WorldWideScience

Sample records for normal confocal conditions

  1. Turbocharging Normalization in Highland Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Filippov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure many production processes are used compressors of various types, including turbochargers, which produce compressed air. The actual performance values of turbochargers used in highlands are significantly different from the certified values, and parameters of compressed air do not always guarantee the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.The paper presents research results of the turbochargers of 4CI 425MX4 type, a series of "CENTAC", manufactured by INGERSOL – RAND Company. The research has been conducted in industrial highland conditions in difficult climatic environment. There were almost no investigations of turbochargers running in highland conditions. The combination of low atmospheric pressure with high temperature of the intake air causes the abnormal operating conditions of a turbocharger. Only N. M. Barannikov in his paper shows the results of theoretical studies of such operating conditions, but as to the practical research, there is no information at all.To normalize the turbocharger operation an option of the mechanical pressurization in the suction pipe is adopted. As a result of theoretical research, a TurboMAX blower MAX500 was chosen as a supercharger. The next stage of theoretical research was to construct characteristics of the turbocharger 4CI 425MX4 with a mechanical supercharger in the suction pipe. The boost reduces to the minimum the time of using additional compressors when parameters of the intake air are changed and ensures the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.To verify the results of theoretical studies, namely, the technique for recalculation of the turbocharger characteristics under the real conditions of suction, were carried out the experimental researches. The average error between experimental and theoretical data is 2,9783 %, which confirms the validity of the technique used for reduction of the turbocharger characteristics to those under the real conditions of suction.

  2. Comparison of stromal corneal nerves between normal and keratoconus patients using confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Fernández, M; Hernández Quintela, E; Naranjo Tackman, R

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the differences in stromal corneal nerves between normal patients and keratoconus patients. A total of 140 eyes of 70 normal patients (group A) and 122 eyes of 87 keratoconus patients (group B) were examined with the confocal microscope, with a central scan of the total corneal thickness being taken. The morphology and thickness of the corneal stromal nerves were evaluated by using the Navis v. 3.5.0. software. Nerve thickness was obtained from the mean between the widest and the narrowest portions of each stromal nerve. Corneal stromal nerves were observed as irregular linear hyper-reflective structures with wide and narrow portions in all cases. Mean corneal stromal nerves thickness in group A was 5.7±1.7 (range from 3.3 to 10.4 μ), mean corneal stromal nerves thickness in group B was 7.2±1.9 (range from 3.5 to 12.0 μ). There was a statistical significant difference (P<.05) in stromal corneal nerves thickness between group A and group B. Stromal corneal nerves morphology was similar in both groups, but stromal nerves were thicker in keratoconus patients. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between corneal biomechanical properties and confocal microscopy findings in normal and keratoconic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurmeric, Volkan; Sahin, Afsun; Ozge, Gokhan; Bayer, Atilla

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between corneal biomechanical properties and confocal microscopy (CM) findings in normal and keratoconic eyes. The study consisted of 28 eyes of 28 healthy volunteers and 23 eyes of 15 patients with keratoconus. The diagnosis of keratoconus was made with corneal topography and clinical findings. The corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured by the ocular response analyzer. In vivo CM was performed with NIDEK Confoscan 3. CH and CRF were compared with corneal morphological findings (detailed cell counts of endothelial, stromal, and epithelial cells) in vivo. CH was 10.1 +/- 1.3 mm Hg in normal eyes and 7.4 +/- 1.5 mm Hg in keratoconic eyes (P < 0.0001). CRF was 10.1 +/- 1.8 mm Hg in normal eyes and 6.2 +/- 1.4 mm Hg in keratoconic eyes (P < 0.0001). CH and CRF were negatively correlated with full-thickness stromal keratocyte density (P < 0.01; r = -0.52 and P < 0.001; r = -0.67, respectively) in healthy eyes. Keratocyte density of the posterior half of the stroma was found to be significantly related with CRF in healthy eyes (beta = -0.404; P = 0.01). There was no significant relationship among CH, CRF, and CM findings in eyes with keratoconus. There is a significant relationship between CRF and keratocyte density of the posterior half of the stroma in healthy eyes. Our results suggest that corneal elasticity is related to not only stromal matrix but also cellular structure of the cornea.

  4. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of capillaries in normal and psoriatic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archid, Rami; Patzelt, Alexa; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard; Ahmad, Sufian S.; Ulrich, Martina; Stockfleth, Eggert; Philipp, Sandra; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2012-10-01

    An important and most likely active role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis has been attributed to changes in cutaneous blood vessels. The purpose of this study was to use confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) to investigate dermal capillaries in psoriatic and normal skin. The structures of the capillary loops in 5 healthy participants were compared with those in affected skin of 13 psoriasis patients. The diameters of the capillaries and papillae were measured for each group with CLSM. All investigated psoriasis patients showed elongated, widened, and tortuous microvessels in the papillary dermis, whereas all healthy controls showed a single capillary loop in each dermal papilla. The capillaries of the papillary loop and the dermal papilla were significantly enlarged in the psoriatic skin lesions (diameters 24.39±2.34 and 146.46±28.52 μm, respectively) in comparison to healthy skin (diameters 9.53±1.8 and 69.48±17.16 μm, respectively) (P<0.001). CLSM appears to represent a promising noninvasive technique for evaluating dermal capillaries in patients with psoriasis. The diameter of the vessels could be seen as a well-quantifiable indicator for the state of psoriatic skin. CLSM could be useful for therapeutic monitoring to delay possible recurrences.

  5. Intermittent Fluorescence Oscillations in Lipid Droplets in a Live Normal and Lung Cancer Cell: Time-Resolved Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Amin, Md Asif; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2015-08-27

    Intermittent structural oscillation in the lipid droplets of live lung cells is monitored using time-resolved confocal microscopy. Significant differences are observed between the lung cancer cell (A549) and normal (nonmalignant) lung cell (WI38). For this study, the lipid droplets are covalently labeled with a fluorescent dye, coumarin maleimide (7-diethylamino-3-(4-maleimido-phenyl)-4-methylcoumarin, CPM). The number of lipid droplets in the cancer cell is found to be ∼20-fold higher than that in the normal (nonmalignant) cell. The fluctuation in the fluorescence intensity of the dye (CPM) is attributed to the red-ox processes and periodic formation/rupture of the S-CPM bond. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is much higher in a cancer cell. This is manifested in faster oscillations (0.9 ± 0.3 s) in cancer cells compared to that in the normal cells (2.8 ± 0.7 s). Solvation dynamics in the lipid droplets of cancer cells is slower compared to that in the normal cell.

  6. Real-time visualization of melanin granules in normal human skin using combined multiphoton and reflectance confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdzadeh, Ali; Lee, Anthony M D; Wang, Hequn; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I; Crawford, Richard I; Zloty, David; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in biomedical optics have enabled dermal and epidermal components to be visualized at subcellular resolution and assessed noninvasively. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) are noninvasive imaging modalities that have demonstrated promising results in imaging skin micromorphology, and which provide complementary information regarding skin components. This study assesses whether combined MPM/RCM can visualize intracellular and extracellular melanin granules in the epidermis and dermis of normal human skin. We perform MPM and RCM imaging of in vivo and ex vivo skin in the infrared domain. The inherent three-dimensional optical sectioning capability of MPM/RCM is used to image high-contrast granular features across skin depths ranging from 50 to 90 μm. The optical images thus obtained were correlated with conventional histologic examination including melanin-specific staining of ex vivo specimens. MPM revealed highly fluorescent granular structures below the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) region. Histochemical staining also demonstrated melanin-containing granules that correlate well in size and location with the granular fluorescent structures observed in MPM. Furthermore, the MPM fluorescence excitation wavelength and RCM reflectance of cell culture-derived melanin were equivalent to those of the granules. This study suggests that MPM can noninvasively visualize and quantify subepidermal melanin in situ. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Analysis of cell-tissue grafts under weightless conditions using confocal fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volova, L. T.; Milyakova, M. N.; Rossinskaya, V. V.; Boltovskaya, V. V.; Kulagina, L. N.; Kurganskaya, L. V.; Timchenko, P. E.; Timchenko, E. V.; Zherdeva Taskina, Larisa A.

    2015-03-01

    The research results of monitoring of viable cells in a cellular-tissue graft using confocal laser fluorescence microscopy at 488 nm and 561 nm with the use of fluorophore propidium iodide (propidium iodide, PI Sigma Aldrich USA) are presented. The processing of the received images was carried out using the software ANDOR. It is experimentally shown that the method of confocal fluorescence microscopy is one of the informational methods for detecting cells populated in a 3-D bio-carrier with a resolution of at least 400 nm. Analysis of the received micrographs suggests that the cells that were in a bio-carrier for 30 days in a synchronous ground-based experiment retained their viability compared to a similar space-based experiment in which the cells were hardly detected in a bio-carrier.

  8. 10 CFR 71.71 - Normal conditions of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Normal conditions of transport. 71.71 Section 71.71 Energy..., Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.71 Normal conditions of transport. (a) Evaluation. Evaluation of each package design under normal conditions of transport must include a determination of the effect on...

  9. 3-D laser confocal microscopy study of the oxidation of NdFeB magnets in atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meakin, J.P.; Speight, J.D.; Sheridan, R.S.; Bradshaw, A.; Harris, I.R.; Williams, A.J.; Walton, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Room temperature atmospheric oxidation behaviour of sintered NdFeB. • 3D laser confocal microscopy measurement of oxide phase growth. • Significant height increase of oxide phase only observed at triple points. • Raman spectroscopy identified oxide phase to be Nd 2 O 3 . • Diffusion coefficient determined to be 4 × 10 −13 cm 2 /s. - Abstract: Neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnets are used in a number of important applications, such as generators in gearless wind turbines, motors in electric vehicles and electronic goods (e.g.— computer hard disk drives, HDD). Hydrogen can be used as a processing gas to separate and recycle scrap sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets from end-of-life products to form a powder suitable for recycling. However, the magnets are likely to have been exposed to atmospheric conditions prior to processing, and any oxidation could lead to activation problems for the hydrogen decrepitation reaction. Many previous studies on the oxidation of NdFeB magnets have been performed at elevated temperatures; however, few studies have been formed under atmospheric conditions. In this paper a combination of 3-D laser confocal microscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to assess the composition, morphology and rate of oxidation/corrosion on scrap sintered NdFeB magnets. Confocal microscopy has been employed to measure the growth of surface reaction products at room temperature, immediately after exposure to air. The results showed that there was a significant height increase at the triple junctions of the Nd-rich grain boundaries. Using Raman spectroscopy, the product was shown to consist of Nd 2 O 3 and formed only on the Nd-rich triple junctions. The diffusion coefficient of the triple junction reaction product growth at 20 °C was determined to be approximately 4 × 10 −13 cm 2 /sec. This value is several orders of magnitude larger than values derived from the diffusion controlled oxide growth observations at elevated

  10. 3-D laser confocal microscopy study of the oxidation of NdFeB magnets in atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meakin, J.P., E-mail: jxm764@bham.ac.uk; Speight, J.D.; Sheridan, R.S.; Bradshaw, A.; Harris, I.R.; Williams, A.J.; Walton, A.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Room temperature atmospheric oxidation behaviour of sintered NdFeB. • 3D laser confocal microscopy measurement of oxide phase growth. • Significant height increase of oxide phase only observed at triple points. • Raman spectroscopy identified oxide phase to be Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Diffusion coefficient determined to be 4 × 10{sup −13} cm{sup 2}/s. - Abstract: Neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnets are used in a number of important applications, such as generators in gearless wind turbines, motors in electric vehicles and electronic goods (e.g.— computer hard disk drives, HDD). Hydrogen can be used as a processing gas to separate and recycle scrap sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets from end-of-life products to form a powder suitable for recycling. However, the magnets are likely to have been exposed to atmospheric conditions prior to processing, and any oxidation could lead to activation problems for the hydrogen decrepitation reaction. Many previous studies on the oxidation of NdFeB magnets have been performed at elevated temperatures; however, few studies have been formed under atmospheric conditions. In this paper a combination of 3-D laser confocal microscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to assess the composition, morphology and rate of oxidation/corrosion on scrap sintered NdFeB magnets. Confocal microscopy has been employed to measure the growth of surface reaction products at room temperature, immediately after exposure to air. The results showed that there was a significant height increase at the triple junctions of the Nd-rich grain boundaries. Using Raman spectroscopy, the product was shown to consist of Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and formed only on the Nd-rich triple junctions. The diffusion coefficient of the triple junction reaction product growth at 20 °C was determined to be approximately 4 × 10{sup −13} cm{sup 2}/sec. This value is several orders of magnitude larger than values derived from the diffusion controlled oxide growth

  11. 3-D laser confocal microscopy study of the oxidation of NdFeB magnets in atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakin, J. P.; Speight, J. D.; Sheridan, R. S.; Bradshaw, A.; Harris, I. R.; Williams, A. J.; Walton, A.

    2016-08-01

    Neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnets are used in a number of important applications, such as generators in gearless wind turbines, motors in electric vehicles and electronic goods (e.g.- computer hard disk drives, HDD). Hydrogen can be used as a processing gas to separate and recycle scrap sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets from end-of-life products to form a powder suitable for recycling. However, the magnets are likely to have been exposed to atmospheric conditions prior to processing, and any oxidation could lead to activation problems for the hydrogen decrepitation reaction. Many previous studies on the oxidation of NdFeB magnets have been performed at elevated temperatures; however, few studies have been formed under atmospheric conditions. In this paper a combination of 3-D laser confocal microscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to assess the composition, morphology and rate of oxidation/corrosion on scrap sintered NdFeB magnets. Confocal microscopy has been employed to measure the growth of surface reaction products at room temperature, immediately after exposure to air. The results showed that there was a significant height increase at the triple junctions of the Nd-rich grain boundaries. Using Raman spectroscopy, the product was shown to consist of Nd2O3 and formed only on the Nd-rich triple junctions. The diffusion coefficient of the triple junction reaction product growth at 20 °C was determined to be approximately 4 × 10-13 cm2/sec. This value is several orders of magnitude larger than values derived from the diffusion controlled oxide growth observations at elevated temperatures in the literature. This indicates that the growth of the room temperature oxidation products are likely defect enhanced processes at the NdFeB triple junctions.

  12. Morphological characteristics of the optic nerve evaluated by confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC) in a normal population from the city of Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, M; Pazos, M; Morilla, A; Sebastián, M A; Xancó, R; Mora, C; Calderón, B; Vega, Z; Antón, A

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate morphological parameters of optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) examined with confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC) in a normal population, and analyze correlations of these parameters with demographic variables. Cross-sectional study in the context of a glaucoma screening campaign in the primary care center of Barcelona. The individuals selected were non-hypertensive Mediterranean Caucasians with risk for glaucoma development (individuals≥60 years old or≥40 years old with family history of glaucoma or intraocular pressure or myopia>3diopter). All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and scanning laser polarimetry (GDX-VCC), subjects with results within normal limits only being included. Structural parameters were analyzed along with age, refraction, and pachymetry based on the Spearman rank correlation test. A total of 224 subjects included, with a mean age of 63.4±11.1 years. Disc areas, excavation and ring area were 2.14±0.52mm(2), 0.44±0.34mm (2) and 1.69±0.38mm(2), respectively. The mean RNFL (GDX) was 55.9±6.9μm. Age was correlated with lower ring volume, highest rate of cup shape measure, largest mean and maximum cup depth, lower nerve fiber index (NFI) and RNFL (all p-values below .05). The mean values and distribution of several parameters of the papilla and the RNFL in normal Mediterranean Caucasians population are presented. A loss of thickness of the RNFL, ring thinning, and enlarged cup was observed with increased age. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon Nanotubes Preserve Normal Phenotypes Under Cancer-Promoting Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wailes, Elizabeth; Levi-Polyachenko, Nicole

    2015-03-01

    Tumor-associated fibroblasts and cancer cells have long been known to create a feedback loop that further stimulates the cancer. While this has been explored from a molecular biology standpoint, little is known about the physical relationship of the cell types even though both sets of cells are known to be mechanosensitive. Indeed, for both fibroblasts and cancer, mechanical signals can make the difference between a normal or pathological cell. To evaluate this relationship and test if it can be manipulated to favor normal cells, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal microscopy was performed on fibroblast and breast cancer cell co-cultures with a collagen gel matrix to simulate the extracellular matrix. Pathological behavior was encouraged through the addition of transforming growth factor beta (TGF- β) . In a separate group, this behavior was discouraged through the doping of the collagen gel with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). Significant differences were observed both in the elastic moduli of each cell type and the cancer cells' propensity to migrate through the gel as a model for metastasis. These results shed new light on how cancer progresses and promote the further investigation of nano-mechanical solutions to cancer.

  14. Effect analysis of core barrel openings under CEFR normal condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yabo; Yang Hongyi

    2008-01-01

    Openings on the bottom of core barrel are important part of the decay heat removal system of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR), which are designed to discharge the decay heat from reactor under accident condition. This paper analyses the effect of the openings design on the normal operation condition using the famouse CFD code CFX. The result indicates that the decay heat can be discharged safely and at the same time the effect of core barrel openings on the normal operation condition is acceptable. (authors)

  15. Fluorescence confocal microscopy for pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzi, Moira; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Castagnetti, Fabio; Foroni, Monica; Ferrari, Guglielmo; Gardini, Giorgio; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2014-03-01

    Confocal microscopy is a non-invasive method of optical imaging that may provide microscopic images of untreated tissue that correspond almost perfectly to hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Nowadays, following two confocal imaging systems are available: (1) reflectance confocal microscopy, based on the natural differences in refractive indices of subcellular structures within the tissues; (2) fluorescence confocal microscopy, based on the use of fluorochromes, such as acridine orange, to increase the contrast epithelium-stroma. In clinical practice to date, confocal microscopy has been used with the goal of obviating the need for excision biopsies, thereby reducing the need for pathological examination. The aim of our study was to test fluorescence confocal microscopy on different types of surgical specimens, specifically breast, lymph node, thyroid, and colon. The confocal images were correlated to the corresponding histological sections in order to provide a morphologic parallel and to highlight current limitations and possible applications of this technology for surgical pathology practice. As a result, neoplastic tissues were easily distinguishable from normal structures and reactive processes such as fibrosis; the use of fluorescence enhanced contrast and image quality in confocal microscopy without compromising final histologic evaluation. Finally, the fluorescence confocal microscopy images of the adipose tissue were as accurate as those of conventional histology and were devoid of the frozen-section-related artefacts that can compromise intraoperative evaluation. Despite some limitations mainly related to black/white images, which require training in imaging interpretation, this study confirms that fluorescence confocal microscopy may represent an alternative to frozen sections in the assessment of margin status in selected settings or when the conservation of the specimen is crucial. This is the first study to employ fluorescent confocal microscopy on

  16. Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-12-01

    The confocal microscope is appropriate for imaging cells or the measurement of industrial artefacts. However, junior researchers and instrument users sometimes misuse imaging concepts and metrological characteristics, such as position resolution in industrial metrology and scale resolution in bio-imaging. And, metrological characteristics or influence factors in 3D measurement such as height assessment error caused by 3D coupling effect are so far not yet identified. In this book, the authors outline their practices by the working experiences on standardization and system design. This book assumes little previous knowledge of optics, but rich experience in engineering of industrial measurements, in particular with profile metrology or areal surface topography will be very helpful to understand the theoretical concerns and value of the technological advances. It should be useful for graduate students or researchers as extended reading material, as well as microscope users alongside their handbook.

  17. Premixed Flames Under Microgravity and Normal Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikunova, Anastasia I.; Son, Eduard E.

    2018-03-01

    Premixed conical CH4-air flames were studied experimentally and numerically under normal straight, reversed gravity conditions and microgravity. Low-gravity experiments were performed in Drop tower. Classical Bunsen-type burner was used to find out features of gravity influence on the combustion processes. Mixture equivalence ratio was varied from 0.8 to 1.3. Wide range of flow velocity allows to study both laminar and weakly turbulized flames. High-speed flame chemoluminescence video-recording was used as diagnostic. The investigations were performed at atmospheric pressure. As results normalized flame height, laminar flame speed were measured, also features of flame instabilities were shown. Low- and high-frequency flame-instabilities (oscillations) have a various nature as velocity fluctuations, preferential diffusion instability, hydrodynamic and Rayleigh-Taylor ones etc., that was explored and demonstrated.

  18. Calcitonin serum levels in normal and in pathological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziliotto, D.; Luisetto, G.; Zanatta, G.P.; Cataldi, F.; Zangari, M.; Gangemi, M.; Melanotte, P.L.; Caira, S.

    1985-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of calcitonin (CT) gives variable results because of differences in sensitivity and specificity of antibody preparations and because of the known immunoheterogeneity of circulating CT. The difficulties in interpretation of data has hindered our understanding of normal and abnormal CT physiology. The authors separated the biologically active CT monomer (CTm) from the higher molecular weight biologically inactive forms before RIA. It makes it possible to re-evaluate the behaviour of CT in physiological conditions and to study its changes in diseases in which bone and mineral metabolism are in some way compromised. (Auth.)

  19. Gallic Acid Promotes Wound Healing in Normal and Hyperglucidic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Joo Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin is the outermost layer of the human body that is constantly exposed to environmental stressors, such as UV radiation and toxic chemicals, and is susceptible to mechanical wounding and injury. The ability of the skin to repair injuries is paramount for survival and it is disrupted in a spectrum of disorders leading to skin pathologies. Diabetic patients often suffer from chronic, impaired wound healing, which facilitate bacterial infections and necessitate amputation. Here, we studied the effects of gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid; a plant-derived polyphenolic compound on would healing in normal and hyperglucidic conditions, to mimic diabetes, in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Our study reveals that GA is a potential antioxidant that directly upregulates the expression of antioxidant genes. In addition, GA accelerated cell migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in both normal and hyperglucidic conditions. Further, GA treatment activated factors known to be hallmarks of wound healing, such as focal adhesion kinases (FAK, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk, underpinning the beneficial role of GA in wound repair. Therefore, our results demonstrate that GA might be a viable wound healing agent and a potential intervention to treat wounds resulting from metabolic complications.

  20. Histopathological confirmation of similar intramucosal distribution of fluorescein in both intravenous administration and local mucosal application for probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy of the normal stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Ohata, Ken; Ban, Shinichi; Ichihara, Shin; Takasugi, Rumi; Minato, Yohei; Tashima, Tomoaki; Matsuyama, Yasushi; Takita, Maiko; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Neumann, Helmut

    2015-12-16

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is capable of acquiring in vivo magnified cross-section images of the gastric mucosa. Intravenous injection of fluorescein sodium is used for confocal imaging. However, it is still under debate if local administration of the dye to the mucosa is also effective for confocal imaging as it is not yet clear if topical application also reveals the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein sodium after topical application and to compare the distribution to the conventional intravenous injection used for confocal imaging. pCLE of the stomach uninfected with Helicobacter pylori was performed in a healthy male employing intravenous administration and local mucosal application of fluorescein. The mucosa of the lower gastric body was biopsied 1 min and 5 min after intravenous administration or local mucosal application of fluorescein, and the distribution of fluorescein in the biopsy samples was examined histologically. Green fluorescence was already observed in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells in the biopsied deep mucosa 1 min after local mucosal application of fluorescein. It was also observed in the foveolar lumen and inter-foveolar lamina propria, although it was noted at only a few sites. In the tissue biopsied 5 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, green fluorescence was more frequently noted in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells than in that 1 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, although obvious green fluorescence was not identified in the foveolar lumen or inter-foveolar lamina propria. The distribution of intravenously administered fluorescein in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells was also clearly observed similarly to that after local mucosal application of fluorescein. Green fluorescence in more cells was observed in many cells 5 min after intravenous administration compared

  1. Analysis of WWER-440 fuel performance under normal operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunduz, Oe; Koese, S; Akbas, T [Atomenerjisi Komisyonu, Ankara (Turkey); Colak, Ue [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (Turkey)

    1994-12-31

    FRAPCON-2 code originally developed for LWR fuel behaviour simulation is used to analyse the WWER-440 fuel rod behaviour at normal operational conditions. The code is capable of utilizing different models for mechanical analysis and gas release calculations. Heat transfer calculations are accomplished through a collocation technique by the method of weighted residuals. Temperature and burnup element properties are evaluated using MATPRO package. As the material properties of Zr-1%Nb used as cladding in WWER-440s are not provided in the code, Zircaloy-4 is used as a substitute for Zr-1%Nb. Mac-Donald-Weisman model is used for gas release calculation. FRACAS-1 and FRACAS-2 models are used in the mechanical calculations. It is assumed that the reactor was operated for 920 days (three consecutive cycles), the burnup being 42000 Mwd/t U. Results of the fuel rod behaviour analysis are given for three axial nodes: bottom node, central node and top node. The variations of the following characteristic fuel rod parameters are studied through the prescribed power history: unmoved gap thickness, gap heat transfer coefficient, fuel axial elongation, cladding axial elongation, fuel centerline temperature and ZrO-thickness at cladding surface. The value of each parameter is calculated as a function of the effective power days for the three nodes by using FRACAS-1 and FRACAS-2 codes for comparison.The results show that calculations with deformable pellet approximation with FRACAS-II model could provide better information for the behaviour of a typical fuel rod. Calculations indicate that fuel rod failure is not observed during the operation. All fuel rod parameters investigated are found to be within the safety limits. It is concluded, however, that for better assessment of reactor safety these calculations should be extended for transient conditions such as LOCA. 1 tab., 10 figs., 4 refs.

  2. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Fluorescence (Multiwave) Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, J; Kästle, Raphaela; Sattler, Elke C

    2016-10-01

    In addition to reflectance confocal microscopy, multiwave confocal microscopes with different laser wavelengths in combination with exogenous fluorophores allow fluorescence mode confocal microscopy in vivo and ex vivo. Fluorescence mode confocal microscopy improves the contrast between the epithelium and the surrounding soft tissue and allows the depiction of certain structures, like epithelial tumors, nerves, and glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Channel normalization technique for speech recognition in mismatched conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available , where one wishes to use any available training data for a variety of purposes. Research into a new channel normalization (CN) technique for channel mismatched speech recognition is presented. A process of inverse linear filtering is used in order...

  5. Renal glucose metabolism in normal physiological conditions and in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahli, Mazen; Gerich, John E

    2017-11-01

    The kidney plays an important role in glucose homeostasis via gluconeogenesis, glucose utilization, and glucose reabsorption from the renal glomerular filtrate. After an overnight fast, 20-25% of glucose released into the circulation originates from the kidneys through gluconeogenesis. In this post-absorptive state, the kidneys utilize about 10% of all glucose utilized by the body. After glucose ingestion, renal gluconeogenesis increases and accounts for approximately 60% of endogenous glucose release in the postprandial period. Each day, the kidneys filter approximately 180g of glucose and virtually all of this is reabsorbed into the circulation. Hormones (most importantly insulin and catecholamines), substrates, enzymes, and glucose transporters are some of the various factors influencing the kidney's role. Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased renal glucose uptake and release in the fasting and the post-prandial states. Additionally, glucosuria in these patients does not occur at plasma glucose levels that would normally produce glucosuria in healthy individuals. The major abnormality of renal glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetes appears to be impaired renal glucose release during hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Virtual pinhole confocal microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, J.S.; Rector, D.M.; Ranken, D.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Biophysics Group; Peterson, B. [SciLearn Inc. (United States); Kesteron, J. [VayTech Inc. (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Scanned confocal microscopes enhance imaging capabilities, providing improved contrast and image resolution in 3-D, but existing systems have significant technical shortcomings and are expensive. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel approach--virtual pinhole confocal microscopy--that uses state of the art illumination, detection, and data processing technologies to produce an imager with a number of advantages: reduced cost, faster imaging, improved efficiency and sensitivity, improved reliability and much greater flexibility. Work at Los Alamos demonstrated proof of principle; prototype hardware and software have been used to demonstrate technical feasibility of several implementation strategies. The system uses high performance illumination, patterned in time and space. The authors have built functional confocal imagers using video display technologies (LCD or DLP) and novel scanner based on a micro-lens array. They have developed a prototype system for high performance data acquisition and processing, designed to support realtime confocal imaging. They have developed algorithms to reconstruct confocal images from a time series of spatially sub-sampled images; software development remains an area of active development. These advances allow the collection of high quality confocal images (in fluorescence, reflectance and transmission modes) with equipment that can inexpensively retrofit to existing microscopes. Planned future extensions to these technologies will significantly enhance capabilities for microscopic imaging in a variety of applications, including confocal endoscopy, and confocal spectral imaging.

  7. Exponential model normalization for electrical capacitance tomography with external electrodes under gap permittivity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baidillah, Marlin R; Takei, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A nonlinear normalization model which is called exponential model for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) with external electrodes under gap permittivity conditions has been developed. The exponential model normalization is proposed based on the inherently nonlinear relationship characteristic between the mixture permittivity and the measured capacitance due to the gap permittivity of inner wall. The parameters of exponential equation are derived by using an exponential fitting curve based on the simulation and a scaling function is added to adjust the experiment system condition. The exponential model normalization was applied to two dimensional low and high contrast dielectric distribution phantoms by using simulation and experimental studies. The proposed normalization model has been compared with other normalization models i.e. Parallel, Series, Maxwell and Böttcher models. Based on the comparison of image reconstruction results, the exponential model is reliable to predict the nonlinear normalization of measured capacitance in term of low and high contrast dielectric distribution. (paper)

  8. Physics of collisionless scrape-off-layer plasma during normal and off-normal Tokamak operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1999-01-01

    The structure of a collisionless scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma in tokamak reactors is being studied to define the electron distribution function and the corresponding sheath potential between the divertor plate and the edge plasma. The collisionless model is shown to be valid during the thermal phase of a plasma disruption, as well as during the newly desired low-recycling normal phase of operation with low-density, high-temperature, edge plasma conditions. An analytical solution is developed by solving the Fokker-Planck equation for electron distribution and balance in the SOL. The solution is in good agreement with numerical studies using Monte-Carlo methods. The analytical solutions provide an insight to the role of different physical and geometrical processes in a collisionless SOL during disruptions and during the enhanced phase of normal operation over a wide range of parameters

  9. Confocal Raman microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dieing, Thomas; Hollricher, Olaf

    2018-01-01

    This second edition provides a cutting-edge overview of physical, technical and scientific aspects related to the widely used analytical method of confocal Raman microscopy. The book includes expanded background information and adds insights into how confocal Raman microscopy, especially 3D Raman imaging, can be integrated with other methods to produce a variety of correlative microscopy combinations. The benefits are then demonstrated and supported by numerous examples from the fields of materials science, 2D materials, the life sciences, pharmaceutical research and development, as well as the geosciences.

  10. Confocal scanning microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo

    This report is based on a metrological investigation on confocal microscopy technique carried out by Uffe Rolf Arlø Theilade and Paolo Bariani. The purpose of the experimental activity was twofold a metrological instrument characterization and application to assessment of rough PP injection moulded...... replicated topography. Confocal microscopy is seen to be a promising technique in metrology of microstructures. Some limitations with respect to surface metrology were found during the experiments. The experiments were carried out using a Zeiss LSM 5 Pascal microscope owned by the Danish Polymer Centre...

  11. Experimental program on fuel rod behaviour under off-normal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.; Cecchi, P.

    1985-01-01

    During LMFBR plant operation, fuel developments are primarily concerned with the fuel pin irradiation behaviour under steady-state conditions up to high burn-up levels. But additional studies under off-normal conditions are necessary in order to assess fuel pin performance and to define operational limits. (author)

  12. Confocal laser endomicroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, John Gásdal; Săftoiu, Adrian; Brynskov, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has been shown to predict relapse in ulcerative colitis in remission, but little is currently known about its role in Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to identify reproducible CLE features in patients with Crohn's disease...

  13. Estimation of value at risk and conditional value at risk using normal mixture distributions model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzzaman, Zetty Ain; Isa, Zaidi

    2013-04-01

    Normal mixture distributions model has been successfully applied in financial time series analysis. In this paper, we estimate the return distribution, value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR) for monthly and weekly rates of returns for FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (FBMKLCI) from July 1990 until July 2010 using the two component univariate normal mixture distributions model. First, we present the application of normal mixture distributions model in empirical finance where we fit our real data. Second, we present the application of normal mixture distributions model in risk analysis where we apply the normal mixture distributions model to evaluate the value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR) with model validation for both risk measures. The empirical results provide evidence that using the two components normal mixture distributions model can fit the data well and can perform better in estimating value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR) where it can capture the stylized facts of non-normality and leptokurtosis in returns distribution.

  14. Reactor internals design/analysis for normal, upset, and faulted conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, F.R.

    1977-06-01

    The analytical procedures used by Babcock and Wilcox to demonstrate the structural integrity of the 205-FA reactor internals are described. Analytical results are presented and compared to ASME Code allowable limits for Normal, Upset, and Faulted conditions. The particular faulted condition considered is a simultaneous loss-of-coolant accident and safe shutdown earthquake. The operating basis earthquake is addressed as an Upset condition

  15. MISTRAL V1.1.1: assessing doses from atmospheric releases in normal and off-normal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Kerouanton; Patrick Devin; Malvina Rennesson

    2006-01-01

    Protecting the environment and the public from radioactive and chemical hazards has always been a top priority for all companies operating in the nuclear domain. In this scope, SGN provides all the services the nuclear industry needs in environmental studies especially in relation to the impact assessment in normal operating conditions and risk assessment in off-normal conditions. In order to quantify dose impact on members of the public due to atmospheric releases, COGEMA and SGN developed MISTRAL V1.1.1 code. Dose impact depends strongly on dispersion of radionuclides in atmosphere. The main parameters involved in dispersion characterization are wind velocity and direction, rain, diffusion conditions, coordinates of the point of observation and stack elevation. MISTRAL code implements DOURY and PASQUILL Gaussian plume models which are widely used in the scientific community. These models, applicable for distances of transfer ranging from 100 m up to 30 km, are used to calculate atmospheric concentration and deposit at different distances from the point of release. MISTRAL allows the use of different dose regulations or dose coefficient databases such as: - ICRP30 and ICPR71 for internal doses (inhalation, ingestion) - Despres/Kocher database or US-EPA Federal Guidance no.12 (ICPR72 for noble gases) for external exposure (from plume or ground). The initial instant of the release can be considered as the origin of time or a date format can be specified (could be useful in a crisis context). While the context is specified, the user define the meteorological conditions of the release. In normal operating mode (routine releases), the user gives the annual meteorological scheme. The data can be recorded in the MISTRAL meteorological database. In off-normal conditions mode, MISTRAL V1.1 allows the use of successive release stages for which the user gives the duration, the meteorological conditions, that is to say stability class, wind speed and direction and rainfall

  16. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Interfacial Phenomena Using Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Ian C.

    Surfactants play an integral role in numerous functions ranging from stabilizing the emulsion in a favorite salad dressing to organizing the cellular components that make life possible. We are interested in lung surfactant, which is a mixture of lipids and proteins essential for normal respiration because it modulates the surface tension of the air-liquid interface of the thin fluid lining in the lungs. Through this surface tension modulation, lung surfactant ensures effortless lung expansion and prevents lung collapse during exhalation, thereby effecting proper oxygenation of the bloodstream. The function of lung surfactant, as well as numerous interfacial lipid systems, is not solely dictated by the behavior of materials confined to the two-dimensional interface. Rather, the distributions of materials in the liquid subphase also greatly influence the performance of interfacial films of lung surfactant. Therefore, to better understand the behavior of lung surfactant and other interfacial lipid systems, we require a three-dimensional characterization technique. In this dissertation, we have developed a novel confocal microscopy methodology for investigating the interfacial phenomena of surfactants at the air-liquid interface of a Langmuir trough. Confocal microscopy provides the excellent combination of in situ, fast, three-dimensional visualization of multiple components of the lung surfactant system that other characterization techniques lack. We detail the solutions to the numerous challenges encountered when imaging a dynamic air-liquid interface with a high-resolution technique like confocal microscopy. We then use confocal microscopy to elucidate the distinct mechanisms by which a polyelectrolyte (chitosan) and nonadsorbing polymer (polyethylene glycol) restore the function of lung surfactant under inhibitory conditions mimicking the effects of lung trauma. Beyond this physiological model, we also investigate several one- and two-component interfacial films

  17. Confocal Raman Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dieing, Thomas; Toporski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Confocal Raman Microscopy is a relatively new technique that allows chemical imaging without specific sample preparation. By integrating a sensitive Raman spectrometer within a state-of-the-art microscope, Raman microscopy with a spatial resolution down to 200nm laterally and 500nm vertically can be achieved using visible light excitation. Recent developments in detector and computer technology as well as optimized instrument design have reduced integration times of Raman spectra by orders of magnitude, so that complete images consisting of tens of thousands of Raman spectra can be acquired in seconds or minutes rather than hours, which used to be standard just one decade ago. The purpose of this book is to provide the reader a comprehensive overview of the rapidly developing field of Confocal Raman Microscopy and its applications.

  18. Condition monitoring with wind turbine SCADA data using Neuro-Fuzzy normal behavior models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlechtingen, Meik; Santos, Ilmar

    2012-01-01

    System (ANFIS) models are employed to learn the normal behavior in a training phase, where the component condition can be considered healthy. In the application phase the trained models are applied to predict the target signals, e.g. temperatures, pressures, currents, power output, etc. The behavior......This paper presents the latest research results of a project that focuses on normal behavior models for condition monitoring of wind turbines and their components, via ordinary Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) data. In this machine learning approach Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Interference...... of the prediction error is used as an indicator for normal and abnormal behavior, with respect to the learned behavior. The advantage of this approach is that the prediction error is widely decoupled from the typical fluctuations of the SCADA data caused by the different turbine operational modes. To classify...

  19. Postnatal development of the hippocampal dentate gyrus under normal and experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, J.; Bayer, S.

    Studies on postnatal maturation of the dentate gyrus are reviewed. Some topics discussed are: normal development of the dentate gyrus, cytogenesis, morphogenesis, synaptogenesis, gleogenesis, myelogenesis, development of the gyrus under experimental conditions, and effects of x radiation on cytogenesis and morphogenesis

  20. Recommended parameters for effect assessment of radioactive airborne effluents under normal condition of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Fang Dong; Sun Chengzhi; Xiao Naihong

    2003-01-01

    A set of models and default parameters are recommended for effect assessment of radioactive airborne effluents under normal condition of nuclear facilities in order to standardize the environmental effect assessment of nuclear facilities, and to simplify the observation and investigation in early phase. The paper introduces the input data and default parameters used in the model

  1. Normalization of informatisation parameter on airfield light-signal bar at flights in complex meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П.В. Попов

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  The technique of maintenance of the set level of flights safetivness is developed by normalization of informatisation parameters functional groups of light-signal lightings at technological stages of interaction of crew of the airplane with the airfield light-signals bar at flights in a complex weathercast conditions.

  2. French Contribution to the Specialists' Meeting on Demonstration of Structural Integrity under Normal and Fault Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulat, P.; Tavassoli, A.

    1981-01-01

    The following is a summary of a few selected programmes in France on the structural integrity of fast reactor components under normal and faulted conditions. The scope of the programmes selected is limited to that suggested by the specialists Meeting organisers

  3. Comparative study; physiological and biochemical parameters of normal and induced dehydrated condition of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, S.; Bukhari, I.

    2008-01-01

    Biochemical and physiological parameters like body weight, blood pH. Blood glucose, total lipids total protein, globulin, albumin and albumin/globulin ratio were determined in twelve rabbits each normal and after the induction of diseased condition i.e. dehydration. Statistically significant differences were identified when the comparison made between normal rabbits and their respective dehydrated group. Blood glucose total lipid packed cell. Volume and globulin increased significantly where where as body weight, albumin and albumin/globulin ratio decreased significantly. These differences in the physiological and biochemical parameters in disease induced condition require the necessity for analyzing this condition for the changes in the pharmacokinetics parameter like, absorption distribution metabolism and excretion leading to alteration in the pharmacokinetics of drug. (author)

  4. Molecular confocal laser endomicroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, John Gásdal; Klausen, Pia Helene; Saftoiu, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    While flexible endoscopy is essential for macroscopic evaluation, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has recently emerged as an endoscopic method enabling visualization at a cellular level. Two systems are currently available, one based on miniprobes that can be inserted via a conventional...... during on-going endoscopy), a novel world of molecular evaluation opens up. The method of molecular CLE could potentially be used for estimating the expression of important receptors in carcinomas, subsequently resulting in immediate individualization of treatment regimens, but also for improving...

  5. Reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in citrus genotypes under different experimental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Mafra

    Full Text Available Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR has emerged as an accurate and widely used technique for expression profiling of selected genes. However, obtaining reliable measurements depends on the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization. The aim of this work was to assess the expression stability of 15 candidate genes to determine which set of reference genes is best suited for transcript normalization in citrus in different tissues and organs and leaves challenged with five pathogens (Alternaria alternata, Phytophthora parasitica, Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. We tested traditional genes used for transcript normalization in citrus and orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana genes described as superior reference genes based on transcriptome data. geNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to find the best reference genes to normalize all samples and conditions tested. Additionally, each biotic stress was individually analyzed by geNorm. In general, FBOX (encoding a member of the F-box family and GAPC2 (GAPDH was the most stable candidate gene set assessed under the different conditions and subsets tested, while CYP (cyclophilin, TUB (tubulin and CtP (cathepsin were the least stably expressed genes found. Validation of the best suitable reference genes for normalizing the expression level of the WRKY70 transcription factor in leaves infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus showed that arbitrary use of reference genes without previous testing could lead to misinterpretation of data. Our results revealed FBOX, SAND (a SAND family protein, GAPC2 and UPL7 (ubiquitin protein ligase 7 to be superior reference genes, and we recommend their use in studies of gene expression in citrus species and relatives. This work constitutes the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for transcript normalization in different citrus organs and under biotic stress.

  6. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of normal, benign and malignant conditions in the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visschere, Pieter J.L. de; Pattyn, Eva; Villeirs, Geert M. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Vral, Anne [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent (Belgium); Perletti, Gianpaolo [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent (Belgium); University of Insubria, Clinical Pharmacology, Medical and Surgical Sciences Section, Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy); Praet, Marleen [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Ghent (Belgium); Magri, Vittorio [Instituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, Urology Clinic, Milano (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    To identify the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) characteristics of normal, benign and malignant conditions in the prostate. Fifty-six histopathological whole-mount radical prostatectomy specimens from ten randomly selected patients with prostate cancer (PC) were matched with corresponding transverse mpMRI slices. The mpMRI was performed prior to biopsy and consisted of T2-weighted imaging (T2-WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCE) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). In each prostate specimen, a wide range of histopathological conditions were observed. They showed consistent but overlapping characteristics on mpMRI. Normal glands in the transition zone showed lower signal intensity (SI) on T2-WI, lower ADC values and lower citrate peaks on MRSI as compared to the peripheral zone (PZ) due to sparser glandular elements and more prominent collagenous fibres. In the PZ, normal glands were iso-intense on T2-WI, while high SI areas represented cystic atrophy. Mimickers of well-differentiated PC on mpMRI were inflammation, adenosis, HG-PIN and post-atrophic hyperplasia. Each prostate is a unique mix of normal, benign and/or malignant areas that vary in extent and distribution resulting in very heterogeneous characteristics on mpMRI. Understanding the main concepts of this mpMRI-histopathological correlation may increase the diagnostic confidence in reporting mpMRI. (orig.)

  7. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puppels, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a technique that provides detailed structural information about molecules studied. In the field of molecular biophysics it has been extensively used for characterization of nucleic acids and proteins and for investigation of interactions between these molecules. It was felt that this technique would have great potential if it could be applied for in situ study of these molecules and their interactions, at the level of single living cell or a chromosome. To make this possible a highly sensitive confocal Raman microspectrometer (CRM) was developed. The instrument is described in detail in this thesis. It incorporates a number of recent technological developments. First, it employs a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD-camera. This type of detector, first used in astronomy, is the ultimate detector for Raman spectroscopy because it combines high quantum efficiency light detection with photon-noise limited operation. Second, an important factor in obtaining a high signal throughput of the spectrometer was the development of a new type of Raman notch filter. In the third place, the confocal detection principle was applied in the CRM. This limits the effective measuring volume to 3 . (author). 279 refs., 48 figs., 11 tabs

  8. Thermal Behavior of Aerospace Spur Gears in Normal and Loss-of-Lubrication Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Testing of instrumented spur gears operating at aerospace rotorcraft conditions was conducted. The instrumented gears were operated in a normal and in a loss-of-lubrication environment. Thermocouples were utilized to measure the temperature at various locations on the test gears and a test utilized a full-field, high-speed infrared thermal imaging system. Data from thermocouples was recorded during all testing at 1 hertz. One test had the gears shrouded and a second test was run without the shrouds to permit the infrared thermal imaging system to take data during loss-of-lubrication operation. Both tests using instrumented spur gears were run in normal and loss-of-lubrication conditions. Also the result from four other loss-of-lubrication tests will be presented. In these tests two different torque levels were used while operating at the same rotational speed (10000 revolutions per minute).

