, H

    2013-09-01

    To establish reference intervals for serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters in clinically healthy adult miniature donkeys. Experiments were conducted on 10 female and 10 male clinically normal adult miniature donkeys, randomly selected from five herds. Lumbosacral CSF collection was performed with the sedated donkey in the standing position. Cell analysis was performed immediately after the samples were collected. Blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein immediately after CSF sample collection. Sodium, potassium, glucose, urea nitrogen, total protein, calcium, chloride, phosphorous and magnesium concentrations were measured in CSF and serum samples. A paired t-test was used to compare mean values between female and male donkeys. The CSF was uniformly clear, colourless and free from flocculent material, with a specific gravity of 1.002. The range of total nucleated cell counts was 2-4 cells/μL. The differential white cell count comprised only small lymphocytes. No erythrocytes or polymorphonuclear cells were observed on cytological examination. Reference values were obtained for biochemical analysis of serum and CSF. Gender had no effect on any variables measured in serum or CSF (p>0.05). CSF analysis can provide important information in addition to that gained by clinical examination. CSF analysis has not previously been performed in miniature donkeys; this is the first report on the subject. In the present study, reference intervals for total nucleated cell count, total protein, glucose, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium concentrations of serum and CSF were determined for male and female miniature donkeys.

  2. Supply Chain Contracts in Fashion Department Stores: Coordination and Risk Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Shen; Pui-Sze Chow; Tsan-Ming Choi

    2014-01-01

    In the fashion industry, department stores normally trade with suppliers of national brands by markdown contract whilst developing private labels with cooperated designers by profit sharing contract. Motivated by this real industrial practice, we study a single-supplier single-retailer two-echelon fashion supply chain selling a short-life fashion product of either a national brand or a private label. The supplier refers to the national/designer brand owner and the retailer refers to the depar...

  3. Short-term arginine deprivation results in large-scale modulation of hepatic gene expression in both normal and tumor cells: microarray bioinformatic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabo Edmond

    2006-09-01

    decreased in both normal and tumor cells. Conclusion Arginine-sensitive regulation appears to be an important homeostatic mechanism to coordinate cell response and nutrient availability in hepatic cells. Genes predicted as arginine-responsive in stringent microarray data analysis were confirmed by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Although the profile of arginine-responsive genes is altered and increased, a considerable portion of the "arginome" is maintained upon neoplastic transformation.

  4. Strain-based finite elements for the analysis of cylinders with holes and normally intersecting cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabir, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    A finite element solution to the problems of stress distribution for cylindrical shells with circular and elliptical holes and also for normally intersecting thin elastic cylindrical shells is given. Quadrilateral and triangular curved finite elements are used in the analysis. The elements are of a new class, based on simple independent generalised strain functions insofar as this is allowed by the compatibility equations. The elements also satisfy exactly the requirements of strain-free-rigid body displacements and uses only the external 'geometrical' nodal degrees of freedom to avoid the difficulties associated with unnecessary internal degrees of freedom. We first develop strain based quadrilateral and triangular elements and apply them to the solution of the problem of stress concentrations in the neighbourhood of small and large circular and elliptical holes when the cylinders are subjected to a uniform axial tension. These results are compared with analytical solutions based on shallow shell approximations and show that the use of these strain based elements obviates the need for using an inordinately large number of elements. Normally intersecting cylinders are common configurations in structural components for nuclear reactor systems and design information for such configurations are generally lacking. The opportunity is taken in the present paper to provide a finite element solution to this problem. A method of substructing will be introduced to enable a solution to the large number of non banded set of simultaneous equations encountered. (orig./HP)

  5. Assessment of the Coordination Ability of Sustainable Social-Ecological Systems Development Based on a Set Pair Analysis: A Case Study in Yanchi County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sandy desertification is one of the most severe ecological problems in the world. Essentially, it is land degradation caused by discordance in the Social-Ecological Systems (SES. The ability to coordinate SES is a principal characteristic of regional sustainable development and a key factor in desertification control. This paper directly and comprehensively evaluates the ability to coordinate SES in the desertification reversal process. Assessment indicators and standards for SES have been established using statistical data and materials from government agencies. We applied a coordinated development model based on Identical-Discrepancy-Contrary (IDC situational ranking of a Set Pair Analysis (SPA to analyze the change in Yanchi County’s coordination ability since it implemented the grazing prohibition policy. The results indicated that Yanchi County was basically in the secondary grade of the national sustainable development level, and the subsystems’ development trend was relatively stable. Coordinate ability increased from 0.686 in 2003 to 0.957 in 2014 and experienced “weak coordination to basic coordination to high coordination” development processes. We concluded that drought, the grazing prohibition dilemma and the ecological footprint were key factors impeding the coordination of SES development in this area. These findings should provide information about desertification control and ecological policy implementation to guarantee sustainable rehabilitation.

  6. Genome-wide expression analysis comparing hypertrophic changes in normal and dysferlinopathy mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Sil Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because myostatin normally limits skeletal muscle growth, there are extensive efforts to develop myostatin inhibitors for clinical use. One potential concern is that in muscle degenerative diseases, inducing hypertrophy may increase stress on dystrophic fibers. Our study shows that blocking this pathway in dysferlin deficient mice results in early improvement in histopathology but ultimately accelerates muscle degeneration. Hence, benefits of this approach should be weighed against these potential detrimental effects. Here, we present detailed experimental methods and analysis for the gene expression profiling described in our recently published study in Human Molecular Genetics (Lee et al., 2015. Our data sets have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database (GSE62945 and are available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE62945. Our data provide a resource for exploring molecular mechanisms that are related to hypertrophy-induced, accelerated muscular degeneration in dysferlinopathy.

  7. Analysis of epothilone B-induced cell death in normal ovarian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Aneta; Gajek, Arkadiusz; Marczak, Agnieszka

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated the mode of cell death induced by a new microtubule-stabilizing agent, epothilone B (EpoB, patupilone), and a clinically used medicine, paclitaxel (PTX), in normal ovarian cells. Using fluorescence microscopy, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis preceding Western blot analysis, as well as spectrofluorimetric and colorimetric detection, we demonstrate that, compared to EpoB, PTX induced high time-dependent morphological and biochemical changes typical of apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis followed an early increase in p53 levels. Apoptosis reached its maximum at 24-48 h. At the same time, there was a significant increase in caspase-9 and -3 activity and PARP fragmentation, which suggests that an intrinsic path was involved. Apoptosis in MM14 cells was increased more by PTX than EpoB, and also induced more necrosis responsible for inflammation (1.4-fold) than EpoB. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  8. Morphometric analysis of three normal facial types in mixed dentition using posteroanterior cephalometric radiographs: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Bigliazzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the craniofacial features of subjects with normal occlusion with different vertical patterns in the mixed dentition using morphometric analysis (Thin-Plate Spline analysis - TPS applied to posteroanterior (PA films. The sample comprised 39 individuals (18 females and 21 males, all in mixed dentition, aged from 8.4 to 10 years with satisfactory occlusion and balanced profile and with no history of orthodontic or facial orthopedic treatment. The sample was divided into three groups (mesofacial, brachyfacial and dolichofacial according to the facial types proposed by Ricketts (1989. The average craniofacial configurations of each study group were obtained by orthogonal superimposition of Procrustes, thereby eliminating size differences and allowing only shape differences between groups to be analyzed by viewing the TPS deformation grid. Significant differences were found among the three facial types but were more remarkable between mesofacials and dolichofacials than between mesofacials and brachyfacials. TPS morphometric analysis proved efficient for accurate visualization of transverse and vertical differences among facial types even before pubertal growth spurt. These differences cannot be easily detected by traditional posteroanterior cephalometry.

  9. Normal conditions of transport thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.W.; Alstine, M.N. van; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing the content limits of radioactive material packagings can save money and increase transportation safety by decreasing the total number of shipments required to transport large quantities of material. The contents of drum packages can be limited by unacceptable containment vessel pressures and temperatures due to the thermal properties of the insulation. The purpose of this work is to understand and predict the effects of insulation properties on containment system performance. The type B shipping container used in the study is a double containment fiberboard drum package. The package is primarily used to transport uranium and plutonium metals and oxides. A normal condition of transport (NCT) thermal test was performed to benchmark an NCT analysis of the package. A 21 W heater was placed in an instrumented package to simulate the maximum source decay heat. The package reached thermal equilibrium 120 hours after the heater was turned on. Testing took place indoors to minimize ambient temperature fluctuations. The thermal analysis of the package used fiberboard properties reported in the literature and resulted in temperature significantly greater than those measured during the test. Details of the NCT test will be described and transient temperatures at key thermocouple locations within the package will be presented. Analytical results using nominal fiberboard properties will be presented. Explanations of the results and the attempt to benchmark the analysis will be presented. The discovery that fiberboard has an anisotropic thermal conductivity and its effect on thermal performance will also be discussed

  10. Normal Mode Analysis in Zeolites: Toward an Efficient Calculation of Adsorption Entropies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, Bart A; Ghysels, An; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Waroquier, Michel; Marin, Guy B

    2011-04-12

    An efficient procedure for normal-mode analysis of extended systems, such as zeolites, is developed and illustrated for the physisorption and chemisorption of n-octane and isobutene in H-ZSM-22 and H-FAU using periodic DFT calculations employing the Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package. Physisorption and chemisorption entropies resulting from partial Hessian vibrational analysis (PHVA) differ at most 10 J mol(-1) K(-1) from those resulting from full Hessian vibrational analysis, even for PHVA schemes in which only a very limited number of atoms are considered free. To acquire a well-conditioned Hessian, much tighter optimization criteria than commonly used for electronic energy calculations in zeolites are required, i.e., at least an energy cutoff of 400 eV, maximum force of 0.02 eV/Å, and self-consistent field loop convergence criteria of 10(-8) eV. For loosely bonded complexes the mobile adsorbate method is applied, in which frequency contributions originating from translational or rotational motions of the adsorbate are removed from the total partition function and replaced by free translational and/or rotational contributions. The frequencies corresponding with these translational and rotational modes can be selected unambiguously based on a mobile block Hessian-PHVA calculation, allowing the prediction of physisorption entropies within an accuracy of 10-15 J mol(-1) K(-1) as compared to experimental values. The approach presented in this study is useful for studies on other extended catalytic systems.

  11. Analysis on the dynamic error for optoelectronic scanning coordinate measurement network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shendong; Yang, Linghui; Lin, Jiarui; Guo, Siyang; Ren, Yongjie

    2018-01-01

    Large-scale dynamic three-dimension coordinate measurement technique is eagerly demanded in equipment manufacturing. Noted for advantages of high accuracy, scale expandability and multitask parallel measurement, optoelectronic scanning measurement network has got close attention. It is widely used in large components jointing, spacecraft rendezvous and docking simulation, digital shipbuilding and automated guided vehicle navigation. At present, most research about optoelectronic scanning measurement network is focused on static measurement capacity and research about dynamic accuracy is insufficient. Limited by the measurement principle, the dynamic error is non-negligible and restricts the application. The workshop measurement and positioning system is a representative which can realize dynamic measurement function in theory. In this paper we conduct deep research on dynamic error resources and divide them two parts: phase error and synchronization error. Dynamic error model is constructed. Based on the theory above, simulation about dynamic error is carried out. Dynamic error is quantized and the rule of volatility and periodicity has been found. Dynamic error characteristics are shown in detail. The research result lays foundation for further accuracy improvement.

  12. Elementary analysis of airborne dust (preliminary findings of the AFR Coordinated Airborne Dust Programme (LVPr))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    In March 1981 the systematic measuring of 15 elements of airborne dust was started in the Coordinated Airborne Dust Program (LVPr) by the Association for the Promotion of Radionuclide Technology (AFR). The sampling was done under comparable conditions at five selected places within the Federal Republic of Germany by using especially developed large-filter High Volume Samplers. The aim of this research is to establish the foundation for further investigations on the effects of the current given element concentrations on human life. When the results of the first half-year (summer period) were in hand, these element concentrations, which had been analysed using different methods, were presented to a group of experts, also with the experience gained with the analytical methods, in order to critically assess procedure and philosophy of this study. This evaluation was done on the occasion of a colloquium on Jun 29th, 1982 at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre. The presented AFR-Report contains the papers and the discussions of this meeting as well as the average element data with respect to the sampling time between 15th and 40th week of the year 1981. The discussion contributions presented here correspond to the essential statements that have been given and recorded. A total classification of all data relating to the whole sampling time of the LVPr will be given in AFR-Report No. 007. (orig.) [de

  13. Analysis of the physical properties of trehalose-water-lithium iodide based on the bond strength coordination number fluctuation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahara; Jean L Ndeugueu; Masaru Aniya

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of trehalose-water-lithium iodide system has been investigated by the mean of the Bond Strength Coordination Number Fluctuation (BSCNF) model. The result indicates that by increasing the trehalose content, maintaining the content of LiI constant, the fragility decreases due to the increase of the connectivity between the structural units. Our analysis suggests also that the fragility of the system is controlled by the amount of water in the composition. By increasing the water content, the total bond strength decreases and its fluctuation increases, resulting in the increase of the fragility. Based on the analysis of the obtained parameters of the BSCNF model, a physical interpretation of the VFT parameters reported in a previous study has been given. (author)

  14. Changes in balance coordination and transfer to an unlearned balance task after slackline training: a self-organizing map analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrien, Ben; Hohenauer, Erich; Clijsen, Ron; Taube, Wolfgang; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Küng, Ursula

    2017-11-01

    How humans maintain balance and change postural control due to age, injury, immobility or training is one of the basic questions in motor control. One of the problems in understanding postural control is the large set of degrees of freedom in the human motor system. Therefore, a self-organizing map (SOM), a type of artificial neural network, was used in the present study to extract and visualize information about high-dimensional balance strategies before and after a 6-week slackline training intervention. Thirteen subjects performed a flamingo and slackline balance task before and after the training while full body kinematics were measured. Range of motion, velocity and frequency of the center of mass and joint angles from the pelvis, trunk and lower leg (45 variables) were calculated and subsequently analyzed with an SOM. Subjects increased their standing time significantly on the flamingo (average +2.93 s, Cohen's d = 1.04) and slackline (+9.55 s, d = 3.28) tasks, but the effect size was more than three times larger in the slackline. The SOM analysis, followed by a k-means clustering and marginal homogeneity test, showed that the balance coordination pattern was significantly different between pre- and post-test for the slackline task only (χ 2  = 82.247; p balance coordination on the slackline could be characterized by an increase in range of motion and a decrease in velocity and frequency in nearly all degrees of freedom simultaneously. The observation of low transfer of coordination strategies to the flamingo task adds further evidence for the task-specificity principle of balance training, meaning that slackline training alone will be insufficient to increase postural control in other challenging situations.

  15. Normalization to specific gravity prior to analysis improves information recovery from high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomic profiles of human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmands, William M B; Ferrari, Pietro; Scalbert, Augustin

    2014-11-04

    Extraction of meaningful biological information from urinary metabolomic profiles obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) necessitates the control of unwanted sources of variability associated with large differences in urine sample concentrations. Different methods of normalization either before analysis (preacquisition normalization) through dilution of urine samples to the lowest specific gravity measured by refractometry, or after analysis (postacquisition normalization) to urine volume, specific gravity and median fold change are compared for their capacity to recover lead metabolites for a potential future use as dietary biomarkers. Twenty-four urine samples of 19 subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort were selected based on their high and low/nonconsumption of six polyphenol-rich foods as assessed with a 24 h dietary recall. MS features selected on the basis of minimum discriminant selection criteria were related to each dietary item by means of orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis models. Normalization methods ranked in the following decreasing order when comparing the number of total discriminant MS features recovered to that obtained in the absence of normalization: preacquisition normalization to specific gravity (4.2-fold), postacquisition normalization to specific gravity (2.3-fold), postacquisition median fold change normalization (1.8-fold increase), postacquisition normalization to urinary volume (0.79-fold). A preventative preacquisition normalization based on urine specific gravity was found to be superior to all curative postacquisition normalization methods tested for discovery of MS features discriminant of dietary intake in these urinary metabolomic datasets.

  16. Analysis of an ultrasonically rotating droplet by moving particle semi-implicit and distributed point source method in a rotational coordinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yuji; Yuge, Kohei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2017-07-01

    Numerical analysis on the rotation of an ultrasonically levitated droplet in centrifugal coordinate is discussed. A droplet levitated in an acoustic chamber is simulated using the distributed point source method and the moving particle semi-implicit method. Centrifugal coordinate is adopted to avoid the Laplacian differential error, which causes numerical divergence or inaccuracy in the global coordinate calculation. Consequently, the duration of calculation stability has increased 30 times longer than that in a the previous paper. Moreover, the droplet radius versus rotational acceleration characteristics show a similar trend to the theoretical and experimental values in the literature.

  17. Pair Distribution Function Analysis of Structural Disorder by Nb5+ Inclusion in Ceria: Evidence for Enhanced Oxygen Storage Capacity from Under-Coordinated Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiley, Craig I; Playford, Helen Y; Fisher, Janet M; Felix, Noelia Cortes; Thompsett, David; Kashtiban, Reza J; Walton, Richard I

    2018-02-07

    Partial substitution of Ce 4+ by Nb 5+ is possible in CeO 2 by coinclusion of Na + to balance the charge, via hydrothermal synthesis in sodium hydroxide solution. Pair distribution function analysis using reverse Monte Carlo refinement reveals that the small pentavalent substituent resides in irregular coordination positions in an average fluorite lattice, displaced away from the ideal cubic coordination toward four oxygens. This results in under-coordinated oxygen, which explains significantly enhanced oxygen storage capacity of the materials of relevance to redox catalysis used in energy and environmental applications.

  18. Dynamic instability analysis of axisymmetric shells by finite element method with convected coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    A rectilinear shell element formulated in the convected (co-rotational) coordinates is used to investigate the effects of edge conditions on the behaviors of thin shells of revolution under suddenly applied uniform loading. The equivalent generalized nodal forces under uniform loading are computed to the third order of the length of each element. A dynamic buckling load is defined as the load at which a great change in the response is observed for a small change in the loading. The problem studied is a shallow spherical cap. The cap is discretized into a finite number of elements. This discretization introduces some initial imperfections into the shell model. Nonetheless, the effect of this artificial imperfection is isolated from the effect of the edge conditions provided the same number of elements is used in all the cases. Four different edge conditions for the cap are used. These boundary conditions are fixed edge, hinged edge, roller edge and free edge. The apex displacement of the cap is taken as the measure for the response of the cap, and the dynamic buckling load is obtained by examining the response of the cap under different levels of loadings. Dynamic buckling loads can be found for all cases but for the free edge case. They are 0.28q for both fixed and hinged cases and 0.13 q for the roller case, where q is the classic static buckling load of a complete spherical shell with the same geometric dimensions and material properties. In the case of free edge, the motions of the cap are composed of mostly rigid body motion and small vibrations. The vibration of the cap is stable up to 1 q loading. The cap does snap through at higher loading. However, no loading can be clearly identified as buckling load

  19. First research coordination meeting on reference database for neutron activation analysis. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, R.B.; Trkov, A.

    2005-10-01

    Potential problems associated with nuclear data for neutron activation analysis were identified, the scope of the work to be undertaken was defined together with its priorities, and tasks were assigned to participants. Data testing and measurements refer to gamma spectrum peak evaluations, detector efficiency calibration, neutron spectrum characteristics and reference materials analysis. (author)

  20. Combined analysis of magnetic and gravity anomalies using normalized source strength (NSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Wu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Gravity field and magnetic field belong to potential fields which lead inherent multi-solution. Combined analysis of magnetic and gravity anomalies based on Poisson's relation is used to determinate homology gravity and magnetic anomalies and decrease the ambiguity. The traditional combined analysis uses the linear regression of the reduction to pole (RTP) magnetic anomaly to the first order vertical derivative of the gravity anomaly, and provides the quantitative or semi-quantitative interpretation by calculating the correlation coefficient, slope and intercept. In the calculation process, due to the effect of remanent magnetization, the RTP anomaly still contains the effect of oblique magnetization. In this case the homology gravity and magnetic anomalies display irrelevant results in the linear regression calculation. The normalized source strength (NSS) can be transformed from the magnetic tensor matrix, which is insensitive to the remanence. Here we present a new combined analysis using NSS. Based on the Poisson's relation, the gravity tensor matrix can be transformed into the pseudomagnetic tensor matrix of the direction of geomagnetic field magnetization under the homologous condition. The NSS of pseudomagnetic tensor matrix and original magnetic tensor matrix are calculated and linear regression analysis is carried out. The calculated correlation coefficient, slope and intercept indicate the homology level, Poisson's ratio and the distribution of remanent respectively. We test the approach using synthetic model under complex magnetization, the results show that it can still distinguish the same source under the condition of strong remanence, and establish the Poisson's ratio. Finally, this approach is applied in China. The results demonstrated that our approach is feasible.

  1. Sustainability Analysis and Buy-Back Coordination in a Fashion Supply Chain with Price Competition and Demand Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain sustainability has become significantly important in the fashion industry, and more and more fashion brands have invested in developing sustainable supply chains. We note that dual channel system comprising a brand-owned direct channel and retail outsourcing channel is quite common in the fashion industry, and in the latter, buy-back contract is popular between brands and retailers. Therefore, we build a stylized dual channel model with price competition and demand uncertainty to characterize the main properties of a fashion supply chain. Our foci are the sustainability analysis and the channel coordination mechanism. We first design a buy-back contract with return cost to coordinate the channel. We then study supply chain sustainability and examine the effect of two key influencing factors, i.e., price competition and demand uncertainty. Interestingly, we find that a fiercer price competition will lead to a more sustainable supply chain. From the perspective of supply chain managers, we conclude that (1 if managers care about environmental sustainability, fierce price competition is not a suggested strategy; (2 if managers care about economic sustainability, fierce price competition is an advantageous strategy. We also find that high demand uncertainty results in a less sustainable supply chain, in both an environmental and economic sustainability sense.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Differential Proteome Expression in Bladder Cancer vs. Normal Bladder Cells Using SILAC Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganglong Yang

    Full Text Available The best way to increase patient survival rate is to identify patients who are likely to progress to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease upfront and treat them more aggressively. The human cell lines HCV29 (normal bladder epithelia, KK47 (low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, NMIBC, and YTS1 (metastatic bladder cancer have been widely used in studies of molecular mechanisms and cell signaling during bladder cancer (BC progression. However, little attention has been paid to global quantitative proteome analysis of these three cell lines. We labeled HCV29, KK47, and YTS1 cells by the SILAC method using three stable isotopes each of arginine and lysine. Labeled proteins were analyzed by 2D ultrahigh-resolution liquid chromatography LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Among 3721 unique identified and annotated proteins in KK47 and YTS1 cells, 36 were significantly upregulated and 74 were significantly downregulated with >95% confidence. Differential expression of these proteins was confirmed by western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and cell staining with specific antibodies. Gene ontology (GO term and pathway analysis indicated that the differentially regulated proteins were involved in DNA replication and molecular transport, cell growth and proliferation, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and cell death and survival. These proteins and the advanced proteome techniques described here will be useful for further elucidation of molecular mechanisms in BC and other types of cancer.

  3. Detecting and correcting for publication bias in meta-analysis - A truncated normal distribution approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiaohao; Carriere, K C

    2016-01-01

    Publication bias can significantly limit the validity of meta-analysis when trying to draw conclusion about a research question from independent studies. Most research on detection and correction for publication bias in meta-analysis focus mainly on funnel plot-based methodologies or selection models. In this paper, we formulate publication bias as a truncated distribution problem, and propose new parametric solutions. We develop methodologies of estimating the underlying overall effect size and the severity of publication bias. We distinguish the two major situations, in which publication bias may be induced by: (1) small effect size or (2) large p-value. We consider both fixed and random effects models, and derive estimators for the overall mean and the truncation proportion. These estimators will be obtained using maximum likelihood estimation and method of moments under fixed- and random-effects models, respectively. We carried out extensive simulation studies to evaluate the performance of our methodology, and to compare with the non-parametric Trim and Fill method based on funnel plot. We find that our methods based on truncated normal distribution perform consistently well, both in detecting and correcting publication bias under various situations.

  4. Reliability analysis of meteorological data registered during nuclear power plant normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, V.; Ulke, A.; Marino, B.; Thomas, L.

    2011-01-01

    The atmosphere is the environment in which gaseous radioactive discharges from nuclear power plants are transported. It is therefore essential to have reliable meteorological information to characterize the dispersion and feed evaluation models and radiological environmental impact during normal operation of the plant as well as accidental releases. In this way it is possible to determine the effects on the environment and in humans. The basic data needed to represent adequately the local weather include air temperature, wind speed and direction, rainfall, humidity and pressure. On the other hand, specific data consistent with the used model is required to determine the turbulence, for instance, radiation, cloud cover and vertical temperature gradient. It is important that the recorded data are representative of the local meteorology. This requires, first, properly placed instruments, that should be kept in operation and undergoing maintenance on a regular basis. Second, but equally substantial, a thorough analysis of its reliability must be performed prior to storage and/or data processing. In this paper we present the main criteria to consider choosing the location of a meteorological tower in the area of a nuclear power plant and propose a methodology for assessing the reliability of recorded data. The methodology was developed from the analysis of meteorological data registered in nuclear power plants in Argentina. (authors) [es

  5. Normal left ventricular emptying in coronary artery disease at rest: analysis by radiographic and equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denenberg, B.S.; Makler, P.T.; Bove, A.A.; Spann, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The volume ejected early in systole has been proposed as an indicator of abnormal left ventricular function that is present at rest in patients with coronary artery disease with a normal ejection fraction and normal wall motion. The volume ejected in systole was examined by calculating the percent change in ventricular volume using both computer-assisted analysis of biplane radiographic ventriculograms at 60 frames/s and equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculograms. Ventricular emptying was examined with radiographic ventriculography in 33 normal patients and 23 patients with coronary artery disease and normal ejection fraction. Eight normal subjects and six patients with coronary artery disease had both radiographic ventriculography and equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography. In all patients, there was excellent correlation between the radiographic and radionuclide ventricular emptying curves (r . 0.971). There were no difference in the ventricular emptying curves of normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease whether volumes were measured by radiographic or equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography. It is concluded that the resting ventricular emptying curves are identical in normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease who have a normal ejection fraction and normal wall motion

  6. Biomechanical Analysis of Normal Brain Development during the First Year of Life Using Finite Strain Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong Chul; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Lin, Weili

    2016-01-01

    The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and...

  7. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    -, č. 274 (2005), s. 1-26 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp274.pdf

  8. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2008), s. 308-327 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : global games * coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2008

  9. Development of a database for prompt γ-ray neutron activation analysis. Summary report of the first research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviotti-Corcuera, R.; Lindstrom, R.M.

    2000-02-01

    This report summarizes the presentations, recommendations and conclusions of the First Research Co-ordination Meeting on Development of a Database for Prompt γ-ray Neutron Activation Analysis. Neutron-capture Prompt γ-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) is a non-destructive radioanalytical method, capable of rapid or in-situ simultaneous multielement analysis of many elements of the Periodic Table, from hydrogen to uranium, in the same sample. Inaccuracy and incompleteness of the data available for use in PGAA are a significant handicap in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of capture-gamma spectra. The goal of this CRP is to replace the twenty-year-old data from a single laboratory with something fundamentally new: an evaluated database which includes a combination of evaluated nuclear physics data, physical theory, and recent measurements. The resulting database will be comparable in quality with that for radioactive decay. In addition, more accurate values of neutron capture cross-sections and γ-ray intensities that result from this database will improve the accuracy of radiation shielding calculations. (author)

  10. Use of SAMC for Bayesian analysis of statistical models with intractable normalizing constants

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Ick Hoon

    2014-03-01

    Statistical inference for the models with intractable normalizing constants has attracted much attention. During the past two decades, various approximation- or simulation-based methods have been proposed for the problem, such as the Monte Carlo maximum likelihood method and the auxiliary variable Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The Bayesian stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm specifically addresses this problem: It works by sampling from a sequence of approximate distributions with their average converging to the target posterior distribution, where the approximate distributions can be achieved using the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm. A strong law of large numbers is established for the Bayesian stochastic approximation Monte Carlo estimator under mild conditions. Compared to the Monte Carlo maximum likelihood method, the Bayesian stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm is more robust to the initial guess of model parameters. Compared to the auxiliary variable MCMC methods, the Bayesian stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm avoids the requirement for perfect samples, and thus can be applied to many models for which perfect sampling is not available or very expensive. The Bayesian stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm also provides a general framework for approximate Bayesian analysis. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Saturation analysis studies of corticosteroid levels in normal Greek subjects and in subjects with haemolytic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyzantiadis, A.

    1975-07-01

    Between 1970 and 1974 a saturation analysis for cortisol in plasma and free cortisol in urine, and a radioimmunoassay method for aldosterone in plasma and urine were developed. In order to permit a comparative evaluation it was necessary to study corticosteroids, diurnal rhythm and the probable effect of a siesta on this rhythm both in normal subjects and in patients suffering from hemic diseases, in particular from sickle-cell anemia. Saturation assay for cortisol, using serum from pregnant women as source of transcortin, and radioimmunoassay for aldosterone were the basic methods used. Serum cortisol was estimated twice a day (8-9 a.m. and 5-6 p.m.). Cortisol and aldosterone were also estimated in serum and in urine before and after adrenalin stimulation with ACTH. No significant influence of a siesta on the diurnal rhythm of cortisol was observed, nor did the levels of serum cortisol or the diurnal rhythm appear affected in congenital hemolytic anemias, following adrenalin stimulation. The report lists experimental results briefly and refers to a paper in which these are published in more detail

  12. Accretion onto magnetized neutron stars: Normal mode analysis of the interchange instability at the magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arons, J.; Lea, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    We describe the results of a linearized hydromagnetic stability analysis of the magnetopause of an accreting neutron star. The magnetosphere is assumed to be slowly rotating, and the plasma just outside of the magnetopause is assumed to be weakly magnetized. The plasma layer is assumed to be bounded above by a shock wave, and to be thin compared with the radius of the magnetosphere. Under these circumstances, the growing modes are shown to be localized in the direction parallel to the zero-order magnetic field. The structure of the modes is still similar to the flute mode, however. The growth rate at each magnetic latitude is lambda given by γ 2 =g/sub n/kα/sub eff/(lambda) tanh [kz/sub s/(lambda)] where g/sub n/ is the magnitude of the gravitational acceleration normal to the surface, kapprox. =vertical-barmvertical-bar/R (lambda)cos lambda, vertical-barmvertical-bar is the azimuthal mode number, R (lambda) is the radius of the magnetosphere, z/sub s/ is the height of the shock above the magnetopause, and α/sub eff/(lambda) <1 is the effective Atwood number which embodies the stabilizing effects of favorable curvature and magnetic tension. We calculate α/sub eff/(lambda), and also discuss the stabilizing effects of viscosity and of aligned flow parallel to the magnetopause

  13. Instantaneous normal mode analysis for intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations of water from atomic point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chun; Tang, Ping-Han; Wu, Ten-Ming

    2013-11-28

    By exploiting the instantaneous normal mode (INM) analysis for models of flexible molecules, we investigate intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations of water from the atomic point of view. With two flexible SPC/E models, our investigations include three aspects about their INM spectra, which are separated into the unstable, intermolecular, bending, and stretching bands. First, the O- and H-atom contributions in the four INM bands are calculated and their stable INM spectra are compared with the power spectra of the atomic velocity autocorrelation functions. The unstable and intermolecular bands of the flexible models are also compared with those of the SPC/E model of rigid molecules. Second, we formulate the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the INMs, respectively, for the O- and H-atom and molecule. With the IPRs, the numbers of the three species participated in the INMs are estimated so that the localization characters of the INMs in each band are studied. Further, by the ratio of the IPR of the H atom to that of the O atom, we explore the number of involved OH bond per molecule participated in the INMs. Third, by classifying simulated molecules into subensembles according to the geometry of their local environments or their H-bond configurations, we examine the local-structure effects on the bending and stretching INM bands. All of our results are verified to be insensible to the definition of H-bond. Our conclusions about the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations in water are given.

