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Sample records for normal control dogs

  1. Tear ferning in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates tear ferning as an ancillary technique for the evaluation of the canine tear film in normal eyes and eyes affected by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Thirty dogs with KCS and 50 control dogs with normal tear film were evaluated with a full ophthalmoscopic examination and a Schirmer tear test type 1 ...

  2. Ureterocolonic anastomosis in clinically normal dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, E.A.; Walter, M.C.; Goldschmidt, M.H.; Biery, D.N.; Bovee, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Ureterocolonic anastomosis was evaluated in 13 clinically normal dogs. Urinary continence was maintained after surgery, and the procedure was completed without technique errors in all but 2 dogs. Three dogs died within 5 weeks (2 of undetermined causes and 1 of aspiration pneumonia and neurologic disease), and 1 dog was euthanatized 4 months after surgery because of neurologic signs. Two healthy dogs were euthanatized 3 months after surgery for light microscopic evaluation of their kidneys. Five dogs were euthanatized 6 months after surgery for light microscopic evaluation of their kidneys. Gastrointestinal and neurologic disturbances developed in 4 dogs at various postoperative intervals. Plasma ammonia concentration measured in 2 dogs with neurologic signs was increased. Plasma ammonia concentration measured in 5 dogs without neurologic signs was within normal limits. All 5 dogs, in which metabolic acidosis was diagnosed, had high normal or above normal serum chloride concentration. Serum urea nitrogen values were increased after surgery because of colonic absorption of urea. Serum creatinine concentration was increased in 1 dog 6 months after surgery. Individual kidney glomerular filtration rate was reduced in 38% (3/8) of the kidneys from 4 other dogs at 6 months after surgery. Of 5 dogs euthanatized at 3 to 4 months after surgery, 4 had bilateral pyelitis, and 1 had unilateral pyelonephritis. Six months after surgery, pyelonephritis was diagnosed in 40% (4/10) of the kidneys from 5 dogs. The ureterocolonic anastomosis procedure is a salvage procedure that should allow complete cystectomy. However, variable degress of metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, and neurologic disease may result

  3. Platelet cyclooxygenase expression in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, J; Lunsford, K; Mullins, K; Stokes, J; Pinchuk, L; Wills, R; McLaughlin, R; Langston, C; Pruett, S; Mackin, A

    2011-01-01

    Human platelets express both cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Variation in COX-2 expression could be a mechanism for variable response to aspirin. The hypotheses were that circulating canine platelets express COX-1 and COX-2, and that aspirin alters COX expression. The objective was to identify changes in platelet COX expression and in platelet function caused by aspirin administration to dogs. Eight female, intact hounds. A single population, repeated measures design was used to evaluate platelet COX-1 and COX-2 expression by flow cytometry before and after aspirin (10 mg/kg Q12h for 10 days). Platelet function was analyzed via PFA-100(®) (collagen/epinephrine), and urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) (11-dTXB(2)) was measured and normalized to urinary creatinine. Differences in COX expression, PFA-100(®) closure times, and urine 11-dTXB(2 ): creatinine ratio were analyzed before and after aspirin administration. Both COX-1 and COX-2 were expressed in canine platelets. COX-1 mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) increased in all dogs, by 250% (range 63-476%), while COX-2 expression did not change significantly (P = 0.124) after aspirin exposure, with large interindividual variation. PFA-100(®) closure times were prolonged and urine 11-dTXB(2) concentration decreased in all dogs after aspirin administration. Canine platelets express both COX isoforms. After aspirin exposure, COX-1 expression increased despite impairment of platelet function, while COX-2 expression varied markedly among dogs. Variability in platelet COX-2 expression should be explored as a potential mechanism for, or marker of, variable aspirin responsiveness. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Transthoracic lung ultrasound in normal dogs and dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Nathalie; Pariaut, Romain; Pate, Julie; Saelinger, Carley; Kearney, Michael T; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is the most common complication of left-sided heart failure in dogs and early detection is important for effective clinical management. In people, pulmonary edema is commonly diagnosed based on transthoracic ultrasonography and detection of B line artifacts (vertical, narrow-based, well-defined hyperechoic rays arising from the pleural surface). The purpose of this study was to determine whether B line artifacts could also be useful diagnostic predictors for cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs. Thirty-one normal dogs and nine dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema were prospectively recruited. For each dog, presence or absence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema was based on physical examination, heartworm testing, thoracic radiographs, and echocardiography. A single observer performed transthoracic ultrasonography in all dogs and recorded video clips and still images for each of four quadrants in each hemithorax. Distribution, sonographic characteristics, and number of B lines per thoracic quadrant were determined and compared between groups. B lines were detected in 31% of normal dogs (mean 0.9 ± 0.3 SD per dog) and 100% of dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (mean 6.2 ± 3.8 SD per dog). Artifacts were more numerous and widely distributed in dogs with congestive heart failure (P dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  5. In vitro radiation response studies on bone marrow fibroblasts (CFU-F) obtained from normal and chronically irradiated dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.K.; Stitzel, K.A.; Greenberg, B.; Woo, L.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation resistance of bone marrow fibroblasts as measured by their proliferative potential was evaluated in chronically irradiated dogs. Bone marrows were obtained from eight dogs that had been chronically irradiated beginning at 21 days of gestation or after birth and eight age-matched controls. Of these irradiated dogs, four were either preleukemic or exhibited frank acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. The other four were clinically normal but demonstrated abnormalities in their marrow that could be attributed to radiation effects and/or other pathologic changes. Fibroblasts from six of the irradiated dogs were significantly more radioresistant than those of their controls. Five of these six dogs subsequently succumbed to hematopathologic disease, while the two irradiated dogs with normal fibroblasts remained clinically normal, suggesting that this observed radioresistance may be linked to the disease process. (author)

  6. Early radiation changes of normal dog brain following internal and external brain irradiation: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, H.; Maruyama, Y.; Markesbery, W.; Goldstein, S.; Wang, P.; Tibbs, P.; Young, B.; Feola, J.; Beach, L.

    1984-01-01

    To examine radiation-induced changes in the normal brain, internal or external radiation was given to normal dog brain. Seven medium-sized dogs were used in this study. Two dogs were controls and an ice-pick (plastic implant applicator) was placed in the right frontal lobe for about 5 hours but no irradiation. Two dogs underwent Cs-137 brain implantation for 4 and 5 hours, respectively using an ice-pick technique. Two dogs were given internal neutron irradiation using the same technique of intracerebral ice-pick brachytherapy. One dog received an external photon irradiation using 6-Mev Linear Accelerator. Postmortem microscopic examination was made to study the early cerebral changes to irradiation in three dogs: one control with no irradiation; one received intracerebral Cesium implantation; and one external photon irradiation. Vascular change was the most prominent microscopic finding. There were hemorrhage, endothelial proliferation and fibrinoid changes of small vessel wall. Most of the changes were localized in the white matter and the cortex remained intact. Details (CT, NMR and histological studies) are discussed

  7. Collagenase chemonucleolysis: a long term radiographic study in normal dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atilola, M.A.O.; Cockshutt, J.R.; Mclaughlin, R.; Cochrane, S.M.; Pennock, P.W.

    1993-01-01

    Five clinically normal five year old dogs were used in this study. From a randomized table intervertebral discs were each injected with either collagenase or calcium chloride diluent. The surgically exposed cervical discs were injected with 50 units whereas thoracic and lumbar discs were injected under fluoroscopic guidance with 100 units of the enzyme. Postinjection radiographs revealed significant (p ltoreq .05) disc space narrowing in enzyme injected discs. The cervical discs had the highest frequency of radiographic narrowing (87%) followed by the thoracic (70%) and lumbar (53%) discs. Spondylosis deformans developed at the sites of cervical enzyme injections. None of the dogs had neurologic abnormalities one year postinjection

  8. Assessment of tear film osmolarity using the TearLab™ osmometer in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbag, Lionel; Park, Shin Ae; Kass, Philip H; Maggs, David J; Attar, Mayssa; Murphy, Christopher J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of tear osmolarity measured using the TearLab ™ osmometer in normal dogs and to assess its diagnostic potential in dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Beagle dogs; six normal and five with KCS. Tear osmolarity and Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) values were obtained at various times. Normal dogs were assessed for diurnal variation and repeatability and reproducibility of measurements. Dogs with KCS were evaluated before and after 5 months' topical twice-daily therapy with 2% cyclosporine. Mean ± SD tear osmolarity (mOsm/L) was significantly higher in normal dogs (337.4 ± 16.2) than in dogs with KCS before therapy (306.2 ± 18.0; P dogs, tear osmolarity readings were stable during the daytime (P = 0.99). Repeated measurements revealed high variability and typically poor-to-moderate repeatability and reproducibility, although this was improved by taking three successive measurements at each session. Considering combined data from all dogs, a positive correlation existed between STT-1 and tear osmolarity measurements (Pearson's correlation test, P = 0.04, r = 0.62). Canine tear osmolarity as determined by TearLab ™ osmometer was variable, required multiple readings to be informative, and differed from values reported for humans. Dogs with KCS had a lower tear osmolarity than did normal dogs, and this increased following cyclosporine therapy. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. Effect of oral administration of carprofen on intraocular pressure in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekins, J M; Overton, T L; Rankin, A J; Roush, J K

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral administration of carprofen on intraocular pressure in normal dogs. Twelve young adult beagle dogs were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 6) or control (n = 6) groups. After an 11-day acclimation period, the treatment group received approximately 2.2 mg/kg carprofen per os every 12 h for 7 days, and the control group received a placebo gel capsule containing no drug per os every 12 h for 7 days. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured by a rebound tonometer at three time points per day (8 am, 2 pm, and 8 pm) during the acclimation (days 1-11) and treatment (days 12-18) phases and for 48 h (days 19-20) after the completion of treatment. There was no statistically significant change in IOP for either eye in the dogs receiving oral carprofen during the treatment phase (days 12-18). After day 4, no significant daily IOP changes were seen in control group dogs. Carprofen administered orally every 12 h for 7 days had no effect on IOP in normal beagle dogs. An acclimation period to frequent IOP measurements of at least 5 days is necessary to establish baseline IOP values and minimize possible anxiety-related effects on IOP measurements. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. CONTROLLING STREET DOG POPULATION IN MOSCOW

    OpenAIRE

    ZHULENKO A.S.; POLYNOVA G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The issue represents the analysis of the fundamentals and world-wide best practices of controlling street dog population in Moscow and other global cities. Actions proposed to improve the strategy of managing free-ranging dogs in Moscow.Some reasons of increase in number of stray dogs and “pet overpopulation” ware studied. There are ecological types of stray dogs characterized the types of running wild of dogs and foraging (food procurement) strategy of animals.The analysis of the basic princ...

  11. Periodontal disease characterization in dogs with normal renal function or chronic renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Barbudo-Selmi,Glenda Ramalho; Carvalho,Marileda Bonafim; Selmi,André Luis; Martins,Silvio Emílio Cuevas

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate periodontal disease (PD) in dogs with chronic renal failure (CRF) and to compare it to PD in dogs with normal renal function (NRF). Twelve dogs with CRF and 24 dogs with NRF, all presenting dental pocket formation, were compared. In all dogs, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urine specific gravity and total red and white blood cells were determined. A complete oral examination was also performed including evaluation of bacterial plaque, gingivit...

  12. Prevalence of lateral ventricle asymmetry in brain MRI studies of neurologically normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetta, Mauro; De Risio, Luisa; Newton, Richard; Dennis, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetry of the cerebral lateral ventricles is a common finding in cross-sectional imaging of otherwise normal canine brains and has been assumed to be incidental. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the prevalence of ventricular asymmetry in brain MRI studies of normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Brain MRI archives were searched for 100 neurologically normal dogs (Group 1) and 100 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (Group 2). For each dog, asymmetry of the lateral ventricles was subjectively classified as absent, mild, moderate, and severe based on a consensus of two observers who were unaware of group status. Ventricular areas were measured from transverse T1W images at the level of the interthalamic adhesion. An asymmetry ratio was calculated as the ratio of the larger to smaller ventricular transverse area. There was excellent agreement between subjective assessments of ventricular asymmetry and quantitative assessments using asymmetry ratios (k = 0.995). The prevalence of asymmetry was 38% in Group 1 dogs and 44% in Group 2 dogs. Assymmetry was scored as mild in the majority of Group 2 dogs. There was no significant association between presence/absence and degree of ventricular asymmetry vs. dog group, age, gender, or skull conformation. Findings from the current study supported previously published assumptions that asymmetry of the lateral cerebral ventricles is an incidental finding in MRI studies of the canine brain. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  13. Quantitative survey radiographic evaluation of the lumbosacral spine of normal dogs and dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattoon, J.S.; Koblik, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Survey radiographic studies of the lumbosacral region for 93 normal dogs and for 26 dogs with confirmed degenerative lumbosacral stenosis were reviewed. Normal dogs were divided into 9 groups based on age and body weight. For normal dogs, increasing age and body weight were associated with a decreased ability to extend the lumbosacral joint and with increased incidence and severity of spondylosis. Transitional lumbosacral vertebrae and evidence of lumbosacral disc space collapse were very infrequent findings, and the pivot point for lumbosacral motion was consistently centered over the lumbosacral disc space. Relative to an age/weight matched sub-population of normal dogs, dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis had similar mean normalized lumbosacral vertebral canal height, larger mean neutral lumbosacral angle, decreased extension of the lumbosacral joint, increased flexion of the lumbosacral joint, reduced lumbosacral range of motion, increased lumbosacral dynamic malalignment, higher incidence and severity of spondylosis, higher incidence of transitional vertebrae, and higher incidence of lumbosacral disc space collapse. A logistic model based strictly on radiographic parameters was able to discriminate normal from affected dogs with an overall accuracy rate of 86%

  14. Impact of an auditory stimulus on baseline cortisol concentrations in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, T E; Puchot, M L; Cook, A K

    2018-03-19

    Baseline cortisol concentrations are routinely used to screen dogs for hypoadrenocorticism (HOC); this diagnosis must then be confirmed with an ACTH stimulation test. A baseline cortisol concentration less than 55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) is highly sensitive for HOC but lacks specificity, with a false positive rate >20%. Many dogs with nonadrenal disease are therefore subjected to unnecessary additional testing. It was hypothesized that exposure to an unpleasant auditory stimulus before sample collection would improve the specificity of baseline cortisol measurements in dogs with nonadrenal disease by triggering cortisol production. Twenty-eight healthy client-owned dogs were included in the study, with a median age of 4 yr (range 2-9 yr) and a median weight of 20 kg (range 10-27 kg). Dogs were ineligible for inclusion if they had received short- or long-acting glucocorticoids within the previous 30 and 90 d, respectively. Dogs were randomly assigned to group 1 (control; no noise; n = 7), group 2 (brief noise: n = 10), or group 3 (long noise: n = 11). Each dog and owner were directed to a secluded area for approximately 15 min. Group 1 sat in relative quiet, exposed only to the background sounds of a veterinary hospital. Group 2 were exposed to the sound of a wet-dry vacuum in an adjacent hallway during the first 3 min of this period. Group 3 were exposed to random bursts of wet-dry vacuum noise during this period. At the end of the test interval, each dog was escorted to an adjacent examination room for blood collection. Samples were processed within 15 min; serum was frozen at -80°C before measurement of cortisol concentrations. Median serum cortisol concentrations and the proportion of dogs with results dogs with apparently normal adrenal function was therefore rejected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of diaphragmatic motion in normal and diaphragmatic paralyzed dogs using M-mode ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mihyun; Lee, Namsoon; Kim, Ahyoung; Keh, Seoyeon; Lee, Jinsoo; Kim, Hyunwook; Choi, Mincheol

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis in dogs is currently based on fluoroscopic detection of unequal movement between the crura. Bilateral paralysis may be more difficult to confirm with fluoroscopy because diaphragmatic movement is sometimes produced by compensatory abdominal muscle contractions. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method to evaluate diaphragmatic movement using M-mode ultrasonography and to describe findings for normal and diaphragmatic paralyzed dogs. Fifty-five clinically normal dogs and two dogs with diaphragmatic paralysis were recruited. Thoracic radiographs were acquired for all dogs and fluoroscopy studies were also acquired for clinically affected dogs. Two observers independently measured diaphragmatic direction of motion and amplitude of excursion using M-mode ultrasonography for dogs meeting study inclusion criteria. Eight of the clinically normal dogs were excluded due to abnormal thoracic radiographic findings. For the remaining normal dogs, the lower limit values of diaphragmatic excursion were 2.85-2.98 mm during normal breathing. One dog with bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis showed paradoxical movement of both crura at the end of inspiration. One dog with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis had diaphragmatic excursion values of 2.00 ± 0.42 mm on the left side and 4.05 ± 1.48 mm on the right side. The difference between left and right diaphragmatic excursion values was 55%. Findings indicated that M-mode ultrasonography is a relatively simple and objective method for measuring diaphragmatic movement in dogs. Future studies are needed in a larger number of dogs with diaphragmatic paralysis to determine the diagnostic sensitivity of this promising new technique. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  16. Timing of left heart base descent in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy and normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kerry E; Devine, Bryan C; Woolley, Richard; Corcoran, Brendan M; French, Anne T

    2008-01-01

    The identification and assessment of myocardial failure in canine idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is achieved using a variety of two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic techniques. More recently, the availability of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) has raised the potential for development of new ways of more accurately identifying a disease phenotype. Nevertheless, TDI has not been universally adapted to veterinary clinical cardiology primarily because of the lack of information on its utility in diagnosis. We assessed the application of timing of left heart base descent using TDI in the identification of differences between DCM and normal dogs. The times from the onset of the QRS complex on a simultaneously recorded electrocardiograph to the onset (Q--S'), peak (Q--peak S'), and end (Q--end S') of the systolic velocity peak were measured in the interventricular septum (IVS) and the left ventricular free wall. The duration of S' was also calculated. The Q--S' (FW), Q--end S' (FW), and duration S' (FW) were correlated with ejection fraction in the diseased group (P canine DCM and identifies new TDI parameters that can be added to the range of Doppler and echocardiographic parameters used for detecting myocardial failure in the dog.

  17. Periodontal disease characterization in dogs with normal renal function or chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbudo-Selmi Glenda Ramalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate periodontal disease (PD in dogs with chronic renal failure (CRF and to compare it to PD in dogs with normal renal function (NRF. Twelve dogs with CRF and 24 dogs with NRF, all presenting dental pocket formation, were compared. In all dogs, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urine specific gravity and total red and white blood cells were determined. A complete oral examination was also performed including evaluation of bacterial plaque, gingivitis, gingival recession, pocket, calculus, dental mobility, dental loss, and ulcers. These data were used to calculate plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI and periodontal destruction index (PDI. PD was graded as mild, moderate or severe based on the results. Mild, moderate or severe PD was observed in dogs with NRF, whereas dogs with CRF presented either mild or severe PD. Dogs with NRF showed higher involvement of the maxillary teeth, whereas dogs with CRF showed a higher involvement of the mandibular teeth. Plaque index was significantly higher in dogs with NRF. It was concluded that lesion distribution and periodontal disease progression may be altered in dogs with CRF, and gingival inflammatory response differs in dogs with NRF and CRF regarding to the stage of periodontal disease.

  18. Dynamic computed tomography of the pancreas in normal dogs and in a dog with pancreatic insulinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseri, Toshie; Yamada, Kazutaka; Chijiwa, Kousaku; Nishimura, Ryohei; Matsunaga, Satoru; Fujiwara, Reina; Sasaki, Nobuo

    2007-01-01

    To establish optimal imaging conditions for enhanced computed tomography (CT) for canine pancreatic tumors, 10 healthy beagles were subjected to dynamic CT. This technique was then applied to a dog with suspected insulinoma. The changes in mean peak enhancement and the delay time of the aorta and pancreas were determined. In normal beagles, maximal arterial and pancreatic CT enhancement was observed at 15 +/- 2 s (795 +/- 52 Housfield unit [HU]) and 28 +/- 9 s (118 +/- 16HU) after contrast medium injection, respectively. Multiphase enhanced CT was performed in a pug with suspected insulinoma using the CT protocol defined for the normal beagles with some parameters modified; the images were acquired at the arterial (14 s after contrast medium injection), pancreatic (after 28 s), and equilibrium (after 90 s) phases; scanning was followed by exploratory laparotomy. CT images were characterized by an enhanced mass in the left pancreatic lobe at the arterial phase, during which the difference between the CT values of the mass and normal pancreas was the highest. Histopathologic diagnosis of the pancreatic mass was insulinoma. Thus, it appears that enhanced CT imaging can be used to delineate the pancreas from a pancreatic mass, and it may be helpful in deciding the need for surgery.

  19. Phase I dose escalation safety study of nanoparticulate paclitaxel (CTI 52010) in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axiak, Sandra M; Selting, Kim A; Decedue, Charles J; Henry, Carolyn J; Tate, Deborah; Howell, Jahna; Bilof, K James; Kim, Dae Y

    2011-01-01

    Paclitaxel is highly effective in the treatment of many cancers in humans, but cannot be routinely used in dogs as currently formulated due to the exquisite sensitivity of this species to surfactant-solubilizing agents. CTI 52010 is a formulation of nanoparticulate paclitaxel consisting of drug and normal saline. Our objectives were to determine the maximally tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities, and pharmacokinetics of CTI 52010 administered intravenously to normal dogs. Three normal adult hound dogs were evaluated by physical examination, complete blood count, chemistry profile, and urinalysis. Dogs were treated with staggered escalating dosages of CTI 52010 with a 28-day washout. All dogs were treated with a starting dosage of 40 mg/m(2), and subsequent dosages were escalated at 50% (dog 1), 100% (dog 2), or 200% (dog 3) with each cycle, to a maximum of 240 mg/m(2). Dogs were monitored by daily physical assessment and weekly laboratory evaluation. Standard criteria were used to grade adverse events. Plasma was collected at regular intervals to determine pharmacokinetics. Dogs were euthanized humanely, and necropsy was performed one week after the last treatment. The dose-limiting toxicity was grade 4 neutropenia and the maximum tolerated dosage was 120 mg/m(2). Grade 1-2 gastrointestinal toxicity was noted at higher dosages. Upon post mortem evaluation, no evidence of organ (liver, kidney, spleen) toxicity was noted. CTI 52010 was well tolerated when administered intravenously to normal dogs. A starting dosage for a Phase I/II trial in tumor-bearing dogs is 80 mg/m(2).

  20. Ultrasonographic assessment of maternal cardiac function and peripheral circulation during normal gestation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Paula G; Tórtora, Mariana; Rodríguez, Raúl; Arias, Daniel O; Gobello, Cristina

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in cardiac morphology, systolic function and some peripheral hemodynamic parameters during normal pregnancy in dogs. Twenty healthy bitches, 10 pregnant (PG) and 10 non-pregnant controls (CG), were evaluated every 10 days using echocardiography from day 0 of the estrus cycle to parturition or to day 65 for the PG and CG groups, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and uterine artery resistance index (RI) were also assessed. Throughout the study, the shortening fraction and cardiac output increased up to 30% vs. 5% (Pdogs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phase I dose escalation safety study of nanoparticulate paclitaxel (CTI 52010 in normal dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axiak SM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sandra M Axiak1, Kim A Selting1, Charles J Decedue2, Carolyn J Henry1,3, Deborah Tate1, Jahna Howell2, K James Bilof1, Dae Y Kim4 1Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; 2CritiTech Inc, Lawrence, KS, USA; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology; 4Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA Background: Paclitaxel is highly effective in the treatment of many cancers in humans, but cannot be routinely used in dogs as currently formulated due to the exquisite sensitivity of this species to surfactant-solubilizing agents. CTI 52010 is a formulation of nanoparticulate paclitaxel consisting of drug and normal saline. Our objectives were to determine the maximally tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities, and pharmacokinetics of CTI 52010 administered intravenously to normal dogs. Methods: Three normal adult hound dogs were evaluated by physical examination, complete blood count, chemistry profile, and urinalysis. Dogs were treated with staggered escalating dosages of CTI 52010 with a 28-day washout. All dogs were treated with a starting dosage of 40 mg/m2, and subsequent dosages were escalated at 50% (dog 1, 100% (dog 2, or 200% (dog 3 with each cycle, to a maximum of 240 mg/m2. Dogs were monitored by daily physical assessment and weekly laboratory evaluation. Standard criteria were used to grade adverse events. Plasma was collected at regular intervals to determine pharmacokinetics. Dogs were euthanized humanely, and necropsy was performed one week after the last treatment. Results: The dose-limiting toxicity was grade 4 neutropenia and the maximum tolerated dosage was 120 mg/m2. Grade 1–2 gastrointestinal toxicity was noted at higher dosages. Upon post mortem evaluation, no evidence of organ (liver, kidney, spleen toxicity was noted. Conclusion: CTI 52010 was well tolerated when administered intravenously to normal dogs. A starting

  2. Humoral Immunity to AAV-6, 8, and 9 in Normal and Dystrophic Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Smith, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-6, 8, and 9 are promising gene-delivery vectors for testing novel Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model. Humoral immunity greatly influences in vivo AAV transduction. However, neutralizing antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9 have not been systemically examined in normal and dystrophic dogs. To gain information on the seroprevalence of antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9, we measured neutralizing antibody titers using an in vitro transduction inhibition assay. We examined 72 naive serum samples and 26 serum samples obtained from dogs that had received AAV gene transfer. Our data demonstrated that AAV-6 neutralizing antibody was the most prevalent antibody in dogs irrespective of age, gender, disease status (dystrophic or not), and prior parvovirus vaccination history. Surprisingly, high-level anti-AAV-6 antibody was detected at birth in newborn puppies. Further, a robust antibody response was induced in affected, but not normal newborn dogs following systemic AAV gene transfer. Taken together, our data have provided an important baseline on the seroprevalence of AAV-6, 8, and 9 neutralizing antibodies in normal and Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs. These results will help guide translational AAV gene-therapy studies in dog models of muscular dystrophy. PMID:22040468

  3. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo; Lee, Kichang

    2016-09-30

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions.

  4. Normalization of emotion control scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatoolah Tahmasebian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion control skill teaches the individuals how to identify their emotions and how to express and control them in various situations. The aim of this study was to normalize and measure the internal and external validity and reliability of emotion control test. Methods: This standardization study was carried out on a statistical society, including all pupils, students, teachers, nurses and university professors in Kermanshah in 2012, using Williams’ emotion control scale. The subjects included 1,500 (810 females and 690 males people who were selected by stratified random sampling. Williams (1997 emotion control scale, was used to collect the required data. Emotional Control Scale is a tool for measuring the degree of control people have over their emotions. This scale has four subscales, including anger, depressed mood, anxiety and positive affect. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using correlation and Cronbach's alpha tests. Results: The results of internal consistency of the questionnaire reported by Cronbach's alpha indicated an acceptable internal consistency for emotional control scale, and the correlation between the subscales of the test and between the items of the questionnaire was significant at 0.01 confidence level. Conclusion: The validity of emotion control scale among the pupils, students, teachers, nurses and teachers in Iran has an acceptable range, and the test itemswere correlated with each other, thereby making them appropriate for measuring emotion control.

  5. Lithium control during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Jain, D.

    2010-01-01

    Periodic increases in lithium (Li) concentrations in the primary heat transport (PHT) system during normal operation are a generic problem at CANDU® stations. Lithiated mixed bed ion exchange resins are used at stations for pH control in the PHT system. Typically tight chemistry controls including Li concentrations are maintained in the PHT water. The reason for the Li increases during normal operation at CANDU stations such as Pickering was not fully understood. In order to address this issue a two pronged approach was employed. Firstly, PNGS-A data and information from other available sources was reviewed in an effort to identify possible factors that may contribute to the observed Li variations. Secondly, experimental studies were carried out to assess the importance of these factors in order to establish reasons for Li increases during normal operation. Based on the results of these studies, plausible mechanisms/reasons for Li increases have been identified and recommendations made for proactive control of Li concentrations in the PHT system. (author)

  6. Radionuclide angiocardiography in the normal dog: first-pass studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Stokhof, A.A. (Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals)

    1989-11-01

    The first pass of a bolus of radioactivity ({sup 99m}Tc) through the heart and lungs was studied in 27 anaesthetised healthy adult mongrel dogs, using a gamma camera with a computer on-line. Bodyweights ranged from 9 to 60 kg, heart rate from 108 to 150 beats min{sup -1}. Quantitative analysis revealed that the distribution volume (DV) of the labelled blood, the cardiac output (CO), the stroke volume (SV) and pulmonary blood volume (PBV) were almost proportional to the bodyweight. Specific results were: DV 120 ml kg{sup -1}, CO 136 ml kg{sup -1}, SV 1.11 ml kg{sup -1}, PBV 6.9 ml kg{sup -1}. The pulmonary transit time varied between 1.0 and 3.6 seconds. Clinical applicability of the method, including visual inspection of camera images and quantitative analysis of a time-activity curve of the lung, was demonstrated for one dog with an aortic stenosis and another with a left-to-right shunt. (author).

  7. Evaluation of the Dogs, Physical Activity, and Walking (Dogs PAW) Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth A; Ogata, Niwako; Cheng, Ching-Wei

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate physical activity (PA) adoption and maintenance, promotion of innovative population-level strategies that focus on incorporating moderate-intensity lifestyle PAs are needed. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the Dogs, Physical Activity, and Walking intervention, a 3-month, social cognitive theory (SCT), e-mail-based PA intervention. In a longitudinal, repeated-measures design, 49 dog owners were randomly assigned to a control (n = 25) or intervention group (n = 24). The intervention group received e-mail messages (twice weekly for 4 weeks and weekly for 8 weeks) designed to influence SCT constructs of self-efficacy, self-regulation, outcome expectations and expectancies, and social support. At baseline and every 3 months through 1 year, participants completed self-reported questionnaires of individual, interpersonal, and PA variables. Linear mixed models were used to assess for significant differences in weekly minutes of dog walking and theoretical constructs between groups (intervention and control) across time. To test self-efficacy as a mediator of social support for dog walking, tests for mediation were conducted using the bootstrapping technique. With the exception of Month 9, participants in the intervention group accumulated significantly more weekly minutes of dog walking than the control group. On average, the intervention group accumulated 58.4 more minutes (SD = 18.1) of weekly dog walking than the control group (p dog walking. Results indicate that a simple SCT-based e-mail intervention is effective in increasing and maintaining an increase in dog walking among dog owners at 12-month follow-up. In light of these findings, it may be advantageous to design dog walking interventions that focus on increasing self-efficacy for dog walking by fostering social support.

  8. Changes in erythrocyte insulin receptors in normal dogs and keeshond dogs with inheritable, early onset, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaassen, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    Validation of a procedure to evaluate insulin receptors on erythrocytes (RBC-IR) in dogs is described. The specific binding of ( 125 I)iodoinsulin to RBC-IR of normal dogs is significantly greater than binding in keeshonds with an inheritable form of early onset diabetes mellitus. This decreased binding was due to a significant decrease in RBC-IR affinity in the diabetic keeshonds. To determine the effect on RBC-IR, normal dogs were treated with either dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) or prednisone (0.3 mg/kg) for 10 days: concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, and insulin, plus binding characteristics of RBC-IR were determined. In the dexamethasone treated group, plasma glucose concentrations were elevated significantly by day 6 and continued through day 10. Insulin concentrations were elevated significantly by day 3 and remained elevated through day 10. In the prednisone treated group, glucose concentrations were elevated significantly by day 3, while insulin concentrations were elevated significantly by day 8. Maximum binding of RBC-IR was unaffected by prednisone and neither affinities nor receptor numbers were significantly different from day 1. No changes in plasma cortisol concentration were seen. Diabetic keeshonds on daily insulin treatment were removed from exogenous insulin therapy for 48 hours. Significant increases in glucose concentrations were observed, but no significant changes in cortisol, insulin, average receptor binding affinity, or RBC-IR number per cell occurred

  9. Control of Hemotropic Diseases of Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-31

    isolant. Inoculated dogs develo- ped signs of the disease which included fever , weight loss, lym- phodenopathy, corneal opacity, and pancytopenia. Of...in Alsatian dogs infected with E. canis, was not seen in thesedogs; however, 2 dogs devel- oped cutaneous petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages at...included fever , weight loss, lymphadenopathy, - -- 19 corneal opacity, and pancytopenia. Of 3 dogs that died during the course of the study, one died with

  10. Dimensions of the prostatic and membranous urethra in normal male dogs during maximum distension retrograde urethrocystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.; Osborne, C.A.; Tomlinson, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Prostatic and membranous urethral diameter was measured in 24 normal mature male Beagle dogs during maximum distension retrograde urethrocystography. This technique involved retrograde urethral distension by infusion with contrast medium until the urinary bladder was distended and the vesicourethral junction remained opened as observed by fluoroscopy. Lateral and ventro-dorsal radiographs were made during subsequent injections of 5–10 ml of contrast medium. The prostatic urethra was consistently greater in diameter than the membranous urethra. However, the numerical ratio between the prostatic urethral diameter and the membranous urethral diameter varied among these dogs by a factor of 2 at the numerical extremes

  11. [Influence of pacing site on myocardial transmural dispersion of repolarization in intact normal and dilated cardiomyopathy dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Rong; Pu, Jun; Liu, Nian; Lu, Jia-Gao; Zhou, Qiang; Ruan, Yan-Fei; Niu, Hui-Yan; Wang, Lin

    2003-12-25

    In order to verify the hypothesis that left ventricular epicardial (LV-Epi) pacing and biventricular (BiV) pacing unavoidably influence the myocardial electrophysiological characters and may result in high risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmia, we calculated, in both normal mongrel dogs and dog models with rapid-right-ventricular-pacing induced dilated cardiomyopathy congestive heart failure (DCM-CHF), the monophasic action potential duration (MAPD) and the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in intracardiac electrogram together with the QT interval and T(peak)-T(end) (T(p(-T(e)) interval in surface electrocardiogram (ECG) during LV-Epi and BiV pacing, compared with those during right ventricular endocardial (RV-Endo) pacing. To prepare the DCM-CHF dog model, rapid right ventricular pacing (250 bpm) was performed for 23.6+/-2.57 days to the dog. All the normal and DCM-CHF dogs were given radio frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) to His bundle with the guide of X-ray fluoroscopy. After the RFCA procedures, the animals were under the situation of complete atrioventricular block so that the canine heart rates could be voluntarily controlled in the following experiments. After a thoracotomy, ECG and monophasic action potentials (MAP) of subendocardial, subepicardial and mid-layer myocardium were recorded synchronously in 8 normal and 5 DCM-CHF dogs during pacing from endocardium of RV apex (RV-Endo), epicardium of LV anterior wall (LV-Epi) and simultaneously both of the above (biventricular, BiV), the later was similar to the ventricular resynchronization therapy to congestive heart failure patients in clinic. The Tp-Te) meant the interval from the peak to the end of T wave, which was a representative index of TDR in surface ECG. The TDR was defined as the difference between the longest and the shortest MAPD of subendocardial, subepicardial and mid-layer myocardium. Our results showed that in normal dogs, pacing participating of LV (LV-Epi, BiV) prolonged

  12. Feasibility and repeatability of cold and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in normal dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Jessica D.; Williams, Morika D.; Freire, Mila; Griffith, Emily H.; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility and inter-session repeatability of cold and mechanical quantitative sensory testing (QST) were assessed in 24 normal dogs. Cold thermal latencies were evaluated using a thermal probe (0 °C) applied to three pelvic limb sites. Mechanical thresholds were measured using an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer (EVF) and a blunt-probed pressure algometer (PA) applied to the dorsal aspect of the metatarsus. All QST trials were performed with dogs in lateral recumbency. Collection of cold QST data was easy (feasible) in 19/24 (79%) dogs. However, only 18.4%, 18.9% and 13.2% of cold QST trials elicited a response at the medial tibia, third digital pad and plantar metatarsal regions, respectively. Collection of mechanical QST data was easy (feasible) in 20/24 (83%) dogs for both EVF and PA. At consecutive sampling times, approximately 2 weeks apart, the average EVF sensory thresholds were 414 ± 186 g and 379 ± 166 g, respectively, and the average PA sensory thresholds were 1089 ± 414 g and 1028 ± 331 g, respectively. There was no significant difference in inter-session or inter-limb threshold values for either mechanical QST device. The cold QST protocol in this study was achievable, but did not provide consistently quantifiable results. Both mechanical QST devices tested provided repeatable, reliable sensory threshold measurements in normal, client-owned dogs. These findings contribute to the validation of the EVF and PA as tools to obtain repeated QST data over time in dogs to assess somatosensory processing changes. PMID:24268475

  13. Flow cytometric assessment of activation of peripheral blood platelets in dogs with normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żmigrodzka, M; Guzera, M; Winnicka, A

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis. Their activation has not yet been evaluated in healthy dogs with a normal and low platelet count. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of activators on platelet activation in dogs with a normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. 72 clinically healthy dogs were enrolled. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 30 dogs with a normal platelet count, group 2 included 22 dogs with a platelet count between 100 and 200×109/l and group 3 consisted of 20 dogs with a platelet count lower than 100×109/l. Platelet rich-plasma (PRP) was obtained from peripheral blood samples using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K3-EDTA) as anticoagulant. Next, platelets were stimulated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or thrombin, stabilized using procaine or left unstimulated. The expression of CD51 and CD41/CD61 was evaluated. Co-expression of CD41/CD61 and Annexin V served as a marker of platelet activation. The expression of CD41/CD61 and CD51 did not differ between the 3 groups. Thrombin-stimulated platelets had a significantly higher activity in dogs with a normal platelet count than in dogs with asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Procaine inhibited platelet activity in all groups. In conclusion, activation of platelets of healthy dogs in vitro varied depending on the platelet count and platelet activator.

  14. Size and demography pattern of the domestic dog population in Bhutan: Implications for dog population management and disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinzin, Karma; Tenzin, Tenzin; Robertson, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the demography of domestic dogs is essential to plan the dog population management and rabies control program. In this study, we estimated the owned and stray dog population and the proportion of owned dogs that are free-roaming in Bhutan. For this, a cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in six districts (both urban and rural areas) and two border towns in southern Bhutan. The population estimation was done by extrapolation of the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person, whilst mark-resight survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of owned dogs that were free-roaming. A total of 1,301 (rural:585; urban:716) respondents (one per household) were interviewed of which 173 households (24.4%) in urban areas owned 237 dogs whilst 238 households (40.8%) in rural areas owned 353 dogs. The mean number of dogs per dog owning household was estimated to be 1.44 (urban:1.37 dogs; rural:1.48 dogs) and dogs per household was estimated to be 0.45 (urban:0.33; rural:0.60). The dog: human ratio was 1:16.30 (0.06 dogs per person) in urban areas and 1:8.43 (0.12 dogs per person) in rural areas. The total owned dog population based on the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person were estimated to be 65,312 and 71,245 in the country, respectively. The male: female ratio of the owned dog was 1.31:1 in urban areas and 2.05:1 in rural areas. Majority of the dogs were local non-descript breeds in both urban (60.8%) and rural (78%) areas, and the most common source was acquisition from friends or family (44.7%). The stray dog population in Bhutan was estimated to be 48,379 (urban:22,772; rural:25,607). Of the total estimated owned dog population in the two border towns, the proportion that were found free-roaming was estimated to be 31%. The different dog population estimation methods were compared and discussed in this paper. This study generated baseline data on the demographic patterns of the owned and stray dogs in Bhutan which

  15. Small intestinal emptying time in normal Beagle dogs: a contrast radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Morgan, J.P.; Atilola, M.A.O.; Muhumuza, L.

    1986-01-01

    Gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit time in dogs are frequently discussed. However, it is often of interest to the radiologist to know what normal small intestinal emptying times should be. A total of 15 upper gastrointestinal studies was performed on five internal parasite-free, normal, standard Beagle dogs with three studies on each dog, 6 days apart. The ages and weights of the dogs ranged from 2–8 years and from 12.4–13.7 kg, respectively. Following 24-hour fasting, a dose of 10 ml/kg bw of 60% wt/vol barium sulfate suspension was administered through a stomach tube. Then, sequential radiographs were made at 30-minute intervals until the entire contrast medium column was in the colon and cecum. The mean, standard deviation, and range of gastric emptying time, small intestinal transit time, and small intestinal emptying time were 76 ± 16.7 (30–120), 73 ± 16.4 (30–120), and 214 ± 25.1 (180–300) minutes, respectively. This study offers the possibility that small intestinal emptying time may be used to further evaluate patients with suspected small intestinal partial obstruction, pseudo-obstruction, ischemia, or lymphangiectasia

  16. Delayed growth in two German shepherd dog littermates with normal serum concentrations of growth hormone, thyroxine, and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, J F; Miller, C L; Cummings, J F; Lothrop, C D

    1990-01-01

    Four German Shepherd Dogs from a litter of 10 were evaluated because of postnatal onset of proportionate growth stunting that clinically resembled well-documented hypopituitary dwarfism in that breed. Although 2 pups had histologic evidence of hypopituitarism, the remaining 2 pups had normal serum growth hormone concentration and adrenocorticotropin secretory capability, and normal adrenal function test and thyroid function study results. Furthermore, the initially stunted German Shepherd Dogs grew at a steady rate until at 1 year, body weight and shoulder height approximated normal measurements. Seemingly, delayed growth in these pups may represent one end of a clinical spectrum associated with hypopituitarism in German Shepherd Dogs.

  17. Computed tomography of the dog's brain: normal aspects and anatomical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorigados, C.A.B.; Pinto, A.C.B.F.

    2013-01-01

    Normal tomographic images of dog's heads were obtained, aimed to familiarize them with the normal aspects of the brain and correlate these findings with the relevant anatomy of the region studied. Several anatomical structures, such as the parenchyma of the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, the longitudinal fissure, the ventricular system, the cerebellum, the olfactory bulb, the corpus callosum, diencephalon, the pons, the medulla oblongata and the chiasmatic sulcus were directly identified or were related to neighboring structures which helped in their identification. (author)

  18. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (pdogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal dosimetry studies of ultrasonically induced hyperthermia in normal dog brain and in experimental brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britt, R.H.; Pounds, D.W.; Stuart, J.S.; Lyons, B.E.; Saxer, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    In a series of 16 acute experiments on pentobarbital anesthetized dogs, thermal distributions generated by ultrasonic heating using a 1 MHz PZT transducer were compared with intensity distributions mapped in a test tank. Relatively flat distributions from 1 to 3 cm have been mapped in normal dog brain using ''shaped'' intensity distributions generated from ultrasonic emission patterns which are formed by the interaction between compressional, transverse and flexural modes activated within the crystal. In contrast, these same intensity distributions generated marked temperature variations in 3 malignant brain tumors presumably due to variations in tumor blood flow. The results of this study suggest that a practical clinical system for uniform heating of large tumor volumes with varying volumes and geometries is not an achievable goal. The author's laboratory is developing a scanning ultrasonic rapid hyperthermia treatment system which will be able to sequentially heat small volume of tumor tissue either to temperatures which will sterilize tumor or to a more conventional thermal dose. Time-temperature studies of threshold for thermal damage in normal dog brain are currently in progress

  20. Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Connect With Us New & Noteworthy Dogs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Diseases ... healthy. Diseases The most common diseases associated with dogs that can cause human illness are: Campylobacteriosis ( Campylobacter ...

  1. Cellular proliferation and infiltration following interstitial irradiation of normal dog brain is altered by an inhibitor of polyamine synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fike, John R.; Gobbel, Glenn T.; Chou, Dean; Wijnhoven, Bas P. L.; Bellinzona, Mattia; Nakagawa, Minoru; Seilhan, Theresa M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to quantitatively define proliferative and infiltrative cell responses after focal 125 I irradiation of normal brain, and to determine the effects of an intravenous infusion of α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) on those responses. Methods and Materials: Adult beagle dogs were irradiated using high activity 125 I sources. Saline (control) or DFMO (150 mg/kg/day) was infused for 18 days starting 2 days before irradiation. At varying times up to 8 weeks after irradiation, brain tissues were collected and the cell responses in and around the focal lesion were quantified. Immunohistochemical stains were used to label astrocytes (GFAP), vascular endothelial cells (Factor VIII), polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs; MAC 387) and cells synthesizing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (BrdU). Cellular responses were quantified using a histomorphometric analysis. Results: After radiation alone, cellular events included a substantial acute inflammatory response followed by increased BrdU labeling and progressive increases in numbers of capillaries and astrocytes. α-Difluoromethylornithine treatment significantly affected the measured cell responses. As in controls, an early inflammatory response was measured, but after 2 weeks there were more PMNs/unit area than in controls. The onset of measurable BrdU labeling was delayed in DFMO-treated animals, and the magnitude of labeling was significantly reduced. Increases in astrocyte and vessel numbers/mm 2 were observed after a 2-week delay. At the site of implant, astrocytes from DFMO-treated dogs were significantly smaller than those from controls. Conclusions: There is substantial cell proliferation and infiltration in response to interstitial irradiation of normal brain, and these responses are significantly altered by DFMO treatment. Although the precise mechanisms by which DFMO exerts its effects in this model are not known, the results from this study suggest that modification of radiation

  2. Comparison of radiographic and anatomic femoral varus angle measurements in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, Jennifer K; Radecki, Steven V; Park, Richard D; Palmer, Ross H

    2008-01-01

    To determine if the clinically practiced method of radiographic femoral varus angle (R-FVA) measurement is repeatable, reproducible, and accurate. Radiographic and anatomic study. ANIMALS/SAMPLE POPULATION: Normal Walker hound cadavers (n=5) and femora (n=10). Cadavers were held in dorsally-recumbent and torso-elevated positions as 3 craniocaudal radiographs were made of each femur, by each of 2 different technicians. Femora were then harvested for direct measurement of anatomic femoral varus angle (A-FVA). R-FVA was measured on each radiograph by each of 3 examiners on 3 separate occasions. Intra-observer (repeatability) and inter-observer (reproducibility) variance in R-FVA measurement and the strength of relationship between R-FVA and A-FVA (accuracy) were determined. Mean (+/-SD) A-FVA was 5.2+/-2.1 degrees (range, 2.4-8.2 degrees). Mean (+/-SD) R-FVA was 5.8+/-1.0 degrees (range, 2.7-9.6 degrees). Intra-observer variance (range: 11-16%) and inter-observer variance (16%) were acceptable. The strength of relationship between measured R-FVA and A-FVA (maximum adjusted R(2)hounds. The detected inaccuracy may be real or the result of a selection bias for normal dogs obscuring the true relationship. R-FVA may not be an accurate method of femoral varus measurement in dogs with A-FVA10 degrees), the procedure would not have been erroneously performed in any of the normal dogs of this study.

  3. A review of official data obtained from dog control records generated by the dog control service of county cork, Ireland during 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no peer reviewed data on dog control records from an official agency in Ireland. In order to address this, a total of 2,669 official dog control service records generated during 2007 by Cork County Council dog control service were reviewed. Results Over 70 percent of records related to unwanted dogs and dogs not under their owners control. Stray dogs were collected by the service regularly throughout the year but with notable increase in voluntary surrenders by owners from January through to April. The majority of dogs collected or surrendered were male (2:1 ratio), of medium size, described as having a friendly temperament and were not wearing a neck collar. The Crossbreed and Greyhound breeds were more frequently collected as strays, while Greyhounds and German Shepherds were more frequently voluntarily surrendered by their owner. Restricted breeds such as Pit Bull terriers, German Shepherds and Rottweilers were more frequently reported by members of the public for aggressive behaviour while the only restricted breed reported for biting or snapping was the German Shepherd. Conclusions Routine recording of dog control services in County Cork provide data on responsible dog ownership including the licensing of breeds, and surrender of owned dogs and the collection of stray dogs. Data capture and utilisation of dog control services by local authorities has potential to inform policy on responsible dog ownership and education programmes. PMID:22681751

  4. Degree and duration of corneal anesthesia after topical application of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in ophthalmically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, Jean-Yves; Michel, Julien; Regnier, Alain

    2013-10-01

    To assess the anesthetic efficacy and local tolerance of topically applied 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution to in dogs and compare its effects with those of 1% tetracaine solution. 34 ophthalmically normal Beagles. Dogs were assigned to 2 groups, and baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) was measured bilaterally with a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer. Dogs of group 1 (n = 22) received a single drop of 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution in one eye and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) in the contralateral eye. Dogs of group 2 (n = 12) received a single drop of 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution in one eye and 1% tetracaine ophthalmic solution in the contralateral eye. The CTT of each eye was measured 1 and 5 minutes after topical application and then at 5-minute intervals until 75 minutes after topical application. CTT changes over time differed significantly between oxybuprocaine-treated and control eyes. After instillation of oxybuprocaine, maximal corneal anesthesia (CTT = 0) was achieved within 1 minute, and CTT was significantly decreased from 1 to 45 minutes, compared with the baseline value. No significant difference in onset, depth, and duration of corneal anesthesia was found between oxybuprocaine-treated and tetracaine-treated eyes. Conjunctival hyperemia and chemosis were detected more frequently in tetracaine-treated eyes than in oxybuprocaine-treated eyes. Topical application of oxybuprocaine and tetracaine similarly reduced corneal sensitivity in dogs, but oxybuprocaine was less irritating to the conjunctiva than was tetracaine.

  5. The relative contribution of insulin secretory capacity, insulin action, and incretins to metabolic control after islet transplantation in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, MPM; van Suylichem, PTR; Guicherit, OR; Frolich, M; Lemkes, HHPJ; Gooszen, HG

    Adequate metabolic control is central to the concept of islet transplantation, but has received limited attention. We studied metabolic control in 8 dogs at 6-9 months after intrasplenic autografting of similar to 25% of the normal mass islets - as compared to 30 controls. A similar posttransplant

  6. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND NORMAL SALINE SOLUTIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ENDOTOXIC SHOCK IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ZAFAR, G. MUHAMMAD, M. H. HUSSAIN, T. AHMAD, A. YOUSAF AND I. SARFARAZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was contemplated to determine the comparative beneficial effects of hypertonic saline solution and sterile saline solution in induced endotoxic shock in dogs. For this purpose, 12 healthy Mongrel dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B. All the animals were induced endotoxaemia by slow intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxins 0111:B4. Group A was treated with normal saline solution @ 90 ml/kg BW, while group B was given hypertonic saline solution @ 4 ml/kg BW, followed by normal saline solution @ 10 ml/kg BW. Different parameters were observed for evaluation of these fluids including clinical and haematological parameters, serum electrolytes, mean arterial pressure, and blood gases at different time intervals up to 24 hours post treatments. After infusion of respective fluids, all parameters returned to baseline values in both the groups but group B showed better results than group A except bicarbonates, which better recovered in group A. Thus, it was concluded that a small-volume of hypertonic saline solution could be effectively used in reversing the endotoxaemia. Moreover, it provides a rapid and inexpensive resuscitation from endotoxic shock.

  7. Dogs' reaction to inequity is affected by inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucks, Désirée; Range, Friederike; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2017-11-17

    Inequity aversion is thought to act as a mechanism to ensure cooperation and has been studied in many different species, consistently revealing inter-individual variation. Inhibitory control has been proposed to act as one factor responsible for this variation since individuals need to inhibit performing the required action and/or refuse rewards in order to exhibit inequity aversion. Here, we investigated if dogs' sensitivity to inequity is affected by their capacity for inhibitory control, assessed in a test battery and questionnaire. Overall, dogs showing high compulsivity scores (i.e. repetitive behaviours independent of feedback) were more motivated to participate in the inequity task independent of the rewarding scheme. Dogs were more sensitive to inequity and individual contrast if they exhibited a slower decision speed in the inhibition tasks. Furthermore, less persistent and more impulsive dogs were more sensitive to reward inequity, potentially due to having a lower tolerance level for frustration. Results indicate that aspects of inhibitory control can explain the variation in dogs' inequity response, highlighting one of the mechanisms underlying responses to inequity. Emphasising the importance to design paradigms, which allow us to disentangle capacities to recognise inequity from the inability to react to it due to poor inhibitory control abilities.

  8. Radiographic anatomy and technique for arthrography of the cubital joint in clinically normal dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, J.E.; Carpenter, L.G.; Park, R.D.; Steyn, P.F.; Schwarz, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for arthrography of the cubital joint in clinically normal large-breed dogs was developed with the objective of improving visualization of the articular margin of the medial coronoid process. A lateral approach to the cubital joint for injection of contrast medium was selected. Arthrography of 24 cubital joints was performed by using 14 dogs. Twelve combinations of iodinated contrast medium, consisting of various concentrations (3) and volumes (4), were used. Two sets of arthrograms for each of the 12 combinations of contrast medium were obtained. Five radiographic views were used for each set. All arthrograms were examined by 3 evaluators, and each articular surface received a numerical rating for how well it could be seen in each view. Results of the evaluation indicated that low volumes of contrast medium were preferable to high volumes, with 2 ml providing the best visualization. Concentration of iodine seemed less important than did volume. The numerical ratings also indicated that the articular margin of the coronoid process was clearly observed a maximum of only 24% of the time on a slightly supinated mediolateral projection. The articular margins of the head of the radius, trochlea humeri, and trochlear notch were well visualized > 90% of the time. Arthrography of the cubital joint was technically easy to perform, and complications were not encountered, but arthrographic anatomy of the cubital joint is complex. Potential uses for arthrography of the cubital joint include diagnosis of osteochondrosis, intraarticular fragments, and joint capsule ruptures

  9. Insulin-producing Cells from Adult Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Could Control Chemically Induced Diabetes in Dogs: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Mahmoud M; Zakaria, Mahmoud M; Refaie, Ayman F; Ismail, Amani M; Khater, Sherry M; Ashamallah, Sylvia A; Azzam, Maha M; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2018-01-01

    Ten mongrel dogs were used in this study. Diabetes was chemically induced in 7 dogs, and 3 dogs served as normal controls. For each diabetic dog, 5 million human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells/kg were differentiated to form insulin-producing cells using a trichostatin-based protocol. Cells were then loaded in 2 TheraCyte capsules which were transplanted under the rectus sheath. One dog died 4 d postoperatively from pneumonia. Six dogs were followed up with for 6 to 18 mo. Euglycemia was achieved in 4 dogs. Their glucose tolerance curves exhibited a normal pattern demonstrating that the encapsulated cells were glucose sensitive and insulin responsive. In the remaining 2 dogs, the fasting blood sugar levels were reduced but did not reach normal values. The sera of all transplanted dogs contained human insulin and C-peptide with a negligible amount of canine insulin. Removal of the transplanted capsules was followed by prompt return of diabetes. Intracytoplasmic insulin granules were seen by immunofluorescence in cells from the harvested capsules. Furthermore, all pancreatic endocrine genes were expressed. This study demonstrated that the TheraCyte capsule or a similar device can provide adequate immunoisolation, an important issue when stem cells are considered for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Effect of implanted radioactive 125I seeds on normal tissue structures of bronchus, esophagus, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein and alveolus in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Liangchen; Han Zhenguo; Yang Bin; Heersitai

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of implanted radioactive 125 I seeds on normal tissue structures of bronchus, esophagus, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein and alveolus in dogs. Methods: Nine healthy male dogs weighing 17-21 kg were randomly divided into three groups: 30 d, 60 d experimental groups and control group. Radioactive 125 I seeds (3.7 x 10 7 Bg, 1.0 mCi) were implanted into the sides of bronchus, esophagus, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein respectively, the samples of bronchus, esophagus, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein were taken 30 and 60 d after transplantation, HE staining was used to observe the pathologic changes of the tissues under light microscope. Results: The damages of normal bronchus, esophagus, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein and alveolus after radioactive 125 I seeds implantation in 30 d group were weaker than those in control group and 60 d group, there were no complications such as perforation, hemorrhage, necrosis, etc. Histopathological score indicated that the scores of bronchus, esophagus and alveolar in 30 d group and 60 d group were higher than those in control group (P 0.05); there was no significant difference in histopathological score of pulmonary vein among all groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: The implanted radioactive 125 I seeds can damage all kinds of tissues at different degrees, but this kind of damage is reversible, the dog may repair the damage through its own repair ability, its clinical application is safe. (authors)

  11. Effects of premedication with oral gabapentin on intraocular pressure changes following tracheal intubation in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbolova, Alexandra; Ghaffari, Masoud Selk; Capik, Igor

    2017-09-19

    Gabapentin is an antiepileptic drug widely approved as an add-on therapy for epilepsy treatment in human and dogs. There is a clinical impression that gabapentin is a suitable drug which attenuates the IOP elevation associated with tracheal intubation in humans. The present study performed to determine the effects of oral gabapentin on intraocular pressure (IOP) changes following tracheal intubation in dogs. Twenty adult healthy dogs were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups. Dogs in the treatment group received oral gabapentin (50 mg/kg) 2 h before induction of anesthesia and dogs in the control group received oral gelatin capsule placebo at the same time. The dogs were anesthetized with propofol 6 mg/kg, and anesthesia was maintained with a constant infusion of 0.2 mg/kg/min of propofol for 20 min. IOP were measured immediately before induction and then repeated immediately after induction, as well as 5 min, 10 min and 15 min following tracheal intubation in both groups. IOP was significantly higher immediately after induction, and 5 min after tracheal intubation when compared with IOP reading before induction in the control group. There was no statistically significant change in IOPs immediately after induction, and 5 min after tracheal intubation in comparison to the values before induction in the treatment group. Based on the findings of this study, preanesthetic oral administration of gabapentin significantly prevents an increase in the IOP associated with tracheal intubation in dogs anesthetized with propofol.

  12. Investigation of pharmacokinetic parameters of tiamulin after intramuscular and subcutaneous administration in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laber, G

    1988-03-01

    Kinetic variables for tiamulin in the normal dog have been determined. Serum concentrations of tiamulin were compared after intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of a single dose of tiamulin. Following a single i.m. dose of 10 mg/kg body weight, the compound was calculated to have a Cmax = 0.61 +/- 0.15 micrograms/ml, a Tmax = 6 h and a t1/2 = 4.7 +/- 1.4 h. Tiamulin showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics when given as a single s.c. dose of either 10 mg or 25 mg/kg body weight. For the lower dose, the values Cmax = 1.55 +/- 0.11 micrograms/ml, Tmax = 8 h and t1/2 = 4.28 +/- 0.18 h were obtained. For the higher dose Cmax = 3.14 +/- 0.04 micrograms/ml, Tmax = 8 h and t1/2 = 12.4 +/- 3.4 h were calculated. When tiamulin was administered subcutaneously at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg body weight, higher and better maintained serum levels were achieved than those following i.m. administration. After repeated s.c. doses no significant accumulation of tiamulin occurred. Assuming that a continuous effective serum concentration is necessary throughout the course of therapy, these data would indicate that tiamulin should be given every 24 h.

  13. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) enhances vasodilatation by atrial natriuretic peptide in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Beppu, Shintaro; Asanuma, Toshihiko; Seward, James B; Khandheria, Bijoy K

    2007-12-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase type 5, which might enhance the vasorelaxant and natriuretic actions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in patients with heart failure. The objective of this study was to examine the combined effect of Viagra on hemodynamic changes during infusion of exogenous ANP. Healthy male beagles were used to assess systemic blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), and plasma levels of cGMP. After hemodynamic variables were measured, 0.1 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) of ANP was given during this study. One hour after initiating infusion of ANP, 2 mg/kg of sildenafil citrate or vehicle was given orally via a nasogastric tube. Hemodynamic changes were measured before and 1 h after these administrations. Mean systemic and PAP decreased during infusion of ANP, and further decreased after sildenafil citrate administration, however, mean systemic blood pressure decreased within 10 mmHg. Plasma levels of cGMP also increased after sildenafil citrate administration. In normal dogs, sildenafil citrate enhances the vasodilator effect of ANP by increasing the cGMP level, however, the concomitant use of sildenafil citrate with ANP will not induce severe hypotension.