  9. Simplified calculation method for radiation dose under normal condition of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, N.; Ozaki, S.; Sato, K.; Sugahara, A.

    1993-01-01

    In order to estimate radiation dose during transportation of radioactive materials, the following computer codes are available: RADTRAN, INTERTRAN, J-TRAN. Because these codes consist of functions for estimating doses not only under normal conditions but also in the case of accidents, when nuclei may leak and spread into the environment by air diffusion, the user needs to have special knowledge and experience. In this presentation, we describe how, with a view to preparing a method by which a person in charge of transportation can calculate doses in normal conditions, the main parameters upon which the value of doses depends were extracted and the dose for a unit of transportation was estimated. (J.P.N.)

  10. Evaluation of new reference genes in papaya for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zhu

    Full Text Available Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. To date, only a few studies on reference genes have been done in other plants but none in papaya. In the present work, we selected 21 candidate reference genes, and evaluated their expression stability in 246 papaya fruit samples using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. The samples consisted of 13 sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, different storage temperatures, different cultivars, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP treatment, hot water treatment, biotic stress and hormone treatment. Our results demonstrated that expression stability varied greatly between reference genes and that different suitable reference gene(s or combination of reference genes for normalization should be validated according to the experimental conditions. In general, the internal reference genes EIF (Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A, TBP1 (TATA binding protein 1 and TBP2 (TATA binding protein 2 genes had a good performance under most experimental conditions, whereas the most widely present used reference genes, ACTIN (Actin 2, 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were not suitable in many experimental conditions. In addition, two commonly used programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were proved sufficient for the validation. This work provides the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in papaya under different experimental

  11. Combining ability studies on yield related traits in wheat under normal and water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, A.; Khan, A.S.; Khaliq, I.

    2010-01-01

    Six diverse wheat cultivars/lines viz; Baviacore, Nesser, 9247, 9252, 9258 and 9267 were crossed in a complete diallel fashion to develop 30 F1 crosses, which were tested along with their parents under normal and water stress conditions. Numerical analysis was made for spike density, number of grains per spike, 100-grain weight, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index. Significant differences among genotypic mean were observed in all of the traits under both conditions. GCA and SCA differences were significant for all the traits under study except spike density and 100-grain weight in both conditions. Wheat variety Nesser showed maximum general combining ability value for spike density under water stress conditions and maximum GCA value for biological yield and grain yield under irrigated condition. The variety Baviacore proved best general combiner for number of grains per spike and harvest index under both conditions while biological yield and grain yield under water stress condition. Variety 9252 found best general combiner for 100-grain weight under both condition. The cross 9252 x Nesser showed maximum specific combining ability value for spike density and biological yield under irrigated while for 100-grain weight under water stress condition. 9258 x 9252 exhibited maximum SCA for number of grains per spike under irrigated while 9258 x Nesser under water stress condition. 9267 x Nesser showed maximum SCA for 100-grain weight under irrigated condition while spike density under water stress condition. 9258 x 9247 was proved best combiner for grain yield and harvest index irrigated while 9267 x 9258 for biological yield, grain yield and harvest index under water stress condition. (author)

  12. In vivo confocal microscopy for the oral cavity: Current state of the field and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, N G; Collgros, H; Uribe, P; Ch'ng, S; Rajadhyaksha, M; Guitera, P

    2016-03-01

    Confocal microscopy (CM) has been shown to correlate with oral mucosal histopathology in vivo. The purposes of this review are to summarize what we know so far about in vivo CM applications for oral mucosal pathologies, to highlight some current developments with CM devices relevant for oral applications, and to formulate where in vivo CM could hold further application for oral mucosal diagnosis and management. Ovid Medline® and/or Google® searches were performed using the terms 'microscopy, confocal', 'mouth neoplasms', 'mouth mucosa', 'leukoplakia, oral', 'oral lichen planus', 'gingiva', 'cheilitis', 'taste', 'inflammatory oral confocal', 'mucosal confocal' and 'confocal squamous cell oral'. In summary, inclusion criteria were in vivo use of any type of CM for the human oral mucosa and studies on normal or pathological oral mucosa. Experimental studies attempting to identify proteins of interest and microorganisms were excluded. In total 25 relevant articles were found, covering 8 main topics, including normal oral mucosal features (n=15), oral dysplasia or neoplasia (n=7), inflamed oral mucosa (n=3), taste impairment (n=3), oral autoimmune conditions (n=2), pigmented oral pathology/melanoma (n=1), delayed type hypersensitivity (n=1), and cheilitis glandularis (n=1). The evidence for using in vivo CM in these conditions is poor, as it is limited to mainly small descriptive studies. Current device developments for oral CM include improved probe design. The authors propose that future applications for in vivo oral CM may include burning mouth syndrome, intra-operative mapping for cancer surgery, and monitoring and targeted biopsies within field cancerization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.; Cashwell, J.W.; Apple, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses spent fuel and high level waste transportation history and prospects, discusses accident histories of radioactive material transport, discusses emergency responder needs and provides a general description of the Transportation Intelligent Monitoring System (TRANSIMS) design. The key objectives of the monitoring system are twofold: (1) to facilitate effective emergency response to accidents involving a radioactive waste transportation package, while minimizing risk to the public and emergency first-response personnel, and (2) to allow remote monitoring of transportation vehicle and payload conditions to enable research into radioactive material transportation for normal and accident conditions. (J.P.N.)

  14. Low calcium culture condition induces mesenchymal cell-like phenotype in normal human epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Murakami, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Okano, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Normal human epidermal keratinocytes serially cultured under low calcium concentration were cytokeratin and vimentin double positive cells. → The human keratinocytes expressed some epithelial stem/progenitor cell makers, mesenchymal cell markers, and markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. → Mesenchymal cell-like phenotype in the keratinocytes was suppressed under high-calcium condition. -- Abstract: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important cellular phenomenon in organ developments, cancer invasions, and wound healing, and many types of transformed cell lines are used for investigating for molecular mechanisms of EMT. However, there are few reports for EMT in normal human epithelial cells, which are non-transformed or non-immortalized cells, in vitro. Therefore, normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) serially cultured in low-calcium concentration medium (LCM) were used for investigating relations between differentiation and proliferation and mesenchymal-like phenotype in the present study, since long-term cultivation of NHEK is achieved in LCM. Interestingly, NHEK serially cultured in LCM consisted essentially of cytokeratin-vimentin double positive cells (98%), although the NHEK exhibited differentiation under high-calcium culture condition with 3T3 feeder layer. The vimentin expression was suppressed under high-calcium condition. These results may indicate the importance of mesenchymal-like phenotype for serially cultivation of NHEK in vitro.

  15. 2-regularity and 2-normality conditions for systems with impulsive controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Natal'ya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a controlled system with impulsive controls in the neighborhood of an abnormal point is investigated. The set of pairs (u,μ is considered as a class of admissible controls, where u is a measurable essentially bounded function and μ is a finite-dimensional Borel measure, such that for any Borel set B, μ(B is a subset of the given convex closed pointed cone. In this article the concepts of 2-regularity and 2-normality for the abstract mapping Ф, operating from the given Banach space into a finite-dimensional space, are introduced. The concepts of 2-regularity and 2-normality play a great role in the course of derivation of the first and the second order necessary conditions for the optimal control problem, consisting of the minimization of a certain functional on the set of the admissible processes. These concepts are also important for obtaining the sufficient conditions for the local controllability of the nonlinear systems. The convenient criterion for 2-regularity along the prescribed direction and necessary conditions for 2-normality of systems, linear in control, are introduced in this article as well.

  16. Study on the abnormal data rejection and normal condition evaluation applied in wind turbine farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Qian, Zheng; Tian, Shuangshu

    2016-01-01

    The condition detection of wind turbine is always an important issue which attract more and more attentions because of the rapid development of wind farm. And the on-line data analysis is also difficult since a lot of measured data is collected. In this paper, the abnormal data rejection and normal condition evaluation of wind turbine is processed. At first, since there are large amounts of abnormal data in the normal operation of wind turbine, which is probably caused by fault, maintenance downtime, power-limited operation and failure of wind speed sensor, a novel method is proposed to reject abnormal data in order to make more accurate analysis for the wind turbine condition. The core principle of this method is to fit the wind power curves by using the scatter diagram. The data outside the area covered by wind power curves is the abnormal data. The calculation shows that the abnormal data is rejected effectively. After the rejection, the vibration signals of wind turbine bearing which is a critical component are analyzed and the relationship between the vibration characteristic value and the operating condition of wind turbine is discussed. It will provide powerful support for the accurate fault analysis of wind turbine.

  17. Mathematical model and computer code for coated particles performance at normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, I.; Kadarmetov, I.; Makarov, V.

    2002-01-01

    Computer modeling of thermo-mechanical behavior of coated particles during operating both at normal and off-normal conditions has a very significant role particularly on a stage of new reactors development. In Russia a big experience has been accumulated on fabrication and reactor tests of CP and fuel elements with UO 2 kernels. However, this experience cannot be using in full volume for development of a new reactor installation GT-MHR. This is due to very deep burn-up of the fuel based on plutonium oxide (up to 70% fima). Therefore the mathematical modeling of CP thermal-mechanical behavior and failure prediction becomes particularly important. The authors have a clean understanding that serviceability of fuel with high burn-ups are defined not only by thermo-mechanics, but also by structured changes in coating materials, thermodynamics of chemical processes, 'amoeba-effect', formation CO etc. In the report the first steps of development of integrate code for numerical modeling of coated particles behavior and some calculating results concerning the influence of various design parameters on fuel coated particles endurance for GT-MHR normal operating conditions are submitted. A failure model is developed to predict the fraction of TRISO-coated particles. In this model it is assumed that the failure of CP depends not only on probability of SiC-layer fracture but also on the PyC-layers damage. The coated particle is considered as a uniform design. (author)

  18. Speech Emotion Recognition Based on Power Normalized Cepstral Coefficients in Noisy Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bashirpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recognition of speech emotional states in noisy conditions has become an important research topic in the emotional speech recognition area, in recent years. This paper considers the recognition of emotional states via speech in real environments. For this task, we employ the power normalized cepstral coefficients (PNCC in a speech emotion recognition system. We investigate its performance in emotion recognition using clean and noisy speech materials and compare it with the performances of the well-known MFCC, LPCC, RASTA-PLP, and also TEMFCC features. Speech samples are extracted from the Berlin emotional speech database (Emo DB and Persian emotional speech database (Persian ESD which are corrupted with 4 different noise types under various SNR levels. The experiments are conducted in clean train/noisy test scenarios to simulate practical conditions with noise sources. Simulation results show that higher recognition rates are achieved for PNCC as compared with the conventional features under noisy conditions.

  19. Results of tests under normal and abnormal operating conditions concerning LMFBR fuel element behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.; Bergeonneau, P.; Essig, C.; Guerin, Y.

    1985-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to improve the knowledge on LMFBR fuel element behaviour during protected and unprotected transients in RAPSODIE and PHENIX reactors in order to evaluate its reliability. The range of the tests performed in these reactors is sufficiently large to cover normal and also extreme off normal conditions such as fuel melting. Results of such tests allow to better establish transient design limits for reactor structural components in particular for fuel pin cladding which play a lead role in controlling the accident sequence. Three main topics are emphasized in this paper: fuel melting during slow over-power excursions; influence of the fuel element geometrical evolution on reactivity feedback effects and reactor dynamic behaviour; clad damage evaluation during a transient (essentially very severe loss of flow)

  20. Effects of preheated combustion air on laminar coflow diffusion flames under normal and microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi Yeganeh, Mohammad

    Global energy consumption has been increasing around the world, owing to the rapid growth of industrialization and improvements in the standard of living. As a result, more carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide are being released into the environment. Therefore, techniques for achieving combustion at reduced carbon dioxide and nitric oxide emission levels have drawn increased attention. Combustion with a highly preheated air and low-oxygen concentration has been shown to provide significant energy savings, reduce pollution and equipment size, and uniform thermal characteristics within the combustion chamber. However, the fundamental understanding of this technique is limited. The motivation of the present study is to identify the effects of preheated combustion air on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Combustion characteristics of laminar coflow diffusion flames are evaluated for the effects of preheated combustion air temperature under normal and low-gravity conditions. Experimental measurements are conducted using direct flame photography, particle image velocimetry (PIV) and optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics. Laminar coflow diffusion flames are examined under four experimental conditions: normal-temperature/normal-gravity (case I), preheated-temperature/normal gravity (case II), normal-temperature/low-gravity (case III), and preheated-temperature/low-gravity (case IV). Comparisons between these four cases yield significant insights. In our studies, increasing the combustion air temperature by 400 K (from 300 K to 700 K), causes a 37.1% reduction in the flame length and about a 25% increase in peak flame temperature. The results also show that a 400 K increase in the preheated air temperature increases CH concentration of the flame by about 83.3% (CH is a marker for the rate of chemical reaction), and also increases the C2 concentration by about 60% (C2 is a marker for the soot precursor). It can therefore be concluded that preheating the combustion air

  1. Comparison of Static Balance among Blind, Deaf and Normal Children in Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Vali-Zadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sensory systems including proprioceptive, vestibular and visual network play an important role in motor control. Loss of information from each sensory channel can cause body sway on static positions. Materials & Methods: Seventeen blind children (9 girls, 8 boys and 30 deaf children (14 girls, 16 boys participated as the sample groups in Ardabil city. Sixteen normal children (30 girls and 30 boys also selected as the control group. One leg standing and tandem stance tests (reliability=0.87-0.99 in two condition (eyes open and closed was used for static balance evaluation. One-Way ANOVA and LSD post hoc test was used to compare groups, and independent t-test was used for comparing sexes in each group by using SPSS (16 version software. Results: results showed there is no significant difference between blind, deaf and normal girls in any of the balance tasks (p>0.05. While the balance function of deaf and normal boys was better than blind boys in all balance tasks except for tandem stance with eyes closed (p=0.507. Blind girls were better than blind boys in all balance tasks (p=0.05, p=0.02, p=0.02. Deaf boys were better than girls with deafness in one leg stance and tandem stance (eyes open tasks (p=0.04, p=0.02, p=0.04 but there was no significant different between deaf boys and girls in any other tasks (p=0.63, p=0.29, p=0.89. Normal boys have better performance than girls and only in tandem stance (eyes closed (p=0.21 and one leg stance (left foot eyes open (p=0.99 there was no significant difference between normal boys and girls. Conclusion: findings showed that static balance in deaf and normal children were better than the blinds. Since persons with blindness are not able to compensate the visual loss for postural stability, they show decreased postural stability in static conditions. Inclusive identifying effective factors on balance and its weakness and problems in appropriate time, attention to this factors in training

  2. Evaluation of some advanced wheat lines (F7 in normal and drought stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nikseresht

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For assessment of drought stress effects on agro characteristics of 30 lines and 6 wheat cultivars and for introducing of drought tolerant and susceptible ones one trial were established using split plot base of randomized complete block design with two replications, main plots were stress and non-stress condition and sub plots contain 30 lines and six wheat cultivars in the check trial, irrigation the farm was done with the normal regime, but in stress trial for germination of seeds and one irrigation in Isfand to the end of rooting the farm was irrigated. Within and end of growth season we measured some agronomic and morphological characters such as yield and its component, height, peduncle length, and etc. Responses of cultivars under stress and non-stress conditions were' different, for example drought stress reduced yield. In spite of this general yield reducing, we found some line, such as 2, 29, 23 had relatively high yield (in tree levels. In order to final evaluate using Factor Analysis, Principal Component, Cluster Analysis .Factor Analysis indicated that four important factors accounted for about 80.245 and 79.624 percent of the total variation among traits in normal and drought stress conditions. With cluster analysis of 36 lines and cultivar using Ward procedure based on Euclidean distance were grouped in 4 distance cluster.

  3. Normalized performance and load data for the deepwind demonstrator in controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battisti, L.; Benini, E.; Brighenti, A.

    2016-01-01

    , derived from real scale measurements on a three-bladed Troposkien vertical-axis wind turbine, are manipulated in a convenient form to be easily compared with the typical outputs provided by simulation codes. The here proposed data complement and support the measurements already presented in "Wind Tunnel......Performance and load normalized coefficients, deriving from an experimental campaign of measurements conducted at the large scale wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano (Italy), are presented with the aim of providing useful benchmark data for the validation of numerical codes. Rough data...... Testing of the DeepWind Demonstrator in Design and Tilted Operating Conditions" (Battisti et al., 2016) [1]....

  4. Experimental loop for fast neutron fuels under normal, abnormal, transient and emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauge, M.; Colomez, G.; Marfaing, R.J.; Mourain, M.

    1976-01-01

    Within the scope of safety experiments on power reactor fuels, an experimental loop is described which can, by reduction of the flow, flush the sodium joint of vented mixed carbide fuel elements and allow the study of the resulting phenomena. With the help of the annex laboratories at OSIRIS, the control test can be analyzed and followed, with special attention to the study of the migration of fission products inside and outside the fuel. This apparatus can, of course, also be used for testing the fuels under normal and abnormal working conditions [fr

  5. Wind turbine condition monitoring based on SCADA data using normal behavior models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlechtingen, Meik; Santos, Ilmar; Achiche, Sofiane

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a system for wind turbine condition monitoring using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Interference Systems (ANFIS). For this purpose: (1) ANFIS normal behavior models for common Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) data are developed in order to detect abnormal behavior...... the applicability of ANFIS models for monitoring wind turbine SCADA signals. The computational time needed for model training is compared to Neural Network (NN) models showing the strength of ANFIS in training speed. (2) For automation of fault diagnosis Fuzzy Interference Systems (FIS) are used to analyze...

  6. EEG Oscillatory States: Universality, Uniqueness and Specificity across Healthy-Normal, Altered and Pathological Brain Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the dynamic repertoires and oscillatory types of local EEG states in 13 diverse conditions (examined over 9 studies) that covered healthy-normal, altered and pathological brain states were quantified within the same methodological and conceptual framework. EEG oscillatory states were assessed by the probability-classification analysis of short-term EEG spectral patterns. The results demonstrated that brain activity consists of a limited repertoire of local EEG states in any of the examined conditions. The size of the state repertoires was associated with changes in cognition and vigilance or neuropsychopathologic conditions. Additionally universal, optional and unique EEG states across 13 diverse conditions were observed. It was demonstrated also that EEG oscillations which constituted EEG states were characteristic for different groups of conditions in accordance to oscillations’ functional significance. The results suggested that (a) there is a limit in the number of local states available to the cortex and many ways in which these local states can rearrange themselves and still produce the same global state and (b) EEG individuality is determined by varying proportions of universal, optional and unique oscillatory states. The results enriched our understanding about dynamic microstructure of EEG-signal. PMID:24505292

  7. Autonomous monitoring of control hardware to predict off-normal conditions using NIF automatic alignment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwal, Abdul A.S.; Wilhelmsen, Karl; Leach, Richard R.; Miller-Kamm, Vicki; Burkhart, Scott; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An automatic alignment system was developed to process images of the laser beams. ► System uses processing to adjust a series of control loops until alignment criteria are satisfied. ► Monitored conditions are compared against nominal values with an off-normal alert. ► Automated health monitoring system trends off-normals with a large image history. - Abstract: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high power laser system capable of supporting high-energy-density experimentation as a user facility for the next 30 years. In order to maximize the facility availability, preventive maintenance enhancements are being introduced into the system. An example of such an enhancement is a camera-based health monitoring system, integrated into the automated alignment system, which provides an opportunity to monitor trends in measurements such as average beam intensity, size of the beam, and pixel saturation. The monitoring system will generate alerts based on observed trends in measurements to allow scheduled pro-active maintenance before routine off-normal detection stops system operations requiring unscheduled intervention.

  8. Proton MR spectroscopic features of the human liver: in-vivo application to the normal condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Young Soo; Choi, Won; Shin, Seok Hwan; Ok, Chul Soo; Suh, Chang Hae

    1999-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of MR spectroscopy in the living human liver, and to evaluate the corresponding proton MR spectroscopic features. In fifteen normal volunteers with neither previous nor present liver disease, the proton MR spectroscopic findings were reviewed. Twelve subjects were male and three were female ; they were aged between 28 and 32 (mean, 30) years. MR spectroscopy involved the use of a 1.5T GE Signa Horizon system with body coil(GE Medical System, Milwaukee, U.S.A). We used STEAM (Stimulated Echo-Acquisition Mode) with 3000/30 msec of TR/TE for signal acquisition, and the prone position without respiratory interruption. Mean and standard deviation of the ratios of glutamate+glutamine/lipids, phosphomonoesters/lipids, and glycogen+glucose/lipids were calculated from the area of their peaks. The proton MR spectroscopic findings of normal human livers showed four distinctive peaks, i.e. lipids, glutamate and glutamine complex, phosphomonoesters, and glycogen and glucose complex. The mean and standard deviation of the ratios of glutamate+glutamine/lipids, phosphomonoesters/lipids, and glycogen+glucose/lipids were 0.02±0.01, 0.01±0.01, and 0.04±0.03, respectively. In living normal human livers, MR spectroscopy can be successfully applied. When applied to a liver whose condition is pathologic, the findings can be used as a standard

  9. Autonomous monitoring of control hardware to predict off-normal conditions using NIF automatic alignment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, Abdul A.S., E-mail: awwal1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Wilhelmsen, Karl; Leach, Richard R.; Miller-Kamm, Vicki; Burkhart, Scott; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Cohen, Simon [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An automatic alignment system was developed to process images of the laser beams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System uses processing to adjust a series of control loops until alignment criteria are satisfied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitored conditions are compared against nominal values with an off-normal alert. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Automated health monitoring system trends off-normals with a large image history. - Abstract: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high power laser system capable of supporting high-energy-density experimentation as a user facility for the next 30 years. In order to maximize the facility availability, preventive maintenance enhancements are being introduced into the system. An example of such an enhancement is a camera-based health monitoring system, integrated into the automated alignment system, which provides an opportunity to monitor trends in measurements such as average beam intensity, size of the beam, and pixel saturation. The monitoring system will generate alerts based on observed trends in measurements to allow scheduled pro-active maintenance before routine off-normal detection stops system operations requiring unscheduled intervention.

  10. Mechanical stress analysis for a fuel rod under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, Eddy S.; Giovedi, Claudia; Serra, Andre da Silva; Abe, Alfredo Y.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements consist mainly in a system of a nuclear fuel encapsulated by a cladding material subject to high fluxes of energetic neutrons, high operating temperatures, pressure systems, thermal gradients, heat fluxes and with chemical compatibility with the reactor coolant. The design of a nuclear reactor requires, among a set of activities, the evaluation of the structural integrity of the fuel rod submitted to different loads acting on the fuel rod and the specific properties (dimensions and mechanical and thermal properties) of the cladding material and coolant, including thermal and pressure gradients produced inside the rod due to the fuel burnup. In this work were evaluated the structural mechanical stresses of a fuel rod using stainless steel as cladding material and UO 2 with a low degree of enrichment as fuel pellet on a PWR (pressurized water reactor) under normal operating conditions. In this sense, tangential, radial and axial stress on internal and external cladding surfaces considering the orientations of 0 deg, 90 deg and 180 deg were considered. The obtained values were compared with the limit values for stress to the studied material. From the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that, under the expected normal reactor operation conditions, the integrity of the fuel rod can be maintained. (author)

  11. Spent fuel transport cask thermal evaluation under normal and accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, G. [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi, no 2-56126 Pisa (Italy); Lo Frano, R., E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.i [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi, no 2-56126 Pisa (Italy); Forasassi, G. [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi, no 2-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The casks used for transport of nuclear materials, especially the spent fuel element (SPE), must be designed according to rigorous acceptance criteria and standards requirements, e.g. the International Atomic Energy Agency ones, in order to provide protection to people and environment against radiation exposure particularly in a severe accident scenario. The aim of this work was the evaluation of the integrity of a spent fuel cask under both normal and accident scenarios transport conditions, such as impact and rigorous fire events, in according to the IAEA accident test requirements. The thermal behaviour and the temperatures distribution of a Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel transport cask are presented in this paper, especially with reference to the Italian cask designed by AGN, which was characterized by a cylindrical body, with water or air inside the internal cavity, and two lateral shock absorbers. Using the finite element code ANSYS a series of thermal analyses (steady-state and transient thermal analyses) were carried out in order to obtain the maximum fuel temperature and the temperatures field in the body of the cask, both in normal and in accidents scenario, considering all the heat transfer modes between the cask and the external environment (fire in the test or air in the normal conditions) as well as inside the cask itself. In order to follow the standards requirements, the thermal analyses in accidents scenarios were also performed adopting a deformed shape of the shock absorbers to simulate the mechanical effects of a previous IAEA 9 m drop test event. Impact tests on scale models of the shock absorbers have already been conducted in the past at the Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa, in the '80s. The obtained results, used for possible new licensing approval purposes by the Italian competent Authority of the cask for PWR spent fuel cask transport by the Italian competent Authority, are

  12. [Structure of maxillary sinus mucous membrane under normal conditions and in odontogenic perforative sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baĭdik, O D; Logvinov, S V; Zubarev, S G; Sysoliatin, P G; Gurin, A A

    2011-01-01

    Methods of light, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry were used to study the samples of maxillary sinus (MS) mucous membrane (MM) under normal conditions and in odontogenic sinusitis. To study the normal structure, the samples were obtained at autopsy from 26 human corpses 12-24 hours after death. Electron microscopic and immunohistochemical study was performed on biopsies of grossly morphologically unchanged MS MM, obtained during the operations for retention cysts in 6 patients. MS MM in perforative sinusitis was studied using the biopsies obtained from 43 patients. The material is broken into 4 groups depending on perforative sinusitis duration. Under normal conditions, MS MM is lined with a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. Degenerative changes of ciliated epithelial cells were already detected at short time intervals after MS perforations and become apparent due to reduction of specific volume of mitochondria and, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and increase of nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. In the globlet cells, the reduction of nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio was associated with the disturbance of the secretory product release. At time intervals exceeding 3 months, epithelium underwent metaplasia into simple cuboidal and stratified squamous keratinized, while in MS MM lamina propria, cellular infiltration was increased. CD4+ cell content in sinus MM gradually increased, while at late periods after perforation occurrence it decreased. Low CD4+ cell count within the epithelium and the absence of muromidase on the surface of MS MM was detected. With the increase of the time interval since MS perforation, the number of CD8+ and CD20+ cells in MS MM was found to increase.

  13. Review of the Effects of Normal Conditions of Transport on Spent Fuel Integrity in Transportation Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junggoo; Yoo, Youngik; Lee, Seongki; Lim, Chaejoon [Korea Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Spent fuel(SF) storage capacity of each domestic nuclear power plant will reach a saturated state in the near future. Although there are several methods of SF disposal, interim storage is suggested as the most realistic and promising alternative. SF integrity evaluation is a regulatory requirement that is described in Part 71 of Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 of the U..S. NRC licensing requirement. In this paper, the report is reviewed written by EPRI in US and it is helpful to a development of domestic SF integrity evaluation technology. EPRI report about integrity evaluation method on normal conditions of high burn-up spent fuel transport is reviewed. First, dynamic forces occurred in one-foot side drop are calculated. And deformation patterns and fuel rods responses by dynamic forces calculated from spent fuel and cask model are analyzed. It is shown that the damage of fuel rods is not occurred by the dynamic forces on normal conditions. Assembly distortion is not predicted, by virtue of the facts that the spacer grids do not experience significant permanent deformation. Axial forces, bending moments and pinch forces of fuel rods are calculated and compared with the results under the hypothetical accident conditions. No occurrence of transverse tearing mode that is the most serious damage mode in side drop case is predicted. Till now, in Korea, regulatory requirements related with structural integrity of spent fuel are not specified such as 10CFR71. To establish own regulation standards, producing and analyzing sufficient experimental data must be performed preferentially. Based on this, failure analysis and criteria establishment are necessary through modeling and analyzing of spent fuel.

  14. Ignition and combustion of bulk metals under elevated, normal and reduced gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Branch, Melvyn C.; Daily, John W.

    1995-01-01

    This research effort is aimed at providing further insight into this multi-variable dependent phenomena by looking at the effects of gravity on the ignition and combustion behavior of metals. Since spacecraft are subjected to higher-than-1g gravity loads during launch and reentry and to zero-gravity environments while in orbit, the study of ignition and combustion of bulk metals at different gravitational potentials is of great practical concern. From the scientific standpoint, studies conducted under microgravity conditions provide simplified boundary conditions since buoyancy is removed, and make possible the identification of fundamental ignition mechanisms. The effect of microgravity on the combustion of bulk metals has been investigated by Steinberg, et al. on a drop tower simulator. However, no detailed quantitative work has been done on ignition phenomena of bulk metals at lower or higher-than-normal gravitational fields or on the combustion characteristics of metals at elevated gravity. The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an experimental system capable of providing fundamental physical and chemical information on the ignition of bulk metals under different gravity levels. The metals used in the study, iron (Fe), titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) were selected because of their importance as elements of structural metals and their simple chemical composition (pure metals instead of multi-component alloys to avoid complication in morphology and spectroscopic studies). These samples were also chosen to study the two different combustion modes experienced by metals: heterogeneous or surface oxidation, and homogeneous or gas-phase reaction. The experimental approach provides surface temperature profiles, spectroscopic measurements, surface morphology, x-ray spectrometry of metals specimens and their combustion products, and high-speed cinematography of the heating, ignition and combustion

  15. Assessment of radiation doses in normal operation, upset accident conditions at the Olkiluoto nuclear waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.; Raiko, H.; Suolanen, V.

    2009-09-01

    Radiation doses for workers of the facility, for inhabitants in the environment and for terrestrial ecosystem possibly caused by the encapsulation and disposal facility to be built at Olkiluoto during its operation were considered in the study. The study covers both the normal operation of the plant and some hypothetical incidents and accidents. Release through the ventilation stack is assumed to be filtered both in normal operation and in hypothetical abnormal fault and accident cases. Calculation of the offsite doses from normal operation is based on the hypothesis that on average one fuel pin per 100 fuel bundles for all batches of spent fuel transported to the encapsulation facility is leaking. The release magnitude in incidents and accidents is based on the event chains, which lead to loss of fuel pin tightness followed by a discharge of radionuclides into the handling space and to some degree to the atmosphere through the ventilation stack equipped with redundant filters. The critical group is conservatively assumed to live at the distance of 200 meters from the encapsulation and disposal plant and thus it will receive the largest doses in most dispersion conditions. The dose value to a member of the critical group was calculated on the basis of the weather data in such a way that greater dose than obtained here is caused only in 0.5 percent of dispersion conditions. The results obtained indicate that during normal operation the doses to workers remain small and the dose to the member of the critical group is less than 0,001 mSv per year. In the case of hypothetical fault and accident releases the offsite doses do not exceed either the limit values set by the safety authority. The highest dose rates to the reference organisms of the terrestrial ecosystem with conservative assumptions from the largest release were estimated to be of the order of 100 μ Gy/h at the distance of 200 m. As a chronic exposure this dose rate is expected to bring up detrimental

  16. MPPT Schemes for PV System under Normal and Partial Shading Condition: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Sameeullah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic system is one of the renewable energy device, which directly converts solar radiation into electricity. The I-V characteristics of PV system are nonlinear in nature and under variable Irradiance and temperature, PV system has a single operating point where the power output is maximum, known as Maximum Power Point (MPP and the point varies on changes in atmospheric conditions and electrical load. Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT is used to track MPP of solar PV system for maximum efficiency operation. The various MPPT techniques together with implementation are reported in literature. In order to choose the best technique based upon the requirements, comprehensive and comparative study should be available. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of various MPPT techniques for uniform insolation and partial shading conditions. Furthermore, the comparison of practically accepted and widely used techniques has been made based on features, such as control strategy, type of circuitry, number of control variables and cost. This review work provides a quick analysis and design help for PV systems. Article History: Received March 14, 2016; Received in revised form June 26th 2016; Accepted July 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Sameeullah, M. and Swarup, A. (2016. MPPT Schemes for PV System under Normal and Partial Shading Condition: A Review. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 79-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.79-94 

  17. US of the Nongravid Cervix with Multimodality Imaging Correlation: Normal Appearance, Pathologic Conditions, and Diagnostic Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenberg, Joseph C; Yam, Benjamin L; Langer, Jill E; Jones, Lisa P

    2016-01-01

    The adult uterine cervix may exhibit a wide variety of pathologic conditions that include benign entities (eg, cervicitis, hyperplasia, nabothian cysts, cervical polyps, leiomyomas, endometriosis, and congenital abnormalities) as well as malignant lesions, particularly cervical carcinoma. In addition, lesions that arise in the uterine body may secondarily involve the cervix, such as endometrial carcinoma and prolapsed intracavitary masses. Many of these conditions can be identified and characterized at ultrasonography (US), which is considered the first-line imaging examination for the female pelvis. However, examination of the cervix is often cursory during pelvic US, such that cervical disease may be overlooked or misdiagnosed. Transabdominal US of the cervix may not afford sufficient spatial resolution to depict cervical disease in many patients; therefore, endovaginal US is considered the optimal technique. Use of supplemental imaging techniques, particularly the application of transducer pressure on the cervix, may be helpful. This review describes the normal appearance of the cervix at US, the appearance of cervical lesions and conditions that mimic abnormalities at US, and optimal US techniques for evaluation of the cervix. This information will help radiologists detect and diagnose cervical abnormalities more confidently at pelvic US. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  18. Analysis of radionuclide dispersion at normal condition for AEC 1000 MW reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Kuntjoro

    2010-01-01

    Analysis for radionuclide dispersion for the Atomic Energy Agency (AEC) 3,568 MWth Power Reactor, equal to the 1,000 MWe at normal condition has been done. Analysis was done for two piles that is separated by 500 m distance and angle of 90° one to other. Initial pace in doing the analysis is to determine reactors source term using ORIGEN2 and EMERALD NORMAL. computer code program. ORIGEN2 applied to determine radionuclide inventory emerged in the reactor. Hereinafter, by using Emerald Normal Computer code is calculated source term reaching the reactor stack. To analyze dose received by population is done by using PC-CREAM computer code. Calculation done for one and two PLTN attached in site candidate of plants. The result showed is that the highest radionuclide release for one PLTN is at 1 km distance and to 9 th zone toward ( 19.25° ) and for two PLTN is at 1 km distance and to 10 th zone toward (21.75° ). Radionuclide which up to population through two pathways that are foodstuff and inhalation. To foodstuff comes from radionuclide I 131 , and the biggest passed from milk product with 53.40 % for one and also two PLTN For inhalation pathway the highest radionuclide contribution come from Kr 85m is about 53.80 %. The highest total dose received by population is at 1 Km distance received by baby that is 4.10 µSi and 11.26 µSi for one and two PLTN respectively. Those result are very small compared to the maximum permission dose to population issued by regulatory body that is equal to 1 mSi. (author)

  19. Specialists’ Meeting on Demonstration of Structural Integrity under Normal and Faulted Conditions. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on ''Demonstration of Structural Integrity under Normal and Faulted Conditions'' was held at Chester, United Kingdom on 3-5 June 1980. The meeting was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Past Reactors (IWGFR). Twenty-one participants from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and two international organizations, CEC and IAEA, attended. The purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss methods for assessing the integrity of the LMFBR safety-related structures during normal and abnormal operation, especially in the presence of defects, and to recommend future development. The technical sessions were divided into four topical sessions as follows: 1. National Review Presentations on Demonstration of Structural Integrity; 2. Material Properties; 3. Structural Analysis; 4. Design Approaches and Assessment Experience. During the meeting papers were presented by the participants on behalf of their countries or organizations. Each presentation was followed by an open discussion in the subject covered by the paper and subsequently, session summaries were drafted. After the formal sessions were completed, a final discussion session was held and general conclusions and recommendations were reached by consensus. Session summaries, general conclusions and recommendations, national review papers presented during the first session as well as the agenda of the meeting and the list of participants are given

  20. Hospital and Pre-Hospital Triage Systems in Disaster and Normal Conditions; a Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Triage is a priority classification system based on the severity of problem to do the best therapeutic proceedings for patients in the less time. A triage system should be performed in a way which can make a decision with high accuracy and in the least time for each patient. Simplicity and reliability of the performance are the most important features of a standard triage system. An appropriate triage causes to increase the quality of health care services and patients’ satisfaction rate, decrease the waiting time as well as mortality rate, and increase the yield and efficiency of emergency wards along with reducing the related expenses. Considering to the above statements, in the present study the history of triage formation was evaluated and categorizing of all triage systems regarding prehospital and hospital as well as triage in normal and critical conditions were assessed, too.

  1. Autoradiography of DNA from Hela cells under normal conditions and after treatment with hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinova, Y.S.; Angelova, P.A.; Roeva, I.G.

    1984-01-01

    The results are presented of the first stage of the elaboration of the novel autoradiographic technique for studying the replication of DNA fibers from nonsynchronized Hela cell cultures under normal conditions and after treatment with hydroxyurea. The preparations were covered with liquid nuclear emulsion Ilford L 4 . Exposure was carried out for 3 months at 4 deg C. After development, the autoradiograms were recorded quantitatively, and the length of the individual replicative segments was measured by means of an object micrometers. For each group (control and experimental) 100 segments from different cells were recorded. The results obtained were subjected to mathematical-statistical processing for determining the standard deviation. The application of hidroxyurea highly reduces the replicative elements, i.e. it actually inhibits DNA synthesis. This inhibition is due to reduction in the production of the four endogenous deoxynucleotides and affects the length of growth of the DNA chain, but the interreplicative distance as well

  2. Structural performance of a multipurpose canister shell for HLNW under normal handling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladkany, S.G.; Rajagopalan, R.

    1994-01-01

    A Multipurpose Canister (MPC) is analyzed for critical stresses that occur during normal handling conditions and accidental scenarios. Linear and Non-linear Finite Element Analysis is performed and the stresses at various critical locations in the MPC and its weldments are studied extensively. Progressive failure analysis of the MPC's groove and fillet welds, is presented. The structural response of the MPC to dynamic lifting loads, to loads resulting from an accidental slippage of a crane cable carrying the MPC, and from the impact between two canisters, is evaluated. Nonlinear structural analysis is used in the evaluation of the local buckling and the ultimate failure phenomena in the shell when the steel is in the strain hardening state during impact. Results make a case for increasing the thickness of the shell and all the welds

  3. Predictions of structural integrity of steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1996-09-01

    Available models for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions are reviewed. Tests conducted in the past, though limited, tended to show that the earlier flow-stress model for part-through-wall axial cracks overestimated the damaging influence of deep cracks. This observation is confirmed by further tests at high temperatures as well as by finite element analysis. A modified correlation for deep cracks can correct this shortcoming of the model. Recent tests have shown that lateral restraint can significantly increase the failure pressure of tubes with unsymmetrical circumferential cracks. This observation is confirmed by finite element analysis. The rate-independent flow stress models that are successful at low temperatures cannot predict the rate sensitive failure behavior of steam generator tubes at high temperatures. Therefore, a creep rupture model for predicting failure is developed and validated by tests under varying temperature and pressure loading expected during severe accidents

  4. LHC Beam Dump Design Study - Part III : Off-normal operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, L; Ross, M; Sala, P

    2000-01-01

    The LHC beam dump design study has been preliminarily substantiated by energy deposition simulations (Part I) and heat transfer analyses (Part II). The present report is devoted to the abnormal operating conditions induced by a malfunction of the beam diluters. A general approach to the analysis of off-normal operation is presented, which is derived from standard design norms adopted in the nuclear industry. Attention is focused mainly on the carbon core, which is longitudinally split into segments of different density in order to better distribute the deposited energy. The maximum energy density it absorbs decreases by at least 33%, compared to a uniform standard density carbon core. This structure may sustain any partial sweep failure without major damage, up to the ultimate beam intensity and energy. To minimise the risks inherent in a fully unswept beam, a sacrificial graphite mandrel will be placed on the core axis, surrounded by a thick high strength carbon-carbon composite tube. With this arrangement, ...

  5. Fluorescence lifetime measurement with confocal endomicroscopy for direct analysis of tissue biochemistry in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjae Won

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Confocal endomicroscopy is a powerful tool for in vivo real-time imaging at cellular resolution inside a living body without tissue resection. Microscopic fluorescence lifetime measurement can provide information about localized biochemical conditions such as pH and the concentrations of oxygen and calcium. We hypothesized that combining these techniques could assist accurate cancer discrimination by providing both biochemical and morphological information. We designed a dual-mode experimental setup for confocal endomicroscopic imaging and fluorescence lifetime measurement and applied it to a mouse xenograft model of activated human pancreatic cancer generated by subcutaneous injection of AsPC-1 tumor cells. Using this method with pH-sensitive sodium fluorescein injection, we demonstrated discrimination between normal and cancerous tissues in a living mouse. With further development, this method may be useful for clinical cancer detection.

  6. Changes in working conditions and major weight gain among normal- and overweight midlife employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Riikka; Holstila, Ansku; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea

    2017-11-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine the association between changes in psychosocial working conditions and major weight gain among midlife women and men. Furthermore, we examined the associations separately among normal- and overweight participants. Methods We used survey data among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, from 2000-2002 (phase 1, N=8960), 2007 (phase 2, N=7332), and 2012 (phase 3, N=6814), with a final study sample of 4369 participants. We examined changes in job strain, job demands, and job control from phase 1 to 2. We defined major weight gain as ≥10% weight gain between phases 1 and 3 based on self-reported weight (kg). We performed logistic regression analysis adjusting for baseline age, marital status, and occupational class, stratifying by gender and by baseline body mass index. Results Job demands among both genders and job strain among women was associated with major weight gain. Furthermore, increased job demands [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% CI 1.05-2.20] or increased job strain (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.11) was associated with major weight gain among overweight women. Normal-weight men reporting decreased job demands (OR 4.11, 95% CI 1.48-11.40) and overweight men reporting increasing job demands (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.26-6.82) exhibited higher odds of major weight gain. Conclusions Associations between working conditions and weight gain appeared primarily weak. Our study suggests that overweight individuals might be at a higher risk of weight gain when facing psychosocial strain in the workplace.