  14. A structure-preserving approach to normal form analysis of power systems; Una propuesta de preservacion de estructura al analisis de su forma normal en sistemas de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Carrillo, Irma

    2008-01-15

    Power system dynamic behavior is inherently nonlinear and is driven by different processes at different time scales. The size and complexity of these mechanisms has stimulated the search for methods that reduce the original dimension but retain a certain degree of accuracy. In this dissertation, a novel nonlinear dynamical analysis method for the analysis of large amplitude oscillations that embraces ideas from normal form theory and singular perturbation techniques is proposed. This approach allows the full potential of the normal form method to be reached, and is suitably general for application to a wide variety of nonlinear systems. Drawing on the formal theory of dynamical systems, a structure-preserving model of the system is developed that preservers network and load characteristics. By exploiting the separation of fast and slow time scales of the model, an efficient approach based on singular perturbation techniques, is then derived for constructing a nonlinear power system representation that accurately preserves network structure. The method requires no reduction of the constraint equations and gives therefore, information about the effect of network and load characteristics on system behavior. Analytical expressions are then developed that provide approximate solutions to system performance near a singularity and techniques for interpreting these solutions in terms of modal functions are given. New insights into the nature of nonlinear oscillations are also offered and criteria for characterizing network effects on nonlinear system behavior are proposed. Theoretical insight into the behavior of dynamic coupling of differential-algebraic equations and the origin of nonlinearity is given, and implications for analyzing for design and placement of power system controllers in complex nonlinear systems are discussed. The extent of applicability of the proposed procedure is demonstrated by analyzing nonlinear behavior in two realistic test power systems

  15. Automated impedance-manometry analysis detects esophageal motor dysfunction in patients who have non-obstructive dysphagia with normal manometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, N. Q.; Holloway, R. H.; Smout, A. J.; Omari, T. I.

    2013-01-01

    Background  Automated integrated analysis of impedance and pressure signals has been reported to identify patients at risk of developing dysphagia post fundoplication. This study aimed to investigate this analysis in the evaluation of patients with non-obstructive dysphagia (NOD) and normal

  16. Performance analysis of MIMO wireless optical communication system with Q-ary PPM over correlated log-normal fading channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiqin; Wang, Xue; Lynette, Kibe; Cao, Minghua

    2018-06-01

    The performance of multiple-input multiple-output wireless optical communication systems that adopt Q-ary pulse position modulation over spatial correlated log-normal fading channel is analyzed in terms of its un-coded bit error rate and ergodic channel capacity. The analysis is based on the Wilkinson's method which approximates the distribution of a sum of correlated log-normal random variables to a log-normal random variable. The analytical and simulation results corroborate the increment of correlation coefficients among sub-channels lead to system performance degradation. Moreover, the receiver diversity has better performance in resistance of spatial correlation caused channel fading.

  17. Determination of Elements in Normal and Leukemic Human Whole Blood by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D; Frykberg, B; Samsahl, K; Wester, P O

    1961-11-15

    By means of gamma-spectrometry the following elements were simultaneously determined in normal and leukemic human whole blood: Cu, Mn, Zn, Sr, Na, P, Ca, Rb, Cd, Sb, Au, Cs and Fe. Chemical separations were performed according to a group separation method using ion-exchange technique. No significant difference between the concentrations of the elements in normal- and leukemic blood was observed.

  18. Determination of Elements in Normal and Leukemic Human Whole Blood by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Frykberg, B.; Samsahl, K.; Wester, P.O.

    1961-11-01

    By means of gamma-spectrometry the following elements were simultaneously determined in normal and leukemic human whole blood: Cu, Mn, Zn, Sr, Na, P, Ca, Rb, Cd, Sb, Au, Cs and Fe. Chemical separations were performed according to a group separation method using ion-exchange technique. No significant difference between the concentrations of the elements in normal- and leukemic blood was observed

  19. Metabolomic analysis of urine samples by UHPLC-QTOF-MS: Impact of normalization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnebin, Yoric; Tonoli, David; Lescuyer, Pierre; Ponte, Belen; de Seigneux, Sophie; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Schappler, Julie; Boccard, Julien; Rudaz, Serge

    2017-02-22

    Among the various biological matrices used in metabolomics, urine is a biofluid of major interest because of its non-invasive collection and its availability in large quantities. However, significant sources of variability in urine metabolomics based on UHPLC-MS are related to the analytical drift and variation of the sample concentration, thus requiring normalization. A sequential normalization strategy was developed to remove these detrimental effects, including: (i) pre-acquisition sample normalization by individual dilution factors to narrow the concentration range and to standardize the analytical conditions, (ii) post-acquisition data normalization by quality control-based robust LOESS signal correction (QC-RLSC) to correct for potential analytical drift, and (iii) post-acquisition data normalization by MS total useful signal (MSTUS) or probabilistic quotient normalization (PQN) to prevent the impact of concentration variability. This generic strategy was performed with urine samples from healthy individuals and was further implemented in the context of a clinical study to detect alterations in urine metabolomic profiles due to kidney failure. In the case of kidney failure, the relation between creatinine/osmolality and the sample concentration is modified, and relying only on these measurements for normalization could be highly detrimental. The sequential normalization strategy was demonstrated to significantly improve patient stratification by decreasing the unwanted variability and thus enhancing data quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vibrational normal modes of diazo-dimedone: A comparative study by Fourier infrared/Raman spectroscopies and conformational analysis by MM/QM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez Soto, C. A.; Ramos, J. M.; Rianelli, R. S.; de Souza, M. C. B. V.; Ferreira, V. F.

    2007-07-01

    The 2-diazo-5,5-dimethyl-cyclohexane-1,3-dione ( 3) was synthesized and the FT-IR/Raman spectra were measured with the purpose of obtain a full assignment of the vibrational modes. Singular aspects concerning the -C dbnd N dbnd N oscillator are discussed in view of two strong bands observed in the region of 2300-2100 cm -1 in both, Infrared and Raman spectra. The density functional theory (DFT) was used to obtain the geometrical structure and for assisting in the vibrational assignment joint to the traditional normal coordinate analysis (NCA). The observed wavenumbers at 2145 (IR), 2144(R) are assigned as the coupled ν(N dbnd N) + ν(C dbnd N) vibrational mode with higher participation of the N dbnd N stretching. A 2188 cm -1 (IR) and at 2186 cm -1 (R) can be assigned as a overtone of one of ν(CC) normal mode or to a combination band of the fundamentals δ(CCH) found at 1169 cm -1 and the δ (CC dbnd N) found at 1017 cm -1 enhanced by Fermi resonance.

  1. Muscle protein analysis. II. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of normal and diseased human skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giometti, C.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Barany, M.; Danon, M.J.; Anderson, N.G.

    1980-07-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to analyze the major proteins of normal and pathological human-muscle samples. The normal human-muscle pattern contains four myosin light chains: three that co-migrate with the myosin light chains from rabbit fast muscle (extensor digitorum longus), and one that co-migrates with the light chain 2 from rabbit slow muscle (soleus). Of seven Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples, four yielded patterns with decreased amounts of actin and myosin relative to normal muscle, while three samples gave patterns comparable to that for normal muscle. Six samples from patients with myotonic dystrophy also gave normal patterns. In nemaline rod myopathy, in contrast, the pattern was deficient in two of the fast-type myosin light chains.

  2. Integration and Continuity of Primary Care: Polyclinics and Alternatives, a Patient-Centred Analysis of How Organisation Constrains Care Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Sheaff, WR; Halliday, J; Øvretveit, J; Byng, R; Exworthy, M; Peckham, S; Asthana, S

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud An ageing population, the increasing specialisation of clinical services and diverse health-care provider ownership make the co-ordination and continuity of complex care increasingly problematic. The way in which the provision of complex health care is co-ordinated produces – or fails to produce – six forms of continuity of care (cross-sectional, longitudinal, flexible, access, informational and relational). Care co-ordination is accomplished by a combination of activities by pa...

  3. Trace analysis of auxiliary feedwater capacity for Maanshan PWR loss-of-normal-feedwater transient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Che-Hao; Shih, Chunkuan [National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science; Wang, Jong-Rong; Lin, Hao-Tzu [Atomic Energy Council, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research

    2013-07-01

    Maanshan nuclear power plant is a Westinghouse PWR of Taiwan Power Company (Taipower, TPC). A few years ago, TPC has made many assessments in order to uprate the power of Maanshan NPP. The assessments include NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) parameters calculation, uncertainty acceptance, integrity of pressure vessel, reliability of auxiliary systems, and transient analyses, etc. Since the Fukushima Daiichi accident happened, it is necessary to consider transients with multiple-failure. Base on the analysis, we further study the auxiliary feedwater capability for Loss-of-Normal-Feedwater (LONF) transient. LONF is the limiting transient of non-turbine trip initiated event for ATWS (Anticipated Transient Without Scram) which results in a reduction in capability of the secondary system to remove the heat generated in the reactor core. If the turbine fails to trip immediately, the secondary water inventory will decrease significantly before the actuation of auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system. The heat removal from the primary side decreases, and this leads to increases of primary coolant temperature and pressure. The water level of pressurizer also increases subsequently. The heat removal through the relief valves and the auxiliary feedwater is not sufficient to fully cope with the heat generation from primary side. The pressurizer will be filled with water finally, and the RCS pressure might rise above the set point of relief valves for water discharge. RCS pressure depends on steam generator inventory, primary coolant temperature, negative reactivity feedback, and core power, etc. The RCS pressure may reach its peak after core power reduction. According to ASME Code Level C service limit criteria, the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) pressure must be under 22.06 MPa. The USNRC is developing an advanced thermal hydraulic code named TRACE for nuclear power plant safety analysis. The development of TRACE is based on TRAC and integrating with RELAP5 and other programs. SNAP

  4. Trace analysis of auxiliary feedwater capacity for Maanshan PWR loss-of-normal-feedwater transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Che-Hao; Shih, Chunkuan; Wang, Jong-Rong; Lin, Hao-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    Maanshan nuclear power plant is a Westinghouse PWR of Taiwan Power Company (Taipower, TPC). A few years ago, TPC has made many assessments in order to uprate the power of Maanshan NPP. The assessments include NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) parameters calculation, uncertainty acceptance, integrity of pressure vessel, reliability of auxiliary systems, and transient analyses, etc. Since the Fukushima Daiichi accident happened, it is necessary to consider transients with multiple-failure. Base on the analysis, we further study the auxiliary feedwater capability for Loss-of-Normal-Feedwater (LONF) transient. LONF is the limiting transient of non-turbine trip initiated event for ATWS (Anticipated Transient Without Scram) which results in a reduction in capability of the secondary system to remove the heat generated in the reactor core. If the turbine fails to trip immediately, the secondary water inventory will decrease significantly before the actuation of auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system. The heat removal from the primary side decreases, and this leads to increases of primary coolant temperature and pressure. The water level of pressurizer also increases subsequently. The heat removal through the relief valves and the auxiliary feedwater is not sufficient to fully cope with the heat generation from primary side. The pressurizer will be filled with water finally, and the RCS pressure might rise above the set point of relief valves for water discharge. RCS pressure depends on steam generator inventory, primary coolant temperature, negative reactivity feedback, and core power, etc. The RCS pressure may reach its peak after core power reduction. According to ASME Code Level C service limit criteria, the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) pressure must be under 22.06 MPa. The USNRC is developing an advanced thermal hydraulic code named TRACE for nuclear power plant safety analysis. The development of TRACE is based on TRAC and integrating with RELAP5 and other programs. SNAP

  5. Analysis of activity and motor coordination in rats undergoing stereotactic surgery and implantation of a cannula into the dorsal hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-López, F; Rodríguez-Landa, J F; Puga-Olguín, A; Germán-Ponciano, L J; Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, E; Bernal-Morales, B

    Stereotactic surgery is used to place electrodes or cannulas in the brain in order to study the function of several brain structures in preclinical research. The hippocampus has been extensively studied with this methodology due to its involvement in a wide range of neurological, cognitive, emotional, and affective disorders. However, the effects of stereotactic surgery on coordination and motor activity should be evaluated in order to determine whether this surgical procedure causes any neurological alterations that may bias the results of studies incorporating this technique. We evaluated the effects of stereotactic surgery and implantation of a cannula into the hippocampus of female Wistar rats on the motor activity, forced swim, and rotarod tests. The stage of the oestrous cycle was included in the statistical analysis. Stereotactic surgery had no impact on any of the motor activity variables assessed in the open field (squares crossed, time spent in grooming, and rearing), forced swim (turning behaviour, lateral swimming, latency to first immobility, and time spent immobile), and rotarod (latency to fall) tests, compared with intact rats. Regardless of surgical manipulation, rats in the metestrus and diestrus stages crossed a greater number of squares and displayed longer immobility times than those in the proestrus and estrus stages. Stereotactic surgery for cannula placement in the dorsal hippocampus does not affect coordination and motor activity in rats. We can therefore conclude that this procedure has no neurological complications that may interfere in the interpretation of results of studies applying this technique. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing the normalization methods for the differential analysis of Illumina high-throughput RNA-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peipei; Piao, Yongjun; Shon, Ho Sun; Ryu, Keun Ho

    2015-10-28

    Recently, rapid improvements in technology and decrease in sequencing costs have made RNA-Seq a widely used technique to quantify gene expression levels. Various normalization approaches have been proposed, owing to the importance of normalization in the analysis of RNA-Seq data. A comparison of recently proposed normalization methods is required to generate suitable guidelines for the selection of the most appropriate approach for future experiments. In this paper, we compared eight non-abundance (RC, UQ, Med, TMM, DESeq, Q, RPKM, and ERPKM) and two abundance estimation normalization methods (RSEM and Sailfish). The experiments were based on real Illumina high-throughput RNA-Seq of 35- and 76-nucleotide sequences produced in the MAQC project and simulation reads. Reads were mapped with human genome obtained from UCSC Genome Browser Database. For precise evaluation, we investigated Spearman correlation between the normalization results from RNA-Seq and MAQC qRT-PCR values for 996 genes. Based on this work, we showed that out of the eight non-abundance estimation normalization methods, RC, UQ, Med, TMM, DESeq, and Q gave similar normalization results for all data sets. For RNA-Seq of a 35-nucleotide sequence, RPKM showed the highest correlation results, but for RNA-Seq of a 76-nucleotide sequence, least correlation was observed than the other methods. ERPKM did not improve results than RPKM. Between two abundance estimation normalization methods, for RNA-Seq of a 35-nucleotide sequence, higher correlation was obtained with Sailfish than that with RSEM, which was better than without using abundance estimation methods. However, for RNA-Seq of a 76-nucleotide sequence, the results achieved by RSEM were similar to without applying abundance estimation methods, and were much better than with Sailfish. Furthermore, we found that adding a poly-A tail increased alignment numbers, but did not improve normalization results. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that RC, UQ

  7. Neutron activation analysis of pollutants in human hair using research reactors. Part of a coordinated programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shahristani, H.I.

    1978-02-01

    Hair is a suitable indicator of man's exposure to trace element environmental pollutants. Bearing this in mind, two hundred and fifty human head hair samples were randomly collected from various regions of Iraq representing the general population. These elements were analyzed by thermal neutron activation analysis and the following elements were instrumentally determined: Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Ag, Cd, Sb, La, Au, Hg, Th and U. The arithmetic mean, geometric mean, standard deviation and range of concentration of these elements and the frequency distributions within the population are given and compared with concentrations from other regions of the world. In general the concentrations determined for this population are similar to those reported for other areas except for Br and Fe. The possible causes of these anomalies are discussed. For certain population sub-groups, high levels of Au, Ag, Cr, Se and Hg have been measured and the reasons for these deviations are discussed

  8. Development of a Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis. Report of a Coordinated Research Project on Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Ion beam analysis techniques are non-destructive analytical techniques used to identify the composition and provide elemental depth profiles in surface layers of materials. The applications of such techniques are diverse and include environmental control, cultural heritage and conservation and fusion technologies. Their reliability and accuracy depends strongly on our knowledge of the nuclear reaction cross sections, and this publication describes the coordinated effort to measure, compile and evaluate cross section data relevant to these techniques and make these data available to the user community through a comprehensive online database. It includes detailed assessments of experimental cross sections as well as attempts to benchmark these data against appropriate integral measurements

  9. Quantitative scintigraphy analysis of the normal lacrimal drainage using 99mTc radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittar, Marcos Daniel Ramos.

    1994-01-01

    The dynamics of the lacrimal drainage system was studied in 37 normal patients including 16 males and 21 females by means of a radioisotope 99m Tc (technetium as pertechnetate in a normal saline solution), a gamma camera and a computer. After instillation of 10 μl normal saline solution containing 99m Tc in the conjunctival sac a scintigram was taken at the beginning and at the end of 10 minutes measuring time and images were recorded every 5 seconds. Two areas were studied: conjunctival and lacrimal sac. 39 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab

  10. Lifetime analysis of the ITER first wall under steady-state and off-normal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitteau, R; Sugihara, M; Raffray, R; Carpentier-Chouchana, S; Merola, M; Pitts, R A; Labidi, H; Stangeby, P

    2011-01-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium armor of the ITER first wall is evaluated for normal and off-normal operation. For the individual events considered, the lifetime spans between 930 and 35×10 6 discharges. The discrepancy between low and high estimates is caused by uncertainties about the behavior of the melt layer during off-normal events, variable plasma operation parameters and variability of the sputtering yields. These large uncertainties in beryllium armor loss estimates are a good example of the experimental nature of the ITER project and will not be truly resolved until ITER begins burning plasma operation.

  11. SEMG analysis of astronaut upper arm during isotonic muscle actions with normal standing posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qianxiang, Zhou; Chao, Ma; Xiaohui, Zheng

    sEMG analysis of astronaut upper arm during isotonic muscle actions with normal standing posture*1 Introduction Now the research on the isotonic muscle actions by using Surface Electromyography (sEMG) is becoming a pop topic in fields of astronaut life support training and rehabilitations. And researchers paid more attention on the sEMG signal processes for reducing the influence of noise which is produced during monitoring process and the fatigue estimation of isotonic muscle actions with different force levels by using the parameters which are obtained from sEMG signals such as Condition Velocity(CV), Median Frequency(MDF), Mean Frequency(MNF) and so on. As the lucubrated research is done, more and more research on muscle fatigue issue of isotonic muscle actions are carried out with sEMG analysis and subjective estimate system of Borg scales at the same time. In this paper, the relationship between the variable for fatigue based on sEMG and the Borg scale during the course of isotonic muscle actions of the upper arm with different contraction levels are going to be investigated. Methods 13 young male subjects(23.4±2.45years, 64.7±5.43Kg, 171.7±5.41cm) with normal standing postures were introduced to do isotonic actions of the upper arm with different force levels(10% MVC, 30%MVC and 50%MVC). And the MVC which means maximal voluntary contraction was obtained firstly in the experiment. Also the sEMG would be recorded during the experiments; the Borg scales would be recorded for each contraction level. By using one-third band octave method, the fatigue variable (p) based on sEMG were set up and it was expressed as p = i g(fi ) · F (fi ). And g(fi ) is defined as the frequent factor which was 0.42+0.5 cos(π fi /f0 )+0.08 cos(2π fi /f0 ), 0 f0 . According to the equations, the p could be computed and the relationship between variable p and the Borg scale would be investigated. Results In the research, three kinds of fitted curves between variable p and Borg

  12. PV value analysis: Progress report on PV-Compact Coordinating Council's consensus research agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenheim, J.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of published and ongoing valuation research indicates that grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) technology is at or close to cost-effectiveness, from the utility or end-user point of view, in an increasing but carefully selected array of distributed utility applications. This conclusion is based on conventional analyses of utility avoided costs (energy, effective load carrying capability, and transmission and distribution costs including line losses) and customer benefits (energy and demand bill savings, tax benefits). It may provide the basis for regulatory review of utility transmission or distribution investments to test prudence or usefulness. The conclusion would be stronger with consideration of the values of risk mitigation, power quality, strategic value to utilities, and satisfaction of customer preference. Further work would therefore be useful in quantifying these factors. The economic conclusions prevail irrespective of the structure of the utility industry. However, the analysis is site-specific so its broad application depends on development of easily operated models and other analytical tools for use in the field and by the regulatory process

  13. Dynamic instability analysis of axisymmetric shells by finite element method with convected coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    The instability of axisymmetric shells has been used in engineering fields as a safety device such as the rupture discs used in the LMFBR (Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) design to relieve the excessive pressure caused by the water and sodium reaction when there is a leak in the piping system. Hence, the analysis of the instability of shells under time varying loading is becoming more and more important. However, notorious discrepancy has been observed between various analytical predications and experimental results for the buckling of shells. Various theories have been proposed to explain these discrepancies. Most of these theories are concerned with two aspects: initial imperfections and asymmetric responses. Both theories do narrow the gap between theoretical and experimental results; however, the remaining discrepancy is still not small. Other possible causes of this discrepancy have to be studied- among them, the boundary conditions. It has been pointed out that the slip at the boundary may have noticeable effect on the transient behavior of a plate. In this paper, the effect of various boundary conditions on the dynamic instability of axisymmetric shells is studied using the numerical discretization technique--convective finite element method

  14. Control-group feature normalization for multivariate pattern analysis of structural MRI data using the support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Kristin A; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Doshi, Jimit; Davatzikos, Christos; Shinohara, Russell T

    2016-05-15

    Normalization of feature vector values is a common practice in machine learning. Generally, each feature value is standardized to the unit hypercube or by normalizing to zero mean and unit variance. Classification decisions based on support vector machines (SVMs) or by other methods are sensitive to the specific normalization used on the features. In the context of multivariate pattern analysis using neuroimaging data, standardization effectively up- and down-weights features based on their individual variability. Since the standard approach uses the entire data set to guide the normalization, it utilizes the total variability of these features. This total variation is inevitably dependent on the amount of marginal separation between groups. Thus, such a normalization may attenuate the separability of the data in high dimensional space. In this work we propose an alternate approach that uses an estimate of the control-group standard deviation to normalize features before training. We study our proposed approach in the context of group classification using structural MRI data. We show that control-based normalization leads to better reproducibility of estimated multivariate disease patterns and improves the classifier performance in many cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of SAMC for Bayesian analysis of statistical models with intractable normalizing constants

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Ick Hoon; Liang, Faming

    2014-01-01

    Statistical inference for the models with intractable normalizing constants has attracted much attention. During the past two decades, various approximation- or simulation-based methods have been proposed for the problem, such as the Monte Carlo

  16. Application of normal form methods to the analysis of resonances in particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    The transformation to normal form in a Lie-algebraic framework provides a very powerful method for identifying and analysing non-linear behaviour and resonances in particle accelerators. The basic ideas are presented and illustrated. (author). 4 refs

  17. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  18. A New Modified Histogram Matching Normalization for Time Series Microarray Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astola, Laura; Molenaar, Jaap

    2014-07-01

    Microarray data is often utilized in inferring regulatory networks. Quantile normalization (QN) is a popular method to reduce array-to-array variation. We show that in the context of time series measurements QN may not be the best choice for this task, especially not if the inference is based on continuous time ODE model. We propose an alternative normalization method that is better suited for network inference from time series data.

  19. A New Modified Histogram Matching Normalization for Time Series Microarray Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microarray data is often utilized in inferring regulatory networks. Quantile normalization (QN is a popular method to reduce array-to-array variation. We show that in the context of time series measurements QN may not be the best choice for this task, especially not if the inference is based on continuous time ODE model. We propose an alternative normalization method that is better suited for network inference from time series data.

  20. A statistical analysis of count normalization methods used in positron-emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, T.J.; Ficke, D.C.; Snyder, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) reconstruction process, annihilation counts are normalized for photon absorption, detector efficiency and detector-pair duty-cycle. Several normalization methods of time-of-flight and conventional systems are analyzed mathematically for count bias and variance. The results of the study have some implications on hardware and software complexity and on image noise and distortion

  1. Dynamic analysis to establish normal shock and vibration of radioactive material shipping packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    A computer model, CARDS (Cask-Railcar Dynamic Simulator) was developed to provide input data for a broad range of radioactive material package-tiedown structural assessments. CARDS simulates the dynamic behavior of shipping packages and their transporters during normal transport conditions. The model will be used to identify parameters which significantly affect the normal shock and vibration environments which, in turn, provide the basis for determining the forces transmitted to the packages

  2. Analysis of the original causes of placental oxidative stress in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Guo, Lili; Li, Huaifang; Chen, Xinliang; Tong, Xiaowen

    2012-07-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) and eclampsia remain enigmatic despite intensive research. Growing evidence suggests that placental oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the etiopathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Reduced perfusion as a result of abnormal placentation was proposed to be responsible for placental OS in PE. However, placental OS was also observed in normal pregnancy. The exact differences and correlation of placental OS in PE and normal pregnancy remain elusive. In this review, we attempted to link both normal pregnancy and PE on the causes of placental OS and proposed a hypothesis that placental OS in normal pregnancy, plus the exploration of other placental and/or maternal factors, could provide a novel explanation of that in PE. We concluded that pregnancy, placental abnormality and preexisting maternal constitutional conditions are three principle factors that could contribute to placental OS in PE. The specific causes in each clinical case could be heterogeneous, which requires individual analysis.

  3. The impact of team familiarity and team leader experience on team coordination errors: A panel analysis of professional basketball teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieweke, Jost; Zhao, B.

    2015-01-01

    To explore the dynamics involved in team coordination, we examine the impact of team familiarity and team leader experience on team coordination errors (TCEs). We argue that team familiarity has a U-shaped effect on TCEs. We study the moderating effects of team leader prior experience and team

  4. Breakdowns in coordinated decision making at and above the incident management team level: an analysis of three large scale Australian wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Chris; Grunwald, Jared A; Brooks, Benjamin P; Owen, Christine

    2015-03-01

    Emergency situations are by their nature difficult to manage and success in such situations is often highly dependent on effective team coordination. Breakdowns in team coordination can lead to significant disruption to an operational response. Breakdowns in coordination were explored in three large-scale bushfires in Australia: the Kilmore East fire, the Wangary fire, and the Canberra Firestorm. Data from these fires were analysed using a top-down and bottom-up qualitative analysis technique. Forty-four breakdowns in coordinated decision making were identified, which yielded 83 disconnects grouped into three main categories: operational, informational and evaluative. Disconnects were specific instances where differences in understanding existed between team members. The reasons why disconnects occurred were largely consistent across the three sets of data. In some cases multiple disconnects occurred in a temporal manner, which suggested some evidence of disconnects creating states that were conducive to the occurrence of further disconnects. In terms of resolution, evaluative disconnects were nearly always resolved however operational and informational disconnects were rarely resolved effectively. The exploratory data analysis and discussion presented here represents the first systematic research to provide information about the reasons why breakdowns occur in emergency management and presents an account of how team processes can act to disrupt coordination and the operational response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Flagellar coordination in Chlamydomonas cells held on micropipettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüffer, U; Nultsch, W

    1998-01-01

    The two flagella of Chlamydomonas are known to beat synchronously: During breaststroke beating they are generally coordinated in a bilateral way while in shock responses during undulatory beating coordination is mostly parallel [Rüffer and Nultsch, 1995: Botanica Acta 108:169-276]. Analysis of a great number of shock responses revealed that in undulatory beats also periods of bilateral coordination are found and that the coordination type may change several times during a shock response, without concomitant changes of the beat envelope and the beat period. In normal wt cells no coordination changes are found during breaststroke beating, but only short temporary asynchronies: During 2 or 3 normal beats of the cis flagellum, the trans flagellum performs 3 or 4 flat beats with a reduced beat envelope and a smaller beat period, resulting in one additional trans beat. Long periods with flat beats of the same shape and beat period are found in both flagella of the non-phototactic mutant ptx1 and in defective wt 622E cells. During these periods, the coordination is parallel, the two flagella beat alternately. A correlation between normal asynchronous trans beats and the parallel-coordinated beats in the presumably cis defective cells and also the undulatory beats is discussed. In the cis defective cells, a perpetual spontaneous change between parallel beats with small beat periods (higher beat frequency) and bilateral beats with greater beat periods (lower beat frequency) are observed and render questionable the existence of two different intrinsic beat frequencies of the two flagella cis and trans. Asynchronies occur spontaneously but may also be induced by light changes, either step-up or step-down, but not by both stimuli in turn as breaststroke flagellar photoresponses (BFPRs). Asynchronies are not involved in phototaxis. They are independent of the BFPRs, which are supposed to be the basis of phototaxis. Both types of coordination must be assumed to be regulated

  6. Coordinating controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-07-15

    While physics Laboratories are having to absorb cuts in resources, the machines they rely on are becoming more and more complex, requiring increasingly sophisticated systems. Rather than being a resourceful engineer or physicist able to timber together solutions in his 'backyard', the modern controls specialist has become a professional in his own right. Because of possible conflicts between increasing sophistication on one hand and scarcer resources on the other, there was felt a need for more contacts among controls specialists to exchange experiences, coordinate development and discuss 'family problems', away from meetings where the main interest is on experimental physics.

  7. Coordinated unbundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram; Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, Jon Mikel

    2013-01-01

    Public procurement for innovation is a matter of using public demand to trigger innovation. Empirical studies have demonstrated that demand-based policy instruments can be considered to be a powerful tool in stimulating innovative processes among existing firms; however, the existing literature has...... not focused on the role this policy instrument can play in the promotion of (knowledge-intensive) entrepreneurship. This paper investigates this link in more detail and introduces the concept of coordinated unbundling as a strategy that can facilitate this purpose. We also present a framework on how...

  8. Coordinating controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    While physics Laboratories are having to absorb cuts in resources, the machines they rely on are becoming more and more complex, requiring increasingly sophisticated systems. Rather than being a resourceful engineer or physicist able to timber together solutions in his 'backyard', the modern controls specialist has become a professional in his own right. Because of possible conflicts between increasing sophistication on one hand and scarcer resources on the other, there was felt a need for more contacts among controls specialists to exchange experiences, coordinate development and discuss 'family problems', away from meetings where the main interest is on experimental physics

  9. Work in the coordinated programme on neutron activation analysis of pollutants in human hair, using research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzel, E.

    1978-11-01

    Scalp hair samples from the population of four different regions in Austria (Vienna, Burgenland, East Tyrol and Vorarlberg) were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for As, Sb, Cd, Hg, Br and Zn. For each representative group, the range of concentrations, the geometric mean with the antilog of the logarithmic standard deviation and the median were determined. The distribution histogrammes were also given for the frequency as a function of the concentration. The means of concentrations were in the normal range. Thus, no contamination for the population in total could be suspected. A different picture was observed for the Burgenland group. There was a tail of high concentrations of As and Sb superposed upon the usual log-normal distribution. This tail was due to contamination from mines for a part of the Burgenland group. Increased levels of Cd and Zn were also found for this subgroup. This study demonstrated the validity of analysis of scalp hair for the primary monitoring of trace element contamination of man. For this purpose hair has definite advantages over other human specimen available in vivo such as blood or urine

  10. Anticlockwise swirl of mesenteric vessels: A normal CT appearance, retrospective analysis of 200 pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit S., E-mail: sodhiks@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Bhatia, Anmol, E-mail: anmol_bhatia26@yahoo.co.in [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Saxena, Akshay K., E-mail: fatakshay@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Rao, Katragadda L.N., E-mail: klnrao@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Menon, Prema, E-mail: menonprema@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Khandelwal, Niranjan, E-mail: khandelwaln@hotmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: The counterclockwise rotation of the SMV on SMA is a normal and non-specific finding, which results in an incomplete swirl formation on CT scans. However, it has a potential to be misinterpreted as ‘midgut volvulus’ resulting in serious clinical implications. The study was done to determine the frequency and degree of counterclockwise rotation of the SMV on SMA on CT in normal otherwise asymptomatic pediatric patients undergoing CT scan. Methods: In this IRB approved study, we retrospectively analyzed abdominal CT scan examinations of 200 consecutive pediatric patients (age range of 11 days to 18 years), which were performed for different clinical indications over a period of 10 months. They were evaluated for the absence or presence and degree of counterclockwise rotation of the mesenteric vessels. Results: Of the 200 patients, 128 (64%) patients showed no clockwise or anticlockwise rotation of mesenteric vessels. Counterclockwise rotation of SMV on SMA was seen in 72 (36%) patients. Further, the degree of rotation of vessels was also calculated, based on the criteria proposed by the authors. Conclusions: The counterclockwise rotation of SMV on SMA gives an appearance of mesenteric whirlpool in otherwise normal mesenteric vessels and can be misinterpreted as midgut volvulus. It is a normal CT appearance and is due to a variation in branching pattern of mesenteric vessels. Awareness of this normal branching pattern of mesenteric vessels is important to avoid an inadvertent laparotomy.