  14. The effects of topical diclofenac, topical flurbiprofen, and humidity on corneal sensitivity in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbandt, Daniel M; Labelle, Amber L; Mitchell, Mark A; Hamor, Ralph E

    2017-03-01

    To determine the immediate and chronic effects of topical 0.1% diclofenac and 0.03% flurbiprofen on corneal sensitivity in normal canine eyes. Eighteen normal, nonbrachycephalic dogs. A prospective, randomized, masked, crossover study was performed. To determine the immediate effects associated with treatment, the study drug was instilled into the eye every 5 min for five doses, and corneal sensitivity of treated and untreated eyes was obtained prior to treatment and every 15 min post-treatment for 60 min. To determine the chronic effects, the study drug was instilled every 12 h for 30 days, and corneal sensitivity of treated and untreated eyes was obtained prior to treatment on days 0 and 30. A washout period of at least 30 days occurred between drug crossover. Ambient temperature and humidity were measured throughout the study. After multiple instillations, there was no difference in corneal sensitivity between eyes over time for diclofenac (P = 0.67) or flurbiprofen (P = 0.54), with a median sensitivity of 25 mm (1.8 g/mm 2 ). After chronic dosing, there was no difference in corneal sensitivity between eyes over time for diclofenac (P = 0.82) or flurbiprofen (P = 0.56), with a median sensitivity of 35 mm (1.0 g/mm 2 ). Decreasing ambient humidity was associated with an increase in sensitivity measurements (P = 0.0001). Neither diclofenac nor flurbiprofen had an effect on corneal sensitivity after multiple-drops or twice-daily dosing for 30 days. Ambient humidity may have an effect on corneal sensitivity measurements, with a longer filament length eliciting a blink response at lower humidity. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Uptake of Rabies Control Measures by Dog Owners in Flores Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C. M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies has been a serious public health threat in Flores Island, Indonesia since it was introduced in 1997. To control the disease, annual dog vaccination campaigns have been implemented to vaccinate all dogs free of charge. Nevertheless, the uptake rate of the vaccination campaigns has been low. The objective of this paper is to identify risk factors associated with the uptake of rabies control measures by individual dog owners in Flores Island. Methodology/principal findings A total of 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the Sikka and Manggarai regencies were interviewed regarding their socio-demographic factors, knowledge of rabies, and their uptake of rabies control measures. The majority of dog owners surveyed (>90%) knew that rabies is a fatal disease and that it can be prevented. Moreover, 68% of the dog owners had a high level of knowledge about available rabies control measures. Fifty-two percent of the dog owners had had at least one of their dogs vaccinated during the 2012 vaccination campaign. Vaccination uptake was significantly higher for dog owners who resided in Sikka, kept female dogs for breeding, had an income of more than one million Rupiah, and had easy access to their village. The most important reasons not to join the vaccination campaign were lack of information about the vaccination campaign schedule (40%) and difficulty to catch the dog during the vaccination campaign (37%). Conclusions/significance Dog owners in Flores Island had a high level of knowledge of rabies and its control, but this was not associated with uptake of the 2012 vaccination campaign. Geographical accessibility was one of the important factors influencing the vaccination uptake among dog owners. Targeted distribution of information on vaccination schedules and methods to catch and restrain dogs in those villages with poor accessibility may increase vaccination uptake in the future. PMID:25782019

  16. Potential fields on the ventricular surface of the exposed dog heart during normal excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisi, G; Macchi, E; Baruffi, S; Spaggiari, S; Taccardi, B

    1983-06-01

    We studied the normal spread of excitation on the anterior and posterior ventricular surface of open-chest dogs by recording unipolar electrograms from an array of 1124 electrodes spaced 2 mm apart. The array had the shape of the ventricular surface of the heart. The electrograms were processed by a computer and displayed as epicardial equipotential maps at 1-msec intervals. Isochrone maps also were drawn. Several new features of epicardial potential fields were identified: (1) a high number of breakthrough points; (2) the topography, apparent widths, velocities of the wavefronts and the related potential drop; (3) the topography of positive potential peaks in relation to the wavefronts. Fifteen to 24 breakthrough points were located on the anterior, and 10 to 13 on the posterior ventricular surface. Some were in previously described locations and many others in new locations. Specifically, 3 to 5 breakthrough points appeared close to the atrioventricular groove on the anterior right ventricle and 2 to 4 on the posterior heart aspect; these basal breakthrough points appeared when a large portion of ventricular surface was still unexcited. Due to the presence of numerous breakthrough points on the anterior and posterior aspect of the heart which had not previously been described, the spread of excitation on the ventricular surface was "mosaic-like," with activation wavefronts spreading in all directions, rather than radially from the two breakthrough points, as traditionally described. The positive potential peaks which lay ahead of the expanding wavefronts moved along preferential directions which were probably related to the myocardial fiber direction.

  17. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the Manggarai and Sikka regencies of Flores Island, Indonesia. Questionnaires were administered to 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the two regencies. Ninety-six percent of the dog owners intended to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The intention decreased to 24% when dog owners were asked to pay a vaccination fee equal to the market price of the vaccine (Rp 18.000 per dose=US$2). Approximately 81% of the dog owners intended to keep their dogs inside their house or to leash them day and night during a period of at least three months in case of an incidence of rabies in the dog population within their village. Only 40% intended to cull their dogs in case of a rabies incident within their village. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the attitude item 'vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans', and the perceived behavioural control items 'availability of time' and 'ability to confine dogs' were shown to be significantly associated with the intention to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The attitude item 'culling dogs reduces rabies cases in humans' was significantly associated with the intention to participate in a culling measure. The attitude item 'leashing of dogs reduces human rabies cases' and perceived behavioural controls 'availability of time' and 'money to buy a leash' were associated with the intention to leash dogs during a rabies outbreak. As the attitude variables were often significantly associated with intention to participate in a rabies control measure, an educational rabies campaign focusing on the benefit of rabies control measures is expected to increase the intention of dog owners to

  18. An investigation of mechanical nociceptive thresholds in dogs with hind limb joint pain compared to healthy control dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L K; Whay, H R; Murrell, J C

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of osteoarthritis (OA) on somatosensory processing in dogs using mechanical threshold testing. A pressure algometer was used to measure mechanical thresholds in 27 dogs with presumed hind limb osteoarthritis and 28 healthy dogs. Mechanical thresholds were measured at the stifles, radii and sternum, and were correlated with scores from an owner questionnaire and a clinical checklist, a scoring system that quantified clinical signs of osteoarthritis. The effects of age and bodyweight on mechanical thresholds were also investigated. Multiple regression models indicated that, when bodyweight was taken into account, dogs with presumed osteoarthritis had lower mechanical thresholds at the stifles than control dogs, but not at other sites. Non-parametric correlations showed that clinical checklist scores and questionnaire scores were negatively correlated with mechanical thresholds at the stifles. The results suggest that mechanical threshold testing using a pressure algometer can detect primary, and possibly secondary, hyperalgesia in dogs with presumed osteoarthritis. This suggests that the mechanical threshold testing protocol used in this study might facilitate assessment of somatosensory changes associated with disease progression or response to treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in dog with chronic enteropathies: double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Simona; Fracassi, Federico; Bresciani, Francesca; Galuppi, Roberta; Diana, Alessia; Linta, Nikolina; Bettini, Giuliano; Morini, Maria; Pietra, Marco

    2018-03-03

    Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat acute and chronic enteropathies in humans, but to date, no studies have evaluated the use of this yeast in dogs. The current study, a prospective non-randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, evaluated the effects of S boulardii in healthy dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathies (CE). Four healthy dogs and 20 dogs with CE were included. In healthy dogs, S boulardii was administered for 10 days. Possible short-term adverse effects were recorded, and quantitative stool cultures for yeasts were performed. In dogs with CE, S boulardii or a placebo was administered in addition to standard treatment protocols. Canine Chronic Enteropathy Clinical Activity Index, abdominal ultrasonography, gastroenteroscopy and histology were performed at the time of diagnosis and after 60 days of treatment. In healthy dogs, S boulardii reached a steady state in five days and was completely eliminated on day 4 after administration. No short-term side effects were seen. Clinical activity index, stool frequency, stool consistency and body condition score improved significantly in dogs with CE receiving S boulardii versus the placebo. In conclusion, S boulardii can be safely used in dogs with CE and seems to achieve better control of clinical signs than standard therapy alone. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C.M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the

  1. Half-body radiotherapy. Evaluation of the technique in normal dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, E.J.; Fitzpatrick, P.J.; Norris, A.M.; Mosseri, A.; Rider, W.D.; Binnington, A.G.; Baur, A.; Valli, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    Eight healthy mongrel dogs were treated with half-body irradiation (HBI) in a pilot study to evaluate the technique and radiotolerance of different organs. Cranial and caudal half-body fields were established using the 13th thoracic vertebra as the dividing point. Under general anesthesia, either 7 or 8 Gray (Gy) were delivered to one half of the body using opposing radiation portals. The other half of the body was similarly treated 28 days later. The dogs were monitored for 12 months. Significant radiation effects included transient bone marrow suppression and radiation sickness. There were no serious or life-threatening problems, but the 8 Gy group consistently showed more severe clinical signs and histologic changes than the 7 Gy group. Total body irradiation in two fractions of 7 or 8 Gy given 1 month apart appears to be a safe treatment that can be developed for therapy in veterinary oncology

  2. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs with osteosarcoma do not differ from those of age- and weight-matched control dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Jennifer L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Hauck, Marlene L

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D concentrations show an inverse correlation with incidence of certain tumors in people and dogs. Additionally, human osteosarcoma has been associated with dysregulation of vitamin D-dependent pathways. The study objective was to compare serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 in 20 dogs with osteosarcoma to age- and weight-matched control dogs. We hypothesized that dogs with osteosarcoma would have lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D than control dogs. The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 concentrations for dogs with osteosarcoma and matched-controls were 34.95 ng/mL and 33.85 ng/mL, respectively (P = 0.784). Based on these data, 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency might not be important in the pathogenesis of canine osteosarcoma. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, John T; Fossum, Theresa W; Bahr, Anne M; Miller, Matthew W; Edwards, John F

    2003-11-01

    To devise a technique for gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava in dogs and determine effects of complete occlusion of the caudal vena cava. 8 mixed-breed hounds that weighed between 25 and 30 kg. Baseline evaluation of dogs included serum biochemical analyses and determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with dynamic renal scintigraphy and plasma clearance analysis. An occluder was placed around the vena cava in the region cranial to the renal veins. The occluder was attached to a vascular access port. The vena cava was gradually occluded over 2 weeks. The GFR was measured every 2 weeks after surgery, and venograms were performed every 3 weeks after surgery. Blood samples were collected every 48 hours for the first week and then weekly thereafter to measure BUN and creatinine concentrations and activities of alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine kinase. Dogs were euthanatized 6 weeks after surgery, and tissues were submitted for histologic examination. The GFR and biochemical data were compared with baseline values. Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava was easily and consistently performed with this method, and adverse clinical signs were not detected. Formation of collateral vessels allowed overall GFR to remain constant despite a decrease in function of the left kidney. Measured biochemical values did not deviate from reference ranges. Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava may allow removal of adrenal gland tumors with vascular invasion that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to resect.

  4. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ELASTOGRAPHY OF THE LIVER, SPLEEN, KIDNEYS, AND PROSTATE IN CLINICALLY NOR-MAL BEAGLE DOGS [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sunghoon; Lee, Gahyun; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Kim, Hyunwoo; Yu, Dohyeon; Choi, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    Standard ultrasonography is often insensitive for distinguishing normal vs. diseased states for canine abdominal organs. Ultrasonographic elastography is a new technique that is becoming increasingly available and may help to improve sensitivity. This study evaluated the feasibility, repeatability, and reproducibility of strain elastography of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and prostate in healthy dogs and described the elasticity of each organ using strain values and strain ratios. The reproducibility of strain elastography was excellent, and intraobserver repeatability was moderate to excellent. The strain value of each organ was not significantly different among dogs (liver = 143.38 ± 7.41, spleen = 141.04 ± 9.03, left renal cortex = 141.26 ± 7.50, right renal cortex = 145.80 ± 7.79, and prostate = 135.46 ± 5.80), except for the renal medulla (left = 51.19 ± 4.54 and right = 51.93 ± 5.09) (P spleen, renal cortex, and prostate were similar with no significant difference (liver = 10.20 ± 1.47, spleen = 8.40 ± 1.53, left renal cortex = 9.62 ± 1.56, right renal cortex = 8.29 ± 1.63, and prostate = 8.20 ± 1.21), except for the renal medulla (left = 3.48 ± 0.68 and right = 2.95 ± 0.63) (P spleen, kidneys, and prostate. This study provides basic information for strain values and strain ratios for the liver, spleen, kidneys, and prostate in clinically normal dogs. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  5. Randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of pulsed signal therapy in dogs with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Meghan O; Gordon-Evans, Wanda J; Knap, Kim E; Evans, Richard B

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of pulsed signal therapy (PST) in reducing pain and increasing function in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) using a randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial. Randomized, controlled, blinded clinical trial. Adult dogs (n = 60) with moderate-to-severe clinical signs of OA. Dogs were randomized by age into 2 groups: dogs ≥ 9 years and dogs Goniometry and gait analysis were performed, and the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) questionnaire was given to the owners to fill out without supervision. Outcome measures were repeated at the end of treatment (Day 11) and 6 weeks after beginning treatment (Day 42). The PST group performed significantly better than the control group as measured by the CBPI Severity and Interference scores (P Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. Lung and chest wall impedances in the dog in normal range of breathing: effects of pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnas, G M; Stamenović, D; Lutchen, K R

    1992-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of pulmonary edema on the frequency (f) and tidal volume (VT) dependences of respiratory system mechanical properties in the normal ranges of breathing. We measured resistance and elastance of the lungs (RL and EL) and chest wall of four anesthetized-paralyzed dogs during sinusoidal volume oscillations at the trachea (50-300 ml, 0.2-2 Hz), delivered at a constant mean airway pressure. Measurements were made before and after severe pulmonary edema was produced by injection of 0.06 ml/kg oleic acid into the right atrium. Chest wall properties were not changed by the injection. Before oleic acid, EL increased slightly with increasing f in each dog but was independent of VT. RL decreased slightly and was independent of VT from 0.2 to 0.4 Hz, but above 0.4 Hz it tended to increase with increasing flow, presumably due to the airway contribution. After oleic acid injection, EL and RL increased greatly. Large negative dependences of EL on VT and of RL on f were also evident, so that EL and RL after oleic acid changed two- and fivefold, respectively, within the ranges of f and VT studied. We conclude that severe pulmonary edema changes lung properties so as to make behavior VT dependent (i.e., nonlinear) and very frequency dependent in the normal range of breathing.

  7. Stress and cancer in dogs: Comparison between a population of dogs diagnosed with vancer and a control population - A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cannas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that psychological stress and mental illness can compromise the function of the immune system. Clinical and epidemiological studies on humans recognized that specific psychosocial factors, such as stress, chronic depression and lack of social support are risk factors for the development and progression of cancer. Unfortunately, most of the animals studies on this subject are based on laboratory tests performed on mice. This retrospective cohort study aims to analyze the relation between stress and tumor in pet dogs, by evaluating and comparing the stress level in two groups of 69 dogs each, balanced for sex and age: the oncologic group consists of dogs diagnosed with cancer and the control group consists of healthy dogs. Our results show that, before the cancer diagnosis, more dogs in the oncologic group faced changes in their household and routine as opposed to the control group (p<0.05. More dogs of the oncologic group than the control group also showed signs of stress and anxiety, before the cancer diagnosis (p<0.05. As reported by their owners, these included attention seeking, hiding without a specific reason, following the owner around the house, hyper-vigilance, fear of fireworks and gunshots, biting, aggression towards other dogs, licking and chewing excessively parts of their body. Our results are aligned with the evidence from human research, indicating that dogs with cancer are significantly more likely to have shown signs of stress compared to the control dogs during their life.

  8. Cohort Study of the Success of Controlled Weight Loss Programs for Obese Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, A J; Titcomb, J M; Holden, S L; Queau, Y; Morris, P J; Biourge, V

    2015-01-01

    Most weight loss studies in obese dogs assess rate and percentage of weight loss in the first 2-3 months, rather than the likelihood of successfully reaching target weight. To determine outcome of controlled weight loss programs for obese dogs, and to determine the factors associated with successful completion. 143 obese dogs undergoing a controlled weight loss program. This was a cohort study of obese dogs attending a referral weight management clinic. Dogs were studied during their period of weight loss, and cases classified according to outcome as "completed" (reached target weight), "euthanized" (was euthanized before reaching target weight), or "stopped prematurely" (program stopped early for other reasons). Factors associated with successful completion were assessed using simple and multiple logistic regression. 87/143 dogs (61%) completed their weight loss program, 11 [8%] died or were euthanized, and the remaining 45 [32%] stopped prematurely. Reasons for dogs stopping prematurely included inability to contact owner, refusal to comply with weight management advice, or development of another illness. Successful weight loss was positively associated with a faster rate (P obese dogs on a controlled weight loss program reach their target weight. Future studies should better clarify reasons for success in individual cases, and also the role of factors such as activity and behavioral modification. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Endocrinologic control of normal canine ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, P W

    2009-07-01

    In dogs, the termination of the 3-10-month obligate anoestrus involves selection of a cohort of LH-sensitive follicles, presumably from a wave of dominant small antral follicles that would otherwise undergo atresia. The number and size of such follicles appears to increase, especially during the last 50 days of anoestrus when the already elevated concentrations of FSH become further elevated. The final selection and eventual terminal development of these follicles is caused by an increased frequency of high-amplitude LH pulses at the end of anoestrus. Concomitant increases in FSH are typically small or negligible. High concentrations of FSH in anoestrus are likely to be important in maintaining, if not stimulating, overlapping waves of dominant follicles throughout anoestrus, their expression of aromatase activity and basal oestradiol secretion sufficient to suppress LH by negative feedback. An attractive hypothesis is that late anoestrus increases in LH-stimulate synthesis of precursor androgen for already available FSH-dependent aromatase. After 7 or more days of elevated LH, and perhaps 2-5 days of semi-autonomous growth, with maximal oestradiol production reached, follicle capacity to further increase oestradiol becomes limited and excess progesterone becomes increasingly secreted. The pre-ovulatory LH surge and oestrus onset are then triggered - often synchronously and in concert with the terminal maturation of the follicles - by central effects of the large decrease in the oestrogen to progestin ratio. Follicular endocrine and paracrine events during and following the LH surge are likely similar to those reported for other species. The prolonged luteal phase lengths of 55-75 days in non-pregnant bitches bracket the 64 +/- 1 day in pregnancy and represent a genetically programmed luteal cell lifespan approximating gestation length as occurs in the luteal phase of hysterectomized animals of most polyoestrous artiodactyls and rodents. The 30-40-day slow

  10. Lymphangiogram of the pelvic limb in normal dogs with Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, F.; Nishikawa, T.; Kudo, T.; Otomo, K.; Koike, T.

    1982-01-01

    Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (0.2 ml/kg) was injected directly into the lymphatic vessels of the pelvic limbs in 28 healthy adult mongrel dogs. The contrast medium appeared on the roentgenogram in the popliteal, lateral iliac, medial iliac, sacral and lumbar aortic lymph nodes (LN). It was also visible in the iliofemoral, superficial inguinal and cranial mediastinal LN in several dogs. It diffused from the popliteal into the sacral, medial iliac and lateral iliac LN to fill the cisterna chyli and thoracic duct system. The features of the popliteal, lateral iliac and lumbar aortic LN were shown in the lymphangiograms of all the animals. The incidence of the other LN was different. Depending on the incidence of these LN in the lymphangiogram, the pictures of the canine lymphatic system were classified into three types:(1) medial iliac and sacral LN were visible on both sides (16%);(2) one of these LN was not observed (36%);(3) medial iliac and/or sacral lymph node was not observed on both sides (48%). (author)

  11. Bacterial colonization of the ovarian bursa in dogs with clinically suspected pyometra and in controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Alejandro; Boyen, Filip; Tas, Olaf; Kitshoff, Adriaan; Polis, Ingeborgh; Van Goethem, Bart; de Rooster, Hilde

    2014-10-15

    Septic peritonitis occurs relatively commonly in dogs. Secondary septic peritonitis is usually associated with perforation of intestines or infected viscera, such as the uterus in pyometra cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial flora in the ovarian bursae of intact bitches as a potential source of contamination. One hundred forty dogs, clinically suspected of pyometra, were prospectively enrolled. The control group consisted of 26 dogs that underwent elective ovariohysterectomies and 18 dogs with mammary gland tumors that were neutered at the time of mastectomy. Bacteriology samples were taken aseptically at the time of surgery from the bursae and the uterus in all dogs. Twenty-two dogs that were clinically suspected of pyometra had sterile uterine content ("mucometra" cases); the remaining 118 had positive uterine cultures ("pyometra" cases) and septic peritoneal fluid was present in 10% of these cases. Of the 118 pyometra cases, 9 had unilateral and 15 had bilateral bacterial colonization of their ovarian bursae. However, the bacteria from the ovarian bursa were similar to those recovered from the uterine pus in only half of the cases. Furthermore, positive bursae were also seen in one mucometra dog (unilateral) and in four control dogs (two unilateral and two bilateral). The data illustrate that the canine ovarian bursa can harbor bacteria. The biological importance of these isolations remains unclear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Domestication on Inhibitory Control: Wolves and Dogs Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory control i.e. blocking an impulsive or prepotent response in favour of a more appropriate alternative, has been suggested to play an important role in cooperative behaviour. Interestingly, while dogs and wolves show a similar social organization, they differ in their intraspecific cooperation tendencies in that wolves rely more heavily on group coordination in regard to hunting and pup-rearing compared to dogs. Hence, based on the ‘canine cooperation’ hypothesis wolves should show better inhibitory control than dogs. On the other hand, through the domestication process, dogs may have been selected for cooperative tendencies towards humans and/or a less reactive temperament, which may in turn have affected their inhibitory control abilities. Hence, based on the latter hypothesis, we would expect dogs to show a higher performance in tasks requiring inhibitory control. To test the predictive value of these alternative hypotheses, in the current study two tasks; the ‘cylinder task’ and the ‘detour task’, which are designed to assess inhibitory control, were used to evaluate the performance of identically raised pack dogs and wolves. Results from the cylinder task showed a significantly poorer performance in wolves than identically-raised pack dogs (and showed that pack-dogs performed similarly to pet dogs with different training experiences), however contrary results emerged in the detour task, with wolves showing a shorter latency to success and less perseverative behaviour at the fence. Results are discussed in relation to previous studies using these paradigms and in terms of the validity of these two methods in assessing inhibitory control. PMID:25714840

  13. Normal aging changes in the teeth of the dog: a histologic and microradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.; Miyabayashi, T.; Stephens, M.

    1984-01-01

    Mandibles from a series of dogs from the pathology service, VMTH and LEHR were compared radiographically and sections from the 4th premolar and 2nd molar were examined microradiographically and histologically. Aging changes consisted of: (1) narrowing of the pulp cavity, (2) increase in width and cellularity of cementum, (3) narrowing of periodontal space, and (4) development of bony bridges across the periodontal space and extension into the cementum and dentine. It is theorized that changes in the fibrous joint between the tooth and alveolar bone may represent a specialized form of degenerative joint disease that is unique to that form of joint. The aging changes noted are all free of inflammatory changes. 7 references

  14. Some effects of sarcoptic mange on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Rapp, C M; Vyszenski-Moher, D L

    1995-10-01

    Sequential changes in pathology were examined for scabies-infested dogs to determine the effects of infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis. During 8 wk of infestation with S. scabiei, the progression of the disease was evaluated weekly by skin scrape, clinical examination, and blood analyses. At 8 wk, selected organs were microscopically examined for histopathology. All infested dogs developed an advanced level of scabies infestation by 8 wk. Of the 36 blood parameters evaluated, only values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) deviated significantly from the normal ranges for dogs. However, infested dogs had significantly (P dogs. Red blood cell levels for infested dogs dropped significantly (P dogs compared to controls, some individual infested dogs exhibited eosinophilia at 4-8 wk of infestation. The ESRs for infested dogs were significantly (P dogs prior to infestation or control dogs. All parameters except neutrophils had returned to preinfestation levels by 2 wk after treatment for scabies. Neutrophil concentrations were no longer significantly different by 4 wk posttreatment. There were no significant differences in serum enzyme, biochemical and electrolyte concentrations between infested and control dogs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Increasing arousal enhances inhibitory control in calm but not excitable dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Emily E; MacLean, Evan L; Hare, Brian A

    2015-11-01

    The emotional-reactivity hypothesis proposes that problem-solving abilities can be constrained by temperament, within and across species. One way to test this hypothesis is with the predictions of the Yerkes-Dodson law. The law posits that arousal level, a component of temperament, affects problem solving in an inverted U-shaped relationship: Optimal performance is reached at intermediate levels of arousal and impeded by high and low levels. Thus, a powerful test of the emotional-reactivity hypothesis is to compare cognitive performance in dog populations that have been bred and trained based in part on their arousal levels. We therefore compared a group of pet dogs to a group of assistance dogs bred and trained for low arousal (N = 106) on a task of inhibitory control involving a detour response. Consistent with the Yerkes-Dodson law, assistance dogs, which began the test with lower levels of baseline arousal, showed improvements when arousal was artificially increased. In contrast, pet dogs, which began the test with higher levels of baseline arousal, were negatively affected when their arousal was increased. Furthermore, the dogs' baseline levels of arousal, as measured in their rate of tail wagging, differed by population in the expected directions. Low-arousal assistance dogs showed the most inhibition in a detour task when humans eagerly encouraged them, while more highly aroused pet dogs performed worst on the same task with strong encouragement. Our findings support the hypothesis that selection on temperament can have important implications for cognitive performance.

  16. Blood leukocyte responses to extracorporeal circulation. 3. Long term extracorporeal circulation without and with irradiation in normal and splenectomized dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szemere, P.; Fliedner, T.M. (Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Klinische Physiologie)

    1983-01-01

    Long term (12-48 h) extracorporeal circulation without and with irradiation of the blood was performed in normal and splenectomized dogs in order to observe the effect of these procedures on blood leukocyte counts including CFU-C. A transient granulocytopenia and a decrease of lymphocyte count were observed. The blood CFU-C level diminished to a very low level and remained low for the whole time of the experiments. There was no significant difference between the results of procedures with or without irradiation. The similar effect of a shortened tubing system on the blood leukocyte count is also reported. Heparin infusion alone did not decrease the peripheral CFU-C concentration. The possible explanations for the observed phenomena are discussed.

  17. Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, Ruth; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

    2012-06-08

    Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats and there is now limited information available about its efficacy against Giardia spp. In the kennel investigated, dogs regularly showed loose feces and the presence of Giardia (assemblage C, renamed as G. canis) cysts. An elimination strategy of this parasite involving strict hygiene management and disinfection of the enclosures with 4-chlorine-M-cresol, oral treatment with ronidazole (30-50mg/kg BW bid for 7 days) and two shampooings (containing chlorhexidine) at the beginning and the end of the treatments was implemented for a group of 6 dogs. As a control another group of 7 dogs was transferred to the disinfected enclosures and shampooed, but left untreated. Dog feces were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts (SAF concentration technique) or Giardia antigen with a commercial ELISA (NOVITEC(®)) and a quick immunochromatography-based test (SensPERT(®)) before and between 5 and 40 days after the last treatment. All ronidazole-treated dogs were negative for Giardia cysts and antigen up to 26 days after the last treatment, while between 1 and 5 of the control animals tested positive in each of the test series. At this point, also dogs of the control group were again moved into clean enclosures, shampooed twice and treated with ronidazole. Five, 12 and 19 days after the last treatment, the dogs in the control group tested negative for Giardia cysts and antigen. However, all animals had again positive results at later time points

  18. Measurement of urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 excretion in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Wendy I; McMichael, Maureen A; Ruaux, Craig G; Noaker, Laura; Steiner, Jörg M; Williams, David A

    2006-01-01

    To measure 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11-dTXB2) in urine of healthy control dogs, dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy, and dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) and assess the relationship between urinary 11-dTXB2 concentrations in dogs with GDV and postoperative outcomes. Urine samples from 15 nonsurgical control dogs, 12 surgical control dogs, and 32 dogs with GVD. Urine samples were obtained from healthy pet dogs (ie, nonsurgical control dogs), dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy at anesthetic induction and 1 hour following surgery (ie, surgical control dogs), and dogs with GDV at hospital admission and 1 hour following surgical derotation of the stomach (ie, GDV dogs). Urinary 11-dTXB2 concentrations were determined with an ELISA and normalized to urinary creatinine (Cr) concentrations by calculation of the 11-dTXB2 -to-Cr ratio. Differences in median 11-dTXB2 -to-Cr ratios among dogs and before and after surgery were analyzed. Urinary 11-dTXB2-to-Cr ratios did not differ between nonsurgical control dogs and surgical control dogs before or after surgery. Urinary 11-dTXB2-to-Cr ratios were significantly higher in GDV dogs at the time of hospital admission and 1 hour after surgery, compared with those of nonsurgical control dogs. Postoperative urine samples from GDV dogs had significantly higher 11-dTXB2-to-Cr ratios than postoperative urine samples from surgical control dogs. Median urinary 11-dTXB2-to-Cr ratios increased significantly in GDV dogs that developed postoperative complications. Urinary 11-dTXB2 concentration is increased in GDV dogs at the time of hospital admission and after surgical derotation of the stomach, compared with that of healthy dogs. An increased urinary 11-dTXB2-to-Cr ratio following surgery is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative complications in dogs with GDV.

  19. A comparison of microRNA expression profiles from splenic hemangiosarcoma, splenic nodular hyperplasia, and normal spleens of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Janet A; Prasad, Nripesh; Levy, Shawn; Cattley, Russell; Lindley, Stephanie; Boothe, Harry W; Henderson, Ralph A; Smith, Bruce F

    2016-12-03

    Splenic masses are common in older dogs; yet diagnosis preceding splenectomy and histopathology remains elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that play a role in post-transcriptional regulation, and differential expression of miRNAs between normal and tumor tissue has been used to diagnose neoplastic diseases. The objective of this study was to determine differential expression of miRNAs by use of RNA-sequencing in canine spleens that were histologically confirmed as hemangiosarcoma, nodular hyperplasia, or normal. Twenty-two miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in hemangiosarcoma samples (4 between hemangiosarcoma and both nodular hyperplasia and normal spleen and 18 between hemangiosarcoma and normal spleen only). In particular, mir-26a, mir-126, mir-139, mir-140, mir-150, mir-203, mir-424, mir-503, mir-505, mir-542, mir-30e, mir-33b, mir-365, mir-758, mir-22, and mir-452 are of interest in the pathogenesis of hemangiosarcoma. Findings of this study confirm the hypothesis that miRNA expression profiles are different between canine splenic hemangiosarcoma, nodular hyperplasia, and normal spleens. A large portion of the differentially expressed miRNAs have roles in angiogenesis, with an additional group of miRNAs being dysregulated in vascular disease processes. Two other miRNAs have been implicated in cancer pathways such as PTEN and cell cycle checkpoints. The finding of multiple miRNAs with roles in angiogenesis and vascular disease is important, as hemangiosarcoma is a tumor of endothelial cells, which are driven by angiogenic stimuli. This study shows that miRNA dysregulation is a potential player in the pathogenesis of canine splenic hemangiosarcoma.

  20. Aldosterone breakthrough with benazepril in furosemide-activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantis, A C; Ames, M K; Atkins, C E; DeFrancesco, T C; Keene, B W; Werre, S R

    2015-02-01

    Pilot studies in our laboratory revealed that furosemide-induced renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation was not attenuated by the subsequent co-administration of benazepril. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of benazepril on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and furosemide-induced circulating RAAS activation. Our hypothesis was that benazepril suppression of ACE activity would not suppress furosemide-induced circulating RAAS activation, indicated by urinary aldosterone concentration. Ten healthy hound dogs were used in this study. The effect of furosemide (2 mg/kg p.o., q12h; Group F; n = 5) and furosemide plus benazepril (1 mg/kg p.o., q24h; Group FB; n = 5) on circulating RAAS was determined by plasma ACE activity, 4-6 h posttreatment, and urinary aldosterone to creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) on days -1, -2, 1, 3, and 7. There was a significant increase in the average UAldo:C (μg/g) after the administration of furosemide (Group F baseline [average of days -1 and -2] UAldo:C = 0.41, SD 0.15; day 1 UAldo:C = 1.1, SD 0.56; day 3 UAldo:C = 0.85, SD 0.50; day 7 UAldo:C = 1.1, SD 0.80, P Benazepril suppressed ACE activity (U/L) in Group FB (Group FB baseline ACE = 16.4, SD 4.2; day 1 ACE = 3.5, SD 1.4; day 3 ACE = 1.6, SD 1.3; day 7 ACE = 1.4, SD 1.4, P Benazepril decreased plasma ACE activity but did not prevent furosemide-induced RAAS activation, indicating aldosterone breakthrough (escape). This is particularly noteworthy in that breakthrough is observed at the time of initiation of RAAS suppression, as opposed to developing after months of therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Increasing arousal enhances inhibitory control in calm but not excitable dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Emily E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Hare, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The emotional-reactivity hypothesis proposes that problem-solving abilities can be constrained by temperament, within and across species. One way to test this hypothesis is with the predictions of the Yerkes-Dodson law. The law posits that arousal level, a component of temperament, affects problem solving in an inverted U-shaped relationship: optimal performance is reached at intermediate levels of arousal and impeded by high and low levels. Thus, a powerful test of the emotional-reactivity hypothesis is to compare cognitive performance in dog populations that have been bred and trained based in part on their arousal levels. We therefore compared a group of pet dogs to a group of assistance dogs bred and trained for low arousal (N = 106) on a task of inhibitory control involving a detour response. Consistent with the Yerkes-Dodson law, assistance dogs, which began the test with lower levels of baseline arousal, showed improvements when arousal was artificially increased. In contrast, pet dogs, which began the test with higher levels of baseline arousal, were negatively affected when their arousal was increased. Furthermore, the dogs’ baseline levels of arousal, as measured in their rate of tail wagging, differed by population in the expected directions. Low-arousal assistance dogs showed the most inhibition in a detour task when humans eagerly encouraged them while more highly aroused pet dogs performed worst on the same task with strong encouragement. Our findings support the hypothesis that selection on temperament can have important implications for cognitive performance. PMID:26169659

  2. Fibrochondrogenic potential of synoviocytes from osteoarthritic and normal joints cultured as tensioned bioscaffolds for meniscal tissue engineering in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Warnock

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Meniscal tears are a common cause of stifle lameness in dogs. Use of autologous synoviocytes from the affected stifle is an attractive cell source for tissue engineering replacement fibrocartilage. However, the diseased state of these cells may impede in vitro fibrocartilage formation. Synoviocytes from 12 osteoarthritic (“oaTSB” and 6 normal joints (“nTSB” were cultured as tensioned bioscaffolds and compared for their ability to synthesize fibrocartilage sheets. Gene expression of collagens type I and II were higher and expression of interleukin-6 was lower in oaTSB versus nTSB. Compared with nTSB, oaTSB had more glycosaminoglycan and alpha smooth muscle staining and less collagen I and II staining on histologic analysis, whereas collagen and glycosaminoglycan quantities were similar. In conclusion, osteoarthritic joint—origin synoviocytes can produce extracellular matrix components of meniscal fibrocartilage at similar levels to normal joint—origin synoviocytes, which makes them a potential cell source for canine meniscal tissue engineering.

  3. Systemic insecticides used in dogs: potential candidates for phlebotomine vector control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Sonia Ares; Picado, Albert

    2017-06-01

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is a public health problem endemic in some countries. Current control measures, in particular culling infected dogs, have not reduced ZVL incidence in humans. We evaluated the use of five systemic insecticides (spinosad, fluralaner, afoxolaner, sarolaner and moxidectin) currently used in dogs for other purposes (e.g. tick, flea control) in controlling ZVL transmission. The anti-phlebotomine capacity of these compounds confirmed in experimental studies makes their use in ZVL control programmes very promising. Limitations and benefits of using this new control tool are compared to current practices. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Free-Roaming Dog Population Estimation and Status of the Dog Population Management and Rabies Control Program in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzin, Tenzin; Ahmed, Rubaiya; Debnath, Nitish C.; Ahmed, Garba; Yamage, Mat

    2015-01-01

    Beginning January 2012, a humane method of dog population management using a Catch-Neuter-Vaccinate-Release (CNVR) program was implemented in Dhaka City, Bangladesh as part of the national rabies control program. To enable this program, the size and distribution of the free-roaming dog population needed to be estimated. We present the results of a dog population survey and a pilot assessment of the CNVR program coverage in Dhaka City. Free-roaming dog population surveys were undertaken in 18 wards of Dhaka City on consecutive days using mark-resight methods. Data was analyzed using Lincoln-Petersen index-Chapman correction methods. The CNVR program was assessed over the two years (2012–2013) whilst the coverage of the CNVR program was assessed by estimating the proportion of dogs that were ear-notched (processed dogs) via dog population surveys. The free-roaming dog population was estimated to be 1,242 (95 % CI: 1205–1278) in the 18 sampled wards and 18,585 dogs in Dhaka City (52 dogs/km2) with an estimated human-to-free-roaming dog ratio of 828:1. During the two year CNVR program, a total of 6,665 dogs (3,357 male and 3,308 female) were neutered and vaccinated against rabies in 29 of the 92 city wards. A pilot population survey indicated a mean CNVR coverage of 60.6% (range 19.2–79.3%) with only eight wards achieving > 70% coverage. Given that the coverage in many neighborhoods was below the WHO-recommended threshold level of 70% for rabies eradications and since the CNVR program takes considerable time to implement throughout the entire Dhaka City area, a mass dog vaccination program in the non-CNVR coverage area is recommended to create herd immunity. The findings from this study are expected to guide dog population management and the rabies control program in Dhaka City and elsewhere in Bangladesh. PMID:25978406

  5. Dog Ecology and Barriers to Canine Rabies Control in the Republic of Haiti, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildecker, S; Millien, M; Blanton, J D; Boone, J; Emery, A; Ludder, F; Fenelon, N; Crowdis, K; Destine, A; Etheart, M; Wallace, R M

    2017-10-01

    An estimated 59 000 persons die annually of infection with the rabies virus worldwide, and dog bites are responsible for 95% of these deaths. Haiti has the highest rate of animal and human rabies in the Western Hemisphere. This study describes the status of animal welfare, animal vaccination, human bite treatment, and canine morbidity and mortality in Haiti in order to identify barriers to rabies prevention and control. An epidemiologic survey was used for data collection among dog owners during government-sponsored vaccination clinics at fourteen randomly selected sites from July 2014 to April 2015. A total of 2005 surveys were collected and data were analysed using parametric methods. Over 50% of owned dogs were allowed to roam freely, a factor associated with rabies transmission. More than 80% of dog owners reported experiencing barriers to accessing rabies vaccination for their dogs. Nearly one-third of the dog population evaluated in this study died in the year preceding the survey (32%) and 18% of these deaths were clinically consistent with rabies. Dog bites were commonly reported, with more than 3% of the study population bitten within the year preceding the survey. The incidence of canine rabies in Haiti is high and is exacerbated by low access to veterinary care, free-roaming dog populations and substandard animal welfare practices. Programmes to better understand the dog ecology and development of methods to improve access to vaccines are needed. Rabies deaths are at historical lows in the Western Hemisphere, but Haiti and the remaining canine rabies endemic countries still present a significant challenge to the goal of rabies elimination in the region. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Too dog tired to avoid danger: self-control depletion in canines increases behavioral approach toward an aggressive threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly C; DeWall, C Nathan; Pattison, Kristina; Molet, Mikaël; Zentall, Thomas R

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated whether initial self-control exertion by dogs would affect behavioral approach toward an aggressive threat. Dogs were initially required to exert self-control (sit still for 10 min) or not (caged for 10 min) before they were walked into a room in which a barking, growling dog was caged. Subject dogs spent 4 min in this room but were free to choose where in the room they spent their time. Approaching the unfamiliar conspecific was the predisposed response, but it was also the riskier choice (Lindsay, 2005). We found that following the exertion of self-control (in comparison with the control condition), dogs spent greater time in proximity to the aggressor. This pattern of behavior suggests that initial self-control exertion results in riskier and more impulsive decision making by dogs.

  7. Evaluating a Website to Teach Children Safety with Dogs: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Schwebel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dog bites represent a significant threat to child health. Theory-driven interventions scalable for broad dissemination are sparse. A website was developed to teach children dog safety via increased knowledge, improved cognitive skills in relevant domains, and increased perception of vulnerability to bites. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 69 children aged 4–5 randomly assigned to use the dog safety website or a control transportation safety website for ~3 weeks. Assessment of dog safety knowledge and behavior plus skill in three relevant cognitive constructs (impulse control, noticing details, and perspective-taking was conducted both at baseline and following website use. The dog safety website incorporated interactive games, instructional videos including testimonials, a motivational rewards system, and messaging to parents concerning child lessons. Our results showed that about two-thirds of the intervention sample was not adherent to website use at home, so both intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were conducted. Intent-to-treat analyses yielded mostly null results. Per-protocol analyses suggested children compliant to the intervention protocol scored higher on knowledge and recognition of safe behavior with dogs following the intervention compared to the control group. Adherent children also had improved scores post-intervention on the cognitive skill of noticing details compared to the control group. We concluded that young children’s immature cognition can lead to dog bites. Interactive eHealth training on websites shows potential to teach children relevant cognitive and safety skills to reduce risk. Compliance to website use is a challenge, and some relevant cognitive skills (e.g., noticing details may be more amenable to computer-based training than others (e.g., impulse control.

  8. Biochemical composition of fetal fluids in at term, normal developed, healthy, viable dogs and preliminary data from pathologic littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Bolis, B; Faustini, M; Rota, A; Mollo, A

    2018-03-01

    triglycerides), the results showed significant differences between the amniotic and allantoic biochemical composition (for all the parameters, except of alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, cholesterol, albumin, amylase and glucose), suggesting that diverse sources could concur to the final composition of each fluid. A wide variability within and among litters was found for both amniotic and allantoic biochemical composition, and for some parameters an influence of breed body size (amniotic amylase, cholesterol, and allantoic calcium and glucose), maternal parity (amniotic and allantoic CK, glucose, LDH, chloride) and newborn gender (allantoic phosphorus) was found. Further investigations are needed for addressing the origin of each fetal fluid biochemical composition in the dog and also to indeep possible differences in fetal fluids biochemical composition between normal and pathologic puppies, providing potential markers for the quick identification of newborns that need special surveillance and cares immediately after birth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Methods of Control of the Leishmania infantum Dog Reservoir: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Podaliri Vulpiani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is a protozoan parasite causing severe vector-borne visceral diseases both in humans and dogs. The latter are the most important natural reservoir and therefore should be the main target of control measures. The real efficacy of seropositive dogs culling as a direct control method is still debated, and the new sensitivity of large part of population considers ethically unacceptable this kind of approach. Treatment of infectious dogs with one of the available therapeutic protocols is recommendable as it allows to reduce parasite burdens and therefore the possibility of transmission of Leishmania infantum to vectors. Vaccination has been proven to be a very effective control tool, but the absence of a commonly recognized diagnostic method able to distinguish vaccinate from seropositive individuals is still an important limit. Concerning indirect control methods, a number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of topical insecticides treatment (collars, spot-on, and sprays in reducing incidence and prevalence of L. infantum. Also, the reduction of the odds of seroconversion in humans in endemic areas has been reported after the application of indirect control measures on dogs. The contemporary use of direct and indirect methods is even more effective in reducing seroprevalence in dogs.

  10. Potential for rabies control through dog vaccination in wildlife-abundant communities of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Meagan C; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Galvani, Alison P

    2012-01-01

    Canine vaccination has been successful in controlling rabies in diverse settings worldwide. However, concerns remain that coverage levels which have previously been sufficient might be insufficient in systems where transmission occurs both between and within populations of domestic dogs and other carnivores. To evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination targeted at domestic dogs when wildlife also contributes to transmission, we applied a next-generation matrix model based on contract tracing data from the Ngorongoro and Serengeti Districts in northwest Tanzania. We calculated corresponding values of R(0), and determined, for policy purposes, the probabilities that various annual vaccination targets would control the disease, taking into account the empirical uncertainty in our field data. We found that transition rate estimates and corresponding probabilities of vaccination-based control indicate that rabies transmission in this region is driven by transmission within domestic dogs. Different patterns of rabies transmission between the two districts exist, with wildlife playing a more important part in Ngorongoro and leading to higher recommended coverage levels in that district. Nonetheless, our findings indicate that an annual dog vaccination campaign achieving the WHO-recommended target of 70% will control rabies in both districts with a high level of certainty. Our results support the feasibility of controlling rabies in Tanzania through dog vaccination.

  11. Potential for rabies control through dog vaccination in wildlife-abundant communities of Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan C Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available Canine vaccination has been successful in controlling rabies in diverse settings worldwide. However, concerns remain that coverage levels which have previously been sufficient might be insufficient in systems where transmission occurs both between and within populations of domestic dogs and other carnivores. To evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination targeted at domestic dogs when wildlife also contributes to transmission, we applied a next-generation matrix model based on contract tracing data from the Ngorongoro and Serengeti Districts in northwest Tanzania. We calculated corresponding values of R(0, and determined, for policy purposes, the probabilities that various annual vaccination targets would control the disease, taking into account the empirical uncertainty in our field data. We found that transition rate estimates and corresponding probabilities of vaccination-based control indicate that rabies transmission in this region is driven by transmission within domestic dogs. Different patterns of rabies transmission between the two districts exist, with wildlife playing a more important part in Ngorongoro and leading to higher recommended coverage levels in that district. Nonetheless, our findings indicate that an annual dog vaccination campaign achieving the WHO-recommended target of 70% will control rabies in both districts with a high level of certainty. Our results support the feasibility of controlling rabies in Tanzania through dog vaccination.

  12. [Experimental studies on the diffusion of excitation on the right ventricular surface in the dog, during normal and stimulated beats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisi, G; Macchi, E; Baruffi, S; Musso, E; Spaggiari, S; Stilli, D; Taccardi, B

    1982-01-01

    Previous work on the spread of excitation on the dog's ventricular surface enabled us to locate up to 30 breakthrough points (BKTPs) where excitation reaches the ventricular surface. In particular the equipotential contour maps enabled us to detect 3 to 5 BKTPs on the anterior right ventricular surface, near the a-v groove when a large part of ventricular surface was still at rest. With a view to investigating the mechanism underlying the early excitation of these basal regions, we stimulated the heart at several right ventricular BKTPs and in other points located at a distance from the BKTPs. The instantaneous equipotential maps showed that after stimulation most right ventricular BKTPs remained in the same position as observed the normal beats. The early appearance of epicardial wavefronts in the basal region and generally in other areas of the right ventricle was attributed to the rapid propagation of excitation waves through the Purkinje network, probably associated to a short transmural crossing time, due to a local thinness of the ventricular wall.

  13. Understanding action control of daily walking behavior among dog owners: a community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E. Rhodes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking among dog owners may be a means to achieve health benefits, yet almost half of owners (approximately 30% of households are not regularly walking their dogs. Current research on the correlates of dog walking has generally considered intention as the primary determinant of behavior, yet the intention-behavior relationship is modest. The purpose of this paper was to apply a framework designed to evaluate the intention-behavior gap, known as multi-process action control (M-PAC, to understand daily walking among dog owners. Method A community sample of adult dog owners (N = 227 in Victoria, Canada completed M-PAC measures of motivational (dog and human outcome expectations, affective judgments, perceived capability and opportunity, regulatory (planning, and reflexive (automaticity, identity processes as well as intention to walk and behavior. Results Three intention-behavior profiles emerged: a non-intenders who were not active (26%; n = 59, b unsuccessful intenders who failed to enact their positive intentions (33%; n = 75, and c successful intenders who were active (40%; n = 91. Congruent with M-PAC, a discriminant function analysis showed that affective judgements (r = 0.33, automaticity (r = 0.38, and planning (r = 0.33 distinguished between all three intention-behavior profiles, while identity (r = 0.22 and dog breed size (r = 0.28 differentiated between successful and unsuccessful intenders. Conclusions The majority of dog owners have positive intentions to walk, yet almost half fail to meet these intentions. Interventions focused on affective judgments (e.g., more enjoyable places to walk, behavioral regulation (e.g., setting a concrete plan, habit (e.g., making routines and cues and identity formation (e.g., affirmations of commitment may help overcome difficulties with translating these intentions into action, thus increasing overall levels of walking.

  14. The metabolism of 32P-CP-PLLA seed implanted in the liver and its damage to the normal liver tissue: a study in the experimental dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhongbao; Liu Lu; Guo Jinhe; Zhu Guangyu; Wang Fuan; Nie Qi; Gao Hailin; Teng Gaojun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of intratumoral implantation of 32 P -CP-PLLA seeds on the normal canine liver tissue and to explore the metabolism of 32 P-CP-PLLA seeds implanted in the liver of experimental dogs. Methods: Twelve beagles were enrolled in this study. The dogs were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group A (185 MBq), group B (370 MBq), group C (740 MBq) and group D (0 MBq). By using laparotomy procedure 32 P-CP-PLLA seeds were implanted into dog's liver. CT scan was performed before operation as well as before the dog was sacrificed. All dogs were sacrificed three months after the implantation. Before the procedure and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the procedure the blood tests and serum biochemical tests were conducted. One dog from group B and group C was selected respectively and was fed in a metabolic cage. Within one month after the procedure the cpm in feces and in urine was determined every 24 hours. One dog was picked out from each of the three groups and was punctured to get its liver tissue for pathologic exam each time at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the implantation, and SPECT imaging was also performed at the same time. Pathologic study, both macroscopic and microscopic (including optical and electronic microscopy) was made to observe the liver damage after the dog was sacrificed. The statistical analysis was processed by using SPSS 13.0 software and the measuring data were expressed with mean ± standard deviation (x ± s). Results: Two months after the procedure, serological examination found that the serum alkaline phosphatase (BKP) in both group B and group C was significantly higher than that in other groups, the difference was statistically significant (P 32 P-CP-PLLA seeds was manifested as a spherical lesion which was encysted by a layer of fibrous tissue with an edematous zone peripherally. Conclusion: The implantation of 32 P-CP-PLLA seeds in dog's liver causes only localized hepatic damage with no general

  15. Control of Dog Mediated Human Rabies in Haiti: No Time to Spare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max F Millien

    Full Text Available The American region has pledged to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies by 2015. As part of these efforts, we describe the findings of a desk and field mission review of Haiti's rabies situation by the end of 2013. While government officials recognize the importance of dog-mediated rabies control, and the national rabies plan adequately contemplates the basic capacities to that effect, regular and sufficient implementation, for example, of dog vaccination, is hampered by limited funding. Compounding insufficient funding and human resources, official surveillance figures do not accurately reflect the risk to the population, as evidenced by the large number of rabid dogs detected by focalized and enhanced surveillance activities conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Rural Development (MARNDR and the Health and Population Ministry (MSPP with the technical assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Although international support is common, either in the form of on-the-ground technical support or donations of immunobiologicals, it is not comprehensive. In addition, there is limited coordination with MARNDR/MSPP and with other actors at the strategic or operational level due to human resources limitations. Given these findings, the 2015 elimination goal in the region is compromised by the situation in Haiti where control of the disease is not yet in sight despite the best efforts of the resolute national officials. More importantly, dog-mediated rabies is still a threat to the Haitian population.

  16. Insights and efforts to control rabies in Zambia: Evaluation of determinants and barriers to dog vaccination in Nyimba district.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Patricia Mulipukwa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The current rabies control strategy in Zambia is based on dog vaccination, dog population control and dog movement restrictions. In Nyimba district of Zambia, dog vaccination coverage is low but the incidence of dog bites is high which places the community at risk of rabies infection. The renewed global interest eliminating rabies in developing countries has spurred interest to identify determinants and barriers of dog vaccination in an effort to reduce the overall disease burden.A mixed methods cross sectional design was used in the study. This consisted of three parts: Evaluation of medical records regarding dog bite injuries, implementation and analysis of a household survey and in-depth review of key informant interviews. Data was collected into a Microsoft Excel database and subsequently transferred to STATA for descriptive, inferential and thematic analysis.Dog vaccination coverage overall was 8.7% (57/655, with 3.4% (22/655 in urban areas, 1.8% (12/655 in peri-urban and 3.5 (23/655 in the rural regions. Financially stable households were more likely to have their dogs vaccinated. Only 10.3% (31/300 of the respondents had vaccinated their dogs and these had a reliable source of income as 6% (18/300 were peasant farmers, 2% (6/300 were dependants whose guardians were financially stable and 2.3% (7/300 were in steady employment. Important barriers to dog vaccination included cost, limited awareness of vaccination program and access.Current rabies control strategies in Nyimba district, Zambia, appear quite limited. Improvements in the regional dog vaccination program may provide benefits. Enhancement of educational efforts targeting behavioural factors may also prove useful. Finally, the cost of dog vaccination can be reduced with scaled up production of a local vaccine.

  17. Insights and efforts to control rabies in Zambia: Evaluation of determinants and barriers to dog vaccination in Nyimba district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulipukwa, Carolyn Patricia; Mudenda, Boyd; Mbewe, Allan Rabson

    2017-10-01

    The current rabies control strategy in Zambia is based on dog vaccination, dog population control and dog movement restrictions. In Nyimba district of Zambia, dog vaccination coverage is low but the incidence of dog bites is high which places the community at risk of rabies infection. The renewed global interest eliminating rabies in developing countries has spurred interest to identify determinants and barriers of dog vaccination in an effort to reduce the overall disease burden. A mixed methods cross sectional design was used in the study. This consisted of three parts: Evaluation of medical records regarding dog bite injuries, implementation and analysis of a household survey and in-depth review of key informant interviews. Data was collected into a Microsoft Excel database and subsequently transferred to STATA for descriptive, inferential and thematic analysis. Dog vaccination coverage overall was 8.7% (57/655), with 3.4% (22/655) in urban areas, 1.8% (12/655) in peri-urban and 3.5 (23/655) in the rural regions. Financially stable households were more likely to have their dogs vaccinated. Only 10.3% (31/300) of the respondents had vaccinated their dogs and these had a reliable source of income as 6% (18/300) were peasant farmers, 2% (6/300) were dependants whose guardians were financially stable and 2.3% (7/300) were in steady employment. Important barriers to dog vaccination included cost, limited awareness of vaccination program and access. Current rabies control strategies in Nyimba district, Zambia, appear quite limited. Improvements in the regional dog vaccination program may provide benefits. Enhancement of educational efforts targeting behavioural factors may also prove useful. Finally, the cost of dog vaccination can be reduced with scaled up production of a local vaccine.

  18. THE SOCIETY’S PERCEPTION OF THE LIFE QUALITY AND POPULATION CONTROL OF STRAY DOGS

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    Flavio Fernando Batista Moutinho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In most Brazilian municipalities there is an overpopulation of stray dogs, which causes problems to the urban order, the environment and the public health, in addition to mistreatment to these dogs. In such context we foresee the need of developing actions targeting the population control of these animals. This essay aims at knowing the perception of social actors, such as managers of entities responsible for control actions, managers of NGOs working with animal protection and population in general with respect to the life quality and population control of stray dogs. Questionnaires were used on samples of individuals of these three groups and the data thereof were analyzed with descriptive statistics techniques and frequency comparison. The results allowed us to conclude that the society’s perception of population control and life quality of these animals bear important differences under the viewpoint of the three evaluated groups; however, they also bear significant similarities, especially with respect to the perception of the responsibility for the development of population control actions, the acceptance of using public funds intended to public health in control actions, the classification of such population density as large and the poor life quality of these animals. population control, social perception, stray dog.,

  19. Failure patterns following cobalt irradiation in dogs with nasal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, D.E.; Heidner, G.L.; Novotney, C.A.; McEntee, M.C.; Page, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The pattern of tumor recurrence was assessed in 24 dogs receiving cobalt radiation therapy for nasal carcinoma. Dogs were evaluated using nasal cavity computed tomography prior to treatment, and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment, and at 6-month intervals thereafter if still alive. Dogs were treated with various combinations of total dose, and fraction size. Total doses were normalized to equivalent doses given in 3.0 Gy fractions. The extent of tumor regression or duration of tumor control were not dependent on absolute total dose, normalized total dose, or tumor type. The median duration of local control in all dogs was 312 days. Marked tumor regression was observed in 11 of the 24 dogs. Median duration of local control was significantly longer in dogs with marked tumor regression in comparison to dogs without tumor regression; 389 vs. 161 days respectively. When tumor recurrence was documented in dogs having tumor regression, the location of the recurrence was in the nasal cavity. No tumor recurred in a sinus or periorbital region, and only one geographic miss was detected. Tumor recurrence in the irradiated volume, including dogs with and without marked regression, was documented in 13 of the 24 dogs. The high local failure rate, coupled with the recurrence pattern in these dogs, suggests there may be an opportunity for improvement in local control through use of shrinking field techniques

  20. A double-blind placebo-controlled study into the efficacy of a homeopathic remedy for fear of firework noises in the dog (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracknell, Nina R; Mills, Daniel S

    2008-07-01

    Seventy-five dogs that showed a fear response to fireworks participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy of a homeopathic remedy for the alleviation of their behavioural signs. Dogs were randomly assigned to one of two treatments; the homeopathic treatment or the placebo treatment. At the baseline assessments the owners identified the behavioural signs of fear that their dogs normally displayed in response to fireworks, rated their frequency and intensity, and assessed the global severity of their dog's responses. These measures were repeated at the final assessment and owners also completed weekly diaries for the length of the trial. There were significant improvements in the owners' rating of 14/15 behavioural signs of fear in the placebo treatment group and all 15 behavioural signs in the homeopathic treatment group. Both treatment groups also showed significant improvement in the owners' rating of the global severity of their dog's responses. However, there was no significant difference in the response seen between the two treatment groups.

  1. Renal histomorphology in dogs with pyometra and control dogs, and long term clinical outcome with respect to signs of kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teige Jon

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related changes in renal histomorphology are described, while the presence of glomerulonephritis in dogs with pyometra is controversial in current literature. Methods Dogs with pyometra were examined retrospectively for evidence of secondary renal damage and persisting renal disease through two retrospective studies. In Study 1, light microscopic lesions of renal tissue were graded and compared in nineteen dogs with pyometra and thirteen age-matched control bitches. In Study 2, forty-one owners of dogs with pyometra were interviewed approximately 8 years after surgery for evidence ofclinical signs of renal failure in order to document causes of death/euthanasia. Results Interstitial inflammation and tubular atrophy were more pronounced in dogs with pyometra than in the control animals. Glomerular lesions classified as glomerular sclerosis were present in both groups. No unequivocal light microscopic features of glomerulonephritis were observed in bitches in any of the groups. Two bitches severely proteinuric at the time of surgery had developed end stage renal disease within 3 years. In five of the bitches polyuria persisted after surgery. Most bitches did not show signs of kidney disease at the time of death/euthanasia. Conclusion Tubulointerstitial inflammation was observed, but glomerular damage beyond age-related changes could not be demonstrated by light microscopy in the dogs with pyometra. However, severe proteinuria after surgery may predispose to development of renal failure.

  2. Factors controlling the engraftment of transplanted dog bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwyk, W.M.; Heidt, P.J.; Hogeweg, B.; Zurcher, C.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    1982-01-01

    The LD50 of total body irradiation (TBI) for the bone marrow (BM) syndrome and the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrme was determined in dogs as 3.7 Gy, and 8.5 Gy respectively. Five Gy TBI was adequate conditioning for BM cells of littermate donors identical for the major histocompatibility comples (MHC). The maximum tolerated TBI (about 7.5 Gy) caused more side effects than 5.0 Gy TBI and was insufficient for engraftment of realistic numbers of BM cells of MHC mismatched donors. In autologous and MHC matched transplants, the rateof hemopoietic recovery correlated with the number of BM cells given. Approximtely 2 x 10 7 autologous and 1 x 10 8 MHC identical BM cells.kg -1 were needed for radiation protection. Platelet recovery was significantly more rapid in allogeneic combinations in comparison to autologous transplants. Low numbers of autologous cryopreserved bone marrow cells were as effective as fresh bone marrow cells in rescuing animals after lethal TBI. Other factors that influence BM cell engraftment were confirmed (prior sensitization of the recipient, donor selection) or identified (purification of BM cells on density gradient and selective gastrointestinal decontamination of the recipient). Consistent engraftment of gradient separated, MHC identical, BM cells was found after conditioning with two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI, separated by 72 h. One MHC haplotype mismatched marrow did engraft after two TBI fractions of 6.0 Gy. Engraftment no longer occurred with gradient purified bone marrow cells from this type of donor. Late effects of TBI were early greying in all animals, and secondary uterine inertia in female dogs after 7.5 GY TBI. Fertility in males or females was not changed by radiation. An increase of pancreas fibrosis was noted in dogs receiving fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI. (author)

  3. Analysis of epidermal lipids in normal and atopic dogs, before and after administration of an oral omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid feed supplement. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Iuliana; Pin, Didier; Remoué, Noëlle; Remoué, Nathalie; Osta, Bilal; Callejon, Sylvie; Videmont, Emilie; Gatto, Hugues; Portoukalian, Jacques; Haftek, Marek

    2011-12-01

    Alterations of the lipid expression in the skin of human and canine atopic subjects may be one of the key factors in the disease development. We have analyzed the ultrastructure of the clinically uninvolved skin of atopic dogs and compared it with the lipid composition of their tape-stripped stratum corneum (SC). The effect of a 2 month treatment of atopic dogs by food supplementation with a mixture of essential fatty acids was evaluated on skin samples taken before and after the treatment period. Electron microscopy revealed that the non-lesional skin of atopic dogs exhibited an abnormal and largely incomplete structure of the lamellar lipids with little cohesion between the corneocyte strata. The SC of atopic dogs was characterized by a significant decrease in the lipid content when compared to the healthy controls. Following oral supplementation with the mixture of essential fatty acids, the overall lipid content of the SC markedly increased. This feature was observed both with the free and, most importantly, with the protein-bound lipids (cholesterol, fatty acids and ceramides), the latter constituting the corneocyte-bound scaffold for ordinate organisation of the extracellular lipid bi-layers. Indeed, the semi-quantitative electron microscopy study revealed that the treatment resulted in a significantly improved organization of the lamellar lipids in the lower SC, comparable to that of the healthy dogs. Our results indicate the potential interest of long-term alimentary supplementation with omega-6 and omega-3 essential fatty acids in canine atopic dermatitis.