  7. 3D imaging of the mitochondrial redox state of rat hearts under normal and fasting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He N. Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The heart requires continuous ATP availability that is generated in the mitochondria. Although studies using the cell culture and perfused organ models have been carried out to investigate the biochemistry in the mitochondria in response to a change in substrate supply, mitochondrial bioenergetics of heart under normal feed or fasting conditions has not been studied at the tissue level with a sub-millimeter spatial resolution either in vivo or ex vivo. Oxidation of many food-derived metabolites to generate ATP in the mitochondria is realized through the NADH/NAD+ couple acting as a central electron carrier. We employed the Chance redox scanner — the low-temperature fluorescence scanner to image the three-dimensional (3D spatial distribution of the mitochondrial redox states in heart tissues of rats under normal feeding or an overnight starvation for 14.5 h. Multiple consecutive sections of each heart were imaged to map three redox indices, i.e., NADH, oxidized flavoproteins (Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD and the redox ratio NADH/Fp. The imaging results revealed the micro-heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of these redox indices. The quantitative analysis showed that in the fasted hearts the standard deviation of both NADH and Fp, i.e., SD_NADH and SD_Fp, significantly decreased with a p value of 0.032 and 0.045, respectively, indicating that the hearts become relatively more homogeneous after fasting. The fasted hearts contained 28.6% less NADH (p = 0.038. No significant change in Fp was found (p = 0.4. The NADH/Fp ratio decreased with a marginal p value (0.076. The decreased NADH in the fasted hearts is consistent with the cardiac cells' reliance of fatty acids consumption for energy metabolism when glucose becomes scarce. The experimental observation of NADH decrease induced by dietary restriction in the heart at tissue level has not been reported to our best knowledge. The Chance redox scanner demonstrated the

  8. 3D IMAGING OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL REDOX STATE OF RAT HEARTS UNDER NORMAL AND FASTING CONDITIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N; Zhou, Rong; Moon, Lily; Feng, Min; Li, Lin Z

    2014-03-01

    The heart requires continuous ATP availability that is generated in the mitochondria. Although studies using the cell culture and perfused organ models have been carried out to investigate the biochemistry in the mitochondria in response to a change in substrate supply, mitochondrial bioenergetics of heart under normal feed or fasting conditions has not been studied at the tissue level with a sub-millimeter spatial resolution either in vivo or ex vivo . Oxidation of many food-derived metabolites to generate ATP in the mitochondria is realized through the NADH/NAD + couple acting as a central electron carrier. We employed the Chance redox scanner - the low-temperature fluorescence scanner to image the three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of the mitochondrial redox states in heart tissues of rats under normal feeding or an overnight starvation for 14.5 h. Multiple consecutive sections of each heart were imaged to map three redox indices, i.e., NADH, oxidized flavoproteins (Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)) and the redox ratio NADH/Fp. The imaging results revealed the micro-heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of these redox indices. The quantitative analysis showed that in the fasted hearts the standard deviation of both NADH and Fp, i.e., SD_NADH and SD_Fp, significantly decreased with a p value of 0.032 and 0.045, respectively, indicating that the hearts become relatively more homogeneous after fasting. The fasted hearts contained 28.6% less NADH ( p = 0.038). No significant change in Fp was found ( p = 0.4). The NADH/Fp ratio decreased with a marginal p value (0.076). The decreased NADH in the fasted hearts is consistent with the cardiac cells' reliance of fatty acids consumption for energy metabolism when glucose becomes scarce. The experimental observation of NADH decrease induced by dietary restriction in the heart at tissue level has not been reported to our best knowledge. The Chance redox scanner demonstrated the feasibility of 3D

  9. Confocal Endomicroscopy of Colorectal Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian M. Ussui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is one of several novel methods that provide real-time, high-resolution imaging at a micron scale via endoscopes. CLE has the potential to be a disruptive technology in that it can change the current algorithms that depend on biopsy to perform surveillance of high-risk conditions. Furthermore, it allows on-table decision making that has the potential to guide therapy in real time and reduce the need for repeated procedures. CLE and related technologies are often termed “virtual biopsy” as they simulate the images seen in traditional histology. However, the imaging of living tissue allows more than just pragmatic convenience; it also allows imaging of living tissue such as active capillary circulation, cellular death, and vascular and endothelial translocation, thus extending beyond what is capable in traditional biopsy. Immediate potential applications of CLE are to guide biopsy sampling in Barrett's esophagus and inflammatory bowel disease surveillance, evaluation of colorectal polyps, and intraductal imaging of the pancreas and bile duct. Data on these applications is rapidly emerging, and more is needed to clearly demonstrate the optimal applications of CLE. In this paper, we will focus on the role of CLE as applied to colorectal polyps detected during colonoscopy.

  10. A comparison of cytokine responses during prolonged cycling in normal and hot environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila M Cosio-Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ludmila M Cosio-Lima, Bhargav V Desai, Petra B Schuler, Lesley Keck, Logan ScheelerDepartment of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL, USAPurpose: Components of immune function are affected by physical activity in an adverse environment. The purpose of this study was to compare plasma differences in inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6, in addition to the stress hormone cortisol, during prolonged cycling under normal and hot environmental conditions in elite cyclists.Methods and design: Six trained elite male cyclists (27 ± 8 years; 75.5 ± 4 kg; maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max] = 66 ± 6 mL/kg/min, mean ± SD. The cyclists biked for 2.5 h at their prescribed 60% maximum exercise workload (Wmax or 75% VO2max either in an environmental chamber set at 15°C and 40% relative humidity (NEUTRAL or at 35°C and 40% relative humidity (HOT. The cyclists were given 4 mL of water/kg body weight every 15 min under both conditions.Results: Total cortisol concentrations were elevated (P < 0.05 immediately postexercise and 12 h postexercise in both the NEUTRAL and HOT conditions. TNF-α concentrations were only significantly (P = 0.045 elevated postexercise in HOT conditions. During the HOT conditions, a significant (P = 0.006 and 0.007, respectively difference in IL-6 was seen immediately after and 12 h postexercise. During the NEUTRAL condition, IL-6 was only significantly elevated postexercise (P < 0.05.Conclusions: Heat exposure during a long bout of exercise is sufficient to elicit stress response in elite cyclists. However, the degree of release of anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines might be related to several factors that include the athlete’s fitness level, hydration status, exercise intensity, and length of exposure to hot environments.Keywords: cytokines, inflammation, heat, exercise, performance 

  11. Assessment of Radionuclides Release from Inshas LILW Disposal Facility Under Normal and Unusual Operational Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Disposing of low and intermediate radioactive waste (LILW) is a big concern for Egypt due to the accumulated waste as a result of past fifty years of peaceful nuclear applications. Assessment of radionuclides release from Inshas LILW disposal facility under normal and unusual operational conditions is very important in order to apply for operation license of the facility. Aqueous release of radionuclides from this disposal facility is controlled by water flow, access of the water to the wasteform, release of the radionuclides from the wasteform, and transport to the disposal facility boundary. In this work, the release of 137 Cs , 6C o, and 90 Sr radionuclides from the Inshas disposal facility was studied under the change of operational conditions. The release of these radio contaminants from the source term to the unsaturated and saturated zones , to groundwater were studied. It was found that the concentration of radionuclides in a groundwater well located 150 m away from the Inshas disposal facility is less than the maximum permissible concentration in groundwater in both cases

  12. Water reactor fuel behaviour and fission products release in off-normal and accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The present meeting was scheduled by the International Atomic Energy Agency upon the proposal of the Members of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology and held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 10 to 13 November 1986. Thirty participants from 17 countries and an international organization attended the meeting. Eighteen papers were presented from 13 countries and one international organization. The meeting was composed of four sessions and covered subjects related to: physico-chemical properties of core materials under off-normal conditions, and their interactions up to and after melt-down (5 papers); core materials deformation, relocation and core coolability under (severe) accident conditions (4 papers); fission products release: including experience, mechanisms and modelling (5 papers); power plant experience (4 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 18 papers. Four working groups covering the above-mentioned topics were held to discuss the present status of the knowledge and to develop recommendations for future activities in this field. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Evaluation of gap heat transfer model in ELESTRES for CANDU fuel element under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Moon; Ohn, Myung Ryong; Im, Hong Sik; Choi, Jong Hoh; Hwang, Soon Taek

    1995-01-01

    The gap conductance between the fuel and the sheath depends strongly on the gap width and has a significant influence on the amount of initial stored energy. The modified Ross and Stoute gap conductance model in ELESTRES is based on a simplified thermal deformation model for steady-state fuel temperature calculations. A review on a series of experiments reveals that fuel pellets crack, relocate, and are eccentrically positioned within the sheath rather than solid concentric cylinders. In this paper, the two recently-proposed gap conductance models (offset gap model and relocated gap model) are described and are applied to calculate the fuel-sheath gap conductances under experimental conditions and normal operating conditions in CANDU reactors. The good agreement between the experimentally-inferred and calculated gap conductance values demonstrates that the modified Ross and Stoute model was implemented correctly in ELESTRES. The predictions of the modified Ross and Stoute model provide conservative values for gap heat transfer and fuel surface temperature compared to the offset gap and relocated gap models for a limiting power envelope. 13 figs., 3 tabs., 16 refs. (Author)

  14. [Structure and function of suburothelial myofibroblasts in the human urinary bladder under normal and pathological conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, J; Heinrich, M; Schlichting, N; Oberbach, A; Fitzl, G; Schwalenberg, T; Horn, L-C; Stolzenburg, J-U

    2007-09-01

    Myofibroblasts play a pivotal role in numerous pathological alterations. Clarification of the structure and function and of the cellular plasticity of this cell type in the bladder may lead to new insights into the pathogenesis of lower urinary tract disorders. Bladder biopsies from patients with bladder carcinoma and interstitial cystitis were used to analyse the morphology and receptor expression using confocal immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Cytokine effects and coupling behavior were tested in cultured myofibroblasts and detrusor smooth muscle cells. Myofibroblasts are in close contact with the suburothelial capillary network. They express Cx43 and form functional syncytia. The expression of muscarinic and purinergic receptors is highly variable. Dye coupling experiments showed differences to detrusor myocytes. Upregulation of smooth muscle cell alpha-actin and/or transdifferentiation into smooth muscle cells may contribute to the etiology of urge incontinence. A multi-step model is presented as a working hypothesis.

  15. Liftoff characteristics of partially premixed flames under normal and microgravity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, Andrew J.; Briones, Alejandro M.; Aggarwal, Suresh K. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Qin, Xiao [Department of Mechanical & amp; Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Puri, Ishwar K. [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Hegde, Uday [National Center for Microgravity Research, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)

    2005-11-01

    An experimental and computational investigation on the liftoff characteristics of laminar partially premixed flames (PPFs) under normal (1-g) and microgravity ({mu}-g) conditions is presented. Lifted methane-air PPFs were established in axisymmetric coflowing jets using nitrogen dilution and various levels of partial premixing. The {mu}-g experiments were conducted in the 2.2-s drop tower at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A time-accurate, implicit algorithm that uses a detailed description of the chemistry and includes radiation effects is used for the simulations. The predictions are validated through a comparison of the flame reaction zone topologies, liftoff heights, lengths, and oscillation frequencies. The effects of equivalence ratio, gravity, jet velocity, and radiation on flame topology, liftoff height, flame length, base structure, and oscillation frequency are characterized. Both the simulations and measurements indicate that under identical conditions, a lifted {mu}-g PPF is stabilized closer to the burner compared with the 1-g flame, and that the liftoff heights of both 1-g and {mu}-g flames decrease with increasing equivalence ratio and approach their respective nonpremixed flame limits. The liftoff height also increases as the jet velocity is increased. In addition, the flame base structure transitions from a triple- to a double-flame structure as the flame liftoff height decreases. A modified flame index is developed to distinguish between the rich premixed, lean premixed, and nonpremixed reaction zones near the flame base. The 1-g lifted flames exhibit well-organized oscillations due to buoyancy-induced instability, while the corresponding {mu}-g flames exhibit steady-state behavior. The effect of thermal radiation is to slightly decrease the liftoff heights of both 1-g and {mu}-g flames under coflow conditions.

  16. Spent nuclear fuel system dynamic stability under normal conditions of transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jy-An John, E-mail: wangja@ornl.gov

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A conformational potential effect of fuel assembly contact interaction induced transient shock. • Complex vibration modes and vibration load intensity were observed from fuel assembly system. • The project was able to link the periodic transient shock to spent fuel fatigue strength reduction. - Abstract: In a horizontal layout of a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assembly under normal conditions of transportation (NCT), the fuel assembly’s skeleton formed by guide tubes and spacer grids is the primary load bearing structure for carrying and transferring the vibration loads within an SNF assembly. Therefore, the integrity of guide tubes and spacer grids will dictate the vibration amplitude/intensity of the fuel assembly during transport, and must be considered when designing multipurpose purpose canister (MPC) for safe SNF transport. This paper investigates the SNF assembly deformation dynamics during normal vibration mode, as well as the transient shock mode inside the cask during NCT. Dynamic analyses were performed in the frequency domain to study frequency characteristic of the fuel assembly system and in the time domain to simulate the transient dynamic response of the fuel assembly. To further evaluate the intensity of contact interaction induced by the local contacts’ impact loading at the spacer grid, detailed models of the actual spring and dimples of the spacer grids were created. The impacts between the fuel rod and springs and dimples were simulated with a 20 g transient shock load. The associated contact interaction intensities, in terms of reaction forces, were estimated from the finite element analyses (FEA) results. The bending moment estimated from the resultant stress on the clad under 20 g transient shock can be used to define the loading in cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) vibration testing for the equivalent condition. To estimate the damage potential of the transient shock to the SNF vibration

  17. Surrogate fuel assembly multi-axis shaker tests to simulate normal conditions of rail and truck transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Greg John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Uncapher, William Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelhardt, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the third set of tests (the “DCLa shaker tests”) of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly. The purpose of this set of tests was to measure strains and accelerations on Zircaloy-4 fuel rods when the PWR assembly was subjected to rail and truck loadings simulating normal conditions of transport when affixed to a multi-axis shaker. This is the first set of tests of the assembly simulating rail normal conditions of transport.

  18. Surrogate fuel assembly multi-axis shaker tests to simulate normal conditions of rail and truck transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Greg John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Uncapher, William Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelhardt, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    This report describes the third set of tests (the “DCLa shaker tests”) of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly. The purpose of this set of tests was to measure strains and accelerations on Zircaloy-4 fuel rods when the PWR assembly was subjected to rail and truck loadings simulating normal conditions of transport when affixed to a multi-axis shaker. This is the first set of tests of the assembly simulating rail normal conditions of transport.

  19. Clinical applications of corneal confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Tavakoli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitra Tavakoli1, Parwez Hossain2, Rayaz A Malik11Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Manchester and Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK; 2University of Southampton, Southampton Eye Unit, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: Corneal confocal microscopy is a novel clinical technique for the study of corneal cellular structure. It provides images which are comparable to in-vitro histochemical techniques delineating corneal epithelium, Bowman’s layer, stroma, Descemet’s membrane and the corneal endothelium. Because, corneal confocal microscopy is a non invasive technique for in vivo imaging of the living cornea it has huge clinical potential to investigate numerous corneal diseases. Thus far it has been used in the detection and management of pathologic and infectious conditions, corneal dystrophies and ecstasies, monitoring contact lens induced corneal changes and for pre and post surgical evaluation (PRK, LASIK and LASEK, flap evaluations and Radial Keratotomy, and penetrating keratoplasty. Most recently it has been used as a surrogate for peripheral nerve damage in a variety of peripheral neuropathies and may have potential in acting as a surrogate marker for endothelial abnormalities.Keywords: corneal confocal microscopy, cornea, infective keratitis, corneal dystrophy, neuropathy

  20. Bioluminescence imaging of β cells and intrahepatic insulin gene activity under normal and pathological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokio Katsumata

    Full Text Available In diabetes research, bioluminescence imaging (BLI has been applied in studies of β-cell impairment, development, and islet transplantation. To develop a mouse model that enables noninvasive imaging of β cells, we generated a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC transgenic mouse in which a mouse 200-kbp genomic fragment comprising the insulin I gene drives luciferase expression (Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mouse. BLI of mice was performed using the IVIS Spectrum system after intraperitoneal injection of luciferin, and the bioluminescence signal from the pancreatic region analyzed. When compared with MIP-Luc-VU mice [FVB/N-Tg(Ins1-lucVUPwrs/J] expressing luciferase under the control of the 9.2-kbp mouse insulin I promoter (MIP, the bioluminescence emission from Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice was enhanced approximately 4-fold. Streptozotocin-treated Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice developed severe diabetes concomitant with a sharp decline in the BLI signal intensity in the pancreas. Conversely, mice fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks showed an increase in the signal, reflecting a decrease or increase in the β-cell mass. Although the bioluminescence intensity of the islets correlated well with the number of isolated islets in vitro, the intensity obtained from a living mouse in vivo did not necessarily reflect an absolute quantification of the β-cell mass under pathological conditions. On the other hand, adenovirus-mediated gene transduction of β-cell-related transcription factors in Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice generated luminescence from the hepatic region for more than 1 week. These results demonstrate that BLI in Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice provides a noninvasive method of imaging islet β cells and extrapancreatic activity of the insulin gene in the liver under normal and pathological conditions.

  1. Development of High Heat Input Welding Offshore Steel as Normalized Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Qin, Xiaomei

    The heavy plate used for offshore structure is one of the important strategic products. In recent years, there is an increasing demand for heavy shipbuilding steel plate with excellent weldability in high heat input welding. During the thermal cycle, the microstructure of the heat affected zone (HAZ) of plates was damaged, and this markedly reduced toughness of HAZ. So, how to improve the toughness of HAZ has been a key subject in the fields of steel research. Oxide metallurgy is considered as an effective way to improve toughness of HAZ, because it could be used to retard grain growth by fine particles, which are stable at the high temperature.The high strength steel plate, which satisfies the low temperature specification, has been applied to offshore structure. Excellent properties of the plates and welded joints were obtained by oxide metallurgy technology, latest controlled rolling and accelerated cooling technology using Ultra-Fast Cooling (an on-line accelerated cooling system). The 355MPa-grade high strength steel plates with normalizing condition were obtained, and the steels have excellent weldability with heat input energy of 79 287kJ/cm, and the nil ductility transition (NDT) temperature was -70°C, which can satisfy the construction of offshore structure in cold regions.

  2. Study on concrete cask for practical use. Heat removal test under normal condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hirofumi; Wataru, Masumi; Shirai, Koji; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, it is planed to construct interim storage facilities taking account of dry storage away form reactor in 2010. Recently, a concrete cask is noticed from the economical point of view. But data for its safety analysis have not been sufficient yet. Heat removal tests using to types of full-scale concrete casks were conducted. This paper describes the results under normal condition of spent fuel storage. In the tests, data on heat removal performance and integrity of cask components were obtained for different storage periods. The change of decay heat of spent fuel was simulated using electric heaters. Reinforced Concrete cask (RC cask) and Concrete Filled Steel cask (CFS cask) were the specimen casks. The levels of decay heat at the initial period of 60 years of storage, the intermediate period (20 years of storage), and the final period (40 years of storage) correspond to 22.6 kW, 16 kW and 10 kW, respectively. Quantitative temperature data of the cask components were obtained as compared with their limit temperature. In addition, heat balance data required for heat removal analyses were obtained. (author)

  3. Adenylate kinase I does not affect cellular growth characteristics under normal and metabolic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Wieke; Oerlemans, Frank; Wieringa, Bé

    2004-07-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy in cells of fully differentiated tissues with highly variable energy demand, such as muscle and brain. To investigate if AK isoenzymes have a comparable function in the energy-demand management of proliferating cells, AK1 and AK1beta were expressed in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and in human colon carcinoma SW480 cells. Glucose deprivation, galactose feeding, and metabolic inhibitor tests revealed a differential energy dependency for these two cell lines. N2a cells showed a faster proliferation rate and strongest coupling to mitochondrial activity, SW480 proliferation was more dependent on glycolysis. Despite these differences, ectopic expression of AK1 or AK1beta did not affect their growth characteristics under normal conditions. Also, no differential effects were seen under metabolic stress upon treatment with mitochondrial and glycolytic inhibitors in in vitro culture or in solid tumors grown in vivo. Although many intimate connections have been revealed between cell death and metabolism, our results suggest that AK1- or AK1beta-mediated high-energy phosphoryl transfer is not a modulating factor in the survival of tumor cells during episodes of metabolic crisis.

  4. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Ning, Jicai; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE). Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  5. Normal conditions of transport thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.W.; Alstine, M.N. van; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing the content limits of radioactive material packagings can save money and increase transportation safety by decreasing the total number of shipments required to transport large quantities of material. The contents of drum packages can be limited by unacceptable containment vessel pressures and temperatures due to the thermal properties of the insulation. The purpose of this work is to understand and predict the effects of insulation properties on containment system performance. The type B shipping container used in the study is a double containment fiberboard drum package. The package is primarily used to transport uranium and plutonium metals and oxides. A normal condition of transport (NCT) thermal test was performed to benchmark an NCT analysis of the package. A 21 W heater was placed in an instrumented package to simulate the maximum source decay heat. The package reached thermal equilibrium 120 hours after the heater was turned on. Testing took place indoors to minimize ambient temperature fluctuations. The thermal analysis of the package used fiberboard properties reported in the literature and resulted in temperature significantly greater than those measured during the test. Details of the NCT test will be described and transient temperatures at key thermocouple locations within the package will be presented. Analytical results using nominal fiberboard properties will be presented. Explanations of the results and the attempt to benchmark the analysis will be presented. The discovery that fiberboard has an anisotropic thermal conductivity and its effect on thermal performance will also be discussed

  6. [Biogenic amines in the epiphysis and hypothalamus under normal conditions and following ovariectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishchenko, V I; Koliada, L D; Demidenko, D I

    1977-01-01

    Melatonin content in the epiphysis, serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine-in the hypothalamus, gonadotropins--in the hypophysis of rats was studied under normal conditions and following ovariectomy; regularly of the estral cycle phases was studied as well. Two series of experiments were conducted on 120 rats with regular estral cycles. The animals were divided into groups according to the estral cycle phase. Melatonin concentration in the epiphysis, serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine--in the hypothalamus was subject to variations coinciding with the estral cycle phases. Serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine content decreased in the hypophysis of ovariectomized rats in comparison with control; melatonin content rose in the epiphysis. There was no complete extinction of the estral cycle in the course of investigation (20 days). The action of castration on the sexual cycle depended on the phase at which the rats were subjected to ovariectomy. A reverse relationship existed between the melatonin content in the epiphysis and serotonin content in the hypothalamus, this serving as one of the important factors in the regulation of the sexual function.

  7. Establishment of normal gut microbiota is compromised under excessive hygiene conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Schmidt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early gut colonization events are purported to have a major impact on the incidence of infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in later life. Hence, factors which influence this process may have important implications for both human and animal health. Previously, we demonstrated strong influences of early-life environment on gut microbiota composition in adult pigs. Here, we sought to further investigate the impact of limiting microbial exposure during early life on the development of the pig gut microbiota. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Outdoor- and indoor-reared animals, exposed to the microbiota in their natural rearing environment for the first two days of life, were transferred to an isolator facility and adult gut microbial diversity was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From a total of 2,196 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences, 440 phylotypes were identified in the outdoor group and 431 phylotypes in the indoor group. The majority of clones were assigned to the four phyla Firmicutes (67.5% of all sequences, Proteobacteria (17.7%, Bacteroidetes (13.5% and to a lesser extent, Actinobacteria (0.1%. Although the initial maternal and environmental microbial inoculum of isolator-reared animals was identical to that of their naturally-reared littermates, the microbial succession and stabilization events reported previously in naturally-reared outdoor animals did not occur. In contrast, the gut microbiota of isolator-reared animals remained highly diverse containing a large number of distinct phylotypes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results documented here indicate that establishment and development of the normal gut microbiota requires continuous microbial exposure during the early stages of life and this process is compromised under conditions of excessive hygiene.

  8. Genetic and agronomic assessment of cob traits in corn under low and normal nitrogen management conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Constantin; Zhang, Yongzhong; Liu, Hongjun; Gonzalez-Portilla, Pedro J; Lauter, Nick; Kumar, Bharath; Trucillo-Silva, Ignacio; Martin, Juan Pablo San; Lee, Michael; Simcox, Kevin; Schussler, Jeff; Dhugga, Kanwarpal; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Exploring and understanding the genetic basis of cob biomass in relation to grain yield under varying nitrogen management regimes will help breeders to develop dual-purpose maize. With rising energy demands and costs for fossil fuels, alternative energy from renewable sources such as maize cobs will become competitive. Maize cobs have beneficial characteristics for utilization as feedstock including compact tissue, high cellulose content, and low ash and nitrogen content. Nitrogen is quantitatively the most important nutrient for plant growth. However, the influence of nitrogen fertilization on maize cob production is unclear. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been analyzed for cob morphological traits such as cob weight, volume, length, diameter and cob tissue density, and grain yield under normal and low nitrogen regimes. 213 doubled-haploid lines of the intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) Syn10 population have been resequenced for 8575 bins, based on SNP markers. A total of 138 QTL were found for six traits across six trials using composite interval mapping with ten cofactors and empirical comparison-wise thresholds (P = 0.001). Despite moderate to high repeatabilities across trials, few QTL were consistent across trials and overall levels of explained phenotypic variance were lower than expected some of the cob trait × trial combinations (R (2) = 7.3-43.1 %). Variation for cob traits was less affected by nitrogen conditions than by grain yield. Thus, the economics of cob usage under low nitrogen regimes is promising.

  9. Characterization of wear debris from metal-on-metal hip implants during normal wear versus edge-loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovochich, Michael; Fung, Ernest S; Donovan, Ellen; Unice, Kenneth M; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Finley, Brent L

    2018-04-01

    Advantages of second-generation metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants include low volumetric wear rates and the release of nanosized wear particles that are chemically inert and readily cleared from local tissue. In some patients, edge loading conditions occur, which result in higher volumetric wear. The objective of this study was to characterize the size, morphology, and chemistry of wear particles released from MoM hip implants during normal (40° angle) and edge-loading (65° angle with microseparation) conditions. The mean primary particle size by volume under normal wear was 35 nm (range: 9-152 nm) compared with 95 nm (range: 6-573 nm) under edge-loading conditions. Hydrodynamic diameter analysis by volume showed that particles from normal wear were in the nano- (edge-loading conditions generated particles that ranged from Edge-loading conditions generated more elongated particles (4.5%) (aspect ratio ≥ 2.5) and more CoCr alloy particles (9.3%) compared with normal wear conditions (1.3% CoCr particles). By total mass, edge-loading particles contained approximately 640-fold more cobalt than normal wear particles. Our findings suggest that high wear conditions are a potential risk factor for adverse local tissue effects in MoM patients who experience edge loading. This study is the first to characterize both the physical and chemical characteristics of MoM wear particles collected under normal and edge-loading conditions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 986-996, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The goal of a CLSM is to acquire and quantify fluorescence and in some instruments acquire spectral characterization of emitted signals. The accuracy of these measurements demands that...

  11. Spectral confocal reflection microscopy using a white light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, M.; Juškaitis, R.; Wilson, T.

    2008-08-01

    We present a reflection confocal microscope incorporating a white light supercontinuum source and spectral detection. The microscope provides images resolved spatially in three-dimensions, in addition to spectral resolution covering the wavelength range 450-650nm. Images and reflection spectra of artificial and natural specimens are presented, showing features that are not normally revealed in conventional microscopes or confocal microscopes using discrete line lasers. The specimens include thin film structures on semiconductor chips, iridescent structures in Papilio blumei butterfly scales, nacre from abalone shells and opal gemstones. Quantitative size and refractive index measurements of transparent beads are derived from spectral interference bands.

  12. Confocal microscopy as an early relapse marker for acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daas, Loay; Viestenz, Arne; Schnabel, Philipp Albert; Fries, Fabian N; Hager, Tobias; SzentmÁry, Nora; Seitz, Berthold

    2018-01-01

    Acanthameoba keratitis is a serious ophthalmological condition with a potentially vision-threatening prognosis. Early diagnosis and recognition of relapse, and the detection of persistent Acanthamoeba cysts, are essential for informing the prognosis and managing the condition. We suggest the use of in vivo confocal microscopy not only to identify the early signs of relapse after keratoplasty in patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis, but also as an additional follow-up tool after antimicrobial crosslinking. This study shows that in vivo confocal microscopy is, in experienced hands, a quick and reliable diagnostic tool. Clin. Anat. 31:60-63, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 76 FR 36864 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Operation Without Normal Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Normal Electric Power AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special... Interface Branch, ANM-111, Transport Standards Staff, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification... Model GVI airplane will be an all-new, two- engine jet transport airplane. The maximum takeoff weight...

  14. Hormonal regulation of apoptosis in the ovary under normal physiological and pathological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Karin Annemarie

    2005-01-01

    Programmed cell death or apoptosis plays an important role in normal reproductive function. Since apoptosis attributes to the exhaustion of the oocyte/follicle reserve, either directly through germ cell death or indirectly through follicular atresia, this process has been proposed to be the major

  15. Conditions and limits of serum LH radioimmunoassay in normal, hypophysectomised or castred rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.; Boucher, D.; Thieblot, L.

    1976-01-01

    Serum LH was measured by radioimmunoassay (NIAMD Kits) free and linked hormones were separated by double antibodies method. Influence of concentration on antibody-hormone complex is studied. Hypophysectomised rats serum does not modify results. The standard (rat LH-RPl) has the same action as serum LH. Rat serum LH contents are measured in normal or castred rats [fr

  16. Buckling resistance calculation of Guide Thimbles for the mechanical design of fuel assembly type PWR under normal reactor operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, C.B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The calculations demonstrate the fulfillment of one of the mechanical design criteria for the Fuel Assembly Structure under normal reactor operating conditions. The calculations of stresses in the Guide Thimbles are performed with the aid of the program ANSYS. This paper contains program parameters and modelling of a typical Fuel Assembly for a Reactor similar to ANGRA II. (author)

  17. Estudio del endotelio corneal en el queratocono por microscopia confocal Study of the corneal endothelium confocal microscopy in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Benítez Merino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los hallazgos morfométricos del endotelio corneal por microscopia confocal con CONFOSCAN S-4. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal de 102 ojos con queratocono en el período de septiembre de 2008 a septiembre 2009. A estos pacientes se les realizó microscopia confocal con CosfoscanS-4 para el estudio del endotelio corneal atendiendo el grado de queratocono. Se analizó el comportamiento de la evolución del queratocono según edad y sexo. Las imágenes fueron analizadas y procesadas mediante un programa informático diseñado específicamente para esto. Resultados: Fueron semejantes las edades de los pacientes con queratocono grado I y II, (35,2 y 34,7 años, los grado III presentaron una edad promedio mayor (38,4 años, sin diferencias significativas (p= 0,279. El sexo femenino predominó en 80,4 % de los pacientes. El 100 % de los queratoconos grado III tuvieron endotelios patológicos. Los valores promedios de la densidad celular en los queratoconos grado III (2585,9 células/mm² resultó no significativo (p= 0,339. El polimegatismo en los queratoconos grado III para un 48,69 % fue significativo (p= 0,002. En el pleomorfismo resultó significativo las diferencias observadas entre los tres grados (p= 0,002. Conclusión: Predominó el queratocono grado II para las mujeres y el grado I para los hombres. Los hallazgos morfológicos se manifestaron en la forma y tamaño de las células endoteliales. En córneas con queratocono grado II y III confluyeron células de mediano y gran tamaño con pérdida de su hexagonalidad. La densidad celular se mantuvo dentro del rango de valores normales para cualquier grado de queratocono.Objective: To describe the morphometric findings of the corneal endothelium confocal microscopy with CONFOSCAN S-4 Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 102 eyes with keratoconus performed from September 2008 to September 2009. The study patients had undergone confocal microscopy with

  18. Speech intelligibility for normal hearing and hearing-impaired listeners in simulated room acoustic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arweiler, Iris; Dau, Torsten; Poulsen, Torben

    Speech intelligibility depends on many factors such as room acoustics, the acoustical properties and location of the signal and the interferers, and the ability of the (normal and impaired) auditory system to process monaural and binaural sounds. In the present study, the effect of reverberation...... on spatial release from masking was investigated in normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners using three types of interferers: speech shaped noise, an interfering female talker and speech-modulated noise. Speech reception thresholds (SRT) were obtained in three simulated environments: a listening room......, a classroom and a church. The data from the study provide constraints for existing models of speech intelligibility prediction (based on the speech intelligibility index, SII, or the speech transmission index, STI) which have shortcomings when reverberation and/or fluctuating noise affect speech...

  19. Normalized rare earth elements in water, sediments, and wine: identifying sources and environmental redox conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David Z.; Bau, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of the rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters and sediments, when normalized on an element-by-element basis to one of several rock standards and plotted versus atomic number, yield curves that reveal their partitioning between different sediment fractions and the sources of those fractions, for example, between terrestrial-derived lithogenous debris and seawater-derived biogenous detritus and hydrogenous metal oxides. The REE of ancient sediments support their partitioning into these same fractions and further contribute to the identification of the redox geochemistry of the sea water in which the sediments accumulated. The normalized curves of the REE that have been examined in several South American wine varietals can be interpreted to reflect the lithology of the bedrock on which the vines may have been grown, suggesting limited fractionation during soil development.

  20. 76 FR 81360 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane, Operation Without Normal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 [Docket No. FAA-2011-1172: Special Conditions No. 25-453-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280... Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature...

  1. Orientation-dependent ion beam sputtering at normal incidence conditions in FeSiAl alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batic, Barbara Setina; Jenko, Monika

    2010-01-01

    The authors have performed Ar+ broad ion beam sputtering of a polycrystalline Fe-Si-Al alloy at normal incidence at energies varying from 6 to 10 keV. Sputtering results in the formation of etch pits, which can be classified in three shapes: triangular, rectangular, and square. As each grain of individual orientation exhibits a certain type of pattern, the etch pits were correlated with the crystal orientations by electron backscattered diffraction technique.

  2. Analysis of adaptability of radioactive liquid effluent discharge under normal condition of inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yueping; Zhang Bing; Chen Yang; Zhu Lingqing; Tao Yunliang; Shangguan Zhihong

    2011-01-01

    The discharge of radioactive liquid effluent from inland nuclear power plant under normal operation is an important part to be considered in environmental impact assessment. Requirements of newly revised and upcoming standards GB 6249 and GB 14587 are introduced in this paper. Through an example of an inland NPP siting in the preliminary feasibility study phase, the adaptability to the relevant regulations in the site selection is analyzed. Also, the concerned problems in the design of AP1000 units are addressed. (authors)

  3. [Age and characteristics of cholesterol biosynthesis in rat liver under normal conditions and during atherogenic loading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaialo, P P

    1977-02-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of C14CH3COONa to normal rats aged 6--8 and 28--32 months revealed a slower dynamics of cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver of old rats at the maximum of the tracer incorporation was lower than in the young ones. Atherogenic diet (0.25 g of cholesterol per 100 g of animal weight for a period of 20 days) was accompanied by an increase in the total cholesterol content and depressio of its biosynthesis in the liver, more pronounced in the young rats. Continued cholesterol administration caused further depression of its biosynthesis, most pronounced (in this case) in the old animals.

  4. Sigma phases in an 11%Cr ferritic/martensitic steel with the normalized and tempered condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yinzhong, E-mail: shenyz@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhou, Xiaoling; Shi, Tiantian; Huang, Xi [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shang, Zhongxia [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Wenwen; Ji, Bo; Xu, Zhiqiang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-12-15

    At the present time 9–12% Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels with target operating temperatures up to 650 °C and higher are being developed in order to further increase thermal efficiency so as to reduce coal consumption and air pollution. An 11% Cr F/M steel was prepared by reference to the nominal chemical composition of SAVE12 steel with an expected maximum use temperature of 650 °C. The precipitate phases of the 11% Cr F/M steel normalized at 1050 °C for 0.5 h and tempered at 780 °C for 1.5 h were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Except for Cr-/Cr-Fe-Co-rich M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, Nb-/V-/Ta-Nb-/Nd-rich MX, Fe-rich M{sub 5}C{sub 2}, Co-rich M{sub 3}C and Fe-Co-rich M{sub 6}C phases previously identified in the steel, two types of sigma phases consisting of σ-FeCr and σ-FeCrW were found to be also present in the normalized and tempered steel. Identified σ-FeCr and σ-FeCrW phases have a simple tetragonal crystal structure with estimated lattice parameters a/c = 0.8713/0.4986 and 0.9119/0.5053 nm, respectively. The compositions in atomic pct of the observed sigma phases were determined to be approximately 50Fe-50Cr for the σ-FeCr, and 30Fe-55Cr-10W in addition to a small amount of Ta, Co and Mn for the σ-FeCrW. The sigma phases in the steel exhibit various blocky morphologies, and appear to have a smaller amount compared with the dominant phases Cr-rich M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Nb-/V-/Ta-Nb-rich MX of the steel. The σ-FeCr phase in the steel was found to precipitate at δ-ferrite/martensite boundaries, suggesting that δ-ferrite may rapidly induce the formation of sigma phase at δ-ferrite/martensite boundaries in high Cr F/M steels containing δ-ferrite. The formation mechanism of sigma phases in the steel is also discussed in terms of the presence of δ-ferrite, M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitation, precipitation/dissolution of M{sub 2}X, and steel composition. - Highlights: •Precipitate phases in normalized and tempered 11%Cr F/M steel are

  5. French analytic experiment on the high specific burnup of PWR fuels in normal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruet, M.; Atabek, R.; Houdaille, B.; Baron, D.

    1982-04-01

    Hydrostatic density determinations made on UO 2 pellets of different kinds irradiated in conditions representative of PWR conditions enable the internal swelling rate of the UO 2 to be ascertained. A mean value of 0.8% per 10 4 MWdt -1 (u) up to a specific burnup of 45000 MWdt -1 (u) may be deduced from this experimental basis. These results agree well with those obtained in the TANGO experiments in which UO 2 balls were irradiated in quasi isothermal conditions and without stress. Further, the open porosity of oxide closes progressively and the change in the total porosity is thus very limited (under 1% at 45000 MWdt -1 (u)). With respect to the swelling of the pellets the rise in the specific burnup would not appear therefore to be a problem. The behaviour of recrystallized zircaloy 4 claddings remains satisfactory with respect to creep and growth during irradiation [fr

  6. Normalized performance and load data for the deepwind demonstrator in controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Battisti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance and load normalized coefficients, deriving from an experimental campaign of measurements conducted at the large scale wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano (Italy, are presented with the aim of providing useful benchmark data for the validation of numerical codes. Rough data, derived from real scale measurements on a three-bladed Troposkien vertical-axis wind turbine, are manipulated in a convenient form to be easily compared with the typical outputs provided by simulation codes. The here proposed data complement and support the measurements already presented in “Wind Tunnel Testing of the DeepWind Demonstrator in Design and Tilted Operating Conditions” (Battisti et al., 2016 [1]. Keywords: VAWT, DeepWind Project, Troposkien rotor, Skewed flow, Wind tunnel measurements, Wind turbine benchmark data

  7. CT and MR imaging of the normal and pathologic conditions of the facial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Lorenz E-mail: jaeger@ikra.med.uni-muenchen.de; Reiser, Maximilian

    2001-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are well established imaging modalities to examine the facial nerve as well as the course of the facial nerve itself. High spatial resolution is guaranteed not only in the x- and y-axis, but also in the z-axis using multislice spiral CT. With this technique, reformatted multiplanar images in oblique planes, avoiding additional examinations in the coronal plane, facilitate the delineation of the facial nerve canal. This is beneficial in patients with temporal bone trauma, malformation or osseous changes. MR has a superior soft-tissue contrast to CT that enables imaging of the facial nerve itself. Therefore the normal facial nerve as well as pathologic changes of the facial nerve is readily visualized from the brain stem to the parotid gland. This review article presents anatomy, pathology and imaging strategies in the diagnostics of the facial nerve.

  8. [Comparative studying of anaerobic bacteria located in woman's reproductive ways in normal condition and dysbiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishko, T N; Sirokvasha, E A; Klokov, V V; Vinnikov, A I

    2008-01-01

    Bacteriological investigation of obligate anaerobic bacteria located in UGT of two groups of the observed women has shown: that the microbiocoenosis of UGT of women of the group 1 can be determined as normal. Identification of these anaerobic bacteria revealed the presence of representatives of the following species: Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Eubacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium spp., Peptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus spp. The microbiocoenosis of UGT of the women of group 2 is diagnosed as vaginosis, thus in addition to the listed previously bacteria is added another one, Clostridium spp. Characteristic feature of Vaginosis is from one side a considerable decrease in the frequency of finding (cultivation) and concentration of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. and from another side--a considerable increase of frequency finding (cultivation) and concentration of Bacteroides spp. In addition, there is change of metabolism of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp resulting in decrease in specific intensity of secretion of acids.

  9. 76 FR 8314 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Operation Without Normal Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... issue a finding of regulatory adequacy pursuant to section 611 of Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control....101. Novel or Unusual Design Features The GVI incorporates an electronic flight control system that... Special Conditions The GVI incorporates an electronic flight control system that requires a continuous...

  10. The Impact of Listening Condition on Background Noise Acceptance for Young Adults with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Moore, Robert E.; Estis, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of different speech conditions on background noise acceptance. A total of 23 stimulus pairings, differing in primary talker gender (female, male, conventional), number of background talkers (1, 4, 12), and gender composition of the background noise (female, male, mixed) were used to evaluate background noise…

  11. 76 FR 66660 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane, Operation Without Normal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 [Docket No. FAA-2011-1172: Notice No. 25-11-17-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane... Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature...

  12. Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy in biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Peter; Thomas, Steven; Allen, John; McLaren, Wendy; Murr, Elise; Harris, Martin

    2007-02-01

    resolution. In rodent disease models, in vivo endomicroscopy with appropriate fluorescent agents allowed examination of thrombosis formation, tumour microvasculature and liver metastases, diagnosis and staging of ulcerative colitis, liver necrosis and glomerulonephritis. Miniaturised confocal endomicroscopy allows rapid in vivo molecular and subsurface microscopy of normal and pathologic tissue at high resolution in small and large whole animal models. Fluorescein endomicroscopy has recently been introduced into the medical device market as a clinical imaging tool in GI endoscopy and is undergoing clinical evaluation in laparoscopic surgery. This medical usage is encouraging in-situ endomicroscopy as an important pre-clinical research tool to observe microscopic and molecular system biologic events in vivo in animal models for various human diseases.

  13. CATHENA Analysis Of Candu Advanced Passive Moderator Concept In Normal Operation Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfa, Sudjatmi K

    2001-01-01

    In the CANDU - advanced passive moderator (APM) concept, the positive void reactivity is eliminated by reducing the density of the moderator. The simple model for the CANDU APM concept consists of the calandria, heat exchanger, pump, and a stabilizing tank, along with connecting piping. The calandria is divided into two parts, one part simulates the down area, while the other simulates up flow area. To demonstrate the thermalhydraulic behavior of the APM concept, Canadian algorithm for thermalhydraulic network analysis (CATHENA) code is used. The simulation for a pressure boundary condition of 300, 330 and 360 kPa and for water coolant mass flow rate boundary conditions of 2000 and 3000 kg/s respectively have been studied. Preliminary results show that there is boiling in the core, with vapor condensing in the heat exchanger. It is important to note, that the solution had not reached steady state when the boiling occurred

  14. Return to normal streamflows and water levels: summary of hydrologic conditions in Georgia, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaak, Andrew E.; Caslow, Kerry; Peck, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) South Atlantic Water Science Center (SAWSC) Georgia office, in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, maintains a long-term hydrologic monitoring network of more than 340 real-time continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages), including 10 real-time lake-level monitoring stations, 67 real-time surface-water-quality monitors, and several water-quality sampling programs. Additionally, the SAWSC Georgia office operates more than 180 groundwater monitoring wells, 39 of which are real-time. The wide-ranging coverage of streamflow, reservoir, and groundwater monitoring sites allows for a comprehensive view of hydrologic conditions across the State. One of the many benefits of this monitoring network is that the analyses of the data provide a spatially distributed overview of the hydrologic conditions of creeks, rivers, reservoirs, and aquifers in Georgia.

  15. Evaluation of some sorghum genotypes under normal and moisture-stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Assar, A. H.; Salih, M.; Wagner, C.; Friedt, W.; Abdelmula, A. A.; Ordon, F.; Steffens, D.

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the morphological and physiological attributes related to drought tolerance in sorghum (sorghum bicolor (L) Moench). Eight genotypes were tested in a pot experiment carried out at Giessen, Germany. Drought conditions were imposed by withholding watering of the plants when filed water-holding capacity was at 40% and 70%. The tested genotypes differed significantly in most of the measured traits. Grain yield under drought stress ranged from 28 to 61 g/ plant, and relative yield ranged 30% to 56% with an average of 47%. Based on yield/plant, the genotypes Wad Ahmed (61g). SAR 41 (55 g) and ICSR 91030 (54 g) were the best under drought stress conditions, and based on relative yield, the best genotypes were SAR 41 (56%), Wad Ahmed (55%), and Red Mugud (53%). The mean potassium content was 18 mg/g, with a range of 14 mg/g (Red Mugud) to 22 mg/g (Arfa Gadamak). Significant difference were obtained for protein percentage of the dry matter under conditions of drought stress. The values ranged form 14.1% (Red Mugud) to 16.7% (Tabat) with a mean of 15.3%. Grain yield under drought stress was positively correlated with relative yield (r= 0.89), total biomass (r= 0.56), number of seeds per panicle (r= 0.66) and harvest index (r= 0.81), but negatively correlated with 1000-grain (r= 0.37). (Author)

  16. Fuel performance under normal PWR conditions: A review of relevant experimental results and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, M.; Lemaignan, C.