  11. Anticlockwise swirl of mesenteric vessels: A normal CT appearance, retrospective analysis of 200 pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit S.; Bhatia, Anmol; Saxena, Akshay K.; Rao, Katragadda L.N.; Menon, Prema; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The counterclockwise rotation of the SMV on SMA is a normal and non-specific finding, which results in an incomplete swirl formation on CT scans. However, it has a potential to be misinterpreted as ‘midgut volvulus’ resulting in serious clinical implications. The study was done to determine the frequency and degree of counterclockwise rotation of the SMV on SMA on CT in normal otherwise asymptomatic pediatric patients undergoing CT scan. Methods: In this IRB approved study, we retrospectively analyzed abdominal CT scan examinations of 200 consecutive pediatric patients (age range of 11 days to 18 years), which were performed for different clinical indications over a period of 10 months. They were evaluated for the absence or presence and degree of counterclockwise rotation of the mesenteric vessels. Results: Of the 200 patients, 128 (64%) patients showed no clockwise or anticlockwise rotation of mesenteric vessels. Counterclockwise rotation of SMV on SMA was seen in 72 (36%) patients. Further, the degree of rotation of vessels was also calculated, based on the criteria proposed by the authors. Conclusions: The counterclockwise rotation of SMV on SMA gives an appearance of mesenteric whirlpool in otherwise normal mesenteric vessels and can be misinterpreted as midgut volvulus. It is a normal CT appearance and is due to a variation in branching pattern of mesenteric vessels. Awareness of this normal branching pattern of mesenteric vessels is important to avoid an inadvertent laparotomy

  12. Advances in Neutron Activation Analysis of Large Objects with Emphasis on Archaeological Examples. Results of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-03-01

    This publication is a compilation of the main results and findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP). In particular, it discusses an innovative variation of neutron activation analysis (NAA) known as large sample NAA (LSNAA). There is no other way to measure the bulk mass fractions of the elements present in a large sample (up to kilograms in mass) non-destructively. Examples amenable to LSNAA include irregularly shaped archaeological artefacts, excavated rock samples, large samples of assorted ore, and finished products, such as nuclear reactor components. The CRP focused primarily on the application of LSNAA in the areas of archaeology and geology; however it was also open for further exploration in other areas such as industry and life sciences as well as in basic research. The CRP contributed to establish the validation of the methodology, and, in particular, it provided an opportunity for developing trained manpower. The specific objectives of this CRP were to: i) Validate and optimize the experimental procedures for LSNAA applications in archaeology and geology; ii) Identify the needs for development or upgrade of the neutron irradiation facility for irradiation of large samples; iii) Develop and standardize data acquisition and data analysis systems; iv) Harmonize and standardize data collection from facilities with similar kind of instrumentation for further analysis and benchmarking. Advantages of LSNAA applications, limitations and scientific and technological requirements are described in this publication, which serves as a reference of interest not only to the NAA experts, research reactor personnel, and those considering this technique, but also to various stakeholders and users such as researchers, industrialists, environmental and legal experts, and administrators.

  13. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  14. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis in normals and osteoporotic populations: a discriminator of significant bone mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.M.; Murano, R.; Lewellen, T.K.; Nelp, W.B.; Chesnut, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of total body calcium by neutron activation (TBC) in 94 normal individuals and 86 osteoporotic patients are reported. The ability of TBC to discriminate normal from osteoporotic females was evaluated with decision analysis. Bone mineral content (BMC) by single-photon absorptiometry was also measured. TBC was higher in males (range 826 to 1363 gm vs 537 to 1054 in females) and correlated with height in all normals. In females over age 55 there was a negative correlation with age. Thus, for normals an algorithm was derived to allow comparison between measured TBC and that predicted by sex, age, and height (TBCp). In the 28 normal females over age 55, the TBC was 764 +/- 115 gm vs. 616 +/- 90 in the osteoporotics. In 63 of the osteoporotic females an estimated height, from tibial length, was used to predict TBC. In normals the TBC/TBCp ratio was 1.00 +/- 0.12, whereas in osteoporotic females it was 0.80 +/- 0.12. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed better discrimination of osteoporosis with TBC/TBCp than with wrist BMC. By using Bayes' theorem, with a 25% prevalence of osteoporosis (estimate for postmenopausal women), the posttest probability of disease was 90% when the TBC/TBCp ratio was less than 0.84. The authors conclude that a low TBC/TBCp ratio is very helpful in determining osteoporosis

  15. The impact of reorienting cone-beam computed tomographic images in varied head positions on the coordinates of anatomical landmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Jeong, Ho Gul; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Jung Hee; Han, Sang Sun [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Yonsei University, College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the coordinates of anatomical landmarks on cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images in varied head positions before and after reorientation using image analysis software. CBCT images were taken in a normal position and four varied head positions using a dry skull marked with 3 points where gutta percha was fixed. In each of the five radiographic images, reference points were set, 20 anatomical landmarks were identified, and each set of coordinates was calculated. Coordinates in the images from the normally positioned head were compared with those in the images obtained from varied head positions using statistical methods. Post-reorientation coordinates calculated using a three-dimensional image analysis program were also compared to the reference coordinates. In the original images, statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. However, post-reorientation, no statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. The changes in head position impacted the coordinates of the anatomical landmarks in three-dimensional images. However, reorientation using image analysis software allowed accurate superimposition onto the reference positions.

  16. Neural signatures of social conformity: A coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Yi; Feng, Chunliang

    2016-12-01

    People often align their behaviors with group opinions, known as social conformity. Many neuroscience studies have explored the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social conformity. Here we employed a coordinate-based meta-analysis on neuroimaging studies of social conformity with the purpose to reveal the convergence of the underlying neural architecture. We identified a convergence of reported activation foci in regions associated with normative decision-making, including ventral striatum (VS), dorsal posterior medial frontal cortex (dorsal pMFC), and anterior insula (AI). Specifically, consistent deactivation of VS and activation of dorsal pMFC and AI are identified when people's responses deviate from group opinions. In addition, the deviation-related responses in dorsal pMFC predict people's conforming behavioral adjustments. These are consistent with current models that disagreement with others might evoke "error" signals, cognitive imbalance, and/or aversive feelings, which are plausibly detected in these brain regions as control signals to facilitate subsequent conforming behaviors. Finally, group opinions result in altered neural correlates of valuation, manifested as stronger responses of VS to stimuli endorsed than disliked by others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regional Coordination and Analysis of OCRWM Transportation Program: Fourth Quarter and Final Report, January 15, 1998 - April 14, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western Interstate Energy Board

    1998-01-01

    This is the fourth quarter report on the activities of the High-Level Radioactive Waste Committee of the Western Interstate Energy Board. Together with the first three quarterly reports, this constitutes a final report. Over the course of the year, work under this contract has focused on: 1. Efforts to improved the Department's proposal to implement Section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. (DOE has since suspended its efforts to implement this provision of the law.); 2. Advice to DOB on ways to conduct effective analysis of mode and routing options for spent fuel and high-level waste shipments under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. (DOE has since suspended efforts to develop an effective mode and route selection process); 3. Advice to DOE on needed improvements in OCRWM's privatization initiative.; 4. Monitoring spent fuel and HLW developments that affect western state interests.; 5. Participating in DOE forums such as the Transportation External Coordination Working Group.; 6. Offering comments on documents related to NWPA transportation (e.g., the Navy's DELS for a container system for the management of spent nuclear fuel, DOE's Transportation Cask Quick Facts, DOE's report to Congress on the Price-Anderson Act)

  18. Development of an Integrated Approach to Routine Automation of Neutron Activation Analysis. Results of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-04-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful technique for determining bulk composition of major and trace elements. Automation may contribute significantly to keep NAA competitive for end-users. It provides opportunities for a larger analytical capacity and a shorter overall turnaround time if large series of samples have to be analysed. This publication documents and disseminates the expertise generated on automation in NAA during a coordinated research project (CRP). The CRP participants presented different cost-effective designs of sample changers for gamma-ray spectrometry as well as irradiation devices, and were able to construct and successfully test these systems. They also implemented, expanded and improved quality control and quality assurance as cross-cutting topical area of their automated NAA procedures. The publication serves as a reference of interest to NAA practitioners, experts, and research reactor personnel, but also to various stakeholders and users interested in basic research and/or services provided by NAA. The individual country reports are available on the CD-ROM attached to this publication.

  19. State Regulatory Authority (SRA) Coordination of Safety, Security, and Safeguards of Nuclear Facilities: A Framework for Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladineo, S.; Frazar, S.; Kurzrok, A.; Martikka, E.; Hack, T.; Wiander, T.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2012 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored a Technical Meeting on the Interfaces and Synergies in Safety, Security, and Safeguards for the Development of a Nuclear Power Program. The goal of the meeting was to explore whether and how safeguards, safety, and security systems could be coordinated or integrated to support more effective and efficient nonproliferation infrastructures. While no clear consensus emerged, participants identified practical challenges to and opportunities for integrating the three disciplines’ regulations and implementation activities. Simultaneously, participants also recognized that independent implementation of safeguards, safety, and security systems may be more effective or efficient at times. This paper will explore the development of a framework for conducting an assessment of safety-security-safeguards integration within a State. The goal is to examine State regulatory structures to identify conflicts and gaps that hinder management of the three disciplines at nuclear facilities. Such an analysis could be performed by a State Regulatory Authority (SRA) to provide a self-assessment or as part of technical cooperation either with a newcomer State, or to a State with a fully developed SRA.

  20. Volume-controlled histographic analysis of pulmonary parenchyma in normal and diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyo Yong; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Jong Seob; Won, Chyl Ho; Kang, Duk Sik; Kim, Myoung Nam

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of a home-made histographic analysis system using a lung volume controller. Our study involved ten healthy volunteers, ten emphysema patients, and two idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. Using a home-made lung volume controller, images were obtained in the upper, middle, and lower lung zones at 70%, 50%, and 20% of vital capacity. Electron beam tomography was used and scanning parameters were single slice mode, 10-mm slice thickness, 0.4-second scan time, and 35-cm field of view. Usinga home-made semi-automated program, pulmonary parenchyma was isolated and a histogrm then obtained. Seven histographic parameters, namely mean density (MD), density at maximal frequency (DMF), maximal ascending gradient (MAG),maximal ascending gradient density (MAGD), maximal sescending gradient (MDG), maximal descending gradient density (MDGD), and full width at half maximum (FWHM) were derived from the histogram. We compared normal controls with abnormal groups including emphysema and IPF patients at the same respiration levels. A normal histographic zone with ± 1 standard deviation was obtained. Histographic curves of normal controls shifted toward the high density level, and the width of the normal zone increased as the level of inspiration decreased. In ten normal controls, MD, DMF, MAG, MAGD, MDG, MDGD, and FWHM readings at a 70% inspiration level were lower than those at 20% (p less than0.05). At the same level of inspiration, histograms of emphysema patients were locatedat a lower density area than those of normal controls. As inspiration status decreased, histograms of emphysema patients showed diminished shift compared with those of normal controls. At 50% and 20% inspiration levels, the MD, DMF, and MAGD readings of emphysema patients were significantly lower than those of normal controls (p less than 0.05). Compared with those of normal controls, histogrms of the two IPF patients obtained at three inspiration levels were

  1. Volume-controlled histographic analysis of pulmonary parenchyma in normal and diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyo Yong; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Jong Seob; Won, Chyl Ho; Kang, Duk Sik [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Nam [The University of Iowa (United States)

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of a home-made histographic analysis system using a lung volume controller. Our study involved ten healthy volunteers, ten emphysema patients, and two idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. Using a home-made lung volume controller, images were obtained in the upper, middle, and lower lung zones at 70%, 50%, and 20% of vital capacity. Electron beam tomography was used and scanning parameters were single slice mode, 10-mm slice thickness, 0.4-second scan time, and 35-cm field of view. Usinga home-made semi-automated program, pulmonary parenchyma was isolated and a histogrm then obtained. Seven histographic parameters, namely mean density (MD), density at maximal frequency (DMF), maximal ascending gradient (MAG),maximal ascending gradient density (MAGD), maximal sescending gradient (MDG), maximal descending gradient density (MDGD), and full width at half maximum (FWHM) were derived from the histogram. We compared normal controls with abnormal groups including emphysema and IPF patients at the same respiration levels. A normal histographic zone with {+-} 1 standard deviation was obtained. Histographic curves of normal controls shifted toward the high density level, and the width of the normal zone increased as the level of inspiration decreased. In ten normal controls, MD, DMF, MAG, MAGD, MDG, MDGD, and FWHM readings at a 70% inspiration level were lower than those at 20% (p less than0.05). At the same level of inspiration, histograms of emphysema patients were locatedat a lower density area than those of normal controls. As inspiration status decreased, histograms of emphysema patients showed diminished shift compared with those of normal controls. At 50% and 20% inspiration levels, the MD, DMF, and MAGD readings of emphysema patients were significantly lower than those of normal controls (p less than 0.05). Compared with those of normal controls, histogrms of the two IPF patients obtained at three inspiration levels were

  2. An analysis of longitudinal data with nonignorable dropout using the truncated multivariate normal distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolani, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    For a vector of multivariate normal when some elements, but not necessarily all, are truncated, we derive the moment generating function and obtain expressions for the first two moments involving the multivariate hazard gradient. To show one of many applications of these moments, we then extend the

  3. Stewart analysis of apparently normal acid-base state in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moviat, M.; Boogaard, M. van den; Intven, F.; Voort, P. van der; Hoeven, H. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe Stewart parameters in critically ill patients with an apparently normal acid-base state and to determine the incidence of mixed metabolic acid-base disorders in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational multicenter study of

  4. Algebraic method for analysis of nonlinear systems with a normal matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyaev, Yu.A.; Salimova, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    A promising method has been proposed for analyzing a class of quasilinear nonautonomous systems of differential equations whose matrix can be represented as a sum of nonlinear normal matrices, which makes it possible to analyze stability without using the Lyapunov functions [ru

  5. Restoring normal eating behaviour in adolescents with anorexia nervosa: A video analysis of nursing interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, L.; Berends, T.; van Ginkel, J.; van Elburg, A.A.; van Meijel, B.

    2015-01-01

    An important part of inpatient treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa is to restore normal eating behaviour. Health-care professionals play a significant role in this process, but little is known about their interventions during patients' meals. The purpose of the present study was to

  6. Restoring normal eating behaviour in adolescents with anorexia nervosa : A video analysis of nursing interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, Laura; Berends, Tamara; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; van Meijel, Berno

    2015-01-01

    An important part of inpatient treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa is to restore normal eating behaviour. Health-care professionals play a significant role in this process, but little is known about their interventions during patients' meals. The purpose of the present study was to

  7. Morphometric connectivity analysis to distinguish normal, mild cognitive impaired, and Alzheimer subjects based on brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge; Mysling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...

  8. A new modified histogram matching normalization for time series microarray analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astola, L.J.; Molenaar, J.

    2014-01-01

    Microarray data is often utilized in inferring regulatory networks. Quantile normalization (QN) is a popular method to reduce array-to-array variation. We show that in the context of time series measurements QN may not be the best choice for this task, especially not if the inference is based on

  9. Immunohistochemical analysis of oxidative stress and DNA repair proteins in normal mammary and breast cancer tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Carol D; Thorngren, Daniel L; Nardulli, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    During the course of normal cellular metabolism, oxygen is consumed and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced. If not effectively dissipated, ROS can accumulate and damage resident proteins, lipids, and DNA. Enzymes involved in redox regulation and DNA repair dissipate ROS and repair the resulting damage in order to preserve a functional cellular environment. Because increased ROS accumulation and/or unrepaired DNA damage can lead to initiation and progression of cancer and we had identified a number of oxidative stress and DNA repair proteins that influence estrogen responsiveness of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, it seemed possible that these proteins might be differentially expressed in normal mammary tissue, benign hyperplasia (BH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer (IBC). Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of a number of oxidative stress proteins, DNA repair proteins, and damage markers in 60 human mammary tissues which were classified as BH, DCIS or IBC. The relative mean intensity was determined for each tissue section and ANOVA was used to detect statistical differences in the relative expression of BH, DCIS and IBC compared to normal mammary tissue. We found that a number of these proteins were overexpressed and that the cellular localization was altered in human breast cancer tissue. Our studies suggest that oxidative stress and DNA repair proteins not only protect normal cells from the damaging effects of ROS, but may also promote survival of mammary tumor cells

  10. Biomechanical Analysis of Normal Brain Development during the First Year of Life Using Finite Strain Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Chul; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Lin, Weili

    2016-12-02

    The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and shear strains) were measured to reveal directional growth information every 3 months during the first year of life. Directional normal strain maps revealed that, during the first 6 months, the growth pattern of gray matter is anisotropic and spatially inhomogeneous with higher left-right stretch around the temporal lobe and interhemispheric fissure, anterior-posterior stretch in the frontal and occipital lobes, and superior-inferior stretch in right inferior occipital and right inferior temporal gyri. In contrast, anterior lateral ventricles and insula showed an isotropic stretch pattern. Volumetric and directional growth rates were linearly decreased with age for most of the cortical regions. Our results revealed anisotropic and inhomogeneous brain growth patterns of the human brain during the first year of life using longitudinal MRI and a biomechanical framework.

  11. Forensic and archaeological applications of neutron activation analysis. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear detection and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar Das, M.

    1977-11-01

    The work carried out can be categorized as follows: setting up and standardization of the instrumental multielement analysis facility, for which a system manual is attached; forensic applications which have included the examination of firearm discharge residues around holes suspected to have been caused by the passage of a bullet, and the trace element characterization of biological (hair) and non-biological (transmission wires) materials; archaeological applications involving the study of potsherds from sites along the Stulej river in India; analysis of IAEA intercomparison samples, for which the results are tabulated; and methods for data evaluation

  12. An analysis of normalization methods for Drosophila RNAi genomic screens and development of a robust validation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Amy M.; Ravi, Dashnamoorthy; Bhavani, Selvaraj; Bishop, Alexander J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide RNAi screening is a powerful, yet relatively immature technology that allows investigation into the role of individual genes in a process of choice. Most RNAi screens identify a large number of genes with a continuous gradient in the assessed phenotype. Screeners must then decide whether to examine just those genes with the most robust phenotype or to examine the full gradient of genes that cause an effect and how to identify the candidate genes to be validated. We have used RNAi in Drosophila cells to examine viability in a 384-well plate format and compare two screens, untreated control and treatment. We compare multiple normalization methods, which take advantage of different features within the data, including quantile normalization, background subtraction, scaling, cellHTS2 1, and interquartile range measurement. Considering the false-positive potential that arises from RNAi technology, a robust validation method was designed for the purpose of gene selection for future investigations. In a retrospective analysis, we describe the use of validation data to evaluate each normalization method. While no normalization method worked ideally, we found that a combination of two methods, background subtraction followed by quantile normalization and cellHTS2, at different thresholds, captures the most dependable and diverse candidate genes. Thresholds are suggested depending on whether a few candidate genes are desired or a more extensive systems level analysis is sought. In summary, our normalization approaches and experimental design to perform validation experiments are likely to apply to those high-throughput screening systems attempting to identify genes for systems level analysis. PMID:18753689

  13. A comparison of various "housekeeping" probes for northern analysis of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, J R; Huang, D; Adams, M E

    1999-01-01

    Several approaches are commonly used to normalize variations in RNA loading on Northern blots, including: ethidium bromide (EthBr) fluorescence of 18S or 28S rRNA or autoradiograms of radioactive probes hybridized with constitutively expressed RNAs such as elongation factor-1alpha (ELF), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), actin, 18S or 28S rRNA, or others. However, in osteoarthritis (OA) the amount of total RNA changes significantly and none of these RNAs has been clearly demonstrated to be expressed at a constant level, so it is unclear if any of these approaches can be used reliably for normalizing RNA extracted from osteoarthritic cartilage. Total RNA was extracted from normal and osteoarthritic cartilage and assessed by EthBr fluorescence. RNA was then transferred to a nylon membrane hybridized with radioactive probes for ELF, G3PDH, Max, actin, and an oligo-dT probe. The autoradiographic signal across the six lanes of a gel was quantified by scanning densitometry. When compared on the basis of total RNA, the coefficient of variation was lowest for 28S ethidium bromide fluorescence and oligo-dT (approximately 7%), followed by 18S ethidium bromide fluorescence and G3PDH (approximately 13%). When these values were normalized to DNA concentration, the coefficient of variation exceeded 50% for all signals. Total RNA and the signals for 18S, 28S rRNA, and oligo-dT all correlated highly. These data indicate that osteoarthritic chondrocytes express similar ratios of mRNA to rRNA and mRNA to total RNA as do normal chondrocytes. Of all the "housekeeping" probes, G3PDH correlated best with the measurements of RNA. All of these "housekeeping" probes are expressed at greater levels by osteoarthritic chondrocytes when compared with normal chondrocytes. Thus, while G3PDH is satisfactory for evaluating the amount of RNA loaded, its level of expression is not the same in normal and osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

  14. Quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG Spectrum Analysis of Patients with Schizoaffective Disorder Compared to Normal Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Moeini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of schizoaffective disorder. Therefore, we obtained electroencephalogram (EEG signals from patients with schizoaffective disorder and analyzed them in comparison to normal subjects.Forty patients with schizoaffective disorder and 40 normal subjects were selected randomly and their electroencephalogram signals were recorded based on 10-20 international system by 23 electrodes in open- and closed-eyes while they were sitting on a chair comfortably. After preprocessing for noise removal and artifact reduction, we took 60- second segments from each recorded signals. Then, the absolute and relative powers of these segments were evaluated in all channels and in 4 frequency bands (i.e., delta, theta, alpha and beta waves. Finally, Data were analyzed by independent t-test using SPSS software.A significant decrease in relative power in the alpha band, a significant decrease in power spectra in the alpha band and a significant increase in power spectra in the beta band were found in patients compared to normal subjects (P < 0.05. The predominant wave in the centro-parietal region was the beta wave in patients, but it was the alpha band in normal subjects (P = 0.048. Also, the predominant wave of the occipital region in patients was the delta wave, while it was the alpha wave in normal subjects (P = 0.038.Considering the findings, particularly based on the significant decrease of the alpha waves in schizoaffective patients, it can be concluded that schizoaffective disorder can be seen in schizophrenia spectrum.

  15. Leading coordinate analysis of reaction pathways in proton chain transfer: Application to a two-proton transfer model for the green fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Sufan; Smith, Sean C.

    2006-01-01

    The 'leading coordinate' approach to computing an approximate reaction pathway, with subsequent determination of the true minimum energy profile, is applied to a two-proton chain transfer model based on the chromophore and its surrounding moieties within the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Using an ab initio quantum chemical method, a number of different relaxed energy profiles are found for several plausible guesses at leading coordinates. The results obtained for different trial leading coordinates are rationalized through the calculation of a two-dimensional relaxed potential energy surface (PES) for the system. Analysis of the 2-D relaxed PES reveals that two of the trial pathways are entirely spurious, while two others contain useful information and can be used to furnish starting points for successful saddle-point searches. Implications for selection of trial leading coordinates in this class of proton chain transfer reactions are discussed, and a simple diagnostic function is proposed for revealing whether or not a relaxed pathway based on a trial leading coordinate is likely to furnish useful information

  16. Channels Coordination Game Model Based on Result Fairness Preference and Reciprocal Fairness Preference: A Behavior Game Forecasting and Analysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Chuan; Wang, Kaihong; Huang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    In a distribution channel, channel members are not always self-interested, but altruistic in some conditions. Based on this assumption, this paper adopts a behavior game method to analyze and forecast channel members’ decision behavior based on result fairness preference and reciprocal fairness preference by embedding a fair preference theory in channel research of coordination. The behavior game forecasts that a channel can achieve coordination if channel members consider behavior elemen...

  17. Effect of care management program structure on implementation: a normalization process theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Potworowski, Georges; Fitzpatrick, Laurie; Kowalk, Amy; Green, Lee A

    2016-08-15

    Care management in primary care can be effective in helping patients with chronic disease improve their health status, however, primary care practices are often challenged with implementation. Further, there are different ways to structure care management that may make implementation more or less successful. Normalization process theory (NPT) provides a means of understanding how a new complex intervention can become routine (normalized) in practice. In this study, we used NPT to understand how care management structure affected how well care management became routine in practice. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews and observations conducted at 25 practices in five physician organizations in Michigan, USA. Practices were selected to reflect variation in physician organizations, type of care management program, and degree of normalization. Data were transcribed, qualitatively coded and analyzed, initially using an editing approach and then a template approach with NPT as a guiding framework. Seventy interviews and 25 observations were completed. Two key structures for care management organization emerged: practice-based care management where the care managers were embedded in the practice as part of the practice team; and centralized care management where the care managers worked independently of the practice work flow and was located outside the practice. There were differences in normalization of care management across practices. Practice-based care management was generally better normalized as compared to centralized care management. Differences in normalization were well explained by the NPT, and in particular the collective action construct. When care managers had multiple and flexible opportunities for communication (interactional workability), had the requisite knowledge, skills, and personal characteristics (skill set workability), and the organizational support and resources (contextual integration), a trusting professional relationship

  18. NOMAD-Ref: visualization, deformation and refinement of macromolecular structures based on all-atom normal mode analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Erik; Azuara, Cyril; Koehl, Patrice; Delarue, Marc

    2006-07-01

    Normal mode analysis (NMA) is an efficient way to study collective motions in biomolecules that bypasses the computational costs and many limitations associated with full dynamics simulations. The NOMAD-Ref web server presented here provides tools for online calculation of the normal modes of large molecules (up to 100,000 atoms) maintaining a full all-atom representation of their structures, as well as access to a number of programs that utilize these collective motions for deformation and refinement of biomolecular structures. Applications include the generation of sets of decoys with correct stereochemistry but arbitrary large amplitude movements, the quantification of the overlap between alternative conformations of a molecule, refinement of structures against experimental data, such as X-ray diffraction structure factors or Cryo-EM maps and optimization of docked complexes by modeling receptor/ligand flexibility through normal mode motions. The server can be accessed at the URL http://lorentz.immstr.pasteur.fr/nomad-ref.php.

  19. Differences in trace element concentrations between Alzheimer and 'normal' human brain tissue using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayi, A.E.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Brain samples obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank were taken from the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal gyrus and medial temporal gyrus of 'normal' and Alzheimer's disease subjects in order to determine elemental concentrations and compare elemental composition. Brain samples from the cortex were taken from 18 subjects, eight 'normals' (6 males and 2 females) and eleven with Alzheimer's disease, (1 male and 10 females) and the following elemental concentrations, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Cs, Ba, and Eu were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The element which showed the greatest difference was Br, which was found to be significantly elevated in the cortex of Alzheimer's disease brains as compared to the 'normals' at significance (p < 0.001). (author)

  20. Numerical analysis of the effects induced by normal faults and dip angles on rock bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lishuai; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Peipeng; Zheng, Pengqiang; Xu, Bin

    2017-10-01

    The study of mining effects under the influences of a normal fault and its dip angle is significant for the prediction and prevention of rock bursts. Based on the geological conditions of panel 2301N in a coalmine, the evolution laws of the strata behaviors of the working face affected by a fault and the instability of the fault induced by mining operations with the working face of the footwall and hanging wall advancing towards a normal fault are studied using UDEC numerical simulation. The mechanism that induces rock burst is revealed, and the influence characteristics of the fault dip angle are analyzed. The results of the numerical simulation are verified by conducting a case study regarding the microseismic events. The results of this study serve as a reference for the prediction of rock bursts and their classification into hazardous areas under similar conditions.

  1. [Quantitative analysis method based on fractal theory for medical imaging of normal brain development in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heheng; Luo, Liangping; Huang, Li

    2011-02-01

    The present paper is aimed to study the fractal spectrum of the cerebral computerized tomography in 158 normal infants of different age groups, based on the calculation of chaotic theory. The distribution range of neonatal period was 1.88-1.90 (mean = 1.8913 +/- 0.0064); It reached a stable condition at the level of 1.89-1.90 during 1-12 months old (mean = 1.8927 +/- 0.0045); The normal range of 1-2 years old infants was 1.86-1.90 (mean = 1.8863 +/- 4 0.0085); It kept the invariance of the quantitative value among 1.88-1.91(mean = 1.8958 +/- 0.0083) during 2-3 years of age. ANOVA indicated there's no significant difference between boys and girls (F = 0.243, P > 0.05), but the difference of age groups was significant (F = 8.947, P development.

  2. Analysis of adaptability of radioactive liquid effluent discharge under normal condition of inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yueping; Zhang Bing; Chen Yang; Zhu Lingqing; Tao Yunliang; Shangguan Zhihong

    2011-01-01

    The discharge of radioactive liquid effluent from inland nuclear power plant under normal operation is an important part to be considered in environmental impact assessment. Requirements of newly revised and upcoming standards GB 6249 and GB 14587 are introduced in this paper. Through an example of an inland NPP siting in the preliminary feasibility study phase, the adaptability to the relevant regulations in the site selection is analyzed. Also, the concerned problems in the design of AP1000 units are addressed. (authors)

  3. Reactor internals design/analysis for normal, upset, and faulted conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, F.R.

    1977-06-01

    The analytical procedures used by Babcock and Wilcox to demonstrate the structural integrity of the 205-FA reactor internals are described. Analytical results are presented and compared to ASME Code allowable limits for Normal, Upset, and Faulted conditions. The particular faulted condition considered is a simultaneous loss-of-coolant accident and safe shutdown earthquake. The operating basis earthquake is addressed as an Upset condition

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of Sonic hedgehog signalling in normal human urinary tract development

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Dagan; Winyard, Paul J D; Woolf, Adrian S.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of mouse mutants have demonstrated that Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signalling has a functional role in morphogenesis and differentiation at multiple sites within the forming urinary tract, and urinary tract malformations have been reported in humans with mutations that disrupt SHH signalling. However, there is only strikingly sparse and fragmentary information about the expression of SHH and associated signalling genes in normal human urinary tract development. We used immunohistochemistry ...

  5. Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Neoplastic Colorectal Tissue: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric and Fluor Metric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cleto Marolla

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The expression of HA was found to be slightly lower in tumor tissue than in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa, although this difference was not statistically significant. This finding probably influenced the lower expression of HA in tumor tissue than in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa. Compared to normal tissues, HA levels are significantly increased in the tumor tissues unless they exhibit lymph node metastasis. Otherwise, the expression of HA in tumor tissue did not correlated with the other clinicopathological parameters.

  6. Longitudinal genetic analysis of brain volumes in normal elderly male twins

    OpenAIRE

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Hardin, Jill; DeCarli, Charles; Krasnow, Ruth E.; Reed, Terry; Wolf, Philip A.; Swan, Gary E.; Carmelli, Dorit

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in brain volumes measured at two time points in normal elderly males from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study. The MRI scans were conducted four years apart on 33 monozygotic and 33 dizygotic male twin pairs, aged 68 to 77 years when first scanned. Volumetric measures of total brain and total cerebrospinal fluid were significantly heritable at baseline (over 70%). For both v...