  4. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac tromethamine and benzalkonium chloride on corneal sensitivity in normal dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Araújo Cantarella

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and benzalkonium chloride 0.01%. Six healthy mixed breed dogs from the same litter were used in two different stages. First, one drop of flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% and diclofenac sodium 0.1% in each eye; second, one drop of ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and benzalkonium chloride 0.01% in each eye. Baseline esthesiometry was obtained before eye drop application and every 15 minutes thereafter until a total of 105 minutes of evaluation time. A one-week interval was allowed between the two treatment phases. Statistical analysis was used to compare means according to time of evaluation and drug used. Diclofenac sodium 0.1% decreased corneal sensitivity at 75 and 90 minutes (P > 0.015 with possible interference on neuronal nociceptive activity and analgesic effect while ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% did not show any variation for esthesiometry means along the evaluation. Flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% resulted in increased esthesiometry values 30 minutes after instillation (P > 0.013, increasing corneal sensitivity and possibly producing a greater irritant corneal effect over its analgesic properties. Benzalkonium chloride 0.01% significantly increased corneal sensitivity at 15 minutes of evaluation (P > 0.001, most likely resulting from its irritating effect. Esthesiometry did not allow a definite conclusion over the analgesic effect of the NSAIDs tested; however it was effective in detecting fluctuations in corneal sensitivity.

  5. Control of nasal vasculature and airflow resistance in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, M A; Phipps, R J; Wang, J C; Widdicombe, J G

    1984-01-01

    Nasal vascular and airflow resistances have been measured in dogs, simultaneously on both sides separately. Vascular resistance was measured either by constant flow perfusion of the terminal branch of the maxillary artery (which supplies, via the sphenopalatine artery, the nasal septum, most of the turbinates and the nasal sinuses) or by measuring blood flow through this artery, maintained by the dog's own blood pressure. Airflow resistance was assessed by inserting balloon-tipped endotracheal catheters into the back of each nasal cavity via the nasopharynx, and measuring transnasal pressure at constant airflow through each side of the nose simultaneously. Preliminary experiments indicated that there was 5-10% collateral anastomosis between the two sides. Close-arterial injection of drugs showed different patterns of response. Adrenaline, phenylephrine, chlorpheniramine and low doses of prostaglandin F2 alpha increased vascular resistance and lowered airway resistance. Salbutamol, methacholine and histamine lowered vascular resistance and increased airway resistance. Dobutamine decreased airway resistance with a small increase in vascular resistance. Prostaglandins E1, E2 and F2 alpha (high dose) decreased both vascular and airway resistances. Substance P, eledoisin-related peptide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide lowered vascular resistance with little change in airway resistance. The results are interpreted in terms of possible drug actions on precapillary resistance vessels, sinusoids and venules, and arteriovenous anastomoses. It is concluded that nasal airway resistance cannot be correlated with vascular resistance or blood flow, since the latter has a complex and ill-defined relationship with nasal vascular blood volume. PMID:6204040

  6. Computed tomography of the dog's brain: normal aspects and anatomical correlation; Tomografia computadorizada do encefalo do cao: aspectos da normalidade e correlacao anatomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorigados, C.A.B., E-mail: clorigados@usp.br [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (UniFMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pinto, A.C.B.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2013-06-15

    Normal tomographic images of dog's heads were obtained, aimed to familiarize them with the normal aspects of the brain and correlate these findings with the relevant anatomy of the region studied. Several anatomical structures, such as the parenchyma of the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, the longitudinal fissure, the ventricular system, the cerebellum, the olfactory bulb, the corpus callosum, diencephalon, the pons, the medulla oblongata and the chiasmatic sulcus were directly identified or were related to neighboring structures which helped in their identification. (author)

  7. Adaptive nonlinear control using input normalized neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeghim, Henzeh; Seo, In Ho; Bang, Hyo Choong

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive feedback linearization technique combined with the neural network is addressed to control uncertain nonlinear systems. The neural network-based adaptive control theory has been widely studied. However, the stability analysis of the closed-loop system with the neural network is rather complicated and difficult to understand, and sometimes unnecessary assumptions are involved. As a result, unnecessary assumptions for stability analysis are avoided by using the neural network with input normalization technique. The ultimate boundedness of the tracking error is simply proved by the Lyapunov stability theory. A new simple update law as an adaptive nonlinear control is derived by the simplification of the input normalized neural network assuming the variation of the uncertain term is sufficiently small

  8. Integrated control of ticks and fleas on dogs with particular reference to the prevention of vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Because dogs are such loved companion animals, their health and wellbeing is of great importance to their human companions. Moreover, controlling ticks and fleas on dogs is also important in respect of the zoonotic risk that some of these parasites pose to their human companions. Numerous products

  9. Dogs catch human yawns

    OpenAIRE

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary f...

  10. A randomized controlled trial to establish effects of short-term rapamycin treatment in 24 middle-aged companion dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfer, Silvan R; Kaeberlein, Tammi L; Mailheau, Susan; Bergman, Philip J; Creevy, Kate E; Promislow, Daniel E L; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2017-04-01

    Age is the single greatest risk factor for most causes of morbidity and mortality in humans and their companion animals. As opposed to other model organisms used to study aging, dogs share the human environment, are subject to similar risk factors, receive comparable medical care, and develop many of the same age-related diseases humans do. In this study, 24 middle-aged healthy dogs received either placebo or a non-immunosuppressive dose of rapamycin for 10 weeks. All dogs received clinical and hematological exams before, during, and after the trial and echocardiography before and after the trial. Our results showed no clinical side effects in the rapamycin-treated group compared to dogs receiving the placebo. Echocardiography suggested improvement in both diastolic and systolic age-related measures of heart function (E/A ratio, fractional shortening, and ejection fraction) in the rapamycin-treated dogs. Hematological values remained within the normal range for all parameters studied; however, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was decreased in rapamycin-treated dogs. Based on these results, we will test rapamycin on a larger dog cohort for a longer period of time in order to validate its effects on cardiac function and to determine whether it can significantly improve healthspan and reduce mortality in companion dogs.

  11. The response of guide dogs and pet dogs (Canis familiaris) to cues of human referential communication (pointing and gaze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittyerah, Miriam; Gaunet, Florence

    2009-03-01

    The study raises the question of whether guide dogs and pet dogs are expected to differ in response to cues of referential communication given by their owners; especially since guide dogs grow up among sighted humans, and while living with their blind owners, they still have interactions with several sighted people. Guide dogs and pet dogs were required to respond to point, point and gaze, gaze and control cues of referential communication given by their owners. Results indicate that the two groups of dogs do not differ from each other, revealing that the visual status of the owner is not a factor in the use of cues of referential communication. Both groups of dogs have higher frequencies of performance and faster latencies for the point and the point and gaze cues as compared to gaze cue only. However, responses to control cues are below chance performance for the guide dogs, whereas the pet dogs perform at chance. The below chance performance of the guide dogs may be explained by a tendency among them to go and stand by the owner. The study indicates that both groups of dogs respond similarly in normal daily dyadic interaction with their owners and the lower comprehension of the human gaze may be a less salient cue among dogs in comparison to the pointing gesture.

  12. Culling dogs in scenarios of imperfect control: realistic impact on the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N C C Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis belongs to the list of neglected tropical diseases and is considered a public health problem worldwide. Spatial correlation between the occurrence of the disease in humans and high rates of canine infection suggests that in the presence of the vector, canine visceral leishmaniasis is the key factor for triggering transmission to humans. Despite the control strategies implemented, such as the sacrifice of infected dogs being put down, the incidence of American visceral leishmaniasis remains high in many Latin American countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mathematical models were developed to describe the transmission dynamics of canine leishmaniasis and its control by culling. Using these models, imperfect control scenarios were implemented to verify the possible factors which alter the effectiveness of controlling this disease in practice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A long-term continuous program targeting both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs should be effective in controlling canine leishmaniasis in areas of low to moderate transmission (R0 up to 1.4. However, the indiscriminate sacrifice of asymptomatic dogs with positive diagnosis may jeopardize the effectiveness of the control program, if tests with low specificity are used, increasing the chance of generating outrage in the population, and leading to lower adherence to the program. Therefore, culling must be planned accurately and implemented responsibly and never as a mechanical measure in large scale. In areas with higher transmission, culling alone is not an effective control strategy.

  13. One-month comparative efficacy of three topical ectoparasiticides against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on mixed-bred dogs in controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varloud, Marie; Fourie, Josephus J

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic and residual efficacy for 1 month of three topical ectoparasiticides on mixed-bred dogs against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adult dogs (n = 32, 10.8-18.4 kg BW) were allocated to 4 groups (n = 8) and infested with 50 adult ticks on days -8, -2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Within each group, dogs were treated topically on day 0 with a control solution (CS), Vectra 3D (DPP), Frontline Plus (FM), or K9 Advantix (IP). Ticks were enumerated on dogs 24 h after treatment and each subsequent tick infestation by in situ thumb count assessment without removal and at 48 h by combing and removal. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated using arithmetic means for all 24 and 48 h tick count assessments. From 42 to 56% of the total, infested ticks were found on dogs 48 h post-challenge in the CS group. Therapeutic efficacy for all treatments ranged from 45.5 to 64.6% after 48 h of infestation. Residual efficacy after FM treatment was consistently lower compared to DPP or IP treatments at the 24 h assessments on days 8, 22, 23, and 29. Residual efficacy measured at this last time point was 94.8% for DPP, 83.1% for IP, and 46.9% for FM. This study demonstrates that permethrin-based formulations (DPP and IP) provided a quicker onset of residual protection against brown dog ticks compared to FM. Although DPP and IP are both permethrin-based formulations, DPP exhibited consistently higher residual acaricidal efficacies and was the only treatment that provided >90% protection for 1 month at 24 h post challenge.

  14. The association between gall bladder mucoceles and hyperlipidaemia in dogs: a retrospective case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsunai, M; Kanemoto, H; Fukushima, K; Fujino, Y; Ohno, K; Tsujimoto, H

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of gall bladder mucoceles (GM) in dogs has become increasingly frequent in veterinary medicine. Primary breed-specific hyperlipidaemia is reported in Shetland Sheepdogs and Miniature Schnauzers, breeds in which GM are known to occur more frequently than in other breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between GM and hyperlipidaemia in dogs. The study design was a retrospective case control study. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with GM at the Veterinary Medical Centre of The University of Tokyo between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2012, were reviewed. Fifty-eight dogs with GM and a record of either serum cholesterol, triglyceride, or glucose concentrations were included in the study. Hypercholesterolaemia (15/37 cases; odds ratio [OR]: 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-8.36) and hypertriglyceridaemia (13/24 cases; OR: 3.55; 95% CI:1.12-15.91) showed significant association with GM. Pomeranians (OR: 10.69), American Cocker Spaniels (OR: 8.94), Shetland Sheepdogs (OR: 6.21), Miniature Schnauzers (OR: 5.23), and Chihuahuas (OR: 3.06) were significantly predisposed to GM. Thirty-nine out of 58 cases had at least one concurrent disease, including pancreatitis (five cases), hyperadrenocorticism (two cases), and hypothyroidism (two cases). A significant association between GM and hyperlipidaemia was confirmed, suggesting that hyperlipidaemia may play a role in the pathogenesis of GM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vaginal microbiota of spayed dogs with or without recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, R G; Vaden, S L; Jacob, M E; Harris, T L; Bowles, K D; Wood, M W; Bailey, C S

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the vaginal microbiota of normal spayed dogs and spayed dogs with recurrent UTIs. Vaginal lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) have been associated with decreased frequency of recurrent urinary tract infection in women and may have a protective role within the urinary tract of female dogs. Spayed dogs with historical recurrent UTI will have decreased prevalence of LAB and increased prevalence of uropathogenic bacterial populations in the vaginal microbiota when compared with the vaginal microbiota of healthy, spayed dogs. Twenty-one client-owned adult spayed female dogs with historical recurrent UTI and 23 healthy, spayed female dogs without a history of recurrent UTI. Dogs were placed into a recurrent UTI group or control group in this prospective study. Bacterial populations were isolated and characterized from vaginal swabs obtained from each dog. The most common bacterial isolates obtained from the vaginal tract of all dogs were Escherichia coli (11/44) and S. pseudintermedius (13/44). E. coli was isolated from the vaginal tract of 8 of 21 (38%) dogs in the rUTI group and 3 of 23 (13%) dogs in the control group (P = .08). LAB were isolated from 7 of the 44 dogs. Two of these 7 dogs were in the rUTI group and 5 of the 7 dogs were in the control group. The vaginal microbiota of spayed female dogs with recurrent UTI was similar to the control population of normal, spayed female dogs. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. A single-blinded phenobarbital-controlled trial of levetiracetam as mono-therapy in dogs with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredsø, N; Sabers, A; Toft, N; Møller, A; Berendt, M

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of canine epilepsy is problematic. Few antiepileptic drugs have proven efficacy in dogs and undesirable adverse effects and pharmacoresistance are not uncommon. Consequently, the need for investigation of alternative treatment options is ongoing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam as mono-therapy in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. The study used a prospective single-blinded parallel group design. Twelve client-owned dogs were included and were randomised to treatment with levetiracetam (30 mg/kg/day or 60 mg/kg/day divided into three daily dosages) or phenobarbital (4 mg/kg/day divided twice daily). Control visits were at days 30, 60 and then every 3 months for up to 1 year. Two or more seizures within 3 months led to an increase in drug dosage (levetiracetam: 10 mg/kg/day, phenobarbital: 1 mg/kg/day). Five of six levetiracetam treated dogs and one of six phenobarbital treated dogs withdrew from the study within 2-5 months due to insufficient seizure control. In the levetiracetam treated dogs there was no significant difference in the monthly number of seizures before and after treatment, whereas in the phenobarbital treated dogs there were significantly (P = 0.013) fewer seizures after treatment. Five phenobarbital treated dogs were classified as true responders (≥50% reduction in seizures/month) whereas none of the levetiracetam treated dogs fulfilled this criterion. Adverse effects were reported in both groups but were more frequent in the phenobarbital group. In this study levetiracetam was well tolerated but was not effective at the given doses as mono-therapy in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiological Study and Control Trial of Taeniid Cestode Infection in Farm Dogs in Qinghai Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taenii...

  18. Acquiring a Pet Dog Significantly Reduces Stress of Primary Carers for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Prospective Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H. F.; Hall, S.; Hames, A.; Hardiman, J.; Mills, R.; Mills, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the impact of pet dogs on stress of primary carers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Stress levels of 38 primary carers acquiring a dog and 24 controls not acquiring a dog were sampled at: Pre-intervention (17 weeks before acquiring a dog), post-intervention (3-10 weeks after acquisition) and follow-up…

  19. Intracellular magnesium concentrations in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebchuk, T N; Hauptman, J G; Braselton, W E; Walshaw, R

    2000-11-01

    To quantify and compare intracellular magnesium concentrations (Mgi) in clinically normal dogs (control dogs) and dogs that have gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV dogs) and to determine whether there is a difference in Mgi and serum magnesium concentrations (Mgs) between GDV dogs with and without cardiac arrhythmias. 41 control dogs and 21 GDV dogs. Rectus abdominis muscle specimens were obtained from control and GDV dogs for determination of Mgi. Blood samples were obtained from GDV dogs for determination of Mgs, and dogs were monitored for 48 hours for cardiac arrhythmias. Muscle specimens were frozen at -40 C, oven dried at 95 C, and digested with concentrated nitric acid. Multielemental analyses were performed by simultaneous/sequential inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy with fixed-cross flow nebulization. The Mg, was standardized to sulfur content to correct for the amount of fat and fascia in the muscle specimen. Mean (+/- SEM) values were recorded in parts per million (ppm). Results-There were no significant differences in Mgi between control (627 +/- 11.1 ppm) and GDV (597 +/- 20.5 ppm) dogs, in Mgi between GDV dogs with (590 +/- 34 ppm) and without (584 +/- 29 ppm) cardiac arrhythmias, and in Mgs between GDV dogs with (1.77 +/- 0.26 ppm) and without (1.51 +/- 0.09 ppm) cardiac arrhythmias. There was no correlation between Mgs and Mgi (R2 = 0.0001). Results indicate that Mg depletion is not pathophysiologically important in dogs with GDV and does not play a role in the cardiac arrhythmias detected in these patients.

  20. Low-level laser therapy: Case-control study in dogs with sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Perego

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT is a therapeutic photobiostimulation with properties in reducing swelling, inflammation, and promoting tissue healing. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate LLLT in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in five dogs. Materials and Methods: In each dog, one lesion was designated as the control (treated with a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray, and one or more other lesions were treated with a gallium aluminum arsenide-laser, daily for 5 days. Lesions were scored before treatment (D0, at the end (D4, 16 days after the last laser treatment (D20, and after 2 months (D65. Results: Comparing the treated lesion group with the control lesion group, the clinical score was similar at D0, whereas there was a statistically significant difference at D4 and D20; in the treated group over time, there was a statistically significant improvement between D0, D4, and D20. Lesion recurrence was absent in more than 50% of the treated lesions at D65. No adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Given the positive results of this first clinical study, it would be interesting to extend the study to confirm the validity of this type of therapy in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in the dog.

  1. Interaction Between the Central and Peripheral Effects of Insulin in Controlling Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in the Conscious Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnanan, Christopher J.; Kraft, Guillaume; Smith, Marta S.; Farmer, Ben; Neal, Doss; Williams, Phillip E.; Lautz, Margaret; Farmer, Tiffany; Donahue, E. Patrick; Cherrington, Alan D.; Edgerton, Dale S.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of hypothalamic insulin action to the regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism in the presence of a normal liver/brain insulin ratio (3:1) is unknown. Thus, we assessed the role of central insulin action in the response of the liver to normal physiologic hyperinsulinemia over 4 h. Using a pancreatic clamp, hepatic portal vein insulin delivery was increased three- or eightfold in the conscious dog. Insulin action was studied in the presence or absence of intracerebroventricularly mediated blockade of hypothalamic insulin action. Euglycemia was maintained, and glucagon was clamped at basal. Both the molecular and metabolic aspects of insulin action were assessed. Blockade of hypothalamic insulin signaling did not alter the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic gluconeogenic gene transcription but blunted the induction of glucokinase gene transcription and completely blocked the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β gene transcription. Thus, central and peripheral insulin action combined to control some, but not other, hepatic enzyme programs. Nevertheless, inhibition of hypothalamic insulin action did not alter the effects of the hormone on hepatic glucose flux (production or uptake). These data indicate that brain insulin action is not a determinant of the rapid (<4 h) inhibition of hepatic glucose metabolism caused by normal physiologic hyperinsulinemia in this large animal model. PMID:23011594

  2. A case-control study between interleukin-10 gene variants and periodontal disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Carlos; Morinha, Francisco; Requicha, João; Dias, Isabel; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Viegas, Carlos; Bastos, Estela

    2014-04-10

    Periodontal disease (PD) refers to a group of inflammatory diseases that affect the periodontium, the organ which surrounds and supports the teeth. PD is a highly prevalent disease with a multifactorial etiology and, in humans the individual susceptibility is known to be strongly determined by genetic factors. Several candidate genes have been studied, namely genes related with molecules involved in the inflammatory response. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with important anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory roles, and several studies indicate an association between IL10 polymorphisms and PD. In dogs, an important animal model in periodontology, PD is also a highly prevalent naturally occurring disease, and only now are emerging the first studies evaluating the genetic predisposition. In this case-control study, a population of 90 dogs (40 dogs with PD and 50 healthy dogs) was used to study the IL10 gene, and seven new genetic variations in this gene were identified. No statistically significant differences were detected in genotype and allele frequencies of these variations between the PD cases and control groups. Nevertheless, one of the variations (IL10/2_g.285G>A) leads to an amino acid change (glycine to arginine) in the putative signal peptide, being predicted a potential influence on IL-10 protein functionality. Further investigations are important to clarify the biological importance of these new findings. The knowledge of these genetic determinants can help to understand properly the complex causal pathways of PD, with important clinical implications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of a high fibre diet on glycaemic control and quality of life in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, P A; Maskell, E; Rawlings, J M; Nash, A S; Markwell, P J

    2002-02-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate a high fibre diet used in the management of 10 dogs with naturally occurring insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Following baseline measurements of health and glycaemic control, the dogs were fed a canned diet containing a blend of insoluble and soluble dietary fibres and were monitored during the ensuing four months. Switching to the high fibre diet was associated with significantly lower mean 24-hour and postprandial plasma glucose concentrations, which were maintained over the study period. The high fibre diet was also associated with significant reductions in plasma concentrations of fructosamine, glycated haemoglobin, free glycerol and cholesterol, and there were significant improvements in dog activity and demeanour. Bodyweight declined during the fourth month of feeding the diet, which is likely to have resulted from underfeeding relative to increased activity. The results indicate that a high fibre diet can significantly improve glycaemic control and quality of life in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

  4. Incidence of urinary bladder tumors in the control Beagle dog population at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Kusewitt, D.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The report reviews the incidence and types of urinary bladder tumors in 94 dogs that have died in a population of 250 control dogs (median life span 14.0 years). Six bladder tumors, two papillomas and four transitional cell carcinomas, were found. The cumulative incidence for bladder tumors was 10.5 percent at 16 to 19 years of age; this was a 20 percent age-specific incidence

  5. Microtubule depolymerization normalizes in vivo myocardial contractile function in dogs with pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, M.; Hamawaki, M.; Narishige, T.; Sato, H.; Nemoto, S.; DeFreyte, G.; Zile, M. R.; Cooper G, I. V.; Carabello, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because initially compensatory myocardial hypertrophy in response to pressure overloading may eventually decompensate to myocardial failure, mechanisms responsible for this transition have long been sought. One such mechanism established in vitro is densification of the cellular microtubule network, which imposes a viscous load that inhibits cardiocyte contraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we extended this in vitro finding to the in vivo level and tested the hypothesis that this cytoskeletal abnormality is important in the in vivo contractile dysfunction that occurs in experimental aortic stenosis in the adult dog. In 8 dogs in which gradual stenosis of the ascending aorta had caused severe left ventricular (LV) pressure overloading (gradient, 152+/-16 mm Hg) with contractile dysfunction, LV function was measured at baseline and 1 hour after the intravenous administration of colchicine. Cardiocytes obtained by biopsy before and after in vivo colchicine administration were examined in tandem. Microtubule depolymerization restored LV contractile function both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These and additional corroborative data show that increased cardiocyte microtubule network density is an important mechanism for the ventricular contractile dysfunction that develops in large mammals with adult-onset pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  6. Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs and cats with medically-controlled left-sided congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciello, F; Rishniw, M; Ljungvall, I; Ferasin, L; Haggstrom, J; Ohad, D G

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping and resting respiratory rates (SRR and RRR, respectively) are commonly used to monitor dogs and cats with left-sided cardiac disease and to identify animals with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). Dogs and cats with subclinical heart disease have SRRmean values dogs and cats with CHF that is well controlled with medical therapy. In this study, SRR and RRR were measured by the owners of 51 dogs and 22 cats with stable, well-controlled CHF. Median canine SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (7-39 breaths/min); eight dogs were ≥25 breaths/min and one dog only was ≥30 breaths/min. Canine SRRmean was unrelated to pulmonary hypertension or diuretic dose. Median feline SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (13-31 breaths/min); four cats were ≥25 breaths/min and only one cat was ≥30 breaths/min. Feline SRRmean was unrelated to diuretic dose. SRR remained stable during collection in both species with little day-to-day variability. The median canine RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (12-44 breaths/min), 17 were ≥25 breaths/min, seven were ≥30 breaths/min, two were >40 breaths/min. Median feline RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (15-45 breaths/min); five cats had RRRmean ≥25 breaths/min; one had ≥30 breaths/min, and two had ≥40 breaths/min. These data suggest that most dogs and cats with CHF that is medically well-controlled and stable have SRRmean and RRRmean dogs and cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-radiometric immunoassays fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) and fluorometric enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) for evaluation of thyroid function in normal and hypothyroid dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerico, M.M.; Larsson, C.E. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Clinica Medica]. E-mail: marciajerico@hotmail.com; Mendonca, B.B. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina . Lab. de Hormonios e Genetica Molecular; Otsuka, M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Hospital Veterinario; Maganin Junior, A. [Canil da Policia Militar do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    We proposed the comparison of thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (FT4) measurements by fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) and fluorometric enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in thyroid function evaluation of normal (n=50) and hypothyroid dogs (n=9). T4 and FT4 serum concentrations were measured in basal conditions and 6 h after TRH stimulation (200 mug/IV). All our reference values are based on the 5th and 95th percentile. The reference values for basal T4 in healthy dogs were 0.50 to 2.35 mug/dL (FIA), 0.50 to 2.51 mug/dL (FEIA) and 0.35 to 0.74 mug/dL (RIA). After TRH, the values were >= 1.37 mug/dL (FIA), >= 0,26 mug/dL (FEIA) and >= 0.40 mug/dL (RIA). Basal FT4 values in healthy dogs were 0.65 to 2.20 ng/dL (FIA), 0.38 to 1.43 ng/dL (FEIA) and 0.10 to 1.24 ng/dL (RIA). After TRH, the values were >= 1.30 ng/dL (FIA), >= 0.77 ng/dL (FEIA) and >=0.50 ng/dL (RIA). In hypothyroid dogs, the mean +- SD for T4 in basal conditions and after TRH were 0.24 +- 0.20 mug/dL and 0.26 +- 0.20 mug/dL (FIA), 0.27 +- 0.12 mug/dL and 0.32 +- 0.51 mug/dL (FEIA) and 0.19 +- 0.30 mug/dL and 0,24 +- 0.09 mug/dL (RIA), respectively. In the same group the mean +- SD basal FT4 values and after TRH were 0.28 +- 0.33 ng/dL and 0.28 +- 0.39 ng/dL (FIA), 0,12 +- 0.26 ng/dL and 0.23 +- 0.56 ng/dL (FEIA) and 0,15 +- 0,15 ng/dL and 0,17 +- 0,28 ng/dL (RIA), respectively. Significant differences (p<0.05) between the normal and hypothyroid groups (Kruskall-Wallis test) were observed in the three methods and between basal and stimulated values in normal dogs (Wilcoxon test), by the three methods. The best sensitivity for diagnosing hypothyroidism was obtained through T4 values (100%), and the best specificity through FT4 values (100%), both determined by FIA after TRH stimulation. We conclude that T4 and FT4 measured by fluoroimmunoassay after TRH stimulation can be an excellent alternative. (author)

  8. Non-radiometric immunoassays (fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) and fluorometric enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) for evaluation of thyroid function in normal and hypothyroid dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerico, M.M.; Larsson, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    We proposed the comparison of thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (FT4) measurements by fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) and fluorometric enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in thyroid function evaluation of normal (n=50) and hypothyroid dogs (n=9). T4 and FT4 serum concentrations were measured in basal conditions and 6 h after TRH stimulation (200 mug/IV). All our reference values are based on the 5th and 95th percentile. The reference values for basal T4 in healthy dogs were 0.50 to 2.35 mug/dL (FIA), 0.50 to 2.51 mug/dL (FEIA) and 0.35 to 0.74 mug/dL (RIA). After TRH, the values were >= 1.37 mug/dL (FIA), >= 0,26 mug/dL (FEIA) and >= 0.40 mug/dL (RIA). Basal FT4 values in healthy dogs were 0.65 to 2.20 ng/dL (FIA), 0.38 to 1.43 ng/dL (FEIA) and 0.10 to 1.24 ng/dL (RIA). After TRH, the values were >= 1.30 ng/dL (FIA), >= 0.77 ng/dL (FEIA) and >=0.50 ng/dL (RIA). In hypothyroid dogs, the mean +- SD for T4 in basal conditions and after TRH were 0.24 +- 0.20 mug/dL and 0.26 +- 0.20 mug/dL (FIA), 0.27 +- 0.12 mug/dL and 0.32 +- 0.51 mug/dL (FEIA) and 0.19 +- 0.30 mug/dL and 0,24 +- 0.09 mug/dL (RIA), respectively. In the same group the mean +- SD basal FT4 values and after TRH were 0.28 +- 0.33 ng/dL and 0.28 +- 0.39 ng/dL (FIA), 0,12 +- 0.26 ng/dL and 0.23 +- 0.56 ng/dL (FEIA) and 0,15 +- 0,15 ng/dL and 0,17 +- 0,28 ng/dL (RIA), respectively. Significant differences (p<0.05) between the normal and hypothyroid groups (Kruskall-Wallis test) were observed in the three methods and between basal and stimulated values in normal dogs (Wilcoxon test), by the three methods. The best sensitivity for diagnosing hypothyroidism was obtained through T4 values (100%), and the best specificity through FT4 values (100%), both determined by FIA after TRH stimulation. We conclude that T4 and FT4 measured by fluoroimmunoassay after TRH stimulation can be an excellent alternative. (author)

  9. Beta normal control of TFTR using fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.E.; Bell, M.G.; Marsala, R.J.; Mueller, D.

    1995-01-01

    In TFTR plasmas heated by neutral beam injection, the fusion power yield increases rapidly with the plasma pressure. However, the pressure is limited by the onset of instabilities which may result in plasma disruptions that would have had an adverse effect on the performance of subsequent discharges and increase the risk of damage to internal components. The likelihood of disruption has been found to correlate with the normalized beta, defined as βN = 2 x 10 8 μ circle left angle p perpendicular to right angle a / BTIp where left angle p perpendicular to right angle is the volume-average plasma perpendicular pressure, a the mid-plane minor radius of the plasma, BT the toroidal magnetic field and Ip the plasma current. Other variables, such as the peaking of the plasma pressure and current profiles, have been found to influence the threshold of βN at which the probability of disruption begins to increase significantly. For TFTR plasmas with high fusion performance (TFTR ''supershots'') the probability of disruption has been found to increase rapidly for βN > 1.8. Since confinement in this regime is affected by plasma-wall interaction, which can vary from shot to shot, operation at high βN with preprogrammed heating power pulses can produce an unacceptably high risk of disruption. To reduce the risk of producing beta-limit disruptions during neutral beam heating experiments, a control system, the Neutral Beam Power Feedback System (NBPFS), has been developed to modulate the total heating power by switching individual neutral beam sources on and off in response to the evolution of the normalized beta so that the limit will not be exceeded. The value of βN is calculated in real time and transmitted to the NBPFS. The value of βN and its calculated time derivative are input to a fuzzy logic controller which implements a proportional-derivative control based on the difference between βN and a programmed reference level βNREF which can be programmed as a function

  10. STAT proteins: from normal control of cellular events to tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Valentina; Migliavacca, Manuela; Bazan, Viviana; Macaluso, Marcella; Buscemi, Maria; Gebbia, Nicola; Russo, Antonio

    2003-11-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins comprise a family of transcription factors latent in the cytoplasm that participate in normal cellular events, such as differentiation, proliferation, cell survival, apoptosis, and angiogenesis following cytokine, growth factor, and hormone signaling. STATs are activated by tyrosine phosphorylation, which is normally a transient and tightly regulates process. Nevertheless, several constitutively activated STATs have been observed in a wide number of human cancer cell lines and primary tumors, including blood malignancies and solid neoplasias. STATs can be divided into two groups according to their specific functions. One is made up of STAT2, STAT4, and STAT6, which are activated by a small number of cytokines and play a distinct role in the development of T-cells and in IFNgamma signaling. The other group includes STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5, activated in different tissues by means of a series of ligands and involved in IFN signaling, development of the mammary gland, response to GH, and embriogenesis. This latter group of STATS plays an important role in controlling cell-cycle progression and apoptosis and thus contributes to oncogenesis. Although an increased expression of STAT1 has been observed in many human neoplasias, this molecule can be considered a potential tumor suppressor, since it plays an important role in growth arrest and in promoting apoptosis. On the other hand, STAT3 and 5 are considered as oncogenes, since they bring about the activation of cyclin D1, c-Myc, and bcl-xl expression, and are involved in promoting cell-cycle progression, cellular transformation, and in preventing apoptosis.

  11. Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) control efficacy of topical indoxacarb on dogs subsequently bathed with a chlorhexidine-ketoconazole shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R D; Liebenberg, J E; Heaney, K; Guerino, F

    2015-08-01

    An evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine/ketoconazole shampoo baths on the flea control efficacy of indoxacarb applied topically to dogs. We randomly allocated 18 healthy mixed-breed dogs to 3 groups: shampoo only; indoxacarb treated and medicated shampoo; and indoxacarb treated but not shampooed. Indoxacarb was administered on day 0 and dogs were shampooed on days 9 and 23. Dogs were infested with 100 adult Ctenocephalides felis initially 2 days before treatment and then weekly from days 7 to 28. Fleas were removed and counted 48 h post-infestation. Medicated shampoo use did not significantly reduce indoxacarb efficacy against C. felis. © 2015 MSD Animal Health. Australian Veterinary Journal published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australian Veterinary Association.

  12. Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) control efficacy of topical indoxacarb on dogs subsequently bathed with a chlorhexidine–ketoconazole shampoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, JE; Heaney, K; Guerino, F

    2015-01-01

    Objective An evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine/ketoconazole shampoo baths on the flea control efficacy of indoxacarb applied topically to dogs. Methods and Results We randomly allocated 18 healthy mixed‐breed dogs to 3 groups: shampoo only; indoxacarb treated and medicated shampoo; and indoxacarb treated but not shampooed. Indoxacarb was administered on day 0 and dogs were shampooed on days 9 and 23. Dogs were infested with 100 adult Ctenocephalides felis initially 2 days before treatment and then weekly from days 7 to 28. Fleas were removed and counted 48 h post‐infestation. Conclusion Medicated shampoo use did not significantly reduce indoxacarb efficacy against C. felis. PMID:26220323

  13. Clinically healthy overweight and obese dogs differ from lean controls in select CBC and serum biochemistry values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovich, Lauren B; Truelove, Matthew P; Pannone, Stephen C; Olver, Christine S; Santangelo, Kelly S

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a global disease, affecting nearly half a billion people. Unfortunately, this trend is mirrored in our canine population. As obesity is a complex inflammatory disease, there is a need to determine whether routine medical screening tests may indicate, or be influenced by, its presence. The objective of the current study was to determine if significant differences exist between CBC and biochemical profile values from control vs overweight/obese, client-owned dogs considered clinically healthy. Dogs presented for routine health examinations, including minor dental or elective surgical procedures, were retrospectively identified from a hospital population. Animals were allocated to 2 categories based on body condition score (BCS), and data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney nonparametric analysis with statistical significance at a P ≤ .05. After exclusions, 116 dogs were assigned to the overweight/obese group (BCS ≥ 7) and 240 dogs to the control group (BCS = 4-6). Overweight/obese dogs had higher total leukocyte counts and higher plasma protein and globulin concentrations. Other differences were attributed to decreased serum water fraction (increased sodium, albumin, calcium, and anion gap) in the overweight/obese group. Interestingly, chloride concentration was decreased (in the face of increased sodium) in the obese group. There is CBC and biochemical evidence to support the concern that obesity influences laboratory values, even in dogs considered clinically healthy. Prospective studies aimed at characterizing these changes are needed to provide insight into the connection between obesity and its comorbidities. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  14. Seroprevalence of Leptospirosis in Working Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S F; Wong, J Y; Khor, K H; Roslan, M A; Abdul Rahman, M S; Bejo, S K; Radzi, R; Bahaman, A R

    2017-12-01

    Working dogs are canine animals that have been trained to assist human beings in carrying out various tasks. They help in guarding property, performing rescues, assisting the visually impaired or physically handicapped, searching for drugs, explosives, and others. Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world and a commonly occurring disease of the tropics and subtropics. In Malaysia, all working dogs are normally vaccinated with serovars, Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, and Grippotyphosa based on protocols recommended from other countries. The duration of immunity in vaccinated dogs for Leptospira can last up to 13 months; however, there is no full crossprotection between the different serovars. Five representative canine units from different government agencies in Malaysia (n = 96 dogs) were recruited in this study. For detection, the microscopic agglutination test was performed by incubating the serum from dogs with various serovars of leptospires, namely, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Australis, Bataviae, Javanica, Tarassovi, Hebdomadis, Lai, and Pyrogenes. The plasma obtained was used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, for the detection of 16S rRNA, and lipL 32 genes of Leptospira. Out of the 96 dogs sampled, only 3 dogs were positive toward serovars, Australis, Bataviae, and Javanica, based on the cutoff point at 1:80. The seroprevalence of canine leptospirosis in this population was 3.1% (n = 3/96). However, all 96 blood samples of working dogs tested negative for both pathogenic and nonpathogenic Leptospira genes. The results revealed that, by vaccination alone, working dogs were not fully protected against leptospirosis and could pose a risk to dog handlers. A preventative and control protocol for leptospirosis is warranted, and its implementation should be monitored and improved accordingly from time to time, in order to maintain a healthy condition in both working dogs and their

  15. Free-roaming dogs control activities in one Italian province (2000-2013: Is the implemented approach effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanis Barnard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, standards for the management of free-roaming dogs (FRDs are defined by regional norms, generating a high variability of approaches around the country. Despite efforts carried out by the competent authorities, FRDs are still a reality impacting upon animal health and welfare and public costs. A similar scenario can be found in many other Mediterranean and Balkan counties. Here we present 14 years of data (2000–2013 retrieved from the admission dog registry of a public shelter (PS responsible for the collection of stray dogs from one Italian province. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the local FRD population, identifying its source and to evaluate the effectiveness of the actions implemented by the local authorities. In the investigated period, 7,475 dogs were admitted to the PS. Despite the intense sterilisation plan (mean 381.7 sterilisations per year, the overall number of dogs entering PS did not decrease consistently across the years. Results highlighted a lack of responsibility of owners by failing to sterilise and identify their dogs and allowing intact animals to roam free, therefore producing uncontrolled and unwanted litters. The current dog population management strategy, based on both sheltering and capture-neuter-release programmes, is insufficient to tackle the straying phenomenon. Educational and sterilisation programmes should be an integral part of a successfully implemented FRD control plan. Our results provide further insight on free-roaming dog population dynamics and control systems, and may have important implications for many other local contexts across Europe trying to overcome the straying phenomenon.

  16. Community perception regarding rabies prevention and stray dog control in urban slums in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Mrudu; Riyaz Basha, S; Thangaraj, Selvi

    2012-12-01

    The lack of community awareness about rabies control is a major issue that thwarts efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess community knowledge and attitudes about rabies, rabies prevention and stray dog control in an urban slum community and (2) to determine the factors that influence rabies awareness in urban slums. Using a systematic random sampling strategy, 185 participants were selected from 8 urban slums. The data were collected by direct interview using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. In the study population, 74.1% of the participants had heard about rabies, and 54.1% knew that rabies is a fatal disease. Only 33.5% of the interviewees felt that people in the community had a role to play in controlling the stray dog population. Gender, age and educational status were significantly associated with rabies awareness. Our study indicates that there are gaps in the knowledge and attitudes of individuals living in urban slums regarding rabies prevention and control. Efforts to promote awareness should be targeted at men, older people and uneducated individuals. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood leukocyte responses to extracorporeal circulation. 2. Medium term extracorporeal circulation without and with extracorporeal irradiation in normal and splenectomized dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szemere, P.; Fliedner, T.M. (Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Klinische Physiologie)

    1983-01-01

    Medium term (6-8 h) extracorporeal irradiation without and with irradiation of blood was performed in normal and splenectomized dogs to reveal the changes of blood leukocytes including CFU-C. A regular but transitory decrease of granulocytes and a longer lasting diminution of lymphocytes in the blood were observed. The CFU-C level became and mostly remained very low during the procedure. Splenectomy did not influence significantly the changes of peripheral leukocyte counts. No marked difference of leukocytes was seen in the blood samples taken from the arterial or venous side of the shunt or even from the cubital vein. Also, the irradiation did not produce any difference in the alterations of blood cell counts compared to those without irradiation. The possible explanations of these results are discussed.

  18. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, G M; Beck, A; Lopez, A; Deniaud, M; Araujo, J A; Milgram, N W

    2015-09-12

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across 'during' and 'post' thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity. British Veterinary Association.

  19. WAIS Performance in Unincarcerated Groups of MMPI-Defined Sociopaths and Normal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Albert N.

    1974-01-01

    This investigation examines WAIS performance in groups of 32 sociopaths and 33 normal controls defined by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory criteria. Sociopaths and normal controls show no differences in overall level of intellectual functioning. (Author)

  20. Tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials in dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meij, Björn P; Suwankong, Niyada; van den Brom, Walter E; Venker-van Haagen, Anjop J; Hazewinkel, Herman A W

    2006-02-01

    To determine somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLS) and in healthy dogs. Clinical and experimental study. Dogs with DLS (n = 21) and 11 clinically normal dogs, age, and weight matched. Under anesthesia, the tibial nerve was stimulated at the caudolateral aspect of the stifle, and lumbar SEP (LSEP) were recorded percutaneously from S1 to T13 at each interspinous space. Cortical SEP (CSEP) were recorded from the scalp. LSEP were identified as the N1-P1 (latency 3-6 ms) and N2-P2 (latency 7-13 ms) wave complexes in the recordings of dogs with DLS and control dogs. Latency of N1-P1 increased and that of N2-P2 decreased as the active recording electrode was moved cranially from S1 to T13. Compared with controls, latencies were significantly delayed in DLS dogs: .8 ms for N1-P1 and 1.7 ms for the N2-P2 complex. CSEP were not different between groups. Surface needle recording of tibial nerve SEP can be used to monitor somatosensory nerve function of pelvic limbs in dogs. In dogs with DLS, the latency of LSEP, but not of CSEP, is prolonged compared with normal dogs. In dogs with lumbosacral pain from DLS, the cauda equina compression is sufficient to affect LSEP at the lumbar level.

  1. A randomized, controlled study to assess the efficacy and safety of lotilaner (Credelio™ in controlling ticks in client-owned dogs in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavalleri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral administration of lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets (Credelio™, Elanco to dogs has been shown to provide a rapid onset of killing activity of infesting ticks, with sustained efficacy for at least 35 days. A study was undertaken in Europe to confirm lotilaner’s safety and anti-tick efficacy in client-owned dogs. Methods In this assessor-blinded study, dogs were enrolled at 19 clinics in Germany, Hungary and Portugal. Qualifying households with no more than three dogs were randomized in an approximate 2:1 ratio to a lotilaner or fipronil/(S-methoprene (FSM (Frontline® Combo Spot-on, Merial treatment group. One household dog with at least three live attached ticks was the primary dog. Treatments were dispensed Days 0, 28 (± 2 and 56 (± 2 for owner administration to all household dogs. Tick counts were performed on primary dogs Days 7 (± 1, and ±2 days on Days 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84; supplementary dogs were assessed for safety ± 2 days on Days 28, 56 and 84. Efficacy was assessed by comparing mean Day 0 live attached tick counts with subsequent counts. Results The most frequently retrieved ticks were Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato, with Ixodes hexagonus also present. In the lotilaner group (n = 127 geometric mean tick count reductions were at least 98% from the first post-treatment visit (Day 7 through Day 56, when efficacy was 100%. For FSM (n = 68, efficacy remained at least 96% through Day 84, but at no point were all dogs free of live attached ticks. Mean counts in lotilaner-treated dogs were significantly lower than FSM-treated dogs on Days 7, 42, 70 and 84 (P  98% effective in eliminating live ticks from the first post-treatment assessment (Day 7 through Day 56 and maintained 100% of dogs tick-free on Days 70 and 84. Lotilaner was safe, providing superior tick control to FSM administered according to the same schedule.

  2. A critical reflection on current control of Toxocara canis in household dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, E.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314103198

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a roundworm that is common worldwide and also in Dutch household dogs. Adult stages of T. canis can be present in the small intestines of dogs where they produce large numbers of eggs that are shed in the environment (patent infection). Because very young dogs and humans can

  3. Motion Normalized Proportional Control for Improved Pattern Recognition-Based Myoelectric Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheme, Erik; Lock, Blair; Hargrove, Levi; Hill, Wendy; Kuruganti, Usha; Englehart, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes two novel proportional control algorithms for use with pattern recognition-based myoelectric control. The systems were designed to provide automatic configuration of motion-specific gains and to normalize the control space to the user's usable dynamic range. Class-specific normalization parameters were calculated using data collected during classifier training and require no additional user action or configuration. The new control schemes were compared to the standard method of deriving proportional control using a one degree of freedom Fitts' law test for each of the wrist flexion/extension, wrist pronation/supination and hand close/open degrees of freedom. Performance was evaluated using the Fitts' law throughput value as well as more descriptive metrics including path efficiency, overshoot, stopping distance and completion rate. The proposed normalization methods significantly outperformed the incumbent method in every performance category for able bodied subjects (p < 0.001) and nearly every category for amputee subjects. Furthermore, one proposed method significantly outperformed both other methods in throughput (p < 0.0001), yielding 21% and 40% improvement over the incumbent method for amputee and able bodied subjects, respectively. The proposed control schemes represent a computationally simple method of fundamentally improving myoelectric control users' ability to elicit robust, and controlled, proportional velocity commands.

  4. Endocrine and molecular control of luteal and placental function in dogs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, M P

    2012-12-01

    In the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), the corpus luteum (CL) is the only source of progesterone (P4) in non-pregnant and pregnant animals. The progesterone secretion profiles are almost identical in both conditions until the last third of the luteal phase when the gradual P4 decline turns into a steep drop in pregnant bitches, indicating the onset of parturition. Consequently, the length of the CL-phase in non-pregnant dogs exceeds the luteal lifespan in pregnant animals. The canine CL-function is regulated by many species-specific regulatory mechanisms, the most intriguing of which is the reported independence of gonadotropic support during the first third of dioestrus. Recently, PGE2 has been proposed as one of the most important luteotropic factors acting locally during this time, but afterwards prolactin (PRL) appears to be the main luteotropic factor. Luteal regression/luteolysis occurs, however, in spite of an increased gonadotropic support. Lately, by demonstrating the expression of PRL-receptor (PRLr), a new insight into possible regulatory mechanisms has indicated that the supply of P4 could be controlled upstream of the steroidogenic machinery at the level of PRLr expression and/or function, subsequently leading to the functional suppression of the steroidogenic machinery. An endogenous source of a luteolytic agent is apparently lacking, implicating the luteal regression in non-pregnant bitches as a passive, degenerative process even if the PGF2α-receptor is constitutively expressed in canine CL. This is in contrast to pregnant dogs in which prepartum luteolysis seems to be an active process of CL destruction by PGF2α of utero/placental origin targeting the luteal PGF2α-receptor. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  6. Transmission dynamics and economics of rabies control in dogs and humans in an African city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsstag, J; Dürr, S; Penny, M A; Mindekem, R; Roth, F; Menendez Gonzalez, S; Naissengar, S; Hattendorf, J

    2009-09-01

    Human rabies in developing countries can be prevented through interventions directed at dogs. Potential cost-savings for the public health sector of interventions aimed at animal-host reservoirs should be assessed. Available deterministic models of rabies transmission between dogs were extended to include dog-to-human rabies transmission. Model parameters were fitted to routine weekly rabid-dog and exposed-human cases reported in N'Djaména, the capital of Chad. The estimated transmission rates between dogs (beta(d)) were 0.0807 km2/(dogs x week) and between dogs and humans (beta(dh)) 0.0002 km2/(dogs x week). The effective reproductive ratio (R(e)) at the onset of our observations was estimated at 1.01, indicating low-level endemic stability of rabies transmission. Human rabies incidence depended critically on dog-related transmission parameters. We simulated the effects of mass dog vaccination and the culling of a percentage of the dog population on human rabies incidence. A single parenteral dog rabies-mass vaccination campaign achieving a coverage of least 70% appears to be sufficient to interrupt transmission of rabies to humans for at least 6 years. The cost-effectiveness of mass dog vaccination was compared to postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is the current practice in Chad. PEP does not reduce future human exposure. Its cost-effectiveness is estimated at US $46 per disability adjusted life-years averted. Cost-effectiveness for PEP, together with a dog-vaccination campaign, breaks even with cost-effectiveness of PEP alone after almost 5 years. Beyond a time-frame of 7 years, it appears to be more cost-effective to combine parenteral dog-vaccination campaigns with human PEP compared to human PEP alone.

  7. Control Systems with Normalized and Covariance Adaptation by Optimal Control Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor); Burken, John J. (Inventor); Hanson, Curtis E. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Disclosed is a novel adaptive control method and system called optimal control modification with normalization and covariance adjustment. The invention addresses specifically to current challenges with adaptive control in these areas: 1) persistent excitation, 2) complex nonlinear input-output mapping, 3) large inputs and persistent learning, and 4) the lack of stability analysis tools for certification. The invention has been subject to many simulations and flight testing. The results substantiate the effectiveness of the invention and demonstrate the technical feasibility for use in modern aircraft flight control systems.

  8. Remote effects in treated dogs survived acute radiation sickness. Hemodynamics at various times after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostesha, N.Ya.; Lopukhova, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Dogs were exposed to X-radiation at a dose of 15 Gy; part of them received a complex treatment. The morphological of internal organs of control dogs were made before death (on days 4 to 15 after irradiation). The treated dogs were killed 0.5-2 years following irradiation. Hemodynamics normalization was noted in 1.5-2 years in the liver, brain cortex, adrenals, insular tissue of the pancreas, and lymph nodes

  9. Deltamethrin flea-control preserves genetic variability of black-tailed prairie dogs during a plague outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P.H.; Biggins, D.E.; Eads, D.A.; Eads, S.L.; Britten, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variability and structure of nine black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD, Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies were estimated with 15 unlinked microsatellite markers. A plague epizootic occurred between the first and second years of sampling and our study colonies were nearly extirpated with the exception of three colonies in which prairie dog burrows were previously dusted with an insecticide, deltamethrin, used to control fleas (vectors of the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis). This situation provided context to compare genetic variability and structure among dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic, and among the three dusted colonies pre- and post-epizootic. We found no statistical difference in population genetic structures between dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic. On dusted colonies, gene flow and recent migration rates increased from the first (pre-epizootic) year to the second (post-epizootic) year which suggested dusted colonies were acting as refugia for prairie dogs from surrounding colonies impacted by plague. Indeed, in the dusted colonies, estimated densities of adult prairie dogs (including dispersers), but not juveniles (non-dispersers), increased from the first year to the second year. In addition to preserving BTPDs and many species that depend on them, protecting colonies with deltamethrin or a plague vaccine could be an effective method to preserve genetic variability of prairie dogs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. SEASON OF DELTAMETHRIN APPLICATION AFFECTS FLEA AND PLAGUE CONTROL IN WHITE-TAILED PRAIRIE DOG (CYNOMYS LEUCURUS) COLONIES, COLORADO, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Daniel W; Streich, Sean P; Sack, Danielle A; Martin, Daniel J; Griffin, Karen A; Miller, Michael W

    2016-07-01

    In 2008 and 2009, we evaluated the duration of prophylactic deltamethrin treatments in white-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys leucurus ) colonies and compared effects of autumn or spring dust application in suppressing flea numbers and plague. Plague occurred before and during our experiment. Overall, flea abundance tended to increase from May or June to September, but it was affected by deltamethrin treatment and plague dynamics. Success in trapping prairie dogs (animals caught/trap days) declined between June and September at all study sites. However, by September trap success on dusted sites (19%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 16-22%) was about 15-fold greater than on undusted control sites (1%; CI 0.3-4%; P≤0.0001). Applying deltamethrin dust as early as 12 mo prior seemed to afford some protection to prairie dogs. Our data showed that dusting even a portion of a prairie dog colony can prolong its persistence despite epizootic plague. Autumn dusting may offer advantages over spring in suppressing overwinter or early-spring flea activity, but timing should be adjusted to precede the annual decline in aboveground activity for hibernating prairie dog species. Large colony complexes or collections of occupied but fragmented habitat may benefit from dusting some sites in spring and others in autumn to maximize flea suppression in a portion of the complex or habitat year-round.

  11. Clinical efficacy and safety of imepitoin in comparison with phenobarbital for the control of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipold, A; Keefe, T J; Löscher, W; Rundfeldt, C; de Vries, F

    2015-04-01

    The anticonvulsant activity and safety of imepitoin, a novel antiepileptic drug licensed in the European Union, were evaluated in a multicentre field efficacy study as well as in a safety study under laboratory conditions. Efficacy of imepitoin was compared with phenobarbital in 226 client-owned dogs in a blinded parallel group design. The administration of imepitoin twice daily in incremental doses of 10, 20 or 30 mg/kg demonstrated comparable efficacy to phenobarbital in controlling seizures in dogs. The frequency of adverse events including somnolence/sedation, polydipsia and increased appetite was significantly higher in the phenobarbital group. In phenobarbital-treated dogs, significantly increased levels of alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase and other liver enzymes occurred, while no such effect was observed in the imepitoin group. In a safety study under laboratory conditions, healthy beagle dogs were administered 0, 30, 90 or 150 mg/kg imepitoin twice daily for 26 weeks. A complete safety evaluation including histopathology was included in the study. A no-observed-adverse-event level of 90 mg/kg twice daily was determined. These results indicate that imepitoin is a potent and safe antiepileptic drug for dogs. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A normalized PID controller in networked control systems with varying time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hoang-Dung; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Dang, Xuan-Kien; Cheng, Xin-Ming; Yuan, Fu-Shun

    2013-09-01

    It requires not only simplicity and flexibility but also high specified stability and robustness of system to design a PI/PID controller in such complicated networked control systems (NCSs) with delays. By gain and phase margins approach, this paper proposes a novel normalized PI/PID controller for NCSs based on analyzing the stability and robustness of system under the effect of network-induced delays. Specifically, We take into account the total measured network delays to formulate the gain and phase margins of the closed-loop system in the form of a set of equations. With pre-specified values of gain and phase margins, this set of equations is then solved for calculating the closed forms of control parameters which enable us to propose the normalized PI/PID controller simultaneously satisfying the following two requirements: (1) simplicity without re-solving the optimization problem for a new process, (2) high flexibility to cope with large scale of random delays and deal with many different processes in different conditions of network. Furthermore, in our method, the upper bound of random delay can be estimated to indicate the operating domain of proposed PI/PID controller. Finally, simulation results are shown to demonstrate the advantages of our proposed controller in many situations of network-induced delays. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene for treatment and control of induced infestations of brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, James S; Baggott, Derek; Everett, William R; Fourie, Josephus J; Cramer, Luiz G; Yoon, Stephen S; Collidor, Nadia; Mallouk, Yasmina; Lee, Lorne; Blair, Jeffrey; Prullage, Joseph B

    2011-07-15

    Four laboratory studies were conducted to demonstrate that a single topical dose of a novel spot-on combination containing fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) is efficacious against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. In each study, 6-8 male and 6-8 female purpose-bred, laboratory mongrels, terrier cross or Beagles were randomly assigned to one of two study groups (treated and untreated), based on pre-treatment parasite counts. Starting on the day before treatment, each dog was infested weekly with 50 ticks. Ticks were thumb counted at various time points after treatment and weekly infestations starting as early as 6h and continued at 12, 18 and 24h depending on the study. Ticks were removed and counted at 48 h after treatment and weekly infestations. CERTIFECT provided rapid and excellent control of pre-existing and newly acquired infestations of R. sanguineus with efficacy as high as 93% within the first 12h after a single topical treatment. Excellent control (>96%) of R. sanguineus as early as 18 h, following post treatment infestations was maintained for at least 35 days. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of new lactotransferrin gene variants in a case-control study related to periodontal disease in dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinha, Francisco; Albuquerque, Carlos; Requicha, João; Dias, Isabel; Leitão, José; Gut, Ivo; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Viegas, Carlos; Bastos, Estela

    2012-04-01

    The molecular and genetic research has contributed to a better understanding of the periodontal disease (PD) in humans and has shown that many genes play a role in the predisposition and progression of this complex disease. Variations in human lactotransferrin (LTF) gene appear to affect anti-microbial functions of this molecule, influencing the PD susceptibility. PD is also a major health problem in small animal practice, being the most common inflammatory disease found in dogs. Nevertheless, the research in genetic predisposition to PD is an unexplored subject in this species. This work aims to contribute to the characterization of the genetic basis of canine PD. In order to identify genetic variations and verify its association with PD, was performed a molecular analysis of LTF gene in a case-control approach, including 40 dogs in the PD cases group and 50 dogs in the control group. In this study were detected and characterized eight new single nucleotide variations in the dog LTF gene. Genotype and allele frequencies of these variations showed no statistically significant differences between the control and PD cases groups. Our data do not give evidence for the contribution of these LTF variations to the genetic background of canine PD. Nevertheless, the sequence variant L/15_g.411C > T leads to an aminoacid change (Proline to Leucine) and was predicted to be possibly damaging to the LTF protein. Further investigations would be of extreme value to clarify the biological importance of these new findings.

  15. Can therapy dogs improve pain and satisfaction after total joint arthroplasty? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Carl M; Dong, Yan; Thornhill, Thomas S; Wright, John; Ready, John; Brick, Gregory W; Dyer, George

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals to augment traditional medical therapies was reported as early as the 9th century but to our knowledge has not been studied in an orthopaedic patient population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of animal-assisted therapy using therapy dogs in the postoperative recovery of patients after THA and TKA. We asked: (1) Do therapy dogs have an effect on patients' perception of pain after total joint arthroplasty as measured by the VAS? (3) Do therapy dogs have an effect on patients' satisfaction with their hospital stay after total joint arthroplasty as measured by the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS)? A randomized controlled trial of 72 patients undergoing primary unilateral THA or TKA was conducted. Patients were randomized to a 15-minute visitation with a therapy dog before physical therapy or standard postoperative physical therapy regimens. Both groups had similar demographic characteristics. Reduction in pain was assessed using the VAS after each physical therapy session, beginning on postoperative Day 1 and continuing for three consecutive sessions. To ascertain patient satisfaction, the proportion of patients selecting top-category ratings in each subsection of the HCAHPS was compared. Patients in the treatment group had lower VAS scores after each physical therapy session with a final VAS score difference of 2.4 units (animal-assisted therapy VAS, 1.7; SD, 0.97 [95% CI, 1.4-2.0] versus control VAS, 4.1; SD, 0.97 [95% CI, 3.8-4.4], pphysical therapy session. Patients in the treatment group had a higher proportion of top-box HCAHPS scores in the following fields: nursing communication (33 of 36, 92% [95% CI, 78%-98%] versus 69%, 25 of 36 [95% CI, 52%-84%], p=0.035; risk ratio, 1.3 [95% CI of risk ratio, 1.0-1.7]; risk difference, 23% [95% CI of risk difference, 5%-40%]), pain management (34 of 36, 94% [95% CI, 81%-99%], versus 26 of 36, 72% [95% CI, 55%-86%], p=0.024; risk ratio, 1.3 [95

  16. Frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets (B-lines) using a regionally based lung ultrasound examination named vet BLUE (veterinary bedside lung ultrasound exam) in dogs with radiographically normal lung findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisciandro, Gregory R; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Fulton, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Lung ultrasound is superior to lung auscultation and supine chest radiography for many respiratory conditions in human patients. Ultrasound diagnoses are based on easily learned patterns of sonographic findings and artifacts in standardized images. By applying the wet lung (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines, representing interstitial edema) versus dry lung (A-lines with a glide sign) concept many respiratory conditions can be diagnosed or excluded. The ultrasound probe can be used as a visual stethoscope for the evaluation of human lungs because dry artifacts (A-lines with a glide sign) predominate over wet artifacts (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines). However, the frequency and number of wet lung ultrasound artifacts in dogs with radiographically normal lungs is unknown. Thus, the primary objective was to determine the baseline frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets in dogs without clinical signs of respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lung findings using an 8-view novel regionally based lung ultrasound examination called Vet BLUE. Frequency of ultrasound lung rockets were statistically compared based on signalment, body condition score, investigator, and reasons for radiography. Ten left-sided heart failure dogs were similarly enrolled. Overall frequency of ultrasound lung rockets was 11% (95% confidence interval, 6-19%) in dogs without respiratory disease versus 100% (95% confidence interval, 74-100%) in those with left-sided heart failure. The low frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets observed in dogs without respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lungs suggests that Vet BLUE will be clinically useful for the identification of canine respiratory conditions. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  17. Primary closure versus non-closure of dog bite wounds. a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschos, Nikolaos K; Makris, Eleftherios A; Gantsos, Apostolos; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2014-01-01

    Dog bite wounds represent a major health problem. Despite their importance, their management and especially the role of primary closure remain controversial. In this randomised controlled trial, the outcome between primary suturing and non-closure was compared. 168 consecutive patients with dog bite injuries were included in this study. The wounds were allocated randomly in two treatment approaches: Group 1, consisting of eighty-two patients, had their wound sutured, whilst Group 2, consisting of eighty-six patients, did not have their wounds sutured. All wounds were cleansed using high-pressure irrigation and povidone iodine. All patients received the same type of antibiotic treatment. Our measured outcomes included presence of infection and cosmetic appearance. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Wound and patient characteristics, such as time of management, wound location and size, and patient age, were recorded and analysed for their potential role in the resulting outcome. The overall infection rate was 8.3%. No difference in the infection rate between primary suturing and non-suturing group was detected in the present study. The cosmetic appearance of the sutured wounds was significantly better (mean score 1.74) compared to the wounds that were left open (mean score 3.05) (p=0.0001). The infection rate was comparable among all age groups. Wounds treated within 8h of injury demonstrated an infection rate of 4.5%, which is lower compared to the 22.2% rate observed in wounds treated later than 8h. The wounds located at the head and neck exhibited better results in both infection rate and cosmetic outcome. Additionally, wounds >3 cm negatively affected the cosmetic appearance of the outcome. Primary suturing of wounds caused by dog bites resulted in similar infection rate compared to non-suturing. However, primary suturing exhibited improved cosmetic appearance. Time of management appeared to be critical, as early treatment

  18. A randomized controlled clinical trial of the use of benazepril and heparin for the treatment of chronic kidney disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhündfeld, Jörg; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Nolte, Ingo J A

    2009-04-15

    To investigate the effects of benazepril and heparin on renal function and blood pressure in dogs with chronic kidney disease. Randomized controlled clinical trial. 26 dogs with chronic kidney disease. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive benazepril hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h; n = 10), benazepril and heparin (150 U/kg [68 U/lb], SC, q 8 h, for the first 6 days; 10), or a placebo (6) and were followed up for 180 days. Health status score at the end of the study (ie, day 180) was significantly higher for dogs in the 2 treatment groups than for dogs in the placebo group. In addition, glomerular filtration rate was significantly increased and the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio was significantly decreased, compared with baseline rates, at the end of the study for dogs in both treatment groups but not for dogs in the placebo group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly decreased on day 6 for dogs in both treatment groups. Results suggested that administration of benazepril had beneficial effects in dogs with chronic kidney disease but that short-term administration of heparin in conjunction with benazepril did not appear to provide any additional benefit.