    1992-06-01

    Experiments conducted at Grenoble (CEA/DRN) over the past 20 years in the field of nuclear fuel behaviour are reviewed. Of particular concern is the need to achieve a comprehensive understanding of and subsequently overcome the limitations associated with high burnup and load-following conditions (pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), fission gas release (FGR), water-side corrosion). A general view is given of the organization of research work as well as some experimental details (irradiation, postirradiation examination — PIE). Based on various experimental programmes (Cyrano, Medicis, Anemone, Furet, Tango, Contact, Cansar, Hatac, Flog, Decor), the main contributions of the thermomechanical behaviour of a PWR fuel rod are described: thermal conductivity, in-pile densification, swelling, fission gas release in steady state and moderate transient conditions, gap thermal conductance, formation of primary and secondary ridges under PCI conditions. Specific programmes (Gdgrif, Thermox, Grimox) are devoted to the behaviour of particular fuels (gadolinia-bearing fuel, MOX fuel). Moreover, microstructure-based studies have been undertaken on fission gas release (fine analysis of the bubble population inside irradiated fuel samples), and on cladding behaviour (PCI related studies on stress-corrosion cracking (SCO, irradiation effects on zircaloy microstructure).

  17. Studies on level of cytokines and expression of connexin43 in tumor and normal cells in culture conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asati, V.; Pandey, B.N.

    2016-01-01

    Factors secreted from the tumor cells in culture medium have been known to facilitate the growth of fresh cultures and also to affect the cellular radio-sensitivity. Moreover, expression of gap junction proteins like connexin-43 is known as a key player in cell survival and proliferation. The present study is aimed to evaluate the effects of conditioned medium on the growth of respective tumor/normal cells and the expression of connexin-43 in these cells

  18. A generalized L1-approach for a kernel estimator of conditional quantile with functional regressors: Consistency and asymptotic normality

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A kernel estimator of the conditional quantile is defined for a scalar response variable given a covariate taking values in a semi-metric space. The approach generalizes the median?s L1-norm estimator. The almost complete consistency and asymptotic normality are stated. correspondance: Corresponding author. Tel: +33 320 964 933; fax: +33 320 964 704. (Lemdani, Mohamed) (Laksaci, Ali) mohamed.lemdani@univ-lill...

  19. A simple treatment of fission gas for normal and accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.R.; Wood, M.H.

    1980-01-01

    A set of simple modules have been developed to describe fission gas release and swelling in oxide nuclear fuels for use in fuel behaviour codes. The methods used are simplifications of earlier more detailed work and contain several important developments that allow for improved accuracy over earlier simple treatments and the description of the fission gas bubble population with little penalty in computer time or storage. The three modules are: (i) intragranular fission gas behaviour during normal operation, which treats gas bubble nucleation, growth and destruction by fission fragments and the diffusion of gas to the grain boundaries by single gas atom diffusion, (ii) intragranular fission gas behaviour during rapid transients which treats the migration and coalescence of gas bubbles, the sweeping up of fission gas atoms by bubbles and the drift of gas bubbles to the grain boundary under the driving force of the temperature gradient, and (iii) intergranular fission gas behaviour, which treats the growth and interaction of face and edge bubbles on the grain boundary, their interlinkage and gas release. All these models allow for transient behaviour and are compared with experimental observations of both macroscopic swelling and gas release (and retention) and microscopic observations of bubble sizes and concentrations. (author)

  20. Release of lead from crystal decanters under conditions of normal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, S J; Constantine, L A

    1994-03-01

    The pattern of release of lead (Pb) from crystal was investigated using new and used decanters. Two decanters in use prior to this study yielded significantly less Pb into sherry than did a decanter during its initial use. Pb concentrations in sherry after storage for 2 months reached 50, 163 or 1410 micrograms/litre in decanters previously used for 20, or for 10 yr, or a new decanter, respectively. The new decanter imparted progressively less Pb through normal use. Pb concentration was assayed in sherry during a series of three separate sampling periods, each 2 months in duration. The Pb concentration at the end of each period was 1410, 330 or 150 micrograms/litre respectively. These data are consistent with ceramic chemistry theory, which predicts that leaching of Pb from crystal is self-limiting exponentially as a function of increasing distance from the crystal-liquid interface. The results of this investigation support the concept that sufficient ageing of Pb crystal prior to use reduces, to acceptable levels, the human health risk to adults associated with consumption of beverages stored in Pb crystal decanters.

  1. Extending the application range of a fuel performance code from normal operating to design basis accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Uffelen, P.; Gyori, C.; Schubert, A.; Laar, J. van de; Hozer, Z.; Spykman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two types of fuel performance codes are generally being applied, corresponding to the normal operating conditions and the design basis accident conditions, respectively. In order to simplify the code management and the interface between the codes, and to take advantage of the hardware progress it is favourable to generate a code that can cope with both conditions. In the first part of the present paper, we discuss the needs for creating such a code. The second part of the paper describes an example of model developments carried out by various members of the TRANSURANUS user group for coping with a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In the third part, the validation of the extended fuel performance code is presented for LOCA conditions, whereas the last section summarises the present status and indicates needs for further developments to enable the code to deal with reactivity initiated accident (RIA) events

  2. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.; Cashwell, J.W.; Apple, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Shipments of radioactive material (RAM) constitute but a small fraction of the total hazardous materials shipped in the United States each year. Public perception, however, of the potential consequences of a release from a transportation package containing RAM has resulted in significant regulation of transport operations, both to ensure the integrity of a package in accident conditions and to place operational constraints on the shipper. Much of this attention has focused on shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high level wastes which, although comprising a very small number of total shipments, constitute a majority of the total curies transported on an annual basis. This report discusses the shipment of these highly radioactive materials

  3. Analytical model for power plant condenser for transients and off-normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangamani, I.; Dutta, Anu; Chakraborty, G.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2006-11-01

    A computer code for power plant condenser dynamic analysis has been developed based on a lumped parameter approach considering time dependent mass and energy conservation equations over the control volumes for the shell side as well as tube side fluids. Effects of heat transfer on condenser structure and hot well level transients were considered in the analysis. Suitable heat transfer coefficient recommended by various standards and codes were employed. The code was used to analyze the condenser performance during steady state as well as transient (load rejection or turbine trip) conditions. The condenser performance is predicted in terms of condenser back pressure, shell side steam temperature and tube side coolant exit temperature with respect to time. As a part of parametric studies, the effect of change in tube side coolant flow rate and inlet temperature was also studied. The analysis predicted that up to 47% of rated coolant flow rate on the tube side (for design conditions), the steam dumping can be continued without condenser isolation. The paper describes the detailed methodology adopted for the condenser modeling and presents the results obtained from the different parametric studies and code validation. (author)

  4. Reading performance of monofocal pseudophakic patients with and without glasses under normal and dim light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, Wolfgang; Radner, Stephan; Raunig, Valerian; Diendorfer, Gabriela

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate reading performance of patients with monofocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) (Acrysof SN60WF) with or without reading glasses under bright and dim light conditions. Austrian Academy of Ophthalmology, Vienna, Austria. Evaluation of a diagnostic test or technology. In pseudophakic patients, the spherical refractive error was limited to between +0.50 diopter (D) and -0.75 D with astigmatism of 0.75 D (mean spherical equivalent: right eye, -0.08 ± 0.43 [SD]; left eye, -0.15 ± 0.35). Near addition was +2.75 D. Reading performance was assessed binocularly with or without reading glasses at an illumination of 100 candelas (cd)/m(2) and 4 cd/m(2) using the Radner Reading Charts. In the 25 patients evaluated, binocularly, the mean corrected distance visual acuity was -0.07 ± 0.06 logMAR and the mean uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.01 ± 0.11 logMAR. The mean reading acuity with reading glasses was 0.02 ± 0.10 logRAD at 100 cd/m(2) and 0.12 ± 0.14 logRAD at 4 cd/m(2). Without reading glasses, it was 0.44 ± 0.13 logRAD and 0.56 ± 0.16 logRAD, respectively (P light conditions. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Design report on the guide box-reactivity and safety control plates for MPR reactor under normal operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markiewicz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The reactivity control system for the MPR reactor (Multi Purpose Reactor) is a critical component regarding safety, it must ensure a fast shut down, maintaining the reactor in subcritical condition under normal or accidental operation condition. For this purpose, this core component must be designed to maintain its operating capacity during all the residence time and under any foreseen operation condition. The mechanical design of control plates and guide boxes must comply with structural integrity, maintaining its geometric and dimensional stability within the pre-established limits to prevent interferences with other core components. For this, the heat generation effect, mechanical loads and environment and irradiation effects were evaluated during the mechanical design. The reactivity control system is composed of guide boxes, manufactured from Aluminium alloy, located between the fuel elements, and control absorber plates of Ag-In-Cd alloy hermetically enclosed by a cladding of stainless steel sliding inside de guide boxes. The upward-downward movement is transmitted by a rod from the motion device located at the reactor lower part. The design requirements, criteria and limits were established to fulfill with the normal and abnormal operation conditions. The design verifications were performed by analytical method, estimating the guide box and control plates residence time. The result of the analysis performed, shows that the design of the reactivity control system and the material selected, are appropriate to fulfill the functional requirements, with no failures attributed to the mechanical design. (author)

  6. Efficiency of measures aimed at improving health by normalization of temperature conditions in the Kochegarka mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, G.I.; Nifonov, V.P.; Kobets, A.N.

    1981-06-01

    This paper evaluates effects of air conditioning in the Kochegarka black coal mine on miners' health. Up to 1975 air temperature in the lowest mine horizon located at a depth of 970 m ranged from 26 to 32 C, in summer from 34 to 36 C. Air humidity ranged from 94 to 98%. Since 1975 KhTMF-248-4000 freon air cooling machines have been used in the mine; their capacity amounts to 3.8 x 10/SUP/6 kcal/h. Use of air cooling systems reduces air temperature to permissible limits. Air temperature measured at a distance of 1 km from mine shaft ranges from 24 to 26 C, and air humidity from 90 to 95%. At a distance of 1.5 km from the mine shaft air temperature in conveyor roadways is 26.4 C, in dead-end development workings 27 C, and at working faces 26 C (with air humidity ranging from 96 to 98%). ARVP systems for local air cooling are used at places distant from the mine shaft. The ARVP reduces air temperature from 2 to 4.5 C at a distance ranging from 4 to 8 m from the machine. Reducing air temperature, combined with other measures aimed at improving miners' health, has caused a decrease in miner absenteeism due to illness by 25.4%.

  7. Structural evaluation and analysis under normal conditions for spent fuel concrete storage cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Taechul; Baeg, Changyeal; Yoon, Sitae [Korea Radioactive waste Management Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Insoo [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is the verification of stabilities of the structural elements that influence the safety of a concrete storage cask. The evaluation results were reviewed with respect to every design criterion, in terms of whether the results satisfy the criteria, provided by 10CFR 72 and NUREG-1536. The basic information on the design is partially explained in 2. Description of spent fuel storage system and the maintainability and assumptions included in the analysis were confirmed through detailed explanations of the acceptable standards, analysis model, and analysis method. ABAQUS 6.10, a widely used finite element analysis program, was used in the structural analysis. The storage cask shall maintain the sub-criticality, shielding, structural integrity, thermal capability and confinement in accordance with the requirements specified in US 10 CFR 72. The safety of storage cask is analyzed and it has been confirmed to meet the requirements of US 10 CFR 72. This paper summarizes the structural stability evaluation results of a concrete storage cask with respect to the design criteria. The evaluation results of this paper show that the maximum stress was below the allowable stress under every condition, and the concrete storage cask satisfied the design criteria.

  8. Comparison between particulate matter and ultrafine particle emission by electronic and normal cigarettes in real-life conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; De Marco, Cinzia; Pozzi, Paolo; Munarini, Elena; Mazza, Roberto; Angellotti, Giorgia; Turla, Francesca; Boffi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes may be safer than conventional cigarettes as they generate less indoor pollution in terms of particulate matter (PM); however, recent findings in experimental conditions demonstrated that secondhand exposure to PM may be expected from e-cigarette smoking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emission of PM generated by e-cigarettes and normal cigarettes under real-life conditions. Real-time measurement and comparison of PM and ultrafine particles (UFP) generated by electronic cigarettes with and without nicotine and by normal cigarettes in a 50 m3 office of an Italian comprehensive cancer center was performed. PM mass as PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10, total suspended particles (TSP) in μg/m³ and UFP in number of particles per cubic centimeter from 10 to 1,000 nanometers were measured. Outdoor concentrations were measured contemporaneously to compensate for urban background changes. Regardless of their nicotine content, e-cigarettes generated lower PM levels than conventional cigarettes. Notably, nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes produced lower PM levels than their nicotine-free counterparts. E-cigarettes appear to generate less indoor pollution than normal cigarettes and may therefore be safer. Further studies are required to investigate the long-term health-related effects of secondhand e-cigarette exposure.

  9. Monomeric adiponectin modulates nitric oxide release and calcium movements in porcine aortic endothelial cells in normal/high glucose conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossini, Elena; Farruggio, Serena; Qoqaiche, Fatima; Raina, Giulia; Camillo, Lara; Sigaudo, Lorenzo; Mary, David; Surico, Nicola; Surico, Daniela

    2016-09-15

    Perivascular adipose tissue can be involved in the process of cardiovascular pathology through the release of adipokines, namely adiponectins. Monomeric adiponectin has been shown to increase coronary blood flow in anesthetized pigs through increased nitric oxide (NO) release and the involvement of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1). The present study was therefore planned to examine the effects of monomeric adiponectin on NO release and Ca(2+) transients in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEs) in normal/high glucose conditions and the related mechanisms. PAEs were treated with monomeric adiponectin alone or in the presence of intracellular kinases blocker, AdipoR1 and Ca(2+)-ATPase pump inhibitors. The role of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger was examined in experiments performed in zero Na(+) medium. NO release and intracellular Ca(2+) were measured through specific probes. In PAE cultured in normal glucose conditions, monomeric adiponectin elevated NO production and [Ca(2+)]c. Similar effects were observed in high glucose conditions, although the response was lower and not transient. The Ca(2+) mobilized by monomeric adiponectin originated from an intracellular pool thapsigargin- and ATP-sensitive and from the extracellular space. Moreover, the effects of monomeric adiponectin were prevented by kinase blockers and AdipoR1 inhibitor. Finally, in normal glucose condition, a role for Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and Ca(2+)-ATPase pump in restoring Ca(2+) was found. Our results add new information about the control of endothelial function elicited by monomeric adiponectin, which would be achieved by modulation of NO release and Ca(2+) transients. A signalling related to Akt, ERK1/2 and p38MAPK downstream AdipoR1 would be involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. GENETIC VARIABILITY OF CULTURED PLANT TISSUES UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS AND UNDER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgikh Yu.I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability induced by in vitro conditions known as somaclonal variation is of practical interest due to its potential uses in plant breeding but, on the other hand, if clonal propagation or transformation is main goal, it becomes an unwelcome phenomenon. Thus, it is important to know frequency, the genomic distribution, the mechanisms and factors influencing somaclonal variation. We studied variability of PCR-based DNA markers of cultured tissues and regenerated plants of maize and bread wheat. The original A188 line of maize and the somaclones obtained were tested using 38 RAPD and 10 ISSR primers. None of the A188 plants showed variation in the RAPD and ISSR spectra for any of the primers used. However, the PCR spectra obtained from the somaclones demonstrated some variations, i.e., 22 RAPD primers and 6 ISSR primers differentiated at least one somaclonal variant from the progenitor line. Six SCAR markers were developed based on several RAPD and ISSR fragments. The inheritance of these SCAR markers was verified in the selfing progeny of each somaclone in the R1–R4 generations and in the hybrids, with A188 as the parental line in the F1 and F2 generations. These markers were sequenced and bioinformatic searches were performed to understand the molecular events that may underlie the variability observed in the somaclones. All changes were found in noncoding sequences and were induced by different molecular events, such as the insertion of long terminal repeat transposon, precise miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE excision, microdeletion, recombination, and a change in the pool of mitochondrial DNA. In two groups of independently produced somaclones, the same features (morphological, molecular were variable, which confirms the theory of ‘hot spots’ occurring in the genome. The presence of the same molecular markers in the somaclones and in different non-somaclonal maize variants suggests that in some cases

  11. Emerging roles of exosomes in normal and pathological conditions. New insights for diagnosis and therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta eDe Toro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available From the time when they were first described in the 1970s by the group of Johnstone and Stahl, exosomes are a target of constant research. Exosomes belong to the family of nano-vesicles which are of great interest for their many functions and potential for diagnosis and therapy in multiples diseases. Exosomes originate from the intraluminal vesicles of late endosomal compartments named multivesicular bodies and the fusion of these late endosomes with the cell membrane result in the release of the vesicles into the extracellular compartment. Moreover, their generation can be induced by many factors including extracellular stimuli, such as microbial attack and other stress conditions. The primary role attributed to exosomes was the removal of unnecessary proteins from the cells. Now, several studies have demonstrated that exosomes are involved in cell-cell communication, even though their biological function is not completely clear.The participation of exosomes in cancer is the field of microvesicle research that has expanded more over the last years. Evidence proving that exosomes derived from tumor-pulsed dendritic cells, neoplastic cells and malignant effusions, are able to present antigens to T‐cells, has led to numerous studies using them as cell free cancer vaccines.Since exosomes derive from all cell types, they contain proteins, lipids and miRNA capable of regulating a variety of target genes. Much research is being conducted, which focuses on the employment of these vesicles as biomarkers in the diagnosis of cancer in addition to innovative biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and management of cardiovascular diseases. Interesting findings indicating the role of exosomes in the pathogenesis of several diseases have encouraged researchers to consider their therapeutic potential not only in oncology but also in the treatment of autoimmune syndromes and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s disease; in addition

  12. Evaluation of permeable and non-permeable tritium in normal condition in a fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta, V; Manuel, P J [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (DENIM)/ETSII, Universidad Politecnica Madrid (UPM) (Spain); Sedano Luis, A [Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia, Ciemat (Spain)], E-mail: marta@denim.upm.es

    2008-05-15

    The tritium cycle, technologies of process and control of the tritium in the plant will constitute a fraction of the environmental impact of the first generation of DT fusion reactors. The efforts of conceptual development of the tritium cycle are centered in the Internal Regenerator Cycle. The tritium could be recovered from a flow of He gas, or directly from solid breeder. The limits of transfers to the atmosphere are assumed {approx} 1 gr-T/a ({approx}20 Ci/a) (without species distinction). In the case of ITER, for example, we have global demands of control of 5 orders of magnitude have been demonstrated at experimental level. The transfer limits determine the key parameters in tritium Cycle (HT, HTO, as dominant, and T2, T2O as marginal). Presently, the transfer from the cycle to the environment is assumed through the exchange system of the power plant (primary to secondary). That transport is due to the permeation through HT, T2, or leakage to the coolant in the primary system. It is key the chemical optimization in the primary system, that needs to be reanalyzed in terms of radiological impact both for permeable, HT, T2, and non-permeable HTO, T2O. It is necessary considered the pathway of tritium from the reactor to the atmosphere, these processes are modelled adequately. Results of the assessments were early and chronic doses which have been evaluated for the Most Exposed Individual at particular distance bands from the release point. The impact evaluations will be performed with the computational tools (NORMTRI), besides national regulatory models, internationally accepted computer these code for dosimetric evaluations of tritiated effluents in operational conditions.

  13. Radiation Dose Estimates in Indian Adults in Normal and Pathological Conditions due to 99Tcm-Labelled Radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, K.; Jain, S.C.; Jain, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    ICRP Publications 53, 62 and 80 give organ dose coefficients and effective doses to ICRP Reference Man and Child from established nuclear medicine procedures. However, an average Indian adult differs significantly from the ICRP Reference Man as regards anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics, and is also considered to have different tissue weighting factors (called here risk factors). The masses of total body and most organs are significantly lower for the Indian adult than for his ICRP counterpart (e.g. body mass 52 and 70 kg respectively). Similarly, the risk factors are lower by 20-30% for 8 out of the 13 organs and 30-60% higher for 3 organs. In the present study, available anatomical data of Indians and their risk factors have been utilised to estimate the radiation doses from administration of commonly used 99 Tc m -labelled radiopharmaceuticals under normal and certain pathological conditions. The following pathological conditions have been considered for phosphates/phosphonates - high bone uptake and severely impaired kidney function; IDA - parenchymal liver disease, occlusion of cystic duct, and occlusion of bile duct; DTPA - abnormal renal function; large colloids - early to intermediate diffuse parenchymal liver disease, intermediate to advanced parenchymal liver disease; small colloids - early to intermediate parenchymal liver disease, intermediate to advanced parenchymal liver disease; and MAG3 - abnormal renal function, acute unilateral renal blockage. The estimated 'effective doses' to Indian adults are 14-21% greater than the ICRP value from administration of the same activity of radiopharmaceutical under normal physiological conditions based on anatomical considerations alone, because of the smaller organ masses for the Indian; for some pathological conditions the effective doses are 11-22% more. When tissue risk factors are considered in addition to anatomical considerations, the estimated effective doses are still found to be

  14. QUANTITATIVE CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Krog Raarup

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent advances in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM for imaging of 3D structure as well as quantitative characterization of biomolecular interactions and diffusion behaviour by means of one- and two-photon excitation. The use of CLSM for improved stereological length estimation in thick (up to 0.5 mm tissue is proposed. The techniques of FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy, FCS (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching are introduced and their applicability for quantitative imaging of biomolecular (co-localization and trafficking in live cells described. The advantage of two-photon versus one-photon excitation in relation to these techniques is discussed.

  15. Confocal imaging of butterfly tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Craig R

    2014-01-01

    To understand the molecular events responsible for morphological change requires the ability to examine gene expression in a wide range of organisms in addition to model systems to determine how the differences in gene expression correlate with phenotypic differences. There are approximately 12,000 species of butterflies, most, with distinct patterns on their wings. The most important tool for studying gene expression in butterflies is confocal imaging of butterfly tissue by indirect immunofluorescence using either cross-reactive antibodies from closely related species such as Drosophila or developing butterfly-specific antibodies. In this report, we describe how indirect immunofluorescence protocols can be used to visualize protein expression patterns on the butterfly wing imaginal disc and butterfly embryo.

  16. Fibroblast-matrix interplay: Nintedanib and pirfenidone modulate the effect of IPF fibroblast-conditioned matrix on normal fibroblast phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein Shochet, Gali; Wollin, Lutz; Shitrit, David

    2018-03-12

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with poor prognosis. Activated fibroblasts are the key effector cells in fibrosis, producing excessive amounts of collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Whether the ECM conditioned by IPF fibroblasts determines the phenotype of naïve fibroblasts is difficult to explore. IPF-derived primary fibroblasts were cultured on Matrigel and then cleared using ammonium hydroxide, creating an IPF-conditioned matrix (CM). Normal fibroblast CM served as control. Normal fibroblasts were cultured on both types of CM, and cell count, cell distribution and markers of myofibroblast differentiation; transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signalling; and ECM expression were assessed. The effects of the anti-fibrotic drugs nintedanib and pirfenidone at physiologically relevant concentrations were also explored. Normal fibroblasts cultured on IPF-CM arranged in large aggregates as a result of increased proliferation and migration. Moreover, increased levels of pSmad3, pSTAT3 (phospho signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and Collagen1a were found, suggesting a differentiation towards a myofibroblast-like phenotype. SB505124 (10 μmol/L) partially reversed these alterations, suggesting a TGFβ contribution. Furthermore, nintedanib at 100 nmol/L and, to a lesser extent, pirfenidone at 100 μmol/L prevented the IPF-CM-induced fibroblast phenotype alterations, suggesting an attenuation of the ECM-fibroblast interplay. IPF fibroblasts alter the ECM, thus creating a CM that further propagates an IPF-like phenotype in normal fibroblasts. This assay demonstrated differences in drug activities for approved IPF drugs at clinically relevant concentrations. Thus, the matrix-fibroblast phenotype interplay might be a relevant assay to explore drug candidates for IPF treatment. © 2018 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. Confocal Imaging of porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S.; Crawshaw, D.; Boek, D.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonate rocks, which hold approximately 50% of the world's oil and gas reserves, have a very complicated and heterogeneous structure in comparison with sandstone reservoir rock. We present advances with different techniques to image, reconstruct, and characterize statistically the micro-geometry of carbonate pores. The main goal here is to develop a technique to obtain two dimensional and three dimensional images using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. CLSM is used in epi-fluorescent imaging mode, allowing for the very high optical resolution of features well below 1μm size. Images of pore structures were captured using CLSM imaging where spaces in the carbonate samples were impregnated with a fluorescent, dyed epoxy-resin, and scanned in the x-y plane by a laser probe. We discuss the sample preparation in detail for Confocal Imaging to obtain sub-micron resolution images of heterogeneous carbonate rocks. We also discuss the technical and practical aspects of this imaging technique, including its advantages and limitation. We present several examples of this application, including studying pore geometry in carbonates, characterizing sub-resolution porosity in two dimensional images. We then describe approaches to extract statistical information about porosity using image processing and spatial correlation function. We have managed to obtain very low depth information in z -axis (~ 50μm) to develop three dimensional images of carbonate rocks with the current capabilities and limitation of CLSM technique. Hence, we have planned a novel technique to obtain higher depth information to obtain high three dimensional images with sub-micron resolution possible in the lateral and axial planes.

  18. Confocal Raman Microscopy; applications in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Apeldoorn, Aart A.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation describes the use of confocal Raman microscopy and spectroscopy in the field of tissue engineering. Moreover, it describes the combination of two already existing technologies, namely scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy in one apparatus for the enhancement

  19. Differences in kata performance time and distance from a marker for experienced Shotokan karateka under normal sighted and blindfolded conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Clive; Avenell, Leon

    2002-08-01

    10 experienced Shotokan karateka were tested on performance time and distance from a marker on the five Heian kata under normal sighted and blind-folded conditions. Whilst each kata's line of movement is different, it is the intention to start and finish at the same location. Analysis showed that despite an average of 16.8 yr. of training, whilst timing was not significantly affected on four of the kata by subjects being deprived of the visual sense, the group's mean change in distance from an original marker was significant for performances on three of the kata.

  20. Speech perception in older listeners with normal hearing:conditions of time alteration, selective word stress, and length of sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soojin; Yu, Jyaehyoung; Chun, Hyungi; Seo, Hyekyung; Han, Woojae

    2014-04-01

    Deficits of the aging auditory system negatively affect older listeners in terms of speech communication, resulting in limitations to their social lives. To improve their perceptual skills, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of time alteration, selective word stress, and varying sentence lengths on the speech perception of older listeners. Seventeen older people with normal hearing were tested for seven conditions of different time-altered sentences (i.e., ±60%, ±40%, ±20%, 0%), two conditions of selective word stress (i.e., no-stress and stress), and three different lengths of sentences (i.e., short, medium, and long) at the most comfortable level for individuals in quiet circumstances. As time compression increased, sentence perception scores decreased statistically. Compared to a natural (or no stress) condition, the selectively stressed words significantly improved the perceptual scores of these older listeners. Long sentences yielded the worst scores under all time-altered conditions. Interestingly, there was a noticeable positive effect for the selective word stress at the 20% time compression. This pattern of results suggests that a combination of time compression and selective word stress is more effective for understanding speech in older listeners than using the time-expanded condition only.

  1. A non-parametric conditional bivariate reference region with an application to height/weight measurements on normal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2009-01-01

    A conceptually simple two-dimensional conditional reference curve is described. The curve gives a decision basis for determining whether a bivariate response from an individual is "normal" or "abnormal" when taking into account that a third (conditioning) variable may influence the bivariate...... response. The reference curve is not only characterized analytically but also by geometric properties that are easily communicated to medical doctors - the users of such curves. The reference curve estimator is completely non-parametric, so no distributional assumptions are needed about the two......-dimensional response. An example that will serve to motivate and illustrate the reference is the study of the height/weight distribution of 7-8-year-old Danish school girls born in 1930, 1950, or 1970....

  2. Study and Optimization on graft polymerization under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions, and its application to metal adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Yuji; Chandra Dafader, Nirmal; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto non-woven polyethylene (NWPE) fabric was achieved under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions, without using unique apparatus such as glass ampoules or vacuum lines. To attain graft polymerization under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions, the effects of the pre-irradiation dose, pre-irradiation atmosphere, pre-irradiation temperature, de-aeration of GMA-emulsion, grafting atmosphere in a reactor, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in GMA-emulsion on the degree of grafting (Dg) were investigated in detail. It was found that the DO concentration had the strongest influence, the pre-irradiation dose, de-aeration of emulsion and grafting atmosphere had a relatively strong impact, and the pre-irradiation atmosphere and pre-irradiation temperature had the least effect on Dg. The optimum DO concentration before grafting was 2.0 mg/L or less. When a polyethylene bottle was used as a reactor instead of a glass ampoule, graft polymerization under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions could be achieved under the following conditions; the pre-irradiation dose was more than 50 kGy, the volume ratio of GMA-emulsion to air was 50:1 or less, and the DO concentration in GMA-emulsion during grafting was below 2.0 mg/L. Under these grafting conditions, Dg was controlled within a range of up to 362%. The prepared GMA–grafted NWPE (GMA–g-NWPE) fabric was modified with a phosphoric acid to obtain an adsorbent for heavy metal ions. In the column-mode adsorption tests of Pb(II), the adsorption performance of the produced phosphorylated GMA–g-NWPE fabric (fibrous metal adsorbent) was not essentially dependent on the flow rate of the feed. The breakthrough points of 200, 500, and 1000 h −1 in space velocity were 483, 477 and 462 bed volumes, and the breakthrough capacities of the three flow rates were 1.16, 1.15 and 1.16 mmol-Pb(II)/g-adsorbent.

  3. Study and Optimization on graft polymerization under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions, and its application to metal adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Yuji; Chandra Dafader, Nirmal; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao

    2012-07-01

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto non-woven polyethylene (NWPE) fabric was achieved under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions, without using unique apparatus such as glass ampoules or vacuum lines. To attain graft polymerization under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions, the effects of the pre-irradiation dose, pre-irradiation atmosphere, pre-irradiation temperature, de-aeration of GMA-emulsion, grafting atmosphere in a reactor, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in GMA-emulsion on the degree of grafting (Dg) were investigated in detail. It was found that the DO concentration had the strongest influence, the pre-irradiation dose, de-aeration of emulsion and grafting atmosphere had a relatively strong impact, and the pre-irradiation atmosphere and pre-irradiation temperature had the least effect on Dg. The optimum DO concentration before grafting was 2.0 mg/L or less. When a polyethylene bottle was used as a reactor instead of a glass ampoule, graft polymerization under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions could be achieved under the following conditions; the pre-irradiation dose was more than 50 kGy, the volume ratio of GMA-emulsion to air was 50:1 or less, and the DO concentration in GMA-emulsion during grafting was below 2.0 mg/L. Under these grafting conditions, Dg was controlled within a range of up to 362%. The prepared GMA-grafted NWPE (GMA-g-NWPE) fabric was modified with a phosphoric acid to obtain an adsorbent for heavy metal ions. In the column-mode adsorption tests of Pb(II), the adsorption performance of the produced phosphorylated GMA-g-NWPE fabric (fibrous metal adsorbent) was not essentially dependent on the flow rate of the feed. The breakthrough points of 200, 500, and 1000 h-1 in space velocity were 483, 477 and 462 bed volumes, and the breakthrough capacities of the three flow rates were 1.16, 1.15 and 1.16 mmol-Pb(II)/g-adsorbent.

  4. A comparison of spent fuel shipping cask response to 10 CFR 71 normal conditions and realistic hot day extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, S.J.; Gianoulakis, S.E.

    1994-04-01

    An examination of the effect of a realistic (though conservative) hot day environment on the thermal transient behavior of spent fuel shipping casks is made. These results are compared to those that develop under the prescribed normal thermal condition of 10 CFR 71. Of specific concern are the characteristics of propagating thermal waves, which are set up by diurnal variations of temperature and insolation in the outdoor environment. In order to arrive at a realistic approximation of these variations on a conservative hot day, actual temperature and insolation measurements have been obtained from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) for representatively hot and high heat flux days. Thus, the use of authentic meteorological data ensures the realistic approach sought. Further supporting the desired realism of the modeling effort is the use of realistic cask configurations in which multiple laminations of structural, shielding, and other materials are expected to attenuate the propagating thermal waves. The completed analysis revealed that the majority of wall temperatures, for a wide variety of spent fuel shipping cask configurations, fall well below those predicted by enforcement of the regulatory environmental conditions of 10 CFR 71. It was found that maximum temperatures at the cask surface occasionally lie above temperatures predicted under the prescribed regulatory conditions. However, the temperature differences are small enough that the normal conservative assumptions that are made in the course of typical cask evaluations should correct for any potential violations. The analysis demonstrates that diurnal temperature variations that penetrate the cask wall all have maxima substantially less than the corresponding regulatory solutions. Therefore it is certain that vital cask components and the spent fuel itself will not exceed the temperatures calculated by use of the conditions of 10 CFR 71

  5. Submillimeter Confocal Imaging Active Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, John; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Cwik, Thomas; Rowell, Mark; Hacker, John

    2009-01-01

    The term submillimeter confocal imaging active module (SCIAM) denotes a proposed airborne coherent imaging radar system that would be suitable for use in reconnaissance, surveillance, and navigation. The development of the SCIAM would include utilization and extension of recent achievements in monolithic microwave integrated circuits capable of operating at frequencies up to and beyond a nominal radio frequency of 340 GHz. Because the SCIAM would be primarily down-looking (in contradistinction to primarily side-looking), it could be useful for imaging shorter objects located between taller ones (for example, objects on streets between buildings). The SCIAM would utilize a confocal geometry to obtain high cross-track resolution, and would be amenable to synthetic-aperture processing of its output to obtain high along-track resolution. The SCIAM (see figure) would include multiple (two in the initial version) antenna apertures, separated from each other by a cross-track baseline of suitable length (e.g., 1.6 m). These apertures would both transmit the illuminating radar pulses and receive the returns. A common reference oscillator would generate a signal at a controllable frequency of (340 GHz + (Delta)f)/N, where (Delta)f is an instantaneous swept frequency difference and N is an integer. The output of this oscillator would be fed to a frequency- multiplier-and-power-amplifier module to obtain a signal, at 340 GHz + (Delta)f, that would serve as both the carrier signal for generating the transmitted pulses and a local-oscillator (LO) signal for a receiver associated with each antenna aperture. Because duplexers in the form of circulators or transmit/receive (T/R) switches would be lossy and extremely difficult to implement, the antenna apertures would be designed according to a spatial-diplexing scheme, in which signals would be coupled in and out via separate, adjacent transmitting and receiving feed horns. This scheme would cause the transmitted and received beams

  6. CFD Analysis of Random Turbulent Flow Load in Steam Generator of APR1400 Under Normal Operation Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Gyu; You, Sung Chang; Kim, Han Gon

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory guide 1.20 revision 3 of the Nuclear Regulatory Committee (NRC) modifies guidance for vibration assessments of reactor internals and steam generator internals. The new guidance requires applicants to provide a preliminary analysis and evaluation of the design and performance of a facility, including the safety margins of during normal operation and transient conditions anticipated during the life of the facility. Especially, revision 3 require rigorous assessments of adverse flow effects in the steam dryer cased by flow-excited acoustic and structural resonances such as the abnormality from power-uprated BWR cases. For two nearly identical nuclear power plants, the steam system of one BWR plant experienced failure of steam dryers and the main steam system components when steam flow was increased by 16 percent for extended power uprate (EPU). The mechanisms of those failures have revealed that a small adverse flow changing from the prototype condition induced severe flow-excited acoustic and structural resonances, leading to structural failures. In accordance with the historical background, therefore, potential adverse flow effects should be evaluated rigorously for steam generator internals in both BWR and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400), an evolutionary light water reactor, increased the power by 7.7 percent from the design of the 'Valid Prototype', System80+. Thus, reliable evaluations of potential adverse flow effects on the steam generator of APR1400 are necessary according to the regulatory guide. This paper is part of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis results for evaluation of the adverse flow effect for the steam generator internals of APR1400, including a series of sensitivity analyses to enhance the reliability of CFD analysis and an estimation the effect of flow loads on the internals of the steam generator under normal operation conditions

  7. Confocal scanning microscope for nuclear photoemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, Yu.A.; Kovalev, Yu.S.; Soroko, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the confocal scanning microscope to the objects in the nuclear photoemulsion is described. An array of 27 microtomograms of single silver grain is shown. The cross sections of the same particle track of diameter 1 μm, detected by means of the confocal scanning microscope with open and annular apertures, are presented. It was shown that the confocal scanning microscope opens indeed new opportunities for the nuclear photoemulsion technique to get previously inaccessible information for physics of the short-living particles

  8. Herb-drug interaction of Nisha Amalaki and Curcuminoids with metformin in normal and diabetic condition: A disease system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengule, Sushant; Kumbhare, Kalyani; Patil, Dada; Mishra, Sanjay; Apte, Kishori; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2018-05-01

    Nisha Amalaki (NA), formulation with Curcuma longa Linn (Turmeric, Haridra, Nisha in Sanskrit; Family: Zingiberaceae) and Phyllanthus emblica Linn (Indian gooseberry, Amlaki in Sanskrit; Family: Phyllanthaceae) which is described for various diseases including diabetes in ayurvedic texts and Nighantus. The aim of the present study was to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions of chemically standardized NA and Curcuminoids (CE) with metformin (MET) in normal and diabetic animals. Oral administration of NA (200 mg/kg) and CE (30 mg/kg) was carried out for seven days followed by co-administration of MET till fifteen days. MET plasma PK parameters including C max , AUC 0-∞ , t 1/2 , CL and V d were measured on the eighth day. PD parameters including plasma glucose AUC followed by oral glucose tolerance test, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured on the fifteenth day. In normal animals, co-administration of NA + MET and CE + MET resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) in C max , AUC 0-∞ , t 1/2, and reduction of CL and V d . We report that co-administration of NA + MET and CE + MET significantly (p < 0.01, p < 0.001) reduced plasma glucose level, HDL level while a notable reduction in TG and TC level was observed. Interestingly, in diabetic condition, co-administration of NA + MET and CE + MET indicated a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in C max , AUC 0-∞ , t 1/2 and enhanced CL and V d. Hence, to conclude, co-administration of NA + MET and CE + MET resulted in beneficial PK and PD interactions leading to antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in both conditions. However, PK interaction was drastically different in diabetic and normal conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and Implementation of Mechanistic Terry Turbine Models in RELAP-7 to Simulate RCIC Normal Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zou, Ling [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    As part of the efforts to understand the unexpected “self-regulating” mode of the RCIC (Reactor Core Isolation Cooling) systems in Fukushima accidents and extend BWR RCIC and PWR AFW (Auxiliary Feed Water) operational range and flexibility, mechanistic models for the Terry turbine, based on Sandia’s original work [1], have been developed and implemented in the RELAP-7 code to simulate the RCIC system. In 2016, our effort has been focused on normal working conditions of the RCIC system. More complex off-design conditions will be pursued in later years when more data are available. In the Sandia model, the turbine stator inlet velocity is provided according to a reduced-order model which was obtained from a large number of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulations. In this work, we propose an alternative method, using an under-expanded jet model to obtain the velocity and thermodynamic conditions for the turbine stator inlet. The models include both an adiabatic expansion process inside the nozzle and a free expansion process outside of the nozzle to ambient pressure. The combined models are able to predict the steam mass flow rate and supersonic velocity to the Terry turbine bucket entrance, which are the necessary input information for the Terry turbine rotor model. The analytical models for the nozzle were validated with experimental data and benchmarked with CFD simulations. The analytical models generally agree well with the experimental data and CFD simulations. The analytical models are suitable for implementation into a reactor system analysis code or severe accident code as part of mechanistic and dynamical models to understand the RCIC behaviors. The newly developed nozzle models and modified turbine rotor model according to the Sandia’s original work have been implemented into RELAP-7, along with the original Sandia Terry turbine model. A new pump model has also been developed and implemented to couple with the Terry turbine model. An input

  10. Current status of the FASTGRASS/PARAGRASS models for fission product release from LWR fuel during normal and accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.; Zawadski, S.A.; Piasecka, M.

    1983-10-01

    The theoretical FASTGRASS model for the prediction of the behavior of the gaseous and volatile fission products in nuclear fuels under normal and transient conditions has undergone substantial improvements. The major improvements have been in the atomistic and bubble diffusive flow models, in the models for the behavior of gas bubbles on grain surfaces, and in the models for the behavior of the volatile fission products iodine and cesium. The thoery has received extensive verification over a wide range of fuel operating conditions, and can be regarded as a state-of-the-art model based on our current level of understanding of fission product behavior. PARAGRASS is an extremely efficient, mechanistic computer code with the capability of modeling steady-state and transient fission-product behavior. The models in PARAGRASS are based on the more detailed ones in FASTGRASS. PARAGRASS updates for the FRAPCON (PNL), FRAP-T (INEL), and SCDAP (INEL) codes have recently been completed and implemented. Results from an extensive FASTGRASS verification are presented and discussed for steady-state and transient conditions. In addition, FASTGRASS predictions for fission product release rate constants are compared with those in NUREG-0772. 21 references, 13 figures

  11. A comparison study of the two-bladed partial pitch turbine during normal operation and an extreme gust conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T; Petersen, M M; Larsen, T J

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the load comparisons between the numerical simulation and the full-scale load measurement data. First part of this paper includes the comparisons of statistic load in terms of maximum, mean, and minimum values for the selected normal operation cases. The blade root bending moments and tower top bending moments are compared. Second part of this paper introduces the dynamic response comparisons during an extreme wind gust condition where the wind speed changed approximately 10 m/s during three seconds. The rotor speed and blade root flapwise and edgewise bending moment are compared. The nonlinear aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2 is used for the simulations. A very fine agreement between the simulated and the full-scale measured loads is seen for the both comparisons

  12. Microplankton biomass and diversity in the Vietnamese upwelling area during SW monsoon under normal conditions and after an ENSO event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loick-Wilde, Natalie; Bombar, Deniz; Doan, Hai Nhu

    2017-01-01

    to show how climatological-driven changes can have a significant influence on the distribution of microplankton communities and their biomass via its impact on nutrient concentrations in the water column. The first summer in July 2003 followed a weak El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event...... (10–20 µm) prevailed ubiquitously during reduced upwelling. During normal upwelling, the diatom Rhizosolenia sp. dominated the cell-carbon biomass in the silicate poor upwelling waters. Trichodesmium erythraeum dominated in the Mekong-influenced and nutrient depleted offshore waters, where it co......Investigating microplankton biomass and diversity under different climatological conditions is key to the understanding of cascading effects of climate change on nutrient cycles and biological productivity. Here we have used data collected during two contrasting summers along the coast of Viet Nam...

  13. Mathematical modelling of liquid meniscus shape in cylindrical micro-channel for normal and micro gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchuk, Igor; Lyulin, Yuriy

    2017-10-01

    Mathematical model of liquid meniscus shape in cylindrical micro-channel of the separator unit of condensing/separating system is presented. Moving liquid meniscus in the 10 μm cylindrical microchannel is used as a liquid lock to recover the liquid obtained by condensation from the separators. The main goal of the liquid locks to prevent penetration of a gas phase in the liquid line at the small flow rate of the condensate and because of pressure fluctuations in the vapor-gas-liquid loop. Calculation of the meniscus shape has been performed for liquid FC-72 at different values of pressure difference gas - liquid and under normal and micro gravity conditions.