  7. Three-dimensional finite analysis of acetabular contact pressure and contact area during normal walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangye; Huang, Wenjun; Song, Qi; Liang, Jinfeng

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to analyze the contact areas and pressure distributions between the femoral head and mortar during normal walking using a three-dimensional finite element model (3D-FEM). Computed tomography (CT) scanning technology and a computer image processing system were used to establish the 3D-FEM. The acetabular mortar model was used to simulate the pressures during 32 consecutive normal walking phases and the contact areas at different phases were calculated. The distribution of the pressure peak values during the 32 consecutive normal walking phases was bimodal, which reached the peak (4.2 Mpa) at the initial phase where the contact area was significantly higher than that at the stepping phase. The sites that always kept contact were concentrated on the acetabular top and leaned inwards, while the anterior and posterior acetabular horns had no pressure concentration. The pressure distributions of acetabular cartilage at different phases were significantly different, the zone of increased pressure at the support phase distributed at the acetabular top area, while that at the stepping phase distributed in the inside of acetabular cartilage. The zones of increased contact pressure and the distributions of acetabular contact areas had important significance towards clinical researches, and could indicate the inductive factors of acetabular osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  8. [Nutritional analysis of dietary patterns in students of primary education with normal nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Gúrpide, Beatriz; Durá-Travé, Teodoro

    2014-06-01

    To perform a nutritional assessment of the dietary model in a group of primary school students (9-12 years) with a normal nutritional status. Recording of food consumption of two consecutive school days in a sample of 353 primary school students (188 boys and 165 girls) with normal nutritional situation. The intake of energy, macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins was calculated and compared with the recommended intakes. The mean value of daily caloric intake was 2,066.9 kcal. Grains (33%), dairy products (19%) and meats (17%) represented 70% of the total caloric intake. Proteins contributed with 20.3% of the caloric intake, sugars 48.8%, lipids 30.9%, and saturated fats 12.6%. Cholesterol intake was excessive and 2/3 of the caloric intake was of animal origin. The mean intake of calcium, iodine and A, D and E vitamins were lower than de recommended dietary intakes. The dietary model of the primary school students with normal nutritional status varies from the Mediterranean prototype, with an excessive intake of meats, limited intake of grains and dairy products, and deficient intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, and fishes. This leads to an increase in the intake of proteins and fats from animals with a detriment of complex carbohydrates and a deficient intake of calcium, iodine, and vitamins A, D y E. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Elemental concentration analysis in PCa, BPH and normal prostate tissues using SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, Roberta G.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the main causes of illness and death all over the world. In Brazil, prostate cancer currently represents the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in men, representing 21% of all cancer cases. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an illness prevailing in men above the age of 50, close to 90% after the age of 80. The prostate presents a high zinc concentration, about 10-fold higher than any other body tissue. In this work, samples of human prostate tissues with cancer (PCa), BPH and normal tissue were analyzed utilizing the total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation technique (SRTXRF) to investigate the differences in the elemental concentrations in these tissues. SR-TXRF analyses were performed at the X-Ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. By using Mann-Whitney U test it was observed that almost all elements presented concentrations with significant differences α = 0.05) between the groups studied. The elements and groups were: S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Br and Rb (PCa X Normal); S, Fe, Zn and Br (PCa X BPH); K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Br and Rb (BPH X Normal). (author)

  10. Quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) Spectrum Analysis of Patients with Schizoaffective Disorder Compared to Normal Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, Mahdi; Khaleghi, Ali; Amiri, Nasrin; Niknam, Zahra

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of schizoaffective disorder. Therefore, we obtained electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from patients with schizoaffective disorder and analyzed them in comparison to normal subjects. Forty patients with schizoaffective disorder and 40 normal subjects were selected randomly and their electroencephalogram signals were recorded based on 10-20 international system by 23 electrodes in open- and closed-eyes while they were sitting on a chair comfortably. After preprocessing for noise removal and artifact reduction, we took 60- second segments from each recorded signals. Then, the absolute and relative powers of these segments were evaluated in all channels and in 4 frequency bands (i.e., delta, theta, alpha and beta waves). Finally, Data were analyzed by independent t-test using SPSS software. A significant decrease in relative power in the alpha band, a significant decrease in power spectra in the alpha band and a significant increase in power spectra in the beta band were found in patients compared to normal subjects (P schizoaffective patients, it can be concluded that schizoaffective disorder can be seen in schizophrenia spectrum.

  11. Evaluating the evidence for motor-based interventions in developmental coordination disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien; Vinçon, Sabine; Blank, Rainer; Quadrado, Virgínia H; Polatajko, Helene; Wilson, Peter H

    2018-03-01

    As part of the process of creating an update of the clinical practice guidelines for developmental coordination disorder (DCD) (Blank, Smits-Engelsman, Polatajko, & Wilson, 2012), a systematic review of intervention studies, published since the last guidelines statement was conducted. The aim of this study was to 1) systematically review the evidence published from January 2012 to February 2017 regarding the effectiveness of motor based interventions in individuals with DCD, 2) quantify treatment effects using a meta-analysis, 3) examine the available information on different aspects of delivery including use of group intervention, duration and frequency of therapy, and 4) identify gaps in the literature and make recommendations for future intervention research. An electronic search of 5 databases (PubMed, Embase, Pedro, Scopus and Cochrane) was conducted for studies that evaluated motor-based interventions to improve performance for individuals with DCD. Thirty studies covering 25 datasets were included, 19 of which provided outcomes on standardized measures of motor performance. The overall effect size (Cohen's d) across intervention studies was large (1.06), but the range was wide: for 11 interventions, the observed effect was large (>0.80), in eight studies moderate (>0.50), and in five it was small or negligible (video games, and small group programs. Results showed that activity-oriented and body function oriented interventions can have a positive effect on motor function and skills. However, given the varied methodological quality and the large confidence intervals of some studies, the results should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis and co-ordination of the activities concerning gasification of biomass. Summary country report, Denmark and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoholm, P.; Olsen, A.

    1996-11-01

    The analysis summarises the coordination of activities concerning the gasification of biomass in Denmark and Norway. The total quantity of available biomass for energy production in Denmark corresponds to ca. 115 PJ of which ca. 40% is utilized - and this constitutes ca. 6% of the country's total energy consumption. The resulting energy from biomass is currently mostly used for heating purposes utilizing small wood/straw household or farm stoves in addition to ca. 100 district heating systems. There is a tendency to use biomass fuels for electric power production as in the case of all major waste incineration plants and about 10 fully or partly wood/straw-fired cogeneration plants which are found within the range of 2 -20 MWe. A table shows details of all Danish biomass gasification plants and information is given on the types of biomass, under the titles of residue products and energy crops, most relevant to energy production in Denmark. Data is presented on the consumption of renewable energy in Denmark, recalculated in fuel equivalents, and Danish national energy policy and related legislation are described. Information on Norway's use of biomass as fuel is given under the headings of primary consumption, biomass sources and use, legislation, and brief evaluations of commercial gasification plants, pilot and demonstration plants, and laboratory plants and studies. It has recently been decided to speed up the development of small-scale gasification plants for combined heat and electricity production using biomass as fuel in Denmark. Total Norwegian energy consumption is 25% higher than Denmark's, and biomass fuels cover only 3.6% of this. (ARW) 32 refs

  13. Health Reform in Minnesota: An Analysis of Complementary Initiatives Implementing Electronic Health Record Technology and Care Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, Karen; Rajamani, Sripriya; Wholey, Douglas; LaVenture, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Minnesota enacted legislation in 2007 that requires all health care providers in the state to implement an interoperable electronic health record (EHR) system by 2015. 100% of hospitals and 98% of clinics had adopted EHR systems by end of 2015. Minnesota's 2008 health reform included a health care home (HCH) program, Minnesota's patient centered medical home. By end of 2014, 43% of HCH eligible clinics were certified with 335 certified HCHs and 430 eligible but not certified clinics. To study the association between adoption and use of EHRs in primary care clinics and HCH certification, including use of clinical decision support tools, patient registries, electronic exchange of patient information, and availability of patient portals. Study utilized data from the 2015 Minnesota Health Information Technology Clinic Survey conducted annually by the Minnesota Department of Health. The response rate was 80% with 1,181 of 1,473 Minnesota clinics, including 662 HCH eligible primary care clinics. The comparative analysis focused on certified HCHs (311) and eligible but not certified clinics (351). HCH clinics utilized the various tools of EHR technology at a higher rate than non-HCH clinics. This greater utilization was noted across a range of functionalities: clinical decision support, patient disease registries, EHR to support quality improvement, electronic exchange of summary care records and availability of patient portals. HCH certification was significant for clinical decision support tools, registries and quality improvement. HCH requirements of care management, care coordination and quality improvement can be better supported with EHR technology, which underscores the higher rate of utilization of EHR tools by HCH clinics. Optimizing electronic exchange of health information remains a challenge for all clinics, including HCH certified clinics. This research presents the synergy between complementary initiatives supporting EHR adoption and HCH certification

  14. Coordination in continuously repeated games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeren, A.J.T.M.; Schumacher, J.M.; Engwerda, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to describe the effectiveness of coordination in a continuously repeated two-player game. We study how the choice of a decision rule by a coordinator affects the strategic behavior of the players, resulting in more or less cooperation. Our model requires the analysis

  15. Bare coordination: the semantic shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Swart, Henriette; Le Bruyn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of the syntax-semantics interface of two types of split coordination structures. In the first type, two bare singular count nouns appear as arguments in a coordinated structure, as in bride and groom were happy. We call this the N&N construction. In the second type,

  16. Normal mode analysis based on an elastic network model for biomolecules in the Protein Data Bank, which uses dihedral angles as independent variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Hiroshi; Endo, Shigeru

    2013-06-01

    We have developed a computer program, named PDBETA, that performs normal mode analysis (NMA) based on an elastic network model that uses dihedral angles as independent variables. Taking advantage of the relatively small number of degrees of freedom required to describe a molecular structure in dihedral angle space and a simple potential-energy function independent of atom types, we aimed to develop a program applicable to a full-atom system of any molecule in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The algorithm for NMA used in PDBETA is the same as the computer program FEDER/2, developed previously. Therefore, the main challenge in developing PDBETA was to find a method that can automatically convert PDB data into molecular structure information in dihedral angle space. Here, we illustrate the performance of PDBETA with a protein-DNA complex, a protein-tRNA complex, and some non-protein small molecules, and show that the atomic fluctuations calculated by PDBETA reproduce the temperature factor data of these molecules in the PDB. A comparison was also made with elastic-network-model based NMA in a Cartesian-coordinate system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ion beam techniques for the analysis of light elements in thin films, including depth profiling. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    This publication highlights the achievements of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to promote the potential of accelerator-based nuclear techniques of analysis for light elements in thin films. The objectives of this CRP were to develop a coordinated research effort between accelerator laboratories and materials science research groups in order to assist and promote the development of quality assurance methods, to evaluate databases of parameters needed for quantitative analysis, and to develop and apply techniques to selected problems concerning the surface modification of materials and production of thin films. Through various case studies, this publication assesses and demonstrates the effectiveness of accelerator-based nuclear techniques for analysis to provide valuable data and knowledge not readily accessible using other methods

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Torso FDG-PET Scans by Using Anatomical Standardization of Normal Cases from Thorough Physical Examinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hara

    Full Text Available Understanding of standardized uptake value (SUV of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET depends on the background accumulations of glucose because the SUV often varies the status of patients. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for quantitative analysis of SUV of FDG-PET scan images. The method included an anatomical standardization and a statistical comparison with normal cases by using Z-score that are often used in SPM or 3D-SSP approach for brain function analysis. Our scheme consisted of two approaches, which included the construction of a normal model and the determination of the SUV scores as Z-score index for measuring the abnormality of an FDG-PET scan image. To construct the normal torso model, all of the normal images were registered into one shape, which indicated the normal range of SUV at all voxels. The image deformation process consisted of a whole body rigid registration of shoulder to bladder region and liver registration and a non-linear registration of body surface by using the thin-plate spline technique. In order to validate usefulness of our method, we segment suspicious regions on FDG-PET images manually, and obtained the Z-scores of the regions based on the corresponding voxels that stores the mean and the standard deviations from the normal model. We collected 243 (143 males and 100 females normal cases to construct the normal model. We also extracted 432 abnormal spots from 63 abnormal cases (73 cancer lesions to validate the Z-scores. The Z-scores of 417 out of 432 abnormal spots were higher than 2.0, which statistically indicated the severity of the spots. In conclusions, the Z-scores obtained by our computerized scheme with anatomical standardization of torso region would be useful for visualization and detection of subtle lesions on FDG-PET scan images even when the SUV may not clearly show an abnormality.

  19. Estimation of normal hydration in dialysis patients using whole body and calf bioimpedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fansan; Kotanko, Peter; Handelman, Garry J; Raimann, Jochen G; Liu, Li; Carter, Mary; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Seibert, Eric; Leonard, Edward F; Levin, Nathan W

    2011-07-01

    Prescription of an appropriate dialysis target weight (dry weight) requires accurate evaluation of the degree of hydration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a state of normal hydration (DW(cBIS)) as defined by calf bioimpedance spectroscopy (cBIS) and conventional whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy (wBIS) could be characterized in hemodialysis (HD) patients and normal subjects (NS). wBIS and cBIS were performed in 62 NS (33 m/29 f) and 30 HD patients (16 m/14 f) pre- and post-dialysis treatments to measure extracellular resistance and fluid volume (ECV) by the whole body and calf bioimpedance methods. Normalized calf resistivity (ρ(N)(,5)) was defined as resistivity at 5 kHz divided by the body mass index. The ratio of wECV to total body water (wECV/TBW) was calculated. Measurements were made at baseline (BL) and at DW(cBIS) following the progressive reduction of post-HD weight over successive dialysis treatments until the curve of calf extracellular resistance is flattened (stabilization) and the ρ(N)(,5) was in the range of NS. Blood pressures were measured pre- and post-HD treatment. ρ(N)(,5) in males and females differed significantly in NS. In patients, ρ(N)(,5) notably increased with progressive decrease in body weight, and systolic blood pressure significantly decreased pre- and post-HD between BL and DW(cBIS) respectively. Although wECV/TBW decreased between BL and DW(cBIS), the percentage of change in wECV/TBW was significantly less than that in ρ(N)(,5) (-5.21 ± 3.2% versus 28 ± 27%, p hydration between BL and DW(cBIS).

  20. Screw-Home Movement of the Tibiofemoral Joint during Normal Gait: Three-Dimensional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Yong; Kim, Kap Jung; Yang, Dae Suk; Jeung, Sang Wook; Choi, Han Gyeol; Choy, Won Sik

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the screw-home movement at the tibiofemoral joint during normal gait by utilizing the 3-dimensional motion capture technique. Fifteen young males and fifteen young females (total 60 knee joints) who had no history of musculoskeletal disease or a particular gait problem were included in this study. Two more markers were attached to the subject in addition to the Helen-Hayes marker set. Thus, two virtual planes, femoral coronal plane (P f ) and tibial coronal plane (P t ), were created by Skeletal Builder software. This study measured the 3-dimensional knee joint movement in the sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes of these two virtual planes (P f and P t ) during normal gait. With respect to kinematics and kinetics, both males and females showed normal adult gait patterns, and the mean difference in the temporal gait parameters was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In the transverse plane, the screw-home movement occurred as expected during the pre-swing phase and the late-swing phase at an angle of about 17°. However, the tibia rotated externally with respect to the femur, rather than internally, while the knee joint started to flex during the loading response (paradoxical screw-home movement), and the angle was 6°. Paradoxical screw-home movement may be an important mechanism that provides stability to the knee joint during the remaining stance phase. Obtaining the kinematic values of the knee joint during gait can be useful in diagnosing and treating the pathological knee joints.

  1. Normal-mode-based analysis of electron plasma waves with second-order Hermitian formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J. J.; White, R. L.

    2018-03-01

    The classic problem of the dynamic evolution and Landau damping of linear Langmuir electron waves in a collisionless plasma with Maxwellian background is cast as a second-order, self-adjoint problem with a continuum spectrum of real and positive squared frequencies. The corresponding complete basis of singular normal modes is obtained, along with their orthogonality relation. This yields easily the general expression of the time-reversal-invariant solution for any initial-value problem. Examples are given for specific initial conditions that illustrate different behaviors of the Landau-damped macroscopic moments of the perturbations.

  2. Twist–radial normal mode analysis in double-stranded DNA chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrellas, Germán; Maciá, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    We study the normal modes of a duplex DNA chain at low temperatures. We consider the coupling between the hydrogen-bond radial oscillations and the twisting motion of each base pair within the Peyrard–Bishop–Dauxois model. The coupling is mediated by the stacking interaction between adjacent base pairs along the helix. We explicitly consider different mass values for different nucleotides, extending previous works. We disclose several resonance conditions of interest, determined by the fine-tuning of certain model parameters. The role of these dynamical effects on the DNA chain charge transport properties is discussed.

  3. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  4. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  5. Conflict and coordination in the provision of public goods: a conceptual analysis of continuous and step-level games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, Susanne; Stasser, Garold; Chartier, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    Conflicts between individual and collective interests are ubiquitous in social life. Experimental studies have investigated the resolution of such conflicts using public goods games with either continuous or step-level payoff functions. Game theory and social interdependence theory identify consequential differences between these two types of games. Continuous function games are prime examples of social dilemmas because they always contain a conflict between individual and collective interests, whereas step-level games can be construed as social coordination games. Step-level games often provide opportunities for coordinated solutions that benefit both the collective and the individuals. For this and other reasons, the authors conclude that one cannot safely generalize results obtained from step-level to continuous-form games (or vice versa). Finally, the authors identify specific characteristics of the payoff function in public goods games that conceptually mark the transition from a pure dilemma to a coordination problem nested within a dilemma.

  6. Comparative analysis of guide mode of government - oriented industry guidance funds under china’s new normal of economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunling; Cheng, Xuemei

    2017-11-01

    The government-oriented industry guidance Funds solve the problem of financing difficulty and high innovation under the background of China’s new normal. Through the provinces and cities of the policies and regulations of the collation and comparative analysis, it will be divided into three modes. And then compare among three modes and analyze applicability to guide the construction of provinces and cities.

  7. Comparative analysis of gene expression in normal and cancer human prostate cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Rosenberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the main causes of mortality in men with malignant tumors. The urgent problem was a search for biomarkers of prostate cancer, which would allow distinguishing between aggressive metastatic and latent tumors. The aim of this work was to search for differentially expressed genes in normal epithelial cells PNT2 and prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, DU145 and PC3, produced from tumors with different aggressiveness and metas­tatic ability. Such genes might be used to create a panel of prognostic markers for aggressiveness and metastasis. Relative gene expression of 65 cancer-related genes was determined by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR. Expression of 29 genes was changed in LNCaP cells, 20 genes in DU145 and 16 genes in PC3 cell lines, compared with normal line PNT2. The obtained data make it possible to conclude that the epithelial-mesenchymal cell transition took place, which involved the loss of epithelial markers, reduced cell adhesion and increased migration. We have also found few differentially expressed genes among 3 prostate cancer cell lines. We have found that genes, involved in cell adhesion (CDH1, invasiveness and metastasis (IL8, CXCL2 and cell cycle control (P16, CCNE1 underwent most changes. These genes might be used for diagnosis and prognosis of invasive metastatic prostate tumors.

  8. Mechanical stress analysis for a fuel rod under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, Eddy S.; Giovedi, Claudia; Serra, Andre da Silva; Abe, Alfredo Y.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements consist mainly in a system of a nuclear fuel encapsulated by a cladding material subject to high fluxes of energetic neutrons, high operating temperatures, pressure systems, thermal gradients, heat fluxes and with chemical compatibility with the reactor coolant. The design of a nuclear reactor requires, among a set of activities, the evaluation of the structural integrity of the fuel rod submitted to different loads acting on the fuel rod and the specific properties (dimensions and mechanical and thermal properties) of the cladding material and coolant, including thermal and pressure gradients produced inside the rod due to the fuel burnup. In this work were evaluated the structural mechanical stresses of a fuel rod using stainless steel as cladding material and UO 2 with a low degree of enrichment as fuel pellet on a PWR (pressurized water reactor) under normal operating conditions. In this sense, tangential, radial and axial stress on internal and external cladding surfaces considering the orientations of 0 deg, 90 deg and 180 deg were considered. The obtained values were compared with the limit values for stress to the studied material. From the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that, under the expected normal reactor operation conditions, the integrity of the fuel rod can be maintained. (author)

  9. Kinetic analysis of zinc metabolism and its regulation in normal humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastney, M.E.; Aamodt, R.L.; Rumble, W.F.; Henkin, R.I.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc metabolism was studied in 32 normal volunteers after oral or intravenous administration of 65 Zn. Data were collected from the blood, urine, feces, whole body, and over the liver and thigh regions for 9 mo while the subjects consumed their regular diets (containing 10 mg Zn ion/day) and for an additional 9 mo while the subjects received an exogenous oral supplement of 100 mg Zn ion/day. Data from each subject were fitted by a compartmental model for zinc metabolism that was developed previously for patients with taste and smell dysfunction. These data from normal subjects were used to determine the absorption, distribution, and excretion of zinc and the mass of zinc in erythrocytes, liver, thigh, and whole body. By use of additional data obtained from the present study, the model was refined further such that a large compartment, which was previously determined to contain 90% of the body zinc, was subdivided into two compartments to represent zinc in muscle and bone. When oral zinc intake was increased 11-fold three new sites of regulation of zinc metabolism were identified in addition to the two sites previously defined in patients with taste and smell dysfunction (absorption of zinc from gut and excretion of zinc in urine). The three new sites are exchange of zinc with erythrocytes, release of zinc by muscle, and secretion of zinc into gut. Regulation at these five sites appears to maintain some tissue concentrations of zinc when dietary zinc increases

  10. A Network Flow-based Analysis of Cognitive Reserve in Normal Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wook Yoo, Sang; Han, Cheol E; Shin, Joseph S; Won Seo, Sang; Na, Duk L; Kaiser, Marcus; Jeong, Yong; Seong, Joon-Kyung

    2015-05-20

    Cognitive reserve is the ability to sustain cognitive function even with a certain amount of brain damages. Here we investigate the neural compensation mechanism of cognitive reserve from the perspective of structural brain connectivity. Our goal was to show that normal people with high education levels (i.e., cognitive reserve) maintain abundant pathways connecting any two brain regions, providing better compensation or resilience after brain damage. Accordingly, patients with high education levels show more deterioration in structural brain connectivity than those with low education levels before symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) become apparent. To test this hypothesis, we use network flow measuring the number of alternative paths between two brain regions in the brain network. The experimental results show that for normal aging, education strengthens network reliability, as measured through flow values, in a subnetwork centered at the supramarginal gyrus. For AD, a subnetwork centered at the left middle frontal gyrus shows a negative correlation between flow and education, which implies more collapse in structural brain connectivity for highly educated patients. We conclude that cognitive reserve may come from the ability of network reorganization to secure the information flow within the brain network, therefore making it more resistant to disease progress.

  11. Migration velocity analysis using a transversely isotropic medium with tilt normal to the reflector dip

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, T.

    2010-06-13

    A transversely isotropic model in which the tilt is constrained to be normal to the dip (DTI model) allows for simplifications in the imaging and velocity model building efforts as compared to a general TTI model. Though this model, in some cases, can not be represented physically like in the case of conflicting dips, it handles all dips with the assumption of symmetry axis normal to the dip. It provides a process in which areas that meet this feature is handled properly. We use efficient downward continuation algorithms that utilizes the reflection features of such a model. For lateral inhomogeneity, phase shift migration can be easily extended to approximately handle lateral inhomogeneity, because unlike the general TTI case the DTI model reduces to VTI for zero dip. We also equip these continuation algorithms with tools that expose inaccuracies in the velocity. We test this model on synthetic data of general TTI nature and show its resilience even couping with complex models like the recently released anisotropic BP model.

  12. An acoustic analysis of laughter produced by congenitally deaf and normally hearing college students1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makagon, Maja M.; Funayama, E. Sumie; Owren, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively few empirical data are available concerning the role of auditory experience in nonverbal human vocal behavior, such as laughter production. This study compared the acoustic properties of laughter in 19 congenitally, bilaterally, and profoundly deaf college students and in 23 normally hearing control participants. Analyses focused on degree of voicing, mouth position, air-flow direction, temporal features, relative amplitude, fundamental frequency, and formant frequencies. Results showed that laughter produced by the deaf participants was fundamentally similar to that produced by the normally hearing individuals, which in turn was consistent with previously reported findings. Finding comparable acoustic properties in the sounds produced by deaf and hearing vocalizers confirms the presumption that laughter is importantly grounded in human biology, and that auditory experience with this vocalization is not necessary for it to emerge in species-typical form. Some differences were found between the laughter of deaf and hearing groups; the most important being that the deaf participants produced lower-amplitude and longer-duration laughs. These discrepancies are likely due to a combination of the physiological and social factors that routinely affect profoundly deaf individuals, including low overall rates of vocal fold use and pressure from the hearing world to suppress spontaneous vocalizations. PMID:18646991

  13. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF DENTAL ARCH OF CHILDREN IN NORMAL OCCLUSION: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abu-Hussein DDS, MScD, MSc, DPD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM. This paper is an attempt to compare and analyze the various mathematical models for defining the dental arch curvature of children in normal occlusion based upon a review of available literature. Background. While various studies have touched upon ways to cure or prevent dental diseases and upon surgical ways for teeth reconstitution to correct teeth anomalies during childhood, a substantial literature also exists, attempting to mathematically define the dental arch of children in normal occlusion. This paper reviews these dental studies and compares them analytically. Method. The paper compares the different mathematical approaches, highlights the basic assumptions behind each model, underscores the relevancy and applicability of the same, and also lists applicable mathematical formulae. Results. Each model has been found applicable to specific research conditions, as a universal mathematical model for describing the human dental arch still eludes satisfactory definition. The models necessarily need to include the features of the dental arch, such as shape, spacing between teeth and symmetry or asymmetry, but they also need substantial improvement. Conclusions. While the paper shows that the existing models are inadequate in properly defining the human dental arch, it also acknowledges that future research based on modern imaging techniques and computeraided simulation could well succeed in deriving an allinclusive definition for the human dental curve till now eluding the experts.

  14. Validation of Tuba1a as Appropriate Internal Control for Normalization of Gene Expression Analysis during Mouse Lung Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Mehta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The expression ratio between the analysed gene and an internal control gene is the most widely used normalization method for quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR expression analysis. The ideal reference gene for a specific experiment is the one whose expression is not affected by the different experimental conditions tested. In this study, we validate the applicability of five commonly used reference genes during different stages of mouse lung development. The stability of expression of five different reference genes (Tuba1a, Actb Gapdh, Rn18S and Hist4h4 was calculated within five experimental groups using the statistical algorithm of geNorm software. Overall, Tuba1a showed the least variability in expression among the different stages of lung development, while Hist4h4 and Rn18S showed the maximum variability in their expression. Expression analysis of two lung specific markers, surfactant protein C (SftpC and Clara cell-specific 10 kDA protein (Scgb1a1, normalized to each of the five reference genes tested here, confirmed our results and showed that incorrect reference gene choice can lead to artefacts. Moreover, a combination of two internal controls for normalization of expression analysis during lung development will increase the accuracy and reliability of results.

  15. Value of normalization analysis of thyroid scans on 131I treatment planning for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Zhonghui; Mao Yuan; Chen Man; Zhang Yanyan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of normalization analysis of thyroid scans on 131 I treatment planning for Graves' disease. Methods: Patients with hyperthyroidism treated by 131 I were retrospectively analyzed. Sixty cases with thyroid glands less than 35 g and without thyroid nodules were enrolled. Raw data of thyroid scans were re-processed using a software for normalization and magnification. Correlation between total dose,the number of treatments and other factors, such as area ratios of bilateral lobes, bilateral radioactive counts, bilateral gray scales and multifocal uptake patterns, were analyzed using step-by-step regression analysis. Correlations between normal thyroid function, hypothyroidism and the above mentioned factors were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Fifty percent (30/60) of cases were cured after a single-dose treatment, and the remaining 50% required multiple treatments. In addition to thyroid mass and radioactive iodine uptake, total dose correlated with gender (F=4.23, P=0.050), area ratio of bilateral lobes (F=6.20, P=0.020) and multifocal uptake pattern (F=5.12, P=0.033). The number of treatments correlated with ratio of bilateral gray scales (F=8.89, P=0.006) and multifocal uptake pattern (F=4.98, P=0.034). According to outcomes, patients were divided into a normal thyroid function group and a hypothyroidism group. 131 I dose correlated with the area ratio of bilateral lobes (F=10.42, P=0.018) and ratio of bilateral gray scales in the normal thyroid function group (F=10.66, P=0.017); whereas in the hypothyroidism group, the clinical outcome correlated with thyroid mass (F=7.65, P=0.013) and multifocal uptake pattern (F=8.01, P=0.011). Conclusions: Computer aided normalization analysis is useful for 131 I dose calculation in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. For patients with significantly unbalanced bilateral radiotracer distribution, increasing the dose and the number of treatments should be suggested

  16. Fourier phase analysis on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography: range of phase spread and cut-off limits in normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaiah, Vijayaraghavan L.; Harish, B.; Sunil, H.V.; Selvakumar, Job; Ravi Kishore, A.G.; Nair, Gopinathan

    2011-01-01

    To define the range of phase spread on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV) in normal individuals and derive the cut-off limit for the parameters to detect cardiac dyssynchrony. ERNV was carried out in 30 individuals (age 53±23 years, 25 males and 5 females) who had no history of cardiovascular disease. They all had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 55-70%) as determined by echocardiography, were in sinus rhythm, with normal QRS duration (≤120 msec) and normal coronary angiography. First harmonic phase analysis was performed on scintigraphic data acquired in best septal view. Left and right ventricular standard deviation (LVSD and RVSD, respectively) and interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD), the absolute difference of mean phase angles of right and left ventricle, were computed and expressed in milliseconds. Mean + 3 standard deviation (SD) was used to derive the cut-off limits. Average LVEF and duration of cardiac cycle in the study group were 62.5%±5.44% and 868.9±114.5 msec, respectively. The observations of LVSD, RVSD and right and left ventricular mean phase angles were shown to be normally distributed by Shapiro-Wilk test. Cut-off limits for LVSD, RVSD and IVMD were calculated to be 80 msec, 85 msec and 75 msec, respectively. Fourier phase analysis on ERNV is an effective tool for the evaluation of synchronicity of cardiac contraction. The cut-off limits of parameters of dyssynchrony can be used to separate heart failure patients with cardiac dyssynchrony from those without. ERNV can be used to select patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy. (author)

  17. Estimation of normal hydration in dialysis patients using whole body and calf bioimpedance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Fansan; Kotanko, Peter; Handelman, Garry J; Raimann, Jochen G; Liu, Li; Carter, Mary; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Seibert, Eric; Levin, Nathan W; Leonard, Edward F

    2011-01-01

    Prescription of an appropriate dialysis target weight (dry weight) requires accurate evaluation of the degree of hydration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a state of normal hydration (DW cBIS ) as defined by calf bioimpedance spectroscopy (cBIS) and conventional whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy (wBIS) could be characterized in hemodialysis (HD) patients and normal subjects (NS). wBIS and cBIS were performed in 62 NS (33 m/29 f) and 30 HD patients (16 m/14 f) pre- and post-dialysis treatments to measure extracellular resistance and fluid volume (ECV) by the whole body and calf bioimpedance methods. Normalized calf resistivity (ρ N,5 ) was defined as resistivity at 5 kHz divided by the body mass index. The ratio of wECV to total body water (wECV/TBW) was calculated. Measurements were made at baseline (BL) and at DW cBIS following the progressive reduction of post-HD weight over successive dialysis treatments until the curve of calf extracellular resistance is flattened (stabilization) and the ρ N,5 was in the range of NS. Blood pressures were measured pre- and post-HD treatment. ρ N,5 in males and females differed significantly in NS. In patients, ρ N,5 notably increased with progressive decrease in body weight, and systolic blood pressure significantly decreased pre- and post-HD between BL and DW cBIS respectively. Although wECV/TBW decreased between BL and DW cBIS , the percentage of change in wECV/TBW was significantly less than that in ρ N,5 (−5.21 ± 3.2% versus 28 ± 27%, p < 0.001). This establishes the use of ρ N,5 as a new comparator allowing a clinician to incrementally monitor removal of extracellular fluid from patients over the course of dialysis treatments. The conventional whole body technique using wECV/TBW was less sensitive than the use of ρ N,5 to measure differences in body hydration between BL and DW cBIS

  18. Data analysis strategies for the characterization of normal: superconductor point contacts by barrier strength parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles W.; Reinertson, Randal C.; Dolan, P. J., Jr.