  19. A blinded randomized controlled trial evaluating the usefulness of a novel diet (aminoprotect care) in dogs with spontaneous food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivry, Thierry; Kurata, Keigo; Paps, Judy S; Masuda, Kenichi

    2007-10-01

    Aminoprotect Care (APC) is a novel diet composed of aminoacids, potato proteins and corn starch. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Maltese-Beagle atopic (MBA) dogs hypersensitive to corn exhibited clinical signs and changes in immunological markers after being fed APC. The study was designed as a blinded randomized controlled crossover experiment. Ten MBA dogs with signs of allergy within five days of ingesting corn were selected. Dogs were randomized to be fed either their maintenance diet with corn or APC for five days. After a washout of two weeks, diets were switched. Before and daily during each intervention, skin lesions were graded by an investigator while pruritus was assessed by another. Before and at the end of each intervention, the percentage of circulating CD4+CCR4+, corn-activated CD4+ T-lymphocytes and serum corn-specific IgE levels were measured and ratios of post:pre values calculated. During this trial, pruritus and skin lesions increased significantly in MBA dogs when ingesting corn while no such increase occurred when fed APC. Total, median and maximal pruritus values were significantly higher in MBA dogs ingesting corn compared to APC. There were no significant differences between interventions in the immunological parameters assessed. In summary, even though APC contains corn starch to which corn-sensitive MBA dogs often react, the ingestion of APC did not lead to significant increases in skin lesions or pruritus. Aminoprotect Care might prove valuable for management of food allergies. These experimental observations must be validated in large field studies.

  20. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to evaluate an antipruritic shampoo for dogs with allergic pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, J; Mueller, R S

    2012-07-28

    Shampoo therapy is frequently used on pruritic dogs. However, there are few double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies of this form of therapy. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of a commercial medicated shampoo (DermaTopic; Almapharm) containing chlorhexidine, lactoferrin, piroctone olamine, chitosan and essential fatty acids in 27 dogs with mild to moderate allergic pruritus without secondary skin infections. All dogs received shampoo therapy with either DermaTopic or a shampoo vehicle as placebo twice weekly for four weeks. The extent of pruritus was evaluated before the study and then on a daily basis by the owners using a visual analogue scale. Before beginning the treatment and after four weeks, the skin lesions were evaluated by an experienced clinician with a validated lesion score (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index - CADESI). The pruritus was reduced significantly by both DermaTopic and placebo. However, there was no significant difference between both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the CADESI scores pre- and post-treatment in either group or between the two types of treatment. This study provides further evidence of the benefit of shampoo therapy for pruritic dogs.

  1. Domestic dog demographic structure and dynamics relevant to rabies control planning in urban areas in Africa: the case of Iringa, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gsell Alena S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass vaccinations of domestic dogs have been shown to effectively control canine rabies and hence human exposure to rabies. Knowledge of dog population demography is essential for planning effective rabies vaccination programmes; however, such information is still rare for African domestic dog populations, particularly so in urban areas. This study describes the demographic structure and population dynamics of a domestic dog population in an urban sub-Saharan African setting. In July to November 2005, we conducted a full household-level census and a cross-sectional dog demography survey in four urban wards of Iringa Municipality, Tanzania. The achievable vaccination coverage was assessed by a two-stage vaccination campaign, and the proportion of feral dogs was estimated by a mark-recapture transect study. Results The estimated size of the domestic dog population in Iringa was six times larger than official town records assumed, however, the proportion of feral dogs was estimated to account for less than 1% of the whole population. An average of 13% of all households owned dogs which equalled a dog:human ratio of 1:14, or 0.31 dogs per household or 334 dogs km-2. Dog female:male ratio was 1:1.4. The average age of the population was 2.2 years, 52% of all individuals were less than one year old. But mortality within the first year was high (72%. Females became fertile at the age of 10 months and reportedly remained fertile up to the age of 11 years. The average number of litters whelped per fertile female per year was 0.6 with an average of 5.5 pups born per litter. The population growth was estimated at 10% y-1. Conclusions Such high birth and death rates result in a rapid replacement of anti-rabies immunised individuals with susceptible ones. This loss in herd immunity needs to be taken into account in the design of rabies control programmes. The very small proportion of truly feral dogs in the population implies that

  2. Domestic dog demographic structure and dynamics relevant to rabies control planning in urban areas in Africa: the case of Iringa, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gsell, Alena S; Knobel, Darryn L; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Vounatsou, Penelope; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2012-12-05

    Mass vaccinations of domestic dogs have been shown to effectively control canine rabies and hence human exposure to rabies. Knowledge of dog population demography is essential for planning effective rabies vaccination programmes; however, such information is still rare for African domestic dog populations, particularly so in urban areas. This study describes the demographic structure and population dynamics of a domestic dog population in an urban sub-Saharan African setting. In July to November 2005, we conducted a full household-level census and a cross-sectional dog demography survey in four urban wards of Iringa Municipality, Tanzania. The achievable vaccination coverage was assessed by a two-stage vaccination campaign, and the proportion of feral dogs was estimated by a mark-recapture transect study. The estimated size of the domestic dog population in Iringa was six times larger than official town records assumed, however, the proportion of feral dogs was estimated to account for less than 1% of the whole population. An average of 13% of all households owned dogs which equalled a dog:human ratio of 1:14, or 0.31 dogs per household or 334 dogs km-2. Dog female:male ratio was 1:1.4. The average age of the population was 2.2 years, 52% of all individuals were less than one year old. But mortality within the first year was high (72%). Females became fertile at the age of 10 months and reportedly remained fertile up to the age of 11 years. The average number of litters whelped per fertile female per year was 0.6 with an average of 5.5 pups born per litter. The population growth was estimated at 10% y-1. Such high birth and death rates result in a rapid replacement of anti-rabies immunised individuals with susceptible ones. This loss in herd immunity needs to be taken into account in the design of rabies control programmes. The very small proportion of truly feral dogs in the population implies that vaccination campaigns aimed at the owned dog population are

  3. Abnormal reflex activation of hamstring muscles in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Graham M; Granger, Nicolas; Langley-Hobbs, Sorrel J; Jeffery, Nick D

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms underlying cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) in dogs are poorly understood. In this study hamstring muscle reflexes in response to cranial tibial translation were analysed to determine whether these active stabilisers of the stifle joint are differently activated in dogs with CCLR compared to control dogs. In a prospective clinical study reflex muscle activity from the lateral and medial hamstring muscles (biceps femoris and semimembranosus) was recorded using surface electrodes in control dogs (n=21) and dogs with CCLR (n=22). These electromyographic recordings were analysed using an algorithm previously validated in humans. The hamstring reflex was reliably and reproducibly recorded in normal dogs. Both a short latency response (SLR, 17.6±2.1ms) and a medium latency response (MLR, 37.7±2.7ms) could be identified. In dogs with unilateral CCLR, the SLR and MLR were not significantly different between the affected and the unaffected limbs, but the MLR latency of both affected and unaffected limbs in CCLR dogs were significantly prolonged compared to controls. In conclusion, the hamstring reflex can be recorded in dogs and the MLR is prolonged in dogs with CCLR. Since both affected and unaffected limbs exhibit prolonged MLR, it is possible that abnormal hamstring reflex activation is a mechanism by which progressive CCL damage may occur. The methodology allows for further investigation of the relationship between neuromuscular imbalance and CCLR or limitations in functional recovery following surgical intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Normal regional distribution of cerebral blood flow in dogs: comparison between (99m) Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer and (99m) Tc- hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Antita; Polis, Ingeborgh; Waelbers, Tim; Vandermeulen, Eva; Dobbeleir, André; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging provides important insights into canine brain pathologies such as behavioral problems. Two (99m) Tc-labeled single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow tracers-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) and hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO)-are commonly used in human medicine and have been used previously in dogs but intrasubject comparison of both tracers in dogs is lacking. Therefore, this study investigated whether regional distribution differences between both tracers occur in dogs as is reported in humans. Eight beagles underwent two SPECT examinations first with (99m) Tc-ECD and followed by (99m) Tc-HMPAO. SPECT scanning was performed with a triple head gamma camera equipped with ultrahigh resolution parallel hole collimators. Images were reconstructed using filtered backprojection with a Butterworth filter. Emission data were fitted to a template permitting semiquantification using predefined regions or volumes of interest (VOIs). For each VOI, perfusion indices were calculated by normalizing the regional counts per voxel to total brain counts per voxel. The obtained perfusion indices for each region for both tracers were compared with a paired Student's T-test. Significant (P < 0.05) regional differences were seen in the subcortical region and the cerebellum. Both tracers can be used to visualize regional cerebral blood flow in dogs, however, due to the observed regional differences, they are not entirely interchangeable. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  5. CONSEQÜÊNCIAS DA LAMINECTOMIA DORSAL DO TIPO FUNKQUIST A EM CÃES NORMAIS CONSEQUENCES OF THE FUNKQUIST A DORSAL LAMINECTOMY, IN NORMAL DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alberto Tudury

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar os efeitos da laminectomia dorsal do tipo Funkquist A em cães normais. A técnica realizada consistiu em abordagem dorsal à coluna vertebral; remoção (com ou sem a ajuda da elevação dos corpos vertebrais das lâminas dorsais de T13 e L1; manutenção do ligamento supra-espinhal; colocação de gordura subcutânea como coxim supramedular; sutura da fáscia toracolombar, subcutâneo e pele; e bandagem compressiva por sete dias. Quarenta e oito horas após a cirurgia, todos os 10 cães submetidos a essa técnica exibiram perda das reações posturais e paresia de moderada a grave nos membros pélvicos. Hipoalgesia foi constatada em cinco deles. Tentando descobrir as causas, foram realizados estudos histológicos de medulas espinhais, coletadas 4 e 48 horas após a realização da laminectomia, porém com modificações como: não elevação dos corpos vertebrais durante a cirurgia e prevenção de qualquer tipo de compressão medular após a laminectomia. Analisando esses resultados, foi possível concluir que as disfunções neurológicas decorreram de lesões medulares ocasionadas possivelmente por: elevações dos corpos vertebrais durante a laminectomia, danificação de vasos espinhais, desestabilização da coluna vertebral e uma somatória de forças compressivas atuantes sobre a medula espinhal desprotegida. Na necropsia de cinco cães, acompanhados por quarenta e cinco dias, foi possível constatar: a permanência do ligamento supra-espinhal; que o enxerto de gordura não evita a penetração do tecido fibroso no canal vertebral nem sua aderência à dura- máter; notório (PThe purpose of this research was to check the effects of the Funkquist A dorsal laminectomy in normal dogs. The technique accomplished consisted in dorsal approach to the spine; removal of T13-L1 laminae with or without vertebral bodies elevation; mantainement of the supraspinous ligament; placement of subcutaneous fat as

  6. Long-term control of olfactory neuroblastoma in a dog treated with surgery and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpel, E; Moore, A S; Simpson, D J; Hoffmann, K L; Taylor, D P

    2017-07-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare malignancy of the nasal cavity in dogs that is thought to arise from specialised sensory neuroendocrine olfactory cells derived from the neural crest. An 8-year-old dog was presented for reclusiveness and pacing. On CT and MRI, a contract-enhancing mass was disclosed within the rostral fossa, extending caudally from the cribriform plate into the left nasal sinus. Surgical excision was performed and the diagnosis was histological grade III (Hyams grading scheme) olfactory neuroblastoma. Based on human CT criteria this was high stage (modified Kadish stage C). Surgical excision was incomplete and was followed by curative-intent radiation therapy using a linear accelerator to a total dose of 48 Gy. The dog survived 20 months after diagnosis. Although olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare tumour in dogs, aggressive local therapy may allow for prolonged survival, even when the tumour is advanced. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Efficacy and safety of oclacitinib for the control of pruritus and associated skin lesions in dogs with canine allergic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Sallie B; Wren, Jody A; Cleaver, Dawn M; Martin, David D; Walsh, Kelly F; Harfst, Jessica A; Follis, Stacey L; King, Vickie L; Boucher, Joseph F; Stegemann, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Background Oclacitinib (Apoquel®) inhibits the function of a variety of pro-inflammatory, pro-allergic and pruritogenic cytokines that are dependent on Janus kinase enzyme activity. Oclacitinib selectively inhibits Janus kinase 1. Hypothesis/Objectives We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oclacitinib for the control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Methods Client-owned dogs (n = 436) with moderate to severe owner-assessed pruritus and a presumptive diagnosis of allergic dermatitis were enrolled. Dogs were randomized to either oclacitinib at 0.4–0.6 mg/kg orally twice daily or an excipient-matched placebo. An enhanced 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) was used by the owners to assess the severity of pruritus from day 0 to 7 and by veterinarians to assess the severity of dermatitis on days 0 and 7. Dogs could remain on the study for 28 days. Results Pretreatment owner and veterinary VAS scores were similar for the two treatment groups. Oclacitinib produced a rapid onset of efficacy within 24 h. Mean oclacitinib Owner Pruritus VAS scores were significantly better than placebo scores (P Dermatitis VAS scores were also significantly better (P dermatitis, with owners and veterinarians noting substantial improvements in pruritus and dermatitis VAS scores. PMID:23829933

  8. Standardisation of tracer and type of meal in the evaluation of gastric emptying and colon transit rates in normal Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Jordaan, J.H.; Jacobs, D.J.; Plessis, M. du; Pilloy, W.

    1984-01-01

    The transit of 111 In-labelled polymer beads of different particle sizes in the stomach and colon of five healthy Beagle dogs was monitored after intake of different kinds of meal by a gamma camera and data processor system. The various meals studied were a solid balanced type of dog food mixed with molk, pure milk, and finally a metal of raw meat. The polymer beads carried triethylenetetramine type functions which efficiently chelated 111 In +3 from an aqueous solution of InCl 3 . These labelled beads were well mixed into the food before being offered to the dogs. Gastric emptying curves from which half-times of emptying (Tsub(1/2)) could be obtained are presented and statistically compared. Good quality images with quantification of the colon transit rate also became possible. It appeared that standardisation of the tracer and of the metal is compulsory for relevant and reproducible results. (orig.)

  9. Standardisation of tracer and type of meal in the evaluation of gastric emptying and colon transit rates in normal Beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Jordaan, J.H.; Jacobs, D.J.; Plessis, M. du; Pilloy, W.

    1984-01-01

    The transit of /sup 111/In-labelled polymer beads of different particle sizes in the stomach and colon of five healthy Beagle dogs was monitored after intake of different kinds of meal by a gamma camera and data processor system. The various meals studied were a solid balanced type of dog food mixed with molk, pure milk, and finally a meal of raw meat. The polymer beads carried triethylenetetramine type functions which efficiently chelated /sup 111/In/sup +3/ from an aqueous solution of InCl/sub 3/. These labelled beads were well mixed into the food before being offered to the dogs. Gastric emptying curves from which half-times of emptying (Tsub(1/2)) could be obtained are presented and statistically compared. Good quality images with quantification of the colon transit rate also became possible. It appeared that standardisation of the tracer and of the metal is compulsory for relevant and reproducible results.

  10. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Pulmonary mineralization in four dogs with Cushing's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, C.R.; Ackerman, N.; Monce, K.

    1994-01-01

    The clinical and imaging features of four dogs with Cushing's syndrome and pulmonary mineralization are reviewed. Three dogs presented with a primary complaint of respiratory distress/dyspnea. Three dogs had pituitary dependent Cushing's syndrome, while the remaining one dog had iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. Each dog had clinical features typical for Cushing's syndrome. Two of the dogs were euthanized due to progressive hypoxemia. In each dog, the serum calcium, phosphorous, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were normal. A generalized increase in unstructured interstitial pulmonary opacity with diffuse mineralization was noted on thoracic radiographs of all dogs. In one dog, an ill-defined nodular interstitial pattern of mineralization was present. Delayed bone phase scintigraphy using 99m Technetium methylene diphosphonate documented generalized pulmonary uptake in two dogs. 99m Technetium labeled microaggregated albumin lung perfusion scans were normal in these two dogs. 99m Tc-MDP scintigraphy can provide useful information in diagnosing pulmonary mineralization in Cushingoid dogs

  12. Detecting altered postural control after cerebral concussion in athletes with normal postural stability

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanaugh, J; Guskiewicz, K; Giuliani, C; Marshall, S; Mercer, V; Stergiou, N

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine if approximate entropy (ApEn), a regularity statistic from non-linear dynamics, could detect changes in postural control during quiet standing in athletes with normal postural stability after cerebral concussion.

  13. Seasonal variation of imipramine binding in the blood platelets of normal controls and depressed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, R.C.; Meltzer, H.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Imipramine binding (IB) was studied in the blood platelets from normal controls and depressed patients over a 4-year period (1981-1984) to determine if seasonal variation was present in Bmax or KD. Bimonthly variation in the Bmax of IB was found in normal controls studied longitudinally. No such variation was found when individual values from normal controls were examined on a monthly or seasonal basis. Bmax in depressed patients showed a significant seasonal, but not monthly, variation. KD of IB varied in normal controls using monthly or seasonal data, but not in the probably more reliable bimonthly data. These results suggest that IB studies comparing groups of subjects should match groups for season of the year or, for greater accuracy, month of the year

  14. First report of autochthonous non-vectorial canine leishmaniasis in New Caledonia, south-western Pacific: implications for new control measures and recommendations on importation of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval, Nathalie; Marchal, Céline; Guillaumot, Laurent; Hüe, Thomas; Ravel, Christophe; Keck, Nicolas; Kasbari, Mohamed

    2016-02-25

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL), a parasitic zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum and usually transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies, has rarely been reported in Pacific islands, which have been regarded until now as leishmaniasis-free territory. Here, we report the first autochthonous CanL case in New Caledonia (south-western Pacific) and the investigations carried out 1) to determine how infection was introduced into and transmitted among these dogs and 2) to assess the risks to animal and public health. Extensive epidemiological and entomological investigations in and around the focus were carried out. Leishmaniasis infection was confirmed by histopathology, indirect fluorescent antibody test, real-time PCR, and culture. Parasite strain was typed by the isoenzymatic technique. The survey revealed close contacts between the autochthonous dog and two infected bitches imported from Spain, but failed to find any possible vector or disease spreading to other animals or humans. L. infantum zymodeme MON-1, the most frequent type in the Mediterranean basin, was identified. Although transplacental and venereal transmissions could not be excluded, the evidence was in favour of non-vectorial, direct dog-to-dog transmission. This study corroborates the possibility of non-vectorial routes (transplacental, venereal, and direct dog-to-dog) of canine leishmaniasis transmission in New Caledonia and raises the debate of relevant test requirements and diagnostic sensitivity prior to importation of dogs in Leishmania-free regions. New leishmaniasis control measures and recommendations to avoid future CanL introduction on the island are discussed.

  15. Efficacy of a Kalanchoe gastonis-bonnieri extract to control bacterial biofilms and dental calculus in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira L. Abdalla

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: An aqueous leaf extract of the medicinal species Kalanchoe gastonis-bonnieri (here denominated KGB has been found to be effective as an antimicrobial agent against canine oral cavity bacteria in in vitro assays. In this study, we investigated the effect of topic oral administration of KGB on the development of dental biofilm in Beagle dogs. The experiments were performed with an experimental group (0.2% of KGB extract, a negative control group (0.9% of saline solution and a positive control group (0.12% chlorhexidine. Each treatment was sprayed into the oral cavity daily for 28 days. Thirty Beagle dogs with similar characteristics and kept under the same management and diet were used. The measurement of dental plaque and calculus was performed using a computerized analytical method. The phenolic profile of KGB extract was analyzed by HPLC-DAD. KGB extract at 0.2% showed efficacy in controlling the formation of plaque compared to the negative control group, and dental calculus in relation to the negative and positive control groups. A significant difference was observed among these three groups. Peaks attributed to flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified in the HPLC-DAD chromatogram of the KGB extract. The presence of these substances could be related to the activity observed. Our findings demonstrate that treatment with KGB is effective in controlling periodontal disease in dogs, providing new insights into the medicinal properties of this plant. KGB extract has a potential use as a supplemental agent in pharmaceutical products for the prevention of periodontal disease.

  16. Effects of routine prophylactic vaccination or administration of aluminum adjuvant alone on allergen-specific serum IgE and IgG responses in allergic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tater, Kathy C; Jackson, Hilary A; Paps, Judy; Hammerberg, Bruce

    2005-09-01

    To determine the acute corn-specific serum IgE and IgG, total serum IgE, and clinical responses to s.c. administration of prophylactic vaccines and aluminum adjuvant in corn-allergic dogs. 20 allergic and 8 nonallergic dogs. 17 corn-allergic dogs were vaccinated. Eight clinically normal dogs also were vaccinated as a control group. Serum corn-specific IgE, corn-specific IgG, and total IgE concentrations were measured in each dog before vaccination and 1 and 3 weeks after vaccination by use of an ELISA. The corn-allergic dogs also had serum immunoglobulin concentrations measured at 8 and 9 weeks after vaccination. Twenty allergic dogs received a s.c. injection of aluminum adjuvant, and serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured in each dog 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks after injection. The allergic dogs were examined during the 8 weeks after aluminum administration for clinical signs of allergic disease. The allergic dogs had significant increases in serum corn-specific IgE and IgG concentrations 1 and 3 weeks after vaccination but not 8 or 9 weeks after vaccination. Control dogs did not have a significant change in serum immunoglobulin concentrations after vaccination. After injection of aluminum adjuvant, the allergic dogs did not have a significant change in serum immunoglobulin concentrations or clinical signs. Allergen-specific IgE and IgG concentrations increase after prophylactic vaccination in allergic dogs but not in clinically normal dogs. Prophylactic vaccination of dogs with food allergies may affect results of serologic allergen-specific immunoglobulin testing performed within 8 weeks after vaccination.

  17. Two randomized, controlled studies to assess the efficacy and safety of lotilaner (Credelio™ in preventing Dermacentor reticulatus transmission of Babesia canis to dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavalleri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs worldwide are at risk of Babesia spp. infections. Preventive efficacy of lotilaner tablets (Credelio™, Elanco against Babesia canis was evaluated in two studies. Methods Sixteen dogs in Study 1 and 12 dogs in Study 2, all seronegative and polymerase chain reaction (PCR negative for B. canis, were randomized to a sham-treated control group or a lotilaner (20–43 mg/kg treatment group, administered on Day 0 (Study 1: n = 8/group; Study 2: n = 6/group. Dogs were each infested with 50 Dermacentor reticulatus, a percentage of which (Study 1: 8.0–30.0%; Study 2: 12.2% were infected with B. canis, in Study 1 on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28, and in Study 2 on Day 28. Ticks were removed and counted on Day 30 in Study 1, and Day 34 in Study 2. Blood was collected for Babesia detection via smear, PCR and immunofluorescence assay (IFA in Study 1 on Day 2, then approximately weekly through Day 56, and in Study 2 at weekly intervals between Days 28 to 49, and on Days 63 and 91. Additional samples were collected from dogs with body temperature > 39.4 °C (measured three times weekly, from Days 7 to 56 in Study 1 and from Days 35 to 56 in Study 2 and positive for B. canis on blood smear. Dogs with confirmed infections were rescue-treated, removed from the study and, in Study 1, replaced. Results Across both studies B. canis infection of ticks ranged between 8.0–30.0%. In Study 1, all control dogs were positive for B. canis on blood smear and PCR on Day 10 and IFA on Day 21; on Day 21 seven of eight replacement control dogs were B. canis-positive; no replacement dogs were B. canis-positive following tick removal on Day 30. In Study 2, all control dogs were B. canis-positive on Day 56. All lotilaner-treated dogs remained B. canis-negative at all assessments in both studies. Conclusion Lotilaner efficacy was 100% in preventing establishment of B. canis infection, despite post-treatment challenge with infected ticks on Days 2, 7

  18. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; Kusewitt, D.F.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with initial 91 Y body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi per kilogram body weight and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi per kilogram body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Forty-three of the exposed dogs and 11 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest initial body burdens died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas, three dogs died with pulmonary carcinomas and one dog died with hepatic hemangiosarcoma; these cancers all appeared to be related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases. Observations are continuing on three surviving exposed dogs and one surviving unexposed dog

  19. A comparative study of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc and cytotoxic T cell (CT carbohydrate expression in normal and dystrophin-deficient dog and human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Martin

    Full Text Available The expression of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc and the cytotoxic T cell (CT carbohydrate can impact the severity of muscular dystrophy arising from the loss of dystrophin in mdx mice. Here, we describe the expression of these two glycans in skeletal muscles of dogs and humans with or without dystrophin-deficiency. Neu5Gc expression was highly reduced (>95% in muscle from normal golden retriever crosses (GR, n = 3 and from golden retriever with muscular dystrophy (GRMD, n = 5 dogs at multiple ages (3, 6 and 13 months when compared to mouse muscle, however, overall sialic acid expression in GR and GRMD muscles remained high at all ages. Neu5Gc was expressed on only a minority of GRMD satellite cells, CD8⁺ T lymphocytes and macrophages. Human muscle from normal (no evident disease, n = 3, Becker (BMD, n = 3 and Duchenne (DMD, n = 3 muscular dystrophy individuals had absent to very low Neu5Gc staining, but some punctate intracellular muscle staining was present in BMD and DMD muscles. The CT carbohydrate was localized to the neuromuscular junction in GR muscle, while GRMD muscles had increased expression on a subset of myofibers and macrophages. In humans, the CT carbohydrate was ectopically expressed on the sarcolemmal membrane of some BMD muscles, but not normal human or DMD muscles. These data are consistent with the notion that altered Neu5Gc and CT carbohydrate expression may modify disease severity resulting from dystrophin deficiency in dogs and humans.

  20. Spatially-explicit modelling model for assessing wild dog control strategies in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large predators can significantly impact livestock industries. In Australia, wild dogs (Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus dingo, and hybrids) cause economic losses of more than AUD $40M annually. Landscape-scale exclusion fencing coupled with lethal techniques is a widely pract...

  1. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in Boxer dogs is associated with calstabin2 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Mark A.; Reiken, Steve; Lehnart, Stephan E.; Chittur, Sridar V.; Meurs, Kathryn M.; Stern, Joshua; Marks, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the presence and effect of calstabin2-deficiency in Boxer dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Animals Thirteen Boxer dogs with ARVC. Materials and methods Tissue samples were collected for histopathology, oligonucleotide microarray, PCR, immunoelectrophoresis, ryanodine channel immunoprecipitation and single-channel recordings, and calstabin2 DNA sequencing. Results In cardiomyopathic Boxer dogs, myocardial calstabin2 mRNA and protein were significantly decreased as compared to healthy control dogs (calstabin2 protein normalized to tetrameric cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) complex: affected, 0.51 ± 0.04; control, 3.81 ± 0.22; P canine calstabin2 gene did not identify any causative mutations. Conclusions Calstabin2 deficiency is a potential mechanism of Ca2+ leak-induced ventricular arrhythmias and heart disease in Boxer dogs with ARVC. PMID:18515204

  2. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  3. Effectiveness of dog collars impregnated with 4% deltamethrin in controlling visceral leishmaniasis in Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidade: Phlebotominae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque E; Andrade, Andrey José de; Quint, Bruno Beust; Raffoul, Gabriel Elias Salmen; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2018-03-26

    There is little information on the effect of using deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of 4% deltamethrin-impregnated collars (Scalibor®) in controlling visceral leishmaniasis in Lutzomyia longipalpis by comparing populations in intervention and non-intervention areas. Phlebotomine flies were captured over 30 months in four neighbourhoods with intense visceral leishmaniasis transmission in Fortaleza and Montes Claros. We calculated the rates of domicile infestation, relative abundance of Lu. longipalpis, and Lu. longipalpis distribution in each site, capture location (intra- and peridomestic locations) and area (intervention and non-intervention areas). In the control area in Fortaleza, the relative abundance of Lu. longipalpis was 415 specimens at each capture site, whereas in the intervention area it was 159.25; in Montes Claros, the relative abundance was 5,660 specimens per capture site in the control area, whereas in the intervention area it was 2,499.4. The use of dog collars was associated with a reduction in captured insects of 15% (p = 0.004) and 60% (p < 0.001) in Montes Claros and Fortaleza, respectively. We observed a lower vector abundance in the intervention areas, suggesting an effect of the insecticide-impregnated collars.

  4. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences Dog population and ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    of dog movements constitute a great public health risk to human populations in terms of dog bites and rabies outbreaks. Keywords: Dog, Ecology, Nigeria, Rabies, Vaccination. Introduction. Dog population dynamics have major impacts on the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. An understanding of the domestic dog ...

  5. Temperature responses of exercizing dogs to infusion of electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kozlowski, S.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Brzezinska, Z.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of infusions with solutions of various ionic and osmotic composition on exercise temperature responses was studied in dogs who do not regulate their temperature by sweating. The results suggest an association between plasma Na+ and Ca++ level within the normal physiological range and the control of body temperature during exercise.

  6. Platelet function in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...... applied. However, the importance of these breed differences remains to be investigated. The PFA-100 method with Col + Epi as agonists, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation appear to be sensitive to ASA in dogs....

  7. Diurnal changes in postural control in normal children: Computerized static and dynamic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourelle, Sophie; Taiar, Redha; Berge, Benoit; Gautheron, Vincent; Cottalorda, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) causes postural control deficits and accordingly comparison of aberrant postural control against normal postural control may help diagnose mTBI. However, in the current literature, little is known regarding the normal pattern of postural control in young children. This study was therefore conducted as an effort to fill this knowledge gap. Eight normal school-aged children participated. Posture assessment was conducted before (7-8 a.m. in the morning) and after (4-7 p.m. in the afternoon) school on regular school days using the Balance Master® evaluation system composed of 3 static tests and 2 dynamic balance tests. A significant difference in the weight-bearing squats was detected between morning hours and afternoon hours (P control of the lateral rhythmic weight shifts was observed at the end of the afternoon than at morning hours (P posture control in humans. On a regular school day, the capacity of postural control and laterality or medio-lateral balance in children varies between morning and afternoon hours. We suggest that posturographic assessment in children, either in normal (e.g., physical education and sports training) or in abnormal conditions (e.g., mTBI-associated balance disorders), be better performed late in the afternoon.

  8. Home - DOG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsroom Services Information Why Alaska? DOG 101 Director & Deputy Bios Division Experts Applications — Give Feedback Thanks for giving feedback! The captcha entered is not valid. Send Close DOG DOA DNR

  9. Normalization of RNA-seq data using factor analysis of control genes or samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, Davide; Ngai, John; Speed, Terence P.; Dudoit, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Normalization of RNA-seq data has proven essential to ensure accurate inference of expression levels. Here we show that usual normalization approaches mostly account for sequencing depth and fail to correct for library preparation and other more-complex unwanted effects. We evaluate the performance of the External RNA Control Consortium (ERCC) spike-in controls and investigate the possibility of using them directly for normalization. We show that the spike-ins are not reliable enough to be used in standard global-scaling or regression-based normalization procedures. We propose a normalization strategy, remove unwanted variation (RUV), that adjusts for nuisance technical effects by performing factor analysis on suitable sets of control genes (e.g., ERCC spike-ins) or samples (e.g., replicate libraries). Our approach leads to more-accurate estimates of expression fold-changes and tests of differential expression compared to state-of-the-art normalization methods. In particular, RUV promises to be valuable for large collaborative projects involving multiple labs, technicians, and/or platforms. PMID:25150836

  10. Dog-directed speech: why do we use it and do dogs pay attention to it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Aderet, Tobey; Gallego-Abenza, Mario; Reby, David; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2017-01-11

    Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then performed playback experiments to assess dogs' reaction to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. We found that human speakers used dog-directed speech with dogs of all ages and that the acoustic structure of dog-directed speech was mostly independent of dog age, except for sound pitch which was relatively higher when communicating with puppies. Playback demonstrated that, in the absence of other non-auditory cues, puppies were highly reactive to dog-directed speech, and that the pitch was a key factor modulating their behaviour, suggesting that this specific speech register has a functional value in young dogs. Conversely, older dogs did not react differentially to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. The fact that speakers continue to use dog-directed with older dogs therefore suggests that this speech pattern may mainly be a spontaneous attempt to facilitate interactions with non-verbal listeners. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Intraoperative bleeding in dogs from Grenada seroreactive to Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza-Perea, M; Zieger, U; Qurollo, B A; Hegarty, B C; Pultorak, E L; Kumthekar, S; Bruhl-Day, R; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2014-01-01

    Frequent exposure of Grenadian dogs to Rhipicephalus sanguineus results in Anaplasma platys, and Ehrlichia canis seroreactivity. During elective surgeries, substantial intraoperative hemorrhage occurs in some seroreactive dogs. To assess hemostatic parameters and bleeding tendencies as well as prevalence of PCR positivity in apparently healthy A. platys and E. canis seroreactive and seronegative free-roaming dogs from Grenada. Forty-seven elective surgery dogs allocated to 4 groups: Seronegative control (n = 12), A. platys (n = 10), E. canis (n = 14) and A. platys, and E. canis (n = 11) seroreactive. Preoperatively, hemostasis was assessed by platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and buccal mucosal bleeding time. Intra- and postoperative bleeding scores were subjectively assigned. Blood, spleen, bone marrow, and lymph node aspirates were tested by PCR. Bleeding scores in dogs coseroreactive for A. platys and E. canis were higher (P = .015) than those of seronegative dogs. A. platys DNA was amplified from 7/21 (33%) A. platys seroreactive dogs and from 1 E. canis seroreactive dog; E. canis DNA was amplified from 21/25 (84%) E. canis seroreactive dogs. E. canis DNA was amplified most often from blood, whereas A. platys DNA was amplified most often from bone marrow. Apparently healthy, free-roaming dogs coseropositive for A. platys and E. canis may have increased intraoperative bleeding tendencies despite normal hemostatic parameters. Future investigations should explore the potential for vascular injury as a cause for bleeding in these dogs. Improved tick control is needed for dogs in Grenada. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Uso de psyllium para controle de constipação em cães The use of psyllium to control constipation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Tortola

    2009-12-01

    . The dogs received a diet supplemented with 2% of psyllium as part of the treatment, and the owners were invited to answer a questionnaire. Nineteen (79.2% owners reported that their dog had an easier defecation process during supplementation. Fifteen (62.5% reported that the animals´ faeces, which were dry or hard at the start, became normal or pasty after psyllium consumption. The results confirmed a laxative effect of psyllium in dogs, which was already reported in human medicine, supporting the use of this fiber in the clinical management of diseases that cause constipation in dog.

  13. Evaluation of pulsatile plasma concentrations of growth hormone in healthy dogs and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijerink, N.J.; Lee, W.M.; Stokhof, A.A.; Voorhout, G.; Mol, J.A.; Kooistra, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in healthy dogs and large-breed dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). ANIMALS: 8 dogs with DCM and 8 healthy control dogs of comparable age and body weight. PROCEDURES: Blood

  14. Influence of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia on flow velocities in the portal vein and caudal vena cava measured by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel Policelli; Koenigshof, Amy M; Smith, Daniel J; Strom, Phillip R; Nelson, Nathan C

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare blood flow velocities of the portal vein (PV) and caudal vena cava (CVC) measured by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in clinically normal dogs and dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). ANIMALS 11 client-owned dogs admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital for management of primary IMHA and 21 staff- or student-owned clinically normal dogs. PROCEDURES Flow velocities in the PV and CVC at the porta hepatis were evaluated in conscious unsedated dogs with concurrent ECG monitoring; evaluations were performed before dogs with IMHA received heparin or blood transfusions. Three measurements of peak velocity at end expiration were obtained for each vessel, and the mean was calculated. Results were compared between IMHA and control groups. RESULTS Mean ± SD blood flow velocity in the CVC differed between control (63.0 ± 18.6 cm/s) and IMHA (104 ± 36.9 cm/s) groups. Variance in dogs with IMHA was significantly greater than that for the clinically normal dogs. No significant difference in blood flow velocity in the PV was detected between IMHA and control dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Higher blood flow velocities were detected by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in the CVC of dogs with naturally occurring IMHA and may be used to predict anemia in patients suspected of having IMHA.

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) for the treatment and control of fleas on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Robert H; Geurden, Thomas; Packianathan, Raj; Colgan, Sally; Everett, William R; Grace, Sarah; Hodge, Andrew; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie; Davis, Kylie

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of a single oral dose of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), for the treatment and control of flea infestations on dogs was confirmed in five laboratory studies. The studies were conducted using adult purpose-bred Beagles and/or mixed breed dogs. All animals were individually identified and housed, and were allocated randomly to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner (eight to 10 per group) based on pretreatment parasite counts. Three studies used cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) strains recently isolated from the field from the US, EU, or Australia; in the fourth study a laboratory strain (KS1) with documented tolerance to a number of insecticides such as fipronil, imidacloprid, and permethrin was used. In the fifth study, dogs were infested with dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis. Dogs were treated orally on Day 0 with a placebo or a sarolaner tablet providing a minimum dose of 2mg/kg. Dogs were infested with approximately 100 unfed, adult fleas prior to treatment and at weekly intervals post-treatment. Comb counts were conducted to determine the numbers of viable fleas at 24h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation. Efficacy against C. felis and C. canis was 99.8-100% from treatment through Day 35. In all five studies, elimination of existing infestations was achieved within 24h after dosing, with only a single live C. felis found on one dog on Day 1. Similarly, control of flea challenges was achieved within 24h after infestation throughout the 35day study periods, with only single live C. felis found on two dogs on Day 28 in one study, and on a single dog on Day 35 in another study. There were no adverse reactions to treatment with sarolaner. These studies confirmed that a single oral dose of sarolaner at 2mg/kg provided highly effective treatment of existing C. felis infestations and persistent control of C. felis on dogs for 35days after treatment. Efficacy equivalent to that seen with C. felis was

  16. IMPROVING QUALITY OF STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL BY DEALING WITH NON‐NORMAL DATA IN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana ANDRÁSSYOVÁ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Study deals with an analysis of data to the effect that it improves the quality of statistical tools in processes of assembly of automobile seats. Normal distribution of variables is one of inevitable conditions for the analysis, examination, and improvement of the manufacturing processes (f. e.: manufacturing process capability although, there are constantly more approaches to non‐normal data handling. An appropriate probability distribution of measured data is firstly tested by the goodness of fit of empirical distribution with theoretical normal distribution on the basis of hypothesis testing using programme StatGraphics Centurion XV.II. Data are collected from the assembly process of 1st row automobile seats for each characteristic of quality (Safety Regulation ‐S/R individually. Study closely processes the measured data of an airbag´s assembly and it aims to accomplish the normal distributed data and apply it the statistical process control. Results of the contribution conclude in a statement of rejection of the null hypothesis (measured variables do not follow the normal distribution therefore it is necessary to begin to work on data transformation supported by Minitab15. Even this approach does not reach a normal distributed data and so should be proposed a procedure that leads to the quality output of whole statistical control of manufacturing processes.

  17. Controlling the number of graphene sheets exfoliated from graphite by designed normal loading and frictional motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungjun; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics to study the exfoliation of patterned nanometer-sized graphite under various normal loading conditions for friction-induced exfoliation. Using highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) as well as both amorphous and crystalline SiO 2 substrate as example systems, we show that the exfoliation process is attributed to the corrugation of the HOPG surface and the atomistic roughness of the substrate when they contact under normal loading. The critical normal strain, at which the exfoliation occurs, is higher on a crystalline substrate than on an amorphous substrate. This effect is related to the atomistic flatness and stiffness of the crystalline surface. We observe that an increase of the van der Waals interaction between the graphite and the substrate results in a decrease of the critical normal strain for exfoliation. We find that the magnitude of the normal strain can effectively control the number of exfoliated graphene layers. This mechanism suggests a promising approach of applying designed normal loading while sliding to pattern controlled number of graphene layers or other two-dimensional materials on a substrate surface.

  18. Qualitative Evaluation of the Five-Year ‘Red Collar’ Campaign to End Inhumane Culling of Dogs as a Method of Rabies Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Hiby

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dog-mediated human rabies can be eliminated through mass dog vaccination. Despite leading authorities in human and animal health uniting to advance effective and humane rabies control, some governments resort to lethal methods, which are unethical, often inhumane and ineffective. To end the inhumane culling of dogs in response to rabies, World Animal Protection launched ‘Red Collar’; a five-year campaign (2011–2016 that worked with governments to promote the implementation of mass dog vaccination for rabies control. We present the findings from a qualitative evaluation of ‘Red Collar’, conducted both regionally and with national focus on Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and Zanzibar, Tanzania. Through semi-structured interviews and written contributions from stakeholders (n = 54, we compared perceptions of changes with stated campaign goals to capture recommendations for future work. The campaign successfully generated momentum for implementation of mass dog vaccination by targeted governments. Lessons learned were established: Value of a consistent animal welfare ‘voice’; the need to explore the motivations behind culling; the need to capacity build; time required for the ‘ripple effect’ to inspire humane control in other countries; importance of monitoring and evaluation of indicators; time and effort required for exit strategies and prior preparation for a robust response to culling.

  19. Qualitative Evaluation of the Five-Year 'Red Collar' Campaign to End Inhumane Culling of Dogs as a Method of Rabies Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, Elly; Tasker, Lou

    2018-02-06

    Dog-mediated human rabies can be eliminated through mass dog vaccination. Despite leading authorities in human and animal health uniting to advance effective and humane rabies control, some governments resort to lethal methods, which are unethical, often inhumane and ineffective. To end the inhumane culling of dogs in response to rabies, World Animal Protection launched 'Red Collar'; a five-year campaign (2011-2016) that worked with governments to promote the implementation of mass dog vaccination for rabies control. We present the findings from a qualitative evaluation of 'Red Collar', conducted both regionally and with national focus on Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and Zanzibar, Tanzania. Through semi-structured interviews and written contributions from stakeholders ( n = 54), we compared perceptions of changes with stated campaign goals to capture recommendations for future work. The campaign successfully generated momentum for implementation of mass dog vaccination by targeted governments. Lessons learned were established: Value of a consistent animal welfare 'voice'; the need to explore the motivations behind culling; the need to capacity build; time required for the 'ripple effect' to inspire humane control in other countries; importance of monitoring and evaluation of indicators; time and effort required for exit strategies and prior preparation for a robust response to culling.

  20. Interuncal distance measurements in normal controls and patients with dementia. MR imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazunari; Kitagaki, Hajime; Sakamoto, Setsu; Yamaji, Shigeru; Kono, Michio.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of measuring interuncal distance (IUD) as a reflection of the limbic system, we compared the IUD of 60 dementia patients with that of 10 normal controls. We also measured the width of the intracranial compartment (W1 and W2) to correct for differences in individual brain size, and calculated the ratio of IUD/W1 and IUD/W2. IUD could not separate patients with dementia from normal controls, but there were significant differences in IUD/W1 and IUD/W2 between patients with dementia and normal controls. IUD, IUD/W1 and IUD/W2 did not correlate with Mini-Mental Examination score or ADAS score in patients with dementia. We conclude that IUD measurement is not helpful in distinguishing patients with mild stage dementia from normal aged people or as a scale for dementia. However, we suggest that IUD/W1 and IUD/W2 can discriminate between cases of mild dementia and normal aged people. (author)

  1. Inhibitory Control, but Not Prolonged Object-Related Experience Appears to Affect Physical Problem-Solving Performance of Pet Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A.; Riemer, Stefanie; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris) of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject’s level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance. PMID:26863141

  2. Inhibitory Control, but Not Prolonged Object-Related Experience Appears to Affect Physical Problem-Solving Performance of Pet Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsin A Müller

    Full Text Available Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance.

  3. Inhibitory Control, but Not Prolonged Object-Related Experience Appears to Affect Physical Problem-Solving Performance of Pet Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris) of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance.

  4. Tumor control and normal tissue toxicity: The two faces of radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, B.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis discusses the two contrasting sides of radiotherapy: tumor control and normal tissue toxicity. On one hand, radiation treatment aims to target the tumor with the highest possible radiation dose, inducing as much lethal DNA damage as possible. On the other hand however, escalation of the

  5. Low empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, A.P.; Rieffe, C.; Theunissen, S.C.P.M.; Soede, W.; Dirks, E.; Briaire, J.J.; Frijns, J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy. Methods The study group (mean age

  6. Postural control assessment in students with normal hearing and sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Renato de Souza; Lemos, Andrea; Macky, Carla Fabiana da Silva Toscano; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão; Ferraz, Karla Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Children with sensorineural hearing loss can present with instabilities in postural control, possibly as a consequence of hypoactivity of their vestibular system due to internal ear injury. To assess postural control stability in students with normal hearing (i.e., listeners) and with sensorineural hearing loss, and to compare data between groups, considering gender and age. This cross-sectional study evaluated the postural control of 96 students, 48 listeners and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, aged between 7 and 18 years, of both genders, through the Balance Error Scoring Systems scale. This tool assesses postural control in two sensory conditions: stable surface and unstable surface. For statistical data analysis between groups, the Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used. Students with hearing loss showed more instability in postural control than those with normal hearing, with significant differences between groups (stable surface, unstable surface) (ppostural control compared to normal hearing students of the same gender and age. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. 2-regularity and 2-normality conditions for systems with impulsive controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Natal'ya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a controlled system with impulsive controls in the neighborhood of an abnormal point is investigated. The set of pairs (u,μ is considered as a class of admissible controls, where u is a measurable essentially bounded function and μ is a finite-dimensional Borel measure, such that for any Borel set B, μ(B is a subset of the given convex closed pointed cone. In this article the concepts of 2-regularity and 2-normality for the abstract mapping Ф, operating from the given Banach space into a finite-dimensional space, are introduced. The concepts of 2-regularity and 2-normality play a great role in the course of derivation of the first and the second order necessary conditions for the optimal control problem, consisting of the minimization of a certain functional on the set of the admissible processes. These concepts are also important for obtaining the sufficient conditions for the local controllability of the nonlinear systems. The convenient criterion for 2-regularity along the prescribed direction and necessary conditions for 2-normality of systems, linear in control, are introduced in this article as well.

  8. Low empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (preadolescents compared to normal hearing controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk P Netten

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (preadolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy.The study group (mean age 11.9 years consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children's level of empathy, their attendance to others' emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior.Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children.Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships.

  9. Low empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Anouk P; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Briaire, Jeroen J; Frijns, Johan H M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy. The study group (mean age 11.9 years) consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids) and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children's level of empathy, their attendance to others' emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior. Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported) language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children. Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships.

  10. Are your covariates under control? How normalization can re-introduce covariate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Oliver; Dudbridge, Frank; Ronald, Angelica

    2018-04-30

    Many statistical tests rely on the assumption that the residuals of a model are normally distributed. Rank-based inverse normal transformation (INT) of the dependent variable is one of the most popular approaches to satisfy the normality assumption. When covariates are included in the analysis, a common approach is to first adjust for the covariates and then normalize the residuals. This study investigated the effect of regressing covariates against the dependent variable and then applying rank-based INT to the residuals. The correlation between the dependent variable and covariates at each stage of processing was assessed. An alternative approach was tested in which rank-based INT was applied to the dependent variable before regressing covariates. Analyses based on both simulated and real data examples demonstrated that applying rank-based INT to the dependent variable residuals after regressing out covariates re-introduces a linear correlation between the dependent variable and covariates, increasing type-I errors and reducing power. On the other hand, when rank-based INT was applied prior to controlling for covariate effects, residuals were normally distributed and linearly uncorrelated with covariates. This latter approach is therefore recommended in situations were normality of the dependent variable is required.

  11. Brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, infestation of susceptible dog hosts is reduced by slow release of semiochemicals from a less susceptible host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as volatile tick repellents. We report the use of prototype slow-release formulations of these compounds to reduce the burden of R. sanguineus s. l. on English cocker spaniel dogs. Twelve dogs were randomly assigned to two groups with six dogs each. The treated group received collars with slow-release formulations of the compounds attached, while the control group received collars with clean formulations attached. Five environmental infestations were performed, with the number of ticks (at all stages) on the dogs being counted twice a day for 45days. The counts on the number of tick stages found per dog were individually fitted to linear mixed effects models with repeated measures and normal distribution for errors. The mean tick infestation in the treated group was significantly lower than in the control group. For larvae and nymphs, a decrease in tick infestation was observed at the fifth count, and for adults, lower average counts were observed in all counts. The compounds did not interfere with the distribution of the ticks on the body of the dogs, as a similar percentage of ticks was found on the anterior half of the dogs (54.5% for the control group and 56.2% for the treated group). The biological and reproductive parameters of the ticks were not affected by the repellents. This study highlights for the first time the potential use of a novel allomone (repellent)-based formulation for reduction of tick infestation on susceptible dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Diurnal changes in postural control in normal children: Computerized static and dynamic assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bourelle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI causes postural control deficits and accordingly comparison of aberrant postural control against normal postural control may help diagnose mTBI. However, in the current literature, little is known regarding the normal pattern of postural control in young children. This study was therefore conducted as an effort to fill this knowledge gap. Eight normal school-aged children participated. Posture assessment was conducted before (7-8 a.m. in the morning and after (4-7 p.m. in the afternoon school on regular school days using the Balance Master ® evaluation system composed of 3 static tests and 2 dynamic balance tests. A significant difference in the weight-bearing squats was detected between morning hours and afternoon hours (P < 0.05. By end of afternoon, the body weight was borne mainly on the left side with the knee fully extended and at various degrees of knee flexion. A significantly better directional control of the lateral rhythmic weight shifts was observed at the end of the afternoon than at morning hours (P < 0.05. In summary, most of our findings are inconsistent with results from previous studies in adults, suggesting age-related differences in posture control in humans. On a regular school day, the capacity of postural control and laterality or medio-lateral balance in children varies between morning and afternoon hours. We suggest that posturographic assessment in children, either in normal (e.g., physical education and sports training or in abnormal conditions (e.g., mTBI-associated balance disorders, be better performed late in the afternoon.

  13. Diagnosis of cauda equina abnormalities by using electromyography, discography, and epidurography in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, A.F.; LeCouteur, R.A.; Ingram, J.T.; Park, R.D.; Child, G.

    1992-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG), L7-S1 discography and epidurography were investigated in 15 dogs with clinical signs of cauda equina dysfunction and in 7 control dogs without such clinical signs. Electromyography of paraspinal and pelvic limb muscles was done in 13 of 15 affected dogs. An L7-S1 discogram followed by an epidurogram was performed in all 22 dogs using 20% iopamidol. Results of discograms, epidurograms, and gross necropsy examinations were normal in six of seven control dogs. The one dog in which these studies were abnormal had a mild L7-S1 disc protrusion that did not result in nerve root compression at necropsy. Electromyographic analysis was 100% accurate in predicting the presence or absence of cauda equina disease. None of the results of discograms were falsely negative. Twelve of 15 discograms in clinically affected dogs indicated dorsal disc protrusion, but 2 of these protrusions were found to be noncompressive at surgery (13% error). Abnormal epidurograms occurred in 9 of 15 clinically affected dogs. There was one false positive and two false negatives (20% error). Electromyography was a sensitive screening technique for the presence of cauda equina disease. Discography may be more sensitive for detection of L7-S1 disc protrusion than epidurography. An abnormal radiographic contrast study of the cauda equina may only be useful when combined with an abnormal EMG

  14. Biomechanics of normal and pathological gait: implications for understanding human locomotor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, D A

    1989-12-01

    The biomechanical (kinetic) analysis of human gait reveals the integrated and detailed motor patterns that are essential in pinpointing the abnormal patterns in pathological gait. In a similar manner, these motor patterns (moments, powers, and EMGs) can be used to identify synergies and to validate theories of CNS control. Based on kinetic and EMG patterns for a wide range of normal subjects and cadences, evidence is presented that both supports and negates the central pattern generator theory of locomotion. Adaptive motor patterns that are evident in peripheral gait pathologies reinforce a strong peripheral rather than a central control. Finally, a three-component subtask theory of human gait is presented and is supported by reference to the motor patterns seen in a normal gait. The identified subtasks are (a) support (against collapse during stance); (b) dynamic balance of the upper body, also during stance; and (c) feedforward control of the foot trajectory to achieve safe ground clearance and a gentle heel contact.

  15. Free-roaming dog populations: a cost-benefit model for different management options, applied to Abruzzo, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgåsen, H R; Er, C; Di Nardo, A; Dalla Villa, P

    2013-11-01

    Since 1991, Italian free-roaming dogs have been under government protection and euthanasia is restricted by law. Management measures are regulated at the regional level and include: kennelling, adoptions, conversion of stray dogs into block dogs, and population control of owned dogs. "Block dogs" are free-roaming dogs that have been collected by the veterinary services, microchipped, sterilised, vaccinated, and released under the responsibility of the local municipalities. The present paper describes a cost-benefit model for different management options and applies it to two provinces in Abruzzo, central Italy. The model considers welfare, nuisance and direct costs to the municipality. Welfare is quantified based on the expert opinions of 60 local veterinarians, who were asked to assign a score for each dog category according to the five freedoms: freedom from pain, physical discomfort, disease, fear, and freedom to express normal behaviour. Nuisance was assessed only for comparisons between management options, using the number of free-roaming dogs per inhabitant as a proxy indicator. A community dog population model was constructed to predict the effect of management on the different subpopulations of dogs during a ten-year period. It is a user-friendly deterministic model in Excel, easily adaptable to different communities to assess the impact of their dog management policy on welfare, nuisance and direct monetary cost. We present results for Teramo and Pescara provinces. Today's management system is compared to alternative models, which evaluate the effect of specific interventions. These include either a 10% yearly increase in kennel capacity, an increase in adoptions from kennels, a doubling of the capture of stray dogs, or a stabilisation of the owned dog population. Results indicate that optimal management decisions are complex because welfare, nuisance and monetary costs may imply conflicting interventions. Nevertheless, they clearly indicate that

  16. Use of a 350-mm2 Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device to maintain vision and control intraocular pressure in dogs with glaucoma: a retrospective study (2013-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kathleen L; Donaldson, David; Billson, Francis A; Billson, F Mark

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the 350-mm 2 Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device (GDD) in dogs with refractory glaucoma when modifications to address postoperative hypotony (extraluminal ligature; intraluminal stent) and the fibroproliferative response (intraoperative Mitomycin-C; postoperative oral colchicine and prednisolone) are implemented as reported in human ophthalmology. Retrospective case series. Twenty-eight client-owned dogs (32 eyes) including seven dogs (nine eyes) with primary glaucoma and 21 dogs (23 eyes) with secondary glaucoma. The medical records of all dogs undergoing placement of a 350-mm 2 Baerveldt GDD at a veterinary ophthalmology referral service between 2013 and 2016 were reviewed. Signalment, diagnosis, duration and previous treatment of glaucoma, previous intraocular surgery, IOP, visual, and surgical outcomes were recorded. IOP was maintained glaucoma medication were required following surgery. Vision was retained in 18 of 27 (66.7%) eyes with vision at the time of surgery. No eyes that were blind at the time of surgery (n = 5) had restoration of functional vision. Complications following surgery included hypotony (26/32; 81.3%), intraocular hypertension (24/32; 75.0%), and fibrin formation within the anterior chamber (20/32; 62.5%). The average follow-up after placement of the GDD was 361.1 days (median 395.6 days). Efforts to minimize postoperative hypotony and address the fibroproliferative response following placement of a 350-mm 2 Baerveldt GDD showed an increased success rate to other reports of this device in dogs and offers an alternative surgical treatment for controlling intraocular pressure in dogs with glaucoma. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. Community-based control of the brown dog tick in a region with high rates of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Naomi; Miller, Mark; Gerding, Justin; Todd, Suzanne; Adams, Laura; Dahlgren, F Scott; Bryant, Nelva; Weis, Erica; Herrick, Kristen; Francies, Jessica; Komatsu, Kenneth; Piontkowski, Stephen; Velascosoltero, Jose; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hamilton, Brian; Eribes, Carmen; Brock, Anita; Sneezy, Patsy; Goseyun, Cye; Bendle, Harty; Hovet, Regina; Williams, Velda; Massung, Robert; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003-2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼ 600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives.

  18. Community-based control of the brown dog tick in a region with high rates of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 2012-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Drexler

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003-2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼ 600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives.

  19. Community-Based Control of the Brown Dog Tick in a Region with High Rates of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Naomi; Miller, Mark; Gerding, Justin; Todd, Suzanne; Adams, Laura; Dahlgren, F. Scott; Bryant, Nelva; Weis, Erica; Herrick, Kristen; Francies, Jessica; Komatsu, Kenneth; Piontkowski, Stephen; Velascosoltero, Jose; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hamilton, Brian; Eribes, Carmen; Brock, Anita; Sneezy, Patsy; Goseyun, Cye; Bendle, Harty; Hovet, Regina; Williams, Velda; Massung, Robert; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003–2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives. PMID:25479289

  20. "She's a dog at the end of the day": Guide dog owners' perspectives on the behaviour of their guide dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Craigon

    Full Text Available A guide dog is a domestic dog (Canis familiaris that is specifically educated to provide mobility support to a blind or visually impaired owner. Current dog suitability assessments focus on behavioural traits, including: trainability, reactivity or attention to environmental stimuli, low aggressiveness, fearfulness and stress behaviour, energy levels, and attachment behaviour. The aim of this study was to find out which aspects of guide dog behaviour are of key importance to guide dog owners themselves. Sixty-three semi-structured interview surveys were carried out with guide dog owners. Topics included the behaviour of their guide dog both within and outside their working role, and also focused on examples of behaviour which might be considered outside a guide dog owner's typical expectations. Both positive and negative examples and situations were covered. This allowed for the discovery of new perspectives and emerging themes on living and working with a guide dog. Thematic analysis of the results reveals that a dog's safe behaviour in the face of traffic was the most important positive aspect of a guide dog's behaviour and pulling or high tension on the lead and /or harness was the most discussed negative aspect. Other aspects of guide dog behaviour were highlighted as particularly pleasing or disappointing by owners including attentiveness to the task, work, environment and owner; confidence in work and decision making (with confident dogs resulting in confident owners obedience and control; calmness and locating objectives. The results reveal important areas of behaviour that are not currently considered priorities in guide dog assessments; these key areas were consistency of behaviour, the dog's maturity and the dog's behaviour in relation to children. The survey revealed a large range in what owners considered problematic or pleasing behaviours and this highlights the heterogeneity in guide dog owners and the potential multifarious roles

  1. Elbow dysplasia in the dog : pathophysiology, diagnosis and control : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Kirberger

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Elbow dysplasia is a non-specific term denoting abnormal development of the elbow. Elbow dysplasia encompasses the clinical and radiographic manifestation of ununited anconeal process, fragmented medial coronoid process, osteochondritis dissecans, erosive cartilage lesions and elbow incongruity. The net result is elbow arthrosis, which may be clinically inapparent or result in marked lameness. These conditions may be diagnosed by means of routine or special radiographic views and other imaging modalities, or the precise cause of the arthrosis or lameness may remain undetermined. Breeds most commonly affected are the rottweiler, Bernese mountain dog, Labrador and golden retriever and the German shepherd dog. Certain breeds are more susceptible to a particular form of elbow dysplasia and more than 1 component may occur simultaneously. The various conditions are thought to result from osteochondrosis of the articular or physeal cartilage that results in disparate growth of the radius and ulna. Heritability has been proven for this polygenic condition and screening programmes to select suitable breeding stock have been initiated in several countries and have decreased the incidence of elbow dysplasia.