  14. Quaternary ammonium-functionalized silica sorbents for the solid-phase extraction of aromatic amines under normal phase conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Lorena; Robin, Orlane; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2013-04-12

    Quaternary ammonium-functionalized silica materials were synthesized and applied for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of aromatic amines, which are classified as priority pollutants by US Environmental Protection Agency. Hexamethylenetetramine used for silica surface modification for the first time was employed as SPE sorbent under normal phase conditions. Hexaminium-functionalized silica demonstrated excellent extraction efficiencies for o-toluidine, 4-ethylaniline and quinoline (recoveries 101-107%), while for N,N-dimethylaniline and N-isopropylaniline recoveries were from low to moderate (14-46%). In addition, the suitability of 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica as SPE sorbent was tested under normal phase conditions. The recoveries achieved for the five aromatic amines ranged from 89 to 99%. The stability of the sorbent was evaluated during and after 150 extractions. Coefficients of variation between 4.5 and 10.2% proved a high stability of the synthesized sorbent. Elution was carried out using acetonitrile in the case of hexaminium-functionalized silica and water for 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica sorbent. After the extraction the analytes were separated and detected by liquid chromatography ultraviolet detection (LC-UV). The retention mechanism of the materials was primarily based on polar hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions. Comparison made with activated silica proved the quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials to offer different selectivity and better extraction efficiencies for aromatic amines. Finally, 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica sorbent was successfully tested for the extraction of wastewater and soil samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantification of Multilayer Samples by Confocal μXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, R. Daniel; Sanchez, H. J.; Rubio, M.; Perez, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    The confocal setup consists of x-ray lenses in the excitation as well as in the detection channel. In this configuration, a micro volume defined by the overlap of the foci of both x-ray lenses is analyzed. Scanning this micro volume through the sample, 1-3 dimensional studies can be performed. For intermediate thin homogeneous layers a scanning in the normal direction to the surface sample provides information of its thickness and elemental composition. For multilayer samples it also provides the order of each layer in the stratified structure. For the confocal setup, we used a glass monocapillary in the excitation channel and a monolithic half polycapillary in the detection channel. The experiment was carried out at the D09B beamline of the LNLS using white beam. In the present work, a new algorithm was applied to analyze in detail by confocal μXRF a sample of three paint layers on a glass substrate. Using the proposed algorithm, information about thickness and elemental densities was obtained for each layer of these samples.

  16. Diffractive elements performance in chromatic confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, J; Duque, D; Alean, A; Toledo, M; Meneses, J; Gharbi, T

    2011-01-01

    The Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) has been widely used in the semiconductor industry and biomedicine because of its depth discrimination capability. Subsequent to this technique has been developed in recent years Chromatic Confocal Microscopy. This method retains the same principle of confocal and offers the added advantage of removing the axial movement of the moving system. This advantage is usually accomplished with an optical element that generates a longitudinal chromatic aberration and a coding system that relates the axial position of each point of the sample with the wavelength that is focused on each. The present paper shows the performance of compact chromatic confocal microscope when some different diffractive elements are used for generation of longitudinal chromatic aberration. Diffractive elements, according to the process and manufacturing parameters, may have different diffraction efficiency and focus a specific wavelength in a specific focal position. The performance assessment is carried out with various light sources which exhibit an incoherent behaviour and a broad spectral width.

  17. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditlev Nytoft; Karstensen, John Gásdal; Riis, Lene Buhl

    2015-01-01

    included. Next, eligible studies were analysed with respect to several parameters, such as technique and clinical aim and definitions of outcomes. RESULTS: Confocal laser endomicroscopy has been used for a wide range of purposes in inflammatory bowel disease, covering assessment of inflammatory severity...... of confocal laser endomicroscopy for inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Available literature was searched systematically for studies applying confocal laser endomicroscopy in Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Relevant literature was reviewed and only studies reporting original clinical data were...... of histological features such as colonic crypts, epithelial gaps and epithelial leakiness to fluorescein. CONCLUSIONS: Confocal laser endomicroscopy remains an experimental but emerging tool for assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. It is the only method that enables in vivo functional assessment...

  18. THE FEATURES OF CONNEXINS EXPRESSION IN THE CELLS OF NEUROVASCLAR UNIT IN NORMAL CONDITIONS AND HYPOXIA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Morgun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess a role of connexin 43 (Cx43 and associated molecule CD38 in the regulation of cell-cell interactions in the neurovascular unit (NVU in vitro in physiological conditions and in hypoxia.Materials and methods. The study was done using the original neurovascular unit model in vitro. The NVU consisted of three cell types: neurons, astrocytes, and cerebral endothelial cells derived from rats. Hypoxia was induced by incubating cells with sodium iodoacetate for 30 min at37 °C in standard culture conditions.Results. We investigated the role of connexin 43 in the regulation of cell interactions within the NVU in normal and hypoxic injury in vitro. We found that astrocytes were characterized by high levels of expression of Cx43 and low level of CD38 expression, neurons demonstrated high levels of CD38 and low levels of Cx43. In hypoxic conditions, the expression of Cx43 and CD38 in astrocytes markedly increased while CD38 expression in neurons decreased, however no changes were found in endothelial cells. Suppression of Cx43 activity resulted in down-regulation of CD38 in NVU cells, both in physiological conditions and at chemical hypoxia.Conclusion. Thus, the Cx-regulated intercellular NAD+-dependent communication and secretory phenotype of astroglial cells that are the part of the blood-brain barrier is markedly changed in hypoxia.

  19. Aorta Fluorescence Imaging by Using Confocal Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chun-Yang; Tsai, Jui-che; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The activated leukocyte attacked the vascular endothelium and the associated increase in VEcadherin number was observed in experiments. The confocal microscopic system with a prism-based wavelength filter was used for multiwavelength fluorescence measurement. Multiwavelength fluorescence imaging based on the VEcadherin within the aorta segment of a rat was achieved. The confocal microscopic system capable of fluorescence detection of cardiovascular tissue is a useful tool for measuring the bi...

  20. Research and application on imaging technology of line structure light based on confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenfeng; Xiao, Zexin; Wang, Xiaofen

    2009-11-01

    In 2005, the theory of line structure light confocal microscopy was put forward firstly in China by Xingyu Gao and Zexin Xiao in the Institute of Opt-mechatronics of Guilin University of Electronic Technology. Though the lateral resolution of line confocal microscopy can only reach or approach the level of the traditional dot confocal microscopy. But compared with traditional dot confocal microscopy, it has two advantages: first, by substituting line scanning for dot scanning, plane imaging only performs one-dimensional scanning, with imaging velocity greatly improved and scanning mechanism simplified, second, transfer quantity of light is greatly improved by substituting detection hairline for detection pinhole, and low illumination CCD is used directly to collect images instead of photoelectric intensifier. In order to apply the line confocal microscopy to practical system, based on the further research on the theory of the line confocal microscopy, imaging technology of line structure light is put forward on condition of implementation of confocal microscopy. Its validity and reliability are also verified by experiments.

  1. Enhancement of fluorescence confocal scanning microscopy lateral resolution by use of structured illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taejoong; Gweon, DaeGab; Lee, Jun-Hee

    2009-01-01

    Confocal microscopy is an optical imaging technique used to reconstruct three-dimensional images without physical sectioning. As with other optical microscopes, the lateral resolution of the confocal microscope cannot surpass the diffraction limit. This paper presents a novel imaging system, structured illumination confocal scanning microscopy (SICSM), that uses structured illumination to improve the lateral resolution of the confocal microscope. The SICSM can easily be implemented by introducing a structured illumination generating optics to conventional line-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy. In this paper, we report our analysis of the lateral and axial resolutions of the SICSM by use of mathematical imaging theory. Numerical simulation results show that the lateral resolution of the SICSM is 1.43-fold better than that of the confocal microscope. In the axial direction, however, the resolution of the SICSM is ∼15% poorer than that of the confocal microscope. This deterioration arises because of a decrease in the axial cut-off frequency caused by the process of generating structured illumination. We propose the use of imaging conditions under which a compromise between the axial and lateral resolutions is chosen. Finally, we show simulated images of diversely shaped test objects to demonstrate the lateral and axial resolution performance of the SICSM

  2. Production of starch nanoparticles using normal maize starch via heat-moisture treatment under mildly acidic conditions and homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Kim, Min-Jung; Cho, MyoungLae; Lee, Ju Hun; Kim, Jong-Yea

    2016-10-20

    Normal maize starch was subjected to heat-moisture treatment (HMT) under mildly acidic conditions (0.000, 0.050, or 0.075M H2SO4) for various treatment times (3, 5, or 8h) followed by homogenization up to 60min to prepare nanoparticles. The combination of HMT (0.075M, for 8h) and homogenization (60min) produced nanoparticles with diameters of less than 50nm at a yield higher than 80%. X-ray diffractometry and size-exclusion chromatography revealed that HMT under mildly acidic conditions selectively hydrolyzed the starch chains (especially amylose and/or long chains of amylopectin) in the amorphous region of the granules without significant damage to the crystalline structure, however, modification of the molecular structure in the amorphous region increased fragility of the granules during homogenization. Homogenization for 60min caused obvious damage in the long-range crystalline structure of the HMT starch (0.15N, for 8h), while the short-range chain associations (FT-IR) remained intact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SSYST, a code-system for analysing transient LWR fuel rod behaviour under off-normal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgwaldt, H.; Gulden, W.

    1983-01-01

    SSYST is a code-system for analysing transient fuel rod behaviour under off-normal conditions, developed conjointly by the Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE), Stuttgart, and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) under contract of Projek Nukleare Sicherheit (PNS) at KfK. The main differences between SSYST and similar codes are (1) an open-ended modular code organisation, and (2) a preference for simple models, wherever possible. While the first feature makes SSYST a very flexible tool, easily adapted to changing requirements, the second feature leads to short execution times. The analysis of transient rod behaviour under LOCA boundary conditions takes 2 min cpu-time (IBM-3033), so that extensive parametric studies become possible. This paper gives an outline of the overall code organisation and a general overview of the physical models implemented. Besides explaining the routine application of SSYST in the analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents, examples are given of special applications which have led to a satisfactory understanding of the decisive influence of deviations from rotational symmetry on the fuel rod perimeter. (author)

  4. SSYST: A code-system for analyzing transient LWR fuel rod behaviour under off-normal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgwaldt, H.; Gulden, W.

    1983-01-01

    SSYST is a code-system for analyzing transient fuel rod behaviour under off-normal conditions, developed conjointly by the Institut fur Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE), Stuttgart, and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) under contract of Projekt Nukleare Sicherheit (PNS) at KfK. The main differences between SSYST and similar codes are an open-ended modular code organization, and a preference for simple models, wherever possible. While the first feature makes SSYST a very flexible tool, easily adapted to changing requirements, the second feature leads to short execution times. The analysis of transient rod behaviour under LOCA boundary conditions takes 2 min cpu-time (IBM-3033), so that extensive parametric studies become possible. This paper gives an outline of the overall code organisation and a general overview of the physical models implemented. Besides explaining the routine application of SSYST in the analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents, examples are given of special applications which have led to a satisfactory understanding of the decisive influence of deviations from rotational symmetry on the fuel rod perimeter

  5. Dry Matter Accumulation and Remobilization in Grain Sorghum Genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (underNormal and Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Beheshti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production, remobilization and accumulation of assimilates in crops especially under water stress are essential factors for determination and studying the yield differences of species and cultivars. Field experiment was conducted using a split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replication s during 2007 growing season in agricultural research station (Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Main plots were consisted of 2 levels of water, water deficit after anthesis and normal condition (with out water stress and factorial arrangement of photosynthesis status (non desiccation and chemical desiccation with potassium iodide and 3 grain sorghum genotypes (Sepide, M5 and M2 promising lines were assigned to sub plots. Results of variance analysis showed, that the effects of water stress on dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization (REE, percent of remobilization (REP, biologic yield were significant in (p≤0.01 (and grain yield (economic yield was significant in p≤0.05, respectively. Water deficit caused an increase of 10.08%, 24.45 % and 12.43% in dry matter accumulation, percent of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization, respectively as compared to normal conditions. This in turn was led to decrease in seed yield, biological yield and harvest index by 36.38%, 5.43% and 31.60%, respectively. The effect of disturbance in current photosynthesis was significant in all of traits and caused the increase of 15.58%, 17.5% and 36.62% in dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization and percent of remobilization, respectively. The role of remobilization was crucial in sorghum genotypes. Interaction between factors showed that highest dry matter accumulation, percentage of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization was in drought stress and disturbance in current photosynthesis and was 16.62%, 62.54 and 24.60%, respectively and was significantly

  6. Microsphere imaging with confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Hyung Su; An, Kyung Won; Lee, Jai Hyung

    2002-01-01

    We have acquired images of polystyrene and fused-silica microsphere by using conventional optical microscopy, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy, and performed comparative analysis of these images. Different from conventional optical microscopy, confocal and two-photon microscopy had good optical sectioning capability. In addition, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy had better lateral resolution than conventional optical microscopy. These results are attributed to confocality and nonlinearity of confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy, respectively.

  7. Application of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy in Biology and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Volkov; N. V. Frigo; L. F. Znamenskaya; O. R. Katunina

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy and reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy are up-to-date highend study methods. Confocal microscopy is used in cell biology and medicine. By using confocal microscopy, it is possible to study bioplasts and localization of protein molecules and other compounds relative to cell or tissue structures, and to monitor dynamic cell processes. Confocal microscopes enable layer-by-layer scanning of test items to create demonstrable 3D models. As...

  8. Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) improves the resolution of confocal microscopy and increases the sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Luca, Giulia; Breedijk, Ronald; Hoebe, Ron; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) is a new super-resolution technique based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan unit in the detection path that projects the emitted light onto a sensitive camera. In this paper the fundamental properties of RCM, lateral resolution, axial

  9. Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) improves the resolution of confocal microscopy and increases the sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, G.; Breedijk, R.; Hoebe, R.; Stallinga, S.; Manders, E.

    Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) is a new super-resolution technique based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan unit in the detection path that projects the emitted light onto a sensitive camera. In this paper the fundamental properties of RCM, lateral resolution, axial

  10. Behavior of U3Si2 Fuel and FeCrAl Cladding under Normal Operating and Accident Reactor Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence; Hales, Jason Dean; Barani, Tommaso; Pizzocri, Davide; Pastore, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation program, an Accident Tolerant Fuel High Impact Problem was initiated at the beginning of fiscal year 2015 to investigate the behavior of \\usi~fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) claddings under normal operating and accident reactor conditions. The High Impact Problem was created in response to the United States Department of Energy's renewed interest in accident tolerant materials after the events that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. The High Impact Problem is a multinational laboratory and university collaborative research effort between Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. This report primarily focuses on the engineering scale research in fiscal year 2016 with brief summaries of the lower length scale developments in the areas of density functional theory, cluster dynamics, rate theory, and phase field being presented.

  11. Confocal filtering in cathodoluminescence microscopy of nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, Angela C.; Weppelman, I. Gerward C.; Moerland, Robert J.; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.; Kruit, Pieter

    2014-06-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy allows optical characterization of nanostructures at high spatial resolution. At the nanoscale, a main challenge of the technique is related to the background CL generated within the sample substrate. Here, we implement confocal detection of the CL signal to minimize the background contribution to the measurement. Nano-phosphors were used as point sources to evaluate the filtering capabilities of our confocal CL system, obtaining an axial intensity profile with 2.7 μm full width at half maximum for the central peak, in good correspondence with theoretical expectations. Considering the electron interaction volume, we found that the confocal filter becomes effective for electron energies above 20 keV, when using a 25 μm pinhole (0.86 Airy units). To illustrate our approach, we present confocal CL imaging of gold nanowires and triangular shaped plates deposited on an indium-tin oxide covered glass substrate, comparing the images with those obtained in standard unfiltered CL detection. The results show that confocal CL microscopy is a valuable tool for the investigation of nanostructures on highly cathodoluminescent substrates, widely used in biological and optical applications.

  12. Confocal filtering in cathodoluminescence microscopy of nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narváez, Angela C., E-mail: a.c.narvaez@tudelft.nl, E-mail: j.p.hoogenboom@tudelft.nl; Weppelman, I. Gerward C.; Moerland, Robert J.; Hoogenboom, Jacob P., E-mail: a.c.narvaez@tudelft.nl, E-mail: j.p.hoogenboom@tudelft.nl; Kruit, Pieter [Imaging Physics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-06-23

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy allows optical characterization of nanostructures at high spatial resolution. At the nanoscale, a main challenge of the technique is related to the background CL generated within the sample substrate. Here, we implement confocal detection of the CL signal to minimize the background contribution to the measurement. Nano-phosphors were used as point sources to evaluate the filtering capabilities of our confocal CL system, obtaining an axial intensity profile with 2.7 μm full width at half maximum for the central peak, in good correspondence with theoretical expectations. Considering the electron interaction volume, we found that the confocal filter becomes effective for electron energies above 20 keV, when using a 25 μm pinhole (0.86 Airy units). To illustrate our approach, we present confocal CL imaging of gold nanowires and triangular shaped plates deposited on an indium-tin oxide covered glass substrate, comparing the images with those obtained in standard unfiltered CL detection. The results show that confocal CL microscopy is a valuable tool for the investigation of nanostructures on highly cathodoluminescent substrates, widely used in biological and optical applications.

  13. Confocal microlaparoscope for imaging the fallopian tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzu-Yu; Rouse, Andrew R.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2014-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that ovarian cancer can originate in the fallopian tube. Unlike many other cancers, poor access to the ovary and fallopian tubes has limited the ability to study the progression of this deadly disease and to diagnosis it during the early stage when it is most amenable to therapy. A rigid confocal microlaparoscope system designed to image the epithelial surface of the ovary in vivo was previously reported. A new confocal microlaparoscope with an articulating distal tip has been developed to enable in vivo access to human fallopian tubes. The new microlaparoscope is compatible with 5-mm trocars and includes a 2.2-mm-diameter articulating distal tip consisting of a bare fiber bundle and an automated dye delivery system for fluorescence confocal imaging. This small articulating device should enable the confocal microlaparoscope to image early stage ovarian cancer arising inside the fallopian tube. Ex vivo images of animal tissue and human fallopian tube using the new articulating device are presented along with in vivo imaging results using the rigid confocal microlaparoscope system.

  14. Sequential path analysis for determining interrelationships between yield and related traits in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. under normal and abiotic stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the relationships between yield and its related traits were investigated in tobacco genotypes under normal and abiotic stress conditions (Orobanche aegyptiaca weed at Urmia Tobacco Research Centre, Iran, during 2006-2009 cropping seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in each condition every year. Analysis of variance revealed extent genetic variability among the genotypes for most of the traits studied. In comparison with normal condition, the mean value of studied traits decreased in stress condition. LAI and FD showed the maximum and minimum diminution in the mean values under stress condition compared to normal one so known as more sensitive and more tolerant traits, respectively. Based on CV values, the traits FD and DLYP showed the minimum and maximum variation among traits in both normal and stress conditions. Correlation analysis revealed significant and positive correlations between DLYP with all studied traits in both normal and stress conditions. Path analysis detected the traits including biomass, APDW and DWR as the first-order variables at normal condition and biomass, APDW, DWR and harvest index as the first-order variables under abiotic stress condition. Based on results, the traits such as biomass, APDW, DWR detected as more important factors in both conditions can be used in tobacco breeding programs for increasing yield. Abbreviation: aerial part fresh weight without leaves weight (APFW, aerial part dry weight without leaves weight (APDW, biomass (BIO, coefficient of variation (CV, dry weight of root (DWR, flowering date (FD, fresh weight of leaf (FWL, fresh weight of root (FWR, harvest index (HI, leaf area index (LAI, dry leaf yield per plant (DLYP, number of leaf (NL, plant height (PH, randomized complete block design (RCBD, standard deviation (Std.

  15. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport- Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Fuel Performance Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geelhood, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bignell, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flores, Gregg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Jy-An [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sanborn, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spears, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klymyshyn, Nick [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This document addresses Oak Ridge National Laboratory milestone M2FT-13OR0822015 Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Nuclear Fuel Performance Characterization. This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and normal conditions of transport (NCT) conditions. This report also provides results from the sensitivity studies that have been performed. Finally, discussion on the long-term goals and objectives of this initiative are provided.

  16. Personal monitoring of 218Po and 214Po radionuclide deposition onto individuals under normal environmental exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatough, J.P.; Worley, A.; Moss, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Personal dosemeters have been utilized to monitor the deposition of the radon decay products 218 Po and 214 Po onto individuals under normal environmental exposure conditions. Each detector consists of TASTRAK alpha-sensitive plastic incorporated into an ordinary working wristwatch. Subsequent analysis provides energy discrimination of the detected alpha-particle decays, and allows events from the individual radon decay products 218 Po and 214 Po, attached to the detector surface, to be uniquely identified. Assuming similar deposition onto skin and detector surfaces, the activity per unit area of deposited radionuclides can be determined for exposed skin. Forty-one personal dosemeters were issued to volunteers selected through the hospital medical physics departments at Reading, Northampton, Exeter and Plymouth. Each volunteer was also issued with a personal radon dosemeter to determine their individual radon exposure. The volunteers wore the two dosemeters simultaneously and continuously for a period of around one month. Correlations were observed between the radon exposure of the individual and the activity per unit area of 218 Po and 214 Po on the detector surface. From these correlations it can be estimated that at the UK average radon exposure of 20 Bq m -3 , the number of decays/cm 2 /year on continuously exposed skin surface is between 3500 and 28 000 for 218 Po, and between 7000 and 21 000 for 214 Po. These results can be combined with theoretical modelling of the dose distribution in the skin to yield the alpha-particle radiation dose to any identified target cells. (author)

  17. Evaluation of LWR fuel performance under transient and off-normal conditions. A review of recent reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, P.

    1979-11-01

    Reports from the meetings at Petten (Nov. - Dec. 1978), Portland (April-May 1979) and Arles (May 1979) have been reviewed together with various reports related to the Three-Mile Island accident. The reports were selected to cover transients in normal operation (power ramps, load-following) as well as off-normal transients. (author)

  18. Confocal laser endomicroscopy in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, John Gásdal; Săftoiu, Adrian; Brynskov, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Confocal laser endomicroscopy enables real-time in vivo microscopy during endoscopy and can predict relapse in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in remission. However, little is known about how endomicroscopic features change with time. The aim of this longitudinal study...... was to correlate colonic confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) in ulcerative colitis with histopathology and macroscopic appearance before and after intensification of medical treatment. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical relapse and 7 control subjects referred for colonoscopy were...

  19. Model wavefront sensor for adaptive confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Martin J.; Neil, Mark A. A.; Wilson, Tony

    2000-05-01

    A confocal microscope permits 3D imaging of volume objects by the inclusion of a pinhole in the detector path which eliminates out of focus light. This configuration is however very sensitive to aberrations induced by the specimen or the optical system and would therefore benefit from an adaptive optics approach. We present a wavefront sensor capable of measuring directly the Zernike components of an aberrated wavefront and show that it is particularly applicable to the confocal microscope since only those wavefronts originating in the focal region contribute to the measured aberration.

  20. Investigation of buoyancy effects on turbulent nonpremixed jet flames by using normal and low-gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idicheria, Cherian Alex

    An experimental study was performed with the aim of investigating the structure of transitional and turbulent nonpremixed jet flames under different gravity conditions. In particular, the focus was to determine the effect of buoyancy on the mean and fluctuating characteristics of the jet flames. Experiments were conducted under three gravity levels, viz. 1 g, 20 mg and 100 mug. The milligravity and microgravity conditions were achieved by dropping a jet-flame rig in the UT-Austin 1.25-second and the NASA-Glenn Research Center 2.2-second drop towers, respectively. The principal diagnostics employed were time-resolved, cinematographic imaging of the visible soot luminosity and planar laser Mie scattering (PLMS). For the cinematographic flame luminosity imaging experiments, the flames studied were piloted nonpremixed propane, ethylene and methane jet flames at source Reynolds numbers ranging from 2000 to 10500. From the soot luminosity images, mean and root-mean square (RMS) images were computed, and volume rendering of the image sequences was used to investigate the large-scale structure evolution and flame tip dynamics. The relative importance of buoyancy was quantified with the parameter, xL , as defined by Becker and Yamazaki [1978]. The results show, in contrast to previous microgravity studies, that the high Reynolds number flames have the same flame length irrespective of the gravity level. The RMS fluctuations and volume renderings indicate that the large-scale structure and flame tip dynamics are essentially identical to those of purely momentum driven flames provided xL is approximately less than 2. The volume-renderings show that the luminous structure celerities (normalized by jet exit velocity) are approximately constant for xL 8. The celerity values for xL > 8 are seen to follow a x3/2L scaling, which can be predicted with a simplified momentum equation analysis for the buoyancy-dominated regime. The underlying turbulent structure and mean mixture

  1. Identification, Expression Analysis, and Target Prediction of Flax Genotroph MicroRNAs Under Normal and Nutrient Stress Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Belenikin, Maxim S.; Koroban, Nadezhda V.; Speranskaya, Anna S.; Krinitsina, Anastasia A.; Krasnov, George S.; Lakunina, Valentina A.; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V.; Sadritdinova, Asiya F.; Kishlyan, Natalya V.; Rozhmina, Tatiana A.; Klimina, Kseniya M.; Amosova, Alexandra V.; Zelenin, Alexander V.; Muravenko, Olga V.; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important plant valuable for industry. Some flax lines can undergo heritable phenotypic and genotypic changes (LIS-1 insertion being the most common) in response to nutrient stress and are called plastic lines. Offspring of plastic lines, which stably inherit the changes, are called genotrophs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a crucial regulatory mechanism of gene expression. They have previously been assumed to take part in nutrient stress response and can, therefore, participate in genotroph formation. In the present study, we performed high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) extracted from flax plants grown under normal, phosphate deficient and nutrient excess conditions to identify miRNAs and evaluate their expression. Our analysis revealed expression of 96 conserved miRNAs from 21 families in flax. Moreover, 475 novel potential miRNAs were identified for the first time, and their targets were predicted. However, none of the identified miRNAs were transcribed from LIS-1. Expression of seven miRNAs (miR168, miR169, miR395, miR398, miR399, miR408, and lus-miR-N1) with up- or down-regulation under nutrient stress (on the basis of high-throughput sequencing data) was evaluated on extended sampling using qPCR. Reference gene search identified ETIF3H and ETIF3E genes as most suitable for this purpose. Down-regulation of novel potential lus-miR-N1 and up-regulation of conserved miR399 were revealed under the phosphate deficient conditions. In addition, the negative correlation of expression of lus-miR-N1 and its predicted target, ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 gene, as well as, miR399 and its predicted target, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 gene, was observed. Thus, in our study, miRNAs expressed in flax plastic lines and genotrophs were identified and their expression and expression of their targets was evaluated using high-throughput sequencing and qPCR for the first time. These data provide new insights

  2. Quantification of confocal fluorescence microscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Fahime; Ward, Rabab K; Carraro, Anita; Chen, Zhao Yang; van Niekerk, Dirk; Miller, Dianne; Ehlen, Tom; MacAulay, Calum E; Follen, Michele; Lane, Pierre M; Guillaud, Martial

    2015-10-24

    Cervical cancer remains a major health problem, especially in developing countries. Colposcopic examination is used to detect high-grade lesions in patients with a history of abnormal pap smears. New technologies are needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of this technique. We propose to test the potential of fluorescence confocal microscopy to identify high-grade lesions. We examined the quantification of ex vivo confocal fluorescence microscopy to differentiate among normal cervical tissue, low-grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), and high-grade CIN. We sought to (1) quantify nuclear morphology and tissue architecture features by analyzing images of cervical biopsies; and (2) determine the accuracy of high-grade CIN detection via confocal microscopy relative to the accuracy of detection by colposcopic impression. Forty-six biopsies obtained from colposcopically normal and abnormal cervical sites were evaluated. Confocal images were acquired at different depths from the epithelial surface and histological images were analyzed using in-house software. The features calculated from the confocal images compared well with those features obtained from the histological images and histopathological reviews of the specimens (obtained by a gynecologic pathologist). The correlations between two of these features (the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and the average of three nearest Delaunay-neighbors distance) and the grade of dysplasia were higher than that of colposcopic impression. The sensitivity of detecting high-grade dysplasia by analysing images collected at the surface of the epithelium, and at 15 and 30 μm below the epithelial surface were respectively 100, 100, and 92 %. Quantitative analysis of confocal fluorescence images showed its capacity for discriminating high-grade CIN lesions vs. low-grade CIN lesions and normal tissues, at different depth of imaging. This approach could be used to help clinicians identify high-grade CIN in clinical

  3. 78 FR 63902 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Normal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...): (a) The positive limiting load factor must not be less than: (1) 2.5g for the normal state of the... is readily achievable at operational speeds. For the FAA to consider a trajectory change as...

  4. Confocal microscopy imaging of the biofilm matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Meyer, Rikke L

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is an integral part of microbial biofilms and an important field of research. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is a valuable tool for the study of biofilms, and in particular of the biofilm matrix, as it allows real-time visualization of fully hydrated, living specimens...... the concentration of solutes and the diffusive properties of the biofilm matrix....

  5. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: LASER POWER MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser power abstract The reliability of the confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) to obtain intensity measurements and quantify fluorescence data is dependent on using a correctly aligned machine that contains a stable laser power. The laser power test appears to be one ...

  6. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy: Three-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. August 2003 physics pp. 373–384. Fluorescence confocal polarizing ... and focal conic domains in flat samples of lamellar LCs are practically indistinguishable. ... or less) LC layer confined between two transparent plates. ... in studies of electro-optic effects such as the Frederiks effect, defects, surface anchoring,.

  7. Evaluation of candidate reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR in soybean tissues under various abiotic stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Tien Le

    Full Text Available Quantitative RT-PCR can be a very sensitive and powerful technique for measuring differential gene expression. Changes in gene expression induced by abiotic stresses are complex and multifaceted, which make determining stably expressed genes for data normalization difficult. To identify the most suitable reference genes for abiotic stress studies in soybean, 13 candidate genes collected from literature were evaluated for stability of expression under dehydration, high salinity, cold and ABA (abscisic acid treatments using delta CT and geNorm approaches. Validation of reference genes indicated that the best reference genes are tissue- and stress-dependent. With respect to dehydration treatment, the Fbox/ABC, Fbox/60s gene pairs were found to have the highest expression stability in the root and shoot tissues of soybean seedlings, respectively. Fbox and 60s genes are the most suitable reference genes across dehydrated root and shoot tissues. Under salt stress the ELF1b/IDE and Fbox/ELF1b are the most stably expressed gene pairs in roots and shoots, respectively, while 60s/Fbox is the best gene pair in both tissues. For studying cold stress in roots or shoots, IDE/60s and Fbox/Act27 are good reference gene pairs, respectively. With regard to gene expression analysis under ABA treatment in either roots, shoots or across these tissues, 60s/ELF1b, ELF1b/Fbox and 60s/ELF1b are the most suitable reference genes, respectively. The expression of ELF1b/60s, 60s/Fbox and 60s/Fbox genes was most stable in roots, shoots and both tissues, respectively, under various stresses studied. Among the genes tested, 60s was found to be the best reference gene in different tissues and under various stress conditions. The highly ranked reference genes identified from this study were proved to be capable of detecting subtle differences in expression rates that otherwise would be missed if a less stable reference gene was used.

  8. Monomeric adiponectin increases cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells cultured in normal and high glucose conditions: Data on kinases activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grossini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We found that monomeric adiponectin was able to increase cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAE cultured both in normal and high glucose condition. Moreover, in normal glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased p38MAPK, Akt, ERK1/2 and eNOS phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent way. Also in high glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased eNOS and above kinases phosphorylation with similar patterns but at lower extent. For interpretation of the data presented in this article, please see the research article “Monomeric adiponectin modulates nitric oxide release and calcium movements in porcine aortic endothelial cells in normal/high glucose conditions” (Grossini et al., in press [1].

  9. Phenological Variation and its Relation with Yield in several Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars under Normal and Late Sowing Mediated Heat Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrun NAHAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenological performance in relation to yield of five modern varieties of wheat Sourav, Pradip, Sufi, Shatabdi and Bijoy were evaluated under two growing environments; one is normal growing environment (sowing at November 30 and the other is post anthesis heat stressed environment (sowing at December 30. In case of late seeding, the varieties phased a significant level of high temperature stress that also significantly affected the required days to germination, booting, anthesis, maturity of all varieties including the yield as compared to normal sowing treatment. The temperature during the grain filling or grain maturing period was near 23C in case of normal seeding and it was near about 28C to 30C and sometimes reached above this range in the later period of late seeded treatment. In the normal sowing treatment the germination period was lower than the late sowing treatment as during that time the temperature was higher as compared to late sowing condition where temperature was lower. Days to anthesis and booting decreased due to late sown heat stress condition regardless the cultivars. These phenological characteristics under heat stressed condition led the wheat cultivars to significantly lower the grain yield as compared to normal condition. Due to heat stress, the yield reduction was 69.53% in Sourav, 58.41% in Pradip, 73.01% in Sufi, 55.46% in Shatabdi and 53.42% in Bijoy.

  10. Basic conditions for radioimmunoassay of erythropoietin, and plasma levels of erythropoietin in normal subjects and anemic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoguchi, Hideaki; Ohta, Kazuo; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Murakami, Akihiko; Ueda, Masatsugu; Sasaki, Ryuzou; Chiba, Hideo

    1987-02-01

    We have developed a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for erythropoietin. The sensitivity of our assay is 0.5 mU or 5 mU/ml and is sufficient to detect normal plasma erythropoietin levels. The mean plasma erythropoietin titer of normal Japanese with our radioimmunoassay was found to be 21.9 +- 12.0 mU/ml (n = 199). The validity of the method was further confirmed by the observations that the plasma erythropoietin titers were inversely related to hemoglobin levels in patients with nonuremic anemias, lower in uremic patients than in patients with nonuremic anemias with similar hemoglobin levels, markedly elevated in patients with aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia, and in a low normal range in patients with polycythemia vera.

  11. Site-specific confocal fluorescence imaging of biological microstructures in a turbid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saloma, Caesar; Palmes-Saloma, Cynthia; Kondoh, Hisato

    1998-01-01

    Normally transparent biological structures in a turbid medium are imaged using a laser confocal microscope and multiwavelength site-specific fluorescence labelling. The spatial filtering capability of the detector pinhole in the confocal microscope limits the number of scattered fluorescent photons that reach the photodetector. Simultaneous application of different fluorescent markers on the same sample site minimizes photobleaching by reducing the excitation time for each marker. A high-contrast grey-level image is also produced by summing confocal images of the same site taken at different fluorescence wavelengths. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to obtain the quantitative behaviour of confocal fluorescence imaging in turbid media. Confocal images of the following samples were also obtained: (i) 15 μm diameter fluorescent spheres placed 1.16 mm deep beneath an aqueous suspension of 0.0823 μm diameter polystyrene latex spheres, and (ii) hindbrain of a whole-mount mouse embryo (age 10 days) that was stained to fluoresce at 515 nm and 580 nm peak wavelengths. Expression of RNA transcripts of a gene within the embryo hindbrain was detected by a fluorescence-based whole-mount in situ hybridization procedure that we recently tested. (author)

  12. Testing post-weaning food motivation in low and normal birth weight pigs in a runway and operant conditioning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, L. M.; Antonides, A.; Nordquist, R. E.; van der Staay, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) pigs face more welfare challenges than their normal birth weight (NBW) siblings. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of cognitive and learning abilities in these pigs may help to improve their welfare. Early competition in life over resources, combined with the higher need

  13. 78 FR 76249 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Flight Envelope Protection: Normal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ..., and accommodates side-by-side placement of LD-3 containers in the cargo compartment. The basic Airbus... availability of this excess maneuver capacity in case of extreme emergency such as upset recoveries or... factor must not be less than: (a) 2.5g for the EFCS normal state with the high lift devices retracted up...

  14. Testing post-weaning food motivation in low and normal birth weight pigs in a runway and operant conditioning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van L.M.; Antonides, A.; Nordquist, R.E.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) pigs face more welfare challenges than their normal birth weight (NBW) siblings. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of cognitive and learning abilities in these pigs may help to improve their welfare. Early competition in life over resources, combined with the higher

  15. Seasonal variations of the particle flux in the Peru-Chile current at 30°S under `normal' and El Niño conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeln, Dierk; Marchant, Margarita; Wefer, Gerold

    Time-series sediment traps were deployed 180 km off the Chilean coast at 30°S in the Peru-Chile Current during the El Niño period 1991/1992 (6 months) and during the 'normal' period 1993/1994 (12 months). Under normal conditions in 1993/1994 the particle fluxes display a pronounced seasonal cycle marked by a settling phytoplankton bloom in September, intermediate fluxes until January, and low fluxes between January and July. This seasonal pattern is also reflected in stable isotope data, measured on the planktic foraminifera species Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (dex.) and Globigerina bulloides, which indicate persistent upwelling conditions between August and February followed by a stratified water column between March and July. The total flux under normal conditions amounts to 65.1 g m -2 a-1, with the main flux constituents contributing 47.6% (carbonate), 26.4% (lithogenic matter), 17.4% (biogenic opal), and 8.6% (organic matter), respectively. Based on these particle flux data the export production has been estimated to be 42 gC m -2 a-1. Although the main flux event in September was not sampled in the El Niño period 1991/1992, the available record from November 1991 to April 1992 allows an interesting comparison with the fluxes of the normal year. The total amount of fluxes and the timing of minor flux events are very similar under normal and under El Niño conditions. However, increased proportions of organic carbon and lithogenic matter under El Niño conditions are interpreted to reflect faster sedimentation and preferred scavenging of organic matter by elevated lithogenic fluxes rather than increased productivity. The higher lithogenic fluxes under El Niño conditions are probably due to increased precipitation and terrestial runoff in the arid to semiarid northern part of Chile.

  16. Comparing phototoxicity during the development of a zebrafish craniofacial bone using confocal and light sheet fluorescence microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemielita, Matthew; Taormina, Michael J; Delaurier, April; Kimmel, Charles B; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2013-12-01

    The combination of genetically encoded fluorescent proteins and three-dimensional imaging enables cell-type-specific studies of embryogenesis. Light sheet microscopy, in which fluorescence excitation is provided by a plane of laser light, is an appealing approach to live imaging due to its high speed and efficient use of photons. While the advantages of rapid imaging are apparent from recent work, the importance of low light levels to studies of development is not well established. We examine the zebrafish opercle, a craniofacial bone that exhibits pronounced shape changes at early developmental stages, using both spinning disk confocal and light sheet microscopies of fluorescent osteoblast cells. We find normal and aberrant opercle morphologies for specimens imaged with short time intervals using light sheet and spinning disk confocal microscopies, respectively, under equivalent exposure conditions over developmentally-relevant time scales. Quantification of shapes reveals that the differently imaged specimens travel along distinct trajectories in morphological space. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Gastric Tissue Damage Analysis Generated by Ischemia: Bioimpedance, Confocal Endomicroscopy, and Light Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohra E. Beltran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastric mucosa ischemic tissular damage plays an important role in critical care patients’ outcome, because it is the first damaged tissue by compensatory mechanism during shock. The aim of the study is to relate bioimpedance changes with tissular damage level generated by ischemia by means of confocal endomicroscopy and light microscopy. Bioimpedance of the gastric mucosa and confocal images were obtained from Wistar male rats during basal and ischemia conditions. They were anesthetized, and stain was applied (fluorescein and/or acriflavine. The impedance spectroscopy catheter was inserted and then confocal endomicroscopy probe. After basal measurements and biopsy, hepatic and gastric arteries clamping induced ischemia. Finally, pyloric antrum tissue was preserved in buffered formaldehyde (10% for histology processing using light microscopy. Confocal images were equalized, binarized, and boundary defined, and infiltrations were quantified. Impedance and infiltrations increased with ischemia showing significant changes between basal and ischemia conditions (. Light microscopy analysis allows detection of general alterations in cellular and tissular integrity, confirming gastric reactance and confocal images quantification increments obtained during ischemia.

  18. Reflectance Confocal Microscopy in Lentigo Maligna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamo, R; Pampín, A; Floristán, U

    2016-12-01

    Lentigo maligna is the most common type of facial melanoma. Diagnosis is complicated, however, as it shares clinical and dermoscopic characteristics with other cutaneous lesions of the face. Reflectance confocal microscopy is an imaging technique that permits the visualization of characteristic features of lentigo maligna. These include a disrupted honeycomb pattern and pagetoid cells with a tendency to show folliculotropism. These cells typically have a dendritic morphology, although they may also appear as round cells measuring over 20μm with atypical nuclei. Poorly defined dermal papillae and atypical cells may be seen at the dermal-epidermal junction and can form bridges resembling mitochondrial structures. Other characteristic findings include junctional swelling with atypical cells located around the follicles, resembling caput medusae. Reflectance confocal microscopy is a very useful tool for diagnosing lentigo maligna. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Esben; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological...... analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience...... with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12...

  20. Integrated Photoacoustic and Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Maslov, Konstantin; Kim, Chulhong; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a dual-modality imaging system by integrating optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy and fluorescence confocal microscopy to provide optical absorption and fluorescence contrasts simultaneously. By sharing the same laser source and objective lens, intrinsically registered photoacoustic and fluorescence images are acquired in a single scan. The micrometer resolution allows imaging of both blood and lymphatic vessels down to the capillary level. Simultaneous photoacoustic...

  1. A near-infrared confocal scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungwoo; Yoo, Hongki

    2014-01-01

    In the semiconductor industry, manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) packages or 3D integrated circuits is a high-performance technique that requires combining several functions in a small volume. Through-silicon vias, which are vertical electrical connections extending through a wafer, can be used to direct signals between stacked chips, thus increasing areal density by stacking and connecting multiple patterned chips. While defect detection is essential in the semiconductor manufacturing process, it is difficult to identify defects within a wafer or to monitor the bonding results between bonded surfaces because silicon and many other semiconductor materials are opaque to visible wavelengths. In this context, near-infrared (NIR) imaging is a promising non-destructive method to detect defects within silicon chips, to inspect bonding between chips and to monitor the chip alignment since NIR transmits through silicon. In addition, a confocal scanner provides high-contrast, optically-sectioned images of the specimen due to its ability to reject out-of-focus noise. In this study, we report an NIR confocal scanner that rapidly acquires high-resolution images with a large field of view through silicon. Two orthogonal line-scanning images can be acquired without rotating the system or the specimen by utilizing two orthogonally configured resonant scanning mirrors. This NIR confocal scanner can be efficiently used as an in-line inspection system when manufacturing semiconductor devices by rapidly detecting defects on and beneath the surface. (paper)

  2. High harmonic terahertz confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Wenjie; Guan, Xiaotong; Yan, Yang [THz Research Center, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The harmonic confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam is proposed in this paper in order to develop compact and high power terahertz radiation source. A 0.56 THz third harmonic confocal gyrotron with a dual arc section nonuniform electron beam has been designed and investigated. The studies show that confocal cavity has extremely low mode density, and has great advantage to operate at high harmonic. Nonuniform electron beam is an approach to improve output power and interaction efficiency of confocal gyrotron. A dual arc beam magnetron injection gun for designed confocal gyrotron has been developed and presented in this paper.

  3. Assessment of Oral Conditions and Quality of Life in Morbid Obese and Normal Weight Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselene Martinelli Yamashita

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the impact of oral disease on the quality of life of morbid obese and normal weight individuals. Cohort was composed of 100 morbid-obese and 50 normal-weight subjects. Dental caries, community periodontal index, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP, calculus, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, dental wear, stimulated salivary flow, and salivary pH were used to evaluate oral diseases. Socioeconomic and the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP questionnaires showed the quality of life in both groups. Unpaired Student, Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Multiple Regression tests were used (p<0.05. Obese showed lower socio-economic level than control group, but no differences were found considering OIDP. No significant differences were observed between groups considering the number of absent teeth, bruxism, difficult mastication, calculus, initial caries lesion, and caries. However, saliva flow was low, and the salivary pH was changed in the obese group. Enamel wear was lower and dentine wear was higher in obese. More BOP, insertion loss, and periodontal pocket, especially the deeper ones, were found in obese subjects. The regression model showed gender, smoking, salivary pH, socio-economic level, periodontal pocket, and periodontal insertion loss significantly associated to obesity. However, both OIDP and BOP did not show significant contribution to the model. The quality of life of morbid obese was more negatively influenced by oral disease and socio-economic factors than in normal weight subjects.

  4. Executive functions differences in normal scholars, with Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, disorder of arithmetical skills and comorbid condition

    OpenAIRE

    Gaitán Chipatecua, Alexandra; Rey-Anacona, César-Armando

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio descriptivo-comparativo fue comparar el desempeño en funciones ejecutivas de escolares entre ocho y trece años con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), trastorno del cálculo (TC), TDAH+TC y controles normales. Los diagnósticos se confirmaron a través de una entrevista clínica semiestructurada, un cuestionario clínico de déficit atencional y pruebas de cálculo matemático. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los...