    1993-05-01

    The theoretical description by Blonder, Tinkham, and Klapwijk [Phys. Rev. B 25, 4515 (1982)] of the I-V curves of normal: superconductor point contacts encompasses a broad range of experimental behavior, from the tunnel junction case, on the one hand, to the clean metallic microconstriction limit on the other. The theory characterizes point contacts in terms of a single parameter, the barrier strength. The differential conductance of a point contact, at zero bias, as a function of temperature, offers a direct experimental method by which the barrier strength parameter can be evaluated. In view of the full range of phenomena incorporated by this theory, we suggest several different strategies for the evaluation of the barrier strength parameter from data in the low and intermediate barrier strength regimes and for measurements in the low temperature (near T=0 K) and high temperature (near T=Tc) limits.

  19. Analysis of the interaction of a weak normal shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, R. E.; Grossman, B.

    1974-01-01

    The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to analyze the interaction of a normal shock wave with an unseparated turbulent boundary layer on a flat surface at transonic speeds. The theory leads to a three-layer description of the interaction in the double limit of Reynolds number approaching infinity and Mach number approaching unity. The interaction involves an outer, inviscid rotational layer, a constant shear-stress wall layer, and a blending region between them. The pressure distribution is obtained from a numerical solution of the outer-layer equations by a mixed-flow relaxation procedure. An analytic solution for the skin friction is determined from the inner-layer equations. The significance of the mathematical model is discussed with reference to existing experimental data.

  20. Cell renewal of glomerular cell types in normal rats. An autoradiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, R.; Sterzel, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Normal adult Sprague-Dawley rats received either a single or repetitive injection of the DNA precursor 3 H-thymidine ( 3 H-TdR). For autoradiography semi-thin sections were prepared 2 hr to 14 days after labeling. The majority of labeled cells noted in glomerular tufts were endothelial cells. Mesangial cells had a lower production rate. Podocytes revealed no evidence of proliferation. Bowman's capsule cells showed a higher labeling index than tuft cells at all times. Neither the urinary nor the vascular pole was found to be a proliferative zone for Bowman's capsule cells. The flash and repetitive labeling experiments demonstrated a constant rate of cell renewal of about 1% per day, resulting in a long life span for endothelial and mesangial cells as well as Bowman's capsule cells. These data provide a basis for cell kinetic studies in models of glomerular diseases

  1. Analysis of normal zone propagation and hot spot temperature on ITER CS insert coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Tomone; Ozeki, Hidemasa; Nabara, Yoshihiro; Saito, Toru; Kawano, Katsumi; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Isono, Takaaki; Nunoya, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) insert coil consists of a 42-m-long CS conductor, of which the specifications are the same as that of the ITER CS. In order to investigate normal zone propagation and hot spot temperature, a quench test was carried out on the CS insert under End-of-Burn condition at 12.5 T and 45.1 kA of after 16,000 cycles. External heat was applied at nearly the center of the CS insert using an inductive heater, and quench was induced. A current of 45.1 kA was dumped 9.5 s (7 s) after voltage generation (Quench detection, QD). The Normal zone propagation length reached 23.4 m, and the maxim propagation velocity was 3.1 m/s just before dumping. Considering the distribution of temperature, which is calculated by GANDALF, hot spot temperature was expected to reach 227 K. As the result, it was found that the hot spot temperature exceeded the criteria of 150 K which is designed on ITER. However, heating the CS insert to 227 K did not influence conductor performance, because the current sharing temperature was maintained after the quench test. Therefore, the quench detection has a margin of approximately 9.5 s (7 s) after voltage generation (QD) in view of the conductor performance under the conditions applied in this quench test. If the hot spot temperature is kept to less than 150 K, the current should be dumped 7.5 s (5 s) before voltage generation (QD). These results are very useful for designing quench protection of the ITER CS. (author)

  2. Blood pressure and heart rate variability analysis of orthostatic challenge in normal human pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Nonna; Saarelainen, Heli; Valtonen, Pirjo; Lyyra-Laitinen, Tiina; Laitinen, Tomi; Vanninen, Esko; Heinonen, Seppo

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate pregnancy-related changes in autonomic regulatory functions in healthy subjects. We studied cardiovascular autonomic responses to head-up tilt (HUT) in 28 pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancy and 3 months after parturition. The maternal ECG and non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure were recorded in the horizontal position (left-lateral position) and during HUT in the upright position. Stroke volume was assessed from blood pressure signal by using the arterial pulse contour method. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analysed in frequency domain, and baroreflex sensitivity by the cross-spectral and the sequence methods. In the horizontal position, all frequency components of HRV were lower during pregnancy than 3 months after parturition (P pregnancy had no influence on normalized low frequency and high frequency powers. During pregnancy haemodynamics was well balanced with only minor changes in response to postural change while haemodynamic responses to HUT were more remarkable after parturition. In pregnant women HRV and especially its very low frequency component increased in response to HUT, whereas at 3 months after parturition the direction of these changes was opposite. Parasympathetic deactivation towards term is likely to contribute to increased heart rate and cardiac output at rest, whereas restored sympathetic modulation with modest responses may contribute stable peripheral resistance and sufficient placental blood supply under stimulated conditions. It is important to understand cardiovascular autonomic nervous system and haemodynamic control in normal pregnancy before being able to judge whether they are dysregulated in complicated pregnancies.

  3. Coordination Incentives, Performance Measurement and Resource Allocation in Public Sector Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrichson, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Why are coordination problems common when public sector organizations share responsibilities, and what can be done to mitigate such problems? This paper uses a multi-task principal-agent model to examine two related reasons: the incentives to coordinate resource allocation and the difficulties of measuring performance. The analysis shows that when targets are set individually for each organization, the resulting incentives normally induce inefficient resource allocations. If the principal imp...

  4. Analysis of the variability of human normal urine by 2D-GE reveals a "public" and a "private" proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Laurence; Salvetat, Nicolas; Ameur, Randa Ben; Peres, Sabine; Sommerer, Nicolas; Jarraya, Fayçal; Ayadi, Hammadi; Molina, Franck; Granier, Claude

    2011-12-10

    The characterization of the normal urinary proteome is steadily progressing and represents a major interest in the assessment of clinical urinary biomarkers. To estimate quantitatively the variability of the normal urinary proteome, urines of 20 healthy people were collected. We first evaluated the impact of the sample conservation temperature on urine proteome integrity. Keeping the urine sample at RT or at +4°C until storage at -80°C seems the best way for long-term storage of samples for 2D-GE analysis. The quantitative variability of the normal urinary proteome was estimated on the 20 urines mapped by 2D-GE. The occurrence of the 910 identified spots was analysed throughout the gels and represented in a virtual 2D gel. Sixteen percent of the spots were found to occur in all samples and 23% occurred in at least 90% of urines. About 13% of the protein spots were present only in 10% or less of the samples, thus representing the most variable part of the normal urinary proteome. Twenty proteins corresponding to a fraction of the fully conserved spots were identified by mass spectrometry. In conclusion, a "public" urinary proteome, common to healthy individuals, seems to coexist with a "private" urinary proteome, which is more specific to each individual. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Normal and abnormal electrical activation of the heart. Imaging patterns obtained by phase analysis of equilibrium cardiac studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.; Byrom, E.; Swiryn, S.; Meyer-Pavel, C.; Rosen, K.

    1981-01-01

    By using a temporal Fourier analysis of gated equilibrium cardiac studies, phase images were obtained. These functional images were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively to determine if specific patterns can be found for normal versus abnormal electrical activation of the heart. The study included eight subjects with normal cardiac function and 24 patients with abnormal electrical activation: eight with left bundle branch block (LBBB), two with right bundle branch block (RBBB), six with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), one with junctional rhythm, one with spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (all with normal wall motion), two with chronic transvenous pacemakers, and four with induced sustained VT (all with regional wall motion abnormalities). The results show that the two ventricals have the same mean phase (within +-9 0 ) in normals, but significantly different mean phases in all patients with bundle branch blocks. Of the six WPW patients, three had a distinctive abnormal pattern. The patient with junctional rhythm, those with transvenous pacemakers, and those with VT all had abnormal patterns on the phase image. The phase image is capable of showing differences between patients with electrical activation and a variety of electrical abnormalities. Within the latter category distinct patterns can be associated with each type of abnormality. (author)

  6. Impact of PET/CT image reconstruction methods and liver uptake normalization strategies on quantitative image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhnert, Georg; Sterzer, Sergej; Kahraman, Deniz; Dietlein, Markus; Drzezga, Alexander; Kobe, Carsten [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cologne (Germany); Boellaard, Ronald [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Scheffler, Matthias; Wolf, Juergen [University Hospital of Cologne, Lung Cancer Group Cologne, Department I of Internal Medicine, Center for Integrated Oncology Cologne Bonn, Cologne (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    In oncological imaging using PET/CT, the standardized uptake value has become the most common parameter used to measure tracer accumulation. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate ultra high definition (UHD) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) PET/CT reconstructions for their potential impact on quantification. We analyzed 40 PET/CT scans of lung cancer patients who had undergone PET/CT. Standardized uptake values corrected for body weight (SUV) and lean body mass (SUL) were determined in the single hottest lesion in the lung and normalized to the liver for UHD and OSEM reconstruction. Quantitative uptake values and their normalized ratios for the two reconstruction settings were compared using the Wilcoxon test. The distribution of quantitative uptake values and their ratios in relation to the reconstruction method used were demonstrated in the form of frequency distribution curves, box-plots and scatter plots. The agreement between OSEM and UHD reconstructions was assessed through Bland-Altman analysis. A significant difference was observed after OSEM and UHD reconstruction for SUV and SUL data tested (p < 0.0005 in all cases). The mean values of the ratios after OSEM and UHD reconstruction showed equally significant differences (p < 0.0005 in all cases). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the SUV and SUL and their normalized values were, on average, up to 60 % higher after UHD reconstruction as compared to OSEM reconstruction. OSEM and HD reconstruction brought a significant difference for SUV and SUL, which remained constantly high after normalization to the liver, indicating that standardization of reconstruction and the use of comparable SUV measurements are crucial when using PET/CT. (orig.)

  7. Procedural learning in Parkinson's disease, specific language impairment, dyslexia, schizophrenia, developmental coordination disorder, and autism spectrum disorders: A second-order meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gillian M; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2017-10-01

    The serial reaction time task (SRTT) has been used to study procedural learning in clinical populations. In this report, second-order meta-analysis was used to investigate whether disorder type moderates performance on the SRTT. Using this approach to quantitatively summarise past research, it was tested whether autism spectrum disorder, developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment differentially affect procedural learning on the SRTT. The main analysis revealed disorder type moderated SRTT performance (p=0.010). This report demonstrates comparable levels of procedural learning impairment in developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment. However, in autism, procedural learning is spared. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Histomorphometric analysis of nuclear and cellular volumetric alterations in oral lichen planus, lichenoid lesions and normal oral mucosa using image analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesiah, Sowmya S; Kale, Alka D; Hallikeremath, Seema R; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that clinically and histologically resembles lichenoid lesions, although the latter has a different etiology. Though criteria have been suggested for differentiating oral lichen planus from lichenoid lesions, confusion still prevails. To study the cellular and nuclear volumetric features in the epithelium of normal mucosa, lichen planus, and lichenoid lesions to determine variations if any. A retrospective study was done on 25 histologically diagnosed cases each of oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions, and normal oral mucosa. Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software. Analysis of variance test (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc test. The basal cells of oral lichen planus showed a significant increase in the mean nuclear and cellular areas, and in nuclear volume; there was a significant decrease in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio as compared to normal mucosa. The suprabasal cells showed a significant increase in nuclear and cellular areas, nuclear diameter, and nuclear and cellular volumes as compared to normal mucosa. The basal cells of oral lichenoid lesions showed significant difference in the mean cellular area and the mean nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio as compared to normal mucosa, whereas the suprabasal cells differed significantly from normal mucosa in the mean nuclear area and the nuclear and cellular volumes. Morphometry can differentiate lesions of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions from normal oral mucosa. Thus, morphometry may serve to discriminate between normal and premalignant lichen planus and lichenoid lesions. These lesions might have a high risk for malignant transformation and may behave in a similar manner with respect to malignant transformation.

  9. Giving the force direction : Analysis of speed skater push off forces with respect to an inertial coordinate system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruk, E.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Schwab, A.L.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pushoff in speed skating requires an extensive motion strategy. During speed skating the skater continuously changes the lean and steering angle of the skate and therewith the direction of push-off, The forces in an inertial coordinate system can give insight into what amount of the push-off force

  10. Effective components of nurse-coordinated care to prevent recurrent coronary events: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snaterse, Marjolein; Dobber, Jos; Jepma, Patricia; Peters, Ron J. G.; ter Riet, Gerben; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Buurman, Bianca M.; Scholte op Reimer, Wilma J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines on secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease recommend nurse-coordinated care (NCC) as an effective intervention. However, NCC programmes differ widely and the efficacy of NCC components has not been studied. To investigate the efficacy of NCC and its components in secondary

  11. Microbiological and bioinformatics analysis of primary Sjogren's syndrome patients with normal salivation§

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Siddiqui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduced salivation is considered a major clinical feature of most but not all cases of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS. Reduced saliva flow may lead to changes in the salivary microbiota. These changes have mainly been studied with culture that typically recovers only 65% of the bacteria present. Objective: This study was to use high throughput sequencing, covering both cultivated and not-yet-cultivated bacteria, to assess the bacterial microbiota of whole saliva in pSS patients with normal salivation. Methods: Bacteria of whole unstimulated saliva from nine pSS patients with normal salivation flow and from nine healthy controls were examined by high throughput sequencing of the hypervariable region V1V2 of 16S rRNA using the 454 GS Junior system. Raw sequence reads were subjected to a species-level, reference-based taxonomy assignment pipeline specially designed for studying the human oral microbial community. Each of the sequence reads was BLASTN-searched against a database consisting of reference sequences representing 1,156 oral and 12,013 non-oral species. Unassigned reads were then screened for high-quality non-chimeras and subjected to de novo species-level operational taxonomy unit (OTU calling for potential novel species. Downstream analyses, including alpha and beta diversities, were analyzed using the Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME pipeline. To reveal significant differences between the microbiota of control saliva and Sjögren's saliva, a statistical method introduced in Metastats www.metastats.cbcb.umd.edu was used. Results: Saliva of pSS patients with normal salivation had a significantly higher frequency of Firmicutes compared with controls (p=0.004. Two other major phyla, Synergistetes and Spirochaetes, were significantly depleted in pSS (p=0.001 for both. In addition, we saw a nearly 17% decrease in the number of genera in pSS (25 vs. 30. While Prevotella was almost equally abundant in both

  12. Proximal and distal alignment of normal canine femurs: A morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Mehmet Erkut; Sevil-Kilimci, Figen; Dilek, Ömer Gürkan; Onar, Vedat

    2018-05-01

    Many researchers are interested in femoral conformation because most orthopaedic problems of the long bones occur in the femur and its joints. The neck-shaft (NSA) and the anteversion (AVA) angles are good predictors for understanding the orientation of the proximal end of the femur. The varus (aLDFA) and procurvatum (CDFA) angles have also been used to understand the orientation of the distal end of the femur. The purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship between the proximal and distal angles of the femur and to compare the distal femoral angles in male and female dogs in order to investigate the sexual dimorphism. The measurements of normal CDFAs, which have not been previously reported, may also provide a database of canine distal femoral morphology. A total of 75 cleaned healthy femora from different breeds or mixed breed of dogs were used. The three-dimensional images were reconstructed from computed tomographic images. The AVA, NSA, aLDFA and CDFA were measured on the 3D images. The correlation coefficients were calculated among the measured angles. The distal femoral angles were also compared between male and female femora. The 95% confidence intervals of the AVA and the NSA were calculated to be 24.22°-29.50° and 144.97°-147.50°, respectively. The 95% confidence intervals of the aLDFA and the CDFA for all studied dogs were 92.62°-94.08° and 89.09°-91.94°, respectively. The NSA showed no correlation with either the aLDFA or CDFA. There was a weak inverse correlation between the AVA and CDFA and a weak positive correlation between the AVA and aLDFA. The differences in the aLDFA and CDFA measurements between male and female dog were not significant. In conclusion, femoral version, regardless of the plane, might have little influence on distal femoral morphology in normal dogs. Besides this, there is no evidence of a sexual dimorphism in the varus and procurvatum angles of the dog distal femur. The data from this study may be used in

  13. Simultaneous ionization and analysis of 84 anabolic androgenic steroids in human urine using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hee; Cha, Eun-Ju; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ho Jun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2014-01-01

    Metal ion coordination ionspray (M(+) CIS) ionization is a powerful technique to enhance ionization efficiency and sensitivity. In this study, we developed and validated an analytical method for simultaneous ionization and analysis of 84 anabolic androgenic steroids (65 exogenous and 19 endogenous) using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS). The concentrations of silver ions and organic solvents have been optimized to increase the amount of silver ion coordinated complexes. A combination of 25 μM of silver ions and methanol showed the best sensitivity. The validation results showed the intra- (0.8-9.2%) and inter-day (2.5-14.9%) precisions, limits of detection (0.0005-5.0 ng/mL), and matrix effect (71.8-100.3%) for the screening analysis. No significant ion suppression was observed. In addition, this method was successfully applied to analysis of positive samples from suspected abusers and useful for the detection of the trace levels of anabolic steroids in human urine samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Structural evaluation and analysis under normal conditions for spent fuel concrete storage cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Taechul; Baeg, Changyeal; Yoon, Sitae [Korea Radioactive waste Management Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Insoo [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is the verification of stabilities of the structural elements that influence the safety of a concrete storage cask. The evaluation results were reviewed with respect to every design criterion, in terms of whether the results satisfy the criteria, provided by 10CFR 72 and NUREG-1536. The basic information on the design is partially explained in 2. Description of spent fuel storage system and the maintainability and assumptions included in the analysis were confirmed through detailed explanations of the acceptable standards, analysis model, and analysis method. ABAQUS 6.10, a widely used finite element analysis program, was used in the structural analysis. The storage cask shall maintain the sub-criticality, shielding, structural integrity, thermal capability and confinement in accordance with the requirements specified in US 10 CFR 72. The safety of storage cask is analyzed and it has been confirmed to meet the requirements of US 10 CFR 72. This paper summarizes the structural stability evaluation results of a concrete storage cask with respect to the design criteria. The evaluation results of this paper show that the maximum stress was below the allowable stress under every condition, and the concrete storage cask satisfied the design criteria.

  15. Analysis of knee movement with low-field MR equipment. A normal volunteer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo; Aoki, Ikuo; Yamada, Takashi.

    1994-01-01

    This study was performed to make a normal standard by analyzing knee movement in detail. An open low-field unit was used for 23 healthy knee joints. With three-dimensional Fourier transformation (3DFT) gradient echo sequence, 50 sagittal slices of 4.5 mm in thickness were obtained at four flexion angles: 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees (lateral position). Although the tension ratio of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL, PCL) increased during knee flexion, the change in the tension ratio was significantly different between the ACL and PCL. The femur-ACL angle and femur-PCL angle were parallel with the knee flexion angle, but the tibia-ACL angle and tibia-PCL angle changed complexly. The lateral and medial condyles rolled and slid during knee flexion, and the medial side moved more than the lateral side, consistent with rotation of the lower thigh. The difference in backward movement distance on the tibia between the two condyles was significantly larger in females than in males. This might explain the dominance of knee osteoarthritis in women. Although the lateral position is not completely physiological, we could show initial cinematic data of up to 90 degrees of knee flexion using open-type MRI, which is impossible with high- and middle-field machines. (author)

  16. Three dimensional analysis of histone methylation patterns in normal and tumor cell nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cremer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone modifications represent an important epigenetic mechanism for the organization of higher order chromatin structure and gene regulation. Methylation of position-specific lysine residues in the histone H3 and H4 amino termini has been linked with the formation of constitutive and facultative heterochromatin as well as with specifically repressed single gene loci. Using an antibody, directed against dimethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 and several other lysine methylation sites, we visualized the nuclear distribution pattern of chromatin flagged by these methylated lysines in 3D preserved nuclei of normal and malignant cell types. Optical confocal serial sections were used for a quantitative evaluation. We demonstrate distinct differences of these histone methylation patterns among nuclei of different cell types after exit of the cell cycle. Changes in the pattern formation were also observed during the cell cycle. Our data suggest an important role of methylated histones in the reestablishment of higher order chromatin arrangements during telophase/early G1. Cell type specific histone methylation patterns are possibly causally involved in the formation of cell type specific heterochromatin compartments, composed of (pericentromeric regions and chromosomal subregions from neighboring chromosome territories, which contain silent genes.

  17. Analysis of postural sway in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus: effects of shunt implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerwosz L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poor postural balance is one of the major risk factors for falling in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH. Postural instability in the clinic is commonly assessed based upon force platform posturography. In this study we focused on the identification of changes in sway characteristics while standing quiet in patients with NPH before and after shunt implantation. Postural sway area and sway radius were analyzed in a group of 9 patients and 46 controls of both genders. Subject's spontaneous sway was recorded while standing quiet on a force platform for 30-60 s, with eyes open and then closed. Both analyzed sway descriptors identified between-group differences and also an effect of shunt implantation in the NPH group. Sway radius and sway area in patients exhibited very high values compared with those in the control group. Importantly, the effect of eyesight in patients was not observed before shunt implantation and reappeared after the surgical treatment. The study documents that static force platform posturography may be a reliable measure of postural control improvement due to shunt surgery.

  18. An analysis of lymphographic signs for differentiating cancerous, lymphomatous, and normal lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Nakajima, Teiichi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Akisada, Masayoshi

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four lymphographic signs, obtained from a total of 204 cancerous (C), lymphomatous (L), and normal (N) lymph nodes, were analyzed based on the final diagnosis. Univariate analyses with correlation coefficient and multivariate regression analyses were employed to differentiate C, L, or N lymph nodes. Based on univariate analyses, lymphographic sings for C nodes were - enlarged node, irregular or deficient capsules or marginal sinuses, block of lymph vessels, extravasation, and defect in lymph-vascular and nodal phase (combination defect). The signs for L node were - enlarged node, elliptic shape from 2 projections, irregular or deficient capsules or marginal sinuses, and extravasation. Using multivariate analyses, the following signs were necessary for differentiating individual lymph nodes: (a) combination defect, specific pattern, granularity, nodal shape and stasis or preservation of lymph vessels for differentiating C from N nodes; (b) deficiencies of capsules, nodal shape, specific pattern, dislocation of lymph vessels, and nodal contrast for differentiating L from N nodes; and (c) character of defect, specific pattern, deformity, soft tissue shadow and nodal shape for differentiating C from L nodes. Should lymphography be used in the visualization of inside structure and lymphatic canal, it would even more increase the ability to diagnose cancer and malignant lymphomas. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Endogenous protein "barcode" for data validation and normalization in quantitative MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wooram; Lazar, Iulia M

    2014-07-01

    Quantitative proteomic experiments with mass spectrometry detection are typically conducted by using stable isotope labeling and label-free quantitation approaches. Proteins with housekeeping functions and stable expression level such actin, tubulin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase are frequently used as endogenous controls. Recent studies have shown that the expression level of such common housekeeping proteins is, in fact, dependent on various factors such as cell type, cell cycle, or disease status and can change in response to a biochemical stimulation. The interference of such phenomena can, therefore, substantially compromise their use for data validation, alter the interpretation of results, and lead to erroneous conclusions. In this work, we advance the concept of a protein "barcode" for data normalization and validation in quantitative proteomic experiments. The barcode comprises a novel set of proteins that was generated from cell cycle experiments performed with MCF7, an estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cell line, and MCF10A, a nontumorigenic immortalized breast cell line. The protein set was selected from a list of ~3700 proteins identified in different cellular subfractions and cell cycle stages of MCF7/MCF10A cells, based on the stability of spectral count data generated with an LTQ ion trap mass spectrometer. A total of 11 proteins qualified as endogenous standards for the nuclear and 62 for the cytoplasmic barcode, respectively. The validation of the protein sets was performed with a complementary SKBR3/Her2+ cell line.

  20. Differential diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus by MRI mean diffusivity histogram analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivkovic, M; Liu, B; Ahmed, F; Moore, D; Huang, C; Raj, A; Kovanlikaya, I; Heier, L; Relkin, N

    2013-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus is challenging because the clinical symptoms and radiographic appearance of NPH often overlap those of other conditions, including age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. We hypothesized that radiologic differences between NPH and AD/PD can be characterized by a robust and objective MR imaging DTI technique that does not require intersubject image registration or operator-defined regions of interest, thus avoiding many pitfalls common in DTI methods. We collected 3T DTI data from 15 patients with probable NPH and 25 controls with AD, PD, or dementia with Lewy bodies. We developed a parametric model for the shape of intracranial mean diffusivity histograms that separates brain and ventricular components from a third component composed mostly of partial volume voxels. To accurately fit the shape of the third component, we constructed a parametric function named the generalized Voss-Dyke function. We then examined the use of the fitting parameters for the differential diagnosis of NPH from AD, PD, and DLB. Using parameters for the MD histogram shape, we distinguished clinically probable NPH from the 3 other disorders with 86% sensitivity and 96% specificity. The technique yielded 86% sensitivity and 88% specificity when differentiating NPH from AD only. An adequate parametric model for the shape of intracranial MD histograms can distinguish NPH from AD, PD, or DLB with high sensitivity and specificity.

  1. Analysis of visual appearance of retinal nerve fibers in high resolution fundus images: a study on normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Radim; Tornow, Ralf P; Laemmer, Robert; Odstrcilik, Jan; Mayer, Markus A; Gazarek, Jiri; Jan, Jiri; Kubena, Tomas; Cernosek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The retinal ganglion axons are an important part of the visual system, which can be directly observed by fundus camera. The layer they form together inside the retina is the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). This paper describes results of a texture RNFL analysis in color fundus photographs and compares these results with quantitative measurement of RNFL thickness obtained from optical coherence tomography on normal subjects. It is shown that local mean value, standard deviation, and Shannon entropy extracted from the green and blue channel of fundus images are correlated with corresponding RNFL thickness. The linear correlation coefficients achieved values 0.694, 0.547, and 0.512 for respective features measured on 439 retinal positions in the peripapillary area from 23 eyes of 15 different normal subjects.

  2. Analysis of Visual Appearance of Retinal Nerve Fibers in High Resolution Fundus Images: A Study on Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Kolar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The retinal ganglion axons are an important part of the visual system, which can be directly observed by fundus camera. The layer they form together inside the retina is the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL. This paper describes results of a texture RNFL analysis in color fundus photographs and compares these results with quantitative measurement of RNFL thickness obtained from optical coherence tomography on normal subjects. It is shown that local mean value, standard deviation, and Shannon entropy extracted from the green and blue channel of fundus images are correlated with corresponding RNFL thickness. The linear correlation coefficients achieved values 0.694, 0.547, and 0.512 for respective features measured on 439 retinal positions in the peripapillary area from 23 eyes of 15 different normal subjects.

  3. Probabilistic analysis in normal operation of distribution system with distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villafafila-Robles, R.; Sumper, A.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the incorporation of high levels of small-scale non-dispatchable distributed generation is leading to the transition from the traditional 'vertical' power system structure to a 'horizontally-operated' power system, where the distribution networks contain both stochastic generation...... and load. This fact increases the number of stochastic inputs and dependence structures between them need to be considered. The deterministic analysis is not enough to cope with these issues and a new approach is needed. Probabilistic analysis provides a better approach. Moreover, as distribution systems...

  4. Data analysis with small samples and non-normal data nonparametrics and other strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Siebert, Carl F

    2017-01-01

    Written in everyday language for non-statisticians, this book provides all the information needed to successfully conduct nonparametric analyses. This ideal reference book provides step-by-step instructions to lead the reader through each analysis, screenshots of the software and output, and case scenarios to illustrate of all the analytic techniques.

  5. Spectral analysis of blood perfusion in the free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and in normal skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xudong; Zeng Bingfang; Fan Cunyi; Jiang Peizhu; Hu Xiao

    2006-01-01

    To find the properties in the oscillatory components of the cutaneous blood flow on the successful free flap, a wavelet transform was applied to the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals which were measured simultaneously on the surfaces of the free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and on the adjacent intact skin of the healthy limb, of 18 patients. The frequency interval from 0.0095 to 1.6 Hz was examined and was divided into five subintervals (I: 0.0095-0.021 Hz; II: 0.021-0.052 Hz; III: 0.052-0.145 Hz; IV: 0.145-0.6 Hz and V: 0.6-1.6 Hz) corresponding to endothelial metabolic, neurogenic, myogenic, respiratory and cardiac origins. The average amplitude and total power in the frequency range 0.0095-1.6 Hz as well as within subintervals I, II, IV and V were significantly lower for signals measured on the free flap than those obtained in the healthy limb. However in interval III, they were significantly higher. The normalized spectral amplitude and power in the free flap were significantly lower in only two intervals, I and II, yet in interval III they were significantly higher; no statistical significance was observed in intervals IV and V. The distinctive finding made in this study, aside from the decrease of endothelial metabolic processes and sympathetic control, was the significant increase of myogenic activity in the free flap. It is hoped that this work will contribute towards knowledge on blood circulation in free flaps and make the monitoring by LDF more reliable

  6. Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Samra, Jasmeet K; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2017-12-13

    To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. Observational cohort study. Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors. Baseline temperatures were correlated with demographics, medical comorbidities, vital signs, and subsequent one year mortality. In a diverse cohort of 35 488 patients (mean age 52.9 years, 64% women, 41% non-white race) with 243 506 temperature measurements, mean temperature was 36.6°C (95% range 35.7-37.3°C, 99% range 35.3-37.7°C). Several demographic factors were linked to individual level temperature, with older people the coolest (-0.021°C for every decade, Pdata) was linked to 8.4% higher one year mortality (P=0.014). Individuals' baseline temperatures showed meaningful variation that was not due solely to measurement error or environmental factors. Baseline temperatures correlated with demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiology, but these factors explained only a small part of individual temperature variation. Unexplained variation in baseline temperature, however, strongly predicted mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. An analysis of science conceptual knowledge in journals of students with disabilities and normally achieving students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Gail S.

    Science education reforms of the last two decades have focused on raising the bar for ALL students which includes students with mild to moderate disabilities. Formative assessment can be used to assess the progress of these students to inquire, understand scientific concepts, reason scientifically, make decisions, and communicate effectively in science. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of science journals as a formative assessment in a guided inquiry unit of study for students with learning disabilities. Two normally achieving students (NA) and five students with learning disabilities (SLD) participated in a study of mammals that utilized journals to record the development of student knowledge through the course of study. Students were interviewed after the lessons were complete using the same prompts required in the journals. Themes were developed from the student writings and their verbal discourse using Grounded Theory. Journals and verbal discourse were rated following the themes of Knowledge Telling (KT) and Knowledge Transformation (KTR). Concept maps were developed for the Pre and Post test lessons (written and verbal discourses) by the raters in an attempt to further explain the knowledge that the students conveyed. The results of this study suggest that SLD are able to demonstrate knowledge about mammals better through verbal discourse than written discourse. While the NA students wrote more and used more technical discourse than did their SLD peers, the conceptual understanding of the topic by the SLD was no less inclusive than their NA peers when accessed verbally. The journals demonstrated limited conceptual growth for the SLD. Further, while lexical density is important to the development of knowledge in science, this study suggests the "conceptual density" may be another important indicator to examine.

  8. Goodness-of-Fit Tests for Generalized Normal Distribution for Use in Hydrological Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Samiran

    2018-04-01

    The use of three-parameter generalized normal (GNO) as a hydrological frequency distribution is well recognized, but its application is limited due to unavailability of popular goodness-of-fit (GOF) test statistics. This study develops popular empirical distribution function (EDF)-based test statistics to investigate the goodness-of-fit of the GNO distribution. The focus is on the case most relevant to the hydrologist, namely, that in which the parameter values are unidentified and estimated from a sample using the method of L-moments. The widely used EDF tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Cramer von Mises, and Anderson-Darling (AD) are considered in this study. A modified version of AD, namely, the Modified Anderson-Darling (MAD) test, is also considered and its performance is assessed against other EDF tests using a power study that incorporates six specific Wakeby distributions (WA-1, WA-2, WA-3, WA-4, WA-5, and WA-6) as the alternative distributions. The critical values of the proposed test statistics are approximated using Monte Carlo techniques and are summarized in chart and regression equation form to show the dependence of shape parameter and sample size. The performance results obtained from the power study suggest that the AD and a variant of the MAD (MAD-L) are the most powerful tests. Finally, the study performs case studies involving annual maximum flow data of selected gauged sites from Irish and US catchments to show the application of the derived critical values and recommends further assessments to be carried out on flow data sets of rivers with various hydrological regimes.