  2. Simulating the effect of muscle weakness and contracture on neuromuscular control of normal gait in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Aaron S; Carty, Christopher P; Modenese, Luca; Barber, Lee A; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2018-03-01

    Altered neural control of movement and musculoskeletal deficiencies are common in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), with muscle weakness and contracture commonly experienced. Both neural and musculoskeletal deficiencies are likely to contribute to abnormal gait, such as equinus gait (toe-walking), in children with SCP. However, it is not known whether the musculoskeletal deficiencies prevent normal gait or if neural control could be altered to achieve normal gait. This study examined the effect of simulated muscle weakness and contracture of the major plantarflexor/dorsiflexor muscles on the neuromuscular requirements for achieving normal walking gait in children. Initial muscle-driven simulations of walking with normal musculoskeletal properties by typically developing children were undertaken. Additional simulations with altered musculoskeletal properties were then undertaken; with muscle weakness and contracture simulated by reducing the maximum isometric force and tendon slack length, respectively, of selected muscles. Muscle activations and forces required across all simulations were then compared via waveform analysis. Maintenance of normal gait appeared robust to muscle weakness in isolation, with increased activation of weakened muscles the major compensatory strategy. With muscle contracture, reduced activation of the plantarflexors was required across the mid-portion of stance suggesting a greater contribution from passive forces. Increased activation and force during swing was also required from the tibialis anterior to counteract the increased passive forces from the simulated dorsiflexor muscle contracture. Improvements in plantarflexor and dorsiflexor motor function and muscle strength, concomitant with reductions in plantarflexor muscle stiffness may target the deficits associated with SCP that limit normal gait. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of analgesic therapy on clinical outcome measures in a randomized controlled trial using client-owned dogs with hip osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Pain and impaired mobility because of osteoarthritis (OA) is common in dogs and humans. Efficacy studies of analgesic drug treatment of dogs with naturally occurring OA may be challenging, as a caregiver placebo effect is typically evident. However, little is known about effect sizes of common outcome-measures in canine clinical trials evaluating treatment of OA pain. Forty-nine client-owned dogs with hip OA were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled prospective trial. After a 1 week baseline period, dogs were randomly assigned to a treatment (ABT-116 – transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist, Carprofen – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), Tramadol - synthetic opiate, or Placebo) for 2 weeks. Outcome-measures included physical examination parameters, owner questionnaire, activity monitoring, gait analysis, and use of rescue medication. Results Acute hyperthermia developed after ABT-116 treatment (P carprofen (P ≤ 0.01) and tramadol (P ≤ 0.001) led to improved mobility assessed by owner questionnaire. Nighttime activity was increased after ABT-116 treatment (P = 0.01). Kinetic gait analysis did not reveal significant treatment effects. Use of rescue treatment decreased with treatment in the ABT-116 and Carprofen groups (P carprofen or tramadol for treatment of hip arthritis pain in client-owned dogs. PMID:23035739

  4. Controlled, blinded force platform analysis of the effect of intraarticular injection of autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells associated to PRGF-Endoret in osteoarthritic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Jose M; Morales, Manuel; Santana, Angelo; Spinella, Giuseppe; Rubio, Mónica; Cuervo, Belen; Cugat, Ramón; Carrillo, Jose M

    2013-07-02

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) therapy in regenerative medicine is a rapidly growing area of research and is currently also being used to treat osteoarthritis (OA). Force platform analysis has been consistently used to verify the efficacy of different therapeutic strategies for the treatment of OA in dogs, but never with AD-MSC.The aim of this study was to use a force platform to measure the efficacy of intraarticular ADMSC administration for limb function improvement in dogs with severe OA. Eight lame dogs with severe hip OA and a control group of 5 sound dogs were used for this study. Results were statistically analyzed to detect a significant increase in peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) in treated dogs. Mean values of PVF and VI were significantly improved after treatment of the OA groups, reaching 53.02% and 14.84% of body weight, respectively, at day 180, compared with only 43.56% and 12.16% at day 0. This study objectively demonstrated that intraarticular ADMSC therapy resulted in reduced lameness due to OA.

  5. Participatory methods for the assessment of the ownership status of free-roaming dogs in Bali, Indonesia, for disease control and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morters, M K; Bharadwaj, S; Whay, H R; Cleaveland, S; Damriyasa, I Md; Wood, J L N

    2014-09-01

    The existence of unowned, free-roaming dogs capable of maintaining adequate body condition without direct human oversight has serious implications for disease control and animal welfare, including reducing effective vaccination coverage against rabies through limiting access for vaccination, and absolving humans from the responsibility of providing adequate care for a domesticated species. Mark-recapture methods previously used to estimate the fraction of unowned dogs in free-roaming populations have limitations, particularly when most of the dogs are owned. We used participatory methods, described as Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), as a novel alternative to mark-recapture methods in two villages in Bali, Indonesia. PRA was implemented at the banjar (or sub-village)-level to obtain consensus on the food sources of the free-roaming dogs. Specific methods included semi-structured discussion, visualisation tools and ranking. The PRA results agreed with the preceding household surveys and direct observations, designed to evaluate the same variables, and confirmed that a population of unowned, free-roaming dogs in sufficiently good condition to be sustained independently of direct human support was unlikely to exist. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of high doses of enalapril and benazepril on the pharmacologically activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Marisa K; Atkins, Clarke E; Lee, Seunggon; Lantis, Andrea C; zumBrunnen, James R

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether high doses of enalapril and benazepril would be more effective than standard doses of these drugs in suppressing the furosemide-activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). 6 healthy Beagles. 2 experiments were conducted; each lasted 10 days, separated by a 2-week washout period. In experiment 1, all dogs received furosemide (2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and enalapril (1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 8 days (days 0 through 7). In experiment 2, dogs received furosemide (2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and benazepril (1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 8 days. Effects on the RAAS were determined by assessing serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity on days -1, 3, and 7; serum aldosterone concentration on days -2, -1, 1, 3, and 7; and the urinary aldosterone-creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) in urine collected in the morning and evening of days -2, -1, 1, 3, and 7. High doses of enalapril and benazepril caused significant reductions in serum ACE activity on all days but were not more effective than standard doses used in other studies. Mean UAldo:C remained significantly higher on days 2 through 7, compared with baseline values. Serum aldosterone concentration also increased after drug administration, which mirrored changes in the UAldo:C. In this study, administration of high doses of enalapril and benazepril significantly inhibited ACE activity, yet did not prevent increases in mean urine and serum aldosterone concentrations resulting from furosemide activation of RAAS. This suggested that aldosterone breakthrough from ACE inhibition was a dose-independent effect of ACE inhibitors.

  7. Faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in animal shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Hamer, S A; Lawhon, S D

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014. Quantitative PCR protocols were used to detect Campylobacter in samples and to specifically identify C. jejuni and C. coli. The prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among sampled dogs was 75.7% (140/185). Prevalence varied significantly by shelter (p = .03), ranging from 57% to 93%. There was a marginal association (p = .06) between abnormal faecal consistency and positive Campylobacter status, after controlling for shelter as a random effect. However, approximately 70% of Campylobacter-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The prevalence of C. jejuni-positive samples was 5.4% (10/185), but C. coli was not detected in any samples. Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Campylobacter transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effects of Wall-Normal and Angular Momentum Injections in Airfoil Separation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Phillip M.; Taira, Kunihiko

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this computational study is to quantify the influence of wall-normal and angular momentum injections in suppressing laminar flow separation over a canonical airfoil. Open-loop control of fully separated, incompressible flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil at $\\alpha = 9^\\circ$ and $Re = 23,000$ is examined with large-eddy simulations. This study independently introduces wall-normal momentum and angular momentum into the separated flow using swirling jets through model boundary conditions. The response of the flow field and the surface vorticity fluxes to various combinations of actuation inputs are examined in detail. It is observed that the addition of angular momentum input to wall-normal momentum injection enhances the suppression of flow separation. Lift enhancement and suppression of separation with the wall-normal and angular momentum inputs are characterized by modifying the standard definition of the coefficient of momentum. The effect of angular momentum is incorporated into the modified coefficient of momentum by introducing a characteristic swirling jet velocity based on the non-dimensional swirl number. With this single modified coefficient of momentum, we are able to categorize each controlled flow into separated, transitional, and attached flows.

  9. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Thirty-six of the exposed dogs and 7 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest activity levels died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas and three with pulmonary carcinomas and one with hepatic hemangiosarcoma that all appear related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases. Observations are continuing on 10 surviving exposed dogs and six surviving unexposed dogs

  10. Expression of relaxin receptor LRG7, canine relaxin, and relaxin-like factor in the pelvic diaphragm musculature of dogs with and without perineal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchav, Ronit; Feuermann, Yonatan; Shamay, Avi; Ranen, Eyal; Stein, Uri; Johnston, Dudley E; Shahar, Ron

    2005-01-01

    To compare the expression of canine relaxin, relaxin-like factor (RLF), and relaxin receptors within the muscles of the pelvic diaphragm of dogs with perineal hernia (PH) and clinically normal dogs. In vivo comparative study. Fifteen client-owned intact male dogs with PH were studied. Four mature intact male dogs with no evidence of perineal pathology served as controls. Biopsy samples from the levator ani, coccygeus, and internal obturator muscles were obtained. RNA samples were reverse transcribed and analyzed by real-time PCR for the expression of canine relaxin receptor LRG7, relaxin, and RLF. Significantly higher expression levels of canine relaxin receptors occurred in the musculature of the pelvic diaphragm and internal obturator muscle in dogs with PH compared with normal dogs. Expression of canine RLF revealed no significant difference between dogs with PH and controls. The difference in the expression of canine relaxin between groups was not statistically significant. Relaxin receptor up-regulation occurs in the coccygeus, levator ani, and internal obturator muscles of dogs with PH. The higher expression of relaxin receptors within the muscles of the pelvic diaphragm in dogs with PH suggests that relaxin might play a role in the pathogenesis of PH. Atrophy of these muscles, which predisposes to PH, may be attributable to increased relaxin activity.

  11. ICG: a wiki-driven knowledgebase of internal control genes for RT-qPCR normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jian; Wang, Zhennan; Li, Man; Cao, Jiabao; Niu, Guangyi; Xia, Lin; Zou, Dong; Wang, Fan; Xu, Xingjian; Han, Xiaojiao; Fan, Jinqi; Yang, Ye; Zuo, Wanzhu; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Wenming; Bao, Yiming; Xiao, Jingfa; Hu, Songnian; Hao, Lili; Zhang, Zhang

    2018-01-04

    Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a widely used method for accurate expression profiling of targeted mRNA and ncRNA. Selection of appropriate internal control genes for RT-qPCR normalization is an elementary prerequisite for reliable expression measurement. Here, we present ICG (http://icg.big.ac.cn), a wiki-driven knowledgebase for community curation of experimentally validated internal control genes as well as their associated experimental conditions. Unlike extant related databases that focus on qPCR primers in model organisms (mainly human and mouse), ICG features harnessing collective intelligence in community integration of internal control genes for a variety of species. Specifically, it integrates a comprehensive collection of more than 750 internal control genes for 73 animals, 115 plants, 12 fungi and 9 bacteria, and incorporates detailed information on recommended application scenarios corresponding to specific experimental conditions, which, collectively, are of great help for researchers to adopt appropriate internal control genes for their own experiments. Taken together, ICG serves as a publicly editable and open-content encyclopaedia of internal control genes and accordingly bears broad utility for reliable RT-qPCR normalization and gene expression characterization in both model and non-model organisms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Preliminary application of SPECT three dimensional brain imaging in normal controls and patients with cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaosheng, Luan; Pengyong,; Xiqin, Sun; Wei, Wang; Huisheng, Liu; Wen, Zhou [88 Hospital PLA, Taian, SD (China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1992-11-01

    10 normal controls and 32 cerebral infarction patients were examined with SPECT three-dimensional (3D) and sectional imaging. The result shows that 3D brain imaging has significant value in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. 3D brain imaging is superior to sectional imaging in determining the location and size of superficial lesions. For the diagnosis of deep lesions, it is better to combine 3D brain imaging with sectional imaging. The methodology of 3D brain imaging is also discussed.

  13. Preliminary application of SPECT three dimensional brain imaging in normal controls and patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Zhaosheng; Pengyong; Sun Xiqin; Wang Wei; Liu Huisheng; Zhou Wen

    1992-01-01

    10 normal controls and 32 cerebral infarction patients were examined with SPECT three-dimensional (3D) and sectional imaging. The result shows that 3D brain imaging has significant value in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. 3D brain imaging is superior to sectional imaging in determining the location and size of superficial lesions. For the diagnosis of deep lesions, it is better to combine 3D brain imaging with sectional imaging. The methodology of 3D brain imaging is also discussed

  14. Controlled austempering of hammer forgings aimed at pseudo normalized microstructure directly after deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skubisz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study concerns cost-effective realization of controlled thermomechanical processing (CTMP of medium-carbon and HSLA steel aimed at producing microstructure and properties equivalent to normalized condition directly after forging. The results of theoretical and physical modeling of hot forging with subsequent heat treating adopted for industrial realization in continuous manner were verified in semi-industrial conditions of a forge plant.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of a therapeutic renal diet to control proteinuria in proteinuric non-azotemic dogs treated with benazepril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortadellas, O; Talavera, J; Fernández del Palacio, M J

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are currently used to control proteinuria in dogs with chronic kidney disease. Renal diets (RDs) have beneficial effects in the management of azotemic dogs, but its role in proteinuric non-azotemic (PNAz) dogs has been poorly documented. Administration of a RD to PNAz dogs treated with benazepril (Be) improves proteinuria control compared with the administration of a maintenance diet (MD). Twenty-two PNAz (urine protein/creatinine ratio [UPC] >1) dogs. Randomized open label clinical trial design. Dogs were assigned to group-MD (5.5 g protein/100 kcal ME)/Be or to group-RD (3.7 g protein/100 kcal ME)/Be group during 60 days. Dogs with serum albumin (Alb) <2 g/dL received aspirin (1 mg/kg/12 hours). A physical examination, systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurement, complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry panel, urinalysis, and UPC were performed at day 0 (D0) and day 60 (D60). At D0, there were no significant differences between groups in the evaluated variables. During the study, logUPC (geometric mean (95% CI) and SBP (mean±SD mmHg) significantly decreased (paired t-test, P = 0.001) in Group-RD (logUPC(D0) = 3.16[1.9-5.25]; UPC(D60) = 1.20 [0.59-2.45]; SBP(D0) = 160 ± 17.2; SBP(D60) = 151 ± 15.8), but not in Group-MD (UPC(D0) = 3.63[2.69-4.9]; UPC(D60) = 2.14 [0.76-6.17]; SBP(D0) = 158 ± 14.7; SBP(D60) = 153 ± 11.5). However, RM-ANOVA test did not confirm that changes were consequence of dietary modification. Weight and Alb concentration did not change significantly in any group. The administration of a RD to PNAz dogs treated with Be might help to control proteinuria and SBP compared with the administration of a MD, without inducing clinically detectable malnutrition, but more studies are warranted. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Low Empathy in Deaf and Hard of Hearing (Pre)Adolescents Compared to Normal Hearing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Anouk P.; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy. Methods The study group (mean age 11.9 years) consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids) and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children’s level of empathy, their attendance to others’ emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior. Results Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported) language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children. Conclusions Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships. PMID:25906365

  17. Effects of corn oil administered orally on conspicuity of ultrasonographic small intestinal lesions in dogs with lymphangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Rachel E; Johnson, Eric G; Pesavento, Patricia A; Baker, Tomas W; Cannon, Allison B; Kass, Philip H; Marks, Stanley L

    2013-01-01

    Lymphangiectasia is one of the causes of protein-losing enteropathy in dogs and characteristic ultrasonographic small intestinal lesions have been previously described. The purpose of this study was to determine whether corn oil administered orally (COAO) would result in increased conspicuity of these characteristic small intestinal ultrasonographic lesions in dogs with lymphangiectasia. Affected dogs were included if they underwent corn oil administered orally and had a surgical full-thickness intestinal biopsy diagnosis of lymphangiectasia. Control dogs had normal clinical examination and standard laboratory test findings. Ultrasound images of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained prior to and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after corn oil administered orally for all dogs. Parameters recorded for each ultrasound study were intestinal wall thickness, mucosal echogenicity, and presence or absence of hyperechoic mucosal striations (HMS) and a parallel hyperechoic mucosal line (PHML). Nine affected and five controls dogs were included in the study. Seven of the nine dogs with lymphangiectasia had hyperechoic mucosal striations prior to corn oil administered orally. Jejunal hyperechoic mucosal striations were significantly associated with lymphangiectasia at multiple time points (P dogs with lymphangiectasia 60 or 90 min after corn oil administered orally. Increased mucosal echogenicity was observed in all dogs at multiple time points after corn oil administered orally. A parallel hyperechoic mucosal line was present in the jejunum in 4/5 healthy and 6/9 dogs with lymphangiectasia at one or more time points after corn oil administered orally. Findings indicated that corn oil administered orally improves conspicuity of characteristic ultrasonographic lesions in dogs with lymphangiectasia, however some of these lesions may also be present in healthy dogs that recently received a fatty meal. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  18. Imepitoin withdrawal in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy well-controlled with imepitoin and phenobarbital and/or potassium bromide does not increase seizure frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stee, K; Martlé, V; Broeckx, B J G; Royaux, E; Van Ham, L; Bhatti, S F M

    2017-12-01

    Phenobarbital or potassium bromide (KBr) add-on treatment decreases the average monthly seizure frequency in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy resistant to a maximum dose of imepitoin. The importance of continued administration of imepitoin in these dogs is currently unknown. The goal of this study was to assess whether imepitoin withdrawal would destabilize epileptic seizure control. In this prospective clinical trial epileptic seizure control was evaluated by comparing the monthly seizure frequency of 13 dogs with well-controlled idiopathic epilepsy receiving a combination of imepitoin and phenobarbital (n=4), imepitoin and KBr (n=7), and imepitoin, phenobarbital and KBr (n=2) during a period of 3-6 months (pre-withdrawal period), with a follow-up period of 9-12 months after withdrawal of imepitoin (post-withdrawal period). Adverse effects were also recorded before and after withdrawal of imepitoin. Imepitoin was tapered off over 3 months as follows: 20mg/kg twice daily for 1 month, then 10mg/kg twice daily for 1 month, then once daily for 1 month. Withdrawal of imepitoin did not increase monthly seizure frequency (P=0.9). Moreover, all owners reported improvement in the adverse effects experienced by their dog after withdrawal of imepitoin. Imepitoin withdrawal in epileptic dogs that were well-controlled with imepitoin and phenobarbital and/or KBr did not worsen epileptic seizure control, and possibly decreased antiepileptic treatment-related adverse effects. However, a worsening of seizure frequency could occur in individual cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Telomere length in normal and neoplastic canine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadile, Casey D; Kitchell, Barbara E; Newman, Rebecca G; Biller, Barbara J; Hetler, Elizabeth R

    2007-12-01

    To determine the mean telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length in normal and neoplastic canine tissues. 57 solid-tissue tumor specimens collected from client-owned dogs, 40 samples of normal tissue collected from 12 clinically normal dogs, and blood samples collected from 4 healthy blood donor dogs. Tumor specimens were collected from client-owned dogs during diagnostic or therapeutic procedures at the University of Illinois Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, whereas 40 normal tissue samples were collected from 12 control dogs. Telomere restriction fragment length was determined by use of an assay kit. A histologic diagnosis was provided for each tumor by personnel at the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Illinois. Mean of the mean TRF length for 44 normal samples was 19.0 kilobases (kb; range, 15.4 to 21.4 kb), and the mean of the mean TRF length for 57 malignant tumors was 19.0 kb (range, 12.9 to 23.5 kb). Although the mean of the mean TRF length for tumors and normal tissues was identical, tumor samples had more variability in TRF length. Telomerase, which represents the main mechanism by which cancer cells achieve immortality, is an attractive therapeutic target. The ability to measure telomere length is crucial to monitoring the efficacy of telomerase inhibition. In contrast to many other mammalian species, the length of canine telomeres and the rate of telomeric DNA loss are similar to those reported in humans, making dogs a compelling choice for use in the study of human anti-telomerase strategies.

  20. Static and dynamic postural control in low-vision and normal-vision adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomomitsu, Mônica S V; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Morimoto, Eurica; Bobbio, Tatiana G; Greve, Julia M D

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of reduced visual information on postural control by comparing low-vision and normal-vision adults in static and dynamic conditions. Twenty-five low-vision subjects and twenty-five normal sighted adults were evaluated for static and dynamic balance using four protocols: 1) the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance on firm and foam surfaces with eyes opened and closed; 2) Unilateral Stance with eyes opened and closed; 3) Tandem Walk; and 4) Step Up/Over. The results showed that the low-vision group presented greater body sway compared with the normal vision during balance on a foam surface (p≤0.001), the Unilateral Stance test for both limbs (p≤0.001), and the Tandem Walk test. The low-vision group showed greater step width (p≤0.001) and slower gait speed (p≤0.004). In the Step Up/Over task, low-vision participants were more cautious in stepping up (right p≤0.005 and left p≤0.009) and in executing the movement (p≤0.001). These findings suggest that visual feedback is crucial for determining balance, especially for dynamic tasks and on foam surfaces. Low-vision individuals had worse postural stability than normal-vision adults in terms of dynamic tests and balance on foam surfaces.

  1. Radiation toxicity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, W.P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the effects of continuous (22 hr/day), whole-body γ-irradiation in the pure-bred beagle dog. Dogs were exposed continuously until death at one of four different exposure rates ranging from 5 to 35 R/day. The study is still 2441 days (approximately 6.7 yr) of irradiation. The experiment has narrowed to the dogs receiving 5 R/day and the controls. A group of dogs receiving one of these relatively low daily exposure rates may exhibit remarkably varied responses, both in survival times in the γ field and in ultimate causes of death. The basis for these large differences in responses of individual dogs remains mostly unexplained, but is presumed to reside in their genetic composition. The composite result in the study, however, demonstrates an orderly, step-wise appearance of clinical end points resulting from radiation-induced damage to the blood-forming tissues. About one-half the dogs exposed continuously to 10 R/day develop bone marrow aplasia and die of anemia, while the other one-half develop bone marrow hyperplasias and die of malignancies, usually myelogenous leukemias. In dogs exposed at rates greater than 10 R/day, aplastic bone marrows predominate; while hyperplastic responses are the dominant cause of death at 5 R/day. Only among the most recent deaths of dogs exposed continuously to either 10 or 5 R/day, have there appeared terminal causes of death unrelated to hematopoietic injury. These causes (degenerative and/or inflammatory disease and cancers of tissue other than bone marrow) suggest that we are now beginning to define the combinations of exposure rate and time of exposure that allow expressions of damage by tissues outside the hematopoietic system. (U.S.)

  2. The association of physical examination abnormalities and carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in 21 dogs trapped in a kennel fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Elizabeth A; Mazzaferro, Elisa M; McKiernan, Brendan C; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate physical examination findings and their association with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentrations in 21 dogs that were exposed to smoke during a kennel fire. Twenty-one dogs were exposed to a kennel fire. Physical exam findings, presenting, and posttherapy COHb concentrations as well as therapeutic interventions were evaluated. COHb concentrations upon presentation were increased in all smoke inhalation exposed dogs. These dogs were compared to a small set of clinically normal staff-owned dogs who were not exposed to fire. Physical parameters significantly associated with higher COHb concentrations included lower body temperature, increased respiratory effort, abnormal respiratory auscultation, altered neurologic status, and length of hospital stay. Oxygen therapy resulted in a more rapid decline in COHb concentrations although 5 dogs still had mildly increased COHb concentrations 24-hour postadmission. This study describes the relationship of admitting clinical findings of dogs exposed to a kennel fire with their initial blood COHb concentrations. It also describes the resolution of increased COHb concentrations with use of oxygen therapy and hospitalization. Additionally, COHb concentrations for a control group of dogs was evaluated and compared to the dogs exposed to smoke inhalation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  3. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a locking...

  4. Dog rivalry impacts following behavior in a decision-making task involving food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Christy L; Suchak, Malini

    2017-07-01

    Dogs learn a great deal from humans and other dogs. Previous studies of socially influenced learning between dogs have typically used a highly trained demonstrator dog who is unfamiliar to the observer. Because of this, it is unknown how dynamics between familiar dogs may influence their likelihood of learning from each other. In this study, we tested dogs living together in two-dog households on whether individual dogs' rivalry scores were associated with performance on a local enhancement task. Specifically, we wanted to know whether dog rivalry impacted whether an observer dog would approach a plate from which a demonstrator dog had eaten all available food, or whether the observer dog would approach the adjacent plate that still contained food. Dog rivalry scores were calculated using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire and indicated each dog's tendency to engage aggressively with the other household dog. Low-rivalry dogs were more likely to approach the empty plate than high-rivalry dogs when the observer dog was allowed to approach the plates immediately after the demonstrator had moved out of sight. This difference between low- and high-rivalry dogs disappeared, however, when observer dogs had to wait 5 s before approaching the plates. The same pattern was observed during a control condition when a human removed the food from a plate. Compared to low-rivalry dogs, high-rivalry dogs may pay less attention to other dogs due to a low tolerance for having other dogs in close proximity.

  5. Self-disclosure with dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Wilday, Aislinn

    2016-01-01

    There exists an abundance of literature on the health benefits of dog-ownership and the health benefits of self-disclosure however, there has been no research into the potential health benefits of self-disclosure to dogs. This thesis addresses that gap in the literature. Among the literature on the health benefits of dog-ownership there is often a focus on the benefits to people with clinical conditions or living in care facilities – much less investigated are the benefits to ‘normally-fun...

  6. Right heart enlargement in heartworm-infected dogs: a radiographic, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, C.W.; Ackerman, N.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographically, the size of the right ventricle of 54 heartworm-infected dogs was graded subjectively as normal, 1 +, 2 +, and 3 + and served to classify the dogs into groups A, B, C, and D. With M-mode echocardiograms, right ventricular enlargement ratios (RVE ratios) were determined for each dog by dividing the measured right ventricular internal diastolic dimension (RVIDd) by the expected RVIDd of a normal dog of the same body weight. The normal RVIDd relation to body weight was derived from 25 healthy heartworm-free control dogs. These two variables were linearly related with a correlation coefficient r 2 = 0.59. Means and standard deviations of the RVE ratio were calculated for each group. Despite wide ranges and considerable overlap, the ratio was significantly different (t-test, p < 0.005) between groups with the exception of groups A and B, and C and D. The incidence of electrocardiographic signs of right ventricular hypertrophy was also determined for each group; it was 38% in group C and 62% in group D. From this data, it was concluded that M-mode echocardiography is a very sensitive technique for the documentation of right ventricular dilatation in heartworm-infected dogs, correlating with radiographic impressions of right ventricular enlargement. (author)

  7. Comparison between cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitero, Luis; Nykamp, Stephanie; Daniel, Rob; Monteith, Gabrielle

    2013-01-01

    Cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations have been reported to be rare in dogs due to the presence of the intercapital ligament, however some studies have proposed they may not be uncommon in German Shepherd dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs (control group). Medical records at the Ontario Veterinary College were searched for German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs that had magnetic resonance imaging studies including the T1-T9 region. For each dog and each disc space from T1-T9, three variables (compression, disc degeneration, and herniation) were recorded and graded based on review of sagittal T2-weighted images. Twenty-three German Shepherd dogs and 47 other large breed dogs met inclusion criteria. The German Shepherd dog group had higher scores than the control group for compression (P = 0.0099) and herniation (P dog group, intervertebral discs T2-T3 and T4-T5 had an increased risk for compression and T3-T4 had an increased risk for compression and herniation. Findings from this study indicated that German Shepherd dogs may be more likely than other large breed dogs to have spinal cord compression due to cranial thoracic disc herniations. Imaging of the cranial thoracic spine, including T2-T3, is recommended for German Shepherd dogs with T3-L3 neurological signs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  8. Plasma antibodies to Abeta40 and Abeta42 in patients with Alzheimer's disease and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wuhua; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Etsuro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Murakami, Tetsuro; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Kuwano, Ryozo; Abe, Koji; Shoji, Mikio

    2008-07-11

    Antibodies to amyloid beta protein (Abeta) are present naturally or after Abeta vaccine therapy in human plasma. To clarify their clinical role, we examined plasma samples from 113 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 205 normal controls using the tissue amyloid plaque immunoreactivity (TAPIR) assay. A high positive rate of TAPIR was revealed in AD (45.1%) and age-matched controls (41.2%), however, no significance was observed. No significant difference was observed in the MMS score or disease duration between TAPIR-positive and negative samples. TAPIR-positive plasma reacted with the Abeta40 monomer and dimer, and the Abeta42 monomer weakly, but not with the Abeta42 dimer. TAPIR was even detected in samples from young normal subjects and young Tg2576 transgenic mice. Although the Abeta40 level and Abeta40/42 ratio increased, and Abeta42 was significantly decreased in plasma from AD groups when compared to controls, no significant correlations were revealed between plasma Abeta levels and TAPIR grading. Thus an immune response to Abeta40 and immune tolerance to Abeta42 occurred naturally in humans without a close relationship to the Abeta burden in the brain. Clarification of the mechanism of the immune response to Abeta42 is necessary for realization of an immunotherapy for AD.

  9. A survey of the dog population in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Moazzem; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Marma, Aung Swi Prue; Hossain, Sohrab; Ali, Mohammad Azmat; Shamsuzzaman, Abul Khair Mohammad; Nishizono, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Globally, Bangladesh ranks third in the number of human deaths from rabies. Although dogs are the principal known transmitters of rabies and knowledge of dog populations is essential for effective national control and proper planning, dog control programs are scarce in Bangladesh. Our objective was to count dogs in a rural area to understand the dog population of the country. For this purpose we selected six unions of Raipura upazila in Narsingdi district. Dog counting was done by direct observation following accepted guidelines. We determined the mean density of the dog population in Bangladesh to be 14 dog/km(2) (95% CI 3.7, 24) and the human:dog ratio to be 120 (95% CI 55, 184). Our paper contribute to the literature which shows great variation in the human:dog ratio across regions of the developing world. The human:dog ratio depends on the area's human (as well as dog) population, whereas dog density per unit area indicates the true number of dogs. We propose that extrapolating from the human:dog ratios of other regions not be relied upon for estimating dog populations, unless the ratios can be supplemented by actual counts of dogs within the target area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Malassezia versus Candida in Healthy Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihelská Z.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genera Malassezia and Candida include yeasts which are members of the normal mycobiota of the skin and mucosal sites of humans and other warm-blooded animals. These yeasts are associated with a variety of dermatological disorders and also systemic diseases in humans and other animals. This study confirms the occurrence of Malassezia and Candida species in healthy dogs. Samples were collected from different body sites: external ear canal, interdigital area, skin of the axilla and of the neck, and the oral and rectal mucosae. The isolates were identified using phenotypic methods (biochemical-physiological and morphological characteristics. The presence of yeasts were investigated in the specimens from 70 healthy dogs. Malassezia species were isolated in 44 dogs from which 84 Malassezia isolates were obtained. Only one Candida isolate was obtained from the dogs examined. It was found that Candida does not occur in dogs normally and Malassezia was the main colonizing yeast in healthy dogs.

  11. Autonomous monitoring of control hardware to predict off-normal conditions using NIF automatic alignment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwal, Abdul A.S.; Wilhelmsen, Karl; Leach, Richard R.; Miller-Kamm, Vicki; Burkhart, Scott; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An automatic alignment system was developed to process images of the laser beams. ► System uses processing to adjust a series of control loops until alignment criteria are satisfied. ► Monitored conditions are compared against nominal values with an off-normal alert. ► Automated health monitoring system trends off-normals with a large image history. - Abstract: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high power laser system capable of supporting high-energy-density experimentation as a user facility for the next 30 years. In order to maximize the facility availability, preventive maintenance enhancements are being introduced into the system. An example of such an enhancement is a camera-based health monitoring system, integrated into the automated alignment system, which provides an opportunity to monitor trends in measurements such as average beam intensity, size of the beam, and pixel saturation. The monitoring system will generate alerts based on observed trends in measurements to allow scheduled pro-active maintenance before routine off-normal detection stops system operations requiring unscheduled intervention.

  12. Autonomous monitoring of control hardware to predict off-normal conditions using NIF automatic alignment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, Abdul A.S., E-mail: awwal1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Wilhelmsen, Karl; Leach, Richard R.; Miller-Kamm, Vicki; Burkhart, Scott; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Cohen, Simon [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An automatic alignment system was developed to process images of the laser beams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System uses processing to adjust a series of control loops until alignment criteria are satisfied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitored conditions are compared against nominal values with an off-normal alert. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Automated health monitoring system trends off-normals with a large image history. - Abstract: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high power laser system capable of supporting high-energy-density experimentation as a user facility for the next 30 years. In order to maximize the facility availability, preventive maintenance enhancements are being introduced into the system. An example of such an enhancement is a camera-based health monitoring system, integrated into the automated alignment system, which provides an opportunity to monitor trends in measurements such as average beam intensity, size of the beam, and pixel saturation. The monitoring system will generate alerts based on observed trends in measurements to allow scheduled pro-active maintenance before routine off-normal detection stops system operations requiring unscheduled intervention.

  13. 26S proteasome and insulin-like growth factor-1 in serum of dogs suffering from malignant tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Ingrid; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Neumann, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    Studies in humans have shown that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the insulin-like growth factor axis are involved in carcinogenesis, thus, components of these systems might be useful as prognostic markers and constitute potential therapeutic targets. In veterinary medicine, only a few studies exist on this topic. Here, serum concentrations of 26S proteasome (26SP) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured by canine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 43 dogs suffering from malignant tumors and 21 clinically normal dogs (control group). Relationships with tumor size, survival time, body condition score (BCS), and tumor entity were assessed. The median 26SP concentration in the tumor group was non-significantly higher than in the control group. However, dogs with mammary carcinomas displayed significantly increased 26SP levels compared to the control group and dogs with tumor size less than 5 cm showed significantly increased 26SP concentrations compared to dogs with larger tumors and control dogs. 26SP concentrations were not correlated to survival time or BCS. No significant difference in IGF-1 levels was found between the tumor group and the control group; however, IGF-1 concentrations displayed a larger range of values in the tumor group. Dogs with tumors greater than 5 cm showed significantly higher IGF-1 levels than dogs with smaller tumors. The IGF-1 concentrations were positively correlated to survival time, but no correlation with BCS was found. Consequently, serum 26SP concentrations seem to be increased in some dogs suffering from malignant tumors, especially in dogs with mammary carcinoma and smaller tumors. Increased serum IGF-1 concentrations could be an indication of large tumors and a poor prognosis.

  14. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Moskvina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed.

  15. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  16. The effects of a topical lipid complex therapy on dogs with atopic dermatitis: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobi, Stefan; Klinger, Christoph; Classen, Janine; Mueller, Ralf S

    2017-08-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis is a common clinical presentation. The skin barrier seems to play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis. Therefore a topical spot-on product containing a mixture of lipids may improve clinical signs without adverse effects if it were to improve stratum corneum barrier function. Twenty six privately owned atopic dogs of different breed, age, gender and weight were included in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. To evaluate potential clinical benefits and influence on skin barrier function of a topical lipid-containing product applied to the skin of atopic dogs. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed by adequate testing and the exclusion of other possible pruritic diseases. Dogs were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. A spot-on product containing different types of lipids was applied twice weekly to predisposed and affected areas. The placebo preparation contained only the excipients. The clinical effects were regularly verified with a Visual Analog Score and the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index. A medication score was calculated and barrier function was evaluated by means of transepidermal water loss and pH measurements. Twenty three dogs completed the study. There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the evaluated parameters. Adverse effects were not noted. This study could not confirm significant clinical improvement when using the product compared to the placebo, although its use was not associated with adverse effects. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  17. Effects of Benazepril on Survival of Dogs with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Multicenter, Randomized, Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J N; Font, A; Rousselot, J-F; Ash, R A; Bonfanti, U; Brovida, C; Crowe, I D; Lanore, D; Pechereau, D; Seewald, W; Strehlau, G

    2017-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs. To evaluate the efficacy in prolonging survival and safety of benazepril administration to dogs with CKD. Forty-nine client-owned dogs with CKD. Dogs were randomized to benazepril (0.25 to benazepril versus placebo was detected for renal survival time in all dogs; median (95% confidence interval (CI)) survival times were 305 (53-575) days in the benazepril group and 287 (152-not available) in the placebo group (P = .53). Renal survival times were not significantly longer with benazepril compared to placebo for subgroups: hazard ratios (95% CI) were 0.50 (0.21-1.22) with P = .12 for initial urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) >0.5, and 0.38 (0.12-1.19) with P = .080 for initial UPC >0.5 plus plasma creatinine ≤440 μmol/L. Proteinuria, assessed from the UPC, was significantly (P = .0032) lower after treatment with benazepril compared to placebo. There were no significant differences between groups for clinical signs or frequencies of adverse events. Benazepril significantly reduced proteinuria in dogs with CKD. Insufficient numbers of dogs were recruited to allow conclusions on survival time. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Comparison of serum lipid profiles between normal controls and breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikul Laisupasin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers have reported association of plasma/serum lipids and lipoproteins with different cancers. Increase levels of circulating lipids and lipoproteins have been associated with breast cancer risk. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare serum lipid profiles: total-cholesterol (T-CHOL, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C between breast cancer patients and normal participants. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 women in this study were divided into two groups in the period during May 2006-April 2007. Blood samples were collected from 249 patients with early stage breast cancer and 154 normal controls for serum lipid profiles (T-CHOL, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C analysis using Hitachi 717 Autoanalyzer (Roche Diagnostic GmbH, Germany. TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C levels in breast cancer group were significantly increased as compared with normal controls group (P < 0.001, whereas HDL-C and T-CHOL levels were not. Results: The results of this study suggest that increased serum lipid profiles may associate with breast cancer risk in Thai women. Further studies to group important factors including, cancer stages, types of cancer, parity, and menopausal status that may affect to lipid profiles in breast cancer patients along with an investigation of new lipid profiles to clarify most lipid factors that may involve in breast cancer development are needed.

  19. Identification of peripheral inflammatory markers between normal control and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sam-Moon; Song, Juhee; Kim, Seungwoo; Han, Changsu; Park, Moon Ho; Koh, Youngho; Jo, Sangmee Ahn; Kim, Young-Youl

    2011-05-12

    Multiple pathogenic factors may contribute to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Peripheral blood markers have been used to assess biochemical changes associated with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and involved in their pathophysiology. Plasma samples and clinical data were obtained from participants in the Ansan Geriatric Study (AGE study). Plasma concentrations of four candidate biomarkers were measured in the normal control (NC), MCI, and AD group: interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).Body mass index (BMI), MMSE (Mini Mental State Examination), CDR(Clinical Dementia Rating) score and homocystein level were recorded with social and demographic information. Total of 59 subjects were randomly selected for this analysis [NC (n = 21), MCI(n = 20) and AD(n = 18)]. In demographic data, educational year was correlated with the diagnosis states (p homocystein of the three groups, but no significant differences were found in each groups. The plasma IL-8 level was lower in MCI and AD patients compared with the normal control group (respectively, p < 0.0001). The MCI and AD patients had similar MCP-1, IL-10, and TNF-α level. Our study suggests the existence of an independent and negative relationship between plasma IL-8 levels and functional status in MCI and AD patients.

  20. Reward value-based gain control: divisive normalization in parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Kenway; Grattan, Lauren E; Glimcher, Paul W

    2011-07-20

    The representation of value is a critical component of decision making. Rational choice theory assumes that options are assigned absolute values, independent of the value or existence of other alternatives. However, context-dependent choice behavior in both animals and humans violates this assumption, suggesting that biological decision processes rely on comparative evaluation. Here we show that neurons in the monkey lateral intraparietal cortex encode a relative form of saccadic value, explicitly dependent on the values of the other available alternatives. Analogous to extra-classical receptive field effects in visual cortex, this relative representation incorporates target values outside the response field and is observed in both stimulus-driven activity and baseline firing rates. This context-dependent modulation is precisely described by divisive normalization, indicating that this standard form of sensory gain control may be a general mechanism of cortical computation. Such normalization in decision circuits effectively implements an adaptive gain control for value coding and provides a possible mechanistic basis for behavioral context-dependent violations of rationality.

  1. Personality correlates of criminals: A comparative study between normal controls and criminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sudhinta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Personality is a major factor in many kinds of behavior, one of which is criminal behavior. To determine what makes a criminal “a criminal,” we must understand his/her personality. This study tries to identify different personality traits which link criminals to their personality. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 37 male criminals of district jail of Dhanbad (Jharkhand) and 36 normal controls were included on a purposive sampling basis. Each criminal was given a personal datasheet and Cattel's 16 personality factors (PFs) scale for assessing their sociodemographic variables and different personality traits. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relation between personality traits and criminal behavior, and to determine whether such factors are predictive of future recidivism. Results: Results indicated high scores on intelligence, impulsiveness, suspicion, self-sufficient, spontaneity, self-concept control factors, and very low scores on emotionally less stable on Cattel's 16 PFs scale in criminals as compared with normal. Conclusion: Criminals differ from general population or non criminals in terms of personality traits. PMID:28163407

  2. Differential effects of mental stress on plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenia and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, T; Saitoh, O; Yotsutsuji, T; Itoh, H; Kurokawa, K; Kurachi, M

    1999-04-01

    We previously reported that mental stress by Kraepelin's arithmetic test decreases plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels in psychiatrically normal healthy human subjects. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this pattern of changes in pHVA concentrations resulting from mental stress is altered in patients with schizophrenia. Fourteen male patients with schizophrenia including those under ongoing neuroleptic treatment and 14 normal male volunteers participated in the study. Following overnight fast and restricted physical activity, the subjects performed Kraepelin's arithmetic test for 30 minutes. Plasma samples were collected immediately before and after the test for measurement of pHVA levels. A significant diagnosis by Kraepelin's test effect was observed due to a decrease in pHVA levels by the Kraepelin test in control subjects but not in patients with schizophrenia. Changes in pHVA levels during the Kraepelin test positively correlated with pre-test pHVA levels in control subjects, while this correlation was not observed in patients with schizophrenia. These results may be further support for the presence of a dopamine-dependent restitutive system in the brain. The absence of response of pHVA levels to mental stress in patients with schizophrenia may indicate that the dopamine restitutive system in these patients is disrupted or already down-regulated, as previously predicted.

  3. Sex differences in plasma homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenia and normal controls: relation to neuroleptic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, T; Hasegawa, M; Jayathilake, K; Meltzer, H Y

    1997-03-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels were compared in a large number of neuroleptic-resistant and -responsive schizophrenic patients (male/female = 161/46) and normal controls (67/27), and correlated with various measures of psychopathology. Psychopathology was evaluated with the brief psychiatric rating scale, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Change version (SADS-C) and SADS-C Global Assessment Scale, the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), and the Quality of Life Scale. No significant differences in pHVA levels between neuroleptic-resistant (n = 104) or -responsive (n = 103) schizophrenic patients, and normal controls, were found; however, there was a main effect for sex, due to higher pHVA levels in women than men. There were no diagnosis x gender or age effects on pHVA levels. No significant correlations were observed between psychopathology ratings and baseline pHVA levels, except with the Hallucinations subscale of SAPS in neuroleptic-responsive patients. Neither duration of neuroleptic washout nor plasma prolactin levels correlated with pHVA levels. Further studies on the origin and significance of the gender difference in pHVA are indicated.

  4. A Comparison of Angular Values of the Pelvic Limb with Normal and Medial Patellar Luxation Stifles in Chihuahua Dogs Using Radiography and Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetkaew, Thitaporn; Kalpravidh, Marissak; Penchome, Rampaipat; Wangdee, Chalika

    2018-02-01

     This article aimed to determine and compare the angular values of the pelvic limb in normal and medial patellar luxation (MPL) stifles in Chihuahuas using radiography and computed tomographic (CT) scan, to identify the relationship between pelvic limb angles and severity of MPL. In addition, radiographic and CT images were compared to determine the more suitable method of limb deformity assessment.  Sixty hindlimbs of Chihuahuas were divided into normal and grade 1, 2, 3 and 4 MPL groups. The pelvic limb angles in frontal and sagittal planes were evaluated on radiography and CT scan. Femoral and tibial torsion angles (FTA and TTA) were evaluated only by CT scan. All angles were compared among normal and MPL stifles and between radiography and CT scan.  Based on the CT scan, the mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA), anatomical caudal proximal femoral angle (aCdPFA), and TTA were related to the severity of MPL. The mLDFA and TTA were significantly increased ( p  Chihuahuas are aLDFA, mLDFA, aCdPFA and TTA. Radiography had some limitations for evaluating pelvic limb angles. The caudocranial radiograph is recommended for the assessment of the distal femoral angles, while the craniocaudal radiograph is for the tibial angles. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  5. Allegheny County Dog Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A list of dog license dates, dog breeds, and dog name by zip code. Currently this dataset does not include City of Pittsburgh dogs.

  6. Food-specific sublingual immunotherapy is well tolerated and safe in healthy dogs: a blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, E; Pelst, M; Hesta, M; Cox, E

    2017-01-18

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence but no treatment strategies are currently available to cure dogs with food allergy. Over the past decade, experimental food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (FA-SLIT) has emerged as a potential treatment for food allergies in human medicine. However, FA-SLIT has not been investigated in dogs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety, tolerability and dispenser sterility of FA-SLIT in healthy dogs before testing it in food allergic dogs. Eight experimental healthy beagle dogs, never orally exposed to peanut, were randomized in two groups to receive SLIT with peanut or placebo for 4 months. Subjects were monitored daily for local and systemic adverse effects. Blood samples for complete blood count and serum biochemistry, and urine for urinalysis were collected and the dogs' body weight was recorded at day 0, 35 and 119 of the SLIT treatment. Sera for the determination of peanut-specific IgG and IgE were collected at day 0, 35, 49, 70, 91, 105 and 119. Intradermal tests were performed before (day 0) and after (day 119) the experiment. The content of each dispenser used to administer treatment or placebo was tested for sterility after usage. In order to assess the presence or absence of sensitization, dogs were challenged 6 months after the end of the study with 2000 μg of peanut extract daily for 7 to 14 days. All dogs completed the study. The treatment did not provoke either local or systemic side-effects. Peanut-specific IgG significantly increased in treatment group. Even though a significant increase in peanut-specific IgE was also seen, intradermal tests were negative in all dogs before and after the experiment, and the challenge test did not trigger any adverse reactions in the treated dogs, which shows the protocol did not cause sensitization to peanut, but nevertheless primed the immune system as indicated by the humoral immune response. All dispenser solutions

  7. Renal involvement in dogs with babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Lobetti

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Proteinuria, and renal tubular casts and epithelial cells in urine sediment, are commonly observed in both complicated and uncomplicated babesiosis, but do not necessarily reflect or predict renal failure. This study investigated the presence and degree of renal damage in canine babesiosis. Renal function and integrity were evaluated using serum urea and creatinine, serum electrolytes (sodium and potassium, fractional clearance of sodium (FcNa and potassium (FcK, urine enzyme activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase, urine protein:creatinine ratio, and urinalysis. One control group (n =10 and 3 groups of babesiosis cases were studied: mild uncomplicated (n =10, severe uncomplicated (n = 11, and complicated (n = 9. All babesiosis groups showed well-concentrated urine. Mean serum urea was elevated in the severe and complicated groups, and was significantly different from the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for creatinine, although the complicated group had a mean value above the normal reference range. Hypokalaemia was uncommon in all the groups. Hyperkalaemia was present in only 2 dogs in the complicated group. Marginal hyponatraemia was present in a minority of dogs in all groups. The serumelectrolytes were not significantly different between groups. There was no overall elevation, nor any statistically significant difference in both the FcNa and FcK between the groups. Only 1 dog, in the complicated group, showed marked enzymuria. Proteinuria was a common finding and was significantly different between the severe and complicated groups and the control group. Some dogs in all groups had renal tubular epithelial cells in the urinary sediment, which increased in severity from the mild to the complicated groups and was significantly different from the control group. This study demonstrated that minimal renal damage occurs more often in canine babesiosis than significant

  8. Blood pressure changes in dogs with babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Jacobson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial blood pressures were measured in 30 dogs with acute babesiosis, 10 each with mild uncomplicated, severe uncomplicated and complicated disease. Ten healthy dogs were used as controls. Hypotension was defined as more than 3 standard deviations below the control mean. Normal mean pressures (±SD were: systolic arterial pressure 151 (±11 mm Hg, diastolic arterial pressure 89 (±8 mm Hg and mean arterial pressure 107 (±10 mmHg. Hypotension was the most frequent abnormality, and increased strikingly in incidence as disease severity increased, with 5/10 dogs in the complicated group being hypotensive for systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, compared with 2/10 in the severe uncomplicated group and 0/10 in the mild uncomplicated group. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures in the complicated group and severe uncomplicated group, and systolic pressure in the mild uncomplicated group, were significantly lower than in the controls. There were no significant relationships between arterial pressures and age, pulse rate, respiratory rate, temperature, mucous membrane colour or haematocrit. There was a significant negative correlation between arterial pressures and white cell and immature neutrophil counts. Arterial pressures differed significantly between dogs that were clinically collapsed and those that were not, but not between survivors and non-survivors. Pulse pressure (systolic - diastolic was low in 7/10 complicated, 1/10 mild uncomplicated, and 1/10 severe uncomplicated cases, and differed significantly between the complicated and control groups. The high incidence of hypotension in clinically severe babesiosis has important implications for therapy.

  9. Assessing adverse effects of intra-articular botulinum toxin A in healthy Beagle dogs: A placebo-controlled, blinded, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Helka M; Jokinen, Tarja S; Syrjä, Pernilla; Junnila, Jouni; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the clinical, cytological, and histopathological adverse effects of intra-articularly injected botulinum toxin A in dogs and to study whether the toxin spreads from the joint after the injection. A longitudinal, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted with six healthy laboratory Beagle dogs. Stifle joints were randomized to receive either 30 IU of onabotulinum toxin A or placebo in a 1:1 ratio. Adverse effects and spread of the toxin were examined by evaluating dynamic and static weight-bearing of the injected limbs, by assessing painless range of motion and pain on palpation of joints, and by performing synovial fluid analysis, neurological examination, and electrophysiological recordings at different examination time-points in a 12-week period after the injections. The dogs were then euthanized and autopsy and histopathological examination of joint structures and adjacent muscles and nerves were performed. Intra-articular botulinum toxin A did not cause local weakness or injection site pain. Instead, static weight-bearing and painless range of motion of stifle joints decreased in the placebo limbs. No clinically significant abnormalities associated with intra-articular botulinum toxin A were detected in the neurological examinations. Electrophysiological recordings showed low compound muscle action potentials in two dogs in the botulinum toxin A-injected limb. No significant changes were detected in the synovial fluid. Autopsy and histopathological examination of the joint and adjacent muscles and nerves did not reveal histopathological adverse effects of the toxin. Intra-articular botulinum toxin A does not produce significant clinical, cytological, or histopathological adverse effects in healthy dogs. Based on the electrophysiological recordings, the toxin may spread from the joint, but its clinical impact seems to be low.

  10. Ultrasonographic, quantitative comparison of lower extremity lymphedema versus normal control. Technical note with case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lôbo de Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of tissue by ultrasonography (CATUS is a modern-day research endeavor intended to improve visual perception and image quantification. Visual perception increases with color. Quantification focuses on pixel echo brightnesses. A previously presented case report demonstrated reappearance of lymphatic channels a few days after manual drainage. Ultrasonographic images (US of lymphatic leg and foot were quantitated and compared to a normal extremity based on proportions of pixels in specific brightness intervals. Anatomy evaluated included control- subcutaneous and lymphatic compartments. US with 256 brightness levels were obtained at the proximal, mid and distal leg and foot. Control and lymphatic Gray Scale Medians (GSM and histograms were compared using t-test and Chi-square statistics. Average GSM was 97±9 (SD (82-114, n=12 images for control, greater than 51±15 (24-69, n=12 for lymphedematous leg/foot (P99% of pixels with brightness in the muscle-fiber range (41-196, in contrast to 62% for the lymphatic extremity (P<0.001. Lymphedema averaged 7%, 3%, 15% and 14% of pixels in blood, blood/fat, fat and fat/muscle-like regions (0-4, 5-7, 8-26, 27- 40 brightness intervals. Such regions were visually interpreted as lymphatic channels or lakes. Visual perception by colorization is subjective, but most people perceives details better, for example, during the day than at night. Furthermore, US images have 16 times more shades of gray, 256, than that perceived by the human visual system, 16 on average. Colorization improved perception of lymphatic channels and lakes by transforming blood echoes into red and lymphatic liquid with echoes similar to fat into yellow. Pixel proportions in low brightness intervals were higher in the lymphatic than in the normal extremity. Lymphedema severity was quantified. The CATUS technique may be used to monitor treatment effects or disease evolution.

  11. Dogs with cognitive dysfunction as a spontaneous model for early Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütt, Trine; Helboe, Lone; Pedersen, Lars Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    Aged companion dogs with canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) spontaneously develop varying degrees of progressive cognitive decline and particular neuropathological features correspondent to the changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans. The aim of the present study...... was to characterize certain aspects of neuropathology and inflammatory markers related to aging and CCD in dogs in comparison with human AD. Fifteen brains from aged dogs with normal cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment, or CCD were investigated and compared with two control brains from young dogs and brain...... sections from human AD subjects. The neuropathological investigations included evaluation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque deposition (N-terminally truncated and pyroglutamyl-modified Aβ included), tau pathology, and inflammatory markers in prefrontal cortex. Cortical Aβ deposition was found to be only...

  12. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of dural ectasia in Loeys-Dietz syndrome: comparison with Marfan syndrome and normal controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi K Kono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dural ectasia is well recognized in Marfan syndrome (MFS as one of the major diagnostic criteria, but the exact prevalence of dural ectasia is still unknown in Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS, which is a recently discovered connective tissue disease. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of dural ectasia in LDS according by using qualitative and quantitative methods and compared our findings with those for with MFS and normal controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied 10 LDS (6 males, 4 females, mean age 36.3 years and 20 MFS cases (12 males, 8 females, mean age 37.1 years and 20 controls (12 males, 8 females, mean age 36.1 years both qualitatively and quantitatively using axial CT images and sagittal multi-planar reconstruction images of the lumbosacral region. For quantitative examination, we adopted two methods: method-1 (anteroposterior dural diameter of S1> L4 and method-2 (ratio of anteroposterior dural diameter/vertebral body diameter>cutoff values. The prevalence of dural ectasia among groups was compared by using Fisher's exact test and the Tukey-Kramer test. RESULTS: In LDS patients, the qualitative method showed 40% of dural ectasia, the quantitative method-1 50%, and the method-2 70%. In MFS patients, the corresponding prevalences were 50%, 75%, and 85%, and in controls, 0%, 0%, and 5%. Both LDS and MFS had a significantly wider dura than controls. CONCLUSIONS: While the prevalence of dural ectasia varied depending on differences in qualitative and quantitative methods, LDS as well as MFS, showed, regardless of method, a higher prevalence of dural ectasia than controls. This finding should help the differentiation of LDS from controls.

  14. Intestinal obstruction in germ-free dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, J B; Robinson, J W; Menge, H; Winistörfer, B

    1981-08-01

    Mechanical occlusions were created in the intestines of four germ-free dogs. At the time of the operation, a control loop of mid-intestine was perfused in vivo and then excised for examinations in vitro, which included the determination of the equilibrium uptake of phenylalanine and of beta-methyl-glucoside, the influx kinetics of phenylalanine and morphometric analysis of the mucosa by microdissection and stereological techniques. Seven days after establishment of the occlusion the abdomen was reopened, and loops above and below the occlusion were perfused, and then excised for the same tests in vitro. Unlike occluded loops of conventional dogs, the intestine of the germ-free animal above the occlusion does not secrete water and electrolytes into the lumen. Its transport properties in vitro do not differ from those of the control loop, and the morphometric analyses reveal only slight changes in villus structure. The loop below the obstruction undergoes marked atrophy, as has been observed in conventional dogs. The results suggest that the copious secretion that occurs above an intestinal obstruction in normal animals is due to the presence of an abundant bacterial population in the obstruction fluid.

  15. Motor-evoked potential amplitudes elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation do not differentiate between patients and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunhaus, Leon; Polak, Dana; Amiaz, Revital; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2003-12-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the motor cortex depolarizes neurons and leads to motor-evoked potentials (MEP). To assess cortico-spinal excitability we compared the motor threshold (MT) and the averaged MEP amplitude generated by TMS in patients with major depression (MD) and matched controls. Nineteen patients, who where participants in a protocol comparing the antidepressant effects of rTMS with those of ECT, and thirteen age- and gender-matched normal controls were studied. MT was similar between patients and normal controls. The MEP amplitude response was significantly increased by rTMS, however, the magnitude of the response was similar in patients and normal controls. Correlations between the averaged MEP amplitude and age revealed that older subjects demonstrated significantly lower responses at all time-points. We conclude that cortico-spinal excitability is increased following rTMS, however, differences between patients and normal controls were not apparent with the paradigm used.

  16. Suitability for field service in 4 breeds of guide dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ennik, E.; Liinamo, A.E.; Leighton, E.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the relative importance of a longer than normal 4-month training period, or being ¿passed back¿ from the original training class to join a class in which dogs are at an earlier stage of their training, on the overall probability that a dog entering guide dog training will

  17. Ultrasonographic characteristics of the abdominal esophagus and cardia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gory, Guillaume; Rault, Delphine N; Gatel, Laure; Dally, Claire; Belli, Patrick; Couturier, Laurent; Cauvin, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for regurgitation and vomiting in dogs include diseases of the gastroesophageal junction. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe ultrasonographic characteristics of the abdominal esophagus and gastric cardia in normal dogs and dogs with clinical disease involving this region. A total of 126 dogs with no clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and six dogs with clinical diseases involving the gastroesophageal junction were included. For seven euthanized dogs, ultrasonographic features were also compared with gross pathology and histopathology. Cardial and abdominal esophageal wall thicknesses were measured ultrasonographically for all normal dogs and effects of weight, sex, age, and stomach filling were tested. Five layers could be identified in normal esophageal and cardial walls. The inner esophageal layer was echogenic, corresponding to the cornified mucosa and glandular portion of the submucosa. The cardia was characterized by a thick muscularis, and a transitional zone between echogenic esophageal and hypoechoic gastric mucosal layers. Mean (±SD) cardial wall thicknesses for normal dogs were 7.6 mm (±1.6), 9.7 mm (±1.8), 10.8 mm (±1.6), 13.3 mm (±2.5) for dogs in the dog weight group. Ultrasonography assisted diagnosis in all six clinically affected dogs. Findings supported the use of transabdominal ultrasonography as a diagnostic test for dogs with suspected gastroesophageal disease. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  18. Food-specific sublingual immunotherapy is well tolerated and safe in healthy dogs : a blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Maina, Elisa; Pelst, Michael; Hesta, Myriam; Cox, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Background: Food allergies are increasing in prevalence but no treatment strategies are currently available to cure dogs with food allergy. Over the past decade, experimental food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (FA-SLIT) has emerged as a potential treatment for food allergies in human medicine. However, FA-SLIT has not been investigated in dogs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety, tolerability and dispenser sterility of FA-SLIT in healt...