  5. Phenological Variation and its Relation with Yield in several Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars under Normal and Late Sowing Mediated Heat Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrun NAHAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenological performance in relation to yield of five modern varieties of wheat �Sourav�, �Pradip�, �Sufi�, �Shatabdi� and �Bijoy� were evaluated under two growing environments; one is normal growing environment (sowing at November 30 and the other is post anthesis heat stressed environment (sowing at December 30. In case of late seeding, the varieties phased a significant level of high temperature stress that also significantly affected the required days to germination, booting, anthesis, maturity of all varieties including the yield as compared to normal sowing treatment. The temperature during the grain filling or grain maturing period was near 23�C in case of normal seeding and it was near about 28�C to 30�C and sometimes reached above this range in the later period of late seeded treatment. In the normal sowing treatment the germination period was lower than the late sowing treatment as during that time the temperature was higher as compared to late sowing condition where temperature was lower. Days to anthesis and booting decreased due to late sown heat stress condition regardless the cultivars. These phenological characteristics under heat stressed condition led the wheat cultivars to significantly lower the grain yield as compared to normal condition. Due to heat stress, the yield reduction was 69.53% in �Sourav�, 58.41% in �Pradip�, 73.01% in �Sufi�, 55.46% in �Shatabdi� and 53.42% in �Bijoy�.

  6. Confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes for high speed measurements and better imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Wanhee; Lee, SeungWoo; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2008-02-01

    Confocal scanning microscopy (CSM) needs a scanning mechanism because only one point information of specimen can be obtained. Therefore the speed of the confocal scanning microscopy is limited by the speed of the scanning tool. To overcome this limitation from scanning tool we propose another scanning mechanism. We make three optical probes in the specimen under confocal condition of each point. Three optical probes are moved by beam scanning mechanism with shared resonant scanning mirror (RM) and galvanometer driven mirror (GM). As each optical probe scan allocated region of the specimen, information from three points is obtained simultaneously and image acquisition time is reduced. Therefore confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes is expected to have three times faster speed of the image acquisition than conventional one. And as another use, multiple optical probes to which different light wavelength is applied can scan whole same region respectively. It helps to obtain better contrast image in case of specimens having different optical characteristics for specific light wavelength. In conclusion confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes is useful technique for views of image acquisition speed and image quality.

  7. Translocation of 14C-photosynthates under normal and moisture stress conditions in finger millet (Eleusine coracana) gaertin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udayakumar, M.; Rama Rao, S.; Krishna Sastry, K.S.

    1981-01-01

    Translocation of photosynthates into different sinks was studied following feeding a single leaf with 14 CO 2 in 40 day old stressed and non-stressed plants of Eleusine coracana. The rate of efflux of 14 C-photosynthates was twice as much in non-stressed plants compared to stressed plants. Young developing leaves, stem apex and stem which are the potential sinks under non-stressed conditions received very little activity under stress conditions. Percent activity in the roots was enhanced under stress suggesting the pattern of translocation was altered under stress conditions. In the plants subjected to moisture stress, after feeding with 14 CO 2 the rate of efflux of 14 C-photosynthates from the fed leaf decreased and the pattern of translocation was altered. Though the effect of stress seems to be directly on the translocation system, the photosynthetic rate appears to be more sensitive to stress than translocation. (author)

  8. CCDiode: an optimal detector for laser confocal microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawley, James B.; Blouke, Morley M.; Janesick, James R.

    1996-04-01

    The laser confocal microscope (LCM) is now an established research tool in biology and materials science. In biological applications, it is usually employed to detect the location of fluorescent market molecules and, under these conditions, signal levels from bright areas are often digitizer. To maintain the desired +/- 3 e noise level at the relatively high data rate of 1 MHz, our new device utilizes 64 separate readout amplifier/digitizer systems, operating in sequence. The resulting detector is more compact, efficient and reliable than the PMT it replaces but as its sensitive area is smaller than that of a PMT, it will require auxiliary optics when used with any LCM having a large (mm) pinhole. As the signal light is parallel, a simple lens mounted axially and with the CCDiode at its focus would suffice. Future versions may use 3 X 3 or 5 X 5 arrays of sensors to `track' the confocal spot as it is deflected by inhomogeneities of the specimen, change its effective size or shape or detect system misalignment.

  9. Near-infrared-excited confocal Raman spectroscopy advances in vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Ng, Joseph; Low, Jeffrey J H; Ilancheran, Arunachalam; Huang, Zhiwei

    2013-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a unique optical technique that can probe the changes of vibrational modes of biomolecules associated with tissue premalignant transformation. This study evaluates the clinical utility of confocal Raman spectroscopy over near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) spectroscopy and composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy for improving early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo at colposcopy. A rapid NIR Raman system coupled with a ball-lens fiber-optic confocal Raman probe was utilized for in vivo NIR AF/Raman spectral measurements of the cervix. A total of 1240 in vivo Raman spectra [normal (n=993), dysplasia (n=247)] were acquired from 84 cervical patients. Principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) together with a leave-one-patient-out, cross-validation method were used to extract the diagnostic information associated with distinctive spectroscopic modalities. The diagnostic ability of confocal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated using the PCA-LDA model developed from the significant principal components (PCs) [i.e., PC4, 0.0023%; PC5, 0.00095%; PC8, 0.00022%, (p<0.05)], representing the primary tissue Raman features (e.g., 854, 937, 1095, 1253, 1311, 1445, and 1654 cm(-1)). Confocal Raman spectroscopy coupled with PCA-LDA modeling yielded the diagnostic accuracy of 84.1% (a sensitivity of 81.0% and a specificity of 87.1%) for in vivo discrimination of dysplastic cervix. The receiver operating characteristic curves further confirmed that the best classification was achieved using confocal Raman spectroscopy compared to the composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy or NIR AF spectroscopy alone. This study illustrates that confocal Raman spectroscopy has great potential to improve early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo during clinical colposcopy.

  10. Changes in the metabolic footprint of placental explant-conditioned medium cultured in different oxygen tensions from placentas of small for gestational age and normal pregnancies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, R P

    2012-01-31

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers significantly increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Accumulating evidence suggests that an SGA fetus results from a poorly perfused and abnormally developed placenta. Some of the placental features seen in SGA, such as abnormal cell turnover and impaired nutrient transport, can be reproduced by culture of placental explants in hypoxic conditions. Metabolic footprinting offers a hypothesis-generating strategy to investigate factors absorbed by and released from this tissue in vitro. Previously, metabolic footprinting of the conditioned culture media has identified differences in placental explants cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and between normal pregnancies and those complicated by pre-eclampsia. In this study we aimed to examine the differences in the metabolic footprint of placental villous explants cultured at different oxygen (O(2)) tensions between women who deliver an SGA baby (n = 9) and those from normal controls (n = 8). Placental villous explants from cases and controls were cultured for 96 h in 1% (hypoxic), 6% (normoxic) and 20% (hyperoxic) O(2). Metabolic footprints were analysed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to an electrospray hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). 574 metabolite features showed significant difference between SGA and normal at one or more of the oxygen tensions. SGA explant media cultured under hypoxic conditions was observed, on a univariate level, to exhibit the same metabolic signature as controls cultured under normoxic conditions in 49% of the metabolites of interest, suggesting that SGA tissue is acclimatised to hypoxic conditions in vivo. No such behaviour was observed under hyperoxic culture conditions. Glycerophospholipid and tryptophan metabolism were highlighted as areas of particular interest.

  11. "It's Not Like a Normal 9 to 5!": The Learning Journeys of Media Production Apprentices in Distributed Working Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiff, Ann; Guile, David

    2016-01-01

    An apprenticeship in media production in England is at the centre of this case study exploration. The context is exemplified by the organisation of the process of production around project teams and the development of project-based working cultures. Given these developments, the working conditions and learning opportunities presented to…

  12. Heart-rate mediated blood pressure control in preterm fetal sheep under normal and hypoxic-ischemic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwanenburg, A.A.; Jellema, R.K.; Jennekens, W.; Ophelders, D.; Vullings, R.; Hunnik, van A.; Pul, van C.; Bennet, L.; Delhaas, T.; Kramer, B.W.; Andriessen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The understanding of hypoxemia-induced changes in baroreflex function is limited and may be studied in a fetal sheep experiment before, during, and after standardized hypoxic conditions. Methods: Preterm fetal lambs were instrumented at 102 d gestation (term: 146 d). At 106 d,

  13. Insight into the Microbial Multicellular Lifestyle via Flow-Cell Technology and Confocal Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pamp, Sünje Johanna; Sternberg, Claus; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2009-01-01

    , industry, and human health. Accordingly a number of biofilm model systems, molecular tools, microscopic techniques, and image analysis programs have been employed for the study of biofilms under controlled and reproducible conditions. Studies using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of biofilms...

  14. Mechanistic prediction of fission product release under normal and accident conditions: key uncertainties that need better resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.

    1983-09-01

    A theoretical model has been used for predicting the behavior of fission gas and volatile fission products (VFPs) in UO 2 -base fuels during steady-state and transient conditions. This model represents an attempt to develop an efficient predictive capability for the full range of possible reactor operating conditions. Fission products released from the fuel are assumed to reach the fuel surface by successively diffusing (via atomic and gas-bubble mobility) from the grains to grain faces and then to the grain edges, where the fission products are released through a network of interconnected tunnels of fission-gas induced and fabricated porosity. The model provides for a multi-region calculation and uses only one size class to characterize a distribution of fission gas bubbles

  15. Construction of an external electrode for determination of electrochemical corrosion potential in normal operational conditions of an BWR type reactor for hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar T, J.A.; Rivera M, H.; Hernandez C, R.

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of the corrosion processes at high temperature requires of external devices that being capable to resist a temperature of 288 Centigrade and a pressure of 80 Kg/cm 2 , to give stable and reproducible results of some variable and resisting physically and chemically the radiation. The external electrode of Ag/AgCl fulfils all the requirements in the determination of the electrochemical corrosion potential under normal operational conditions of a BWR type reactor in hot cells. (Author)

  16. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization Under Ethanol Stress Conditions in Oenococcus oeni SD-2a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Peng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The powerful Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR was widely used to assess gene expression levels, which requires the optimal reference genes used for normalization. Oenococcus oeni (O. oeni, as the one of most important microorganisms in wine industry and the most resistant lactic acid bacteria (LAB species to ethanol, has not been investigated regarding the selection of stable reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization under ethanol stress conditions. In this study, nine candidate reference genes (proC, dnaG, rpoA, ldhD, ddlA, rrs, gyrA, gyrB, and dpoIII were analyzed to determine the most stable reference genes for RT-qPCR in O. oeni SD-2a under different ethanol stress conditions (8, 12, and 16% (v/v ethanol. The transcript stabilities of these genes were evaluated using the algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The results showed that dnaG and dpoIII were selected as the best reference genes across all experimental ethanol conditions. Considering single stress experimental modes, dpoIII and dnaG would be suitable to normalize expression level for 8% ethanol shock treatment, while the combination of gyrA, gyrB, and rrs would be suitable for 12% ethanol shock treatment. proC and gyrB revealed the most stable expression in 16% ethanol shock treatment. This study selected and validated for the first time the reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization in O. oeni SD-2a under ethanol stress conditions.

  17. Relative survival of hybrid x-ray-resistant, and normally sensitive mammalian cells exposed to x rays and protons under aerobic and hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.R.; Gould, R.G.; Flynn, D.; Robertson, J.B.; Little, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Survival of an x-ray-resistant hybrid cell line (HD 1 ) and a normally responsive cell line (H 4 ) have been compared when irradiated under induced hypoxia by both protons and X rays. The two cell lines are similarly protected when irradiated under hypoxic conditions with oxygen enhancement ratios of 2.8 and 2.7, respectively. The protection is consistent with a dose-modifying factor. No statistically significant difference is observed between cell inactivation by x rays and protons in either cell line, whether irradiated under aerobic or hypoxic conditions

  18. An assessment of the relationship of physical activity, obesity, and chronic diseases/conditions between active/obese and sedentary/ normal weight American women in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, J R; Coughenour, C A; Bungum, T J

    2018-03-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are associated with increased rates of chronic diseases and conditions. However, the 'fit but fat' theory posits that cardiopulmonary fitness (or physical activity) can mitigate risks to health associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to compare chronic diseases and conditions of highly active/obese women with inactive/normal weight women. This was a cross-sectional study of the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. Weighted descriptive statistics were performed to describe the demographic characteristics of the two groups. We calculated odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios for chronic diseases and conditions comparing highly active/obese women with inactive/normal weight women. Highly active/obese women were more likely to report risk factors (hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes) for coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) than inactive/normal weight women; however, they did not have increased rates of CVD, CHD, or heart attack and had decreased risk for stroke. Highly active/obese women had increased risk for asthma, arthritis, and depression, but not for cancer, kidney disease, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Highly active/obese women appear to be staving off the actual development of CHD and CVD; however, further research is needed to understand the long-term health benefits of physical activity among obese women. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dissolution rates of unirradiated UO2, UO2 doped with 233U, and spent fuel under normal atmospheric conditions and under reducing conditions using an isotope dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, Kaija; Albinsson, Yngve; Oversby, Virginia; Cowper, Mark

    2003-10-01

    The experimental results given in this report allow us to draw the following conclusions. 1) Tests using unirradiated fuel pellet materials from two different manufacturers gave very different dissolution rates under air atmosphere testing. Tests for fragments of pellets from different pellets made by the same manufacturer gave good agreement. This indicates that details of the manufacturing process have a large effect on the behavior of unirradiated UO 2 in dissolution experiments. Care must be taken in interpreting differences in results obtained in different laboratories because the results may be affected by manufacturing effects. 2) Long-term tests under air atmosphere have begun to show the effects of precipitation. Further testing will be needed before the samples reach steady state. 3) Testing of unirradiated UO 2 in systems containing an iron strip to produce reducing conditions gave [U] less than detection limits ( 235 U added as spike was recovered, indicating that 90% of the spike had precipitated onto the solid sample or the iron strip. 9) Tests of UO 2 pellet materials containing 233 U to provide an alpha decay activity similar to that expected for spent fuel 3000 and 10,000 years after disposal showed that the pellet materials behaved as expected under air atmosphere conditions, showing that the manufacturing method was successful. 10) Early testing of the 233 U-doped materials under reducing conditions showed relatively rapid (30 minute) dissolution of small amounts of U at the start of the puff test procedure. Results of analyses of an acidified fraction of the same solutions after 1 or 2 weeks holding indicate that the solutions were inhomogeneous, indicating the presence of colloidal material or small grains of solid. 11) Samples from the 233 U-doped tests initially indicated dissolution of solid during the first week of testing, with some indication of more rapid dissolution of the material with the higher doping. 12) The second cycle of testing

  20. Comparison of the corrosion potential for stainless steel measured in-plant and in laboratory during BWR normal water chemistry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molander, A.; Pein, K.; Tarkpea, P.; Takagi, Junichi; Karlberg, G.; Gott, K.

    1998-01-01

    To obtain reliable crack growth rate date for stainless steel in BWR environments careful laboratory simulation of the environmental conditions is necessary. In the plant the BWR normal water chemistry environment contains hydrogen peroxide, oxygen and hydrogen. However, in crack growth rate experiments in laboratories, the environment is normally simulated by adding 200 ppb oxygen to the high temperature water. Thus, as hydrogen peroxide is a more powerful oxidant than oxygen, it is to be expected that a lower corrosion potential will be measured in the laboratory than in the plant. To resolve this issue this work has been performed. In-plant and laboratory measurements have often been performed with somewhat different equipment, due to the special requirements concerning in-plant measurements. In this work such differences have been avoided and two identical sets of equipment for electrochemical measurements were built and used for measurements in-plant in a Swedish BWR and in high purity water in the laboratory. The host plant was Barsebaeck 1. Corrosion potential monitoring in-plant was performed under both NWC (Normal Water Chemistry) and HWC (Hydrogen Water Chemistry) conditions. This paper is, however, focused on NWC conditions. This is due to the fact, that the total crack growth obtained during a reactor cycle, can be determined by NWC conditions, even for plants running with HWC due to periodic stops in the hydrogen addition for turbine inspections or failure of the dosage or hydrogen production equipment. Thus, crack growth data for NWC is of great importance both for BWRs operating with HWC and NWC. Measurements in-plant and in the laboratory were performed during additions of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide to the autoclave systems. The corrosion potentials were compared for various conditions in the autoclaves, as well as versus in-plant in-pipe corrosion potentials. (J.P.N.)

  1. Microscopia confocal en operados de queratoplastia perforante Confocal microscopy in patients operated from penetrating keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Gómez Castillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La microscopia confocal es un examen exploratorio, práctico y poco invasivo que permite conocer las características microscópicas del tejido corneal después del trasplante, por lo que constituye una herramienta muy útil en el manejo de los pacientes operados de queratoplastia. El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad describir las características del tejido corneal en pacientes operados de este tipo de trasplante, mediante la microscopia confocal in vivo. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, en 40 ojos de 40 pacientes operados de queratoplastia perforante, en el Servicio de Córnea del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", de marzo de 2006 a marzo de 2007. Se confeccionó una historia clínica oftalmológica y se les realizó a todos el examen de microscopia confocal en el injerto corneal con el microscopio confocal CONFOSCAN 4. RESULTADOS: La queratopatía bullosa pseudofáquica fue la afección más frecuente previa a la cirugía y estuvo presente en el 77,5 % de los pacientes. En el 72,5 % de los intervenidos se encontró una disminución del grosor corneal. El epitelio presentó alteraciones en el 62,5 % de los pacientes. Todos presentaron afectación de la forma y el tamaño celular endotelial. En el 82,5 % de los pacientes se observó ausencia de plexos nerviosos. CONCLUSIONES: La microscopia confocal como nueva ciencia en el campo de la oftalmología, favorece el seguimiento evolutivo de las queratoplastias perforantes y con esto no solo a prevenir la aparición de posibles complicaciones, sino además de garantizar el éxito de la cirugía y la función refractiva de la córnea.Confocal microscopy is a practical, exploratory and less invassive examination that allows finding out the microscopic characteristics of the corneal tissue after transplantation, so it is a very useful tool for the management of patients operated from keratoplasty. The present paper was aimed at describing

  2. Confocal microscope is able to detect calcium metabolic in neuronal infection by toxoplasma gondii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensusiati, A D; Priya, T K S; Dachlan, Y P

    2017-01-01

    Calcium metabolism plays a very important role in neurons infected by Toxoplasma. Detection of change of calcium metabolism of neuron infected by Toxoplasma and Toxoplasma requires the calculation both quantitative and qualitative method. Confocal microscope has the ability to capture the wave of the fluorescent emission of the fluorescent dyes used in the measurement of cell calcium. The purpose of this study was to prove the difference in calcium changes between infected and uninfected neurons using confocal microscopy. Neuronal culture of human-skin-derived neural stem cell were divided into 6 groups, consisting 3 uninfected groups and 3 infected groups. Among the 3 groups were 2 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. The neuron Toxoplasma gondii ratio was 1:5. Observation of intracellular calcium of neuron and tachyzoite, evidence of necrosis, apoptosis and the expression of Hsp 70 of neuron were examined by confocal microscope. The normality of the data was analysed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, differentiation test was checked by t2 Test, and ANOVAs, for correlation test was done by Pearson Correlation Test. The calcium intensity of cytosolic neuron and T. gondii was significantly different from control groups (p<0.05). There was also significant correlation between calcium intensity with the evidence of necrosis and Hsp70 expression at 2 hours after infection. Apoptosis and necrosis were simultaneously shown with calcium contribution in this study. Confocal microscopy can be used to measure calcium changes in infected and uninfected neurons both in quantitatively and qualitatively. (paper)

  3. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Giulia M R; Breedijk, Ronald M P; Brandt, Rick A J; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H C; de Jong, Babette E; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M M

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required.

  4. Localizing Proteins in Fixed Giardia lamblia and Live Cultured Mammalian Cells by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Schwartzbach, Steven D; Skalli, Omar; Estraño, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) are complementary methods for studying the intracellular localization of proteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy provides a rapid and technically simple method to identify the organelle in which a protein localizes but only EM can identify the suborganellular compartment in which that protein is present. Confocal fluorescence microscopy, however, can provide information not obtainable by EM but required to understand the dynamics and interactions of specific proteins. In addition, confocal fluorescence microscopy of cells transfected with a construct encoding a protein of interest fused to a fluorescent protein tag allows live cell studies of the subcellular localization of that protein and the monitoring in real time of its trafficking. Immunostaining methods for confocal fluorescence microscopy are also faster and less involved than those for EM allowing rapid optimization of the antibody dilution needed and a determination of whether protein antigenicity is maintained under fixation conditions used for EM immunogold labeling. This chapter details a method to determine by confocal fluorescence microscopy the intracellular localization of a protein by transfecting the organism of interest, in this case Giardia lamblia, with the cDNA encoding the protein of interest and then processing these organisms for double label immunofluorescence staining after chemical fixation. Also presented is a method to identify the organelle targeting information in the presequence of a precursor protein, in this case the presequence of the precursor to the Euglena light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein of photosystem II precursor (pLHCPII), using live cell imaging of mammalian COS7 cells transiently transfected with a plasmid encoding a pLHCPII presequence fluorescent protein fusion and stained with organelle-specific fluorescent dyes.

  5. Microscopia confocal en córneas de cien ojos sanos Confocal microscopy results of one hundred healthy eye corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Gómez Castillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar las estructuras celulares por microscopia confocal, Confoscan 4, en córneas sanas en nuestro medio. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo longitudinal a 100 ojos sanos de médicos que trabajan en nuestra institución, y pacientes que asistieron al servicio de córnea. Esta investigación fue desde mayo de 2007 a mayo 2008, en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", La Habana. En los médicos se examinaron ambos ojos y en los pacientes el ojo no afectado. Se recopilaron un total de 50 casos sin afección corneal. Resultados: De los 100 ojos estudiados, 64 tenían paquimetrías por encima del valor medio. Estuvieron presentes los tres tipos de células epiteliales en casi la totalidad de los pacientes; así como los queratocitos en las diferentes profundidades del estroma corneal. La mayoría de los ojos tenían un conteo celular endotelial por encima de 2 500, cifra comprendida dentro de los valores normales. Se encontraron fibras nerviosas en cada una de sus capas. Conclusiones: La microscopia confocal se presenta como una nueva herramienta que permite observar en vivo la histología corneal y complementar las observaciones de la biomicroscopia convencional. Esto constituye un reto para el mejor entendimiento de la histopatología corneal. De esta manera podemos actuar de forma profiláctica y terapéutica, en el seguimiento y evolución de patologías corneales.Objective: This paper is aimed at analyzing the corneal cellular structures through Confoscan S4-aided confocal microscopy in apparently healthy corneas. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study of 100 healthy eyes from practicing doctors, and from patients who had attended the corneal service at “Ramón Pando Ferrer” Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology in Havana since May 2007 was conducted. Both eyes of participating doctors were examined whereas the non-affected eye was examined in the patients. A total of 50 cases with no corneal

  6. Tenskinmetric Evaluation of Surface Energy Changes in Adult Skin: Evidence from 834 Normal Subjects Monitored in Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Dal Bosco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of the skin aging critical level on the adult skin epidermal functional state, an improved analytical method based on the skin surface energetic measurement (TVS modeling was developed. Tenskinmetric measurements were carried out non-invasively in controlled conditions by contact angle method using only a water-drop as reference standard liquid. Adult skin was monitored by TVS Observatory according to a specific and controlled thermal protocol (Camianta protocol in use at the interconnected “Mamma Margherita Terme spa” of Terme Euganee. From June to November 2013, the surface free energy and the epidermal hydration level of adult skin were evaluated on arrival of 265 male and 569 female adult volunteers (51–90 years of age and when they departed 2 weeks later. Sensitive measurements were carried out at 0.1 mN/m. High test compliance was obtained (93.2% of all guests. Very interesting results are obtained. The high sensitivity and discrimination power of tenskinmetry combined with a thermal Camianta protocol demonstrate the possibility to evaluate at baseline level the surface energetic changes and the skin reactivity which occurs on adult skin.

  7. Koehler/Zimmer: The X-ray findings of the skeleton marking off the onset of pathological changes against normal conditions. 13. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Freyschmidt, J.; Holthusen, W.

    1989-01-01

    It is extremely difficult to define the border line, or border area, between normal and pathological conditions. This applies in particular to diagnostic radiology of the skeleton. Although the X-ray picture of a certain skeletal area in principle yields more objective information than the anamnestic data given by the patient, or the clinical findings, this more objective information in borderline cases will develop its full usefulness only if X-ray or clinical findings are interpreted synoptically, sometimes with recourse to other radiological techniques (such as scintiscanning, CT, or NMR imaging). This also is the suitable approach to evaluating and interpreting measured anatomic data as for instance shape or size. Transitions from normal conditions to pathological processes cannot be seen in the image, they will have to be defined in every case by negative exclusion, and this is why the book in hand is neither an atlas of normal X-ray anatomy, nor a collection of differential diagnostic X-ray findings of the skeleton. Having regard to practical requirements and respecting the excellent picture material of the preceding issue, the authors in some cases decided to assign borderline findings rather to the pathological types. (orig./MG) With 2816 figs., 16 tabs [de

  8. Fkh1 and Fkh2 associate with Sir2 to control CLB2 transcription under normal and oxidative stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eLinke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Forkhead box family of transcription factors is evolutionary conserved from yeast to higher eukaryotes and its members are involved in many physiological processes including metabolism, DNA repair, cell cycle, stress resistance, apoptosis and aging. In budding yeast, four Forkhead transcription factors were identified, namely Fkh1, Fkh2, Fhl1, and Hcm1, which are implicated in chromatin silencing, cell cycle regulation and stress response. These factors impinge transcriptional regulation during cell cycle progression, and histone deacetylases play an essential role in this process, e.g. the nuclear localisation of Hcm1 depends on Sir2 activity, whereas Sin3/Rpd3 silence cell cycle specific gene transcription in G2/M phase. However, a direct involvement of Sir2 in Fkh1/Fkh2-dependent regulation of target genes is at present unknown. Here, we show that Fkh1 and Fkh2 associate with Sir2 in G1 and M phase, and that Fkh1/Fkh2-mediated activation of reporter genes is antagonized by Sir2. We further report that Sir2 overexpression strongly affects cell growth in an Fkh1/Fkh2-dependent manner. In addition, Sir2 regulates the expression of the mitotic cyclin Clb2 through Fkh1/Fkh2-mediated binding to the CLB2 promoter in G1 and M phase. We finally demonstrate that Sir2 is also enriched at the CLB2 promoter under stress conditions, and that the nuclear localization of Sir2 is dependent on Fkh1 and Fkh2. Taken together, our results show a functional interplay between Fkh1/Fkh2 and Sir2 suggesting a novel mechanism of cell cycle repression. Thus, in budding yeast, not only the regulation of G2/M gene expression but also the protective response against stress could be directly coordinated by Fkh1 and Fkh2.

  9. Kinetics of sup(99m)technetium-tin-methylene-diphosphonate in normal subjects and pathological conditions: A simple index of bone metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caniggia, A.; Vattimo, A.

    1980-01-01

    The blood clearance and the urinary excretion of the bone scanning complex technetium-tin-methylene-diphosphonate sup(99m)Tc-Sn-MDP administered intravenously have been measured in 27 normal subjects and 104 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, osteomalacia, primary hyperparathyroidism, Paget's disease, pagetoid metastases of prostatic cancer, osteolyses, chronic renal failure, and liver cirrhosis to quantitative the skeletal uptake of the radiopharmaceutical. Kinetic analysis of the data was performed in terms of a four-compartment model; correspondent rate constants and fitted values were estimated. In normal subjects the whole-body retention (WBR) up to 24 h was 33.3% +- 7.4 SD, whereas significantly more elevated values were observed in several pathological conditions, the highest values being ascertained in patients with pagetoid metastases, primary hyperparathyroidism, and chronic renal failure and whenever large osteoid seams were present. Differences were found between osteoporosis and osteomalacia, monostotic and polyostotic Paget's, pagetoid and osteolytic metastases of bone. (orig./AJ) [de

  10. Using Photoshop with images created by a confocal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgewick, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Many pure colors and grayscales tones that result from confocal imaging are not reproducible to output devices, such as printing presses, laptop projectors, and laser jet printers. Part of the difficulty in predicting the colors and tones that will reproduce lies in both the computer display, and in the display of unreproducible colors chosen for fluorophores. The use of a grayscale display for confocal channels and a LUT display to show saturated (clipped) tonal values aids visualization in the former instance and image integrity in the latter. Computer monitors used for post-processing in order to conform the image to the output device can be placed in darkened rooms, and the gamma for the display can be set to create darker shadow regions, and to control the display of color. These conditions aid in visualization of images so that blacks are set to grayer values that are more amenable to faithful reproduction. Preferences can be set in Photoshop for consistent display of colors, along with other settings to optimize use of memory. The Info window is opened so that tonal information can be shown via readouts. Images that are saved as indexed color are converted to grayscale or RGB Color, 16-bit is converted to 8-bit when desired, and colorized images from confocal software is returned to grayscale and re-colorized according to presented methods so that reproducible colors are made. Images may also be sharpened and noise may be reduced, or more than one image layered to show colocalization according to specific methods. Images are then converted to CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black) for consequent assignment of pigment percentages for printing presses. Changes to single images and multiple images from image stacks are automated for efficient and consistent image processing changes. Some additional changes are done to those images destined for 3D visualization to better separate regions of interest from background. Files are returned to image stacks, saved and

  11. On the Similarity of Sturm-Liouville Operators with Non-Hermitian Boundary Conditions to Self-Adjoint and Normal Operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David; Siegl, Petr; Železný, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 255-281 ISSN 1661-8254 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002; GA MŠk LC527; GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD202/08/H072 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Sturm-Liouville operators * non-symmetric Robin boundary conditions * similarity to normal or self-adjoint operators * discrete spectral operator * complex symmetric operator * PT-symmetry * metric operator * C operator * Hilbert- Schmidt operators Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.545, year: 2014

  12. Confocal fluorescence techniques in industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggeling, Christian; Gall, Karsten; Palo, Kaupo; Kask, Peet; Brand, Leif

    2003-06-01

    The FCS+plus family of evaluation tools for confocal fluorescence spectroscopy, which was developed during recent years, offers a comprehensive view to a series of fluorescence properties. Originating in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and using similar experimental equipment, a system of signal processing methods such as fluorescence intensity distribution analysis (FIDA) was created to analyze in detail the fluctuation behavior of fluorescent particles within a small area of detection. Giving simultaneous access to molecular parameters like concentration, translational and rotational diffusion, molecular brightness, and multicolor coincidence, this portfolio was enhanced by more traditional techniques of fluorescence lifetime as well as time-resolved anisotropy determination. The cornerstones of the FCS+plus methodology will be shortly described. The inhibition of a phosphatase enzyme activity gives a comprehensive industrial application that demonstrates FCS+plus' versatility and its potential for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  13. In vivo laser confocal microscopy findings of a cornea with osteogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi A

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Akira Kobayashi, Tomomi Higashide, Hideaki Yokogawa, Natsuko Yamazaki, Toshinori Masaki, Kazuhisa Sugiyama Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan Objective: To report the in vivo laser confocal microscopy findings of a cornea with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI with special attention to the abnormality of Bowman's layer and sub-Bowman's fibrous structures (K-structures. Patients and methods: Two patients (67-year-old male and his 26-year-old son with OI type I were included in this study. Slit lamp biomicroscopic and in vivo laser confocal microscopic examinations were performed for both patients. Central corneal thickness and central endothelial cell density were also measured. Results: Although the corneas looked clear with normal endothelial density for both eyes in both patients, they were quite thin (386 µm oculus dexter (OD (the right eye and 384 µm oculus sinister (OS (the left eye in the father and 430 µm OD and 425 µm OS in the son. In both patients, slit lamp biomicroscopic and in vivo laser confocal microscopic examination showed similar results. Anterior corneal mosaics produced by rubbing the eyelid under fluorescein were completely absent in both eyes. In vivo laser confocal microscopy revealed an absent or atrophic Bowman's layer; a trace of a presumed Bowman's layer and/or basement membrane was barely visible with high intensity. Additionally, K-structures were completely absent in both eyes. Conclusion: The absence of K-structures and fluorescein anterior corneal mosaics strongly suggested an abnormality of Bowman's layer in these OI patients. Keywords: osteogenesis imperfecta, K-structure, confocal microscopy, Bowman's layer

  14. Evaluation and purchase of confocal microscopes: Numerous factors to consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purchase of a confocal microscope can be a complex and difficult decision for an individual scientist, group or evaluation committee. This is true even for scientists that have used confocal technology for many years. The task of reaching the optimal decision becomes almost i...

  15. Investigation of analytical methods in thermal stratification analysis. Evaluation of flow rates through flow holes for normal and scram conditions of 40% power operation with AQUA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Yoshihiro; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    1997-08-01

    Thermal stratification phenomena are observed in an upper plenum of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) under reactor scram conditions, which give rise to thermal stress on structural components. Therefore it is important to evaluate characteristics of phenomena in the design of the internal structure in an LMFBR plenum. To evaluate flow rates through flow holes of the prototype fast breeder reactor, MONJU, numerical analyses were carried out with AQUA code for normal and scram conditions with 40% power operation. Through comparison of analysis results and measured temperature, thermal stratification phenomena in 300 second period after the scram was evaluated. Flow rate through the upper flow holes, the lower flow holes and annular gap between the inner barrel and the reactor vessel were evaluated with the measured temperature and the analysis results individually. (J.P.N.)

  16. Digital differential confocal microscopy based on spatial shift transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Wang, Y; Liu, C; Wilson, T; Wang, H; Tan, J

    2014-11-01

    Differential confocal microscopy is a particularly powerful surface profilometry technique in industrial metrology due to its high axial sensitivity and insensitivity to noise. However, the practical implementation of the technique requires the accurate positioning of point detectors in three-dimensions. We describe a simple alternative based on spatial transformation of a through-focus series of images obtained from a homemade beam scanning confocal microscope. This digital differential confocal microscopy approach is described and compared with the traditional Differential confocal microscopy approach. The ease of use of the digital differential confocal microscopy system is illustrated by performing measurements on a 3D standard specimen. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  17. 4Pi-confocal microscopy of live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Karsten; Jakobs, Stefan; Hell, Stefan W.

    2002-06-01

    By coherently adding the spherical wavefronts of two opposing lenses, two-photon excitation 4Pi-confocal fluorescence microscopy has achieved three-dimensional imaging with an axial resolution 3-7 times better than confocal microscopy. So far this improvement was possible only in glycerol-mounted, fixed cells. Here we report 4Pi-confocal microscopy of watery objects and its application to the imaging of live cells. Water immersion 4Pi-confocal microscopy of membrane stained live Escherichia coli bacteria attains a 4.3 fold better axial resolution as compared to the best water immersion confocal microscope. The resolution enhancement results into a vastly improved three-dimensional representation of the bacteria. The first images of live biological samples with an all-directional resolution in the 190-280 nm range are presented here, thus establishing a new resolution benchmark in live cell microscopy.

  18. In Vivo Confocal Microscopy and Anterior Segment Optic Coherence Tomography Findings in Ocular Ochronosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Demirkilinc Biler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report clinical and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM findings of two patients with ocular ochronosis secondary due to alkaptonuria. Materials and Methods. Complete ophthalmologic examinations, including IVCM (HRT II/Rostock Cornea Module, Heidelberg, Germany, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT (Topcon 3D spectral-domain OCT 2000, Topcon Medical Systems, Paramus, NJ, USA, corneal topography (Pentacam, OCULUS Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany, and anterior segment photography, were performed. Results. Biomicroscopic examination showed bilateral darkly pigmented lesions of the nasal and temporal conjunctiva and episclera in both patients. In vivo confocal microscopy of the lesions revealed prominent degenerative changes, including vacuoles and fragmentation of collagen fibers in the affected conjunctival lamina propria and episclera. Hyperreflective pigment granules in different shapes were demonstrated in the substantia propria beneath the basement membrane. AS-OCT of Case 1 demonstrated hyporeflective areas. Fundus examination was within normal limits in both patients, except tilted optic discs with peripapillary atrophy in one of the patients. Corneal topography, thickness, and macular OCT were normal bilaterally in both cases. Conclusion. The degenerative and anatomic changes due to ochronotic pigment deposition in alkaptonuria can be demonstrated in detail with IVCM and AS-OCT. Confocal microscopic analysis in ocular ochronosis may serve as a useful adjunct in diagnosis and monitoring of the disease progression.

  19. A comparison of the lactate Pro, Accusport, Analox GM7 and Kodak Ektachem lactate analysers in normal, hot and humid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Naughton, L R; Thompson, D; Philips, G; Backx, K; Crickmore, L

    2002-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the performance of a new portable lactate analyser against other standard laboratory methods in three conditions, normal (20 +/- 1.3 degrees C; 40 +/- 5 % RH), hot (40 +/- 2.5 degrees C; 40 +/- 5 % RH), and humid (20 +/- 1.1 degrees C; 82 +/- 6 % RH) conditions. Seven healthy males, ([Mean +/- SE]: age, 26.3 +/- 1.3 yr; height, 177.7 +/- 1.6 cm; weight, 77.4 +/- 0.9 kg, .VO(2)max, 56.1 +/- 1.9 ml x kg x min(-1)) undertook a maximal cycle ergometry test to exhaustion in the three conditions. Blood was taken every 3 min at the end of each stage and was analysed using the Lactate Pro LT-1710, the Accusport, the Analox GM7 and the Kodak Ektachem systems. The MANOVA (Analyser Type x Condition x Workload) indicated no interaction effect (F(42,660), = 0.45, p > 0.99, Power = 0.53). The data across all workloads indicated that the machines measured significantly differently to each other (F(4,743) = 14.652, p < 0.0001, Power = 1.00). The data were moderately to highly correlated. We conclude that the Lactate Pro is a simple and effective measurement device for taking blood lactate in a field or laboratory setting. However, we would caution against using this machine to compare data from other machines.

  20. Preliminary identification of unicellular algal genus by using combined confocal resonance Raman spectroscopy with PCA and DPLS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Ping; Fang, Shaoxi; Li, Zhe; Tang, Peng; Gao, Xia; Guo, Jinsong; Tlili, Chaker; Wang, Deqiang

    2018-02-01

    The analysis of algae and dominant alga plays important roles in ecological and environmental fields since it can be used to forecast water bloom and control its potential deleterious effects. Herein, we combine in vivo confocal resonance Raman spectroscopy with multivariate analysis methods to preliminary identify the three algal genera in water blooms at unicellular scale. Statistical analysis of characteristic Raman peaks demonstrates that certain shifts and different normalized intensities, resulting from composition of different carotenoids, exist in Raman spectra of three algal cells. Principal component analysis (PCA) scores and corresponding loading weights show some differences from Raman spectral characteristics which are caused by vibrations of carotenoids in unicellular algae. Then, discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification method is used to verify the effectiveness of algal identification with confocal resonance Raman spectroscopy. Our results show that confocal resonance Raman spectroscopy combined with PCA and DPLS could handle the preliminary identification of dominant alga for forecasting and controlling of water blooms.

  1. Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy of Oral Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Brooke D.

    Raman spectroscopy has been used in a variety of applications throughout the field of biomedical optics. It has the ability to acquire chemically-specific information in a non-invasive manner, without the need for exogenous markers. This makes it useful in the identification of bacterial species, as well as in the study of tissues and other cells. In this work, a species identification model has been created in order to discriminate between the oral bacterial species Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans. These are two of the most prevalent species within the human mouth and their relative concentrations can be an indicator of a patient's oral health and risk of tooth decay. They are predominantly found within plaque on the tooth's surface. To study a simplified model for dental plaque, we have examined S. sanguinis and S. mutans grown in biofilm forms. Raman spectroscopy has been implemented here through a confocal microscope. The optical system has been equipped with computationally controlled stages to allow for automated scanning, including autofocusing to probe a consistent depth within a sample. A spectrum has been acquired from each position within a scan and sent for spectral preprocessing before being submitted for species identification. This preprocessing includes an algorithm that has been developed to remove fluorescence features from known contaminants within the confocal volume, to include signal from a fluorescent substrate. Species classification has been accomplished using a principal component score-fed logistic regression model constructed from a variety of biofilm samples that have been transferred and allowed to dry, as might occur with the study of plaque samples. This binary classification model has been validated on other samples with identical preparations. The model has also been transferred to determine the species of hydrated biofilms studied in situ. Artificially mixed biofilms have been examined to test the spatial

  2. Confocal Raman microscopy for in depth analysis in the field of cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, G.; Striova, J.; Zoppi, A.; Castellucci, E. M.

    2011-05-01

    In the field of cultural heritage, the main concern when a sample is analyzed is its safeguard, and this means that non-destructive techniques are required. In this work, we show how confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) may be successfully applied in the study of works of art as a valuable alternative to other well established techniques. CRM with a metallurgical objective was tested for the in depth study of thin samples that are of interest in the field of cultural heritage. The sensitivity of the instrumentation was first evaluated by analyzing single layers of pure polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films having a thickness of 12, 25, and 50 μm, respectively, and a multilayer sample of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE). Subsequently, the technique was applied to the analysis of historical dyed cotton yarns in order to check whether it was possible to achieve a better discrimination of the fibres' signals for an easier identification. A substantial improvement of the signal to noise ratio was found in the confocal arrangement with respect to the non-confocal one, suggesting the use of this technique for this kind of analysis in the field of cultural heritage. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy in confocal configuration was exploited in the evaluation of cleaning performed on the mural painting specimens, treated with acrylic resin (Paraloid B72). Confocal Raman experiments were performed before and after laser cleaning (at different conditions) in order to monitor the presence and to approximate the polymer thickness: the method proved to be a valid comparative tool in assessment of cleaning efficiencies.

  3. Mercury critical concentrations to Enchytraeus crypticus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils - Reproduction and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Schmelz, Rüdiger M; Niva, Cintia Carla; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2017-05-01

    Soil provides many ecosystem services that are essential to maintain its quality and healthy development of the flora, fauna and human well-being. Environmental mercury levels may harm the survival and diversity of the soil fauna. In this respect, efforts have been made to establish limit values of mercury (Hg) in soils to terrestrial fauna. Soil organisms such as earthworms and enchytraeids have intimate contact with trace metals in soil by their oral and dermal routes, reflecting the potentially adverse effects of this contaminant. The main goal of this study was to obtain Hg critical concentrations under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils to Enchytraeus crypticus to order to assess if climate change may potentiate their acute and chronic toxicity effects. Tropical soils were sampled from of two Forest Conservation Units of the Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil, which has been contaminated by Hg atmospheric depositions. Worms were exposed to three moisture conditions, at 20%, 50% and 80% of water holding capacity, respectively, and in combination with different Hg (HgCl 2 ) concentrations spiked in three types of tropical soil (two natural soils and one artificial soil). The tested concentrations ranged from 0 to 512mg Hg kg -1 dry weight. Results indicate that the Hg toxicity is higher under increased conditions of moisture, significantly affecting survival and reproduction rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Incidental Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinoma and Non-Neoplastic Conditions of the Fallopian Tubes in Grossly Normal Adnexa: A Clinicopathologic Study of 388 Completely Embedded Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Jeffrey D; Krishnan, Jayashree; Yemelyanova, Anna; Vang, Russell

    2016-09-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), the putative precursor of the majority of extrauterine high-grade serous carcinomas, has been reported in both high-risk women (those with a germline BRCA mutation, a personal history of breast carcinoma, and/or family history of breast or ovarian carcinoma) and average risk women from the general population. We reviewed grossly normal adnexal specimens from 388 consecutive, unselected women undergoing surgery, including those with germline BRCA mutation (37 patients), personal history of breast cancer or family history of breast/ovarian cancer (74 patients), endometrial cancer (175 patients), and a variety of other conditions (102 patients). Among 111 high-risk cases and 277 non-high-risk cases, 3 STICs were identified (0.8%), all in non-high-risk women (high risk vs. non-high risk: P=not significant). STIC was found in 2 women with nonserous endometrial carcinoma and 1 with complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Salpingoliths (mucosal calcifications), found in 9% of high-risk cases, and fimbrial adenofibromas in 9.9% of high-risk cases, were significantly more common in high-risk as compared with non-high-risk women (1.8% and 2.5%, respectively; PSTIC and endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, and clarify the frequency of non-neoplastic tubal findings in grossly normal fallopian tubes.