  9. Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Jasmeet K; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. Participants 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. Main outcome measures Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors. Baseline temperatures were correlated with demographics, medical comorbidities, vital signs, and subsequent one year mortality. Results In a diverse cohort of 35 488 patients (mean age 52.9 years, 64% women, 41% non-white race) with 243 506 temperature measurements, mean temperature was 36.6°C (95% range 35.7-37.3°C, 99% range 35.3-37.7°C). Several demographic factors were linked to individual level temperature, with older people the coolest (–0.021°C for every decade, Ptemperature (eg, hypothyroidism: –0.013°C, P=0.01) or higher temperature (eg, cancer: 0.020, Pbody mass index: 0.002 per m/kg2, Ptemperature variation. Despite this, unexplained temperature variation was a significant predictor of subsequent mortality: controlling for all measured factors, an increase of 0.149°C (1 SD of individual temperature in the data) was linked to 8.4% higher one year mortality (P=0.014). Conclusions Individuals’ baseline temperatures showed meaningful variation that was not due solely to measurement error or environmental factors. Baseline temperatures correlated with demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiology, but these factors explained only a small part of individual temperature variation. Unexplained variation in baseline temperature, however, strongly predicted mortality. PMID:29237616

  10. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  11. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Shimizu

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol.To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies.Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control. Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed.Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics produced changes in total cholesterol (TC (mean difference -0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.07 mmol/L and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (mean difference -0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.13 mmol/L. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (> 4-week probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤ 4-week intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains.In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  12. Comparative genetic analysis of trichome-less and normal pod genotypes of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, S S; Rai, G K; Darokar, M P; Lal, R K; Misra, H O; Khanuja, S P S

    2011-09-15

    Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) seeds contain the catecholic amino acid L-DoPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), which is a neurotransmitter precursor and used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and mental disorders. The great demand for L-DoPA is largely met by the pharmaceutical industry through extraction of the compound from wild populations of this plant; commercial exploitation of this compound is hampered because of its limited availability. The trichomes present on the pods can cause severe itching, blisters and dermatitis, discouraging cultivation. We screened genetic stocks of velvet bean for the trichome-less trait, along with high seed yield and L-DoPA content. The highest yielding trichome-less elite strain was selected and indentified on the basis of a PCR-based DNA fingerprinting method (RAPD), using deca-nucleotide primers. A genetic similarity index matrix was obtained through multivariant analysis using Nei and Li's coefficient. The similarity coefficients were used to generate a tree for cluster analysis using the UPGMA method. Analysis of amplification spectra of 408 bands obtained with 56 primers allowed us to distinguish a trichome-less elite strain of M. pruriens.

  13. Analysis Study of Stevioside and Rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni by Normal Phase SPE and RP-HPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martono, Y.; Rohman, A.; Riyanto, S.; Martono, S.

    2018-04-01

    Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) method using silica as sorbent for stevioside and rebaudiosida A analysis in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaf have not been performed. The aim of this study is to develop SPE method using silica as sorbent for Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis of stevioside and rebaudiosida A in S. rebaudiana leaf. The results of this study indicate that the optimal conditions for normal phase SPE (silica) are conditioned with 3.0 mL of hexane. The sample loading volume is 0.1 mL. Cartridge is eluted with 1.0 mL acetonitrile: water (80: 20, v/v) to separate both analytes. The cartridge is washed with chloroform and water of 0.3 mL respectively. The developed SPE sample preparation method meets the accuracy and precision test and can be used for the analysis of stevioside and rebaudioside A by RP-HPLC.

  14. Frequency analysis of CSF flow on cine-MRI in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyati, Tosiaki; Kasuga, Toshio; Imai, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Mase, Mitsuhito; Itikawa, Katuhiro

    2001-01-01

    To clarify the flow dynamics of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), frequency analyses of CSF flow measured with an ECG-gated phase contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. The amplitude and phase in the CSF flow spectra in the aqueduct were determined in patients with NPH after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH-NPH group, n=26), an idiopathic NPH (I-NPH group, n=4), an asymptomatic ventricular dilation or a brain atrophy (VD group, n=21), and in healthy volunteers (control group, n=25). The changes of CSF flow spectra were also analyzed 5 and 15 minutes after an intravenous injection of acetazolamide. Moreover, a phase transfer function (PTF) calculated from the spectra of the driving vascular pulsation and CSF flow in the aqueduct were assessed in patients with SAH-NPH and control groups before and after acetazolamide injection. There values were compared with the pressure volume response (PVR). The amplitude of the 1st-3rd harmonics in the SAH-NPH or I-NPH group was significantly larger than in the control or VD group because of a decrease in compliance (increase in PVR). The phase of the 1st harmonic in the SAH-NPH group was significantly different from that in the control or VD group, but no difference was found between the control and VD groups. The amplitude of the 0-3rd harmonics increased, and the phase of the 1st harmonic changed in all groups after an acetazolamide injection. An evaluation of the time course of the direct current of CSF flow provided further information about the compensatory faculty of the cerebrospinal cavity. A PTF of the 1st harmonic in the SAH-NPH group was significantly larger than in the control group, and a positive correlation was noted between PTF of the 1st harmonic and PVR. In conclusion, frequency analyses of CSF flow measured by cine-MRI make it possible to obtain noninvasively a more detailed picture of the pathophysiology of NPH and of changes in intracranial

  15. Frequency analysis of CSF flow on cine-MRI in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyati, Tosiaki; Kasuga, Toshio; Imai, Hiroshi [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Fujita, Hiroshi; Mase, Mitsuhito; Itikawa, Katuhiro

    2001-09-01

    To clarify the flow dynamics of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), frequency analyses of CSF flow measured with an ECG-gated phase contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. The amplitude and phase in the CSF flow spectra in the aqueduct were determined in patients with NPH after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH-NPH group, n=26), an idiopathic NPH (I-NPH group, n=4), an asymptomatic ventricular dilation or a brain atrophy (VD group, n=21), and in healthy volunteers (control group, n=25). The changes of CSF flow spectra were also analyzed 5 and 15 minutes after an intravenous injection of acetazolamide. Moreover, a phase transfer function (PTF) calculated from the spectra of the driving vascular pulsation and CSF flow in the aqueduct were assessed in patients with SAH-NPH and control groups before and after acetazolamide injection. There values were compared with the pressure volume response (PVR). The amplitude of the 1st-3rd harmonics in the SAH-NPH or I-NPH group was significantly larger than in the control or VD group because of a decrease in compliance (increase in PVR). The phase of the 1st harmonic in the SAH-NPH group was significantly different from that in the control or VD group, but no difference was found between the control and VD groups. The amplitude of the 0-3rd harmonics increased, and the phase of the 1st harmonic changed in all groups after an acetazolamide injection. An evaluation of the time course of the direct current of CSF flow provided further information about the compensatory faculty of the cerebrospinal cavity. A PTF of the 1st harmonic in the SAH-NPH group was significantly larger than in the control group, and a positive correlation was noted between PTF of the 1st harmonic and PVR. In conclusion, frequency analyses of CSF flow measured by cine-MRI make it possible to obtain noninvasively a more detailed picture of the pathophysiology of NPH and of changes in intracranial

  16. Automated impedance-manometry analysis detects esophageal motor dysfunction in patients who have non-obstructive dysphagia with normal manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, N Q; Holloway, R H; Smout, A J; Omari, T I

    2013-03-01

    Automated integrated analysis of impedance and pressure signals has been reported to identify patients at risk of developing dysphagia post fundoplication. This study aimed to investigate this analysis in the evaluation of patients with non-obstructive dysphagia (NOD) and normal manometry (NOD/NM). Combined impedance-manometry was performed in 42 patients (27F : 15M; 56.2 ± 5.1 years) and compared with that of 24 healthy subjects (8F : 16M; 48.2 ± 2.9 years). Both liquid and viscous boluses were tested. MATLAB-based algorithms defined the median intrabolus pressure (IBP), IBP slope, peak pressure (PP), and timing of bolus flow relative to peak pressure (TNadImp-PP). An index of pressure and flow (PFI) in the distal esophagus was derived from these variables. Diagnoses based on conventional manometric assessment: diffuse spasm (n = 5), non-specific motor disorders (n = 19), and normal (n = 11). Patients with achalasia (n = 7) were excluded from automated impedance-manometry (AIM) analysis. Only 2/11 (18%) patients with NOD/NM had evidence of flow abnormality on conventional impedance analysis. Several variables derived by integrated impedance-pressure analysis were significantly different in patients as compared with healthy: higher PNadImp (P < 0.01), IBP (P < 0.01) and IBP slope (P < 0.05), and shorter TNadImp_PP (P = 0.01). The PFI of NOD/NM patients was significantly higher than that in healthy (liquid: 6.7 vs 1.2, P = 0.02; viscous: 27.1 vs 5.7, P < 0.001) and 9/11 NOD/NM patients had abnormal PFI. Overall, the addition of AIM analysis provided diagnoses and/or a plausible explanation in 95% (40/42) of patients who presented with NOD. Compared with conventional pressure-impedance assessment, integrated analysis is more sensitive in detecting subtle abnormalities in esophageal function in patients with NOD and normal manometry. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Voxel-based analysis of Tc-99 m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Bora [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong-Won [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: neuroman@catholic.ac.kr; Shim, Yong-Soo; Chung, Sung-Woo [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kook-Jin; O, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sohn, Hyung-Sun; Chung, Soo-Kyo [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong-An [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); East-West Research Institute of Translational Medicine (EWTM), Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Incheon 403-720 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: nm@catholic.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a reversible dementia characterized by gait disturbance, incontinence and dementia. This study investigates the neuropsychological characteristics and changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with iNPH. Ten patients who met the criteria of probable iNPH and 13 normal control subjects were evaluated. The general cognitive function and detailed neuropsychological functions were measured by K-MMSE and comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (Tc-99m-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed to measure the rCBF and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and statistical probabilistic brain anatomic map (SPAM) was applied to the objective analysis of SPECT data. On the neuropsychological examination, all the patients showed abnormality in memory, psychomotor speed and frontal executive function. SPM analysis of SPECT images revealed that rCBF in bilateral thalami, right prefrontal area, bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, right caudate nucleus, and left parahippocampal gyrus was significantly decreased in patients with iNPH compared to normal controls (uncorrected P<0.005). In SPAM analysis, rCBF reduction was observed in bilateral prefrontal area, anterior, posterior cingulate gyri and caudate nuclei. We have found that rCBF changes occurred predominantly in prefrontal and subcortical areas, the changes were associated with frontal subcortical circuit, and the affected frontal subcortical circuit may contribute to the cognitive decline seen in the iNPH patients. The reduction of rCBF and clinical cognitive impairment are closely connected in patients with iNPH.

  18. Voxel-based analysis of Tc-99 m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Bora; Yang, Dong-Won; Shim, Yong-Soo; Chung, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Kook-Jin; O, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sohn, Hyung-Sun; Chung, Soo-Kyo; Chung, Yong-An

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a reversible dementia characterized by gait disturbance, incontinence and dementia. This study investigates the neuropsychological characteristics and changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with iNPH. Ten patients who met the criteria of probable iNPH and 13 normal control subjects were evaluated. The general cognitive function and detailed neuropsychological functions were measured by K-MMSE and comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (Tc-99m-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed to measure the rCBF and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and statistical probabilistic brain anatomic map (SPAM) was applied to the objective analysis of SPECT data. On the neuropsychological examination, all the patients showed abnormality in memory, psychomotor speed and frontal executive function. SPM analysis of SPECT images revealed that rCBF in bilateral thalami, right prefrontal area, bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, right caudate nucleus, and left parahippocampal gyrus was significantly decreased in patients with iNPH compared to normal controls (uncorrected P<0.005). In SPAM analysis, rCBF reduction was observed in bilateral prefrontal area, anterior, posterior cingulate gyri and caudate nuclei. We have found that rCBF changes occurred predominantly in prefrontal and subcortical areas, the changes were associated with frontal subcortical circuit, and the affected frontal subcortical circuit may contribute to the cognitive decline seen in the iNPH patients. The reduction of rCBF and clinical cognitive impairment are closely connected in patients with iNPH.

  19. Coordination Incentives, Performance Measurement and Resource Allocation in Public Sector Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens

    Why are coordination problems common when public sector organizations share responsibilities, and what can be done to mitigate such problems? This paper uses a multi-task principal-agent model to examine two related reasons: the incentives to coordinate resource allocation and the difficulties...... of measuring performance. The analysis shows that when targets are set individually for each organization, the resulting incentives normally induce inefficient resource allocations. If the principal impose shared targets, this may improve the incentives to coordinate but the success of this instrument depends...

  20. An elemental abundance analysis of the superficially normal A star Vega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, S.J.; Gulliver, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    An elemental abundance analysis of Vega has been performed using high-signal-to-noise 2.4 A/mm Reticon observations of the region 4313-4809 A. Vega is found to be a metal-poor star with a mean underabundance of 0.60 dex. The He/H ratio of 0.03 as derived from He I 4472 A suggests that the superficial helium convection zone has disappeared and that radiative diffusion is producing the photospheric abundance anomalies. 45 refs

  1. Volumetric analysis of the normal infant brain and in intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P B; Leth, H; Ring, P B

    1995-01-01

    and the volumes were determined by encircling each structure of interest on every slice. Segmentation into grey matter, white matter and CSF was done by semi-automatic discriminant analysis. Growth charts for the cerebrum, cerebellum, corpora striata, thalami, ventricles, and grey and white matter are provided...... for infants with appropriate birth weight. The striatal (P = 0.02) and thalamic (P matter to white matter (G/W-ratio) increased (P = 0.01). In the neonatal patients, brain volumes were independently associated...... growth retardation reduces grey matter volume more than white matter....

  2. Morphological analysis of the cervical spinal canal, dural tube and spinal cord in normal individuals using CT myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, H.; Ohmori, K.; Takatsu, T.; Teramoto, T.; Ishida, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    1996-01-01

    To verify the conventional concept of ''developmental stenosis of the cervical spinal canal'', we performed a morphological analysis of the relations of the cervical spinal canal, dural tube and spinal cord in normal individuals. The sagittal diameter, area and circularity of the three structures, and the dispersion of each parameter, were examined on axial sections of CT myelograms of 36 normal subjects. The spinal canal was narrowest at C4, followed by C5, while the spinal cord was largest at C4/5. The area and circularity of the cervical spinal cord were not significantly correlated with any parameter of the spinal canal nor with the sagittal diameter and area of the dural tube at any level examined, and the spinal cord showed less individual variation than the bony canal. Compression of the spinal cord might be expected whenever the sagittal diameter of the spinal canal is below the lower limit of normal, that is about 12 mm on plain radiographs. Thus, we concluded that the concept of ''developmental stenosis of the cervical spinal canal'' was reasonable and acceptable. (orig.). With 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Methods and data for HTGR fuel performance and radionuclide release modeling during normal operation and accidents for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, K.; Martin, R.C.; Moormann, R.

    1993-01-01

    The previous status report released in 1987 on reference data and calculation models for fission product transport in High-Temperature, Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) safety analyses has been updated to reflect the current state of knowledge in the German HTGR program. The content of the status report has been expanded to include information from other national programs in HTGRs to provide comparative information on methods of analysis and the underlying database for fuel performance and fission product transport. The release and transport of fission products during normal operating conditions and during the accident scenarios of core heatup, water and air ingress, and depressurization are discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. Single-Phase Full-Wave Rectifier as an Effective Example to Teach Normalization, Conduction Modes, and Circuit Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Pejovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of a single phase rectifier as an example in teaching circuit modeling, normalization, operating modes of nonlinear circuits, and circuit analysis methods is proposed.The rectifier supplied from a voltage source by an inductive impedance is analyzed in the discontinuous as well as in the continuous conduction mode. Completely analytical solution for the continuous conduction mode is derived. Appropriate numerical methods are proposed to obtain the circuit waveforms in both of the operating modes, and to compute the performance parameters. Source code of the program that performs such computation is provided.

  5. Confirmatory factor analysis reveals a latent cognitive structure common to bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schretlen, David J; Peña, Javier; Aretouli, Eleni; Orue, Izaskun; Cascella, Nicola G; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Ojeda, Natalia

    2013-06-01

    We sought to determine whether a single hypothesized latent factor structure would characterize cognitive functioning in three distinct groups. We assessed 576 adults (340 community controls, 126 adults with bipolar disorder, and 110 adults with schizophrenia) using 15 measures derived from nine cognitive tests. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the fit of a hypothesized six-factor model. The hypothesized factors included attention, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, visual memory, ideational fluency, and executive functioning. The six-factor model provided an excellent fit for all three groups [for community controls, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) schizophrenia, RMSEA = 0.06 and CFI = 0.98]. Alternate models that combined fluency with processing speed or verbal and visual memory reduced the goodness of fit. Multi-group CFA results supported factor invariance across the three groups. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a single six-factor structure of cognitive functioning among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and community controls. While the three groups clearly differ in level of performance, they share a common underlying architecture of information processing abilities. These cognitive factors could provide useful targets for clinical trials of treatments that aim to enhance information processing in persons with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Normalization in Unsupervised Segmentation Parameter Optimization: A Solution Based on Local Regression Trend Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Georganos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In object-based image analysis (OBIA, the appropriate parametrization of segmentation algorithms is crucial for obtaining satisfactory image classification results. One of the ways this can be done is by unsupervised segmentation parameter optimization (USPO. A popular USPO method does this through the optimization of a “global score” (GS, which minimizes intrasegment heterogeneity and maximizes intersegment heterogeneity. However, the calculated GS values are sensitive to the minimum and maximum ranges of the candidate segmentations. Previous research proposed the use of fixed minimum/maximum threshold values for the intrasegment/intersegment heterogeneity measures to deal with the sensitivity of user-defined ranges, but the performance of this approach has not been investigated in detail. In the context of a remote sensing very-high-resolution urban application, we show the limitations of the fixed threshold approach, both in a theoretical and applied manner, and instead propose a novel solution to identify the range of candidate segmentations using local regression trend analysis. We found that the proposed approach showed significant improvements over the use of fixed minimum/maximum values, is less subjective than user-defined threshold values and, thus, can be of merit for a fully automated procedure and big data applications.

  7. CATHENA Analysis Of Candu Advanced Passive Moderator Concept In Normal Operation Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfa, Sudjatmi K

    2001-01-01

    In the CANDU - advanced passive moderator (APM) concept, the positive void reactivity is eliminated by reducing the density of the moderator. The simple model for the CANDU APM concept consists of the calandria, heat exchanger, pump, and a stabilizing tank, along with connecting piping. The calandria is divided into two parts, one part simulates the down area, while the other simulates up flow area. To demonstrate the thermalhydraulic behavior of the APM concept, Canadian algorithm for thermalhydraulic network analysis (CATHENA) code is used. The simulation for a pressure boundary condition of 300, 330 and 360 kPa and for water coolant mass flow rate boundary conditions of 2000 and 3000 kg/s respectively have been studied. Preliminary results show that there is boiling in the core, with vapor condensing in the heat exchanger. It is important to note, that the solution had not reached steady state when the boiling occurred

  8. Analysis of vegetation recovery surrounding a restored wetland using the normalized difference infrared index (NDII) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Natalie R.; Norman, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Watershed restoration efforts seek to rejuvenate vegetation, biological diversity, and land productivity at Cienega San Bernardino, an important wetland in southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico. Rock detention and earthen berm structures were built on the Cienega San Bernardino over the course of four decades, beginning in 1984 and continuing to the present. Previous research findings show that restoration supports and even increases vegetation health despite ongoing drought conditions in this arid watershed. However, the extent of restoration impacts is still unknown despite qualitative observations of improvement in surrounding vegetation amount and vigor. We analyzed spatial and temporal trends in vegetation greenness and soil moisture by applying the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference infrared index (NDII) to one dry summer season Landsat path/row from 1984 to 2016. The study area was divided into zones and spectral data for each zone was analyzed and compared with precipitation record using statistical measures including linear regression, Mann– Kendall test, and linear correlation. NDVI and NDII performed differently due to the presence of continued grazing and the effects of grazing on canopy cover; NDVI was better able to track changes in vegetation in areas without grazing while NDII was better at tracking changes in areas with continued grazing. Restoration impacts display higher greenness and vegetation water content levels, greater increases in greenness and water content through time, and a decoupling of vegetation greenness and water content from spring precipitation when compared to control sites in nearby tributary and upland areas. Our results confirm the potential of erosion control structures to affect areas up to 5 km downstream of restoration sites over time and to affect 1 km upstream of the sites.

  9. Comparative analysis of the surface exposed proteome of two canine osteosarcoma cell lines and normal canine osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovancev, Milan; Hilgart-Martiszus, Ian; McNamara, Michael J; Goodall, Cheri P; Seguin, Bernard; Bracha, Shay; Wickramasekara, Samanthi I

    2013-06-13

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common primary bone tumor of dogs and carries a poor prognosis despite aggressive treatment. An improved understanding of the biology of OSA is critically needed to allow for development of novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic tools. The surface-exposed proteome (SEP) of a cancerous cell includes a multifarious array of proteins critical to cellular processes such as proliferation, migration, adhesion, and inter-cellular communication. The specific aim of this study was to define a SEP profile of two validated canine OSA cell lines and a normal canine osteoblast cell line utilizing a biotinylation/streptavidin system to selectively label, purify, and identify surface-exposed proteins by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Additionally, we sought to validate a subset of our MS-based observations via quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot and semi-quantitative immunocytochemistry. Our hypothesis was that MS would detect differences in the SEP composition between the OSA and the normal osteoblast cells. Shotgun MS identified 133 putative surface proteins when output from all samples were combined, with good consistency between biological replicates. Eleven of the MS-detected proteins underwent analysis of gene expression by PCR, all of which were actively transcribed, but varied in expression level. Western blot of whole cell lysates from all three cell lines was effective for Thrombospondin-1, CYR61 and CD44, and indicated that all three proteins were present in each cell line. Semi-quantitative immunofluorescence indicated that CD44 was expressed at much higher levels on the surface of the OSA than the normal osteoblast cell lines. The results of the present study identified numerous differences, and similarities, in the SEP of canine OSA cell lines and normal canine osteoblasts. The PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry results, for the subset of proteins evaluated, were generally supportive of the mass spectrometry data

  10. Characteristics of Cerebral Blood Flow in Vascular Dementia using SPM Analysis Compared to Normal Control and Alzheimer's Dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo

    2003-01-01

    Cerebral perfusion pattern of vascular dementia (VD) was not well established and overlap of cerebral perfusion pattern was reported between VD and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of SPECT finding in VD compared with normal control subjects and to disclose differences of cerebral blood flow between subjects with VD and AD were investigated using statistic parametric mapping analysis. Thirty-two VD (mean age ; 67.86.4 years, mean CDR ; 0.980.27), 51 AD (mean age ; 71.47.2 years, CDR ; 1.160.47), which were matched for age and severity of dementia, and 30 normal control subjects (mean age ; 60.17.7 years) participated in this study. The Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT data were analyzed by SPM99. The SPECT data of the patients with VD were compared to those of the control subjects and then compared to the patients with AD. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the both frontal (both cingulate gyrus, both inferior frontal gyrus, B no.47, right frontal rectal gyrus, left frontal subcallosal gyrus, B no.25), both temporal (right insula, B no.13, left superior temporal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, B no.35), occipital (occipital lingual gyrus), right corpus callosum and right cerebellar tonsil regions in subjects with VD compared with normal control subjects (uncorrected p<0.01). Comparison of the two dementia groups (uncorrected p<0.01) revealed significant hypoperfusion in both parietal posterior central gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus (B no.47), left insula, right thalamus (ventral lateral nucleus), right claustrum and right occipital cuneus regions in VD group compared with AD. There were no typical confined regional hypoperfusion areas but scattered multiple perfusion deficits in VD compared AD. These findings may be helpful to reflect the pathophysiological mechanisms of VD and to disclose differences of cerebral blood flow between subjects with VD and AD

  11. The Open Method of Co-ordination and the Analysis of Mutual Learning Processes of the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    The purpose of this paper is solely to address two interlinked methodological and theoretical questions concerning the Open Method of Coordination (OMC), using the European Employment Strategy as a case: First, what is the most appropriate approach to learning in the analyses of the processes...... of the European Employment Strategy (EES)? Second, how is mutual learning processes diffused among the Member States? In answering these two questions the paper draws on a social constructivist approach to learning thereby contributing to the debate about learning in the political science literature. At the same...... time, based on this concept of learning, it is concluded that the learning effects of the EES are probably somewhat larger than what is normally suggested, but that successful diffusion still depends on a variety of contextual factors....

  12. Cone-beam CT analysis of patients with obstructive sleep apnea compared to normal controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Allison; Kalathingal Sajitha; De Rossi, Scott [Dept. of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta (United States); Cohen, Ruben [Park Avenue Oral and Facial Surgery, New York (United States); Loony, Stephen [Dept. of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Augusta University Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (United States)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate the upper airway dimensions of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and control subjects using a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit commonly applied in clinical practice in order to assess airway dimensions in the same fashion as that routinely employed in a clinical setting. This was a retrospective analysis utilizing existing CBCT scans to evaluate the dimensions of the upper airway in OSA and control subjects. The CBCT data of sixteen OSA and sixteen control subjects were compared. The average area, average volume, total volume, and total length of the upper airway were computed. Width and anterior-posterior (AP) measurements were obtained on the smallest axial slice. OSA subjects had a significantly smaller average airway area, average airway volume, total airway volume, and mean airway width. OSA subjects had a significantly larger airway length measurement. The mean A-P distance was not significantly different between groups. OSA subjects have a smaller upper airway compared to controls with the exception of airway length. The lack of a significant difference in the mean A-P distance may indicate that patient position during imaging (upright vs. supine) can affect this measurement. Comparison of this study with a future prospective study design will allow for validation of these results.

  13. Cone-beam CT analysis of patients with obstructive sleep apnea compared to normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, Allison; Kalathingal Sajitha; De Rossi, Scott; Cohen, Ruben; Loony, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the upper airway dimensions of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and control subjects using a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit commonly applied in clinical practice in order to assess airway dimensions in the same fashion as that routinely employed in a clinical setting. This was a retrospective analysis utilizing existing CBCT scans to evaluate the dimensions of the upper airway in OSA and control subjects. The CBCT data of sixteen OSA and sixteen control subjects were compared. The average area, average volume, total volume, and total length of the upper airway were computed. Width and anterior-posterior (AP) measurements were obtained on the smallest axial slice. OSA subjects had a significantly smaller average airway area, average airway volume, total airway volume, and mean airway width. OSA subjects had a significantly larger airway length measurement. The mean A-P distance was not significantly different between groups. OSA subjects have a smaller upper airway compared to controls with the exception of airway length. The lack of a significant difference in the mean A-P distance may indicate that patient position during imaging (upright vs. supine) can affect this measurement. Comparison of this study with a future prospective study design will allow for validation of these results

  14. Exogenous reference gene normalization for real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis under dynamic endogenous transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen; Gallaher, Zachary; Czaja, Krzysztof

    2012-05-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is widely used to investigate transcriptional changes following experimental manipulations to the nervous system. Despite the widespread utilization of qPCR, the interpretation of results is marred by the lack of a suitable reference gene due to the dynamic nature of endogenous transcription. To address this inherent deficiency, we investigated the use of an exogenous spike-in mRNA, luciferase, as an internal reference gene for the 2(-∆∆Ct) normalization method. To induce dynamic transcription, we systemically administered capsaicin, a neurotoxin selective for C-type sensory neurons expressing the TRPV-1 receptor, to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. We later isolated nodose ganglia for qPCR analysis with the reference being either exogenous luciferase mRNA or the commonly used endogenous reference β-III tubulin. The exogenous luciferase mRNA reference clearly demonstrated the dynamic expression of the endogenous reference. Furthermore, variability of the endogenous reference would lead to misinterpretation of other genes of interest. In conclusion, traditional reference genes are often unstable under physiologically normal situations, and certainly unstable following the damage to the nervous system. The use of exogenous spike-in reference provides a consistent and easily implemented alternative for the analysis of qPCR data.

  15. Investigation of olfactory function in normal volunteers by Tc-99m ECD Brain SPECT: Analysis using statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.A.; Kim, S.H.; Park, Y.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Sohn, H.S.; Chung, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate olfactory function according to Tc-99m ECD uptake pattern in brain perfusion SPET of normal volunteer by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. The study population was 8 healthy volunteer subjects (M:F = 6:2, age range: 22-54 years, mean 34 years). We performed baseline brain perfusion SPET using 555 MBq of Tc-99m ECD in a silent dark room. Two hours later, we obtained brain perfusion SPET using 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD after 3% butanol solution under the same condition. All SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the baseline and odor-identification SPET images were statistically analyzed using SPM-99 software. The difference between two sets of brain perfusion SPET was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected p values less than 0.01. SPM analysis revealed significant hyper-perfusion in both cingulated gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior and inferior frontal gyri, right lingual gyrus and right fusiform gyrus on odor-identification SPET. This study shows that brain perfusion SPET can securely support other diagnostic techniques in the evaluation of olfactory function

  16. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2012-01-01

      With the analysis of the first 5 fb–1 culminating in the announcement of the observation of a new particle with mass of around 126 GeV/c2, the CERN directorate decided to extend the LHC run until February 2013. This adds three months to the original schedule. Since then the LHC has continued to perform extremely well, and the total luminosity delivered so far this year is 22 fb–1. CMS also continues to perform excellently, recording data with efficiency higher than 95% for fills with the magnetic field at nominal value. The highest instantaneous luminosity achieved by LHC to date is 7.6x1033 cm–2s–1, which translates into 35 interactions per crossing. On the CMS side there has been a lot of work to handle these extreme conditions, such as a new DAQ computer farm and trigger menus to handle the pile-up, automation of recovery procedures to minimise the lost luminosity, better training for the shift crews, etc. We did suffer from a couple of infrastructure ...

  17. Computer simulation analysis of normal and abnormal development of the mammalian diaphragm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodenstein Lawrence

    2006-02-01

    recreate a CDH defect using a combination of experimental data and testable hypotheses gives impetus to simulation modeling as an adjunct to experimental analysis of diaphragm morphogenesis.

  18. Computer simulation analysis of normal and abnormal development of the mammalian diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason C; Bodenstein, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    using a combination of experimental data and testable hypotheses gives impetus to simulation modeling as an adjunct to experimental analysis of diaphragm morphogenesis. PMID:16483386

  19. Giving the force direction: Analysis of speed skater push off forces with respect to an inertial coordinate system

    OpenAIRE

    van der Kruk, E.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Schwab, A.L.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pushoff in speed skating requires an extensive motion strategy. During speed skating the skater continuously changes the lean and steering angle of the skate and therewith the direction of push-off, The forces in an inertial coordinate system can give insight into what amount of the push-off force is directed into the forward motion. In this paper we present the preliminary results of a study on the global forces in speed skating. From a mechanical viewpoint, increasing the lean angle of the ...

  20. Channels Coordination Game Model Based on Result Fairness Preference and Reciprocal Fairness Preference: A Behavior Game Forecasting and Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2014-01-01

    preference and they are not jealous of manufacturers’ benefit, manufacturers will be more friendly to retailers. In such case, the total utility of the channel is higher compared with that of self-interest channel, and the utility of channel members is Pareto improved. If both manufactures and retailers consider reciprocal fairness preference, the manufacturers will give a lower wholesale price to the retailers. In return, the retailers will also reduce retail prices. Therefore, the total utility of the channels will not be less than the total utility of the channel coordination, as long as the reciprocity wholesale prices meet certain conditions.