  19. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of tick and flea burdens in dogs and cats has become essential to the control of important and emerging vector borne diseases, some of which are zoonoses. Flea worry and flea bite hypersensitivity are additionally a significant disease entity in dogs and cats. Owner compliance in maintaining the pressure of control measures has been shown to be poor. For these reasons efforts are continuously being made to develop ectoparasiticides and application methods that are safe, effective and easy to apply for pet owners. A new polymer matrix collar has recently been developed which is registered for 8 months use in cats and dogs. The basic properties of this collar have been investigated in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods The effects of imidacloprid, flumethrin and the combination were evaluated in vitro by means of whole cell voltage clamp measurement experiments conducted on isolated neuron cells from Spodoptera frugiperda. The in vitro efficacy of the two compounds and the combination against three species of ticks and their life stages and fleas were evaluated in a dry surface glass vial assay. The kinetics of the compounds over time in the collar were evaluated by the change in mass of the collar and measurement of the surface concentrations and concentrations of the actives in the collar matrix by HPLC. Hair clipped from collar treated dogs and cats, collected at various time points, was used to assess the acaricidal efficacy of the actives ex vivo. Results An in vitro isolated insect nerve model demonstrated the synergistic neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid flumethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. An in vitro glass vial efficacy and mortality study against various life stages of the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus and against the flea (Ctenocephalides felis demonstrated that the combination of these products was highly effective against these

  20. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The control of tick and flea burdens in dogs and cats has become essential to the control of important and emerging vector borne diseases, some of which are zoonoses. Flea worry and flea bite hypersensitivity are additionally a significant disease entity in dogs and cats. Owner compliance in maintaining the pressure of control measures has been shown to be poor. For these reasons efforts are continuously being made to develop ectoparasiticides and application methods that are safe, effective and easy to apply for pet owners. A new polymer matrix collar has recently been developed which is registered for 8 months use in cats and dogs. The basic properties of this collar have been investigated in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods The effects of imidacloprid, flumethrin and the combination were evaluated in vitro by means of whole cell voltage clamp measurement experiments conducted on isolated neuron cells from Spodoptera frugiperda. The in vitro efficacy of the two compounds and the combination against three species of ticks and their life stages and fleas were evaluated in a dry surface glass vial assay. The kinetics of the compounds over time in the collar were evaluated by the change in mass of the collar and measurement of the surface concentrations and concentrations of the actives in the collar matrix by HPLC. Hair clipped from collar treated dogs and cats, collected at various time points, was used to assess the acaricidal efficacy of the actives ex vivo. Results An in vitro isolated insect nerve model demonstrated the synergistic neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid flumethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. An in vitro glass vial efficacy and mortality study against various life stages of the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus and against the flea (Ctenocephalides felis) demonstrated that the combination of these products was highly effective against these parasites. The release kinetics of

  1. Normal Control Study of Cerebral Blood Flow by 99mTc HM-PAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koong, Sung Soo; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Bum Woo; Lee, Kyung Han

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion was evaluated in 15 normal controls by single photon emission computed tomography using 99m Tc HM-PAO. For quantitative analysis, 13 pairs of homologous region of interest (ROI) were drawn on three transverse slices matching the vascular territories and cerebral cortices, and normal values of 3 semiquantitative indices including 'Right to left ratio' (R/L ratio), 'Regional index' (RI), and 'Region to cerebellum ratio (R/cbll ratio) were calculated. Mean values of R/L ratios of homologous regions were ranged from 0.985 to 1.023, and mean ± 2 s.d. of all regions did not exceed 11% of mean. Significant difference of Rls (mean count per voxel of a ROI/mean count per voxel of total ROls) between regions were found (p<0.001) with highest values in occipital cortex and cerebellum. After attenuation correction, Rls in deep gray, cranial portion of anterior cerebral artery and vascular territories in the 2nd slice increased significantly (p<0.05-0.001) hut vise versa in other ROIs. Region to cerebellum ratios also showed regional difference similar to Rls.

  2. CRITICAL VELOCITY OF CONTROLLABILITY OF SLIDING FRICTION BY NORMAL OSCILLATIONS IN VISCOELASTIC CONTACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Popov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sliding friction can be reduced substantially by applying ultrasonic vibration in the sliding plane or in the normal direction. This effect is well known and used in many applications ranging from press forming to ultrasonic actuators. One of the characteristics of the phenomenon is that, at a given frequency and amplitude of oscillation, the observed friction reduction diminishes with increasing sliding velocity. Beyond a certain critical sliding velocity, there is no longer any difference between the coefficients of friction with or without vibration. This critical velocity depends on material and kinematic parameters and is a key characteristic that must be accounted for by any theory of influence of vibration on friction. Recently, the critical sliding velocity has been interpreted as the transition point from periodic stick-slip to pure sliding and was calculated for purely elastic contacts under uniform sliding with periodic normal loading. Here we perform a similar analysis of the critical velocity in viscoelastic contacts using a Kelvin material to describe viscoelasticity. A closed-form solution is presented, which contains previously reported results as special cases. This paves the way for more detailed studies of active control of friction in viscoelastic systems, a previously neglected topic with possible applications in elastomer technology and in medicine.

  3. Clinical efficacy of hydrocodone-acetaminophen and tramadol for control of postoperative pain in dogs following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Marian E; Roush, James K; McMurphy, Rose; KuKanich, Butch; Legallet, Claire

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate clinical efficacy of hydrocodone-acetaminophen and tramadol for treatment of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). ANIMALS 50 client-owned dogs. Standardized anesthetic and surgical protocols were followed. Each patient was randomly assigned to receive either tramadol hydrochloride (5 to 7 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h; tramadol group) or hydrocodone bitartrate-acetaminophen (0.5 to 0.6 mg of hydrocodone/kg, PO, q 8 h; hydrocodone group) for analgesia after surgery. The modified Glasgow composite measure pain scale was used to assess signs of postoperative pain at predetermined intervals by an investigator who was blinded to treatment group. Scoring commenced with the second dose of the assigned study analgesic. Pain scores and rates of treatment failure (ie, dogs requiring rescue analgesia according to a predetermined protocol) were compared statistically between groups. 12 of 42 (29%; 5/19 in the hydrocodone-acetaminophen group and 7/23 in the tramadol group) dogs required rescue analgesic treatment on the basis of pain scores. Median pain score for the hydrocodone group was significantly lower than that of the tramadol group 2 hours after the second dose of study analgesic. The 2 groups had similar pain scores at all other time points. Overall, differences in pain scores between dogs that received hydrocodone-acetaminophen or tramadol were minor. The percentage of dogs with treatment failure in both groups was considered unacceptable.

  4. Evaluation of (99)  (m)TcN-MPO as a new myocardial perfusion imaging agent in normal dogs and in an acute myocardial infarction canine model: comparison with (99)  (m)Tc-sestamibi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Lihong; Li, Renfei; Jin, Zhongnan; Wen, Xiaofei; Liu, Shuang; Yang, Baofeng; Shen, Baozhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-02-01

    (99)  (m)TcN-MPO ([(99)  (m)TcN(mpo)(PNP5)](+): mpo = 2-mercaptopyridine oxide and PNP5 = N-ethoxyethyl-N,N-bis[2-(bis(3-methoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]amine) is a cationic (99)  (m)Tc-nitrido complex, which has favorable biodistribution and myocardial uptake with rapid liver clearance in Sprague Dawley rats. The objective of this study was to compare the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of (99)  (m)TcN-MPO and (99)  (m)Tc-Sestamibi in normal dogs, and to evaluate the potential of (99)  (m)TcN-MPO as a myocardial perfusion agent in canines with acute myocardial infarction. Five normal mongrel dogs were injected intravenously with (99)  (m)TcN-MPO. Venous blood samples were collected via a femoral vein catheter at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 90 min post-injection (p.i.). Anterior-posterior planar images were acquired by γ-camera at 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min p.i. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the heart, liver, and lungs. The heart/liver and heart/lung ratios were calculated by dividing the mean counts in heart ROI by the mean counts in the liver and lung ROI, respectively. For comparison, (99)  (m)Tc-sestamibi was also evaluated in the same five dogs. The interval period between the two examinations was 1 week to eliminate possible interference between these two radiotracers. In addition, single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) images in the canine infarct model were collected 24 h after myocardial infarction at 30 and 60 min after the administration of (99)  (m)TcN-MPO (n = 4) or (99)  (m)Tc-Sestamibi (n = 4). It was found that (99)  (m)TcN-MPO and (99)  (m)Tc-Sestamibi displayed very similar blood clearance characteristics during the first 90 min p.i. Both (99)  (m)TcN-MPO and (99)  (m)Tc-Sestamibi had a rapid blood clearance with less than 50% of initial radioactivity remaining at 1 min and less than 5% at 30 min p.i. (99)  (m)TcN-MPO and (99)  (m)Tc-Sestamibi both showed good

  5. Brain parenchymal density measurements by CT in demented subjects and normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, M.; Danziger, W.L.; Chi, D.; Hughes, C.P.; Coben, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Parachymal density measurements of 14 regions of gray and white matter from each cerebral hemisphere were made from CT scans of 25 subjects who had varying degrees of dementia as measured by a global Clinical Dementia Rating, and also from CT scans of 33 normal control subjects. There were few significant differences between the two groups in the mean density value for each of the regions examined, although several individual psychometric tests did correlate with density changes. Moreover, for six regions in the cerebral cortex, and for one region in the thalamus of each hemisphere, we found no significant correlation between the gray-white matter density difference and dementia. There was, however, a loss of the discriminability between the gray and white matter with an increase in the size of the ventricles. These findings may be attributed to the loss of white matter volume

  6. Studies on renin stimulation in normal controls and in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, C.S.; Choe, K.W.; Lee, H.K.; Lee, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    To find out a convenient and reliable method of detecting low renin status, we employed intravenous furosemine injection as a stimulatory maneuver. The results thus obtained were compared with those from the postural stimuli and basal plasma renin activity (PRA) in relation to sodium excretion. Intravenous furosemide test was performed in 66 control subjects and 44 patients with essential hypertension. The results were as follow; 1) Mean PRA in control subjects rose from 2.5+-1.95 ng/ml/hr (basal) to 4.5+-2.51, 5.2+-2.49 and 4.2+-2.44 ng/ml/hr at 1, 2 and 3hrs after IV injection. One-hour response is more convenient in clinical practice. 2) Postural stimuli by assuming an upright posture for 3hrs gave rise to considerable increase in PRA (4.0+-2.92 from 2.4+-1.85), but we found it less convenient than stimulation with furosemide. 3) The increase in PRA was much less marked in patients with essential hypertension as a whole (2.9+-2.75). Hyporesponsiveness to furosemide stimuli was found in 34.1%. Of these hyporesponders, a third had a normal basal PRA, indicating the need for this kind stimulatory procedure. 4) Younger age group showed greater renin responsiveness than older age group after furosemide stimuli. Likewise mean age of low renin patients (52.9+-5.38 years old) was significantly higher than that of high and normal renin patients (44.1+-13.78 years old). (author)

  7. Studies on Renin Stimulation in Normal Controls and in Patients with Essential Hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chang Soon; Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lee, Jung Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-03-15

    To find out a convenient and reliable method of detecting low renin status, we employed intravenous furosemide injection as a stimulatory maneuver. The results thus obtained were compared with those from the postural stimuli and basal plasma renin activity (PRA) in relation to sodium excretion. Intravenous furosemide test was performed in 66 control subjects and 44 patients with essential hypertension. The results were as follow; 1) Mean PRA in control subjects rose from 2.5+-1.95 ng/ml/hr (basal) to 4.5+-2.51, 5.2+-2.49 and 4.2+-2.44 ng/ml/hr at 1, 2 and 3 hrs after IV injection. One-hour response is more convenient in clinical practice. 2) Postural stimuli by assuming an upright posture for 3 hrs gave rise to considerable increase in PRA (4.0+-2.92 from 2.4+-1.85), but we found it less convenient than stimulation with furosemide. 3) The increase in PRA was much less marked in patients with essential hypertension as a whole (2.9+-2.75). Hyporesponsiveness to furosemide stimuli was found in 34.1%. Of these hyporesponders, a third had a normal basal PRA, indicating the need for this kind stimulatory procedure. 4) Younger age group showed greater renin responsiveness than older age group after furosemide stimuli. Likewise mean age of low renin patients (52.9+-5.38 years old) was significantly higher than that of high and normal renin patients (44.1+-13.78 years old).

  8. Studies on Renin Stimulation in Normal Controls and in Patients with Essential Hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Chang Soon; Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lee, Jung Sang

    1978-01-01

    To find out a convenient and reliable method of detecting low renin status, we employed intravenous furosemide injection as a stimulatory maneuver. The results thus obtained were compared with those from the postural stimuli and basal plasma renin activity (PRA) in relation to sodium excretion. Intravenous furosemide test was performed in 66 control subjects and 44 patients with essential hypertension. The results were as follow; 1) Mean PRA in control subjects rose from 2.5±1.95 ng/ml/hr (basal) to 4.5±2.51, 5.2±2.49 and 4.2±2.44 ng/ml/hr at 1, 2 and 3 hrs after IV injection. One-hour response is more convenient in clinical practice. 2) Postural stimuli by assuming an upright posture for 3 hrs gave rise to considerable increase in PRA (4.0±2.92 from 2.4±1.85), but we found it less convenient than stimulation with furosemide. 3) The increase in PRA was much less marked in patients with essential hypertension as a whole (2.9±2.75). Hyporesponsiveness to furosemide stimuli was found in 34.1%. Of these hyporesponders, a third had a normal basal PRA, indicating the need for this kind stimulatory procedure. 4) Younger age group showed greater renin responsiveness than older age group after furosemide stimuli. Likewise mean age of low renin patients (52.9±5.38 years old) was significantly higher than that of high and normal renin patients (44.1±13.78 years old).

  9. Association of canine juvenile generalized demodicosis with the dog leukocyte antigen system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    It, V; Barrientos, L; López Gappa, J; Posik, D; Díaz, S; Golijow, C; Giovambattista, G

    2010-07-01

    Demodectic mange is a well-known parasitic skin disease characterized by the presence of a larger than normal number of Demodex mites (Demodex canis) in the skin of dogs. Recent research has suggested that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression is higher in the skin of dogs suffering from demodicosis than in normal ones. We have investigated whether canine Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) class II alleles are associated with canine juvenile generalized demodicosis (JGD). In the present study, the analysis of microsatellite markers (FH2202, FH2975 and FH2054) linked to DLA was made in Boxer, Argentinean Mastiff and mixed breed dogs. DNA samples from 56 dogs affected with the disease and 60 breed-matched controls collected in Argentina were analysed. A highly significant association, in some of the analysed markers, in all breeds with the presence of demodicosis was observed with P or =5. The results of this study suggest that an underlying DLA association exists with demodicosis in dogs and that this may represent an important immunological risk factor in the aetiology of this condition. This information could be used in the future to develop diagnostic tests to prevent canine JGD.

  10. Selected serum oxidative stress biomarkers in dogs with non-food-induced and food-induced atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Ramón M; Rubio, Camila P; Cerón, José J; Ansón, Agustina; Tichy, Alexander; Mayer, Ursula

    2018-06-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of human and canine atopic dermatitis (AD) through several distinct mechanisms. Selected serum biomarkers of OS (sbOS) have been validated in normal dogs and studied in several canine diseases. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the sbOS evaluated in this study have not previously been described in canine AD. The aims of the study were to evaluate a panel of sbOS in dogs with food-induced (FIAD) and non-food-induced (NFIAD) AD: cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX), ferric reducing ability of the plasma (FRAP), paraoxonase-1 (PON1), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and serum total thiol (THIOL). The aim was to compare these metabolites with those in healthy control dogs, and to correlate sbOS with validated pruritus and CADESI-04 severity scales in dogs with AD. Forty six healthy, nine NFIAD and three FIAD client-owned dogs were included. The study was designed as a cohort study. There were significant differences in atopic dogs when compared to healthy dogs for all of the sbOS analysed. These findings suggest that OS could play a role in the pathogenesis of canine NFIAD and FIAD. In addition, the evaluation of sbOS could be useful for precision medicine to help to detect atopic dogs that might benefit from antioxidant-targeted therapies. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Optimum parameters in a model for tumour control probability, including interpatient heterogeneity: evaluation of the log-normal distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keall, P J; Webb, S

    2007-01-01

    The heterogeneity of human tumour radiation response is well known. Researchers have used the normal distribution to describe interpatient tumour radiosensitivity. However, many natural phenomena show a log-normal distribution. Log-normal distributions are common when mean values are low, variances are large and values cannot be negative. These conditions apply to radiosensitivity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the log-normal distribution to predict clinical tumour control probability (TCP) data and to compare the results with the homogeneous (δ-function with single α-value) and normal distributions. The clinically derived TCP data for four tumour types-melanoma, breast, squamous cell carcinoma and nodes-were used to fit the TCP models. Three forms of interpatient tumour radiosensitivity were considered: the log-normal, normal and δ-function. The free parameters in the models were the radiosensitivity mean, standard deviation and clonogenic cell density. The evaluation metric was the deviance of the maximum likelihood estimation of the fit of the TCP calculated using the predicted parameters to the clinical data. We conclude that (1) the log-normal and normal distributions of interpatient tumour radiosensitivity heterogeneity more closely describe clinical TCP data than a single radiosensitivity value and (2) the log-normal distribution has some theoretical and practical advantages over the normal distribution. Further work is needed to test these models on higher quality clinical outcome datasets

  12. Use of aerial photograph to enhance dog population census in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    rabies control programme among dogs in the city. Keywords:Aerial .... define coverage area by harmonized boundaries. Census ... concerned with management of dogs and cases of dog bite. .... associated with clinical human rabies in a.

  13. Plasma progranulin and relaxin levels in PCOS women with normal BMI compared to control healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is the most commonly encountered endocrine gland disease affecting 5-10 present of women at their reproductive age. This syndrome is associated with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Progranulin and relaxin are adipokins that are related with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Due to limited data about progranulin and relaxin plasma levels´ in women with PCOS and normal BMI, this study was conducted. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional. During the study 39 women with PCOS and BMI< 25 on the basis of Rotterdam criteria were chosen as the patient group and 38 healthy women were selected as the control group. The concentration of progranulin and relaxin were measured by ELISA technique. Results: The difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin, and also some of the biochemical parameters in the patient group versus to the control group was not significant, but there was significant difference in the concentrations of VLDL, triglyceride (p=0.046, insulin (p=0.016, HOMA-IR (p=0.015, testosterone (p=0.01, and DHEAS (p=0.034 in the patients group compared to the control group. Conclusion: In this study, the difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin in the patient group compared to the control group was not significant. It could be inferred that lack of change in plasma level of progranulin and relaxin in women with PCOS is related to BMI<25 and FBS<110. Moreoverestosterones, insulin, DHEAS and HOMA-IR changes could be better predictors of PCOS and its associated diabetes.

  14. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with initial 91 Y body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs were observed during their life spans. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi 91 Y/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. All 46 of the exposed dogs and all 12 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest initial body burdens died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas, three died with pulmonary carcinomas, and one died with hepatic hemangiosarcoma. These cancers all appeared to be related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases

  15. Relational Stability in the Expression of Normality, Variation, and Control of Thyroid Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoermann, Rudolf; Midgley, John E. M.; Larisch, Rolf; Dietrich, Johannes W.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone concentrations only become sufficient to maintain a euthyroid state through appropriate stimulation by pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In such a dynamic system under constant high pressure, guarding against overstimulation becomes vital. Therefore, several defensive mechanisms protect against accidental overstimulation, such as plasma protein binding, conversion of T4 into the more active T3, active transmembrane transport, counter-regulatory activities of reverse T3 and thyronamines, and negative hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid feedback control of TSH. TSH has gained a dominant but misguided role in interpreting thyroid function testing in assuming that its exceptional sensitivity thereby translates into superior diagnostic performance. However, TSH-dependent thyroid disease classification is heavily influenced by statistical analytic techniques such as uni- or multivariate-defined normality. This demands a separation of its conjoint roles as a sensitive screening test and accurate diagnostic tool. Homeostatic equilibria (set points) in healthy subjects are less variable and do not follow a pattern of random variation, rather indicating signs of early and progressive homeostatic control across the euthyroid range. In the event of imminent thyroid failure with a reduced FT4 output per unit TSH, conversion efficiency increases in order to maintain FT3 stability. In such situations, T3 stability takes priority over set point maintenance. This suggests a concept of relational stability. These findings have important implications for both TSH reference limits and treatment targets for patients on levothyroxine. The use of archival markers is proposed to facilitate the homeostatic interpretation of all parameters. PMID:27872610

  16. The control effect in a detached laminar boundary layer of an array of normal synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela Calva, Fernando; Avila Rodriguez, Ruben

    2016-11-01

    In this work, 3D numerical simulations of an array of three normal circular synthetic jets embedded in an attached laminar boundary layer that separates under the influence of an inclined flap are performed for flow separation control. At the beginning of the present study, three cases are used to validate the numerical simulation with data obtained from experiments. The experimental data is chosen based on the cases which presented higher repeatability and reliability. Simulations showed reasonable agreement when compared with experiments. The simulations are undertaken at three synthetic jet operating conditions, i.e. Case A: L = 2, VR = 0.32; Case B: L = 4, VR = 0.64 and Case C: L = 6, VR = 0.96. The vortical structures produced for each synthetic jet operating condition are hairpin vortices for Case A and tilted vortices for Case B and C, respectively. By examining the spatial wall shear stress variations, the effect on the boundary layer prior to separation of the middle synthetic jet is evaluated. For effective flow control, produced at a relatively low the finding from this study suggests that hairpin vortical structures are more desirable structures. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.

  17. MicroRNAs in Control of Stem Cells in Normal and Malignant Hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Christine; Lu, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Studies on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and leukemia stem cells (LSCs) have helped to establish the paradigms of normal and cancer stem cell concepts. For both HSCs and LSCs, specific gene expression programs endowed by their epigenome functionally distinguish them from their differentiated progenies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as a class of small non-coding RNAs, act to control post-transcriptional gene expression. Research in the past decade has yielded exciting findings elucidating the roles of miRNAs in control of multiple facets of HSC and LSC biology. Here we review recent progresses on the functions of miRNAs in HSC emergence during development, HSC switch from a fetal/neonatal program to an adult program, HSC self-renewal and quiescence, HSC aging, HSC niche, and malignant stem cells. While multiple different miRNAs regulate a diverse array of targets, two common themes emerge in HSC and LSC biology: miRNA mediated regulation of epigenetic machinery and cell signaling pathways. In addition, we propose that miRNAs themselves behave like epigenetic regulators, as they possess key biochemical and biological properties that can provide both stability and alterability to the epigenetic program. Overall, the studies of miRNAs in stem cells in the hematologic contexts not only provide key understandings to post-transcriptional gene regulation mechanisms in HSCs and LSCs, but also will lend key insights for other stem cell fields.

  18. Vector control improves survival of three species of prairie dogs (Cynomys) in areas considered enzootic for plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Dean E.; Godbey, Jerry L.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Carter, Leon G.; Montenieri, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Plague causes periodic epizootics that decimate populations of prairie dogs (PDs) (Cynomys), but the means by which the causative bacterium (Yersinia pestis) persists between epizootics are poorly understood. Plague epizootics in PDs might arise as the result of introductions of Y. pestis from sources outside PD colonies. However, it remains possible that plague persists in PDs during interepizootic periods and is transmitted at low rates among highly susceptible individuals within and between their colonies. If this is true, application of vector control to reduce flea numbers might reduce mortality among PDs. To test whether vector control enhances PD survival in the absence of obvious plague epizootics, we reduced the numbers of fleas (vectors for Y. pestis) 96–98% (1 month posttreatment) on 15 areas involving three species of PDs (Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys parvidens in Utah, and Cynomys ludovicianus in Montana) during 2000–2004 using deltamethrin dust delivered into burrows as a pulicide. Even during years without epizootic plague, PD survival rates at dusted sites were 31–45% higher for adults and 2–34% higher for juveniles compared to survival rates at nondusted sites. Y. pestis was cultured from 49 of the 851 flea pools tested (6882 total fleas) and antibodies against Y. pestis were identified in serum samples from 40 of 2631 PDs. Although other explanations are possible, including transmission of other potentially fatal pathogens by fleas, ticks, or other ectoparasites, our results suggest that plague might be maintained indefinitely in PD populations in the absence of free epizootics and widespread mortality among these animals. If PDs and their fleas support enzootic cycles of plague transmission, there would be important implications for the conservation of these animals and other species.

  19. Aging and insulin signaling differentially control normal and tumorous germline stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shih-Han; Tseng, Chen-Yuan; Wan, Chih-Ling; Su, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Chang-Che; Pi, Haiwei; Hsu, Hwei-Jan

    2015-02-01

    Aging influences stem cells, but the processes involved remain unclear. Insulin signaling, which controls cellular nutrient sensing and organismal aging, regulates the G2 phase of Drosophila female germ line stem cell (GSC) division cycle in response to diet; furthermore, this signaling pathway is attenuated with age. The role of insulin signaling in GSCs as organisms age, however, is also unclear. Here, we report that aging results in the accumulation of tumorous GSCs, accompanied by a decline in GSC number and proliferation rate. Intriguingly, GSC loss with age is hastened by either accelerating (through eliminating expression of Myt1, a cell cycle inhibitory regulator) or delaying (through mutation of insulin receptor (dinR) GSC division, implying that disrupted cell cycle progression and insulin signaling contribute to age-dependent GSC loss. As flies age, DNA damage accumulates in GSCs, and the S phase of the GSC cell cycle is prolonged. In addition, GSC tumors (which escape the normal stem cell regulatory microenvironment, known as the niche) still respond to aging in a similar manner to normal GSCs, suggesting that niche signals are not required for GSCs to sense or respond to aging. Finally, we show that GSCs from mated and unmated females behave similarly, indicating that female GSC-male communication does not affect GSCs with age. Our results indicate the differential effects of aging and diet mediated by insulin signaling on the stem cell division cycle, highlight the complexity of the regulation of stem cell aging, and describe a link between ovarian cancer and aging. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Photodynamic therapy with motexafin lutetium for rectal cancer: a preclinical model in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, H M; Smelstoys, J A; Davis, G J; Kapatkin, A S; Del Piero, F; Reineke, E; Wang, H; Zhu, T C; Busch, T M; Yodh, A G; Hahn, S M

    2006-10-01

    Local recurrence of rectal cancer remains a significant clinical problem despite multi-modality therapy. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment which generates tumor kill through the production of singlet oxygen in cells containing a photosensitizing drug when exposed to laser light of a specific wavelength. PDT is a promising modality for prevention of local recurrence of rectal cancer for several reasons: tumor cells may selectively retain photosensitizer at higher levels than normal tissues, the pelvis after mesorectal excision is a fixed space amenable to intra-operative illumination, and PDT can generate toxicity in tissues up to 1 cm thick. This study evaluated the safety, tissue penetration of 730 nm light, normal tissue toxicity and surgical outcome in a dog model of rectal resection after motexafin lutetium-mediated photodynamic therapy. Ten mixed breed dogs were used. Eight dogs underwent proctectomy and low rectal end to end stapled anastomosis. Six dogs received the photosensitizing agent motexafin lutetium (MLu, Pharmacyclics, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) of 2 mg/kg preoperatively and underwent subsequent pelvic illumination of the transected distal rectum of 730 nm light with light doses ranging from 0.5 J/cm(2) to 10 J/cm(2) three hours after drug delivery. Two dogs received light, but no drug, and underwent proctectomy and low-rectal stapled anastomosis. Two dogs underwent midline laparotomy and pelvic illumination. Light penetration in tissues was determined for small bowel, rectum, pelvic sidewall, and skin. Clinical outcomes were recorded. Animals were sacrificed at 14 days and histological evaluation was performed. All dogs recovered uneventfully. No dog suffered an anastomotic leak. Severe tissue toxicity was not seen. Histological findings at necropsy revealed mild enteritis in all dogs. The excitation light penetration depths were 0.46 +/- 0.18, 0.46 +/- 0.15, and 0.69 +/- 0.39 cm, respectively, for rectum, small bowel, and peritoneum in

  1. Effect of analgesic therapy on clinical outcome measures in a randomized controlled trial using client-owned dogs with hip osteoarthritis

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    Malek Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain and impaired mobility because of osteoarthritis (OA is common in dogs and humans. Efficacy studies of analgesic drug treatment of dogs with naturally occurring OA may be challenging, as a caregiver placebo effect is typically evident. However, little is known about effect sizes of common outcome-measures in canine clinical trials evaluating treatment of OA pain. Forty-nine client-owned dogs with hip OA were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled prospective trial. After a 1 week baseline period, dogs were randomly assigned to a treatment (ABT-116 – transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 antagonist, Carprofen – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, Tramadol - synthetic opiate, or Placebo for 2 weeks. Outcome-measures included physical examination parameters, owner questionnaire, activity monitoring, gait analysis, and use of rescue medication. Results Acute hyperthermia developed after ABT-116 treatment (P P ≤ 0.01 and tramadol (P ≤ 0.001 led to improved mobility assessed by owner questionnaire. Nighttime activity was increased after ABT-116 treatment (P = 0.01. Kinetic gait analysis did not reveal significant treatment effects. Use of rescue treatment decreased with treatment in the ABT-116 and Carprofen groups (P R ≥ ±0.40, P ≤ 0.005. Placebo treatment effects were evident with all variables studied. Conclusion Treatment of hip OA in client-owned dogs is associated with a placebo effect for all variables that are commonly used for efficacy studies of analgesic drugs. This likely reflects caregiver bias or the phenomenon of regression to the mean. In the present study, outcome measures with significant effects also varied between groups, highlighting the value of using multiple outcome measures, as well as an a priori analysis of effect size associated with each measure. Effect size data from the present study could be used to inform design of future trials studying

  2. Determinants of myocardial hemorrhage after coronary reperfusion in the anesthetized dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginson, L.A.J.; White, F.; Heggtveit, H.A.; Sanders, T.M.; Bloor, C.M.; Covell, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Intramyocardial hemorrhage often occurs with reperfusion in experimental acute myocardial infarction and is thought to be associated with extension of necrosis. To determine if hemorrhage was associated with extension of necrosis, 10 anesthetized dogs were reperfused after 6 hours of circumflex coronary artery occlusion and 10 others had control occlusion with no reperfusion. Fifteen of the 20 reperfused dogs had gross hemorrhage and none of the control dogs did. In 12 reperfused and 10 control dogs, radioactive microspheres were injected after coronary occlusion to quantitate collateral flow and in the reperfusion group microspheres were injected to quantitate reflow. Complete flow data were available in eight reperfused and 10 analyzed for hemorrhage, collateral flow and creatine kinase activity. Serial microscopic examination was performed in eight additional dogs reperfused after 6 hours to determine if hemorrhage occurs into otherwise microscopically normal myocardium. Pathologic examination indicatd that hemorrhage did not occur into otherwise microscopically normal myocardium. These studies indicate that hemorrhage or reperfusion is associated with severe myocardial necrosis and markedly depressed flow before reperfusion and this occurs only into myocardium already markedly compromised at the time of reperfusion

  3. Parâmetros ecocardiográficos em modo unidimensional de cães da raça Poodle miniatura, clinicamente sadios Echocardiographic parameters in unidimensional mode from clinically normal miniature Poodle dogs

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    Ronaldo Jun Yamato

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a população canina da raça Poodle, principalmente a variação miniatura, cresce em progressão geométrica, sendo esta raça freqüentemente acometida por cardiopatias congênitas e adquiridas. O escopo deste estudo foi padronizar e avaliar os parâmetros ecocardiográficos em modo unidimensional (M de cães da raça Poodle miniatura, devido ao aumento populacional da mesma, a variação existente destes parâmetros entre as raças caninas e as diversas cardiopatias às quais os Poodles são predispostos. Foram utilizados 30 cães, da referida raça, sendo 09 machos e 21 fêmeas com idades entre 2 a 7 anos (3,87±1,55 e peso corpóreo variando de 2,0 a 8,7 quilos (4,49±1,38. Os cães incluídos neste estudo foram considerados sadios, após terem sido submetidos aos exames físico, laboratoriais, eletrocardiográfico, radiográfico e à mensuração da pressão arterial. Após a realização do exame ecocardiográfico e a análise dos resultados, foi possível obter os valores de referência do exame ecocardiográfico, em modo M, para os cães da raça Poodle miniatura e, ainda, sugerir que o peso corpóreo e altura podem exercer influência sobre os parâmetros ecocardiográficos.In Brazil, the canine population of the Poodle, mainly the Miniature variation, grows in geometric progression, beeing this breed frequently affected by congenital and adquired cardiopathies. The main objective of this study was the standardization and evaluation of the echocardiographic parameters in unidimensional (M mode, from clinically normal Miniature Poodle dogs. Thirthy Miniature Poodle dogs, 09 males and 21 females ageing between 2 and 7 years old (3.87±1.55, and weight varying from 2.0 to 8.7 kilogram (4.49±1.38 were studied. To be included in this study, physical exam, hemogram, biochemical profile, urinalysis, detection of circulating microfilaries as well as ELISA test for Dirofilaria immitis, electrocardiographic, radiographic exams and

  4. Evaluation of hepatocyte-derived microRNA-122 for diagnosis of acute and chronic hepatitis of dogs

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    S. R. Eman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of hepatocyte-derived microRNA (miRNA-122 in acute and chronic hepatitis of dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 26 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, 16 dogs out of 26 showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinical, ultrasonographic, hematobiochemical and ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy for cytological and histopathological investigations. On the basis of these results, 7 dogs out of 16 dogs were found to be suffering from acute hepatitis and 9 dogs suffering from chronic hepatitis. 10 clinically healthy dogs were kept as control. Serum hepatocyte-derived miRNA-122 was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in all dogs. Results: The dogs suffering from acute hepatitis manifested jaundice, vomiting, and depression while dogs with chronic hepatitis manifested anorexia, abdominal distension, weight loss, and melena. Hematological parameters showed normocytic normochromic anemia and thrombocytopenia in both acute and chronic hepatitis groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and total bilirubin were significantly higher than control values in acute hepatitis. In chronic hepatitis, total protein and albumin were significantly lower than control values with normal ALT, AST, ALP, and gamma-glutamyltransferase values. Ultrasonography revealed a diffuse decrease in hepatic echogenicity in acute hepatitis while the increase in hepatic echogenicity and anechoic ascetic fluid in chronic hepatitis. Cytology revealed hepatic vacuolar degeneration and histopathology revealed necrosis and apoptosis of hepatocyte in acute hepatitis while revealed massive fibrous tissue proliferation in hepatic parenchyma in chronic hepatitis. Serum miRNA-122 analysis, normalized for glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase expression

  5. Volume-controlled histographic analysis of pulmonary parenchyma in normal and diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyo Yong; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Jong Seob; Won, Chyl Ho; Kang, Duk Sik; Kim, Myoung Nam

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of a home-made histographic analysis system using a lung volume controller. Our study involved ten healthy volunteers, ten emphysema patients, and two idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. Using a home-made lung volume controller, images were obtained in the upper, middle, and lower lung zones at 70%, 50%, and 20% of vital capacity. Electron beam tomography was used and scanning parameters were single slice mode, 10-mm slice thickness, 0.4-second scan time, and 35-cm field of view. Usinga home-made semi-automated program, pulmonary parenchyma was isolated and a histogrm then obtained. Seven histographic parameters, namely mean density (MD), density at maximal frequency (DMF), maximal ascending gradient (MAG),maximal ascending gradient density (MAGD), maximal sescending gradient (MDG), maximal descending gradient density (MDGD), and full width at half maximum (FWHM) were derived from the histogram. We compared normal controls with abnormal groups including emphysema and IPF patients at the same respiration levels. A normal histographic zone with ± 1 standard deviation was obtained. Histographic curves of normal controls shifted toward the high density level, and the width of the normal zone increased as the level of inspiration decreased. In ten normal controls, MD, DMF, MAG, MAGD, MDG, MDGD, and FWHM readings at a 70% inspiration level were lower than those at 20% (p less than0.05). At the same level of inspiration, histograms of emphysema patients were locatedat a lower density area than those of normal controls. As inspiration status decreased, histograms of emphysema patients showed diminished shift compared with those of normal controls. At 50% and 20% inspiration levels, the MD, DMF, and MAGD readings of emphysema patients were significantly lower than those of normal controls (p less than 0.05). Compared with those of normal controls, histogrms of the two IPF patients obtained at three inspiration levels were

  6. Volume-controlled histographic analysis of pulmonary parenchyma in normal and diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyo Yong; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Jong Seob; Won, Chyl Ho; Kang, Duk Sik [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Nam [The University of Iowa (United States)

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of a home-made histographic analysis system using a lung volume controller. Our study involved ten healthy volunteers, ten emphysema patients, and two idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. Using a home-made lung volume controller, images were obtained in the upper, middle, and lower lung zones at 70%, 50%, and 20% of vital capacity. Electron beam tomography was used and scanning parameters were single slice mode, 10-mm slice thickness, 0.4-second scan time, and 35-cm field of view. Usinga home-made semi-automated program, pulmonary parenchyma was isolated and a histogrm then obtained. Seven histographic parameters, namely mean density (MD), density at maximal frequency (DMF), maximal ascending gradient (MAG),maximal ascending gradient density (MAGD), maximal sescending gradient (MDG), maximal descending gradient density (MDGD), and full width at half maximum (FWHM) were derived from the histogram. We compared normal controls with abnormal groups including emphysema and IPF patients at the same respiration levels. A normal histographic zone with {+-} 1 standard deviation was obtained. Histographic curves of normal controls shifted toward the high density level, and the width of the normal zone increased as the level of inspiration decreased. In ten normal controls, MD, DMF, MAG, MAGD, MDG, MDGD, and FWHM readings at a 70% inspiration level were lower than those at 20% (p less than0.05). At the same level of inspiration, histograms of emphysema patients were locatedat a lower density area than those of normal controls. As inspiration status decreased, histograms of emphysema patients showed diminished shift compared with those of normal controls. At 50% and 20% inspiration levels, the MD, DMF, and MAGD readings of emphysema patients were significantly lower than those of normal controls (p less than 0.05). Compared with those of normal controls, histogrms of the two IPF patients obtained at three inspiration levels were

  7. Rat optic nerve head anatomy within 3D histomorphometric reconstructions of normal control eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Marta; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K; Cepurna, William O; Johnson, Elaine C; Morrison, John C; Burgoyne, Claude F

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to three-dimensionally (3D) characterize the principal macroscopic and microscopic relationships within the rat optic nerve head (ONH) and quantify them in normal control eyes. Perfusion-fixed, trephinated ONH from 8 normal control eyes of 8 Brown Norway Rats were 3D histomorphometrically reconstructed, visualized, delineated and parameterized. The rat ONH consists of 2 scleral openings, (a superior neurovascular and inferior arterial) separated by a thin connective tissue strip we have termed the "scleral sling". Within the superior opening, the nerve abuts a prominent extension of Bruch's Membrane (BM) superiorly and is surrounded by a vascular plexus, as it passes through the sclera, that is a continuous from the choroid into and through the dural sheath and contains the central retinal vein (CRV), (inferiorly). The inferior scleral opening contains the central retinal artery and three long posterior ciliary arteries which obliquely pass through the sclera to obtain the choroid. Bruch's Membrane Opening (BMO) is irregular and vertically elongated, enclosing the nerve (superiorly) and CRV and CRA (inferiorly). Overall mean BMO Depth, BMO Area, Choroidal Thickness and peripapillary Scleral Thickness were 29 μm, 56.5 × 10(3) μm(2), 57 μm and 104 μm respectively. Mean anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) and posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO) radii were 201 ± 15 μm and 204 ± 16 μm, respectively. Mean optic nerve area at the ASCO and PSCO were 46.3 × 10(3)±4.4 × 10(3) μm(2) and 44.1 × 10(3)±4.5 × 10(3) μm(2) respectively. In conclusion, the 3D complexity of the rat ONH and the extent to which it differs from the primate have been under-appreciated within previous 2D studies. Properly understood, these anatomic differences may provide new insights into the relative susceptibilities of the rat and primate ONH to elevated intraocular pressure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between previous splenectomy and gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs: 453 cases (2004-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Angela J; Bentley, Adrienne M; Brown, Dorothy C

    2013-05-15

    To evaluate the association between previous splenectomy and gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in dogs. Multi-institutional retrospective case-control study. Animals-151 dogs treated surgically for GDV and 302 control dogs with no history of GDV. Computerized records of dogs evaluated via exploratory laparotomy or abdominal ultrasonography were searched, and dogs with GDV and dogs without GDV (control dogs) were identified. Two control dogs were matched with respect to age, body weight, sex, neuter status, and breed to each dog with GDV. Data were collected on the presence or absence of the spleen for both dogs with GDV and control dogs. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of previous splenectomy with GDV. 6 (4%) dogs in the GDV group and 3 (1%) dogs in the control group had a history of previous splenectomy. The odds of GDV in dogs with a history of previous splenectomy in this population of dogs were 5.3 times those of dogs without a history of previous splenectomy (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 26.8). For the patients in the present study, there was an increased odds of GDV in dogs with a history of splenectomy. Prophylactic gastropexy may be considered in dogs undergoing a splenectomy, particularly if other risk factors for GDV are present.

  9. Individual signatures and environmental factors shape skin microbiota in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuscó, Anna; Belanger, Janelle M; Gershony, Liza; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Levy, Kerinne; Medrano, Juan F; Sánchez, Armand; Oberbauer, Anita M; Francino, Olga

    2017-10-13

    The individual, together with its environment, has been reported as the main force driving composition and structure of skin microbiota in healthy dogs. Therefore, one of the major concerns when analyzing canine skin microbiota is the likely influence of the environment. Despite the dense fur covering, certain skin diseases exhibit differential prevalence among skin sites, dog breeds, and individuals. We have characterized the normal variability of dog skin microbiota in a well-controlled cohort of a large number of Golden-Labrador Retriever crossed dogs (N = 35) with similar ages, related genetic background, and a shared environment. We found that the individual drives the skin microbiota composition and structure followed by the skin site. The main bacterial classes inhabiting dog skin in this cohort are Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli. We also detected bacteria associated to the environment on different dog skin sites that could be reflecting the different degrees of exposure of each skin site and each dog. Network analyses elucidated bacterial interactions within and between skin sites, especially in the chin, abdomen, axilla, and perianal region, with the highly shared interactions probably representing an anatomical, behavioral, or environmental component. When analyzing each skin site independently to assess host-specific factors, we found that temporality (season of birth and time spent in the kennel) affected all the skin sites and specially the inner pinna. The most abundant taxon driving this difference was Sphingomonas. We also found taxonomic differences among male and female dogs on the abdomen, axilla, and back. We observed a large inter-individual variability and differences among skin sites. Host-specific variables, such as temporality or sex, were also shaping skin microbiota of healthy dogs, even in an environmental homogenous cohort.

  10. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

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    Pinto Aldair JW

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania. The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance.

  11. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jörg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  12. Combining a joint health supplement with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. An exploratory controlled trial

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    Filippo M. Martini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CrCLR is a very common pathology. Surgical stabilization is the first choice treatment, although it does not fully eliminate the increased risk of osteoarthritis. This preliminary study was carried out to explore whether a newly formulated joint health supplement would benefit metabolic, clinical and radiographic changes in dogs with CrCLR surgically treated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO. Besides chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride, the studied supplement contained anti-inflammatory and antioxidant ingredients, the main ones being N-palmitoyl-D-glucosamine (Glupamid® and quercetin. It was thus intended to target not only chondrodegenerative components of osteoarthritis, but also post-injury inflammatory response and oxidative stress of joint tissues. Thirteen dogs underwent TPLO and were randomly allocated to treatment (n = 6 and control groups (n = 7, the former receiving the joint supplement for 90 days. Lameness and radiographic osteoarthritis changes were scored before (i.e., baseline and at 30 and 90 days post-surgery. Synovial fluid samples were collected from injured stifles at the same time points. Levels of representative metabolites were measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a blinded fashion. In the metabolomic analysis, special attention was paid to lactate, due to its emerging recognition as a key marker of inflammation. In the last time period (from the 30th to the 90th day, lameness improved by a factor of 2.3 compared to control dogs. No significant difference was observed in the radiographic osteoarthritis score between groups. In the first postoperative month, lactate and creatine levels significantly dropped in treated compared to control dogs. Compared to surgery alone, combining the joint supplement with TPLO resulted in a trend to a better clinical outcome in the later time interval but did not influence

  13. Istaroxime, a positive inotropic agent devoid of proarrhythmic properties in sensitive chronic atrioventricular block dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, Alexandre; Kostense, Amée; Beekman, Henriette D M; Houtman, Marien J C; van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Vos, Marc A

    2018-05-10

    Current inotropic agents in heart failure therapy associate with low benefit and significant adverse effects, including ventricular arrhythmias. Istaroxime, a novel Na + /K + -transporting ATPase inhibitor, also stimulates SERCA2a activity, which would confer improved inotropic and lusitropic properties with less proarrhythmic effects. We investigated hemodynamic, electrophysiological and potential proarrhythmic and antiarrhythmic effects of istaroxime in control and chronic atrioventricular block (CAVB) dogs sensitive to drug-induced Torsades de Pointes arrhythmias (TdP). In isolated normal canine ventricular cardiomyocytes, istaroxime (0.3-10 μM) evoked no afterdepolarizations and significantly shortened action potential duration (APD) at 3 and 10 μM. Istaroxime at 3 μg/kg/min significantly increased left ventricular (LV) contractility (dP/dt + ) and relaxation (dP/dt-) respectively by 81 and 94% in anesthetized control dogs (n = 6) and by 61 and 49% in anesthetized CAVB dogs (n = 7) sensitive to dofetilide-induced TdP. While istaroxime induced no ventricular arrhythmias in control conditions, only single ectopic beats occurred in 2/7 CAVB dogs, which were preceded by increase of short-term variability of repolarization (STV) and T wave alternans in LV unipolar electrograms. Istaroxime pre-treatment (3 μg/kg/min for 60 min) did not alleviate dofetilide-induced increase in repolarization and STV, and mildly reduced incidence of TdP from 6/6 to 4/6 CAVB dogs. In six CAVB dogs with dofetilide-induced TdP, administration of istaroxime (90 μg/kg/5 min) suppressed arrhythmic episodes in two animals. Taken together, inotropic and lusitropic properties of istaroxime in CAVB dogs were devoid of significant proarrhythmic effects in sensitive CAVB dogs, and istaroxime provides a moderate antiarrhythmic efficacy in prevention and suppression of dofetilide-induced TdP. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The use of β-blockade to control heart rate during whole body hyperthermia (WBH): A toxicity study in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, H.I.; Hugander, A.; Besozzi, M.; Grossman, J.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclide ventriculography as well as invasive hemodynamic monitoring was used to study the cardiovascular changes in the dog during 42 0 C WBH, i.e., heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume and ejection fraction. WBH was delivered by a radiant heat device (RHD). Results obtained agree qualitatively and quantitatively with changes observed in WBH-RHD studies done in pigs and humans. The authors elected to study the effect of propranolol in dogs during 42 0 C WBH in order to evaluate this drug's potential use in human cancer patients who are ineligible for WBH because of coronary artery disease. The results show that the level of β-blockade needed to control heart rate during WBH produces acute cardiovascular decompensation. The authors believe these results represent a contraindication to drug-induced β-blockade during RHD-WBH. Beyond its clinical implications for human cancer patients, this experience with the dog as an animal model for WBH recommends its use for further physiological and pharmacological studies

  15. Spontaneous cell-mediated cytolysis by peripheral blood cells obtained from whole-body chronically irradiated beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, J.A.; Shifrine, M.; Klein, A.K.; Rosenblatt, L.S.; Kawakami, T.

    1986-01-01

    The level of natural killer (NK) activity of continuously gamma-irradiated (whole body) beagle dogs and their nonirradiated controls was studied. For analytical purposes, irradiated dogs were segregated into groups according to their clinical status: clinically normal, hypocellular, or with acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. Since unirradiated control animals exhibited a wide range of NK responses, the data from each irradiated animal were compared to its own age-matched or litter-matched unirradiated control. Of the eight clinically normal irradiated dogs (median = 146% activity of control) only one animal had a NK activity lower than that of its control. The hypocellular group (n = 5, median = 21.8% of control) and the leukemic group (n = 4, median = 52.5% of control) each contained one responder with higher activity than its control. The difference between the percentage of control of the clinically normal and clinically abnormal dogs was found to be significant (P less than 0.05). There is a negative correlation between the NK results obtained and the total accumulated dose of radiation at the time of sampling (correlation coefficient = -0.739, P less than 0.01), suggesting a radiation effect upon natural killer activity, which is evidence by enhancement at lower doses and depression at higher doses of irradiation

  16. Identification of peripheral inflammatory markers between normal control and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Sangmee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple pathogenic factors may contribute to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Peripheral blood markers have been used to assess biochemical changes associated with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI and involved in their pathophysiology. Methods Plasma samples and clinical data were obtained from participants in the Ansan Geriatric Study (AGE study. Plasma concentrations of four candidate biomarkers were measured in the normal control (NC, MCI, and AD group: interleukin-8 (IL-8, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Body mass index (BMI, MMSE (Mini Mental State Examination, CDR(Clinical Dementia Rating score and homocystein level were recorded with social and demographic information. Results Total of 59 subjects were randomly selected for this analysis [NC (n = 21, MCI(n = 20 and AD(n = 18]. In demographic data, educational year was correlated with the diagnosis states (p p Conclusions Our study suggests the existence of an independent and negative relationship between plasma IL-8 levels and functional status in MCI and AD patients.

  17. A new normalizing algorithm for BAC CGH arrays with quality control metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznikowski, Jeffrey C; Gaile, Daniel P; Liu, Song; Shepherd, Lori; Nowak, Norma

    2011-01-01

    The main focus in pin-tip (or print-tip) microarray analysis is determining which probes, genes, or oligonucleotides are differentially expressed. Specifically in array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) experiments, researchers search for chromosomal imbalances in the genome. To model this data, scientists apply statistical methods to the structure of the experiment and assume that the data consist of the signal plus random noise. In this paper we propose "SmoothArray", a new method to preprocess comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays and we show the effects on a cancer dataset. As part of our R software package "aCGHplus," this freely available algorithm removes the variation due to the intensity effects, pin/print-tip, the spatial location on the microarray chip, and the relative location from the well plate. removal of this variation improves the downstream analysis and subsequent inferences made on the data. Further, we present measures to evaluate the quality of the dataset according to the arrayer pins, 384-well plates, plate rows, and plate columns. We compare our method against competing methods using several metrics to measure the biological signal. With this novel normalization algorithm and quality control measures, the user can improve their inferences on datasets and pinpoint problems that may arise in their BAC aCGH technology.

  18. Space Deficits in Parkinson’s Disease Patients: Quantitative or Qualitative Differences from Normal Controls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Natsopoulos

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD and the same number of normal controls (NCs were studied on a test battery including five conceptual categories of spatial ability. The two groups of subjects were matched for age, sex, years of education, socioeconomic status and non-verbal (Raven Standard Progressive Matrices intelligence. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed that the PD patients performed less efficiently on almost all the tasks. A logistic regression analysis (LRA classified 81.48% of the subjects into the PD group and 92.59% into NC group, indicating that left-right and back-front Euclidean orientation, three dimensional mental rotation and visuospatial immediate recognition memory of mirror image patterns discriminate well between the two groups. Application of a structural model (confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that both PD patients and the NC group stemmed from a homogeneous population, suggesting that the differences found between the two groups are of a quantitative rather than of a qualitative nature.

  19. PET imaging and quantitation of Internet-addicted patients and normal controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ha-Kyu; Kim, Hee-Joung; Jung, Haijo; Son, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Yun, Mijin; Shin, Yee-Jin; Lee, Jong-Doo

    2002-04-01

    Internet addicted patients (IAPs) have widely been increased, as Internet games are becoming very popular in daily life. The purpose of this study was to investigate regional brain activation patterns associated with excessive use of Internet games in adolescents. Six normal controls (NCs) and eight IAPs who were classified as addiction group by adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling were participated. 18F-FDG PET studies were performed for all adolescents at their rest and activated condition after 20 minutes of each subject's favorite Internet game. To investigate quantitative metabolic differences in both groups, all possible combinations of group comparison were carried out using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM 99). Regional brain activation foci were identified on Talairach coordinate. SPM results showed increased metabolic activation in occipital lobes for both groups. Higher metabolisms were seen at resting condition in IAPs than that of in NCs. In comparison to both groups, IAPs showed different patterns of regional brain metabolic activation compared with that of NCs. It suggests that addictive use of Internet games may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents.

  20. A New Normalizing Algorithm for BAC CGH Arrays with Quality Control Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Miecznikowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus in pin-tip (or print-tip microarray analysis is determining which probes, genes, or oligonucleotides are differentially expressed. Specifically in array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH experiments, researchers search for chromosomal imbalances in the genome. To model this data, scientists apply statistical methods to the structure of the experiment and assume that the data consist of the signal plus random noise. In this paper we propose “SmoothArray”, a new method to preprocess comparative genomic hybridization (CGH bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC arrays and we show the effects on a cancer dataset. As part of our R software package “aCGHplus,” this freely available algorithm removes the variation due to the intensity effects, pin/print-tip, the spatial location on the microarray chip, and the relative location from the well plate. removal of this variation improves the downstream analysis and subsequent inferences made on the data. Further, we present measures to evaluate the quality of the dataset according to the arrayer pins, 384-well plates, plate rows, and plate columns. We compare our method against competing methods using several metrics to measure the biological signal. With this novel normalization algorithm and quality control measures, the user can improve their inferences on datasets and pinpoint problems that may arise in their BAC aCGH technology.

  1. Clinical and psychological features of normal-weight women with subthreshold anorexia nervosa: a pilot case-control observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Anna; Ferraris, Cinzia; Martinelli, Valentina; Pinelli, Giovanna; Repossi, Ilaria; Trentani, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Weight preoccupations have been frequently reported in normal-weight subjects. Subthreshold anorexia nervosa (s-AN, all DSM IV TR criteria except amenorrhea or underweight) is a form of eating disorder not otherwise specified that has received scarce scientific attention. Under a case-control design we compared the general characteristics, body composition, and psychopathological features of normal-weight patients with s-AN with those of BMI- and sex-matched controls. Participants in this pilot study included 9 normal-weight women who met the DSM IV TR criteria for s-AN and 18 BMI-matched normal-weight controls. The general characteristics of the study participants were collected by questionnaire. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Behavioral and psychological measures included the standardized symptom checklist (SCL-90-R) and the eating disorder inventory (EDI-2). There were no differences in age, education, employment status, marital status, and history of previous slimming treatment in the two study groups. In addition, anthropometric measures and body composition of s-AN patients and BMI-matched normal weight controls were not significantly different. In the s-AN subgroup, we found a significant relationship between waist circumference and the SCL-90-R obsessivity-compulsivity scale (n=9, r=-0.69, pstudy cohort. These pilot results suggest that psychopathological criteria (particularly related to the obsessivity-compulsivity dimension) may be more useful than anthropometric measures for screening of s-AN in normal-weight women.

  2. Use of cisplatin for control of metastatic malignant mesenchymoma and hypertrophic osteopathy in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.A.; Richardson, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum) treatment induced partial remission of pulmonary metastatic malignant mesenchymoma and nearly complete radiographic remission of hypertrophic osteopathy in a 14-year-old Beagle. Cisplatin was given once every 3 weeks. Clinical signs of hypertrophic osteopathy resolved one week after initiation of treatment. Partial remission of pulmonary metastases and partial radiographic remission of hypertrophic osteopathy was seen 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Previous treatment of neoplasia-related hypertrophic osteopathy has consisted of removal of the initiating mass or vagotomy. In this case, appropriate chemotherapy was used to control clinical signs and progression of hypertrophic osteopathy

  3. A Developmental Study of Static Postural Control and Superimposed Arm Movements in Normal and Slowly Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Janet M.

    Selected electromyographic parameters underlying static postural control in 4, 6, and 8 year old normally and slowly developing children during performance of selected arm movements were studied. Developmental delays in balance control were assessed by the Cashin Test of Motor Development (1974) and/or the Williams Gross Motor Coordination Test…

  4. Clinical and electrocardiographic evaluation during experimental toad poisoning in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AC Camplesi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidents involving toad poisoning are frequent and dogs are the most common victims; they become poisoned by biting or ingesting a toad. When released in the organism, the venom is absorbed by both the oral mucosa and the digestive tract, initiating its toxic action. The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical and electrocardiographic aspects of dogs subjected to experimental toad poisoning, as well as their response to treatment with propranolol. Twenty dogs were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 5 and a poisoned group (n = 15. After general anesthesia, the control group received a placebo, while the poisoned group received a venom aliquot through an orogastric tube. Results were tested through multivariate analysis (p < 0.05. The animals in the poisoned group had gastrointestinal symptoms including emesis, intense salivation, hyperemic or congested oral mucosa and pasty diarrhea. Non-responsive mydriasis, nystagmus, depression, stupor, tachypnea, opisthotonus and ataxia were also manifested by 100% of the poisoned animals. Affected dogs had an increase in blood pressure, statistically significant throughout study. Five poisoned animals developed ventricular tachycardia and were treated with propranolol (0.5 mg/kg IV. All propranolol-treated animals returned to normal sinus rhythm, which evidences the efficacy of this drug to treat ventricular arrhythmias caused by toad venom.

  5. Maturation of Speech and Language Functional Neuroanatomy in Pediatric Normal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devous, Michael D., Sr.; Altuna, Dianne; Furl, Nicholas, Cooper, William; Gabbert, Gretchen; Ngai, Wei Tat; Chiu, Stephanie; Scott, Jack M., III; Harris, Thomas S.; Payne, J. Kelly; Tobey, Emily A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the relationship between age and resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in regions associated with higher order language skills using a population of normal children, adolescents, and young adults. Method: rCBF was measured in 33 normal participants between the ages of 7 and 19 years using single photon…

  6. Control-group feature normalization for multivariate pattern analysis of structural MRI data using the support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Kristin A; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Doshi, Jimit; Davatzikos, Christos; Shinohara, Russell T

    2016-05-15

    Normalization of feature vector values is a common practice in machine learning. Generally, each feature value is standardized to the unit hypercube or by normalizing to zero mean and unit variance. Classification decisions based on support vector machines (SVMs) or by other methods are sensitive to the specific normalization used on the features. In the context of multivariate pattern analysis using neuroimaging data, standardization effectively up- and down-weights features based on their individual variability. Since the standard approach uses the entire data set to guide the normalization, it utilizes the total variability of these features. This total variation is inevitably dependent on the amount of marginal separation between groups. Thus, such a normalization may attenuate the separability of the data in high dimensional space. In this work we propose an alternate approach that uses an estimate of the control-group standard deviation to normalize features before training. We study our proposed approach in the context of group classification using structural MRI data. We show that control-based normalization leads to better reproducibility of estimated multivariate disease patterns and improves the classifier performance in many cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [VEGF expression in dog retina after chorioretinal venous anastomosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Li, Zhihui; Sun, Xianli; Wang, Guanglu; Zhang, Feng; Peng, Xiaoyan

    2002-09-01

    To identify changes in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the dog retina after laser-induced chorioretinal venous anastomosis (CRVA), in order to find out the relationship between CRVA treatment and the related neovascular complications. Immediately after branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) model was made in 5 eyes of 5 normal dogs, CRVA treatment was done over a small tributary vein in the drainage distribution of the occluded vein. In each eye, there were 2 - 3 treatment sites. Four to six weeks later, a repeated treatment was given if the first treatment failed to show the anastomosis. The treatment sites with successful CRVA were divided into two groups: the small laser spot group, which received one treatment and the big laser spot group, which received more than one treatment. The expression of VEGF was investigated immunohistochemically in the treatment sites with successful anastomoses and in the 5 normal fellow eyes (control). There were totally 10 successful anastomoses in the 5 experimental eyes, among which, five received one treatment and the other 5 received more than one treatment. On fundus examination, the small laser spots were round and small, and the big laser spots were large with local proliferation. VEGF immunoreactivity was absent/weak in the normal dog retina, and remained unchanged in the small laser spot group, but somewhat increased in the big laser spot group. No neovascular complications occurred. All immunostaining experiments were accompanied by proper controls and none of the negative controls showed any immunoreactivity. Proper laser treatment can induce CRVA quite safely in nonischemic dog retina, which does not cause changes in the expression of VEGF, but severe laser damage in the treatment site can cause increased VEGF expression which may be related to neovascular complications.

  8. A single-blinded phenobarbital-controlled trial of levetiracetam as mono-therapy in dogs with newly diagnosed epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsø, N.; Sabers, A.; Toft, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of canine epilepsy is problematic. Few antiepileptic drugs have proven efficacy in dogs and undesirable adverse effects and pharmacoresistance are not uncommon. Consequently, the need for investigation of alternative treatment options is ongoing. The objective of this study was to inves...

  9. Measurement of angles of abduction for diagnosis of shoulder instability in dogs using goniometry and digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, James L; Renfro, Daniel C; Tomlinson, James L; Sorensen, Jill E

    2005-01-01

    To compare abduction angles of shoulders with medial instability and unaffected shoulders in the same dogs and in age- and breed-matched dogs. Case-control study. Dogs with medial instability of the shoulder (n=33) and 26 control dogs. Dogs were sedated and positioned in lateral recumbency with both scapulas parallel to the table. With the elbow and shoulder in extension, the non-recumbent limb was maximally abducted and the angle between the scapular spine and lateral aspect of the brachium measured with a goniometer; a digital image was taken from the cranial aspect. Both techniques were performed in triplicate by 2 examiners. Mean abduction angles for each shoulder were determined from goniometric measurements and image analysis. Data were analyzed for significant differences between affected and unaffected shoulders, measurement techniques, and examiners. Strength of correlation between measurement techniques was determined. Mean abduction angles for shoulders with instability (53.7+/-4.7 degrees goniometric, 51.2+/-4.9 degrees image) were significantly (P<.001) larger than for all unaffected shoulders (32.6+/-2.0 degrees goniometric, 30.9+/-2.3 degrees image). In dogs diagnosed with instability, affected shoulders had significantly (P<.001) larger abduction angles than the contralateral (unaffected) shoulders. No significant differences were identified between right and left shoulders for control dogs, measurement techniques, or examiners. A strong (r=0.90) significant (P<.001) positive correlation between measurement techniques was noted. Shoulder abduction angles measured under sedation provide objective data for diagnosis of shoulder instability in dogs. Shoulders with clinical and arthroscopic evidence of medial instability have significantly higher abduction angles than shoulders that are considered normal. Determination of shoulder abduction angles should be included in the diagnostic protocol for forelimb lameness assessment in dogs.