  5. Variation of radioactivity in the environmental media and dose evaluation in Suzhou city after normal operation of Qinshan Nuclear Power Station condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Rongchu; Liu Li

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the radioactive monitoring in environmental media of Suzhou City when Qinshan Nuclear Power Station was in normal operational condition (from 1992-2001). Methods: The radiochemical method was used for monitoring the radioactivity level in air, soil and food. Results: The total radioactivity, concentrations of 134 I and 134,137 Cs in environmental media was far lower than the limit values specified by the national standard GB. Conclusion: The radioactivity level in Suzhou City is at the natural background level. The individual annual average effective dose for adults in that period caused by ingestion 134,137 Cs in food is 4.41 x 10 -4 mSv/a

  6. Methods for studying biofilm formation: flow cells and confocal laser scanning microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Sternberg, Claus

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter methods for growing and analyzing biofilms under hydrodynamic conditions in flow cells are described. Use of flow cells allows for direct microscopic investigation of biofilm formation. The flow in these chambers is essentially laminar, which means that the biofilms can be grown u......, inoculation of the flow cells, running of the system, confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis, and disassembly and cleaning of the system....

  7. A low error reconstruction method for confocal holography to determine 3-dimensional properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquemin, P.B., E-mail: pbjacque@nps.edu [Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, EOW 548,800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC (Canada); Herring, R.A. [Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, EOW 548,800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    A confocal holography microscope developed at the University of Victoria uniquely combines holography with a scanning confocal microscope to non-intrusively measure fluid temperatures in three-dimensions (Herring, 1997), (Abe and Iwasaki, 1999), (Jacquemin et al., 2005). The Confocal Scanning Laser Holography (CSLH) microscope was built and tested to verify the concept of 3D temperature reconstruction from scanned holograms. The CSLH microscope used a focused laser to non-intrusively probe a heated fluid specimen. The focused beam probed the specimen instead of a collimated beam in order to obtain different phase-shift data for each scan position. A collimated beam produced the same information for scanning along the optical propagation z-axis. No rotational scanning mechanisms were used in the CSLH microscope which restricted the scan angle to the cone angle of the probe beam. Limited viewing angle scanning from a single view point window produced a challenge for tomographic 3D reconstruction. The reconstruction matrices were either singular or ill-conditioned making reconstruction with significant error or impossible. Establishing boundary conditions with a particular scanning geometry resulted in a method of reconstruction with low error referred to as 'wily'. The wily reconstruction method can be applied to microscopy situations requiring 3D imaging where there is a single viewpoint window, a probe beam with high numerical aperture, and specified boundary conditions for the specimen. The issues and progress of the wily algorithm for the CSLH microscope are reported herein. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of an optical confocal holography device to measure 3D temperature of a heated fluid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Processing of multiple holograms containing the cumulative refractive index through the fluid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reconstruction issues due to restricting angular scanning to the numerical aperture of the

  8. A low error reconstruction method for confocal holography to determine 3-dimensional properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemin, P.B.; Herring, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    A confocal holography microscope developed at the University of Victoria uniquely combines holography with a scanning confocal microscope to non-intrusively measure fluid temperatures in three-dimensions (Herring, 1997), (Abe and Iwasaki, 1999), (Jacquemin et al., 2005). The Confocal Scanning Laser Holography (CSLH) microscope was built and tested to verify the concept of 3D temperature reconstruction from scanned holograms. The CSLH microscope used a focused laser to non-intrusively probe a heated fluid specimen. The focused beam probed the specimen instead of a collimated beam in order to obtain different phase-shift data for each scan position. A collimated beam produced the same information for scanning along the optical propagation z-axis. No rotational scanning mechanisms were used in the CSLH microscope which restricted the scan angle to the cone angle of the probe beam. Limited viewing angle scanning from a single view point window produced a challenge for tomographic 3D reconstruction. The reconstruction matrices were either singular or ill-conditioned making reconstruction with significant error or impossible. Establishing boundary conditions with a particular scanning geometry resulted in a method of reconstruction with low error referred to as “wily”. The wily reconstruction method can be applied to microscopy situations requiring 3D imaging where there is a single viewpoint window, a probe beam with high numerical aperture, and specified boundary conditions for the specimen. The issues and progress of the wily algorithm for the CSLH microscope are reported herein. -- Highlights: ► Evaluation of an optical confocal holography device to measure 3D temperature of a heated fluid. ► Processing of multiple holograms containing the cumulative refractive index through the fluid. ► Reconstruction issues due to restricting angular scanning to the numerical aperture of the beam. ► Minimizing tomographic reconstruction error by defining boundary

  9. Performance of iron–chromium–aluminum alloy surface coatings on Zircaloy 2 under high-temperature steam and normal BWR operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Weicheng; Mouche, Peter A.; Han, Xiaochun [University of Illinois, Department of Nuclear, Radiological, and Plasma Engineering, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Heuser, Brent J., E-mail: bheuser@illinois.edu [University of Illinois, Department of Nuclear, Radiological, and Plasma Engineering, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mandapaka, Kiran K.; Was, Gary S. [University of Michigan, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) coatings deposited on Zircaloy 2 (Zy2) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by magnetron sputtering have been tested with respect to oxidation weight gain in high-temperature steam. In addition, autoclave testing of FeCrAl-coated Zy2 coupons under pressure-temperature-dissolved oxygen coolant conditions representative of a boiling water reactor (BWR) environment has been performed. Four different FeCrAl compositions have been tested in 700 °C steam; compositions that promote alumina formation inhibited oxidation of the underlying Zy2. Parabolic growth kinetics of alumina on FeCrAl-coated Zy2 is quantified via elemental depth profiling. Autoclave testing under normal BWR operating conditions (288 °C, 9.5 MPa with normal water chemistry) up to 20 days demonstrates observable weight gain over uncoated Zy2 simultaneously exposed to the same environment. However, no FeCrAl film degradation was observed. The 900 °C eutectic in binary Fe–Zr is addressed with the FeCrAl-YSZ system. - Graphical abstract: Weight gain normalized to total sample surface area versus time during 700 °C steam exposure for FeCrAl samples with different composition (A) and Fe/Cr/Al:62/4/34 (B). In both cases, the responses of uncoated Zry2 (Zry2-13A and Zry2-19A) are shown for comparison. This uncoated Zry2 response shows the expected pre-transition quasi-cubic kinetic behavior and eventual breakaway (linear) kinetics. Highlights: • FeCrAl coatings deposited on Zy2 have been tested with respect to oxidation in high-temperature steam. • FeCrAl compositions promoting alumina formation inhibited oxidation of Zy2 and delay weight gain. • Autoclave testing to 20 days of coated Zy2 in a simulated BWR environment demonstrates minimal weight gain and no film degradation. • The 900 °C eutectic in binary Fe-Zr is addressed with the FeCrAl-YSZ system.

  10. Comparison of mouse mammary gland imaging techniques and applications: Reflectance confocal microscopy, GFP Imaging, and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilli, Maddalena T; Parrish, Angela R; Cotarla, Ion; Jones, Laundette P; Johnson, Michael D; Furth, Priscilla A

    2008-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models of mammary gland cancer enable the in vivo study of molecular mechanisms and signaling during development and cancer pathophysiology. However, traditional whole mount and histological imaging modalities are only applicable to non-viable tissue. We evaluated three techniques that can be quickly applied to living tissue for imaging normal and cancerous mammary gland: reflectance confocal microscopy, green fluorescent protein imaging, and ultrasound imaging. In the current study, reflectance confocal imaging offered the highest resolution and was used to optically section mammary ductal structures in the whole mammary gland. Glands remained viable in mammary gland whole organ culture when 1% acetic acid was used as a contrast agent. Our application of using green fluorescent protein expressing transgenic mice in our study allowed for whole mammary gland ductal structures imaging and enabled straightforward serial imaging of mammary gland ducts in whole organ culture to visualize the growth and differentiation process. Ultrasound imaging showed the lowest resolution. However, ultrasound was able to detect mammary preneoplastic lesions 0.2 mm in size and was used to follow cancer growth with serial imaging in living mice. In conclusion, each technique enabled serial imaging of living mammary tissue and visualization of growth and development, quickly and with minimal tissue preparation. The use of the higher resolution reflectance confocal and green fluorescent protein imaging techniques and lower resolution ultrasound were complementary

  11. Confocal microscope is able to detect calcium metabolic in neuronal infection by toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensusiati, A. D.; Priya, T. K. S.; Dachlan, Y. P.

    2017-05-01

    Calcium metabolism plays a very important role in neurons infected by Toxoplasma. Detection of change of calcium metabolism of neuron infected by Toxoplasma and Toxoplasma requires the calculation both quantitative and qualitative method. Confocal microscope has the ability to capture the wave of the fluorescent emission of the fluorescent dyes used in the measurement of cell calcium. The purpose of this study was to prove the difference in calcium changes between infected and uninfected neurons using confocal microscopy. Neuronal culture of human-skin-derived neural stem cell were divided into 6 groups, consisting 3 uninfected groups and 3 infected groups. Among the 3 groups were 2 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. The neuron Toxoplasma gondii ratio was 1:5. Observation of intracellular calcium of neuron and tachyzoite, evidence of necrosis, apoptosis and the expression of Hsp 70 of neuron were examined by confocal microscope. The normality of the data was analysed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, differentiation test was checked by t2 Test, and ANOVAs, for correlation test was done by Pearson Correlation Test. The calcium intensity of cytosolic neuron and T. gondii was significantly different from control groups (pneurons both in quantitatively and qualitatively.

  12. Characterization of six small HSP genes from Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae): Differential expression under conditions of normal growth and heat-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Folgar, Raquel; de la Fuente, Mercedes; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2015-10-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) comprise the most numerous, structurally diverse, and functionally uncharacterized family of heat shock proteins. Several Hsp genes (Hsp 90, 70, 40, and 27) from the insect Chironomus riparius are widely used in aquatic toxicology as biomarkers for environmental toxins. Here, we conducted a comparative study and characterized secondary structure of the six newly identified sHsp genes Hsp17, Hsp21, Hsp22, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34. A characteristic α-crystallin domain is predicted in all the new proteins. Phylogenetic analysis suggests a strong relation to other sHSPs from insects and interesting evidence regarding evolutionary origin and duplication events. Comparative analysis of transcription profiles for Hsp27, Hsp70, and the six newly identified genes revealed that Hsp17, Hsp21, and Hsp22 are constitutively expressed under normal conditions, while under two different heat shock conditions these genes are either not activated or are even repressed (Hsp22). In contrast, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34 are significantly activated along with Hsp27 and Hsp70 during heat stress. These results strongly suggest functional differentiation within the small HSP subfamily and provide new data to help understand the coping mechanisms induced by stressful environmental stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood lactate changes in men during graded workloads at normal atmospheric pressure (100 kPa) and under simulated caisson conditions (400 kPa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, B; Tetzlaff, K; Buslaps, C; Schwarzkopf, J; Bettinghausen, E; Rieckert, H

    1999-05-01

    A hyperbaric environment may influence lactate metabolism due to hyperoxia affecting biochemical pathways. The purpose of our study was to determine the blood lactate levels occurring at high workloads in a sample of professional divers under simulated caisson conditions. The ambient air pressure was equivalent to a diving depth of 30 m of seawater (400 kPa). A total of 23 healthy male subjects performed graded bicycle exercise in a dry hyperbaric chamber up to a maximum of 3.5 W kg(-1) body weight at normal (100 kPa) and elevated ambient air pressure (400 kPa). The blood lactate level and the heart rate were measured. In comparison with control conditions, the heart rate and the peripheral blood lactate level were significantly lower at depth for all workloads. The differences between the normobaric and hyperbaric lactate values may be explained by an overall improvement in lactate metabolism at elevated ambient pressure, especially in the working muscles and the organs responsible for the lactate reduction, i.e., the liver. The reduced heart rate may be an effect of the improved tissue oxygen supply at depth.

  14. Comprehensive gene expression analysis of the NAC gene family under normal growth conditions, hormone treatment, and drought stress conditions in rice using near-isogenic lines (NILs) generated from crossing Aday Selection (drought tolerant) and IR64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Sharoni, Akhter Most; Satoh, Kouji; Moumeni, Ali; Venuprasad, Ramiah; Serraj, Rachid; Kumar, Arvind; Leung, Hei; Attia, Kotb; Kikuchi, Shoshi

    2012-05-01

    The NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) genes are plant-specific transcriptional factors known to play diverse roles in various plant developmental processes. We describe the rice (Oryza sativa) OsNAC genes expression profiles (GEPs) under normal and water-deficit treatments (WDTs). The GEPs of the OsNAC genes were analyzed in 25 tissues covering the entire life cycle of Minghui 63. High expression levels of 17 genes were demonstrated in certain tissues under normal conditions suggesting that these genes may play important roles in specific organs. We determined that 16 genes were differentially expressed under at least 1 phytohormone (NAA, GA3, KT, SA, ABA, and JA) treatment. To investigate the GEPs in the root, leaf, and panicle of three rice genotypes [e.g., 2 near-isogenic lines (NILs) and IR64], we used two NILs from a common genetic combination backcross developed by Aday Selection and IR64. WDTs were applied using the fraction of transpirable soil water at severe, mild, and control conditions. Transcriptomic analysis using a 44K oligoarray from Agilent was performed on all the tissue samples. We identified common and specific genes in all tissues from the two NILs under both WDTs, and the majority of the OsNAC genes that were activated were in the drought-tolerant IR77298-14-1-2-B-10 line compared with the drought-susceptible IR77298-14-1-2-B-13 or IR64. In IR77298-14-1-2-B-10, seventeen genes were very specific in their expression levels. Approximately 70 % of the genes from subgroups SNAC and NAM/CUC3 were activated in the leaf, but 37 % genes from subgroup SND were inactivated in the root compared with the control under severe stress conditions. These results provide a useful reference for the cloning of candidate genes from the specific subgroup for further functional analysis.

  15. A New Multichannel Spectral Imaging Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new multichannel spectral imaging laser scanning confocal microscope for effective detection of multiple fluorescent labeling in the research of biological tissues. In this paper, the design and key technologies of the system are introduced. Representative results on confocal imaging, 3-dimensional sectioning imaging, and spectral imaging are demonstrated. The results indicated that the system is applicable to multiple fluorescent labeling in biological experiments.

  16. Detailed imaging of the normal anatomy and pathologic conditions of the cavernous region at 3 Tesla using a contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, Jennifer; Peters, Friederike; Lummel, Nina; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Yousry, Indra [University Hospital Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Schankin, Christoph [University Hospital Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Rachinger, Walter [University Hospital Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a high-resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) at 3 Tesla for the delineation of the cavernous sinus (CS) anatomy both under normal and under pathological conditions. Fifteen patients without pathologies in the CS and ten patients with pituitary adenomas were included. The CE-MRA was performed on a 3-Tesla scanner and analyzed collaboratively by two readers. The cranial nerves (CNs) within the CS, namely CNIII, CNIV, CNV1, CNV2, and CNVI, were identified in both patient groups. In the adenoma patients it was also assessed whether and to which extend the adenoma invaded the CS and the spatial relationship between tumor and CNs was determined. In the patients with normal CS anatomy, CNIII could be identified in 100%, CNIV in 86.7%, and CNV1, CNV2, as well as CNVI in 100% of analyzed sides. Pituitary adenomas invaded the CS unilaterally (right side) in four patients, and bilaterally in six patients. In patients with adenomas, the CN could be identified and differentiated from the tumor in the following percentages: CNIII in 100%, CNIV in 70%, both CNV1 and CNV2 in 90%, and CNVI in 100%. In all these cases, the tumor-nerve spatial relationship could be visualized. 3-Tesla CE-MRA allows detailed imaging of the complex anatomy of the CS and its structures. In adenoma patients, it clearly visualizes the spatial relationship between tumor and CNs, and thus might be helpful to optimize presurgical planning. (orig.)

  17. Detailed imaging of the normal anatomy and pathologic conditions of the cavernous region at 3 Tesla using a contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, Jennifer; Peters, Friederike; Lummel, Nina; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Yousry, Indra; Schankin, Christoph; Rachinger, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a high-resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) at 3 Tesla for the delineation of the cavernous sinus (CS) anatomy both under normal and under pathological conditions. Fifteen patients without pathologies in the CS and ten patients with pituitary adenomas were included. The CE-MRA was performed on a 3-Tesla scanner and analyzed collaboratively by two readers. The cranial nerves (CNs) within the CS, namely CNIII, CNIV, CNV1, CNV2, and CNVI, were identified in both patient groups. In the adenoma patients it was also assessed whether and to which extend the adenoma invaded the CS and the spatial relationship between tumor and CNs was determined. In the patients with normal CS anatomy, CNIII could be identified in 100%, CNIV in 86.7%, and CNV1, CNV2, as well as CNVI in 100% of analyzed sides. Pituitary adenomas invaded the CS unilaterally (right side) in four patients, and bilaterally in six patients. In patients with adenomas, the CN could be identified and differentiated from the tumor in the following percentages: CNIII in 100%, CNIV in 70%, both CNV1 and CNV2 in 90%, and CNVI in 100%. In all these cases, the tumor-nerve spatial relationship could be visualized. 3-Tesla CE-MRA allows detailed imaging of the complex anatomy of the CS and its structures. In adenoma patients, it clearly visualizes the spatial relationship between tumor and CNs, and thus might be helpful to optimize presurgical planning. (orig.)

  18. Superresolution confocal technology for displacement measurements based on total internal reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Cuifang; Ali, M Yakut; Hao, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Liu, Xu

    2010-10-01

    In order to achieve a higher axial resolution for displacement measurement, a novel method is proposed based on total internal reflection filter and confocal microscope principle. A theoretical analysis of the basic measurement principles is presented. The analysis reveals that the proposed confocal detection scheme is effective in enhancing the resolution of nonlinearity of the reflectance curve greatly. In addition, a simple prototype system has been developed based on the theoretical analysis and a series of experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions to verify the system feasibility, accuracy, and stability. The experimental results demonstrate that the axial resolution in displacement measurements is better than 1 nm in a range of 200 nm which is threefold better than that can be achieved using the plane reflector.

  19. Superresolution confocal technology for displacement measurements based on total internal reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Cuifang; Hao Xiang; Wang Tingting; Liu Xu; Ali, M. Yakut

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve a higher axial resolution for displacement measurement, a novel method is proposed based on total internal reflection filter and confocal microscope principle. A theoretical analysis of the basic measurement principles is presented. The analysis reveals that the proposed confocal detection scheme is effective in enhancing the resolution of nonlinearity of the reflectance curve greatly. In addition, a simple prototype system has been developed based on the theoretical analysis and a series of experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions to verify the system feasibility, accuracy, and stability. The experimental results demonstrate that the axial resolution in displacement measurements is better than 1 nm in a range of 200 nm which is threefold better than that can be achieved using the plane reflector.

  20. Effects of Supplemental Chromium Source and Concentration on Growth, Carcass Characteristics, and Serum Lipid Parameters of Broilers Reared Under Normal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cancai; Huang, Yanling; Xiao, Fang; Lin, Xi; Lloyd, Karen

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary chromium (Cr) source and concentration on growth performance, carcass traits, and some serum lipid parameters of broilers under normal rearing conditions for 42 days. A total of 252 1-day-old Cobb 500 commercial female broilers were randomly allotted by body weight (BW) to one of six replicate cages (six broilers per cage) for each of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involved in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three Cr sources (Cr propionate (CrPro), Cr picolinate (CrPic), Cr chloride (CrCl3)) and two concentrations of added Cr (0.4 and 2.0 mg of Cr/kg) plus a Cr-unsupplemented control diet. The results showed that dietary Cr supplementation tended to increase the breast muscle percentage compared with the Cr-unsupplemented control group (P = 0.0784), while Cr from CrPic tended to have higher breast muscle percentage compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0881). Chromium from CrPic also tended to increase the breast intramuscular fat (IMF) compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0648). In addition, supplementation of 0.4 mg/kg Cr tended to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P = 0.0614). Compared with the control group, broilers fed Cr-supplemented diets had higher triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.0129) regardless of Cr source and Cr concentration. Chromium from CrPro and CrPic had lower total cholesterol (TC) compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0220). These results indicate that dietary supplementation of Cr has effects on carcass characteristics and serum lipid parameters of broilers under normal rearing conditions, while supplementation of organic Cr can improve carcass characteristics and reduce the cholesterol content in serum.

  1. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Under current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation, it is not sufficient for used nuclear fuel (UNF) to simply maintain its integrity during the storage period, it must maintain its integrity in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and moving it to treatment or recycling facilities, or a geologic repository. Hence it is necessary to understand the performance characteristics of aged UNF cladding and ancillary components under loadings stemming from transport initiatives. Researchers would like to demonstrate that enough information, including experimental support and modeling and simulation capabilities, exists to establish a preliminary determination of UNF structural performance under normal conditions of transport (NCT). This research, development and demonstration (RD&D) plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. This methodology will be used to provide a preliminary assessment of the performance characteristics of UNF cladding and ancillary components under rail-related NCT loading. The methodology couples modeling and simulation and experimental efforts currently under way within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC). The methodology will involve limited uncertainty quantification in the form of sensitivity evaluations focused around available fuel and ancillary fuel structure properties exclusively. The work includes collecting information via literature review, soliciting input/guidance from subject matter experts, performing computational analyses, planning experimental measurement and possible execution (depending on timing), and preparing a variety of supporting documents that will feed into and provide the basis for future initiatives. The methodology demonstration will focus on structural performance evaluation of

  2. Confocal Microscopy of Unfixed Breast Needle Core Biopsies: A Comparison to Fixed and Stained Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavislan James M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Needle core biopsy, often in conjunction with ultrasonic or stereotactic guided techniques, is frequently used to diagnose breast carcinoma in women. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM is a technology that provides real-time digital images of tissues with cellular resolution. This paper reports the progress in developing techniques to rapidly screen needle core breast biopsy and surgical specimens at the point of care. CSLM requires minimal tissue processing and has the potential to reduce the time from excision to diagnosis. Following imaging, specimens can still be submitted for standard histopathological preparation. Methods Needle core breast specimens from 49 patients were imaged at the time of biopsy. These lesions had been characterized under the Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System (BI-RADS as category 3, 4 or 5. The core biopsies were imaged with the CSLM before fixation. Samples were treated with 5% citric acid and glycerin USP to enhance nuclear visibility in the reflectance confocal images. Immediately following imaging, the specimens were fixed in buffered formalin and submitted for histological processing and pathological diagnosis. CSLM images were then compared to the standard histology. Results The pathologic diagnoses by standard histology were 7 invasive ductal carcinomas, 2 invasive lobular carcinomas, 3 ductal carcinomas in-situ (CIS, 21 fibrocystic changes/proliferative conditions, 9 fibroadenomas, and 5 other/benign; two were excluded due to imaging difficulties. Morphologic and cellular features of benign and cancerous lesions were identified in the confocal images and were comparable to standard histologic sections of the same tissue. Conclusion CSLM is a technique with the potential to screen needle core biopsy specimens in real-time. The confocal images contained sufficient information to identify stromal reactions such as fibrosis and cellular proliferations such as intra-ductal and

  3. Confocal Microscopy of Unfixed Breast Needle Core Biopsies: A Comparison to Fixed and Stained Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Needle core biopsy, often in conjunction with ultrasonic or stereotactic guided techniques, is frequently used to diagnose breast carcinoma in women. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) is a technology that provides real-time digital images of tissues with cellular resolution. This paper reports the progress in developing techniques to rapidly screen needle core breast biopsy and surgical specimens at the point of care. CSLM requires minimal tissue processing and has the potential to reduce the time from excision to diagnosis. Following imaging, specimens can still be submitted for standard histopathological preparation. Methods Needle core breast specimens from 49 patients were imaged at the time of biopsy. These lesions had been characterized under the Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System (BI-RADS) as category 3, 4 or 5. The core biopsies were imaged with the CSLM before fixation. Samples were treated with 5% citric acid and glycerin USP to enhance nuclear visibility in the reflectance confocal images. Immediately following imaging, the specimens were fixed in buffered formalin and submitted for histological processing and pathological diagnosis. CSLM images were then compared to the standard histology. Results The pathologic diagnoses by standard histology were 7 invasive ductal carcinomas, 2 invasive lobular carcinomas, 3 ductal carcinomas in-situ (CIS), 21 fibrocystic changes/proliferative conditions, 9 fibroadenomas, and 5 other/benign; two were excluded due to imaging difficulties. Morphologic and cellular features of benign and cancerous lesions were identified in the confocal images and were comparable to standard histologic sections of the same tissue. Conclusion CSLM is a technique with the potential to screen needle core biopsy specimens in real-time. The confocal images contained sufficient information to identify stromal reactions such as fibrosis and cellular proliferations such as intra-ductal and infiltrating carcinoma, and

  4. Histone variant H2A.Z antagonizes the positive effect of the transcriptional activator CPC1 to regulate catalase-3 expression under normal and oxidative stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing; Wang, Yajun; Qi, Shaohua; Gai, Kexin; He, Qun; Wang, Ying

    2018-05-05

    In eukaryotes, deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z into nucleosomes through the chromatin remodeling complex, SWR1, is a crucial step in modulating gene transcription. Recently, H2A.Z has been shown to control the expression of responsive genes, but the underlying mechanism of how H2A.Z responds to physiological stimuli is not well understood. Here, we reveal that, in Neurospora crassa, H2A.Z is a negative regulator of catalase-3 gene, which is responsible for resistance to oxidative stress. H2A.Z represses cat-3 gene expression through direct incorporation at cat-3 locus in a SWR1 complex dependent pathway. Notably, loss of H2A.Z or SWR1 subunits leads to increased binding of a transcription factor, CPC1, at cat-3 locus. Additionally, introduction of plasmids containing gene encoding H2A.Z or SWR1 complex subunits into wild-type strains decreased CAT-3 expression, indicating that H2A.Z counteracts the positive effect of CPC1 to achieve low level cat-3 expression under non-inductive condition. Furthermore, upon oxidative stress, H2A.Z is rapidly evicted from cat-3 locus for the recruitment of CPC1, resulting in robust and full cat-3 gene expression in response to external stimuli. Collectively, this study strongly demonstrates that H2A.Z antagonizes the function of transcription factor to regulate responsive gene transcription under normal conditions and to poise for gene full activation under oxidative stress. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Validation of noninvasive indices of global systolic function in patients with normal and abnormal loading conditions: a simultaneous echocardiography pressure-volume catheterization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotti, Raquel; Bermejo, Javier; Benito, Yolanda; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Ripoll, Cristina; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Elízaga, Jaime; González-Mansilla, Ana; Barrio, Alicia; Bañares, Rafael; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive indices based on Doppler echocardiography are increasingly used in clinical cardiovascular research to evaluate left ventricular global systolic chamber function. Our objectives were to clinically validate ultrasound-based methods of global systolic chamber function to account for differences between patients in conditions of abnormal load, and to assess their sensitivity to load confounders. Twenty-seven patients (8 dilated cardiomyopathy, 10 normal ejection fraction, and 9 end-stage liver disease) underwent simultaneous echocardiography and left heart catheterization with pressure-conductance instrumentation. The reference index, maximal elastance (Emax), was calculated from pressure-volume loop data obtained during acute inferior vena cava occlusion. A wide range of values were observed for left ventricular systolic chamber function (Emax: 2.8±1.0 mm Hg/mL), preload, and afterload. Among the noninvasive indices tested, the peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference showed the best correlation with Emax (R=0.75). A significant but weaker correlation with Emax was observed for ejection fraction (R=0.41), midwall fractional shortening (R=0.51), global circumferential strain (R=-0.53), and strain rate (R=-0.46). Longitudinal strain and strain rate failed to correlate with Emax, as did noninvasive single-beat estimations of this index. Principal component and multiple regression analyses demonstrated that peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference was less sensitive to load, whereas ejection fraction and longitudinal strain and strain rate were heavily influenced by afterload. Current ultrasound methods have limited accuracy to characterize global left ventricular systolic chamber function in a given patient. The Doppler-derived peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference should be preferred for this purpose because it best correlates with the reference index and is more robust in conditions of abnormal load.

  6. Mitochondrial behavior during oogenesis in zebrafish: a confocal microscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Zhong; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Chen, Da-Yuan; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The behavior of mitochondria during early oogenesis remains largely unknown in zebrafish. We used three mitochondrial probes (Mito Tracker Red CMXRos, Mito Tracker Green FM, and JC-1) to stain early zebrafish oocyte mitochondria, and confocal microscopy to analyze mitochondrial aggregation and distribution. By using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we traced mitochondrial movement. The microtubule assembly inhibitor nocodazole and microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin B (CB) were used to analyze the role of microtubules and microfilaments on mitochondrial movement. By using the dual emission probe, JC-1, and oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), we determined the distribution of active and inactive (low-active) mitochondria. Green/red fluorescence ratios of different sublocations in different oocyte groups stained by JC-1 were detected in merged (green and red) images. Our results showed that mitochondria exhibited a unique distribution pattern in early zebrafish oocytes. They tended to aggregate into large clusters in early stage I oocytes, but in a threadlike state in latter stage I oocytes. We detected a lower density mitochondrial area and a higher density mitochondrial area on opposite sides of the germinal vesicle. The green/red fluorescence ratios in different sublocations in normal oocytes were about 1:1. This implies that active mitochondria were distributed in all sublocations. FCCP treatment caused significant increases in the ratios. CB and nocodazole treatment caused an increase of the ratios in clusters and mitochondrial cloud, but not in dispersed areas. Mitochondria in different sublocations underwent fast dynamic movement. Inhibition or disruption of microtubules or microfilaments resulted in even faster mitochondrial free movement.

  7. Aqueous Colloid + Polymer Depletion System for Confocal Microscopy and Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nayoung; Umanzor, Esmeralda J.; Conrad, Jacinta C.

    2018-05-01

    We developed a model depletion system with colloidal particles that were refractive index- and density-matched to 80 (w/w)% glycerol in water, and characterized the effect of interparticle interactions on the structure and dynamics of non-equilibrium phases. 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate-co-tert-butyl methacrylate copolymer particles were synthesized following Kodger et al. (Sci. Rep. 5, 14635 (2015)). Particles were dispersed in glycerol/water solutions to generate colloidal suspensions with good control over electrostatic interactions and a moderately high background viscosity of 55 mPa-s. To probe the effects of charge screening and depletion attractions on the suspension phase behavior, we added NaCl and polyacrylamide (M_w = 186 kDa) at various concentrations to particle suspensions formulated at volume fractions of phi = 0.05 and 0.3 and imaged the suspensions using confocal microscopy. The particles were nearly hard spheres at a NaCl concentration of 20 mM, but aggregated when the concentration of NaCl was further increased. Changes in the particle structure and dynamics with increasing concentration of the depletant polyacrylamide followed the trends expected from earlier experiments on depletion-driven gelation. Additionally, we measured the viscosity and corrected first normal stress difference of suspensions formulated at phi = 0.4 with and without added polymer. The solvent viscosity was suitable for rheology measurements without the onset of instabilities such as secondary flows or edge fracture. These results validate this system as an alternative to one common model system, suspensions of poly(methyl methacrylate) particles and polystyrene depletants in organic solvents, for investigating phase behavior and flow properties in attractive colloidal suspensions.

  8. Peculiarity of deuterium ions interaction with tungsten surface in the condition imitating combination of normal operation with plasma disruption in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I. E-mail: martyn@nfi.kiae.ru; Vasiliev, V.I.; Gureev, V.M.; Danelyan, L.S.; Khirpunov, B.I.; Korshunov, S.N.; Kulikauskas, V.S.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Petrov, V.B.; Strunnikov, V.N.; Stolyarova, V.G.; Zatekin, V.V.; Litnovsky, A.M

    2001-03-01

    Tungsten is a candidate material for the ITER divertor. For the simulation of ITER normal operation conditions in combination with plasma disruptions samples of various types of tungsten were exposed to both steady-state and high power pulsed deuterium plasmas. Tungsten samples were first exposed in a steady-state plasma with an ion current density {approx}10{sup 21} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} up to a dose of 10{sup 25} m{sup -2} at a temperature of 770 K. The energy of deuterium ions was 150 eV. The additional exposure of the samples to 10 pulses of deuterium plasma was performed in the electrodynamical plasma accelerator with an energy flux 0.45 MJ/m{sup 2} per pulse. Samples of four types of tungsten (W-1%La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, W-13I, monocrystalline W(1 1 1) and W-10%Re) were investigated. The least destruction of the surface was observed for W(1 1 1). The concentration of retained deuterium in tungsten decreased from 2.5x10{sup 19} m{sup -2} to 1.07x10{sup 19} m{sup -2} (for W(1 1 1)) as a result of the additional pulsed plasma irradiation. Investigation of the tungsten erosion products after the high power pulsed plasma shots was also carried out.

  9. Behavior of U3Si2 Fuel and FeCrAl Cladding under Normal Operating and Accident Reactor Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Barani, Tommaso [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pizzocri, Davide [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation program, an Accident Tolerant Fuel High Impact Problem was initiated at the beginning of fiscal year 2015 to investigate the behavior of \\usi~fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) claddings under normal operating and accident reactor conditions. The High Impact Problem was created in response to the United States Department of Energy's renewed interest in accident tolerant materials after the events that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. The High Impact Problem is a multinational laboratory and university collaborative research effort between Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. This report primarily focuses on the engineering scale research in fiscal year 2016 with brief summaries of the lower length scale developments in the areas of density functional theory, cluster dynamics, rate theory, and phase field being presented.

  10. Dual filtered backprojection for micro-rotation confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laksameethanasan, Danai; Brandt, Sami S; Renaud, Olivier; Shorte, Spencer L

    2009-01-01

    Micro-rotation confocal microscopy is a novel optical imaging technique which employs dielectric fields to trap and rotate individual cells to facilitate 3D fluorescence imaging using a confocal microscope. In contrast to computed tomography (CT) where an image can be modelled as parallel projection of an object, the ideal confocal image is recorded as a central slice of the object corresponding to the focal plane. In CT, the projection images and the 3D object are related by the Fourier slice theorem which states that the Fourier transform of a CT image is equal to the central slice of the Fourier transform of the 3D object. In the micro-rotation application, we have a dual form of this setting, i.e. the Fourier transform of the confocal image equals the parallel projection of the Fourier transform of the 3D object. Based on the observed duality, we present here the dual of the classical filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and apply it in micro-rotation confocal imaging. Our experiments on real data demonstrate that the proposed method is a fast and reliable algorithm for the micro-rotation application, as FBP is for CT application

  11. Fused oblique incidence reflectometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risi, Matthew D.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2011-03-01

    Confocal microendoscopy provides real-time high resolution cellular level images via a minimally invasive procedure, but relies on exogenous fluorophores, has a relatively limited penetration depth (100 μm) and field of view (700 μm), and produces a high rate of detailed information to the user. A new catheter based multi-modal system has been designed that combines confocal imaging and oblique incidence reflectometry (OIR), which is a non-invasive method capable of rapidly extracting tissue absorption, μa, and reduced scattering, μ's, spectra from tissue. The system builds on previous developments of a custom slit-scan multi-spectral confocal microendoscope and is designed to rapidly switch between diffuse spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging modes of operation. An experimental proof-of-principle catheter has been developed that consists of a fiber bundle for traditional confocal fluorescence imaging and a single OIR source fiber which is manually redirected at +/- 26 degrees. Diffusely scattered light from each orientation of the source fiber is collected via the fiber bundle, with a frame of data representing spectra collected at a range of distances from the OIR source point. Initial results with intralipid phantoms show good agreement to published data over the 550-650 nm spectral range. We successfully imaged and measured the optical properties of rodent cardiac muscle.

  12. Sub-Airy Confocal Adaptive Optics Scanning Ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sredar, Nripun; Fagbemi, Oladipo E; Dubra, Alfredo

    2018-04-01

    To demonstrate the viability of improving transverse image resolution in reflectance scanning adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy using sub-Airy disk confocal detection. The foveal cone mosaic was imaged in five human subjects free of known eye disease using two custom adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopes (AOSLOs) in reflectance with 7.75 and 4.30 mm pupil diameters. Confocal pinholes of 0.5, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 Airy disk diameters (ADDs) were used in a retinal conjugate plane before the light detector. Average cone photoreceptor intensity profile width and power spectrum were calculated for the resulting images. Detected energy using a model eye was recorded for each pinhole size. The cone photoreceptor mosaic is better resolved with decreasing confocal pinhole size, with the high spatial frequency content of the images enhanced in both the large- and small-pupil AOSLOs. The average cone intensity profile width was reduced by ∼15% with the use of a 0.5 ADD pinhole when compared to a 1.0 ADD, with an accompanying reduction in signal greater than a factor of four. The use of sub-Airy disk confocal pinhole detection without increasing retinal light exposure results in a substantial improvement in image resolution at the cost of larger than predicted signal reduction. Improvement in transverse resolution using sub-Airy disk confocal detection is a practical and low-cost approach that is applicable to all point- and line-scanning ophthalmoscopes, including optical coherence tomographers.

  13. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  15. Nano-displacement measurement based on virtual pinhole confocal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Long; Kuang, Cuifang; Xue, Yi; Liu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    A virtual pinhole confocal system based on charge-coupled device (CCD) detection and image processing techniques is built to measure axial displacement with 10 nm resolution, preeminent flexibility and excellent robustness when facing spot drifting. Axial displacement of the sample surface is determined by capturing the confocal laser spot using a CCD detector and quantifying the energy collected by programmable virtual pinholes. Experiments indicate an applicable measuring range of 1000 nm (Gaussian fitting r = 0.9902) with a highly linear range of 500 nm (linear fitting r = 0.9993). A concentric subtraction algorithm is introduced to further enhance resolution. Factors affecting measuring precision, sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio are discussed using theoretical deductions and diffraction simulations. The virtual pinhole technique has promising applications in surface profiling and confocal imaging applications which require easily-customizable pinhole configurations. (paper)

  16. Spinning-disk confocal microscopy: present technology and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, John; Berman, Richard; Browne, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Live-cell imaging requires not only high temporal resolution but also illumination powers low enough to minimize photodamage. Traditional single-point laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) is generally limited by both the relatively slow speed at which it can acquire optical sections by serial raster scanning (a few Hz) and the higher potential for phototoxicity. These limitations have driven the development of rapid, parallel forms of confocal microscopy, the most popular of which is the spinning-disk confocal microscope (SDCM). Here, we briefly introduce the SDCM technique, discuss its strengths and weaknesses against LSCM, and update the reader on some recent developments in SDCM technology that improve its performance and expand its utility for life science research now and in the future. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Simple Model for Nonlinear Confocal Ultrasonic Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhou, Lin; Si, Li-Sheng; Gong, Xiu-Fen

    2007-01-01

    A confocally and coaxially arranged pair of focused transmitter and receiver represents one of the best geometries for medical ultrasonic imaging and non-invasive detection. We develop a simple theoretical model for describing the nonlinear propagation of a confocal ultrasonic beam in biological tissues. On the basis of the parabolic approximation and quasi-linear approximation, the nonlinear Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation is solved by using the angular spectrum approach. Gaussian superposition technique is applied to simplify the solution, and an analytical solution for the second harmonics in the confocal ultrasonic beam is presented. Measurements are performed to examine the validity of the theoretical model. This model provides a preliminary model for acoustic nonlinear microscopy.

  18. Corneal Confocal Microscopy – A Novel, Noninvasive Method to Assess Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inceu Georgeta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. This article aims to compare corneal confocal microscopy (CCM with acknowledged tests of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN, to assess corneal nerve morphology using CCM in diabetic patients, and to underline possible correlations between clinical and biological parameters, diabetes duration and DPN severity. Material and methods. A total of 90 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in the study for whom we measured anthropometric parameters and we performed laboratory measurements (tests. The patients were assessed for diabetic peripheral neuropathy using Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament Testing (SWMT, Rapid-Current Perception Threshold (R-CPT measurements using the Neurometer®, and CCM. We stratified the patients according to DPN severity, based on four parameters extracted after image analysis. Results. A higher percentage of patients were diagnosed with DPN using CCM (88.8%, compared with SWMT and R-CPT measurement (17.8% and 40% respectively. The incidence of DPN detected with CCM was considerable in patients with normal protective sensation and with normal R-CPT values. Conclusions. Our study showed that corneal confocal microscopy is a useful noninvasive method for diabetic neuropathy assessement in early stages. It was proven to directly quantify small fiber pathology, and to stratify neuropathic severity, and therefore can be used as a new, reliable tool in the diagnosis, clinical evaluation, and follow-up of peripheral diabetic neuropathy.

  19. Fabry-Perot confocal resonator optical associative memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas J.; Rogers, Steven K.; Vogel, George A.

    1993-03-01

    A unique optical associative memory architecture is presented that combines the optical processing environment of a Fabry-Perot confocal resonator with the dynamic storage and recall properties of volume holograms. The confocal resonator reduces the size and complexity of previous associative memory architectures by folding a large number of discrete optical components into an integrated, compact optical processing environment. Experimental results demonstrate the system is capable of recalling a complete object from memory when presented with partial information about the object. A Fourier optics model of the system's operation shows it implements a spatially continuous version of a discrete, binary Hopfield neural network associative memory.

  20. Confocal Raman microscopy for identification of bacterial species in biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Brooke D.; Quivey, Robert G.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2011-03-01

    Implemented through a confocal microscope, Raman spectroscopy has been used to distinguish between biofilm samples of two common oral bacteria species, Streptococcus sanguinis and mutans, which are associated with healthy and cariogenic plaque, respectively. Biofilms of these species are studied as a model of dental plaque. A prediction model has been calibrated and validated using pure biofilms. This model has been used to identify the species of transferred and dehydrated samples (much like a plaque scraping) as well as hydrated biofilms in situ. Preliminary results of confocal Raman mapping of species in an intact two-species biofilm will be shown.

  1. Microscopia confocal in vivo na cistinose: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gustavo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A cistinose é doença autossômica recessiva rara caracterizada pelo acúmulo do aminoácido cistina livre dentro dos lisossomos e geralmente é fatal na primeira década de vida na ausência de transplante renal. O presente estudo tem por objetivo relatar os achados da microscopia confocal in vivo em paciente adulto com cistinose infantil. O exame de microscopia confocal in vivo revelou que há diferenças quanto à intensidade de acometimento, tamanho e forma dos depósitos nas diversas camadas corneanas.

  2. An invertebrate embryologist's guide to routine processing of confocal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dassow, George

    2014-01-01

    It is almost impossible to use a confocal microscope without encountering the need to transform the raw data through image processing. Adherence to a set of straightforward guidelines will help ensure that image manipulations are both credible and repeatable. Meanwhile, attention to optimal data collection parameters will greatly simplify image processing, not only for convenience but for quality and credibility as well. Here I describe how to conduct routine confocal image processing tasks, including creating 3D animations or stereo images, false coloring or merging channels, background suppression, and compressing movie files for display.

  3. Studies of porphyrin-containing specimens using an optical spectrometer connected to a confocal scanning laser microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepte, O; Rokahr, I; Andersson-Engels, S; Carlsson, K

    1994-12-01

    A spectrometer has been developed for use with a confocal scanning laser microscope. With this unit, spectral information from a single point or a user-defined region within the microscope specimen can be recorded. A glass prism is used to disperse the spectral components of the recorded light over a linear CCD photodiode array with 256 elements. A regulated cooling unit keeps the detector at 277 K, thereby allowing integration times of up to 60 s. The spectral resolving power, lambda/delta lambda, ranges from 350 at lambda = 400 nm to 100 at lambda = 700 nm. Since the entrance aperture of the spectrometer has the same size as the detector pinhole used during normal confocal scanning, the three-dimensional spatial resolution is equivalent to that of normal confocal scanning. Light from the specimen is deflected to the spectrometer by a solenoid controlled mirror, allowing fast and easy switching between normal confocal scanning and spectrometer readings. With this equipment, studies of rodent liver specimens containing porphyrins have been made. The subcellular localization is of interest for the mechanisms of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant tumours. Spectroscopic detection is necessary to distinguish the porphyrin signal from other fluorescent components in the specimen. Two different substances were administered to the tissue, Photofrin, a haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and delta-amino levulinic acid (ALA), a precursor to protoporphyrin IX and haem in the haem cycle. Both are substances under clinical trials for PDT of malignant tumours. Following administration of these compounds to the tissue, the potent photosensitizer and fluorescent compound Photofrin, or protoporphyrin IX, respectively, is accumulated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. In vivo integrated photoacoustic and confocal microscopy of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-04-01

    We developed dual-modality microscope integrating photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) to noninvasively image hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO₂) and oxygen partial pressure (pO₂) in vivo in single blood vessels with high spatial resolution. While PAM measures sO₂ by imaging hemoglobin optical absorption at two wavelengths, FCM quantifies pO₂ using phosphorescence quenching. The variations of sO₂ and pO₂ values in multiple orders of vessel branches under hyperoxic (100% oxygen) and normoxic (21% oxygen) conditions correlate well with the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, the total concentration of hemoglobin is imaged by PAM at an isosbestic wavelength.