  1. Screening of preschool and school children for cystic fibrosis with the chloride electrode and neutron activation analysis. Part of a coordinated programme on medical applications of activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurson, C.T.

    1975-10-01

    A screening study was performed on 9,685 infants and children between 0 and 7 years of age living in the city of Istanbul. 2,511 of the subjects (''normals'') were kindergarten and school children and the remainder were children who had been brought to the casualty outpatient departments of two large hospitals. The purposes of the investigation were twofold, first to determine the prevalence of cystic fibrosis in a normal versus a sick population of children, and second to compare sweat-chloride vis-a-vis nail-sodium as indicators of the disease. Sweat-chloride was determined in all subjects by the use of a chloride specific electrode; nail sodium was determined in 1122 subjects by neutron activation analysis. These measurements led to the identification of seven cystic fibrosis cases in the outpatient group (frequency = 0.1%) and none in the kindergarten/school group. Sweat-chloride gave 0.7% false positives and no false negatives; nailsodium gave 14.7% false positives and 0.1% false negatives. It is concluded that nail-sodium is a much less effective indicator of cystic fibrosis than sweat-chloride and its use can probably not be justified except in certain special circumstances. Furthermore it would appear that the screening of outpatient cases rather than the whole population of children is a more cost-effective method for the detection of cystic fibrosis

  2. Algorithm to find high density EEG scalp coordinates and analysis of their correspondence to structural and functional regions of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Paolo; Perdue, Katherine L; Diamond, Solomon G

    2014-05-30

    Interpretation and analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) measurements relies on the correspondence of electrode scalp coordinates to structural and functional regions of the brain. An algorithm is introduced for automatic calculation of the International 10-20, 10-10, and 10-5 scalp coordinates of EEG electrodes on a boundary element mesh of a human head. The EEG electrode positions are then used to generate parcellation regions of the cerebral cortex based on proximity to the EEG electrodes. The scalp electrode calculation method presented in this study effectively and efficiently identifies EEG locations without prior digitization of coordinates. The average of electrode proximity parcellations of the cortex were tabulated with respect to structural and functional regions of the brain in a population of 20 adult subjects. Parcellations based on electrode proximity and EEG sensitivity were compared. The parcellation regions based on sensitivity and proximity were found to have 44.0 ± 11.3% agreement when demarcated by the International 10-20, 32.4 ± 12.6% by the 10-10, and 24.7 ± 16.3% by the 10-5 electrode positioning system. The EEG positioning algorithm is a fast and easy method of locating EEG scalp coordinates without the need for digitized electrode positions. The parcellation method presented summarizes the EEG scalp locations with respect to brain regions without computation of a full EEG forward model solution. The reference table of electrode proximity versus cortical regions may be used by experimenters to select electrodes that correspond to anatomical and functional regions of interest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Small-signal stability analysis for two-area interconnected power system with load frequency controller in coordination with FACTS and energy storage device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modelling and small signal stability analysis for the two areas interconnected power system using a load frequency controller. The eigenvalues and the participation factor analysis are used to examine the small signal stability and contribution of different states in a particular eigenvalue of the system, respectively. A load frequency controller is designed to stabilize the frequency deviations which occur due to the small perturbation in the system. In this paper, the proposed control scheme consists of an integral controller in coordination with the Redox Flow Energy Storage System (RFESS and the Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC. The dynamic responses of the overall system have been improved by the proposed controller, which is also verified with the help of eigenvalue and participation factor analysis. This analysis shows that overall system oscillation has been reduced through a proposed controller.

  4. Coordinate reduction for the seismic analysis of dam-foundation-reservoir systems with non-proportional damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehai, L.; Paultre, P.; Leger, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the design of dams to withstand seismic events, recent studies have shown that the dam-foundation and dam-reservoir interactions have a significant influence on the dynamic response of the dam. The hypothesis of proportional damping is not realistic for such structures, in which the mechanisms of energy dissipation present notable differences between their various components. A comparative study is presented of different methods of resolution of linear systems with non-proportional damping, using recent techniques of coordinate reduction. Parametric studies were conducted on a 2-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam-foundation system. The comparison focuses essentially on the numerical efficiency and precision in the calculation of dynamic parameters (displacements, accelerations, and internal stresses) and in the distribution of damping energy among the components of the system. The evaluation of the energy dissipated in the absorbing boundaries has indicated that the algorithms retained for reducing the coordinates in real and complex space conveniently model the conditions at the limits of the structure. The high degree of numerical stability and the efficiency of the interative procedure of Ibrahimbegovic and Wilson (1989), applied to systems with a large number of degrees of freedom, has been confirmed. 10 refs., 8 figs

  5. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  6. CFD Analysis of Random Turbulent Flow Load in Steam Generator of APR1400 Under Normal Operation Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Gyu; You, Sung Chang; Kim, Han Gon

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory guide 1.20 revision 3 of the Nuclear Regulatory Committee (NRC) modifies guidance for vibration assessments of reactor internals and steam generator internals. The new guidance requires applicants to provide a preliminary analysis and evaluation of the design and performance of a facility, including the safety margins of during normal operation and transient conditions anticipated during the life of the facility. Especially, revision 3 require rigorous assessments of adverse flow effects in the steam dryer cased by flow-excited acoustic and structural resonances such as the abnormality from power-uprated BWR cases. For two nearly identical nuclear power plants, the steam system of one BWR plant experienced failure of steam dryers and the main steam system components when steam flow was increased by 16 percent for extended power uprate (EPU). The mechanisms of those failures have revealed that a small adverse flow changing from the prototype condition induced severe flow-excited acoustic and structural resonances, leading to structural failures. In accordance with the historical background, therefore, potential adverse flow effects should be evaluated rigorously for steam generator internals in both BWR and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400), an evolutionary light water reactor, increased the power by 7.7 percent from the design of the 'Valid Prototype', System80+. Thus, reliable evaluations of potential adverse flow effects on the steam generator of APR1400 are necessary according to the regulatory guide. This paper is part of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis results for evaluation of the adverse flow effect for the steam generator internals of APR1400, including a series of sensitivity analyses to enhance the reliability of CFD analysis and an estimation the effect of flow loads on the internals of the steam generator under normal operation conditions

  7. A branching process model for the analysis of abortive colony size distributions in carbon ion-irradiated normal human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kawaguchi, Isao; Hara, Takamitsu; Saito, Kimiaki

    2014-01-01

    A single cell can form a colony, and ionizing irradiation has long been known to reduce such a cellular clonogenic potential. Analysis of abortive colonies unable to continue to grow should provide important information on the reproductive cell death (RCD) following irradiation. Our previous analysis with a branching process model showed that the RCD in normal human fibroblasts can persist over 16 generations following irradiation with low linear energy transfer (LET) γ-rays. Here we further set out to evaluate the RCD persistency in abortive colonies arising from normal human fibroblasts exposed to high-LET carbon ions (18.3 MeV/u, 108 keV/μm). We found that the abortive colony size distribution determined by biological experiments follows a linear relationship on the log–log plot, and that the Monte Carlo simulation using the RCD probability estimated from such a linear relationship well simulates the experimentally determined surviving fraction and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). We identified the short-term phase and long-term phase for the persistent RCD following carbon-ion irradiation, which were similar to those previously identified following γ-irradiation. Taken together, our results suggest that subsequent secondary or tertiary colony formation would be invaluable for understanding the long-lasting RCD. All together, our framework for analysis with a branching process model and a colony formation assay is applicable to determination of cellular responses to low- and high-LET radiation, and suggests that the long-lasting RCD is a pivotal determinant of the surviving fraction and the RBE. (author)

  8. Three-dimensional analysis of tarsal bone response to axial loading in patients with hallux valgus and normal feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Ikeda, Yasutoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Teramoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takuma; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2017-02-01

    Patients with hallux valgus present a variety of symptoms that may be related to the type of deformity. Weightbearing affects the deformities, and the evaluation of the load response of tarsal bones has been mainly performed using two-dimensional plane radiography. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare structural changes in the medial foot arch between patients with hallux valgus and normal controls using a computer image analysis technique and weightbearing computed tomography data. Eleven patients with hallux valgus and eleven normal controls were included. Computed tomograms were obtained with and without simulated weightbearing using a compression device. Computed tomography data were transferred into a personal computer, and a three-dimensional bone model was created using image analysis software. The load responses of each tarsal bone in the medial foot arch were measured three-dimensionally and statistically compared between the two groups. Displacement of each tarsal bone under two weightbearing conditions was visually observed by creating three-dimensional bone models. At the first metatarsophalangeal joint, the proximal phalanges of the hallux valgus group showed significantly different displacements in multiple directions. Moreover, opposite responses to axial loading were also observed in both translation and rotation between the two groups. Weightbearing caused deterioration of the hallux valgus deformity three-dimensionally at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Information from the computer image analysis was useful for understanding details of the pathology of foot disorders related to the deformities or instability and may contribute to the development of effective conservative and surgical treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. TXRF, PIXE and EDXRF: a first step towards normalization of x-ray spectrometry for chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiros, M.A.; Costa, M.M.; Palha, M.; Pinheiro, T.; Araujo, M.F.; Silva, R.C. da

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, many research studies rely on analytical measurements to which x-ray spectrometry techniques are particularly adequate. Because they are multi-elemental, versatile, fast and can reach low detection limits they are often applied to environmental and biomedical studies. Besides, they are able to provide reliable and accurate results. As also occurs with other analytical procedures, the quality assurance for non-routine analysis in R and D laboratories, is much less well established. when compared with routine analytical work. Thus, it is of foremost importance, to set the major quality parameters that significantly affect the quality of results. In addition, there is a need to apply the new concepts of trace ability and uncertainty to these techniques. This work reports on the reliability of TXRF, PIXE and EDXRF measurements by evaluating the uncertainty and trace ability for elemental analysis. The set of experimental and statistical procedures used to ensure the quality of results relative to the proposed objectives, as well as the methods applied to estimate the uncertainties will be presented and discussed. The sample preparation procedures, analytical calibration and spectral evaluation will be the parameters examined in this inter-laboratory study. The sample preparation procedures comprise pressure acid digestion and pelletizing for solid samples. The internal quality control for analytical calibration and spectral analysis is performed using certified reference materials and standard solutions. The goal of this work is to present a first step towards normalization of x-ray spectrometry techniques for chemical analysis. (author)

  10. A hierarchical cluster analysis of normal-tension glaucoma using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyoung Won; Ji, Yongwoo; Lee, Hye Sun; Lee, Naeun; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Sung, Kyung Rim; Kim, Chan Yun

    2015-01-01

    Normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) is a heterogenous disease, and there is still controversy about subclassifications of this disorder. On the basis of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), we subdivided NTG with hierarchical cluster analysis using optic nerve head (ONH) parameters and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses. A total of 200 eyes of 200 NTG patients between March 2011 and June 2012 underwent SD-OCT scans to measure ONH parameters and RNFL thicknesses. We classified NTG into homogenous subgroups based on these variables using a hierarchical cluster analysis, and compared clusters to evaluate diverse NTG characteristics. Three clusters were found after hierarchical cluster analysis. Cluster 1 (62 eyes) had the thickest RNFL and widest rim area, and showed early glaucoma features. Cluster 2 (60 eyes) was characterized by the largest cup/disc ratio and cup volume, and showed advanced glaucomatous damage. Cluster 3 (78 eyes) had small disc areas in SD-OCT and were comprised of patients with significantly younger age, longer axial length, and greater myopia than the other 2 groups. A hierarchical cluster analysis of SD-OCT scans divided NTG patients into 3 groups based upon ONH parameters and RNFL thicknesses. It is anticipated that the small disc area group comprised of younger and more myopic patients may show unique features unlike the other 2 groups.

  11. Tumor and normal tissue motion in the thorax during respiration: Analysis of volumetric and positional variations using 4D CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Elisabeth; Wijesooriya, Krishni; Dill, S. Vaughn; Keall, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate temporospatial variations of tumor and normal tissue during respiration in lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: In 14 patients, gross tumor volume (GTV) and normal tissue structures were manually contoured on four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) scans. Structures were evaluated for volume changes, centroid (center of mass) motion, and phase dependence of variations relative to inspiration. Only volumetrically complete structures were used for analysis (lung in 2, heart in 8, all other structures in >10 patients). Results: During respiration, the magnitude of contoured volumes varied up to 62.5% for GTVs, 25.5% for lungs, and 12.6% for hearts. The range of maximum three-dimensional centroid movement for individual patients was 1.3-24.0 mm for GTV, 2.4-7.9 mm for heart, 5.2-12.0 mm for lungs, 0.3-5.5 mm for skin markers, 2.9-10.0 mm for trachea, and 6.6-21.7 mm for diaphragm. During respiration, the centroid positions of normal structures varied relative to the centroid position of the respective GTV by 1.5-8.1 mm for heart, 2.9-9.3 mm for lungs, 1.2-9.2 mm for skin markers, 0.9-7.1 mm for trachea, and 2.7-16.4 mm for diaphragm. Conclusion: Using 4D-CT, volumetric changes, positional alterations as well as changes in the position of contoured structures relative to the GTV were observed with large variations between individual patients. Although the interpretation of 4D-CT data has considerable uncertainty because of 4D-CT artifacts, observer variations, and the limited acquisition time, the findings might have a significant impact on treatment planning

  12. Analysis of Factors Associated With the Tear Film Lipid Layer Thickness in Normal Eyes and Patients With Dry Eye Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Won; Park, Si Yoon; Kim, Jin Sun; Kim, Eung Kweon; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Tae-Im

    2016-08-01

    To determine the effects of clinical variables, including age, sex, history of refractive or cataract surgery, contact lens use, and ocular surface and meibomian gland parameters on the lipid layer thickness (LLT) in normal subjects and patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). A total of 64 normal subjects and 326 patients with DES were enrolled, and they underwent measurements of LLT with a LipiView interferometer and tear meniscus height using optical coherence tomography, tear film break-up time (TBUT) determination, ocular surface staining, Schirmer's test, examination of the lid margins and meibomian glands, and assessment using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). In normal subjects, the median (range) LLT was 67 (33-100) nm, and age was the only factor that was significantly associated with LLT (β = 0.678, P = 0.028). In patients with DES, the median (range) LLT was 84 (20-100) nm, and 79.0% of the participants fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). In a multivariate analysis, increased age and female sex were significantly related to increased LLT (β = 0.282, P = 0.005 and β = 11.493, P < 0.001), and hypersecretory MGD and lid margin inflammation were independently associated with increased LLT (β = 11.299, P = 0.001 and β = 12.747, P = 0.001). Lipid layer thickness measurements using a new interferometer are significantly affected by demographic factors such as age, sex, ocular surgical history, and MGD type. Therefore, all of these factors must be considered in the diagnosis of ocular surface diseases.

  13. Model-based analysis and control of a network of basal ganglia spiking neurons in the normal and Parkinsonian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Khalil, Hassan K.; Oweiss, Karim G.

    2011-08-01

    Controlling the spatiotemporal firing pattern of an intricately connected network of neurons through microstimulation is highly desirable in many applications. We investigated in this paper the feasibility of using a model-based approach to the analysis and control of a basal ganglia (BG) network model of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) spiking neurons through microstimulation. Detailed analysis of this network model suggests that it can reproduce the experimentally observed characteristics of BG neurons under a normal and a pathological Parkinsonian state. A simplified neuronal firing rate model, identified from the detailed HH network model, is shown to capture the essential network dynamics. Mathematical analysis of the simplified model reveals the presence of a systematic relationship between the network's structure and its dynamic response to spatiotemporally patterned microstimulation. We show that both the network synaptic organization and the local mechanism of microstimulation can impose tight constraints on the possible spatiotemporal firing patterns that can be generated by the microstimulated network, which may hinder the effectiveness of microstimulation to achieve a desired objective under certain conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that the feedback control design aided by the mathematical analysis of the simplified model is indeed effective in driving the BG network in the normal and Parskinsonian states to follow a prescribed spatiotemporal firing pattern. We further show that the rhythmic/oscillatory patterns that characterize a dopamine-depleted BG network can be suppressed as a direct consequence of controlling the spatiotemporal pattern of a subpopulation of the output Globus Pallidus internalis (GPi) neurons in the network. This work may provide plausible explanations for the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease and pave the way towards a model-based, network level analysis and closed

  14. Model-free methods of analyzing domain motions in proteins from simulation : A comparison of normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulation of lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayward, S.; Kitao, A.; Berendsen, H.J.C.

    Model-free methods are introduced to determine quantities pertaining to protein domain motions from normal mode analyses and molecular dynamics simulations, For the normal mode analysis, the methods are based on the assumption that in low frequency modes, domain motions can be well approximated by

  15. Identification of the iron oxidation state and coordination geometry in iron oxide- and zeolite-based catalysts using pre-edge XAS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubnov, Alexey; Lichtenberg, Henning; Mangold, Stefan; Grunwaldt, Jan Dierk

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of the oxidation state and coordination geometry using pre-edge analysis is attractive for heterogeneous catalysis and materials science, especially for in situ and time-resolved studies or highly diluted systems. In the present study, focus is laid on iron-based catalysts. First a systematic investigation of the pre-edge region of the Fe K-edge using staurolite, FePO4, FeO and α-Fe2O3 as reference compounds for tetrahedral Fe(2+), tetrahedral Fe(3+), octahedral Fe(2+) and octahedral Fe(3+), respectively, is reported. In particular, high-resolution and conventional X-ray absorption spectra are compared, considering that in heterogeneous catalysis and material science a compromise between high-quality spectroscopic data acquisition and simultaneous analysis of functional properties is required. Results, which were obtained from reference spectra acquired with different resolution and quality, demonstrate that this analysis is also applicable to conventionally recorded pre-edge data. For this purpose, subtraction of the edge onset is preferentially carried out using an arctangent and a first-degree polynomial, independent of the resolution and quality of the data. For both standard and high-resolution data, multiplet analysis of pre-edge features has limitations due to weak transitions that cannot be identified. On the other hand, an arbitrary empirical peak fitting assists the analysis in that non-local transitions can be isolated. The analysis of the oxidation state and coordination geometry of the Fe sites using a variogram-based method is shown to be effective for standard-resolution data and leads to the same results as for high-resolution spectra. This method, validated by analysing spectra of reference compounds and their well defined mixtures, is finally applied to track structural changes in a 1% Fe/Al2O3 and a 0.5% Fe/BEA zeolite catalyst during reduction in 5% H2/He. The results, hardly accessible by other techniques, show that Fe(3+) is

  16. Sequence analysis of annually normalized citation counts: an empirical analysis based on the characteristic scores and scales (CSS) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Ye, Adam Y; Ye, Fred Y

    2017-01-01

    In bibliometrics, only a few publications have focused on the citation histories of publications, where the citations for each citing year are assessed. In this study, therefore, annual categories of field- and time-normalized citation scores (based on the characteristic scores and scales method: 0 = poorly cited, 1 = fairly cited, 2 = remarkably cited, and 3 = outstandingly cited) are used to study the citation histories of papers. As our dataset, we used all articles published in 2000 and their annual citation scores until 2015. We generated annual sequences of citation scores (e.g., [Formula: see text]) and compared the sequences of annual citation scores of six broader fields (natural sciences, engineering and technology, medical and health sciences, agricultural sciences, social sciences, and humanities). In agreement with previous studies, our results demonstrate that sequences with poorly cited (0) and fairly cited (1) elements dominate the publication set; sequences with remarkably cited (3) and outstandingly cited (4) periods are rare. The highest percentages of constantly poorly cited papers can be found in the social sciences; the lowest percentages are in the agricultural sciences and humanities. The largest group of papers with remarkably cited (3) and/or outstandingly cited (4) periods shows an increasing impact over the citing years with the following orders of sequences: [Formula: see text] (6.01%), which is followed by [Formula: see text] (1.62%). Only 0.11% of the papers ( n  = 909) are constantly on the outstandingly cited level.

  17. Characterization of exosomes derived from ovarian cancer cells and normal ovarian epithelial cells by nanoparticle tracking analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Peng, Peng; Kuang, Yun; Yang, Jiaxin; Cao, Dongyan; You, Yan; Shen, Keng

    2016-03-01

    Cellular exosomes are involved in many disease processes and have the potential to be used for diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we compared the characteristics of exosomes derived from human ovarian epithelial cells (HOSEPiC) and three epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR3, IGROV1, and ES-2) to investigate the differences between exosomes originating from normal and malignant cells. Two established colloid-chemical methodologies, electron microscopy (EM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), and a relatively new method, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), were used to measure the size and size distribution of exosomes. The concentration and epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM) expression of exosomes were measured by NTA. Quantum dots were conjugated with anti-EpCAM to label exosomes, and the labeled exosomes were detected by NTA in fluorescent mode. The normal-cell-derived exosomes were significantly larger than those derived from malignant cells, and exosomes were successfully labeled using anti-EpCAM-conjugated quantum dots. Exosomes from different cell lines may vary in size, and exosomes might be considered as potential diagnosis biomarkers. NTA can be considered a useful, efficient, and objective method for the study of different exosomes and their unique properties in ovarian cancer.

  18. Investigation of olfactory function in normal volunteers and patients with anosmia : analysis of brain perfusion SPECTs using statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate olfactory function with Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis in normal volunteers and patients with anosmia. The study populations were 8 subjects matched healthy volunteers and 16 subjects matched patients with anosmia. We obtaibed baseline and post-stimulation (3% butanol) brain perfusion SPECTs in the silent dark room. We analyzed the all SPECTs using SPM. The difference between two sets of brain perfusion SPECTs were compared with t-test. The voxels with p-value of less than 0.01 were considered to be significantly different. We demonstrated increased perfusion in the both cingulated gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior and inferior frontal gyri, right lingual gyrus and right fusiform gyrus on post-stimulation brain SPECT in normal volunteers, and demonstrated decreased perfusion in the both cingulate gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, right rectal gyrus and both superior and inferior frontal gyri in the 10 patients with anosmia. No significant hypoperfusion area was observed in the other 6 patients with anosmia. The baseline and post-stimulation brain perfusion SPECTs can helpful in the evaluation of olfactory function and be useful in the diagnosis of anosmia

  19. Normal-Gamma-Bernoulli Peak Detection for Analysis of Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongho; Jang, Hyejeong; Koo, Imhoi; Lee, Joohyoung; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Compared to other analytical platforms, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) has much increased separation power for analysis of complex samples and thus is increasingly used in metabolomics for biomarker discovery. However, accurate peak detection remains a bottleneck for wide applications of GC×GC-MS. Therefore, the normal-exponential-Bernoulli (NEB) model is generalized by gamma distribution and a new peak detection algorithm using the normal-gamma-Bernoulli (NGB) model is developed. Unlike the NEB model, the NGB model has no closed-form analytical solution, hampering its practical use in peak detection. To circumvent this difficulty, three numerical approaches, which are fast Fourier transform (FFT), the first-order and the second-order delta methods (D1 and D2), are introduced. The applications to simulated data and two real GC×GC-MS data sets show that the NGB-D1 method performs the best in terms of both computational expense and peak detection performance.

  20. Investigation of olfactory function in normal volunteers and patients with anosmia : analysis of brain perfusion SPECTs using statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate olfactory function with Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis in normal volunteers and patients with anosmia. The study populations were 8 subjects matched healthy volunteers and 16 subjects matched patients with anosmia. We obtaibed baseline and post-stimulation (3% butanol) brain perfusion SPECTs in the silent dark room. We analyzed the all SPECTs using SPM. The difference between two sets of brain perfusion SPECTs were compared with t-test. The voxels with p-value of less than 0.01 were considered to be significantly different. We demonstrated increased perfusion in the both cingulated gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior and inferior frontal gyri, right lingual gyrus and right fusiform gyrus on post-stimulation brain SPECT in normal volunteers, and demonstrated decreased perfusion in the both cingulate gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, right rectal gyrus and both superior and inferior frontal gyri in the 10 patients with anosmia. No significant hypoperfusion area was observed in the other 6 patients with anosmia. The baseline and post-stimulation brain perfusion SPECTs can helpful in the evaluation of olfactory function and be useful in the diagnosis of anosmia.

  1. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Coordinated Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis through Signal Transduction and Sugar Metabolism in Black Rice Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linghua; Huang, Yining; Xu, Ming; Cheng, Zuxin; Zheng, Jingui

    2017-12-15

    Black rice ( Oryza sativa L.) is considered to be a healthy food due to its high content of anthocyanins in the pericarp. The synthetic pathway of anthocyanins in black rice grains has been identified, however, the proteomic profile of leaves during grain development is still unclear. Here, isobaric Tags Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS was carried out to identify statistically significant changes of leaf proteome in the black rice during grain development. Throughout three sequential developmental stages, a total of 3562 proteins were detected and 24 functional proteins were differentially expressed 3-10 days after flowering (DAF). The detected proteins are known to be involved in various biological processes and most of these proteins were related to gene expression regulatory (33.3%), signal transduction (16.7%) and developmental regulation and hormone-like proteins (12.5%). The coordinated changes were consistent with changes in regulatory proteins playing a leading role in leaves during black rice grain development. This indicated that signal transduction between leaves and grains may have an important role in anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation during grain development of black rice. In addition, four identified up-regulated proteins associated with starch metabolism suggested that the remobilization of nutrients for starch synthesis plays a potential role in anthocyanin biosynthesis of grain. The mRNA transcription for eight selected proteins was validated with quantitative real-time PCR. Our results explored the proteomics of the coordination between leaf and grain in anthocyanins biosynthesis of grain, which might be regulated by signal transduction and sugar metabolism in black rice leaf.

  2. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Coordinated Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis through Signal Transduction and Sugar Metabolism in Black Rice Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghua Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Black rice (Oryza sativa L. is considered to be a healthy food due to its high content of anthocyanins in the pericarp. The synthetic pathway of anthocyanins in black rice grains has been identified, however, the proteomic profile of leaves during grain development is still unclear. Here, isobaric Tags Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ MS/MS was carried out to identify statistically significant changes of leaf proteome in the black rice during grain development. Throughout three sequential developmental stages, a total of 3562 proteins were detected and 24 functional proteins were differentially expressed 3–10 days after flowering (DAF. The detected proteins are known to be involved in various biological processes and most of these proteins were related to gene expression regulatory (33.3%, signal transduction (16.7% and developmental regulation and hormone-like proteins (12.5%. The coordinated changes were consistent with changes in regulatory proteins playing a leading role in leaves during black rice grain development. This indicated that signal transduction between leaves and grains may have an important role in anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation during grain development of black rice. In addition, four identified up-regulated proteins associated with starch metabolism suggested that the remobilization of nutrients for starch synthesis plays a potential role in anthocyanin biosynthesis of grain. The mRNA transcription for eight selected proteins was validated with quantitative real-time PCR. Our results explored the proteomics of the coordination between leaf and grain in anthocyanins biosynthesis of grain, which might be regulated by signal transduction and sugar metabolism in black rice leaf.

  3. Comparative analysis of morphological and topometric parameters of lumbar spine in normal state and in degenerative-dystrophic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisimova Е.А.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to carry out comparative analysis and identify patterns of topographic variation patterns of lumbar spine in normal and degenerative changes. Material and methods. CT- and MRT-grams for men and women I (M1-22-35 years; W — 21-35 years and II (M2-36-60 years; W2-36-55 years periods of mature age with no signs of trauma, scoliosis and systemic diseases of the spine (n=140 and CT- and MRT-grams in patients with revealed degenerative changes in the lumbar spine degree II-III (n=120. The pictures with digital PACS system measure the height of the vertebral body, intervertebral disc height, vertical, horizontal diameter and the area of intervertebral foramen. Results. The height of the lumbar vertebral bodies normally increased from27,90±0,38mmatthe level of L, to 29,93±0,33 mm Lm, and then decreased to 24,35±0,27 mm at level L^, in osteochondrosis it is statistically significantly lower at all levels on average by 20%. The height of the intervertebral disc with osteochondrosis below at all levels by an average of 25% of its value in the range 5,27±0,19 to 6,13±0,17mm, while the normal disc height varies from 6,88±030 to 9,36±0,28mm. The area of intervertebral holes normally ranging from 103,29±5,78 to 127,99±5,92mm2, with osteochondrosis aperture area is reduced to a greater extent by decreasing the vertical diameter in comparison with the horizontal. Conclusion. For the studied parameters characteristic topographic variability has been determined. The maximum values parameters are marked at the top of the lumbar lordosis, at chest height, lumbar and lumbosacral junctions sizes are reduced. In osteochondrosis the intervertebral disc height and the height of lumbar vertebral bodies are reduced; intervertebral foramina area is also reduced to a greater extent by reducing the vertical diameter than the horizontal one.

  4. Analysis of loss of normal feedwater transient using RELAP5/MOD1/NSC; KNU1 plant simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hho Jung; Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Young Jin; Kim, Jin Soo

    1986-01-01

    Simulation of the system thermal-hydraulic parameters was carried out following the KNU1(Korea Nuclear Unit-1) loss of normal feedwater transient sequence occurred on november 14, 1984. Results were compared with the plant transient data, and good agreements were obtained. Some deviations were found in the parameters such as the steam flowrate and the RCS(Reactor Coolant System) average temperature, around the time of reactor trip. It can be expected since the thermal-hydraulic parameters encounter rapid transitions due to the large reduction of the reactor thermal power in a short period of time and, thereby, the plant data involve transient uncertainties. The analysis was performed using the RELAP5/MOD1/NSC developed through some modifications of the interphase drag and the wall heat transfer modeling routines of the RELAP5/MOD1/CY018. (Author)

  5. Powerlessness, Normalization, and Resistance: A Foucauldian Discourse Analysis of Women's Narratives On Obstetric Fistula in Eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Sarah; Ahlberg, Beth-Maina; Trenholm, Jill

    2017-10-01

    Eastern Sudan has high prevalence of female circumcision and child marriage constituting a risk for developing obstetric fistula. Few studies have examined gender roles' relation with obstetric fistula in Sudan. To explore the associated power-relations that may put women at increased risk for developing obstetric fistula, we conducted nine interviews with women living with obstetric fistula in Kassala in eastern Sudan. Using a Foucauldian discourse analysis, we identified three discourses: powerlessness, normalization, and covert resistance. Existing power-relations between the women and other societal members revealed their internalization of social norms as absolute truth, and influenced their status and decision-making power in regard to circumcision, early marriage, and other transformative decisions as well as women's general behaviors. The women showed subtle resistance to these norms and the harassment they encountered because of their fistula. These findings suggest that a more in-depth contextual assessment could benefit future maternal health interventions.