  10. Distinguishing patients with Parkinson's disease subtypes from normal controls based on functional network regional efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Zhang

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated that the pathophysiology and clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD are inhomogeneous. However, the symptom-specific intrinsic neural activities underlying the PD subtypes are still not well understood. Here, 15 tremor-dominant PD patients, 10 non-tremor-dominant PD patients, and 20 matched normal controls (NCs were recruited and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Functional brain networks were constructed based on randomly generated anatomical templates with and without the cerebellum. The regional network efficiencies (i.e., the local and global efficiencies were further measured and used to distinguish subgroups of PD patients (i.e., with tremor-dominant PD and non-tremor-dominant PD from the NCs using linear discriminant analysis. The results demonstrate that the subtype-specific functional networks were small-world-organized and that the network regional efficiency could discriminate among the individual PD subgroups and the NCs. Brain regions involved in distinguishing between the study groups included the basal ganglia (i.e., the caudate and putamen, limbic regions (i.e., the hippocampus and thalamus, the cerebellum, and other cerebral regions (e.g., the insula, cingulum, and calcarine sulcus. In particular, the performances of the regional local efficiency in the functional network were better than those of the global efficiency, and the performances of global efficiency were dependent on the inclusion of the cerebellum in the analysis. These findings provide new evidence for the neurological basis of differences between PD subtypes and suggest that the cerebellum may play different roles in the pathologies of different PD subtypes. The present study demonstrated the power of the combination of graph-based network analysis and discrimination analysis in elucidating the neural basis of different PD subtypes.

  11. Evaluation of the efficacy of ProHeart® 6 (moxidectin against a resistant isolate of Dirofilaria immitis (JYD-34 in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight D. Bowman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, it was demonstrated that ProHeart® 6 (PH6 (moxidectin, Zoetis provided only about 20% efficacy in a small six-dog study against a macrocyclic lactone –resistant Dirofilaria immitis isolate (Jd2009–2 when dogs were inoculated with infective third-stage larvae (L3 at the end of the dosing period (ie, 180 days post treatment. The objective of the current study was to determine the prophylactic efficacy of a moxidectin sustained-release formulation (PH6 against a confirmed macrocyclic lactone–resistant isolate of D. immitis (JYD-34 in dogs when administered by subcutaneous injection at the labeled dose of 0.17 mg/kg 2 days before L3 inoculation. This was intended to model the scenario where dogs become infected with resistant heartworms at the end of the PH6 treatment period (ie, 6 months post treatment when dogs would routinely be given another injection under normal field use. Methods Twelve purpose-bred Beagle dogs (six males and six females were selected and randomly allocated to two groups, untreated controls and PH6-treated dogs in groups of six each. The dogs were ≥8 months old at the start of the study, and using blood samples collected on Day −7 were shown to be negative for adult heartworm antigen and microfilariae. On Day 0, the dogs in the untreated control group were administered saline subcutaneously by injection, and the dogs in the treated group were administered PH6 according to label instructions. On Day 2, each dog was inoculated in the inguinal area with 50 L3 of D. immitis. The dogs were necropsied on Day 150 (148 days post infection, and the worms were collected and counted. Results All of the six control dogs were infected and harbored a range of 21 to 37 worms (geometric mean, 25.4; 10.9 males and 13.9 females. Only one of the six PH6 dogs was found to be infected, harboring a single male worm. Efficacy was 99.5% (geometric mean. Conclusion ProHeart® 6 was highly

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of ProHeart® 6 (moxidectin) against a resistant isolate of Dirofilaria immitis (JYD-34) in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dwight D; McTier, Tom L; Adams, Eric L; Mahabir, Sean P; Login, Joyce A; Bidgood, Tara; Woods, Debra J

    2017-11-09

    In a previous study, it was demonstrated that ProHeart ® 6 (PH6) (moxidectin, Zoetis) provided only about 20% efficacy in a small six-dog study against a macrocyclic lactone -resistant Dirofilaria immitis isolate (Jd2009-2) when dogs were inoculated with infective third-stage larvae (L3) at the end of the dosing period (ie, 180 days post treatment). The objective of the current study was to determine the prophylactic efficacy of a moxidectin sustained-release formulation (PH6) against a confirmed macrocyclic lactone-resistant isolate of D. immitis (JYD-34) in dogs when administered by subcutaneous injection at the labeled dose of 0.17 mg/kg 2 days before L3 inoculation. This was intended to model the scenario where dogs become infected with resistant heartworms at the end of the PH6 treatment period (ie, 6 months post treatment) when dogs would routinely be given another injection under normal field use. Twelve purpose-bred Beagle dogs (six males and six females) were selected and randomly allocated to two groups, untreated controls and PH6-treated dogs in groups of six each. The dogs were ≥8 months old at the start of the study, and using blood samples collected on Day -7 were shown to be negative for adult heartworm antigen and microfilariae. On Day 0, the dogs in the untreated control group were administered saline subcutaneously by injection, and the dogs in the treated group were administered PH6 according to label instructions. On Day 2, each dog was inoculated in the inguinal area with 50 L3 of D. immitis. The dogs were necropsied on Day 150 (148 days post infection), and the worms were collected and counted. All of the six control dogs were infected and harbored a range of 21 to 37 worms (geometric mean, 25.4; 10.9 males and 13.9 females). Only one of the six PH6 dogs was found to be infected, harboring a single male worm. Efficacy was 99.5% (geometric mean). ProHeart ® 6 was highly effective in preventing the development of heartworms in dogs

  13. Influence of propranolol on uptake of radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid and thallium-201 in the dog heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, E.E. van der; Eenige, M.J. van; Scholtalbers, S.; Visser, F.C.; Roos, J.P.; Westera, G.; Hollander, W. de

    1983-01-01

    In an experimental study, the influence of propranolol on myocardial uptake of radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid ( 131 I-HDA) and thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) in the dog heart was assessed. Uptake of 131 I-HDA and 201 Tl was evaluated in ten control dogs and in ten dogs 20 min after IV administration of propranolol (0.15 mg/kg). In both groups, four healthy dogs were studied and six dogs were studied after coronary artery occlusion. It was shown that both total uptake of 131 I-HDA and 201 Tl did not alter significantly, regardless of significant changes in hemodynamic parameters and total arterial plasma FFA levels. However, distribution of both 131 I-HDA and 201 Tl was markedly affected by propranolol, since the endocardial to epicardial ratio showed significantly higher values in the ischemic myocardial regions. The results of our study indicate that propranolol (1) preserves myocardial perfusion in the normal and acutely ischemic dog heart, and (2) gives a more favorable distribution in the ischemic myocardial region towards the subendocardial layers. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts using Oil-Red-O staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, GB; Luff, J; Daniel, L; Van den Bergh, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this prospective study were to quantify steatosis in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts using a fat-specific stain, to compare the amount of steatosis in different lobes of the liver, and to evaluate intra- and inter-Observer variability in lipid point counting. Computer-assisted point counting of lipid droplets was undertaken following Oil-Red-O staining in 21 dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts and 9 control dogs. Dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts had significantly more small lipid droplets ( 9 μ) and lipogranulomas per tissue point (p = 0.023 and 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, computer-assisted counting of lipid droplets following Oil Red O staining of liver biopsy samples allows objective measurement and detection of significant differences between dogs with CPS and normal dogs. This method will allow future evaluation of the relationship between different presentations of CPS (anatomy, age, breed) and lipidosis, as well as the impact of hepatic lipidosis on outcomes following surgical shunt attenuation. PMID:23528942

  15. Association between ascites and primary hyperfibrinolysis : A cohort study in 210 dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoia, Andrea; Drigo, Michele; Simioni, Paolo; Caldin, Marco; Piek, Christine J

    2017-01-01

    Coagulation profiles were determined in 70 dogs with ascites, 70 healthy control dogs and 70 sick control dogs without ascites. Dogs with ascites were divided into four sub-groups based on the pathophysiology of fluid formation. Coagulation profile, serum C-reactive protein and frequency of

  16. Pyrophosphate scan of the temporarily ischemized dog myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duska, F.; Novak, J.; Vizda, J.; Kubicek, J.; Kafka, P.; Veverkova, O.

    1981-12-01

    In 9 dogs a transient myocardial ischemia was provoked using complete occlusion of the ramus interventricularis anterior of the left coronary artery. The occlusion was removed after 5, 10 or 15 min. Four hrs after removal of the occlusion a scan of the myocardium was carried out using sup(99m)Tc-labelled pyrophosphate. In 7 out of 9 dogs under study the scan was markedly positive, in 2 dogs negative. ECG demonstrated ischemic changes practically in all dogs; the changes became normal after removal of the occlusion, namely in 5 to 35 min. The histological examination of the tissue demonstrated in all 9 dogs only a slight impairment of the myocardium.

  17. Radiographic appearance of the middle ear after ventral bulla osteotomy in five dogs with otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, D.E.; Walker, L.

    1997-01-01

    Radiographs of the middle ear were made in five dogs 60 to 78 months after ventral bulla osteotomy was performed to treat otitis media. The clinical results of surgery were considered satisfactory in four dogs and unsatisfactory in one. In 4 dogs with satisfactory results, radiographs demonstrated complete reformation of the bulla in 3 operated middle ears (3 dogs), with partial bulla reformation in the three middle ears (3 dogs). Radiographs in one dog with unsatisfactory results showed complete bulla reformation with no increase in lumen opacity. The proliferative bony response obliterating the middle ear previously reported in normal dogs after ventral bulla osteotomy was not seen in any of these patients

  18. Role of cellular oxalate in oxalate clearance of patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate stone formation and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlschläger, Sven; Fuessel, Susanne; Meye, Axel; Herrmann, Jana; Froehner, Michael; Albrecht, Steffen; Wirth, Manfred P

    2009-03-01

    To examine the cellular, plasma, and urinary oxalate and erythrocyte oxalate flux in patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stone formation vs normal controls. Pathologic oxalate clearance in humans is mostly integrated in calcium oxalate stone formation. An underlying cause of deficient oxalate clearance could be defective transmembrane oxalate transport, which, in many tissues, is regulated by an anion exchanger (SLC26). We studied 2 groups: 40 normal controls and 41 patients with COM stone formation. Red blood cells were divided for cellular oxalate measurement and for resuspension in a buffered solution (pH 7.40); 0.1 mmol/L oxalate was added. The supernatant was measured for oxalate immediately and 1 hour after incubation. The plasma and urinary oxalate were analyzed in parallel. The mean cellular oxalate concentrations were significantly greater in the normal controls (5.25 +/- 0.47 micromol/L) than in those with COM stone formation (2.36 +/- 0.28 micromol/L; P stone formation (0.31 +/- 0.02 mmol/L) than in the controls (0.24 +/- 0.02 mmol/L; P r = 0.49-0.63; P r = -0.29-0.41; P r = -0.30; P r = 0.25; P stone formation. Our data implicate the presence of a cellular oxalate buffer to stabilize plasma and urinary oxalate concentrations in normal controls.

  19. Hereditary esophageal dysfunction in the Miniature Schnauzer dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, V S; Wallace, L J; Anderson, V E; Rushmer, R A

    1980-03-01

    Miniature Schnauzers maintained in a colony for 9 years were used to study the inheritance of esophageal dysfunction (canine achalasia, megaesophagus). All dogs were evaluated radiographically, using a barium swallow contrast technique which clearly distinguished normal and affected pups. At 4 to 6 months of age, all affected dogs had recovered clinically except one, and radiographic evidence of dysfunction was markedly diminished. None of the affected dogs required a special feeding regimen. Analysis of breeding pairs revealed a ratio of 9 affected/11 normal dogs when an affected male was mated with a normal female, and a 13/3 ratio was observed when two affected dogs were mated. These ratios were compatible with a simple autosomal dominant or a 60% penetrance autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance. Outbreeding to an affected Miniature Schnauzer/Poodle crossbred dog resulted in only two of 30 affected pups, indicating a polygenic mode of inheritance in outbred populations.

  20. Toxicity of extract of Magonia pubescens (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) St. Hil. to control the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille)(Acari: Ixodidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando F.; D' Alessandro, Walmirton B.; Freitas, Edmeia P.S. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saude Publica. Lab. de Artropodologia Medica e Veterinaria]. E-mail: fernandesff@pesquisador.cnpq.br

    2008-03-15

    The action of crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of the soapberry Magonia pubescens St. Hil. was studied upon larvae of the Brown Dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Tick larvae were obtained by maintaining gravid females in an incubator, after collecting them from naturally infested kennels. The tick larvae were placed in envelopes of filter paper impregnated with different concentrations of the extract dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and distilled water. Four tests were repeated with each solution (n {>=} 120). The control was carried out in DMSO and distilled water. The bioassays were performed at 27{+-}1 deg C, RH {>=} 80% and 12:12 light cycle. Mortality was observed after 48h exposure. All motionless larvae were considered to be dead. The extract of M. pubescens showed larvicidal potential against R. sanguineus. The lethal concentrations of 1503 ppm (LC{sub 50}) and 9991 ppm (LC{sub 99}) were obtained. There was no mortality in the control group. Based on the results of the current study, M. pubescens should be recognized as an future alternative acaricide for the control of Brown Dog tick. These results reinforce the importance of the preservation of this soapberry in its natural biome. (author)

  1. Toxicity of extract of Magonia pubescens (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) St. Hil. to control the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille)(Acari: Ixodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Fernando F.; D'Alessandro, Walmirton B.; Freitas, Edmeia P.S.

    2008-01-01

    The action of crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of the soapberry Magonia pubescens St. Hil. was studied upon larvae of the Brown Dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Tick larvae were obtained by maintaining gravid females in an incubator, after collecting them from naturally infested kennels. The tick larvae were placed in envelopes of filter paper impregnated with different concentrations of the extract dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and distilled water. Four tests were repeated with each solution (n ≥ 120). The control was carried out in DMSO and distilled water. The bioassays were performed at 27±1 deg C, RH ≥ 80% and 12:12 light cycle. Mortality was observed after 48h exposure. All motionless larvae were considered to be dead. The extract of M. pubescens showed larvicidal potential against R. sanguineus. The lethal concentrations of 1503 ppm (LC 50 ) and 9991 ppm (LC 99 ) were obtained. There was no mortality in the control group. Based on the results of the current study, M. pubescens should be recognized as an future alternative acaricide for the control of Brown Dog tick. These results reinforce the importance of the preservation of this soapberry in its natural biome. (author)

  2. Reduced Dental Plaque Formation in Dogs Drinking a Solution Containing Natural Antimicrobial Herbal Enzymes and Organic Matcha Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. Lindinger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an exploratory, multicenter clinical study confirmed the hypothesis that a novel, natural, and safe oral care product (OCP reduced the rate of plaque formation on teeth of dogs consuming the OCP (antimicrobial plant-derived enzymes, organic matcha green tea, cultured dextrose, sodium bicarbonate, and ascorbic acid compared to controls. Healthy dogs without periodontitis, of varying breeds, sex, and age, were recruited and enrolled, using nonrandomized stratification methods, into a control and treatment groups. Treatment group dogs drank only water into which OCP was suspended, for 28 days. Control group dogs drank their normal household water. On day 0 all teeth were cleaned by a veterinarian and gingivitis was assessed. On days 14, 21, and 28 plaque index, plaque thickness, gingivitis, freshness of breath, and general health were assessed. Over the 28 days of study, dogs on the OCP had significant reduction in plaque index and plaque thickness compared to controls. By day 14 OCP reduced plaque formation by 37%; the 28-day reduction in plaque index and coverage averaged 22% with no measurable gingivitis or calculus. Conclusion. Using the OCP attenuated dental plaque formation when consumed as normal drinking water and in the absence of other modes of oral care.

  3. Hemostatic findings of pleural fluid in dogs and the association between pleural effusions and primary hyperfibrino(geno)lysis: A cohort study of 99 dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drigo, Michele; Piek, Christine J.; Simioni, Paolo; Caldin, Marco

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine if activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis occurs in canine pleural effusions. Thirty-three dogs with pleural effusions of different origin were studied. Pleural effusion fibrinogen concentrations were significantly lower, while pleural fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) and D-dimer concentrations were significantly higher than those in plasma (P pleural fluids, there is evidence of coagulation activation and fibrinolysis. The secondary aims of the current study were to determine if primary hyperfibrinolysis ([PHF] i.e., elevated plasma FDPs with a normal D-dimer concentrations), occurs in dogs with pleural effusion, and whether the presence of a concurrent inflammatory process may have activated the hemostatic cascade, with its intrinsically linked secondary hyperfibrinolysis, masking the concurrent PHF. The previously 33 selected dogs with pleural effusion (group 1) were compared to two control groups of 33 healthy (group 2) and 33 sick dogs without pleural effusion (group 3). Serum fibrinogen, FDPs, D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen/CRP ratio, and frequency of PHF were determined. Fibrinogen, FDPs, D-dimer and CRP concentrations in group 1 were significantly increased compared to group 2 (P pleural effusion compared to healthy dogs. Nevertheless, the decrease in the fibrinogen/CRP ratio in group 1 compared to group 3, considering the higher FDPs and similar D-dimer concentrations, would suggest that PHF is also more frequent in dogs with pleural effusion compared to sick control dogs, and that this phenomenon is hidden due to concurrent secondary hyperfibrinolysis. PMID:29462172

  4. A comparative study on distressful events in affective disorder and normal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Rathee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life events’ stresses are concerned with situational encounters and the meaning that a person attaches to such encounters. It refers to our feeling; it is something of importance to us and is being jeopardised by events in our daily life, and the stressful life events are causally linked to a variety of undesirable effects which influence our performance and health. Aim: This study was planned for assessment and comparison of stressful life events between mood disorder and normal people. Materials and methods: In this study, total 90 participants (30 manic patients, 30 depressive patients, and 30 normal participants were recruited and severity of symptoms was assessed by Young Mania Rating Scale and Beck Depression Inventory. Normal participants were screened by General Health Questionnaire. Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale was used for both groups for assessment of stressful life events. Findings and conclusion: The present study results revealed that clinical group had higher score on stressful life events as compared to normal participants. Patients with depression had more stressful life events as compared to the mania and normal population. Overall, life events precede the mood symptoms’ occurrence.

  5. Dog as an animal model for neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouna, M; Li, J S; Elhilali, M

    1994-01-01

    The dog provides an important model to study the effect of neural stimulation of different parts of the central and peripheral nervous systems. A multitude of experiments on neurostimulation and neuromodulation to ensure bladder evacuation have been conducted on dogs. The present article reviews the most prominent contributions in the English literature related to neurostimulation using the dog as an experimental model. The various modes of stimulation using dogs as a model and the rationale for their use as well as their shortcomings will be examined. The prominent anatomic features in the neural control of the bladder and the technical aspects involved in neurostimulation of the canine bladder will be reviewed.

  6. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  7. Hypothyroid associated megaesophagus in dogs: four years (2009-2013 study in Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlapudi Satish Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Megaoesophagus is uncommon but an important consideration for chronic regurgitation in dogs. Five dogs of various breeds were presented to the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex (TVCC at College of Veterinary Science, Hyderabad with signs of chronic regurgitation, loss of weight, lethargy, weakness, dehydration and abnormalities of skin, and hair coat were diagnosed for megaesophagus on barium meal contrast radiography. At the TVCC, radiography and gastroscopy were performed, and the condition was confirmed as megaesophagus. Ancillary hemato-biochemical evaluations revealed normocytic normochromic anemia and mild leukocytosis with normal enzymatic activity in liver and kidneys. The thyroid profile in 80% (n=4/5 dogs showed decreased T3 and T4, and elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels confirming hypothyroidism. Ultrasonography of abdomen eliminated obstructions in the gastro-intestinal tract and other systemic conditions. Echocardiographic observations were normal in all the dogs. Treatment with metoclopramide (dosed at 5 mg/kg bwt and levothyroxine (dosed at 20 μg/kg bwt and modified management practices involving feeding and diets were successful in controlling the regurgitation in dogs and resulted in good clinical recovery within 20-30 days of post-treatment.

  8. Comparison of rCBF between patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and normal controls using H215O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Jae Sung; Nam, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas whose regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was changed in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) using H 2 15 O-PET. 12 patients with mTLE (6 left, 6 right mTLE) and 6 normal controls were scanned during a fixation baseline period and a sensory-motor condition where subjects pressed a button to an upward arrow. A voxel-based analysis using SPM99 software was performed to compare the patient groups with the normal controls for the rCBF during fixation baseline period and for relative changes of rCBF during the sensory-motor task relative to fixation. Duirng the fixation baseline, a significant reduction of rCBF was found posterior insula bilaterally and right frontopolar regions in right mTLE patients compared to the normal controls. In left mTLE patients, the reduction was found in left frontopolar and temporal regions. During the sensory-motor task, rCBF increase over the fixation period, was reduced in left frontal and superior temporal regions in the right mTLE patients whereas in various areas of right hemisphere in left mTLE patients, relative to normal controls. However, the increased rCBF was also found in the left inferior parietal and anterior thalamic/fornix regions in both right and left mTLE patients compared to normal controls. Epilepsy induced changes were found not only in relative increase/ decrease of rCBF during a simple sensory-motor control condition relative to a fixation rest condition but also in the relative rCBF distribution during the rest period

  9. Decision making in pathological gambling: A comparison between pathological gamblers, alcohol dependents, persons with Tourette syndrome, and normal controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, Anna E.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; de Beurs, Edwin; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Decision making deficits play an important role in the definition of pathological gambling (PG). However, only few empirical studies are available regarding decision making processes in PG. This study therefore compares decision making processes in PG and normal controls in detail using three

  10. Serum biochemistry profile, inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and cardiovascular findings in obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantedosi, Diego; Di Loria, Antonio; Guccione, Jacopo; De Rosa, Angela; Fabbri, Silvia; Cortese, Laura; Carta, Sergio; Ciaramella, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum biochemistry profile, inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and cardiovascular findings in obese dogs. Twenty obese and 20 normal weight healthy pet dogs were recruited into the study, where they underwent blood testing and assessment of cardiovascular function (blood pressure analysis, electrocardiography and echocardiography). Higher concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, lactate dehydrogenase, total serum proteins, α-globulins, total bilirubin, insulin, insulin:glucose ratio, alkaline phosphate and alanine aminotransferase were observed in obese dogs than dogs of normal weight. There were no differences in concentrations of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interleukin (IL)-6 between the two groups. Obese dogs had higher serum leptin but lower adiponectin concentrations than dogs of normal weight. Systolic arterial blood pressure was higher in obese dogs than dogs of normal weight. The values for the thickness of the free wall of the left ventricle and interventricular septal thickness were greater at end-diastole in obese dogs compared to dogs of normal weight. Four of 20 obese dogs were determined to have obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD). The findings indicate that a chronic inflammatory state is not necessarily evident in obese dogs, as has been described in human beings, and the criteria used for ORMD can be used to define this syndrome in dogs. In this study, canine obesity was associated with cardiac and vascular dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Automatic Camera Control System for a Distant Lecture with Videoing a Normal Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Akira; Nishigori, Shuichiro

    The growth of a communication network technology enables students to take part in a distant lecture. Although many lectures are conducted in universities by using Web contents, normal lectures using a blackboard are still held. The latter style lecture is good for a teacher's dynamic explanation. A way to modify it for a distant lecture is to…

  12. Psychosocial Functioning of Adult Epileptic and MS Patients and Adult Normal Controls on the WPSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siang-Yang

    1986-01-01

    Psychosocial functioning of adult epileptic outpatients as assessed by the Washington Psychosocial Seizure Inventory (WPSI) was compared to that of adult multiple sclerosis (MS) outpatients and normal subjects. When only valid WPSI profiles were considered, the only significant finding was that the epilepsy group and the MS group had more…

  13. REVIEW: DOG, MASTER, AND RELATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Caihua Dorji (Tshe dpal rdo rje ཚེ་དཔལ་རྡོ་རྗེ། Caihuan Duojie 才还多杰

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Stag 'bum rgyal (b. 1966 is from a herding family in Mang ra (Guinan County, Mtsho lho (Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province. A member of the China Writers' Association and the Standing Committee of Mtsho lho Writers' Association, Stag 'bum rgyal teaches the Tibetan language at Mang ra Nationalities Middle School. He graduated from Mtsho lho Nationalities Normal School in 1986 and began his teaching career in the same year. Later in 1988, he attended a training program at Northwest Nationalities University and earned a graduation certificate. Stag 'bum rgyal has published more than sixty short stories, novellas, and novels since 1980s. Among his novellas, Sgo khyi 'The Watch Dog', Khyi rgan 'The Old Dog', h+'a pa gsos pa'i zin bris 'The Story of Dog Adoption', Mi tshe'i glu dbyangs 'The Song of Life', and khyi dang bdag po/ da dung gnyen tshan dag 'Dog, Master, and Relatives' have been translated into Chinese and published in such magazines as Xizang Wenxue 'Tibet Literature', Minzu Wenxue 'Nationalities Literature', and Qinghai Hu 'Qinghai Lake'. Rnam shes 'The Soul', Rgud 'Degeneration', and khyi dang bdag po/ da dung gnyen tshan dag 'Dog, Master, and Relatives', won the Sbrang char Literature Prize in 1999, 2003, and 2006, respectively. ..........

  14. The risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in Poland. Part 2: Occurrence and control of babesiosis in a sled dog kennel during a 13-year-long period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Rodo, Anna; Welc-Falęciak, Renata

    2014-05-28

    The achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. Vector-borne infections may lead to anemia, affect joints or heart muscles or even cause death. Canine babesiosis is an emerging, quickly spreading tick-borne disease in Central Europe. Over a 13-year period (2000-2012) the occurrence of babesiosis cases was analyzed in one sled dog kennel situated in Kury, a village near Tłuszcz (N 52°24'56.78″, E 21°30'37.55″) in Central Poland. Twenty cases/episodes of babesiosis were noted among the 10-12 dogs living in the kennel. In 2000-2004, no cases of babesiosis were noted; the first two cases were noted in April 2005. Since that time, only one dog remained uninfected; 6 dogs were infected once, 3 dogs demonstrated symptoms of babesiosis twice, one dog was infected three times and one dog had it five times. Babesiosis appeared in Spring and Autumn, despite the application of anti-tick treatment. No fatal cases were recorded, but in one case a splenectomy was performed due to splenomegaly and spleen rupture. Additionally, the abundance of the main Babesia canis vector, the Dermacentor reticulatus tick, was estimated and monitored during a 4-year period (2008-2012) close to the dog kennel. The abundance of questing ticks was high in 2008 and 2009, but dropped by 10-fold between 2010 and 2012, when the abandoned meadow was cut and used as horse pasture by the local farmer. The regular occurrence, typical seasonal pattern and identification of B. canis DNA in questing tick from this locality confirmed the establishment of a new hyper enzootic region for canine babesiosis. The effectiveness and schedule of applied preventive measures were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets. 36.36... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such...

  16. Breeding implications resulting from classification of patellae luxation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grevenhof, E M; Hazewinkel, H A W; Heuven, H C M

    2016-08-01

    Patellar luxation (PL) is one of the major hereditary orthopaedic abnormalities observed in a variety of dog breeds. When the patellae move sideways out of the trochlear groove, this is called PL. The PL score varies between dogs from normal to very severe. Reducing the prevalence of PL by breeding could prevent surgery, thereby improve welfare. Orthopaedic specialists differentiate between normal and loose patellae, where the patellae can be moved to the edge of the trochlear groove, considering scoring loose patellae as normal in the future. Loose patellae are considered acceptable for breeding so far by the breeding organization. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic background of PL to decide on the importance of loose patellae when breeding for healthy dogs. Data are available from two dog breeds, that is Flat-coated Retrievers (n = 3808) and Kooiker dogs (n = 794), with a total of 4602 dogs. Results show that loose patellae indicate that dogs are genetically more susceptible to develop PL because family members of the dogs with loose patellae showed more severe PL. In addition, the estimated breeding values for dogs with loose patellae indicate that breeding values of dogs with loose patellae were worse than breeding values obtained for dogs with a normal score. Given these results, it is advised to orthopaedic specialists to continue to score loose patellae as a separate class and to dog breeders to minimize the use of dogs in breeding with a genetically higher susceptibility for PL. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog. A...

  18. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742 Dog...

  19. Effect of Volume of Fluid Resuscitation on Metabolic Normalization in Children Presenting in Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakes, Katherine; Haukoos, Jason S; Deakyne, Sara J; Hopkins, Emily; Easter, Josh; McFann, Kim; Brent, Alison; Rewers, Arleta

    2016-04-01

    The optimal rate of fluid administration in pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is unknown. Our aim was to determine whether the volume of fluid administration in children with DKA influences the rate of metabolic normalization. We performed a randomized controlled trial conducted in a tertiary pediatric emergency department from December 2007 until June 2010. The primary outcome was time to metabolic normalization; secondary outcomes were time to bicarbonate normalization, pH normalization, overall length of hospital treatment, and adverse outcomes. Children between 0 and 18 years of age were eligible if they had type 1 diabetes mellitus and DKA. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous (IV) fluid at low volume (10 mL/kg bolus + 1.25 × maintenance rate) or high volume (20 mL/kg bolus + 1.5 × maintenance rate) (n = 25 in each). After adjusting for initial differences in bicarbonate levels, time to metabolic normalization was significantly faster in the higher-volume infusion group compared to the low-volume infusion group (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-3.9; p = 0.04). Higher-volume IV fluid infusion appeared to hasten, to a greater extent, normalization of pH (HR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.2-5.0; p = 0.01) than normalization of serum bicarbonate (HR = 1.2; 95% CI 0.6-2.3; p = 0.6). The length of hospital treatment HR (0.8; 95% CI 0.4-1.5; p = 0.5) and time to discharge HR (0.8; 95% CI 0.4-1.5; p = 0.5) did not differ between treatment groups. Higher-volume fluid infusion in the treatment of pediatric DKA patients significantly shortened metabolic normalization time, but did not change overall length of hospital treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01701557. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Rebar, A.H.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight was placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75 and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight was placed in a sacrifice study. Twenty-six of the exposed dogs and four of the control dogs have died. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia. Two dogs died approximately one year after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Nine 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2012 to 4115 days after exposure. Three dogs had nasal squamous cell carcinomas, one had a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, one a mast cell sarcoma, one a mammary adenocarcinoma, one a malignant lymphoma, one a melanosarcoma in the mouth and one heart base tumor. Two dogs died of renal failure 2663 and 4086 days after exposure. One dog died with autoimmune hemolytic anemia 3888 days after exposure and one died with congestive heart failure 4042 days after inhalation exposure. One control dog died of empyema, another control dog died with a mammary adenocarcinoma, one died with congestive heart failure and one with malabsorption syndrome. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs

  1. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  2. Controlling the magic and normal sizes of white CdSe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Sheng; Chung, Shu-Ru

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated a facile chemical route to prepare CdSe QDs with white light emission, and the performance of white CdSe-based white light emitting diode (WLED) is also exploded. An organic oleic acid (OA) is used to form Cd-OA complex first and hexadecylamine (HDA) and 1-octadecene (ODE) is used as surfactants. Meanwhile, by varying the reaction time from 1 s to 60 min, CdSe QDs with white light can be obtained. The result shows that the luminescence spectra compose two obvious emission peaks and entire visible light from 400 to 700 nm, when the reaction time less than 10 min. The wide emission wavelength combine two particle sizes of CdSe, magic and normal, and the magic-CdSe has band-edge and surface-state emission, while normal size only possess band-edge emission. The TEM characterization shows that the two different sizes with diameter of 1.5 nm and 2.7 nm for magic and normal size CdSe QDs can be obtained when the reaction time is 4 min. We can find that the magic size of CdSe is produced when the reaction time is less than 3 min. In the time ranges from 3 to 10 min, two sizes of CdSe QDs are formed, and with QY from 20 to 60 %. Prolong the reaction time to 60 min, only normal size of CdSe QD can be observed due to the Ostwald repining, and its QYs is 8 %. Based on the results we can conclude that the two emission peaks are generated from the coexistence of magic size and normal size CdSe to form the white light QDs, and the QY and emission wavelength of CdSe QDs can be increased with prolonging reaction time. The sample reacts for 2 (QY 30 %), 4 (QY 32 %) and 60 min (QY 8 %) are choosing to mixes with transparent acrylic-based UV curable resin for WLED fabrication. The Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity, color rendering index (CRI), and luminous efficacy for magic, mix, and normal size CdSe are (0.49, 0.44), 81, 1.5 lm/W, (0.35, 0.30), 86, 1.9 lm/W, and (0.39, 0.25), 40, 0.3 lm/W, respectively.

  3. Bright and dark solitons in the normal dispersion regime of inhomogeneous optical fibers: Soliton interaction and soliton control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenjun; Tian Bo; Xu Tao; Sun Kun; Jiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    Symbolically investigated in this paper is a nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the varying dispersion and nonlinearity for the propagation of optical pulses in the normal dispersion regime of inhomogeneous optical fibers. With the aid of the Hirota method, analytic one- and two-soliton solutions are obtained. Relevant properties of physical and optical interest are illustrated. Different from the previous results, both the bright and dark solitons are hereby derived in the normal dispersion regime of the inhomogeneous optical fibers. Moreover, different dispersion profiles of the dispersion-decreasing fibers can be used to realize the soliton control. Finally, soliton interaction is discussed with the soliton control confirmed to have no influence on the interaction. The results might be of certain value for the study of the signal generator and soliton control.

  4. Theory of mind and emotion-recognition functioning in autistic spectrum disorders and in psychiatric control and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, J K; van der Wees, M; Swaab-Barneveld, H; van der Gaag, R J

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that weak theory of mind (ToM) and/or emotion recognition (ER) abilities are specific to subjects with autism. Differences in ToM and ER performance were examined between autistic (n = 20), pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (n = 20), psychiatric control (n = 20), and normal children (n = 20). The clinical groups were matched person-to-person on age and verbal IQ. We used tasks for the matching and the context recognition of emotional expressions, and a set of first- and second-order ToM tasks. Autistic and PDD-NOS children could not be significantly differentiated from each other, nor could they be differentiated from the psychiatric controls with a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 9). The psychiatric controls with conduct disorder or dysthymia performed about as well as normal children. The variance in second-order ToM performance contributed most to differences between diagnostic groups.

  5. Registrations of Assistance Dogs in California for Identification Tags: 1999–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mariko; Lopez, Mayllynne T.; Hart, Lynette A.

    2015-01-01

    Dogs are filling a growing number of roles supporting people with various disabilities, leading to a chaotic situation in the U.S. Although the federal laws allow public access with working dogs only for people with disabilities, no governmental enforcement or management system for such dogs exists. Furthermore, there is no substantive way to confirm whether the dog is an adequately trained assistance dog or not, as neither the handlers nor the dogs are required to carry any particular certification or identification. Therefore, unqualified assistance dogs and incidents such as dog bites by assistance dogs sometimes are problems in the U.S. A governmental oversight system could reduce problems, but no information is available about the current uses of assistance dogs in the U.S. We aimed to investigate the current demographics of registered assistance dogs and the evolving patterns in uses of dogs during 1999–2012 in California. We acquired data on assistance dogs registered by animal control facilities throughout California. We used descriptive statistics to describe the uses of these assistance dogs. The number of assistance dogs sharply increased, especially service dogs, in the past decade. Dogs with small body sizes, and new types of service dogs, such as service dogs for psychiatric and medical assistance, strongly contributed to the increase. The Assistance Dog Identification tags sometimes were mistakenly issued to dogs not fitting the definition of assistance dogs under the law, such as emotional support animals and some cats; this reveals errors in the California governmental registering system. Seemingly inappropriate dogs also were registered, such as those registered for the first time at older than 10 years of age. This study reveals a prevalence of misuse and misunderstanding of regulations and legislation on assistance dogs in California. PMID:26287610

  6. Registrations of Assistance Dogs in California for Identification Tags: 1999-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Dogs are filling a growing number of roles supporting people with various disabilities, leading to a chaotic situation in the U.S. Although the federal laws allow public access with working dogs only for people with disabilities, no governmental enforcement or management system for such dogs exists. Furthermore, there is no substantive way to confirm whether the dog is an adequately trained assistance dog or not, as neither the handlers nor the dogs are required to carry any particular certification or identification. Therefore, unqualified assistance dogs and incidents such as dog bites by assistance dogs sometimes are problems in the U.S. A governmental oversight system could reduce problems, but no information is available about the current uses of assistance dogs in the U.S. We aimed to investigate the current demographics of registered assistance dogs and the evolving patterns in uses of dogs during 1999-2012 in California. We acquired data on assistance dogs registered by animal control facilities throughout California. We used descriptive statistics to describe the uses of these assistance dogs. The number of assistance dogs sharply increased, especially service dogs, in the past decade. Dogs with small body sizes, and new types of service dogs, such as service dogs for psychiatric and medical assistance, strongly contributed to the increase. The Assistance Dog Identification tags sometimes were mistakenly issued to dogs not fitting the definition of assistance dogs under the law, such as emotional support animals and some cats; this reveals errors in the California governmental registering system. Seemingly inappropriate dogs also were registered, such as those registered for the first time at older than 10 years of age. This study reveals a prevalence of misuse and misunderstanding of regulations and legislation on assistance dogs in California.

  7. DogPulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christoffer; Thomsen, Josephine Raun; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DogPulse, an ambient awareness system to support the coordination of dog walking among family members at home. DogPulse augments a dog collar and leash set to activate an ambient shape-changing lamp and visualize the last time the dog was taken for a walk. The lamp gradually...... changes its form and pulsates its lights in order to keep the family members aware of the dog walking activity. We report the iterative prototyping of DogPulse, its implementation and its preliminary evaluation. Based on our initial findings, we present the limitations and lessons learned as well...

  8. Control survey of normal reference ranges adopted for serum thyroxine binding globulin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Hajime; Kameyama, Mayumi; Shibata, Kyoko

    1985-01-01

    A survey using questionnaires was made on 152 facilities from July through September 1984 to examine normal reference ranges of serum thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), thyroxine (TT 4 ), and triiodothyronine (TT 3 ). Normal reference ranges of TBG were in good agreement with each other, with the exception of four facilities showing high upper limits. An average value of the upper and lower limits in 83 facilities was 13.7 +- 1.9 μg/ml; and the standard deviation was 28.6 +- 2.8 μg/ml. Differences (approximately 10 %) in coefficient of variation were comparable to those (5.7-9.6 %) obtained from the previous survey. There were approximately 10 % differences in coefficient of variation for both TT 4 and TT 3 . (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Proteoglycans in Leiomyoma and Normal Myometrium: Abundance, Steroid Hormone Control, and Implications for Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Nichole M; Carrino, David A; Caplan, Arnold I; Hurd, William W; Liu, James H; Tan, Huiqing; Mesiano, Sam

    2016-03-01

    Uterine leiomyoma are a common benign pelvic tumors composed of modified smooth muscle cells and a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM). The proteoglycan composition of the leiomyoma ECM is thought to affect pathophysiology of the disease. To test this hypothesis, we examined the abundance (by immunoblotting) and expression (by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) of the proteoglycans biglycan, decorin, and versican in leiomyoma and normal myometrium and determined whether expression is affected by steroid hormones and menstrual phase. Leiomyoma and normal myometrium were collected from women (n = 17) undergoing hysterectomy or myomectomy. In vitro studies were performed on immortalized leiomyoma (UtLM) and normal myometrial (hTERT-HM) cells with and without exposure to estradiol and progesterone. In leiomyoma tissue, abundance of decorin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were 2.6-fold and 1.4-fold lower, respectively, compared with normal myometrium. Abundance of versican mRNA was not different between matched samples, whereas versican protein was increased 1.8-fold in leiomyoma compared with myometrium. Decorin mRNA was 2.4-fold lower in secretory phase leiomyoma compared with proliferative phase tissue. In UtLM cells, progesterone decreased the abundance of decorin mRNA by 1.3-fold. Lower decorin expression in leiomyoma compared with myometrium may contribute to disease growth and progression. As decorin inhibits the activity of specific growth factors, its reduced level in the leiomyoma cell microenvironment may promote cell proliferation and ECM deposition. Our data suggest that decorin expression in leiomyoma is inhibited by progesterone, which may be a mechanism by which the ovarian steroids affect leiomyoma growth and disease progression. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Portal venous blood flow while breath-holding after inspiration or expiration and during normal respiration in controls and cirrhotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Sasao, Ken-ichiro; Watanabe, Manabu

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to measure portal blood flow in 12 healthy controls and 17 cirrhotics while they were breath-holding after inspiration and after expiration. We then compared the results with measurements made during normal respiration in the healthy controls and cirrhotics. Blood flow in the main portal vein under basal fasting conditions was quantitated using the cine phase-contrast MR velocity mapping method. Three measurements were made on one occasion, as follows: throughout the cardiac cycle during normal respiration, with the subject breath-holding after maximal inspiration, and with the subject breath-holding after maximal expiration. During normal respiration, portal blood flow was 1.3±0.2 l/min in controls vs 1.0±0.1 l/min in cirrhotics (P<0.0001); while subjects were breath-holding after inspiration, portal blood flow was 1.0±0.2 l/min in controls vs 0.9±0.1 l/min in cirrhotics; and while subjects were breath-holding after expiration, portal blood flow was 1.5±0.2 l/min in controls vs 1.1±0.2 l/min in cirrhotics (P<0.0001). The differences were primarily due to changes in flow velocity. When the magnitude of these hemodynamic changes in the three respiratory conditions was compared in controls and cirrhotics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference (P<0.0001). In controls, portal blood flow decreased during maximal inspiration relative to flow during normal respiration (-24.6±8.3%). Changes in portal blood flow in controls were greater than in cirrhotics (-13.5±4.5%) (P<0.0001); however, the difference in blood flow increase associated with maximal expiration between the two groups (+11.8±9.4% vs +5.9±11.5%) was not significant. We found that the respiration-induced hemodynamic variation in portal blood flow was less in cirrhotics than in the healthy controls. Portal blood flow measurements made during normal respiration using MR imaging closely reflect nearly physiologic conditions

  11. Portal venous blood flow while breath-holding after inspiration or expiration and during normal respiration in controls and cirrhotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugano, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Sasao, Ken-ichiro; Watanabe, Manabu [Saiseikai Wakakusa Hospital, Yakohama (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In this study, we used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to measure portal blood flow in 12 healthy controls and 17 cirrhotics while they were breath-holding after inspiration and after expiration. We then compared the results with measurements made during normal respiration in the healthy controls and cirrhotics. Blood flow in the main portal vein under basal fasting conditions was quantitated using the cine phase-contrast MR velocity mapping method. Three measurements were made on one occasion, as follows: throughout the cardiac cycle during normal respiration, with the subject breath-holding after maximal inspiration, and with the subject breath-holding after maximal expiration. During normal respiration, portal blood flow was 1.3{+-}0.2 l/min in controls vs 1.0{+-}0.1 l/min in cirrhotics (P<0.0001); while subjects were breath-holding after inspiration, portal blood flow was 1.0{+-}0.2 l/min in controls vs 0.9{+-}0.1 l/min in cirrhotics; and while subjects were breath-holding after expiration, portal blood flow was 1.5{+-}0.2 l/min in controls vs 1.1{+-}0.2 l/min in cirrhotics (P<0.0001). The differences were primarily due to changes in flow velocity. When the magnitude of these hemodynamic changes in the three respiratory conditions was compared in controls and cirrhotics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference (P<0.0001). In controls, portal blood flow decreased during maximal inspiration relative to flow during normal respiration (-24.6{+-}8.3%). Changes in portal blood flow in controls were greater than in cirrhotics (-13.5{+-}4.5%) (P<0.0001); however, the difference in blood flow increase associated with maximal expiration between the two groups (+11.8{+-}9.4% vs +5.9{+-}11.5%) was not significant. We found that the respiration-induced hemodynamic variation in portal blood flow was less in cirrhotics than in the healthy controls. Portal blood flow measurements made during normal respiration using MR imaging closely reflect nearly

  12. Assessment of the cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of naturally Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis infested dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Sharma, Bhaskar; Saxena, Meeta; Kumari, Priyambada

    2014-12-15

    The mechanism of cytokine secretion from T lymphocytes plays an important role in the immune response of dogs and parasitic skin infestations. Assessment of the cytokine profile of naturally S. scabiei var. canis infested dogs could augment understanding of the pathobiology of canine sarcoptic mange. Therefore, the present study examined the cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs suffering from sarcoptic mange. Thirteen dogs naturally infected with sarcoptic mange participated in the study. The dogs were found positive for S. scabiei var. canis mites in skin scraping examinations and revealed at least three clinical inclusion criteria. Another five clinically healthy dogs were kept as healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from heparinized blood samples and used for extraction of mRNA. Further, cDNA was synthesized by using 1 mg of mRNA by reverse transcription using oligonucleotide primers. Relative levels of cytokine expression were compared with normalized glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) transcripts. The levels of interleukin-4, interleukin-5 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) mRNA expression in dogs with sarcoptic mange were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01), whereas the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.01) in comparison with the healthy dogs. No remarkable difference was seen for interleukin-2 mRNA expression between these animals. An overproduction IL-4 and IL-5 might be involved in immuno-pathogenesis of canine sarcoptic mange. S. scabiei var. canis mites possibly induce an overproduction of TGF-β and reduced expression of TNF-α and thus could be conferring the immune suppression of infested dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Barium toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Fiona H; Noble, Peter J M; Swift, Simon T; Higgins, Brent M; Sieniawska, Christine E

    2010-09-01

    A 2-year-old 14.9-kg (32.8-lb) neutered female Shetland Sheepdog was admitted to the University of Liverpool Small Animal Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute collapse. At admission, the dog was tachypneic and had reduced limb reflexes and muscle tone in all limbs consistent with diffuse lower motor neuron dysfunction. The dog was severely hypokalemic (1.7 mEq/L; reference range, 3.5 to 5.8 mEq/L). Clinical status of the dog deteriorated; there was muscle twitching, flaccid paralysis, and respiratory failure, which was considered a result of respiratory muscle weakness. Ventricular arrhythmias and severe acidemia (pH, 7.18; reference range, 7.35 to 7.45) developed. Intoxication was suspected, and plasma and urine samples submitted for barium analysis had barium concentrations comparable with those reported in humans with barium toxicosis. Analysis of barium concentrations in 5 control dogs supported the diagnosis of barium toxicosis in the dog. Fluids and potassium supplementation were administered IV. The dog recovered rapidly. Electrolyte concentrations measured after recovery were consistently unremarkable. Quantification of plasma barium concentration 56 days after the presumed episode of intoxication revealed a large decrease; however, the plasma barium concentration remained elevated, compared with that in control dogs. To our knowledge, this case represented the first description of barium toxicosis in the veterinary literature. Barium toxicosis can cause life-threatening hypokalemia; however, prompt supportive treatment can yield excellent outcomes. Barium toxicosis is a rare but important differential diagnosis in animals with hypokalemia and appropriate clinical signs.

  14. Effect of Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation on Semen Quality in Dogs with Lowered Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domosławska Anna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty clinically healthy dogs with poor semen quality were used in the study. Fifteen dogs were supplemented daily with selenium (0.6 mg/kg organic selenium from yeast and vitamin E (5 mg/kg per os for 60 d. The control group (15 dogs was not supplemented. Semen was collected from all dogs by manual manipulation on days 0, 30, 60, and 90. The sperm concentration and motility parameters were evaluated with a Hamilton Thorne sperm analyser, version IVOS 12.3. For the assessment of sperm morphology, Diff-Quik stain was used. The percentage of live and dead spermatozoa was estimated on dried smears stained with eosin-nigrosin. The concentration of spermatozoa, most motility parameters determined (PMOT, VSL, VCL, ALH, BCF, RAPID, MEDIUM, SLOW, and STATIC, and the percentage of spermatozoa morphologically normal and live increased significantly (P < 0.05 after 60 d of supplementation. In the control group, there were no changes in motility parameters while the concentration and total sperm count decreased over the duration of the study. In conclusion, supplementation with selenium and vitamin E for 60 d can improve the quality of semen in dogs with lowered fertility.

  15. Elevated EGF Levels in the Blood Serum of Dogs with Periodontal Diseases and Oral Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyńska-Rak, Aleksandra; Żylińska, Beata; Polkowska, Izabela; Szponder, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Paradontopathy and neoplasms of the oral cavity represent one of the greatest challenges in human and animal dentistry. EGF plays a key role in maintaining the integrity and proper rate of cell proliferation in normal oral epithelium. The aim of the present study was to study serum levels of EGF in dogs diagnosed with periodontal diseases and oral cavity tumours. The samples comprised of cancerous tissue sections and serum obtained from dogs of various breeds, aged between 5-13 years. Serum EGF concentrations were measured by an immunoenzymatic method. The median for EGF concentration in serum of dogs suffered from severe periodontal diseases was greater when compared to the control group. EGF concentration in dogs with malignant tumours was significantly higher than in those with non-malignant growths. A positive correlation between EGF concentration and tumour size was also observed. EGF level in dogs diagnosed with benign tumours was comparable to the control group. The blood serum level of EGF increases significantly in patients with malignant oral tumours and advanced periodontal disease. In malignant tumours, the high level of EGF correlates with the size and invasiveness of the neoplasm. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Oxytocin increases extrapancreatic glucagon secretion and glucose production in pancreatectomized dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altszuler, N.; Puma, F.; Winkler, B.; Fontan, N.; Saudek, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    Infusion of oxytocin into normal dogs increases plasma levels of insulin and glucagon and glucose production and uptake. To determine whether infused oxytocin also increases glucagon secretion from extrapancreatic sites, pancreatectomized dogs, off insulin of 18 hr, were infused with oxytocin and plasma glucagon, and glucose production and uptake were measured using the [6- 3 H]glucose primer-infusion technique. The diabetic dogs, in the control period, had elevated plasma glucose and glucagon levels, an increased rate of glucose production, and a relative decrease in glucose uptake (decreased clearance). Infusion of oxytocin (500 μU/kg/min) caused a rise in plasma glucagon and glucose levels, increased glucose production, and further decreased glucose clearance. it is concluded that oxytocin can stimulate secretion of extrapancreatic glucagon, which contributes to the increased glucose production

  17. Validation of orthopedic postoperative pain assessment methods for dogs: a prospective, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Rialland

    Full Text Available In the context of translational research, there is growing interest in studying surgical orthopedic pain management approaches that are common to humans and dogs. The validity of postoperative pain assessment methods is uncertain with regards to responsiveness and the potential interference of analgesia. The hypothesis was that video analysis (as a reference, electrodermal activity, and two subjective pain scales (VAS and 4A-VET would detect different levels of pain intensity in dogs after a standardized trochleoplasty procedure. In this prospective, blinded, randomized study, postoperative pain was assessed in 25 healthy dogs during a 48-hour time frame (T. Pain was managed with placebo (Group 1, n = 10, preemptive and multimodal analgesia (Group 2, n = 5, or preemptive analgesia consisting in oral tramadol (Group 3, n = 10. Changes over time among groups were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Multivariate regression tested the significance of relationships between pain scales and video analysis. Video analysis identified that one orthopedic behavior, namely 'Walking with full weight bearing' of the operated leg, decreased more in Group 1 at T24 (indicative of pain, whereas three behaviors indicative of sedation decreased in Group 2 at T24 (all p<0.004. Electrodermal activity was higher in Group 1 than in Groups 2 and 3 until T1 (p<0.0003. The VAS was not responsive. 4A-VET showed divergent results as its orthopedic component (4A-VETleg detected lower pain in Group 2 until T12 (p<0.0009, but its interactive component (4A-VETbeh was increased in Group 2 from T12 to T48 (p<0.001. Concurrent validity established that 4A-VETleg scores the painful orthopedic condition accurately and that pain assessment through 4A-VETbeh and VAS was severely biased by the sedative side-effect of the analgesics. Finally, the video analysis offered a concise template for assessment in dogs with acute orthopedic pain. However, subjective pain

  18. Tractography of the corticospinal tracts in infants with focal perinatal injury: comparison with normal controls and to motor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roze, Elise; Harris, Polly A.; Ball, Gareth; Braga, Rodrigo M.; Allsop, Joanna M.; Counsell, Serena J.; Elorza, Leire Zubiaurre; Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, A.D.; Cowan, Frances M.; Porter, Emma; Rutherford, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Our aims were to (1) assess the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in infants with focal injury and healthy term controls using probabilistic tractography and (2) to correlate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography findings in infants with focal injury with their later motor function. We studied 20 infants with focal lesions and 23 controls using MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Tract volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (RD) of the CSTs were determined. Asymmetry indices (AIs) were calculated by comparing ipsilateral to contralateral CSTs. Motor outcome was assessed using a standardized neurological examination. Conventional MRI was able to predict normal motor development (n = 9) or hemiplegia (n = 6). In children who developed a mild motor asymmetry (n = 5), conventional MRI predicted a hemiplegia in two and normal motor development in three infants. The AIs for tract volume, FA, ADC and RD showed a significant difference between controls and infants who developed a hemiplegia, and RD also showed a significant difference in AI between controls and infants who developed a mild asymmetry. Conventional MRI was able to predict subsequent normal motor development or hemiplegia following focal injury in newborn infants. Measures of RD obtained from diffusion tractography may offer additional information for predicting a subsequent asymmetry in motor function. (orig.)

  19. Increasing communication between a man and a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Lemasson , Germain; Pesty , Sylvie; Duhaut , Dominique

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present the first results we have concerning our ongoing work on a robotic system embedded on a dog to enrich communication. Two problems are addressed here: How to keep control of a dog when the human does not see it? For dog trained to do some specific activities in particular situation, how to detect this activity? We present here results on controlling the dog by an embedded voice and a real-time recognition of some activities of the dog : walk, s...

  20. Evaluation of S-adenosyl l-methionine in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial for treatment of presumptive osteoarthritis in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Darren J; Gordon-Evans, Wanda J; Evans, Richard B; Johnson, Ann L; Griffon, Dominique J; Swanson, Kelly S

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of S-adenosyl l-methionine (SAMe) in the treatment of clinically inferred canine osteoarthritis (OA). Six weeks, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Dogs (n=33) with clinical signs, history, and orthopedic exams consistent with OA. Dogs were block randomized by body condition score (goniometry, and the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) at the time of study entrance and at 3 and 6 weeks after entry. Groups were compared using parametric and nonparametric paired tests as appropriate, and numbers needed to treat (NNT) were calculated for the CBPI and peak vertical force (PVF). Both groups (n=15 placebo, n=18 SAMe) had a reduction in mean PVF (P=.02) and vertical impulse (VI; P=.06) from the 1st to 3rd visit. There was no significant difference between the placebo group and SAMe group for PVF, VI, or either part of the CBPI (Severity or Impact). The NNT at 6 weeks for the Severity score was 3, Impact score was 25, and PVF was 45. These data do not support the use of SAMe as an effective stand alone treatment for reducing clinical signs of OA, as measured by PVF, VI, goniometry, CBPI (both Severity and Impact), and examination score within 6 weeks of treatment. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Dog Bite – A Rare Cause Of Oesophageal Injury | Arif | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though rabies has been successfully controlled in some provinces, dog bite is a common problem encountered in the Accident and Emergency (A & E) departments of South Africa. In our experience, dog bites are usually from police dog units or a neighbour's dog. Oesophageal injury is very lethal if not treated early.

  2. Dog Owners' Interaction Styles: their Components and Associations with Reactions of Pet Dogs to a Social Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Cimarelli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The bond dogs develop with their owner received increased attention in the last years but no study aimed at characterizing the way in which owners interact with their dogs in their daily life and how this might influence dog behavior. In order to examine how dog owners interact with their dogs, we first analyzed the behavior of 220 dog owners in 8 different standardized situations involving the owner-dog dyad. We extracted 3 behavioral factors related to Owner Warmth, Owner Social Support and Owner Control. Further, we investigated whether owner personality, gender and age are associated with these three factors. Results indicated that older owners scored lower in Owner Warmth and in Owner Social Support and higher in Owner Control than younger owners. Furthermore, owners scoring high in Owner Control scored lower in the personality trait Openness and owners scoring high in Owner Social Support scored lower in the personality trait Conscientiousness. Finally, we also analyzed whether the dogs´ reaction to an unfamiliar woman’s threatening approach was associated with the owners’ interaction styles. Results showed that dogs that searched for proximity of their owners during the threatening situation had owners scoring higher in Owner Warmth, as compared to dogs that reacted more autonomously, approaching the unfamiliar experimenter. Analogies between dog-owner interaction styles and human parenting styles are discussed considering the implications of the present findings for human social psychology as well as the practical relevance for dog welfare and human safety.

  3. Dog Owners' Interaction Styles: Their Components and Associations with Reactions of Pet Dogs to a Social Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarelli, Giulia; Turcsán, Borbála; Bánlaki, Zsófia; Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2016-01-01

    The bond dogs develop with their owner received increased attention in the last years but no study aimed at characterizing the way in which owners interact with their dogs in their daily life and how this might influence dog behavior. In order to examine how dog owners interact with their dogs, we first analyzed the behavior of 220 dog owners in 8 different standardized situations involving the owner-dog dyad. We extracted 3 behavioral factors related to " Owner Warmth ," " Owner Social Support ," and " Owner Control ." Further, we investigated whether owner personality, gender and age are associated with these three factors. Results indicated that older owners scored lower in " Owner Warmth " and in " Owner Social Support " and higher in " Owner Control " than younger owners. Furthermore, owners scoring high in " Owner Control " scored lower in the personality trait Openness and owners scoring high in " Owner Social Support " scored lower in the personality trait Conscientiousness. Finally, we also analyzed whether the dogs' reaction to an unfamiliar woman's threatening approach was associated with the owners' interaction styles. Results showed that dogs that searched for proximity of their owners during the threatening situation had owners scoring higher in " Owner Warmth ," as compared to dogs that reacted more autonomously, approaching the unfamiliar experimenter. Analogies between dog-owner interaction styles and human parenting styles are discussed considering the implications of the present findings for human social psychology as well as the practical relevance for dog welfare and human safety.

  4. Normalized performance and load data for the deepwind demonstrator in controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battisti, L.; Benini, E.; Brighenti, A.

    2016-01-01

    , derived from real scale measurements on a three-bladed Troposkien vertical-axis wind turbine, are manipulated in a convenient form to be easily compared with the typical outputs provided by simulation codes. The here proposed data complement and support the measurements already presented in "Wind Tunnel......Performance and load normalized coefficients, deriving from an experimental campaign of measurements conducted at the large scale wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano (Italy), are presented with the aim of providing useful benchmark data for the validation of numerical codes. Rough data...... Testing of the DeepWind Demonstrator in Design and Tilted Operating Conditions" (Battisti et al., 2016) [1]....