  6. Normal myelination of the child brain on MRI - a meta-analysis; Die normale Myelinisierung des kindlichen Gehirns in der MRT - eine Metaanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, M.; Grodd, W. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Kraegeloh-Mann, I. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Entwicklungsneurologie und Neuropaediatrie

    2000-10-01

    Purpose: To establish age limits for the assessment of normal myelination of the brain on T{sub 1}-weighted (T{sub 1}w) and T{sub 2}-weighted (T{sub 2}w) images. Method: Comparison of previous publications (Barkovich et al. 1988, Grodd 1993, Hayakawa et al. 1990, Hittmair et al. 1994, Martin et al. 1988/1990/1991, Nakagawa et al. 1998, Staudt et al. 1993/1994, Stricker et al. 1990). Results: Despite technical and methodological differences, these studies principally agreed on the timing of myelination for most regions of the brain. Thus, a common timetable could be established: At 1 month, myelin is visible on both T{sub 1}w and T{sub 2}w in the medulla oblongata, tegmentum pontis, cerebellar peduncles and vermis, quadrigeminal plate, decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles, thalamus, posterior limb of internal capsule, optic radiation, corona radiata. Thereafter, the myelin-typical signal in the different regions of the brain should be present at the following ages (M=months): Anterior limb of internal capsule (2 M: T{sub 1}w; 7 M: T{sub 2}w), splenium of corpus callosum (4 M: T{sub 1}w; 6 M: T{sub 2}w), genu of corpus callosum (6 M: T{sub 1}w; 8 M: T{sub 2}w), centrum semiovale (2 M: T{sub 1}w; 7 M: T{sub 2}w). Branching of myelin into the gyri of the telencephalon (=arborization) appears at the latest at: occipital lobe (5 M: T{sub 1}w; 12 M: T{sub 2}w) and frontal lobe (7 M: T{sub 1}w; 14 M: T{sub 2}w). Conclusion: These extracted age limits can be used for a more reliable assessment of myelination than the time-tables from a single study. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Ermittlung von Altersgrenzen fuer die MR-tomographisch erfassbare Myelinisierung des kindlichen Gehirns in T{sub 1}- und T{sub 2}-gewichteten Aufnahmen (T{sub 1}w, T{sub 2}w). Methode: Vergleich bisher publizierter Zeitangaben (Barkovich et al 1988, Grodd 1993, Hayakawa et al 1990, Hittmair et al 1994, Martin et al 1988/1990/1991, Nakagawa et al 1998, Staudt et al 1993/1994, Stricker et al 1990

  7. Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Interval between Blood Donations Using Log-Normal Hazard Model with Gamma Correlated Frailties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Najmeh; Kheiri, Soleiman; Sedehi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Time to donating blood plays a major role in a regular donor to becoming continues one. The aim of this study was to determine the effective factors on the interval between the blood donations. In a longitudinal study in 2008, 864 samples of first-time donors in Shahrekord Blood Transfusion Center,  capital city of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran were selected by a systematic sampling and were followed up for five years. Among these samples, a subset of 424 donors who had at least two successful blood donations were chosen for this study and the time intervals between their donations were measured as response variable. Sex, body weight, age, marital status, education, stay and job were recorded as independent variables. Data analysis was performed based on log-normal hazard model with gamma correlated frailty. In this model, the frailties are sum of two independent components assumed a gamma distribution. The analysis was done via Bayesian approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm by OpenBUGS. Convergence was checked via Gelman-Rubin criteria using BOA program in R. Age, job and education were significant on chance to donate blood (Pdonation for the higher-aged donors, clericals, workers, free job, students and educated donors were higher and in return, time intervals between their blood donations were shorter. Due to the significance effect of some variables in the log-normal correlated frailty model, it is necessary to plan educational and cultural program to encourage the people with longer inter-donation intervals to donate more frequently.

  8. Gene expression analysis of skin grafts and cultured keratinocytes using synthetic RNA normalization reveals insights into differentiation and growth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Shintaro; Skoog, Tiina; Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Siitonen, H Annika; Nuutila, Kristo; Tervaniemi, Mari H; Vuola, Jyrki; Johnsson, Anna; Lönnerberg, Peter; Linnarsson, Sten; Elomaa, Outi; Kankuri, Esko; Kere, Juha

    2015-06-25

    Keratinocytes (KCs) are the most frequent cells in the epidermis, and they are often isolated and cultured in vitro to study the molecular biology of the skin. Cultured primary cells and various immortalized cells have been frequently used as skin models but their comparability to intact skin has been questioned. Moreover, when analyzing KC transcriptomes, fluctuation of polyA+ RNA content during the KCs' lifecycle has been omitted. We performed STRT RNA sequencing on 10 ng samples of total RNA from three different sample types: i) epidermal tissue (split-thickness skin grafts), ii) cultured primary KCs, and iii) HaCaT cell line. We observed significant variation in cellular polyA+ RNA content between tissue and cell culture samples of KCs. The use of synthetic RNAs and SAMstrt in normalization enabled comparison of gene expression levels in the highly heterogenous samples and facilitated discovery of differences between the tissue samples and cultured cells. The transcriptome analysis sensitively revealed genes involved in KC differentiation in skin grafts and cell cycle regulation related genes in cultured KCs and emphasized the fluctuation of transcription factors and non-coding RNAs associated to sample types. The epidermal keratinocytes derived from tissue and cell culture samples showed highly different polyA+ RNA contents. The use of SAMstrt and synthetic RNA based normalization allowed the comparison between tissue and cell culture samples and thus proved to be valuable tools for RNA-seq analysis with translational approach. Transciptomics revealed clear difference both between tissue and cell culture samples and between primary KCs and immortalized HaCaT cells.

  9. A Protocol for the Comprehensive Flow Cytometric Analysis of Immune Cells in Normal and Inflamed Murine Non-Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yen-Rei A.; O’Koren, Emily G.; Hotten, Danielle F.; Kan, Matthew J.; Kopin, David; Nelson, Erik R.; Que, Loretta; Gunn, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry is used extensively to examine immune cells in non-lymphoid tissues. However, a method of flow cytometric analysis that is both comprehensive and widely applicable has not been described. We developed a protocol for the flow cytometric analysis of non-lymphoid tissues, including methods of tissue preparation, a 10-fluorochrome panel for cell staining, and a standardized gating strategy, that allows the simultaneous identification and quantification of all major immune cell types in a variety of normal and inflamed non-lymphoid tissues. We demonstrate that our basic protocol minimizes cell loss, reliably distinguishes macrophages from dendritic cells (DC), and identifies all major granulocytic and mononuclear phagocytic cell types. This protocol is able to accurately quantify 11 distinct immune cell types, including T cells, B cells, NK cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, inflammatory monocytes, resident monocytes, alveolar macrophages, resident/interstitial macrophages, CD11b- DC, and CD11b+ DC, in normal lung, heart, liver, kidney, intestine, skin, eyes, and mammary gland. We also characterized the expression patterns of several commonly used myeloid and macrophage markers. This basic protocol can be expanded to identify additional cell types such as mast cells, basophils, and plasmacytoid DC, or perform detailed phenotyping of specific cell types. In examining models of primary and metastatic mammary tumors, this protocol allowed the identification of several distinct tumor associated macrophage phenotypes, the appearance of which was highly specific to individual tumor cell lines. This protocol provides a valuable tool to examine immune cell repertoires and follow immune responses in a wide variety of tissues and experimental conditions. PMID:26938654

  10. Future in actinoids coordination chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Takafumi

    2006-01-01

    Actinoids coordination chemistry is concerned with spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, specifically with solid-state chemistry of nuclear fuels, separation process with radioactive substances, and geological disposal of high-level radioactive substances. In the 21st century, accumulation of minor actinides, Np, Am, Cm, and others will be realized according with the present program of nuclear energy development. The present article briefly introduces general properties of actinide elements, followed by their coordination chemistry compared with rare earths coordination chemistry. Special facility needed to treat actinoids as well as their chemistry is briefly explained, together with the specific experimental apparatus such as X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectrometry (TRLFS) with synchrotron radiation facilities. The effect of coordination with actinoids in the environment chemistry is important in underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. For theoretical analysis of the results with actinoids chemistry, relativistic calculation is needed. (S. Ohno)

  11. Human papillomavirus infection in females with normal cervical cytology: Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis among women in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hafsa; Iqbal, Huma; Mahmood, Humera; Fatima, Shazia; Faheem, Mohammad; Sattar, Areej Abdul; Tabassum, Sobia; Napper, Sanum; Batool, Syeda; Rasheed, Nuzhat

    2018-01-01

    Globally, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women and the seventh most common cancer overall, accounting for an estimated 300 000 annual deaths. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the second most common cause of cervical cancer worldwide. HPV screening is not a common practice in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV and HPV types in women with a normal cytology of the cervix living in the upper and lower regions of Punjab, Pakistan, and to analyze the risk factors for HPV in this region. PCR analysis was performed for 1011 female patients with a normal cytology of the cervix from various districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. Risk factors for the acquisition of HPV were studied. High-risk HPV types (HPV16 and HPV18) were detected using the Abbott Real Time HR HPV test. To determine the genotype, partial L1 region sequences of HPV-positive samples were subjected to sequencing using MY/09/MY11 primers, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using CLC software. The study found a 4.74% prevalence of HPV, with the most frequent HPV type found being the low-risk HPV6 (in 25% of infected individuals), followed by HPV55 (22.9%), HPV11 (20.8%), and high-risk types HPV45 (12.5%), HPV33 (8.33%), HPV18 (6.25%), and HPV16 (4.16%). Phylogenetic analysis of all HPV types in this study showed 80-99% nucleotide identity with types related to the same species. The sequences were clustered with China, India, Mexico, Iran, Slovenia, and Germany, showing the diversity in origin of the various genotypes prevalent in Pakistan. In this population with a normal cervical cytology, the prevalence of high-risk HPV types was very low. The major prevalent HPV genotype in Punjab Province of Pakistan was the low-risk HPV type 6, followed by HPV type 55. Sequencing of the partial L1 region suggested that the region was highly conserved in all reported sequences. This study highlights the need to conduct robust epidemiological studies in the region

  12. Unpacking Coordination Benefits in Supply Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrick, Irene J.; Maitland, Carleen; Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how coordination among firms in supply networks generates benefits in the short and long terms for firms. It focuses on information technology (IT) and process improvement coordination. Analysis was performed on quantitative and qualitative data from a sample of SMEs in plastics...... manufacturing in Pennsylvania. Results indicate that coordination on both IT and process improvement leads to short- and long-term benefits. These relationships were mediated by the adoption of innovations (when coordinating on IT) and access to new capabilities (in process improvement coordination......). These results extend the understanding of how participation in supply networks benefits individual firms....

  13. A three-coordinate system (ecliptic, galactic, ISMF) spectral analysis of heliospheric ENA emissions using CASSINI/INCA measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialynas, K.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Roelof, E. C.; Decker, R. B

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we use all-sky energy-resolved energetic neutral atom (ENA) maps obtained by the Ion and Neutral CAmera (INCA) instrument on board Cassini that correspond to the time period from 2003 to 2009, in four discrete energy passbands (∼5.4 to ∼55 keV), to investigate the geometrical characteristics of the belt (a broad band of emission in the sky). The heliospheric ENA emissions are mapped in three different coordinate systems (ecliptic, Galactic, and interstellar magnetic field (ISMF)), and spectral analyses are performed to further examine the belt's possible energy dependence. Our conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) the high flux ENA belt identified in the energy range of 8-42 keV is moderately well organized in Galactic coordinates, as the ENA minima appear in the vicinity of the north and south Galactic poles; (2) using minimization criteria ( B · R ∼ 0), the deviation of the ENA emissions from the equator is effectively minimized in a rotated frame, which we interpret as ISMF, where its north pole points toward 190° ecliptic longitude and 15° ecliptic latitude; (3) ENA spectra show a power-law form in energy that can be fitted with a single function presenting higher spectral slopes in the belt region and lower outside (3.4 < γ < 4.4); (4) the spectra are almost indistinguishable between the tail and the nose regions, i.e., no noticeable asymmetry is observed; (5) the consistency of the ENA distributions as a function of latitude among the different INCA channels indicates that the morphology of the belt (peak, width, and structure) is nearly energy independent from 8 keV to 30 keV (minor deviations start to appear at >35 keV); and (6) in the low count rate regions, the long-term ENA count rate profiles do not match the measured cosmic ray profiles, indicating that even the minimum ENA emissions detected by INCA are foreground ENAs.

  14. Performance analysis for IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function in radio-over-fiber-based distributed antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuting; Li, Jianqiang; Xu, Kun; Chen, Hao; Lu, Xun; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Ji, Yuefeng; Lin, Jintong

    2013-09-09

    In this paper, we analyze the performance of IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function in simulcast radio-over-fiber-based distributed antenna systems (RoF-DASs) where multiple remote antenna units (RAUs) are connected to one wireless local-area network (WLAN) access point (AP) with different-length fiber links. We also present an analytical model to evaluate the throughput of the systems in the presence of both the inter-RAU hidden-node problem and fiber-length difference effect. In the model, the unequal delay induced by different fiber length is involved both in the backoff stage and in the calculation of Ts and Tc, which are the period of time when the channel is sensed busy due to a successful transmission or a collision. The throughput performances of WLAN-RoF-DAS in both basic access and request to send/clear to send (RTS/CTS) exchange modes are evaluated with the help of the derived model.

  15. Gliomas: Application of Cumulative Histogram Analysis of Normalized Cerebral Blood Volume on 3 T MRI to Tumor Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Ryoo, Inseon; Kim, Soo Chin; Yeom, Jeong A.; Shin, Hwaseon; Jung, Seung Chai; Lee, A. Leum; Yun, Tae Jin; Park, Chul-Kee; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sung-Hye

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioma grading assumes significant importance in that low- and high-grade gliomas display different prognoses and are treated with dissimilar therapeutic strategies. The objective of our study was to retrospectively assess the usefulness of a cumulative normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) histogram for glioma grading based on 3 T MRI. Methods From February 2010 to April 2012, 63 patients with astrocytic tumors underwent 3 T MRI with dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging. Regions of interest containing the entire tumor volume were drawn on every section of the co-registered relative CBV (rCBV) maps and T2-weighted images. The percentile values from the cumulative nCBV histograms and the other histogram parameters were correlated with tumor grades. Cochran’s Q test and the McNemar test were used to compare the diagnostic accuracies of the histogram parameters after the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Using the parameter offering the highest diagnostic accuracy, a validation process was performed with an independent test set of nine patients. Results The 99th percentile of the cumulative nCBV histogram (nCBV C99), mean and peak height differed significantly between low- and high-grade gliomas (P = histogram analysis of nCBV using 3 T MRI can be a useful method for preoperative glioma grading. The nCBV C99 value is helpful in distinguishing high- from low-grade gliomas and grade IV from III gliomas. PMID:23704910

  16. Genetic and anatomical analysis of normal and abnormal flowers of date palm cultivar barhy derived from offshoot and tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shair, O.H.

    2016-01-01

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis between 6 normal flower producing offshoot derived and 6 abnormal multiple carpel, flower producing tissue culture (TC) derived trees of cultivar (cv.) Barhy, was performed with the objective to check genetic variation if any at DNA level. DNA samples were extracted from pollinated and un-pollinated flowers from both sets of plants. Amplified RAPD products were clearly detected with 30 primers used in this experiment but only 3 gave a few polymorphic bands which shows low level of genetic variation among the offshoot and TC derived plants. Cluster analysis by the unweighted paired group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA) showed close genomic similarity among the 12 DNA samples with the range of 0.486-0.904 Nei and Li's coefficient in the similarity matrix. The average similarity among the 12 DNA samples was more than 50%. Floral abnormalities in TC derived plants were also studied microscopically. Abnormalities like more than three carpel development, abnormal ovule development and deformities of style and stigma were observed. The results show that the composition and the abnormalities of flowers in TC derived plants of cultivar Barhy may be attributed to epigenetic changes that takes place at different stages of tissue culture and not due to major changes at DNA level. (author)

  17. All-atom normal-mode analysis reveals an RNA-induced allostery in a bacteriophage coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Eric C; Twarock, Reidun

    2010-03-01

    Assembly of the T=3 bacteriophage MS2 is initiated by the binding of a 19 nucleotide RNA stem loop from within the phage genome to a symmetric coat protein dimer. This binding event effects a folding of the FG loop in one of the protein subunits of the dimer and results in the formation of an asymmetric dimer. Since both the symmetric and asymmetric forms of the dimer are needed for the assembly of the protein container, this allosteric switch plays an important role in the life cycle of the phage. We provide here details of an all-atom normal-mode analysis of this allosteric effect. The results suggest that asymmetric contacts between the A -duplex RNA phosphodiester backbone of the stem loop with the EF loop in one coat protein subunit results in an increased dynamic behavior of its FG loop. The four lowest-frequency modes, which encompass motions predominantly on the FG loops, account for over 90% of the increased dynamic behavior due to a localization of the vibrational pattern on a single FG loop. Finally, we show that an analysis of the allosteric effect using an elastic network model fails to predict this localization effect, highlighting the importance of using an all-atom full force field method for this problem.

  18. Motor Learning: An Analysis of 100 Trials of a Ski Slalom Game in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Jelsma, Lemke Dorothee; Ferguson, Gillian D; Geuze, Reint H

    2015-01-01

    Although Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is often characterized as a skill acquisition deficit disorder, few studies have addressed the process of motor learning. This study examined learning of a novel motor task; the Wii Fit ski slalom game. The main objectives were to determine: 1) whether learning occurs over 100 trial runs of the game, 2) if the learning curve is different between children with and without DCD, 3) if learning is different in an easier or harder version of the task, 4) if learning transfers to other balance tasks. 17 children with DCD (6-10 years) and a matched control group of 17 typically developing (TD) children engaged in 20 minutes of gaming, twice a week for five weeks. Each training session comprised of alternating trial runs, with five runs at an easy level and five runs at a difficult level. Wii scores, which combine speed and accuracy per run, were recorded. Standardized balance tasks were used to measure transfer. Significant differences in initial performance were found between groups on the Wii score and balance tasks. Both groups improved their Wii score over the five weeks. Improvement in the easy and in the hard task did not differ between groups. Retention in the time between training sessions was not different between TD and DCD groups either. The DCD group improved significantly on all balance tasks. The findings in this study give a fairly coherent picture of the learning process over a medium time scale (5 weeks) in children novice to active computer games; they learn, retain and there is evidence of transfer to other balance tasks. The rate of motor learning is similar for those with and without DCD. Our results raise a number of questions about motor learning that need to be addressed in future research.

  19. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  20. A computed tomography-based spatial normalization for the analysis of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hanna; Kim, Jin Su; Choi, Jae Yong; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung

    2014-01-01

    We developed a new computed tomography (CT)-based spatial normalization method and CT template to demonstrate its usefulness in spatial normalization of positron emission tomography (PET) images with [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET studies in healthy controls. Seventy healthy controls underwent brain CT scan (120 KeV, 180 mAs, and 3 mm of thickness) and [(18)F] FDG PET scans using a PET/CT scanner. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired for all subjects. By averaging skull-stripped and spatially-normalized MR and CT images, we created skull-stripped MR and CT templates for spatial normalization. The skull-stripped MR and CT images were spatially normalized to each structural template. PET images were spatially normalized by applying spatial transformation parameters to normalize skull-stripped MR and CT images. A conventional perfusion PET template was used for PET-based spatial normalization. Regional standardized uptake values (SUV) measured by overlaying the template volume of interest (VOI) were compared to those measured with FreeSurfer-generated VOI (FSVOI). All three spatial normalization methods underestimated regional SUV values by 0.3-20% compared to those measured with FSVOI. The CT-based method showed slightly greater underestimation bias. Regional SUV values derived from all three spatial normalization methods were correlated significantly (p normalization may be an alternative method for structure-based spatial normalization of [(18)F] FDG PET when MR imaging is unavailable. Therefore, it is useful for PET/CT studies with various radiotracers whose uptake is expected to be limited to specific brain regions or highly variable within study population.

  1. An argument for VP coordination: scene-setting coordination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article demonstrates the properties of this curious construction type and proposes the first analysis to date. It is argued that this is an instance of VP coordination and that this configuration allows the possibility of high merger of direct objects in a constrained fashion. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language ...

  2. Pros and cons of rotating ground motion records to fault-normal/parallel directions for response history analysis of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2014-01-01

    According to the regulatory building codes in the United States (e.g., 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of building structures. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHAs should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here, for the first time, using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak values of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were computed for rotation angles ranging from 0 through 180° to quantify the difference between peak values of EDPs over all rotation angles and those due to FN/FP direction rotated motions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

  3. COBE DMR-normalized open inflation cold dark matter cosmogony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Ratra, Bharat; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Banday, Anthony J.

    1995-01-01

    A cut-sky orthogonal mode analysis of the 2 year COBE DMR 53 and 90 GHz sky maps (in Galactic coordinates) is used to determine the normalization of an open inflation model based on the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario. The normalized model is compared to measures of large-scale structure in the universe. Although the DMR data alone does not provide sufficient discriminative power to prefer a particular value of the mass density parameter, the open model appears to be reasonably consistent with observations when Omega(sub 0) is approximately 0.3-0.4 and merits further study.

  4. The Amounts of As, Au, Br, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn in Normal and Uraemic Human whole Blood. A. Comparison by Means of Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D; Samsahl, K [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Wester, P O [Dept. of Medicine, Karolinska Inst., Serafimerlasarettet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1964-01-15

    Quantitative determination of the elements As, Au, Br, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn have been performed in normal and uraemic human whole blood by means of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - H-O- digestion, distillation and ion exchange, combined with gamma-spectrometric analysis. The uraemic blood was found to contain about 10 times as much As and twice as much Mo as did the normal blood. As regards Fe, the uraemic blood contained slightly less than the normal blood. For the other elements there were no detectable difference.

  5. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  6. A Conceptual Model of Dyadic Coordination in HIV Care Engagement Among Couples of Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Dyadic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Judy Y; Campbell, Chadwick K; Tabrisky, Alyssa P; Siedle-Khan, Robert; Conroy, Amy A

    2018-02-20

    Among Black men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV incidence is disproportionately high and HIV care engagement is disproportionately low. There may be important opportunities to leverage the primary relationship to improve engagement in HIV care and treatment among Black MSM couples. Using dyadic qualitative analysis of semi-structured, one-on-one interviews, we explored dyadic aspects of HIV care engagement among 14 Black MSM couples in which at least one partner was HIV-positive and identified as a Black cisgender man. Findings showed that men varied in how involved they were in their HIV-positive partner's care and treatment, and in how they reciprocated their partner's involvement. Patterns of dyadic HIV care engagement supported a conceptual model of dyadic coordination that describes Black MSM relationships in terms of two conceptual dimensions of dyadic HIV care engagement, and guides future intervention designs with Black MSM couples.

  7. Control coordination abilities in shock combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Boychenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: optimize the process control level of coordination abilities in martial arts. Material and Methods: analysis and compilation of scientific and methodological literature, interviews with coaches of drum martial arts, video analysis techniques, teacher observations. Results: identified specific types of coordination abilities in shock combat sports. Pod branny and offered specific and nonspecific tests to monitor the level of species athletes coordination abilities. Conclusion: it is determined that in order to achieve victory in the fight martial artists to navigate the space to be able to assess and manage dynamic and spatio-temporal parameters of movements, maintain balance, have a high coordination of movements. The proposed tests to monitor species coordination abilities athletes allow an objective assessment of not only the overall level of coordination, and the level of specific types of manifestations of this ability.

  8. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  9. Triple SILAC quantitative proteomic analysis reveals differential abundance of cell signaling proteins between normal and lung cancer-derived exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David J; Fondrie, William E; Yang, Austin; Mao, Li

    2016-02-05

    Exosomes are 30-100 nm sized membrane vesicles released by cells into the extracellular space that mediate intercellular communication via transfer of proteins and other biological molecules. To better understand the role of these microvesicles in lung carcinogenesis, we employed a Triple SILAC quantitative proteomic strategy to examine the differential protein abundance between exosomes derived from an immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cell line and two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines harboring distinct activating mutations in the cell signaling molecules: Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In total, we were able to quantify 721 exosomal proteins derived from the three cell lines. Proteins associated with signal transduction, including EGFR, GRB2 and SRC, were enriched in NSCLC exosomes, and could actively regulate cell proliferation in recipient cells. This study's investigation of the NSCLC exosomal proteome has identified enriched protein cargo that can contribute to lung cancer progression, which may have potential clinical implications in biomarker development for patients with NSCLC. The high mortality associated with lung cancer is a result of late-stage diagnosis of the disease. Current screening techniques used for early detection of lung cancer lack the specificity for accurate diagnosis. Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles, and the increased abundance of select protein cargo in exosomes derived from cancer cells may be used for diagnostic purposes. In this paper, we applied quantitative proteomic analysis to elucidate abundance differences in exosomal protein cargo between two NSCLC cell lines with distinctive oncogene mutations and an immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cell line. This study revealed proteins associated with cell adhesion, the extracellular matrix, and a variety of signaling molecules were enriched in NSCLC exosomes. The present data reveals

  10. Designing experiments for maximum information from cyclic oxidation tests and their statistical analysis using half Normal plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, S.Y.; Nicholls, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic oxidation testing at elevated temperatures requires careful experimental design and the adoption of standard procedures to ensure reliable data. This is a major aim of the 'COTEST' research programme. Further, as such tests are both time consuming and costly, in terms of human effort, to take measurements over a large number of cycles, it is important to gain maximum information from a minimum number of tests (trials). This search for standardisation of cyclic oxidation conditions leads to a series of tests to determine the relative effects of cyclic parameters on the oxidation process. Following a review of the available literature, databases and the experience of partners to the COTEST project, the most influential parameters, upper dwell temperature (oxidation temperature) and time (hot time), lower dwell time (cold time) and environment, were investigated in partners' laboratories. It was decided to test upper dwell temperature at 3 levels, at and equidistant from a reference temperature; to test upper dwell time at a reference, a higher and a lower time; to test lower dwell time at a reference and a higher time and wet and dry environments. Thus an experiment, consisting of nine trials, was designed according to statistical criteria. The results of the trial were analysed statistically, to test the main linear and quadratic effects of upper dwell temperature and hot time and the main effects of lower dwell time (cold time) and environment. The nine trials are a quarter fraction of the 36 possible combinations of parameter levels that could have been studied. The results have been analysed by half Normal plots as there are only 2 degrees of freedom for the experimental error variance, which is rather low for a standard analysis of variance. Half Normal plots give a visual indication of which factors are statistically significant. In this experiment each trial has 3 replications, and the data are analysed in terms of mean mass change, oxidation kinetics

  11. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Reactor Physics, Thermal-hydraulics and Depletion Uncertainty Analysis: Description of the Benchmark Test Cases and Phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederik Reitsma; Gerhard Strydom; Bismark Tyobeka; Kostadin Ivanov

    2012-10-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The uncertainties in the HTR analysis tools are today typically assessed with sensitivity analysis and then a few important input uncertainties (typically based on a PIRT process) are varied in the analysis to find a spread in the parameter of importance. However, one wish to apply a more fundamental approach to determine the predictive capability and accuracies of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations used for reactor design and safety assessment. Today there is a broader acceptance of the use of uncertainty analysis even in safety studies and it has been accepted by regulators in some cases to replace the traditional conservative analysis. Finally, there is also a renewed focus in supplying reliable covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) that can then be used in uncertainty methods. Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are therefore becoming an essential component of any significant effort in data and simulation improvement. In order to address uncertainty in analysis and methods in the HTGR community the IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling early in 2012. The project is built on the experience of the OECD/NEA Light Water Reactor (LWR) Uncertainty Analysis in Best-Estimate Modelling (UAM) benchmark activity, but focuses specifically on the peculiarities of HTGR designs and its simulation requirements. Two benchmark problems were defined with the prismatic type design represented by the MHTGR-350 design from General Atomics (GA) while a 250 MW modular pebble bed design, similar to the INET (China) and indirect-cycle PBMR (South Africa) designs are also included. In the paper more detail on the benchmark cases, the different specific phases and tasks and the latest

  12. Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Kosinka, Jiří

    2016-02-12

    We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.

  13. Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Kosinka, Jiří ; Barton, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.

  14. Bare coordination: the semantic shift

    OpenAIRE

    de Swart, Henriette; Le Bruyn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of the syntax-semantics interface of two types of split coordination structures. In the first type, two bare singular count nouns appear as arguments in a coordinated structure, as in bride and groom were happy. We call this the N&N construction. In the second type, the determiner shows agreement with the first conjunct, while the second conjunct is bare, as in the Spanish example el hornero y hornera cobraban en panes (‘thesg.m bakersg.m and bakersg.f werepl p...

  15. Corpus luteum blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancy: evaluation and analysis with transvaginal color and pulsed doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoyi; Lin Meifang; Zheng Meirong; Liang Xiaoxian; Liu Jianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Detecting and assessment the corpus luteum blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancy. Methods: Using transvaginal color and pulse Doppler sonography, we detected 215 pregnant women including 150 normal intrauterine pregnancies, 25 abortion, 29 ectopic pregnancies, and then recorded corpus luteum blood flow feature and the blood flow indexes (Vmax, RI and PI). Results: 1) Corpus luteum was successfully identified in 148 cases out of 150 of normal early pregnancies, 25 cases out of 26 of threatened abortion; 22 cases out of 29 of ectopic pregnancy. 2) Three groups shared the same feature of Color Doppler imaging: a circumferential rim around the entire corpus luteum. 3) The flow index revealed mean PVS, RI and PI had no statistical difference in normal and abnormal early pregnancy; The mean PVS was lower in ectopic pregnancy than in normal pregnancy (P<0.05), while PI and PR had no characteristic in ectopic pregnancy group compared with the indexes obtained in normal pregnancy group. Conclusion: The corpus luteum can be precisely identified in most pregnancy using transvaginal color Doppler and manifests a characterized rim Doppler imaging. PVS may help in differentiating the ectopic pregnancy from normal early pregnancy. (authors)

  16. The effectiveness of community-based coordinating interventions in dementia care: a meta-analysis and subgroup analysis of intervention components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, Amy; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Richards, David A; McCabe, Rose; Watkins, Ross; Dickens, Chris

    2017-11-13

    Interventions aiming to coordinate services for the community-based dementia population vary in components, organisation and implementation. In this review we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based care coordinating interventions on health outcomes and investigate whether specific components of interventions influence their effects. We searched four databases from inception to April 2017: Medline, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PsycINFO. This was aided by a search of four grey literature databases, and backward and forward citation tracking of included papers. Title and abstract screening was followed by a full text screen by two independent reviewers, and quality was assessed using the CASP appraisal tool. We then conducted meta-analyses and subgroup analyses. A total of 14 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving 10,372 participants were included in the review. Altogether we carried out 12 meta-analyses and 19 subgroup analyses. Meta-analyses found coordinating interventions showed a statistically significant improvement in both patient behaviour measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) (mean difference (MD) = -9.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): -18.1 to -1.0; p = 0.03; number of studies (n) = 4; I 2  = 88%) and caregiver burden (standardised mean difference (SMD) = -0.54; 95% CI: -1.01 to -0.07; p = 0.02; n = 5, I 2  = 92%) compared to the control group. Subgroup analyses found interventions using a case manager with a nursing background showed a greater positive effect on caregiver quality of life than those that used case managers from other professional backgrounds (SMD = 0.94 versus 0.03, respectively; p < 0.001). Interventions that did not provide supervision for the case managers showed greater effectiveness for reducing the percentage of patients that are institutionalised compared to those that provided supervision (odds ratio (OR) = 0.27 versus 0.96 respectively; p = 0.02). There was little

  17. The effectiveness of community-based coordinating interventions in dementia care: a meta-analysis and subgroup analysis of intervention components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Backhouse

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions aiming to coordinate services for the community-based dementia population vary in components, organisation and implementation. In this review we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based care coordinating interventions on health outcomes and investigate whether specific components of interventions influence their effects. Methods We searched four databases from inception to April 2017: Medline, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PsycINFO. This was aided by a search of four grey literature databases, and backward and forward citation tracking of included papers. Title and abstract screening was followed by a full text screen by two independent reviewers, and quality was assessed using the CASP appraisal tool. We then conducted meta-analyses and subgroup analyses. Results A total of 14 randomised controlled trials (RCTs involving 10,372 participants were included in the review. Altogether we carried out 12 meta-analyses and 19 subgroup analyses. Meta-analyses found coordinating interventions showed a statistically significant improvement in both patient behaviour measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI (mean difference (MD = −9.5; 95% confidence interval (CI: −18.1 to −1.0; p = 0.03; number of studies (n = 4; I2 = 88% and caregiver burden (standardised mean difference (SMD = −0.54; 95% CI: -1.01 to −0.07; p = 0.02; n = 5, I2 = 92% compared to the control group. Subgroup analyses found interventions using a case manager with a nursing background showed a greater positive effect on caregiver quality of life than those that used case managers from other professional backgrounds (SMD = 0.94 versus 0.03, respectively; p < 0.001. Interventions that did not provide supervision for the case managers showed greater effectiveness for reducing the percentage of patients that are institutionalised compared to those that provided supervision (odds ratio (OR = 0.27 versus 0

  18. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  19. What Are Normal Metal Ion Levels After Total Hip Arthroplasty? A Serologic Analysis of Four Bearing Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Brian T; Ortiz, Philippe A; Boles, John W; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Padgett, Douglas E; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2017-05-01

    The recent experiences with adverse local tissue reactions have highlighted the need to establish what are normal serum levels of cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and titanium (Ti) after hip arthroplasty. Serum Co, Cr, and Ti levels were measured in 80 nonconsecutive patients with well-functioning unilateral total hip arthro