  5. Design report on the guide box-reactivity and safety control plates for MPR reactor under normal operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markiewicz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The reactivity control system for the MPR reactor (Multi Purpose Reactor) is a critical component regarding safety, it must ensure a fast shut down, maintaining the reactor in subcritical condition under normal or accidental operation condition. For this purpose, this core component must be designed to maintain its operating capacity during all the residence time and under any foreseen operation condition. The mechanical design of control plates and guide boxes must comply with structural integrity, maintaining its geometric and dimensional stability within the pre-established limits to prevent interferences with other core components. For this, the heat generation effect, mechanical loads and environment and irradiation effects were evaluated during the mechanical design. The reactivity control system is composed of guide boxes, manufactured from Aluminium alloy, located between the fuel elements, and control absorber plates of Ag-In-Cd alloy hermetically enclosed by a cladding of stainless steel sliding inside de guide boxes. The upward-downward movement is transmitted by a rod from the motion device located at the reactor lower part. The design requirements, criteria and limits were established to fulfill with the normal and abnormal operation conditions. The design verifications were performed by analytical method, estimating the guide box and control plates residence time. The result of the analysis performed, shows that the design of the reactivity control system and the material selected, are appropriate to fulfill the functional requirements, with no failures attributed to the mechanical design. (author)

  6. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight were placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75 and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia. Two dogs died approximately 1 yr after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Five 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2000 to 3341 days after exposure. Three dogs had nasal squamous cell carcinomas, one had a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and another, a mast cell sarcoma. One dog died of renal failure 2660 days after exposure and one control dog died of empyema. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs

  7. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Rebar, A.H.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight were placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75 and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Twenty-one of the exposed dogs have died and two of the control dogs have died. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia. Two dogs died approximately one year after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Seven 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2000 to 3341 days after exposure. Three dogs had nasal squamous cell carcinomas, one had a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, one, a mast cell sarcoma, one a mammary adenocarcinoma and one with a malignant lymphoma. One dog died of renal failure 2660 days after exposure, one control dog died of empyema and another control dog died with a mammary adenocarcinoma. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs

  8. Quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy findings in a population with connective tissue disease and in normal healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Y; Elvins, D M; Ring, E F; McHugh, N J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and quantify the morphological characteristics of nailfold capillaries that distinguish different forms of connective tissue disease from healthy controls. METHODS: A CCD video microscope with fibreoptic illumination and PC based image processing was used to visualise nailfold capillaries and to quantify findings in 23 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), 22 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 21 patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD), and 38 healthy controls. RESULTS: Capillary density was reduced in SSc (5.2 (SD 1.3) capillaries/mm) compared with other patient groups and controls. The average number of enlarged capillaries/finger was high in all disease groups (5.5-6.6) compared with controls (2). However, giant capillaries were most frequent in SSc (43%) and were not present in controls. Mild and moderate avascular areas were present in all groups (35%-68%), but severe avascularity was most frequent in SSc (44%) compared with other patients (18%-19%) and controls (0%). The greatest frequency of extensive haemorrhage was in SSc (35%). CONCLUSIONS: There is a range of abnormal capillary findings in patients with connective tissue disease and healthy controls. However, certain abnormalities such as a reduced number of capillaries, severe avascularity, giant capillaries, and haemorrhage are most commonly associated with SSc. Videomicroscopy with image processing offers many technical advantages that can be exploited in further studies of nailfold capillaries. Images PMID:8774177

  9. False Memory in Adults With ADHD: A Comparison Between Subtypes and Normal Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Abdrabo Moghazy; Elfar, Rania Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    To examine the performance on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott task of adults divided into ADHD subtypes and compares their performance to that of healthy controls to examine whether adults with ADHD are more susceptible to the production of false memories under experimental conditions. A total of 128 adults with ADHD (50% females), classified into three Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV-TR) subtypes, were compared with 48 controls. The results indicated that the ADHD participants recalled and recognized fewer studied words than the controls, the ADHD groups produced more false memories than the control group, no differences in either the false positives or the false negatives. The ADHD-combined (ADHD-CT) group recognized significantly more critical words than the control, ADHD-predominantly inattentive (ADHD-IA), and ADHD-predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI) groups. The ADHD groups recalled and recognized more false positives, were more confident in their false responses, and displayed more knowledge corruption than the controls. The ADHD-CT group recalled and recognized more false positives than the other ADHD groups. The adults with ADHD have more false memories than the controls and that false memory formation varied with the ADHD subtypes.

  10. Continuous glucose profiles in obese and normal-weight pregnant women on a controlled diet: metabolic determinants of fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Kristin A; Gerard, Lori; Jensen, Dalan R; Kealey, Elizabeth H; Hernandez, Teri L; Reece, Melanie S; Barbour, Linda A; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2011-10-01

    We sought to define 24-h glycemia in normal-weight and obese pregnant women using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) while they consumed a habitual and controlled diet both early and late in pregnancy. Glycemia was prospectively measured in early (15.7 ± 2.0 weeks' gestation) and late (27.7 ± 1.7 weeks' gestation) pregnancy in normal-weight (n = 22) and obese (n = 16) pregnant women on an ad libitum and controlled diet. Fasting glucose, triglycerides (early pregnancy only), nonesterified fatty acids (FFAs), and insulin also were measured. The 24-h glucose area under the curve was higher in obese women than in normal-weight women both early and late in pregnancy despite controlled diets. Nearly all fasting and postprandial glycemic parameters were higher in the obese women later in pregnancy, as were fasting insulin, triglycerides, and FFAs. Infants born to obese mothers had greater adiposity. Maternal BMI (r = 0.54, P = 0.01), late average daytime glucose (r = 0.48, P fasting insulin (r = 0.49, P fasting triglycerides (r = 0.67, P fasting FFAs (r = 0.54, P obese women without diabetes have higher daytime and nocturnal glucose profiles than normal-weight women despite a controlled diet both early and late in gestation. Body fat in infants, not birth weight, was related to maternal BMI, glucose, insulin, and FFAs, but triglycerides were the strongest predictor. These metabolic findings may explain higher rates of infant macrosomia in obese women, which might be targeted in trials to prevent excess fetal growth.

  11. PMab-48 Recognizes Dog Podoplanin of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Itai, Shunsuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Kato, Yukinari

    2018-02-01

    Podoplanin, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is a specific marker of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). Recently, we developed PMab-38, an anti-dog podoplanin monoclonal antibody that did not stain canine LECs. In this study, we newly developed PMab-48 against dog podoplanin. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PMab-48 reacts not only with canine squamous cell carcinoma cells but also with LECs of the normal colon. Therefore, PMab-48 may be useful in investigating the function of dog podoplanin in LECs.

  12. First study on domestic dog ecology, demographic structure and dynamics in Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauti, Stephanie; Traoré, Abdallah; Sery, Amadou; Bryssinckx, Ward; Hattendorf, Jan; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-10-01

    For the planning of an effective dog mass vaccination campaign against rabies in Africa, it is crucial to know more about the dog population. In this paper we describe for the first time the dog ecology, demographic structure and population dynamics of a domestic dog population in Bamako, Mali. In 2010 and 2011, we visited 2956 randomly selected compounds. Questionnaire data was collected on the compound and household level and on each dog individually. Dog-owning households were followed every six months during one (dog-owning households identified in 2011) or two years (dog-owning households identified in 2010) for the successive collection of dog demography data. We recorded 379 dogs in 279 compounds. The dog human ratio was estimated at 1:121, and the extrapolation of the domestic dog population in Bamako results in an estimate of 14 906 dogs (95% CI 13 041-17 037). The female male ratio was 1:2.8. A high proportion of young dogs was found as a result of a high turnover rate in the population. Mortality within the first year of life was high, and dogs had a life expectancy at birth of 2.5 years. Using a Leslie matrix, we estimated the annual dog population growth to be 20%. Christians were more likely to be dog owners than Muslims. Another factor favouring dog ownership was belonging to the ethnic group of Bobo or Malinke. Dogs were mainly used as watchdogs and fed with household leftovers and garbage. They were most often obtained and given away without remuneration. This work contributes vital information towards planning effective and sustainable dog rabies control programmes for the district of Bamako. Due to the high turnover rate, we recommend repeated mass-vaccination campaigns of at least 70% of the owned dogs at yearly intervals. In addition, dog-owners need to be educated on good dog management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Distributed hierarchical control architecture for integrating smart grid assets during normal and disrupted operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Karan; Fuller, Jason C.; Somani, Abhishek; Pratt, Robert G.; Chassin, David P.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2017-09-12

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for facilitating operation and control of a resource distribution system (such as a power grid). Among the disclosed embodiments is a distributed hierarchical control architecture (DHCA) that enables smart grid assets to effectively contribute to grid operations in a controllable manner, while helping to ensure system stability and equitably rewarding their contribution. Embodiments of the disclosed architecture can help unify the dispatch of these resources to provide both market-based and balancing services.

  14. [Characteristics of sublingual vein and expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues of Beagle dogs with portal hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai-yu; Wang, Li-na; Yue, Xiao-qiang; Li, Bai

    2009-05-01

    To observe sublingual vein characteristics and the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) proteins in sublingual tissues of Beagle dogs with cirrhotic portal hypertension. Twelve Beagle dogs were randomly divided into normal control group and cirrhotic portal hypertension group. There were 6 dogs in each group. A canine model of cirrhosis portal hypertension was established by injecting dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) into portal vein once a week for 7 weeks. The characteristics of sublingual vein were observed. Portal venous pressure was measured by using bioelectric recording techniques. The expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual vein were detected by immunohistochemical method. The shape and color of sublingual vein in beagle dogs in the cirrhotic portal hypertension group changed obviously as compared with the normal control group. Immunohistochemical results showed that there were almost no expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues in the normal control group; however, the expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues in the cirrhotic portal hypertension group significantly increased. Changes of portal pressure may lead to the formation of the abnormal sublingual vein by increasing the expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues in Beagle dogs with portal hypertension.

  15. Cortisol concentration, pain and sedation scale in free roaming dogs treated with carprofen after ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadović, Katarina; Vučinić, Marijana; Radenković-Damnjanović, Brana; Janković, Ljiljana; Teodorović, Radislava; Voslarova, Eva; Becskei, Zsolt

    2017-08-01

    One of the topic issues in animal welfare activities is the free roaming dog welfare especially in developing countries such as Serbia. The way of controlling population of free roaming dogs is their reproduction with the method of "Catch-Neuter-Release." This complex process consists of capturing free roaming dogs in public areas, sterilizing, and returning them to the public area from which they were temporarily removed. Ovariohysterectomy present the period with a high intensity of stress reaction since many veterinarians in Serbia do not use analgesia for this group of dogs. The aim of this study was to compare the serum cortisol concentration before and after ovariohysterectomy and the level of post-operative pain and sedation in a group of free roaming female dogs treated with carprofen after surgical intervention and in a group with no treatment. The study was performed on a total of 20 female dogs under the program for free roaming dog control. Free-roaming dogs were captured in public areas by the communal animal hygiene service and were transported between 30 and 45 min to the clinic of a veterinary practice. Treatment began at 10:00 h on the next day and the bitches were kept in cages until they were returned to public locations from which they were temporarily removed to be sterilized. The G2 group received before closing the incision line carprofen in one dosage of 4 mg/kg given by subcutaneous injection into the scruff. Rescue protocol with carprofen was provided for G1 after 24 h following ovariohysterectomy same dosage as G2. Blood (2 ml) was collected from the cephalic vein of each dog in disposable plastic syringes, containing heparin (1:1000) 4 times: Before ovariohysterectomy, 30, 120 min and 24 h following ovariohysterectomy. Cortisol concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The multifactorial pain and sedation scale were used for the assessment of pain and sedation. In both groups, the lowest values of serum cortisol

  16. Radiation toxicity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, W.P.

    1975-01-01

    Three related, but separate, studies are in progress. In the first, young adult beagles of both sexes are placed in the γ-ray field, to be kept there for duration of life at one of a number of daily exposure rates. In the second, young adult beagles are exposed in a similar fashion until they have accumulated predetermined amounts of total exposure ranging up to 4000 R, delivered at various daily exposure rates. They are then removed from the radiation field and kept for the rest of their lives to allow development of late effects attributable to radiation exposure. In the third study, pregnant beagles are irradiated, at one of four daily exposure rates, for all or part of their gestation periods, to produce an evaluation of the effects of continuous irradiation in the developing fetus. All of these studies are done by arranging dogs at various distances from a calibrated 60 Co γ-ray source, where they are irradiated during 22 hours of each day. The remaining 2 hours are used for animal care, maintenance, and clinical evaluation of the dogs. The combined results demonstrate that the cellular and organ systems of the dog respond predictably, and in a differential manner, depending on exposure rate. Exposure rates in excess of 17 R/day destroy the blood-cell producing elements of bone marrow and cause death, therefore, within 1 to 2 months. Minimally sublethal exposure rates to bone marrow (5-17 R/day), however, produce a very high (50-75 percent) incidence of anemia or myeloid leukemia. Furthermore, at exposure rates of 5 R/day or below, bone marrow appears to function in an essentially normal fashion, and causes of death appear, from preliminary data, to be related to degenerative disease and malignancies of other tissues

  17. Normalized performance and load data for the deepwind demonstrator in controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Battisti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance and load normalized coefficients, deriving from an experimental campaign of measurements conducted at the large scale wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano (Italy, are presented with the aim of providing useful benchmark data for the validation of numerical codes. Rough data, derived from real scale measurements on a three-bladed Troposkien vertical-axis wind turbine, are manipulated in a convenient form to be easily compared with the typical outputs provided by simulation codes. The here proposed data complement and support the measurements already presented in “Wind Tunnel Testing of the DeepWind Demonstrator in Design and Tilted Operating Conditions” (Battisti et al., 2016 [1]. Keywords: VAWT, DeepWind Project, Troposkien rotor, Skewed flow, Wind tunnel measurements, Wind turbine benchmark data

  18. Spinal meningiomas in dogs: 13 cases (1972-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingeroth, J.M.; Prata, R.G.; Patnaik, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Medical records of 13 dogs with spinal meningiomas were reviewed. Breed predilections were not found. Males outnumbered females 9 to 4, and most of the dogs were middle-aged. All dogs had motor deficits of various degrees, and approximately half of the dogs had clinical signs of mild to moderate spinal pain. The remainder had histories of clinical signs suggestive of chronic discomfort. There was a prolonged (greater than 3 months) delay between the onset of signs and diagnosis, except in 3 dogs. The neurologic courses usually were progressive. Results of noncontrast spinal radiography were normal in 10 dogs; in 3 dogs, the lamina appeared scalloped. Results of myelography contributed to the correct diagnosis in 10 of 12 dogs; however, in 2 dogs, intradural/extramedullary tumors were thought to be intramedullary lesions. A preponderance of cervical meningiomas was found, accounting for 10 of 13 tumors. Lumbar meningiomas were found in the remaining 3 dogs. Surgery was performed in 9 of the dogs, six of which improved after surgery. Poor results were correlated with tumors that involved spinal cord segments of an intumescence, ventrally located tumors, iatrogenic trauma, and tumor invasion into adjacent neural parenchyma. Four of 13 spinal meningiomas were found to be invasive into the spinal cord itself

  19. Spinal meningiomas in dogs: 13 cases (1972-1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingeroth, J. M.; Prata, R. G.; Patnaik, A. K.

    1987-09-15

    Medical records of 13 dogs with spinal meningiomas were reviewed. Breed predilections were not found. Males outnumbered females 9 to 4, and most of the dogs were middle-aged. All dogs had motor deficits of various degrees, and approximately half of the dogs had clinical signs of mild to moderate spinal pain. The remainder had histories of clinical signs suggestive of chronic discomfort. There was a prolonged (greater than 3 months) delay between the onset of signs and diagnosis, except in 3 dogs. The neurologic courses usually were progressive. Results of noncontrast spinal radiography were normal in 10 dogs; in 3 dogs, the lamina appeared scalloped. Results of myelography contributed to the correct diagnosis in 10 of 12 dogs; however, in 2 dogs, intradural/extramedullary tumors were thought to be intramedullary lesions. A preponderance of cervical meningiomas was found, accounting for 10 of 13 tumors. Lumbar meningiomas were found in the remaining 3 dogs. Surgery was performed in 9 of the dogs, six of which improved after surgery. Poor results were correlated with tumors that involved spinal cord segments of an intumescence, ventrally located tumors, iatrogenic trauma, and tumor invasion into adjacent neural parenchyma. Four of 13 spinal meningiomas were found to be invasive into the spinal cord itself.

  20. Depth of word processing in Alzheimer patients and normal controls: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, P; Püregger, E; Lehrner, J; Mayer, D; Deecke, L; Dal Bianco, P

    2005-05-01

    Effects related to depth of verbal information processing were investigated in probable Alzheimer's disease patients (AD) and age matched controls. During word encoding sessions 10 patients and 10 controls had either to decide whether the letter "s" appeared in visually presented words (alphabetical decision, shallow encoding), or whether the meaning of each presented word was animate or inanimate (lexical decision, deep encoding). These encoding sessions were followed by test sessions during which all previously encoded words were presented again together with the same number of new words. The task was then to discriminate between repeated and new words. Magnetic field changes related to brain activity were recorded with a whole cortex MEG.5 probable AD patients showed recognition performances above chance level related to both depths of information processing. Those patients and 5 age matched controls were then further analysed. Recognition performance was poorer in probable AD patients compared to controls for both levels of processing. However, in both groups deep encoding led to a higher recognition performance than shallow encoding. We therefore conclude that the performance reduction in the patient group was independent of depth of processing. Reaction times related to false alarms differed between patients and controls after deep encoding which perhaps could already be used for supporting an early diagnosis. The analysis of the physiological data revealed significant differences between correctly recognised repetitions and correctly classified new words (old/new-effect) in the control group which were missing in the patient group after deep encoding. The lack of such an effect in the patient group is interpreted as being due to the respective neuropathology related to probable AD. The present results demonstrate that magnetic field recordings represent a useful tool to physiologically distinguish between probable AD and age matched controls.

  1. Cerebral metabolism in dogs assessed by 18F-FDG PET. A pilot study to understand physiological changes in behavioral disorders in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irimajiri, Mami; Jaeger, C.B.; Luescher, A.U.; Miller, M.A.; Hutchins, G.D.; Green, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique, which is utilized in human behavior and psychiatric disorder research, was performed on the brains of clinically normal mixed breed dogs, 3 hound-type (long floppy ears) mixed breed dogs and 3 non-hound retriever-type mixed breed dogs. Glucose metabolism was obtained with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and quantitative analysis was performed by standardized uptake value (SUV) measurement. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained in each dog, and these images were superimposed on PET images to identify anatomical locations. The glucose metabolism in each region of interest was compared between the three hound-type dogs and 3 non-hound-type dogs. The two anatomically different types of dog were compared to assess whether breed-typical behavioral tendencies (e.g., sniffing behavior in hound-type dogs, staring and retrieving in Labrador-type dogs) are reflected in baseline brain metabolic activity. There were no significant differences between the hound-type dogs and non-hound-type dogs in cerebral SUV values. These data might serve as normal canine cerebral metabolism data for FDG PET studies in dogs and form the basis for investigations into behavioral disorders in dogs such as compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders and cognitive dysfunction. (author)

  2. Normal endothelial function in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter R; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    -dependent and technically demanding ultrasound measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation. Therefore, we decided to measure endothelial function and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) using a newer and relatively operator......Evidence is increasing that severe psoriasis is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Results from case-control studies of endothelial dysfunction, a marker of early atherosclerosis, in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis have been conflicting and were conducted with operator...... blood pressures, and plasma levels of triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glycated glucose, compared with controls. This indicates that even mild-to-moderate psoriasis may be regarded as a systemic inflammatory disease, and that an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity may...

  3. Differentiating Patients with Parkinson's Disease from Normal Controls Using Gray Matter in the Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-Li; Xie, Liang; Shen, Hui; Luo, Zhiguo; Fang, Peng; Hou, Yanan; Tang, Beisha; Wu, Tao; Hu, Dewen

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in the world. Previous studies have focused on the basal ganglia and cerebral cortices. To date, the cerebellum has not been systematically investigated in patients with PD. In the current study, 45 probable PD patients and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging, and we used support vector machines combining with voxel-based morphometry to explore the cerebellar structural changes in the probable PD patients relative to healthy controls. The results revealed that the gray matter alterations were primarily located within the cerebellar Crus I, implying a possible important role of this region in PD. Furthermore, the gray matter alterations in the cerebellum could differentiate the probable PD patients from healthy controls with accuracies of more than 95 % (p cerebellum in the clinical diagnosis of PD.

  4. Dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnöve; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facing toward each other from humans facing away, and in dog experts, a distinction also occurred for dogs facing toward vs. away in a bilateral area extending from the pSTS to the inferior temporo-occipital cortex: the dissociation of dog behavior was significantly stronger in expert than control group. Furthermore, the control group had stronger pSTS responses to humans than dogs facing toward a conspecific, whereas in dog experts, the responses were of similar magnitude. These findings suggest that dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

  5. Cone-beam CT analysis of patients with obstructive sleep apnea compared to normal controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Allison; Kalathingal Sajitha; De Rossi, Scott [Dept. of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta (United States); Cohen, Ruben [Park Avenue Oral and Facial Surgery, New York (United States); Loony, Stephen [Dept. of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Augusta University Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (United States)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate the upper airway dimensions of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and control subjects using a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit commonly applied in clinical practice in order to assess airway dimensions in the same fashion as that routinely employed in a clinical setting. This was a retrospective analysis utilizing existing CBCT scans to evaluate the dimensions of the upper airway in OSA and control subjects. The CBCT data of sixteen OSA and sixteen control subjects were compared. The average area, average volume, total volume, and total length of the upper airway were computed. Width and anterior-posterior (AP) measurements were obtained on the smallest axial slice. OSA subjects had a significantly smaller average airway area, average airway volume, total airway volume, and mean airway width. OSA subjects had a significantly larger airway length measurement. The mean A-P distance was not significantly different between groups. OSA subjects have a smaller upper airway compared to controls with the exception of airway length. The lack of a significant difference in the mean A-P distance may indicate that patient position during imaging (upright vs. supine) can affect this measurement. Comparison of this study with a future prospective study design will allow for validation of these results.

  6. Cone-beam CT analysis of patients with obstructive sleep apnea compared to normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, Allison; Kalathingal Sajitha; De Rossi, Scott; Cohen, Ruben; Loony, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the upper airway dimensions of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and control subjects using a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit commonly applied in clinical practice in order to assess airway dimensions in the same fashion as that routinely employed in a clinical setting. This was a retrospective analysis utilizing existing CBCT scans to evaluate the dimensions of the upper airway in OSA and control subjects. The CBCT data of sixteen OSA and sixteen control subjects were compared. The average area, average volume, total volume, and total length of the upper airway were computed. Width and anterior-posterior (AP) measurements were obtained on the smallest axial slice. OSA subjects had a significantly smaller average airway area, average airway volume, total airway volume, and mean airway width. OSA subjects had a significantly larger airway length measurement. The mean A-P distance was not significantly different between groups. OSA subjects have a smaller upper airway compared to controls with the exception of airway length. The lack of a significant difference in the mean A-P distance may indicate that patient position during imaging (upright vs. supine) can affect this measurement. Comparison of this study with a future prospective study design will allow for validation of these results

  7. Aerobic Glycolysis Is Essential for Normal Rod Function and Controls Secondary Cone Death in Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Lolita; Ma, Shan; Cipi, Joris; Cheng, Shun-Yun; Zieger, Marina; Hay, Nissim; Punzo, Claudio

    2018-05-29

    Aerobic glycolysis accounts for ∼80%-90% of glucose used by adult photoreceptors (PRs); yet, the importance of aerobic glycolysis for PR function or survival remains unclear. Here, we further established the role of aerobic glycolysis in murine rod and cone PRs. We show that loss of hexokinase-2 (HK2), a key aerobic glycolysis enzyme, does not affect PR survival or structure but is required for normal rod function. Rods with HK2 loss increase their mitochondrial number, suggesting an adaptation to the inhibition of aerobic glycolysis. In contrast, cones adapt without increased mitochondrial number but require HK2 to adapt to metabolic stress conditions such as those encountered in retinitis pigmentosa, where the loss of rods causes a nutrient shortage in cones. The data support a model where aerobic glycolysis in PRs is not a necessity but rather a metabolic choice that maximizes PR function and adaptability to nutrient stress conditions. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hormonal enzymatic systems in normal and cancerous human breast: control, prognostic factors, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge R; Chetrite, Gérard S

    2012-04-01

    The bioformation and transformation of estrogens and other hormones in the breast tissue as a result of the activity of the various enzymes involved attract particular attention for the role they play in the development and pathogenesis of hormone-dependent breast cancer. The enzymatic process concerns the aromatase, which transforms androgens into estrogens; the sulfatase, which hydrolyzes the biologically inactive sulfates to the active hormone; the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, which are involved in the interconversion estradiol/estrone or testosterone/androstenedione; hydroxylases, which transform estrogens into mitotic and antimitotic derivatives; and sulfotransferases and glucuronidases, which, respectively convert into the biologically inactive sulfates and glucuronides. These enzymatic activities are more intense in the carcinoma than in the normal tissue. Concerning aromatase, the application of antiaromatase agents has been largely developed in the treatment of breast cancer patients, with very positive results. Various studies have shown that the activity levels of these enzymes and their mRNA can be involved as interesting prognostic factors for breast cancer. In conclusion, the application of new antienzymatic molecules can open attractive perspectives in the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer.

  9. Plasma procalcitonin concentrations are increased in dogs with sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Milloway, Matthew; Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis, the life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is difficult to identify and to prognosticate for. In people with sepsis, procalcitonin (PCT) measurement aids diagnosis, enables therapeutic monitoring and improves prognostic accuracy. This study used a commercial canine PCT assay to measure plasma PCT concentrations in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) syndrome and in dogs with sepsis. It was hypothesised that dogs with GDV syndrome and with sepsis have greater plasma PCT concentrations than healthy dogs and that dogs with sepsis have greater PCT concentrations than dogs with GDV syndrome. Before analysing canine plasma samples, the ability of the assay to identify canine PCT, in addition to assay imprecision and the lower limit of detection were established. The assay had low imprecision with coefficients of variation ≤4.5 per cent. The lower limit of detection was 3.4 pg/ml. Plasma PCT concentrations were measured in 20 dogs with sepsis, in 32 dogs with GDV syndrome and in 52 healthy dogs. Median (IQR) PCT concentration in dogs with sepsis 78.7 pg/ml (39.1–164.7) was significantly greater than in healthy dogs 49.8 pg/ml (36.2–63.7) (P=0.019), but there were no significant differences between PCT concentrations in dogs with GDV syndrome and controls (P=0.072) or between dogs with sepsis and GDV syndrome (P=1.000). Dogs with sepsis have significantly increased plasma PCT concentrations compared with healthy dogs, although considerable overlap between these populations was identified. Future investigations should confirm this finding in other populations and evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of PCT in dogs with sepsis. PMID:29682292

  10. Comparative studies on the proliferation and differentiation of granulocytic progenitor cells CFU-C from the blood and bone marrow of dogs under normal conditions and after 80 R whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faul, H.

    1984-01-01

    The study on hand was performed on dogs of both sexes and dealt with two complex issues: 1) the identity of the granulocytic progenitor cell CFU-C in the blood and bone marrow, and 2) possible verification of damage to stem cell store using the granulocytic progenitor cell CFU-C as an indicator for damage caused, in this case, by 80 rd whole body irradiation of dogs. A special culture technique was developed to study these issues, and was tested for its functionability. Examinations of the dogs with whole-body irradiation revealed the following results: a) Radiation damage to the stem cell store could be verified by the study object of CFU-C granulocytic progenitor cell of the bone marrow. A reduction of proliferative capacity linked with a change in the differentiation profiles for the different cell types in the suspension cultures was clearly verified. b) The suspension culture technique allows to verify damage by ionizing radiation both in the acute phase, i.c. two hours after irradiation, and in the late recovery phase. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Metabolic epidermal necrosis in two dogs with different underlying diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, R; McNeil, P E; Evans, H; Srebernik, N

    1995-05-06

    Two dogs with metabolic epidermal necrosis had hyperkeratosis of the footpads accompanied by erythematous, erosive and crusting lesions affecting the muzzle, external genitalia, perineum and periocular regions. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a superficial hydropic dermatitis with marked parakeratosis. Both dogs had high plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase and high concentrations of glucose, and also a marked hypoaminoacidaemia. Despite these similarities, the cutaneous eruptions were associated with different underlying diseases. One dog had a pancreatic carcinoma which had metastasised widely; the primary tumour and the metastases showed glucagon immunoreactivity on immunocytochemical staining, and the dog's plasma glucagon concentration was markedly greater than that of control dogs. The other dog had diffuse hepatic disease; its plasma glucagon concentration was similar to that of control samples and cirrhosis was identified post mortem. Metabolic epidermal necrosis in dogs is a distinct cutaneous reaction pattern which may be associated with different underlying systemic diseases; however, the pathogenesis of the skin lesions remains unclear.

  12. Validation of Tuba1a as Appropriate Internal Control for Normalization of Gene Expression Analysis during Mouse Lung Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Mehta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The expression ratio between the analysed gene and an internal control gene is the most widely used normalization method for quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR expression analysis. The ideal reference gene for a specific experiment is the one whose expression is not affected by the different experimental conditions tested. In this study, we validate the applicability of five commonly used reference genes during different stages of mouse lung development. The stability of expression of five different reference genes (Tuba1a, Actb Gapdh, Rn18S and Hist4h4 was calculated within five experimental groups using the statistical algorithm of geNorm software. Overall, Tuba1a showed the least variability in expression among the different stages of lung development, while Hist4h4 and Rn18S showed the maximum variability in their expression. Expression analysis of two lung specific markers, surfactant protein C (SftpC and Clara cell-specific 10 kDA protein (Scgb1a1, normalized to each of the five reference genes tested here, confirmed our results and showed that incorrect reference gene choice can lead to artefacts. Moreover, a combination of two internal controls for normalization of expression analysis during lung development will increase the accuracy and reliability of results.

  13. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. 125 I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal

  14. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. /sup 125/I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal.

  15. Controlled-release of tetracycline and lovastatin by poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide acid)-chitosan nanoparticles enhances periodontal regeneration in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bor-Shiunn; Lee, Chien-Chen; Wang, Yi-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Jan; Lai, Chern-Hsiung; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Chen, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis is characterized by inflammation of periodontal tissues, leading to bone resorption and tooth loss. The goal of treatment is to regenerate periodontal tissues including bone and cementum lost as a consequence of disease. The local delivery of tetracycline was proven to be effective in controlling localized periodontal infection without apparent side effects. Previous studies suggested that lovastatin has a significant role in new bone formation; however, the local delivery of lovastatin might enhance its therapeutic effects. A number of local delivery devices have been developed recently, including poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to develop a local delivery device, PLGA-lovastatin-chitosan-tetracycline nanoparticles, which allows the sequential release of tetracycline and lovastatin to effectively control local infection and promote bone regeneration in periodontitis. The size and microstructure of nanoparticles were examined by transmission electron microscopy, Nanoparticle Size Analyzer, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The release of tetracycline and lovastatin was quantified using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Furthermore, the cytotoxic effect and alkaline phosphatase activity of the nanoparticles in osteoblast cell cultures as well as antibacterial activity against periodontal pathogens were investigated. Finally, the bone regeneration potential of PLGA nanoparticles in three-walled defects in beagle dogs was investigated. The results indicated that PLGA-lovastatin-chitosan-tetracycline nanoparticles showed good biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, and increased alkaline phosphatase activity. The volumetric analysis from micro-CT revealed significantly increased new bone formation in defects filled with nanoparticles in dogs. This novel local delivery device might be useful as an adjunctive treatment in periodontal regenerative therapy.

  16. Radiocolloid scintigraphy as an aid to the diagnosis of congenital portacaval anomalies in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornof, W.J.; Koblik, P.D.; Breznock, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    Five clinically normal dogs and 5 dogs in which portacaval anomalies were diagnosed angiographically were utilized to evaluate differences in the appearance of the radiocolloid liver scan between the 2 groups. The liver was clearly visualized in all dogs, allowing subjective evaluation of size. In the dogs with portacaval shunts, scintigraphy revealed an obviously small liver as well as pulmonary uptake of radiocolloid. The utility of this technique was then tested in a group of dogs with liver disease and was shown to be of value in differentiating dogs with primary portacaval shunts from other types of liver disease

  17. Intestinal Helminthoses in Dogs in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar YA

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Intestinal helminths in dogs provide a potential source of infection in humans due to the close contact be­tween humans and dogs. Due to the limited information on parasites infecting dogs in Kaduna State, Nigeria, a cross sec­tional study was conducted with the aim of determining the diversity and prevalence of intestinal helminths of dogs in the area."nMethods: During the survey, 160 gastrointestinal tracts of dogs killed for meat selected by simple sampling technique were collected and examined for helminths in Kaduna metropolis, latitude 100 50I  N and longitude 70 50I E."nResults: Of the helminths found, Dipylidium caninum (75.0%, Taenia hydatigena (43.8%, Diphyllobothrium latum (6.3%, Ancylostoma caninum (6.3% and Toxocara canis (6.3% were the most common. Female dogs were more likely of contacting intestinal helminths than male dogs (RR = 1.125. Higher mean worm burden was recorded for dogs infected by T. hydatigena and D. caninum than dogs infected by T. canis, D. latum or A. caninum."nConclusion: The presence of these parasites in dogs examined indicates a potential public health problem in Kaduna me­tropolis. Mass enlightenment of dog keepers on the need for periodic veterinary care and restriction of stray dogs through legislation formulation and enforcement are recommended as possible control measures.

  18. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-06-03

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Gene expression profiles of the small intestinal mucosa of dogs repeatedly infected with the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kouguchi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data set presented in this article is related to a previous research article entitled “ The timing of worm exclusion in dogs repeatedly infected with the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis” (Kouguchi et al., 2016 [1]. This article describes the genes >2-fold up- or down-regulated in the first- and repeated-infection groups compared to the healthy controls group. The gene expression profiles were generated using the Agilent-021193 Canine (V2 Gene Expression Microarray (GPL15379. The raw and normalized microarray data have been deposited with the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE105098. Keywords: E. multilocularis, Microarray, Dog, Echinococcosis, Vaccine

  20. Normal Pubertal Development in Daughters of Women With PCOS: A Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legro, Richard S; Kunselman, Allen R; Stetter, Christy M; Gnatuk, Carol L; Estes, Stephanie J; Brindle, Eleanor; Vesper, Hubert W; Botelho, Julianne C; Lee, Peter A; Dodson, William C

    2017-01-01

    Daughters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are thought to be at increased risk for developing stigmata of the syndrome, but the ontogeny during puberty is uncertain. We phenotyped daughters (n = 76) of mothers with PCOS and daughters (n = 80) from control mothers for reproductive and metabolic parameters characteristic of PCOS. We performed a matched case/control study at Penn State Hershey Medical Center that included non-Hispanic, white girls 4 to 17 years old. We obtained birth history, biometric, ovarian ultrasounds, whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan for body composition, 2-hour glucose challenged salivary insulin levels, and two timed urinary collections (12 hours overnight and 3 hours in the morning) for gonadotropins and sex steroids. We measured integrated urinary levels of adrenal (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) and ovarian [testosterone (TT)] steroids. Other endpoints included integrated salivary insulin levels and urinary luteinizing hormone levels. There were no differences in detection rates or mean levels for gonadotropins and sex steroids in timed urinary collections between PCOS daughters and control daughters, nor were there differences in integrated salivary insulin levels. Results showed that 69% of Tanner 4/5 PCOS daughters vs 31% of control daughters had hirsutism defined as a Ferriman-Gallwey score >8 (P = 0.04). There were no differences in body composition as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry between groups in the three major body contents (i.e., bone, lean body mass, and fat) or in ovarian volume between groups. Matched for pubertal stage, PCOS daughters have similar levels of urinary androgens and gonadotropins as well as glucose-challenged salivary insulin levels. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  1. The Effects of Nitroscanate on Ascarid and Dipylidium caninum Infections in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    SARIMEHMETOĞLU, H. Oğuz; GÖNENÇ, Bahadır; ADANIR, Ramazan; KOZAN, Esma

    2002-01-01

    In this study, nitroscanate (Lopatol tablets, Novartis) was tested for its efficacy against Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina and Dipylidium caninum in naturally infected dogs. Dogs that had mixed infections of cestodes and nematodes were divided into two groups: the treatment group (10 dogs) and the control group (5 dogs). Dogs in the treatment group were treated orally with a single dose of 1 tablet/10 kg of nitroscanate (50 mg/kg). After the treatment, fecal samples were examined 5 time...

  2. Confirmatory factor analysis reveals a latent cognitive structure common to bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schretlen, David J; Peña, Javier; Aretouli, Eleni; Orue, Izaskun; Cascella, Nicola G; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Ojeda, Natalia

    2013-06-01

    We sought to determine whether a single hypothesized latent factor structure would characterize cognitive functioning in three distinct groups. We assessed 576 adults (340 community controls, 126 adults with bipolar disorder, and 110 adults with schizophrenia) using 15 measures derived from nine cognitive tests. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the fit of a hypothesized six-factor model. The hypothesized factors included attention, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, visual memory, ideational fluency, and executive functioning. The six-factor model provided an excellent fit for all three groups [for community controls, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) schizophrenia, RMSEA = 0.06 and CFI = 0.98]. Alternate models that combined fluency with processing speed or verbal and visual memory reduced the goodness of fit. Multi-group CFA results supported factor invariance across the three groups. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a single six-factor structure of cognitive functioning among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and community controls. While the three groups clearly differ in level of performance, they share a common underlying architecture of information processing abilities. These cognitive factors could provide useful targets for clinical trials of treatments that aim to enhance information processing in persons with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Normal endothelial function in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter R; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that severe psoriasis is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Results from case-control studies of endothelial dysfunction, a marker of early atherosclerosis, in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis have been conflicting and were conducted with operator-dependen......Evidence is increasing that severe psoriasis is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Results from case-control studies of endothelial dysfunction, a marker of early atherosclerosis, in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis have been conflicting and were conducted with operator......-dependent and technically demanding ultrasound measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation. Therefore, we decided to measure endothelial function and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) using a newer and relatively operator......-independent technique. No difference was detected between the groups with regards to endothelial function. However, despite the patients experiencing rather mild psoriasis they did exhibit higher levels of certain cardiovascular risk factors, including waist circumference, resting heart rate, systolic and diastolic...

  4. Characteristics of Cerebral Blood Flow in Vascular Dementia using SPM Analysis Compared to Normal Control and Alzheimer's Dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo

    2003-01-01

    Cerebral perfusion pattern of vascular dementia (VD) was not well established and overlap of cerebral perfusion pattern was reported between VD and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of SPECT finding in VD compared with normal control subjects and to disclose differences of cerebral blood flow between subjects with VD and AD were investigated using statistic parametric mapping analysis. Thirty-two VD (mean age ; 67.86.4 years, mean CDR ; 0.980.27), 51 AD (mean age ; 71.47.2 years, CDR ; 1.160.47), which were matched for age and severity of dementia, and 30 normal control subjects (mean age ; 60.17.7 years) participated in this study. The Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT data were analyzed by SPM99. The SPECT data of the patients with VD were compared to those of the control subjects and then compared to the patients with AD. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the both frontal (both cingulate gyrus, both inferior frontal gyrus, B no.47, right frontal rectal gyrus, left frontal subcallosal gyrus, B no.25), both temporal (right insula, B no.13, left superior temporal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, B no.35), occipital (occipital lingual gyrus), right corpus callosum and right cerebellar tonsil regions in subjects with VD compared with normal control subjects (uncorrected p<0.01). Comparison of the two dementia groups (uncorrected p<0.01) revealed significant hypoperfusion in both parietal posterior central gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus (B no.47), left insula, right thalamus (ventral lateral nucleus), right claustrum and right occipital cuneus regions in VD group compared with AD. There were no typical confined regional hypoperfusion areas but scattered multiple perfusion deficits in VD compared AD. These findings may be helpful to reflect the pathophysiological mechanisms of VD and to disclose differences of cerebral blood flow between subjects with VD and AD

  5. Faecal microbiota in lean and obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Stefanie; German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Dowd, Scot E; Steiner, Jörg M; Heilmann, Romy M; Grant, Ryan W; Swanson, Kelly S; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2013-05-01

    Previous work has shown obesity to be associated with changes in intestinal microbiota. While obesity is common in dogs, limited information is available about the role of the intestinal microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alterations in the intestinal microbiota may be associated with canine obesity. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated the composition of the faecal microbiota in 22 lean and 21 obese pet dogs, as well as in five research dogs fed ad libitum and four research dogs serving as lean controls. Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria were the predominant bacterial phyla. The phylum Actinobacteria and the genus Roseburia were significantly more abundant in the obese pet dogs. The order Clostridiales significantly increased under ad libitum feeding in the research dogs. Canine intestinal microbiota is highly diverse and shows considerable interindividual variation. In the pet dogs, influence on the intestinal microbiota besides body condition, like age, breed, diet or lifestyle, might have masked the effect of obesity. The study population of research dogs was small, and further work is required before the role of the intestinal microbiota in canine obesity is clarified. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spontaneous necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular salivary gland in a Beagle dog

    OpenAIRE

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Petterino, Claudio; Bradley, Alys

    2015-01-01

    A single mass was found on the left submandibular salivary gland at necropsy of a 15-month-old male commercially bred laboratory Beagle dog from a control dose group from a repeat toxicity study. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a well-demarcated area of coagulative necrosis surrounded and separated from the normal salivary gland tissue by a thick fibrovascular capsule. Necrosis was admixed with areas of hemorrhage, fibrin, edema, fibrinoid necrosis of the vascular tunica media, and ...

  7. Review on dog rabies vaccination coverage in Africa: a question of dog accessibility or cost recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibat, Tariku; Hogeveen, Henk; Mourits, Monique C M

    2015-02-01

    Rabies still poses a significant human health problem throughout most of Africa, where the majority of the human cases results from dog bites. Mass dog vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to prevent rabies in humans. Our objective was to systematically review research articles on dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage in Africa in relation to dog accessibility and vaccination cost recovery arrangement (i.e.free of charge or owner charged). A systematic literature search was made in the databases of CAB abstracts (EBSCOhost and OvidSP), Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline (EBSCOhost and OvidSP) and AJOL (African Journal Online) for peer reviewed articles on 1) rabies control, 2) dog rabies vaccination coverage and 3) dog demography in Africa. Identified articles were subsequently screened and selected using predefined selection criteria like year of publication (viz. ≥ 1990), type of study (cross sectional), objective(s) of the study (i.e. vaccination coverage rates, dog demographics and financial arrangements of vaccination costs), language of publication (English) and geographical focus (Africa). The selection process resulted in sixteen peer reviewed articles which were used to review dog demography and dog ownership status, and dog rabies vaccination coverage throughout Africa. The main review findings indicate that 1) the majority (up to 98.1%) of dogs in African countries are owned (and as such accessible), 2) puppies younger than 3 months of age constitute a considerable proportion (up to 30%) of the dog population and 3) male dogs are dominating in numbers (up to 3.6 times the female dog population). Dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage was compared between "free of charge" and "owner charged" vaccination schemes by the technique of Meta-analysis. Results indicate that the rabies vaccination coverage following a free of charge vaccination scheme (68%) is closer to the World Health Organization recommended coverage rate

  8. Endogenous Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Aggression in Domestic Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L. MacLean

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior in dogs poses public health and animal welfare concerns, however the biological mechanisms regulating dog aggression are not well understood. We investigated the relationships between endogenous plasma oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP—neuropeptides that have been linked to affiliative and aggressive behavior in other mammalian species—and aggression in domestic dogs. We first validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs for the measurement of free (unbound and total (free + bound OT and AVP in dog plasma. In Experiment 1 we evaluated behavioral and neuroendocrine differences between a population of pet dogs with a history of chronic aggression toward conspecifics and a matched control group. Dogs with a history of aggression exhibited more aggressive behavior during simulated encounters with conspecifics, and had lower free, but higher total plasma AVP than matched controls, but there were no group differences for OT. In Experiment 2 we compared OT and AVP concentrations between pet dogs and a population of assistance dogs that have been bred for affiliative and non-aggressive temperaments, and investigated neuroendocrine predictors of individual differences in social behavior within the assistance dog population. Compared to pet dogs, assistance dogs had higher free and total OT, but there were no differences in either measure for AVP. Within the assistance dog population, dogs who behaved more aggressively toward a threatening stranger had higher total AVP than dogs who did not. Collectively these data suggest that endogenous OT and AVP may play critical roles in shaping dog social behavior, including aspects of both affiliation and aggression.

  9. The effect of backpack weight on the standing posture and balance of schoolgirls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Daniel H K; Kwok, Monica L Y; Cheng, Jack C Y; Lao, Miko L M; Holmes, Andrew D; Au-Yang, Alexander; Yao, Fiona Y D; Wong, M S

    2006-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the effect of carrying a backpack on adolescent posture and balance, but the effect of backpack loading combined with other factors affecting balance, such as adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), has not been determined. This study examines the effects of backpack load on the posture and balance of schoolgirls with AIS and normal controls. The standing posture of 26 schoolgirls with mild AIS (mean age 13, Cobb angle 10-25 degrees ) and 20 age-matched normal schoolgirls were recorded without a backpack and while carrying a standard dual-strap backpack loaded at 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% of the subject's bodyweight (BW). Kinematics of the pelvis, trunk and head were recorded using a motion analysis system and centre of pressure (COP) data were recorded using a force platform. Reliable COP data could only be derived for 13 of the subjects with AIS. Increasing backpack load causes a significantly increased flexion of the trunk in relation to the pelvis and extension of the head in relation to the trunk, as well as increased antero-posterior range of COP motion. While backpack load appears to affect balance predominantly in the antero-posterior direction, differences between groups were more evident in the medio-lateral direction, with AIS subjects showing poor balance in this direction. Overall, carrying a backpack causes similar sagittal plane changes in posture and balance in both normal and AIS groups. Load size or subject group did not influence balance, but the additive effect of backpack carrying and AIS on postural control alters the risk of fall in this population. Therefore, load limit recommendations based on normal subjects should not be applicable to subjects with AIS.

  10. Comparative analysis of contrast between hepatic vein and hepatic parenchyma with controlled velocity of ultrasound in normal and fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Jin; Han, Joon Koo; Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Seung Hyup; Lee, Dong Hyuk

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the contrast between hepatic vein and hepatic parenchyma with controlled velocities of ultrasound in normal and fatty liver. 31 patient with normal liver and 39 patients with moderate degree of fatty liver were studies with sonography with controlled velocities of ultrasound (1,580 m/sec, 1,540 m/sec, 1,500 m/sec, 1,460 m/sec). Sonographic images were captured with picture grabbing (Sono-PACS) and were recalled with visual C++(Microsoft Redmond. WA, USA). The contrast between hepatic vein and parenchyma was measured and analyzed on each sonographic image. The number of patients with the highest contrast between hepatic vein and hepatic parenchyma among the 31 patients with normal liver were 5 (16.1%) with 1,580 m/sec, 12 (38.8%) with 1,540 m/sec, 9 (29.0%) with 1,500 m/sec, and 5 (16.1%) with 1,460 m/sec. The number of patients with highest contrast between hepatic vein and hepatic parenchyma among the 39 patients with fatty liver were 3 (7.7%) with 1,580 m/sec, 7 (17.9%) with 1,540 m/sec, 12 (30.8%) with 1,500 m/sec and 17 (43.6%) with 1,460 m/sec. The velocity of ultrasound for the highest contrast between hepatic vein and hepatic parenchyma in normal liver was 1,540 m/sec, and 1,460 m/sec in fatty liver.

  11. Management of a Dog with Poorly Regulated Diabetes Mellitus, Chronic Pancreatitis, and Suspected Atopy with Cyclosporine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg M. Steiner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-and-9-months old male neutered Bichon Frise was presented for a second opinion for diabetes mellitus, weight loss, pruritus, and loss of hair. During further work-up, the dog was diagnosed with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and concurrent diagnoses of pancreatitis and atopy were also suspected. Multiple adjustments of insulin therapy did not improve control of diabetes mellitus. Also, a variety of different treatments failed to improve pruritus. The dog was seen by a veterinary dermatologist who further suspected atopy and started treatment with cyclosporine. Pruritus improved and coincidentally serum Spec cPL and fructosamine concentrations normalized after therapy, suggesting the possibility that cyclosporine may have controlled pancreatic inflammation and improved control of diabetes mellitus. This case report would suggest that further research into autoimmunity in dogs with chronic pancreatitis is warranted. Also, a controlled study is needed and in progress before the use of cyclosporine in dogs with chronic pancreatitis or a subgroup thereof can be advocated.

  12. Intra-abdominal cryptococcosis in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, R; Hunt, G B; Bellenger, C R; Allan, G S; Martin, P; Canfield, P J; Love, D N

    1999-08-01

    Intra-abdominal cryptococcosis was diagnosed in two young dogs. The first, an entire male border collie, was presented with vomiting. An abdominal mass detected during physical examination proved to be cryptococcal mesenteric lymphadenitis on exploratory laparotomy. The second dog, a female neutered giant schnauzer, was presented with neurological signs suggestive of encephalopathy. Intestinal cryptococcal granulomas were detected in an extensive diagnostic investigation which included abdominal ultrasonography. The gastrointestinal tract was considered the most likely portal of entry for cryptococcal organisms in both cases. Both dogs were treated using surgery and multiagent antifungal chemotherapy. The first case succumbed despite therapy, while the second dog was treated successfully as gauged by return to clinical normality and a substantial decline in the cryptococcal antigen titre which continued to fall after cessation of treatment.

  13. Vaginal neurofibroma in a hysterectomized poodle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontas, B H; Altun, E D; Güvenc, K; Arun, S S; Ekici, H

    2010-12-01

    A 15-year-old, spayed, female poodle dog was presented for evaluation of a mass of tissue prolapsed from the vulva. The dog had been hysterectomized when it was 5 years old. A vaginal mass had been removed approximately 10 months before presentation. Haematological and serum biochemistry analyses demonstrated mild leucocytosis and glycaemia. A vaginal smear was predominantly made up of parabasal cells and intermediate cells with no neoplastic cells. Thoracal and abdominal radiographic findings were unremarkable. The ovaries could not be identified using abdominal ultrasonography. A midline exploratory laparotomy identified both ovaries that were surgically excised. The vaginal mass was also removed following an episiotomy procedure. Histopathological examination of the mass demonstrated that it was a neurofibroma. Both ovaries had cystic changes. Four months after the surgery, the owner reported that the dog was clinically normal. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of a vaginal neurofibroma after an incomplete ovariohysterectomy in the dog.

  14. Synthesis of controllable and normal sublanguages for discrete-event systems using a coordinator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Jan; Masopust, Tomáš; van Schuppen, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 7 (2011), s. 492-502 ISSN 0167-6911 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0517; GA ČR(CZ) GPP202/11/P028 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) EU.ICT.DISC 224498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : discrete-event system * coordination control * coordinator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.222, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167691111000739

  15. Synthesis of controllable and normal sublanguages for discrete-event systems using a coordinator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Jan; Masopust, Tomáš; van Schuppen, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 7 (2011), s. 492-502 ISSN 0167-6911 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0517; GA ČR(CZ) GPP202/11/P028 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) EU. ICT .DISC 224498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : discrete-event system * coordination control * coordinator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.222, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167691111000739

  16. Cervical myelography in dogs using iohexol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.K.; Farrow, B.R.H.; Fairburn, A.J.; Sydney Univ.; Sydney Univ.

    1985-01-01

    Iohexol, a non-ionic water-soluble radiographic contrast medium, was used for cervical myelography in dogs (10-17 kg). The animals remained clinically normal following myelography, with no evidence of seizures. At 10 days after myelography there was a slight, but significant (p<0.05) increase in neutrophils in the cerebrospinal fluid; these cell numbers had returned to normal by the time of necropsy at 60 days after myelography. This investigation suggests that iohexol may be suitable for clinical myelography in the dog. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of a spot-on imidacloprid-moxidectin formulation (Advocate®) for the treatment of naturally occurring esophageal spirocercosis in dogs: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Gilad; Rojas, Alicia; Lavy, Eran; Yaffe, Marganit; Aroch, Itamar; Baneth, Gad

    2018-03-05

    Dogs are the definitive hosts of Spirocerca lupi. Spirocercosis is treated by prolonged avermectin administration by injection or daily oral doses. In this prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, the efficacy of imidacloprid and moxidectin spot-on formulation (Advocate®) was compared to injectable doramectin (Dectomax®). Dogs diagnosed with benign esophageal spirocercosis were divided randomly into doramectin (400 μg/kg IM) or moxidectin and imidacloprid spot-on (2.5-6.25 mg/kg and 10-25 mg/kg, respectively) groups and treated weekly for 12 consecutive weeks. Dogs were followed for 20 weeks by physical examination, owners' questionnaire, blood work, fecal floatation, PCR and endoscopy. All the doramectin group dogs (n = 10) completed the treatment and follow-up, and the disease had completely resolved in all by week 12. Of the Advocate® group (n = 10), four had complete resolution at week 12, four had partial resolution, one dog did not respond to treatment, and one dog was switched to the doramectin protocol on week 5 due to persistent severe clinical signs. PCR analysis was more sensitive in detecting S. lupi eggs compared to fecal floatation. Discrepancies were detected on 22 occasions, of which on 20 occasions, the PCR was positive while fecal floatation was negative, and only on two occasions the PCR results were negative while fecal flotation was positive. The present results indicate that weekly Advocate® spot-on administration may be effective for treating benign esophageal spirocercosis, but is less effective than the currently used injectable doramectin therapy at the dose and duration used herein.

  18. A pilot study evaluating the prognostic utility of platelet indices in dogs with septic peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Efa A; Todd, Jeffrey M; Sharkey, Leslie C; Rendahl, Aaron

    2017-09-01

    To characterize platelet indices at time of diagnosis of septic peritonitis in dogs and to assess the relationship between platelet parameter data and survival to discharge in dogs treated surgically. Retrospective, observational, descriptive pilot study from 2009 to 2014. University teaching hospital. Forty-eight dogs diagnosed with septic peritonitis were included in this study. Thirty-six dogs had surgical source control. Blood samples from 46 healthy control dogs were used for reference interval (RI) generation. None. Dogs with septic peritonitis had significantly increased mean values for mean platelet volume (MPV), plateletcrit (PCT), and platelet distribution width (PDW) with increased proportions of dogs having values above the RI compared to healthy dogs. A significantly increased proportion of dogs with septic peritonitis had platelet counts above (12.5%) and below (8.3%) the RI, with no significant difference in mean platelet count compared to healthy dogs. No significant differences in the mean platelet count, MPV, PCT, or PDW were found between survivors and nonsurvivors in dogs with surgical source control; however, dogs with MPV values above the RI had significantly increased mortality compared to dogs within the RI (P = 0.025). Values outside the RI for other platelet parameters were not associated with significant differences in mortality. Dogs with septic peritonitis have increased frequency of thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia with increased MPV, PCT, and PDW. An increased MPV may be a useful indicator of increased risk of mortality in dogs treated surgically. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  19. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight were placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75, and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated paycytopenia. Two dogs died approximately one year after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Four 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2000 to 2560 days after exposure. Two dogs had squamous cell carcinomas involving the maxillary and nasal regions, one a bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma of the lung and another, a mast cell sarcoma. One control dog died of empyema. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs. (U.S.)

  20. Be your dog

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Be Your Dog is about establishing relationships beyond the hierarchies of pet and owner. This saw participants and their dogs attend workshops over two consecutive weekends to learn how to establish empathy, equality and connection. This included learning strategies for dog and human to ‘be’ equals with each other. A concluding public event was staged at KARST (Plymouth) following the workshops on 6 November 2016 where all participants, human and dog, performed as collaborators. This proj...

  1. Eating Disorder Inventory-3, validation in Swedish patients with eating disorders, psychiatric outpatients and a normal control sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman-Carlsson, Erika; Engström, Ingemar; Norring, Claes; Nevonen, Lauri

    2015-02-01

    The Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3) is designed to assess eating disorder psychopathology and the associated psychological symptoms. The instrument has been revised and has not yet been validated for Swedish conditions in its current form. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of this inventory and present national norms for Swedish females. Data from patients with eating disorders (n = 292), psychiatric outpatients (n = 140) and normal controls (n = 648), all females, were used to study the internal consistency, the discriminative ability, and the sensitivity and specificity of the inventory using preliminary cut-offs for each subscale and diagnosis separately. Swedish norms were compared with those from Denmark, USA, Canada, Europe and Australian samples. The reliability was acceptable for all subscales except Asceticism among normal controls. Analysis of variance showed that the EDI-3 discriminates significantly between eating disorders and normal controls. Anorexia nervosa was significantly discriminated from bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified on the Eating Disorder Risk Scales. Swedish patients scored significantly lower than patients from other countries on the majority of the subscales. Drive for Thinness is the second best predictor for an eating disorder. The best predictor for anorexia nervosa was Interoceptive Deficits and Bulimia for the other diagnoses. Conclusions/clinical implications: The EDI-3 is valid for use with Swedish patients as a clinical assessment tool for the treatment planning and evaluation of patients with eating-related problems. However, it still exist some uncertainty regarding its use as a screening tool.

  2. 1H-MR-spectroscopy in Anorexia nervosa; characteristic differences between patients and normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, F.; Moeckel, R.; Schlemmmer, H.P.; Gueckel, F.; Koepke, J.; Georgi, M.; Markus, A.; Goepel, C.; Schmidt, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Results: The ratio of NAA/PCr in both voxels were not significantly different when comparing patients vs. controls. Patients showed significantly higher ratios of choline-containing components (Cho) or, respectively Cho/PCr and NAA/PCr in the white matter. Distinct, but not significant differences were detected both for m-Ino and m-Ino/PCr in the parieto-occipital region and for the Cho- and m-Ino cotained ratios in the thalamus. Conclusion: AN is not associated with neuronal damage. The ratio of Cho/PCr and NAA/Cho may reflect the disturbance of membrane-turnover. It is possible that the increase of membrane catabolism leads to a hyperosmolar state. The change of m-Ino/PCr ratio may reflect the regulation of osmolarity. (orig.) [de

  3. Differences in the Tongue Features of Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients and Controls over a Normal Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between tongue features and the existence of menstrual pain and to provide basic information regarding the changes in tongue features during a menstrual cycle. Methods. This study was conducted at the Kyung Hee University Medical Center. Forty-eight eligible participants aged 20 to 29 years were enrolled and assigned to two groups according to their visual analogue scale (VAS scores. Group A included 24 females suffering from primary dysmenorrhea (PD caused by qi stagnation and blood stasis syndrome with VAS ≥ 4. In contrast, Group B included 24 females with few premenstrual symptoms and VAS < 4. All participants completed four visits (menses-follicular-luteal-menses phases, and the tongue images were taken by using a computerized tongue image analysis system (CTIS. Results. The results revealed that the tongue coating color value and the tongue coating thickness in the PD group during the menstrual phase were significantly lower than those of the control group (P=0.031 and P=0.029, resp.. Conclusions. These results suggest that the tongue features obtained from the CTIS may serve as a supplementary means for the differentiation of syndromes and the evaluation of therapeutic effect and prognosis in PD. Trial Registration. This trial was registered with Clinical Research Information Service, registration number KCT0001604, registered on 27 August 2015.

  4. Biodistribution of p-borophenylalanine (BPA) in dogs with spontaneous undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, M.A.; Viaggi, M.; Rebagliati, R. Jimenez; Castillo, V.A.; Batistoni, D.; Cabrini, R.L.; Castiglia, S.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Human undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor which lacks an adequate treatment. The UTC human cell line ARO has a selective uptake of BPA in vitro and after transplanting into nude mice. Applications of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to mice showed a 100% control of growth and a 50% histological cure of tumors with an initial volume of 50 mm 3 or less. As a further step towards the potential application in humans we have performed the present studies. Four dogs with diagnosis of spontaneous UTC were studied. A BPA-fructose solution was infused during 60 min and dogs were submitted to thyroidectomy. Samples of blood and from different areas of the tumors (and in one dog from normal thyroid) were obtained and the boron was determined by ICP-OES. Selective BPA uptake by the tumor was found in all animals, the tumor/blood ratios ranged between 2.02 and 3.76, while the tumor/normal thyroid ratio was 6.78. Individual samples had tumor/blood ratios between 8.36 and 0.33. These ratios were related to the two histological patterns observed: homogeneous and heterogeneous tumors. We confirm the selective uptake of BPA by spontaneous UTC in dogs and plan to apply BNCT in the future

  5. Biodistribution of p-borophenylalanine (BPA) in dogs with spontaneous undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagrosa, M.A. E-mail: aledagrosa@fibertel.com.ar; Viaggi, M.; Rebagliati, R. Jimenez; Castillo, V.A.; Batistoni, D.; Cabrini, R.L.; Castiglia, S.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A

    2004-11-01

    Human undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor which lacks an adequate treatment. The UTC human cell line ARO has a selective uptake of BPA in vitro and after transplanting into nude mice. Applications of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to mice showed a 100% control of growth and a 50% histological cure of tumors with an initial volume of 50 mm{sup 3} or less. As a further step towards the potential application in humans we have performed the present studies. Four dogs with diagnosis of spontaneous UTC were studied. A BPA-fructose solution was infused during 60 min and dogs were submitted to thyroidectomy. Samples of blood and from different areas of the tumors (and in one dog from normal thyroid) were obtained and the boron was determined by ICP-OES. Selective BPA uptake by the tumor was found in all animals, the tumor/blood ratios ranged between 2.02 and 3.76, while the tumor/normal thyroid ratio was 6.78. Individual samples had tumor/blood ratios between 8.36 and 0.33. These ratios were related to the two histological patterns observed: homogeneous and heterogeneous tumors. We confirm the selective uptake of BPA by spontaneous UTC in dogs and plan to apply BNCT in the future.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of dog rabies vaccination programs in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borse, Rebekah H.; Atkins, Charisma Y.; Gambhir, Manoj; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Kahn, Emily B.; Dyer, Jessie L.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2018-01-01

    Background Dog rabies annually causes 24,000–70,000 deaths globally. We built a spreadsheet tool, RabiesEcon, to aid public health officials to estimate the cost-effectiveness of dog rabies vaccination programs in East Africa. Methods RabiesEcon uses a mathematical model of dog-dog and dog-human rabies transmission to estimate dog rabies cases averted, the cost per human rabies death averted and cost per year of life gained (YLG) due to dog vaccination programs (US 2015 dollars). We used an East African human population of 1 million (approximately 2/3 living in urban setting, 1/3 rural). We considered, using data from the literature, th