  5. Ti-6Al-4V electron beam weld qualification using laser scanning confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanjara, P.; Brochu, M.; Jahazi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Processing conditions for manufacturing Ti-6Al-4V components by welding using an electron beam source are known to influence the transformation microstructure in the narrow fusion and heat-affected zones of the weld region. This work examined the effect of multiple-sequence welding on the characteristics of the transformed beta microstructure, using laser scanning confocal microscopy to resolve the Widmanstaetten alpha-beta structure in the fusion zone. The evolution in the alpha interlamellar spacing and plate thickness with processing was then related to microhardness measurements in the weld region

  6. Optomechatronics Design and Control for Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoo, H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is considered as one of the major advancements in microscopy in the last century and is widely accepted as a 3D fluorescence imaging tool for biological studies. For the emerging biological questions CLSM requires fast imaging to detect rapid biological

  7. Evaluation and purchase of confocal microscopes: numerous factors to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Robert M; Chua, Michael

    2010-10-01

    The purchase of a confocal microscope is a difficult decision. Many factors need to be considered, which include hardware, software, company, support, service, and price. These issues are discussed to help guide the purchasing process. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Confocal microscopy patterns in nonmelanoma skin cancer and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, S; Sánchez, V; González-Rodríguez, A; Parrado, C; Ullrich, M

    2014-06-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy is currently the most promising noninvasive diagnostic tool for studying cutaneous structures between the stratum corneum and the superficial reticular dermis. This tool gives real-time images parallel to the skin surface; the microscopic resolution is similar to that of conventional histology. Numerous studies have identified the main confocal features of various inflammatory skin diseases and tumors, demonstrating the good correlation of these features with certain dermatoscopic patterns and histologic findings. Confocal patterns and diagnostic algorithms have been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Possible present and future applications of this noninvasive technology are wide ranging and reach beyond its use in noninvasive diagnosis. This tool can also be used, for example, to evaluate dynamic skin processes that occur after UV exposure or to assess tumor response to noninvasive treatments such as photodynamic therapy. We explain the characteristic confocal features found in the main nonmelanoma skin tumors and discuss possible applications for this novel diagnostic technique in routine dermatology practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonlinear Image Restoration in Confocal Microscopy : Stability under Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we study the noise stability of iterative algorithms developed for attenuation correction in Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy using FT methods. In each iteration the convolution of the previous estimate is computed. It turns out that the estimators are robust to noise perturbation.

  10. Confocal stereology: an efficient tool for measurement of microscopic structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubínová, Lucie; Janáček, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 360, č. 1 (2015), s. 13-28 ISSN 0302-766X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH13028 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 3-D images * confocal microscopy * geometrical characteristics * spatial probes * stereology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.948, year: 2015

  11. Improvement in volume estimation from confocal sections after image deconvolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Difato, Francesco; Mazzone, F.; Scaglione, S.; Fato, M.; Beltrame, F.; Kubínová, Lucie; Janáček, Jiří; Ramoino, P.; Vicidomini, G.; Diaspro, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2004), s. 151-155 ISSN 1059-910X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : confocal microscopy * image deconvolution * point spread function Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.609, year: 2004

  12. Analysis of endoplasmic reticulum of tobacco cells using confocal microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radochová, Barbora; Janáček, Jiří; Schwarzerová, K.; Demjénová, E.; Tomori, Z.; Karen, Petr; Kubínová, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 11 (2005), s. 181-185 ISSN 1580-3139 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6011309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : confocal microscopy * endoplasmic reticulum * image analysis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  13. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: SPECTROSCOPY AND FOUNDATIONS FOR QUANTITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The reliability of the CLSM to obtain specific measurements and quantify fluorescence data is dependent on using a correctly aligned machine that contains a stable laser power. For man...

  14. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: FOUNDATIONS FOR CALIBRATION, QUANTITATION AND SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The goal of a CLSM is to acquire and quantify fluorescence and in some instruments acquire spectral characterization of emitted signals. The accuracy of these measurements demands that...

  15. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: FOUNDATIONS FOR MEASUREMENTS, QUANTITATION AND SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The goal of a CLSM is to acquire and quantify fluorescence and in some instruments acquire spectral characterization of the emitted signal. The accuracy of these measurements demands t...

  16. 3D Imaging of Porous Media Using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy with Application to Microscale Transport Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrich, J.T.

    1999-02-10

    We present advances in the application of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to image, reconstruct, and characterize statistically the microgeometry of porous geologic and engineering materials. We discuss technical and practical aspects of this imaging technique, including both its advantages and limitations. Confocal imaging can be used to optically section a material, with sub-micron resolution possible in the lateral and axial planes. The resultant volumetric image data, consisting of fluorescence intensities for typically {approximately}50 million voxels in XYZ space, can be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of the two-phase medium. We present several examples of this application, including studying pore geometry in sandstone, characterizing brittle failure processes in low-porosity rock deformed under triaxial loading conditions in the laboratory, and analyzing the microstructure of porous ceramic insulations. We then describe approaches to extract statistical microgeometric descriptions from volumetric image data, and present results derived from confocal volumetric data sets. Finally, we develop the use of confocal image data to automatically generate a three-dimensional mesh for numerical pore-scale flow simulations.

  17. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  18. Influence of gamma-radiation upon aldolase activity in red blood cells of normal cattle and cattle with genetically conditioned muscle hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabryelak, T.; Leyko, W.; Kolataj, A.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the influence of gamma-radiation upon the activity of aldolase in erythrocytes of three different groups of cattle: normal cattle, doppelenders, halfdoppelenders. The highest aldolase activity was found in the group of normal cattle, it was lower in halfdoppelenders and the lowest in doppelenders. After irradiation of erythrocytes a dose-dependent increase in the activity of aldolase was observed. The erythrocytes of halfdoppelenders were most sensitive to ionizing radiation in the dose-range of 50-100 krads. (author)

  19. Measurement of chemical and geometrical surface changes in a wear track by a confocal height sensor and confocal Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winogrodzka, A.; Valefi, Mahdiar; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2014-01-01

    Geometrical and chemical changes in the wear track can cause a drift in friction level. In this paper, chemical and geometrical surface changes in wear tracks are analyzed. For this, a setup with a confocal height sensor was developed to measure the local height changes on the wear track, combined

  20. Operant conditioning of the soleus H-reflex does not induce long-term changes in the gastrocnemius H-reflexes and does not disturb normal locomotion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Yukiko; Segal, Richard L; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Thompson, Aiko K

    2014-09-15

    In normal animals, operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex or the H-reflex has lesser effects on synergist muscle reflexes. In rats and people with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), soleus H-reflex operant conditioning can improve locomotion. We studied in normal humans the impact of soleus H-reflex down-conditioning on medial (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) H-reflexes and on locomotion. Subjects completed 6 baseline and 30 conditioning sessions. During conditioning trials, the subject was encouraged to decrease soleus H-reflex size with the aid of visual feedback. Every sixth session, MG and LG H-reflexes were measured. Locomotion was assessed before and after conditioning. In successfully conditioned subjects, the soleus H-reflex decreased 27.2%. This was the sum of within-session (task dependent) adaptation (13.2%) and across-session (long term) change (14%). The MG H-reflex decreased 14.5%, due mainly to task-dependent adaptation (13.4%). The LG H-reflex showed no task-dependent adaptation or long-term change. No consistent changes were detected across subjects in locomotor H-reflexes, EMG activity, joint angles, or step symmetry. Thus, in normal humans, soleus H-reflex down-conditioning does not induce long-term changes in MG/LG H-reflexes and does not change locomotion. In these subjects, task-dependent adaptation of the soleus H-reflex is greater than it is in people with SCI, whereas long-term change is less. This difference from results in people with SCI is consistent with the fact that long-term change is beneficial in people with SCI, since it improves locomotion. In contrast, in normal subjects, long-term change is not beneficial and may necessitate compensatory plasticity to preserve satisfactory locomotion. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy enhances early detection of cervical precancer in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Ng, Joseph; Low, Jeffrey J H; Ilancheran, A; Huang, Zhiwei

    2012-07-17

    Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique capable of nondestructively probing endogenous biomolecules and their changes associated with dysplastic transformation in the tissue. The main objectives of this study are (i) to develop a simultaneous fingerprint (FP) and high-wavenumber (HW) confocal Raman spectroscopy and (ii) to investigate its diagnostic utility for improving in vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer (dysplasia). We have successfully developed an integrated FP/HW confocal Raman diagnostic system with a ball-lens Raman probe for simultaneous acquistion of FP/HW Raman signals of the cervix in vivo within 1 s. A total of 476 in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra (356 normal and 120 precancer) are acquired from 44 patients at clinical colposcopy. The distinctive Raman spectral differences between normal and dysplastic cervical tissue are observed at ~854, 937, 1001, 1095, 1253, 1313, 1445, 1654, 2946, and 3400 cm(-1) mainly related to proteins, lipids, glycogen, nucleic acids and water content in tissue. Multivariate diagnostic algorithms developed based on partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) together with the leave-one-patient-out, cross-validation yield the diagnostic sensitivities of 84.2%, 76.7%, and 85.0%, respectively; specificities of 78.9%, 73.3%, and 81.7%, respectively; and overall diagnostic accuracies of 80.3%, 74.2%, and 82.6%, respectively, using FP, HW, and integrated FP/HW Raman spectroscopic techniques for in vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis further confirms the best performance of the integrated FP/HW confocal Raman technique, compared to FP or HW Raman spectroscopy alone. This work demonstrates, for the first time, that the simultaneous FP/HW confocal Raman spectroscopy has the potential to be a clinically powerful tool for improving early diagnosis and detection of cervical precancer in vivo during clinical colposcopic examination.

  2. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  3. Spectral imaging technique for retinal perfusion detection using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasta, Seyed Hossein; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Sharp, Peter F.

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate retinal perfusion in the human eye, a dual-wavelength confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) was developed that provides spectral imaging of the fundus using a combination of red (670 nm) and near-infrared (810 nm) wavelengths. The image of the ocular fundus was analyzed to find out if quantitative measurements of the reflectivity of tissue permit assessment of the oxygen perfusion of tissue. We explored problems that affect the reproducibility of patient measurements such as non-uniformity errors on the image. For the first time, an image processing technique was designed and used to minimize the errors of oxygen saturation measurements by illumination correction in retina wide field by increasing SNR. Retinal images were taken from healthy and diabetic retinopathy eyes using the cSLO with a confocal aperture of 100 μm. The ratio image (RI) of red/IR, as oxygen saturation (SO2) index, was calculated for normal eyes. The image correction technique improved the reproducibility of the measurements. Average RI intensity variation of healthy retina tissue was determined within a range of about 5.5%. The capability of the new technique to discriminate oxygenation levels of retinal artery and vein was successfully demonstrated and showed good promise in the diagnosis of the perfused retina.

  4. Optical sectioning using a digital Fresnel incoherent-holography-based confocal imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new type of confocal microscope using Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH). Presented here is a confocal configuration of FINCH using a phase pinhole and point illumination that is able to suppress out-of-focus information from the recorded hologram and hence combine the super-resolution capabilities of FINCH with the sectioning capabilities of confocal microscopy. PMID:26413560

  5. Optical sectioning using a digital Fresnel incoherent-holography-based confocal imaging system

    OpenAIRE

    Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new type of confocal microscope using Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH). Presented here is a confocal configuration of FINCH using a phase pinhole and point illumination that is able to suppress out-of-focus information from the recorded hologram and hence combine the super-resolution capabilities of FINCH with the sectioning capabilities of confocal microscopy.

  6. Measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube in the lumbar spine on magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison between normal, pre- and post-discectomy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, Yasutomo

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lumbar disc hernia with special attention to measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube. Twenty-five patients (20 men and 5 women; 25 discs) who underwent posterior lumbar discectomy and 73 normal individuals (44 men and 29 women; 219 discs) of a similar age distribution were studied. Axial MRI was mainly used for the measurement of the dural tube. In the patient group, MRI examination was performed 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Assessment of the clinical symptoms was also included and used for comparison with the MRI evaluation. The cross-sectional area was significantly reduced to about 50% of the normal preoperatively. One month postoperatively, there was no significant increase in the size of the area, but after three months, the area increased significantly and progressed to the normal size within a year. One-month postoperatively, MRI examination was not considered useful because of postoperative hematoma and/or edema at the surgical site. The increase in the size of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube correlated well with the improvement in clinical symptoms. Three-months postoperatively, MRI evaluation of the lumbar disc seemed useful and measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube appeared to serve as an indicator of the effectiveness of the surgery. (author)

  7. Measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube in the lumbar spine on magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison between normal, pre- and post-discectomy conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubayashi, Yasutomo [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-07-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lumbar disc hernia with special attention to measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube. Twenty-five patients (20 men and 5 women; 25 discs) who underwent posterior lumbar discectomy and 73 normal individuals (44 men and 29 women; 219 discs) of a similar age distribution were studied. Axial MRI was mainly used for the measurement of the dural tube. In the patient group, MRI examination was performed 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Assessment of the clinical symptoms was also included and used for comparison with the MRI evaluation. The cross-sectional area was significantly reduced to about 50% of the normal preoperatively. One month postoperatively, there was no significant increase in the size of the area, but after three months, the area increased significantly and progressed to the normal size within a year. One-month postoperatively, MRI examination was not considered useful because of postoperative hematoma and/or edema at the surgical site. The increase in the size of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube correlated well with the improvement in clinical symptoms. Three-months postoperatively, MRI evaluation of the lumbar disc seemed useful and measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube appeared to serve as an indicator of the effectiveness of the surgery. (author)

  8. Effect of irradiation, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide (VP-16) on number of peripheral blood and peritoneal leukocytes in mice under normal conditions and during acute inflammatory reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van't Wout, J.W.; Linde, I.; Leijh, P.C.; van Furth, R.

    1989-01-01

    In order to develop a suitable model for studying the role of granulocytes and monocytes in resistance against pathogenic microorganisms, we investigated the effect of irradiation and cytostatic treatment (cyclophosphamide and VP-16) on the number of both peripheral blood and peritoneal leukocytes in male Swiss mice. Irradiation and cyclophosphamide treatment severely decreased the number of both granulocytes and monocytes in peripheral blood, whereas VP-16 only lowered the number of blood monocytes to a significant degree and had little effect on the number of blood granulocytes or lymphocytes. When normal mice were injected intraperitoneally with newborn calf serum (NBCS) the number of peritoneal granulocytes rose about 100-fold within 6 h. In irradiated and cyclophosphamide-treated mice, this influx of granulocytes into the peritoneal cavity was virtually eliminated, as was the concomitant increase in the number of blood granulocytes; in VP-16-treated mice, on the other hand, the number of peripheral blood and peritoneal granulocytes increased to the same degree as in normal mice. An increase in the number of peripheral blood monocytes and peritoneal macrophages occurred 24-48 h after injection of NBCS in normal mice. This increase was significantly impaired by irradiation as well as by treatment with cyclophosphamide or VP-16

  9. Conditional expression of Pomc in the Lepr-positive subpopulation of POMC neurons is sufficient for normal energy homeostasis and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Daniel D; Attard, Courtney A; Mercer, Aaron J; Myers, Martin G; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J

    2015-04-01

    Peptides derived from the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) precursor are critical for the normal regulation of many physiological parameters, and POMC deficiency results in severe obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Conversely, augmentation of central nervous system melanocortin function is a promising therapeutic avenue for obesity and diabetes but is confounded by detrimental cardiovascular effects including hypertension. Because the hypothalamic population of POMC-expressing neurons is neurochemically and neuroanatomically heterogeneous, there is interest in the possible dissociation of functionally distinct POMC neuron subpopulations. We used a Cre recombinase-dependent and hypothalamus-specific reactivatable PomcNEO allele to restrict Pomc expression to hypothalamic neurons expressing leptin receptor (Lepr) in mice. In contrast to mice with total hypothalamic Pomc deficiency, which are severely obese, mice with Lepr-restricted Pomc expression displayed fully normal body weight, food consumption, glucose homeostasis, and locomotor activity. Thus, Lepr+ POMC neurons, which constitute approximately two-thirds of the total POMC neuron population, are sufficient for normal regulation of these parameters. This functional dissociation approach represents a promising avenue for isolating therapeutically relevant POMC neuron subpopulations.

  10. How the confocal laser scanning microscope entered biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, W B; White, J G

    2003-09-01

    A history of the early development of the confocal laser scanning microscope in the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge is presented. The rapid uptake of this technology is explained by the wide use of fluorescence in the 80s. The key innovations were the scanning of the light beam over the specimen rather than vice-versa and a high magnification at the level of the detector, allowing the use of a macroscopic iris. These were followed by an achromatic all-reflective relay system, a non-confocal transmission detector and novel software for control and basic image processing. This design was commercialized successfully and has been produced and developed over 17 years, surviving challenges from alternative technologies, including solid-state scanning systems. Lessons are pointed out from the unusual nature of the original funding and research environment. Attention is drawn to the slow adoption of the instrument in diagnostic medicine, despite promising applications.

  11. EUS-Guided Needle-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutani, Manoop S; Koduru, Pramoda; Joshi, Virendra

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an excellent tool for imaging the gastrointestinal tract, as well as surrounding structures. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become the standard of care for the tissue sampling of a variety of masses and lymph nodes within and around...... the gut, providing further diagnostic and staging information. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a novel endoscopic method that enables imaging at a subcellular level of resolution during endoscopy, allowing up to 1000-fold magnification of tissue and providing an optical biopsy. A new procedure...... that has been developed in the past few years is needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (nCLE), which involves a mini-CLE probe that can be passed through a 1 9-gauge needle during EUS-FNA. This enables the real-time visualization of tissue at a microscopic level, with the potential to further improve...

  12. Assessment of nerve ultrastructure by fibre-optic confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushway, T R; Lanzetta, M; Cox, G; Trickett, R; Owen, E R

    1996-01-01

    Fibre-optic technology combined with confocality produces a microscope capable of optical thin sectioning. In this original study, tibial nerves have been stained in a rat model with a vital dye, 4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide, and analysed by fibre-optic confocal microscopy to produce detailed images of nerve ultrastructure. Schwann cells, nodes of Ranvier and longitudinal myelinated sheaths enclosing axons were clearly visible. Single axons appeared as brightly staining longitudinal structures. This allowed easy tracing of multiple signal axons within the nerve tissue. An accurate measurement of internodal lengths was easily accomplished. This technique is comparable to current histological techniques, but does not require biopsy, thin sectioning or tissue fixing. This study offers a standard for further in vivo microscopy, including the possibility of monitoring the progression of nerve regeneration following microsurgical neurorraphy.

  13. Inverted follicular keratosis: dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengot-Carbo, M; Abrego, A; Gonzalez, T; Alarcon, I; Alos, L; Carrera, C; Malvehy, J; Puig, S

    2013-01-01

    Inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) is a rare benign tumor which usually appears as a firm papule on the face. The diagnosis is generally made by histopathology because the clinical appearance is difficult to differentiate from other lesions. Dermoscopic features of IFK have not been established to date. Herein we describe the dermoscopic findings of 4 cases of IFK. Radial peripheral hairpin vessels surrounded by a whitish halo arranged around a central white-yellowish amorphous area were observed in 3 cases, and glomerular vessels were present in the central area of one of them. The fourth case also presented a central white amorphous area but showed arborizing vessels. Reflectance confocal microscopy (available in 1 case) revealed a broadened honeycomb pattern, epidermal projections and hairpin and glomerular vessels. To our knowledge this is the first case series describing the dermoscopic features of inverted follicular keratosis and the first confocal microscopy description of this entity.

  14. Confocal Microscope Alignment of Nanocrystals for Coherent Diffraction Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitra, Loren; Watari, Moyu; Matsuura, Takashi; Shimamoto, Naonobu; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    We have installed and tested an Olympus LEXT confocal microscope at the 34-ID-C beamline of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The beamline is for Coherent X-ray Diffraction (CXD) experiments in which a nanometre-sized crystal is aligned inside a focussed X-ray beam. The microscope was required for three-dimensional (3D) sample alignment to get around sphere-of-confusion issues when locating Bragg peaks in reciprocal space. In this way, and by use of strategic sample preparations, we have succeeded in measuring six Bragg peaks from a single 200 nm gold crystal and obtained six projections of its internal displacement field. This enables the clear identification of stacking-fault bands within the crystal. The confocal alignment method will allow a full determination of the strain tensor provided three or more Bragg reflections from the same crystal are found.

  15. Design considerations of a real-time clinical confocal microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Barry R.

    1991-06-01

    A real-time clinical confocal light microscope provides the ophthalmologist with a new tool for the observation of the cornea and the ocular lens. In addition, the ciliary body, the iris, and the sclera can be observed. The real-time light microscopic images have high contrast and resolution. The transverse resolution is about one half micron and the range resolution is one micron. The following observations were made with visible light: corneal epithelial cells, wing cells, basal cells, Bowman's membrane, nerve fibers, basal lamina, fibroblast nuclei, Descemet's membrane, endothelial cells. Observation of the in situ ocular lens showed lens capsule, lens epithelium, lens fibrils, the interior of lens fibrils. The applications of the confocal microscope include: eye banking, laser refractive surgery, observation of wound healing, observation of the iris, the sciera, the ciliary body, the ocular lens, and the intraocular lens. Digital image processing can produce three-dimensional reconstructions of the cornea and the ocular lens.

  16. Multi-spectral confocal microendoscope for in-vivo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Andrew Robert

    The concept of in-vivo multi-spectral confocal microscopy is introduced. A slit-scanning multi-spectral confocal microendoscope (MCME) was built to demonstrate the technique. The MCME employs a flexible fiber-optic catheter coupled to a custom built slit-scan confocal microscope fitted with a custom built imaging spectrometer. The catheter consists of a fiber-optic imaging bundle linked to a miniature objective and focus assembly. The design and performance of the miniature objective and focus assembly are discussed. The 3mm diameter catheter may be used on its own or routed though the instrument channel of a commercial endoscope. The confocal nature of the system provides optical sectioning with 3mum lateral resolution and 30mum axial resolution. The prism based multi-spectral detection assembly is typically configured to collect 30 spectral samples over the visible chromatic range. The spectral sampling rate varies from 4nm/pixel at 490nm to 8nm/pixel at 660nm and the minimum resolvable wavelength difference varies from 7nm to 18nm over the same spectral range. Each of these characteristics are primarily dictated by the dispersive power of the prism. The MCME is designed to examine cellular structures during optical biopsy and to exploit the diagnostic information contained within the spectral domain. The primary applications for the system include diagnosis of disease in the gastro-intestinal tract and female reproductive system. Recent data from the grayscale imaging mode are presented. Preliminary multi-spectral results from phantoms, cell cultures, and excised human tissue are presented to demonstrate the potential of in-vivo multi-spectral imaging.

  17. Reflectance confocal microscopy features of thin versus thick melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardynal, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Małgorzata; de Carvalho, Nathalie; Walecka, Irena; Pellacani, Giovanni; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2018-01-24

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) plays an increasingly important role in differential diagnosis of melanoma. The aim of the study was to assess typical confocal features of thin (≤1mm according to Breslow index) versus thick (>1mm) melanomas. 30 patients with histopathologically confirmed cutaneous melanoma were included in the study. Reflectance confocal microscopy was performed with Vivascope equipment prior to excision. Fifteen melanomas were thin (Breslow thickness ≤ 1mm) and 15 were thick melanomas (Breslow thickness >1mm). In the RCM examination, the following features were more frequently observed in thin compared to thick melanomas: edged papillae (26.7% vs 0%, p=0.032) and areas with honeycomb or cobblestone pattern (33.3% vs 6.7%, p=0.068). Both features are present in benign melanocytic lesions, so in melanoma are good prognostic factors. The group of thick melanomas compared to the group of thin melanomas in the RCM images presented with greater frequency of roundish cells (100% vs 40%, p=0.001), non-edged papillae (100% vs 60%, p=0.006), numerous pagetoid cells (73.3% vs 33.3%, p=0.028), numerous atypical cells at dermal-epidermal junction (53.3% vs 20%, p=0.058) and epidermal disarray (93.3% vs 66.7%, p=0.068). Non-invasive imaging methods helps in deepening of knowledge about the evolution and biology of melanoma. The most characteristic features for thin melanomas in confocal examination are: fragments of cobblestone or honeycomb pattern and edged papillae (as good prognostic factors). The features of thick melanomas in RCM examination are: roundish cells, non-edged papillae, numerous pagetoid cells at dermal-epidermal junction and epidermal disarray.

  18. Transport of volatile fission products in the fuel-to-sheath gap of defective fuel elements during normal and reactor accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.; Bonin, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical treatment has been used to model the vapour transport of radioactive fission products released into the fuel-to-sheath gap of defective nuclear fuel elements. The model accounts for both diffusive and bulk-convective transport. Convective transport becomes important as a result of a significant release of gaseous fission products into the gap during a high-temperature reactor accident. However, during normal reactor operation, diffusion is shown to be the dominant process of transport. The model is based on an analysis of several in-reactor tests with operating defective fuel elements, and high-temperature annealing experiments with irradiated fuel specimens. ((orig.))

  19. Confocal endomicroscopy: Is it time to move on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Medranda, Carlos

    2016-01-10

    Confocal laser endomicroscopy permits in-vivo microscopy evaluation during endoscopy procedures. It can be used in all the parts of the gastrointestinal tract and includes: Esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, biliary tract through and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and pancreas through needles during endoscopic ultrasound procedures. Many researches demonstrated a high correlation of results between confocal laser endomicroscopy and histopathology in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal lesions; with accuracy in about 86% to 96%. Moreover, in spite that histopathology remains the gold-standard technique for final diagnosis of any diseases; a considerable number of misdiagnosis rate could be present due to many factors such as interpretation mistakes, biopsy site inaccuracy, or number of biopsies. Theoretically; with the diagnostic accuracy rates of confocal laser endomicroscopy could help in a daily practice to improve diagnosis and treatment management of the patients. However, it is still not routinely used in the clinical practice due to many factors such as cost of the procedure, lack of codification and reimbursement in some countries, absence of standard of care indications, availability, physician image-interpretation training, medico-legal problems, and the role of the pathologist. These limitations are relative, and solutions could be found based on new researches focused to solve these barriers.

  20. Ultrafast superresolution fluorescence imaging with spinning disk confocal microscope optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Okada, Yasushi

    2015-05-01

    Most current superresolution (SR) microscope techniques surpass the diffraction limit at the expense of temporal resolution, compromising their applications to live-cell imaging. Here we describe a new SR fluorescence microscope based on confocal microscope optics, which we name the spinning disk superresolution microscope (SDSRM). Theoretically, the SDSRM is equivalent to a structured illumination microscope (SIM) and achieves a spatial resolution of 120 nm, double that of the diffraction limit of wide-field fluorescence microscopy. However, the SDSRM is 10 times faster than a conventional SIM because SR signals are recovered by optical demodulation through the stripe pattern of the disk. Therefore a single SR image requires only a single averaged image through the rotating disk. On the basis of this theory, we modified a commercial spinning disk confocal microscope. The improved resolution around 120 nm was confirmed with biological samples. The rapid dynamics of micro-tubules, mitochondria, lysosomes, and endosomes were observed with temporal resolutions of 30-100 frames/s. Because our method requires only small optical modifications, it will enable an easy upgrade from an existing spinning disk confocal to a SR microscope for live-cell imaging. © 2015 Hayashi and Okada. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  1. The challenge of diagnosing seborrheic keratosis by reflectance confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, A; Chen, J; Yang, C; Ding, Y; Zeng, Q; Tan, L

    2018-05-24

    Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is one of the most common skin tumors seen by dermatologists. It should be differentiated with many diseases, especially skin tumors. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has been applied for evaluation of SK. There are a few studies that describe the RCM of SK. The aim of the study was to find the challenge of diagnosing seborrheic keratosis by reflectance confocal microscopy. A total of 390 patients with a clinical suspicious diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis were enrolled in this study, and lesions from each patient were imaged with RCM. Thirty-seven of these patients performed a biopsy in order to be given a histological diagnosis. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of RCM diagnosis and histological diagnosis, and then found the RCM characteristics of biopsy-proven lesions. According to RCM images, 258 of 390 (66.2%) patients were diagnosed with SK, 97 of 390 (24.9%) patients could not be diagnosed by the dermatologist according to RCM. Of all 37 biopsied lesions, 23 were SK, 6 were actinic keratosis, 2 were basal cell carcinoma, and 2 were squamous cell carcinoma. It is challenge to diagnose seborrheic keratosis by reflectance confocal microscopy. It may due to the variable clinical and RCM appearances of SK, and limited depth of RCM. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Parallel detection experiment of fluorescence confocal microscopy using DMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Zheng, Jihong; Wang, Kangni; Gui, Kun; Guo, Hanming; Zhuang, Songlin

    2016-05-01

    Parallel detection of fluorescence confocal microscopy (PDFCM) system based on Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is reported in this paper in order to realize simultaneous multi-channel imaging and improve detection speed. DMD is added into PDFCM system, working to take replace of the single traditional pinhole in the confocal system, which divides the laser source into multiple excitation beams. The PDFCM imaging system based on DMD is experimentally set up. The multi-channel image of fluorescence signal of potato cells sample is detected by parallel lateral scanning in order to verify the feasibility of introducing the DMD into fluorescence confocal microscope. In addition, for the purpose of characterizing the microscope, the depth response curve is also acquired. The experimental result shows that in contrast to conventional microscopy, the DMD-based PDFCM system has higher axial resolution and faster detection speed, which may bring some potential benefits in the biology and medicine analysis. SCANNING 38:234-239, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Ex vivo confocal microscopy: a new diagnostic technique for mucormycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, A; Cinotti, E; Labeille, B; Perrot, J L; Cambazard, F

    2016-05-01

    Skin-dedicated ex vivo confocal microscopy (EVCM) has so far mainly been employed to identify cutaneous tumours on freshly excised samples. We present two cases where EVCM has been used to diagnose cutaneous mucormycosis. The skin biopsies were evaluated by the skin-dedicated ex vivo confocal microscope VivaScope 2500(®) (MAVIG GmbH, Munich Germany) under both reflectance and fluorescence mode. Conventional direct optical examination on skin scraping and histological examination were later performed. Mucormycetes observed by EVCM presented as hyper-reflective elongated 20 μm in diameter structures with perpendicular ramifications. Fungi were found both under reflectance and fluorescence mode and were better visible with acridine orange under fluorescence EVCM. Conventional direct optical examination on skin scraping and histological examination found the same elongated and branching structures confirming the presence of Mucormycetes. Ex vivo confocal microscopy has both the advantages of being fast as the direct optical examination, and to be able to show the localisation of the fungi in the tissue like the histological examination. In our cases, EVCM allowed to rapidly confirm the clinical diagnosis of mucormycosis, which is essential for the treatment of this fungal infection. Further studies are needed to compare the performance of EVCM with the findings of conventional histological and mycological examinations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Normal live births after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in a man with the rare condition of Eagle-Barrett syndrome (prune-belly syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Steven D; Varughese, Elizabeth; Hua, Vi-Khiem; Robertson, Amanda; Dalzell, Fiona; Boothroyd, Clare V

    2013-12-01

    To report the first live births of male infants resulting from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using spermatozoa from a man with Eagle-Barrett syndrome (EBS). Case report. Assisted conception unit within a private hospital. An infertile couple. An infertile couple received repeated treatment with ICSI. Clinical pregnancy and a normal live birth. In 2008, after microinjection of ten oocytes, the transfer of a single expanded blastocyst led to the premature birth of a morphologically normal male infant at 18 weeks' gestation. This outcome followed preterm rupture of membranes and possible cervical incompetence. In 2009, after microinjection of six oocytes, transfer of a single 5-cell embryo led to a singleton pregnancy, with emergency cervical cerclage being performed at 21 weeks. A healthy male infant was born at 30 weeks, with no evidence of EBS, by lower-segment cesarean section for breech presentation and premature labor. In 2012, after elective laparoscopic placement of cervical suture, microinjection of ten oocytes and transfer of a single 4-cell embryo led to a singleton pregnancy with a healthy male infant, with no evidence of EBS, being born by cesarean section at 38 weeks. This report suggests that EBS is not transmitted to male offspring via ICSI. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Foersch

    Full Text Available Early detection and evaluation of brain tumors during surgery is crucial for accurate resection. Currently cryosections during surgery are regularly performed. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is a novel technique permitting in vivo histologic imaging with miniaturized endoscopic probes at excellent resolution. Aim of the current study was to evaluate CLE for in vivo diagnosis in different types and models of intracranial neoplasia. In vivo histomorphology of healthy brains and two different C6 glioma cell line allografts was evaluated in rats. One cell line expressed EYFP, the other cell line was used for staining with fluorescent dyes (fluorescein, acriflavine, FITC-dextran and Indocyanine green. To evaluate future application in patients, fresh surgical resection specimen of human intracranial tumors (n = 15 were examined (glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma, craniopharyngioma, acoustic neurinoma, brain metastasis, medulloblastoma, epidermoid tumor. Healthy brain tissue adjacent to the samples served as control. CLE yielded high-quality histomorphology of normal brain tissue and tumors. Different fluorescent agents revealed distinct aspects of tissue and cell structure (nuclear pattern, axonal pathways, hemorrhages. CLE discrimination of neoplastic from healthy brain tissue was easy to perform based on tissue and cellular architecture and resemblance with histopathology was excellent. Confocal laser endomicroscopy allows immediate in vivo imaging of normal and neoplastic brain tissue at high resolution. The technology might be transferred to scientific and clinical application in neurosurgery and neuropathology. It may become helpful to screen for tumor free margins and to improve the surgical resection of malignant brain tumors, and opens the door to in vivo molecular imaging of tumors and other neurologic disorders.

  6. Real time diagnosis of bladder cancer with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Wu, Katherine; Adams, Winifred; Hsiao, Shelly T.; Mach, Kathleen E.; Beck, Andrew H.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Liao, Joseph C.

    2011-02-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is an emerging technology for in vivo optical imaging of the urinary tract. Particularly for bladder cancer, real time optical biopsy of suspected lesions will likely lead to improved management of bladder cancer. With pCLE, micron scale resolution is achieved with sterilizable imaging probes (1.4 or 2.6 mm diameter), which are compatible with standard cystoscopes and resectoscopes. Based on our initial experience to date (n = 66 patients), we have demonstrated the safety profile of intravesical fluorescein administration and established objective diagnostic criteria to differentiate between normal, benign, and neoplastic urothelium. Confocal images of normal bladder showed organized layers of umbrella cells, intermediate cells, and lamina propria. Low grade bladder cancer is characterized by densely packed monomorphic cells with central fibrovascular cores, whereas high grade cancer consists of highly disorganized microarchitecture and pleomorphic cells with indistinct cell borders. Currently, we are conducting a diagnostic accuracy study of pCLE for bladder cancer diagnosis. Patients scheduled to undergo transurethral resection of bladder tumor are recruited. Patients undergo first white light cystocopy (WLC), followed by pCLE, and finally histologic confirmation of the resected tissues. The diagnostic accuracy is determined both in real time by the operative surgeon and offline after additional image processing. Using histology as the standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of WLC and WLC + pCLE are calculated. With additional validation, pCLE may prove to be a valuable adjunct to WLC for real time diagnosis of bladder cancer.

  7. 3D Image Analysis of Geomaterials using Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulukutla, G.; Proussevitch, A.; Sahagian, D.

    2009-05-01

    Confocal microscopy is one of the most significant advances in optical microscopy of the last century. It is widely used in biological sciences but its application to geomaterials lingers due to a number of technical problems. Potentially the technique can perform non-invasive testing on a laser illuminated sample that fluoresces using a unique optical sectioning capability that rejects out-of-focus light reaching the confocal aperture. Fluorescence in geomaterials is commonly induced using epoxy doped with a fluorochrome that is impregnated into the sample to enable discrimination of various features such as void space or material boundaries. However, for many geomaterials, this method cannot be used because they do not naturally fluoresce and because epoxy cannot be impregnated into inaccessible parts of the sample due to lack of permeability. As a result, the confocal images of most geomaterials that have not been pre-processed with extensive sample preparation techniques are of poor quality and lack the necessary image and edge contrast necessary to apply any commonly used segmentation techniques to conduct any quantitative study of its features such as vesicularity, internal structure, etc. In our present work, we are developing a methodology to conduct a quantitative 3D analysis of images of geomaterials collected using a confocal microscope with minimal amount of prior sample preparation and no addition of fluorescence. Two sample geomaterials, a volcanic melt sample and a crystal chip containing fluid inclusions are used to assess the feasibility of the method. A step-by-step process of image analysis includes application of image filtration to enhance the edges or material interfaces and is based on two segmentation techniques: geodesic active contours and region competition. Both techniques have been applied extensively to the analysis of medical MRI images to segment anatomical structures. Preliminary analysis suggests that there is distortion in the

  8. Imaging theory of nonlinear second harmonic and third harmonic generations in confocal microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhilie; XING Da; LIU Songhao

    2004-01-01

    The imaging theory of nonlinear second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) in confocal microscopy is presented in this paper. The nonlinear effect of SHG and THG on the imaging properties of confocal microscopy has been analyzed in detail by the imaging theory. It is proved that the imaging process of SHG and THG in confocal microscopy, which is different from conventional coherent imaging or incoherent imaging, can be divided into two different processes of coherent imaging. The three-dimensional point spread functions (3D-PSF) of SHG and THG confocal microscopy are derived based on the nonlinear principles of SHG and THG. The imaging properties of SHG and THG confocal microscopy are discussed in detail according to its 3D-PSF. It is shown that the resolution of SHG and THG confocal microscopy is higher than that of single-and two-photon confocal microscopy.

  9. Evaluation of the Weibull and log normal distribution functions as survival models of Escherichia coli under isothermal and non isothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragao, Glaucia M F; Corradini, Maria G; Normand, Mark D; Peleg, Micha

    2007-11-01

    Published survival curves of Escherichia coli in two growth media, with and without the presence of salt, at various temperatures and in a Greek eggplant salad having various levels of essential oil, all had a characteristic downward concavity when plotted on semi logarithmic coordinates. Some also exhibited what appeared as a 'shoulder' of considerable length. Regardless of whether a shoulder was noticed, the survival pattern could be considered as a manifestation of an underlying unimodal distribution of the cells' death times. Mathematically, the data could be described equally well by the Weibull and log normal distribution functions, which had similar modes, means, standard deviations and coefficients of skewness. When plotted in their probability density function (PDF) form, the curves also appeared very similar visually. This enabled us to quantify and compare the effect of temperature or essential oil concentration on the organism's survival in terms of these temporal distributions' characteristics. Increased lethality was generally expressed in a shorter mean and mode, a smaller standard deviation and increased overall symmetry as judged by the distributions' degree of skewness. The 'shoulder', as expected, simply indicated that the distribution's standard deviation was much smaller than its mode. Rate models based on the two distribution functions could be used to predict non isothermal survival patterns. They were derived on the assumption that the momentary inactivation rate is the isothermal rate at the momentary temperature at a time that corresponds to the momentary survival ratio. In this application, however, the Weibullian model with a fixed power was not only simpler and more convenient mathematically than the one based on the log normal distribution, but it also provided more accurate estimates of the dynamic inactivation patterns.

  10. Observation of regenerated fungiform taste buds after severing the chorda tympani nerve using confocal laser scanning microscopy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takehisa; Ito, Tetsufumi; Kato, Yuji; Yamada, Takechiyo; Manabe, Yasuhiro; Narita, Norihiko

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate whether regenerated fungiform taste buds after severing the chorda tympani nerve can be detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy in vivo. Retrospective study. University hospital. Six patients with a normal gustatory function (Group 1), 9 patients with taste function recovery after severing the CTN (Group 2), and 5 patients without taste function recovery (Group 3) were included. In Groups 2 and 3, canal wall up (closed) tympanoplasty or canal wall down with canal reconstruction tympanoplasty was performed in all patients. Diagnostic. The severed nerves were readapted or approximated on the temporalis muscle fascia used to reconstruct the eardrum during surgery. Preoperative and postoperative gustatory functions were assessed using electrogustometry. Twelve to 260 months after severing the CTN, the surface of the midlateral region of the tongue was observed with a confocal laser microscope. EGM thresholds showed no response 1 month after surgery in all patients of Groups 2 and 3. In Group 2, EGM thresholds showed recovery 1 to 2 years after surgery and before confocal microscopy (-1.3 ± 6.5 dB). There was a significant difference between Group 1 (-5.7 ± 2.0 dB; p taste buds were observed in each FP, and 55 (79.7%) of 69 FP contained at least 1 taste bud. The mean number of taste bud per papilla was 3.7 ± 3.6. In patients with a recovered taste function (Group 2), 0 to 8 taste buds were observed in each FP. In this group, 54 (56.2%) of 94 FP contained at least 1 taste bud. The mean number of taste bud per papilla was 2.0 ± 2.2 (p taste bud was observed. Regenerated fungiform taste bud could be observed in vivo using confocal laser scanning microscopy, indicating that regenerated taste bud can be detected without biopsy.

  11. Quantitative comparison of X-ray fluorescence microtomography setups: Standard and confocal collimator apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukalina, M. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology RAS, 142432, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation)], E-mail: marina@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru; Simionovici, A. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, University of Grenoble, BP 53, 38041, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: alexandre.simionovici@ujf-grenoble.fr; Zaitsev, S. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology RAS, 142432, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation)], E-mail: zaitsev@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru; Vanegas, C.J. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology RAS, 142432, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation)], E-mail: vanegas@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru

    2007-07-15

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest for fluorescence spectroscopy, as provided by modern setups which allow 2D and 3D imaging of elemental distributions. Two directions are currently under development: the SR-based fluorescence tomography in polar scanning geometry, provided by the new generation of X-ray microprobes and the confocal scanning geometry, which can be fielded in both SR and laboratory environments. The new probes bring forth a new age in fluorescence spectrometry: high resolution, high intensity and high sensitivity which allow 3D elemental mapping of volumes. The major task now is the development of these complex tools into fully quantitative probes, reproducible and straightforward for general use. In this work we analyze two X-ray fluorescence microtomography techniques: an apparatus tomography using a confocal collimator for the data collection and a standard first generation Computed Tomography (CT) in the parallel scanning scheme. We calculate the deposited dose (amount of energy deposited and distributed in the sample during the data collection time) and find the conditions for the choice of the tomography scheme.

  12. Actin restructuring during Salmonella typhimurium infection investigated by confocal and super-resolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jason J.; Kunde, Yuliya A.; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Werner, James H.

    2014-01-01

    We have used super-resolution optical microscopy and confocal microscopy to visualize the cytoskeletal restructuring of HeLa cells that accompanies and enables Salmonella typhimurium internalization. Herein, we report the use of confocal microscopy to verify and explore infection conditions that would be compatible with super-resolution optical microscopy, using Alexa-488 labeled phalloidin to stain the actin cytoskeletal network. While it is well known that actin restructuring and cytoskeletal rearrangements often accompany and assist in bacterial infection, most studies have employed conventional diffraction-limited fluorescence microscopy to explore these changes. Here we show that the superior spatial resolution provided by single-molecule localization methods (such as direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy) enables more precise visualization of the nanoscale changes in the actin cytoskeleton that accompany bacterial infection. In particular, we found that a thin (100-nm) ring of actin often surrounds an invading bacteria 10 to 20 min postinfection, with this ring being transitory in nature. We estimate that a few hundred monofilaments of actin surround the S. typhimurium in this heretofore unreported bacterial internalization intermediate.

  13. Usefulness of confocal microscopy in distinguishing between basal cell carcinoma and intradermal melanocytic nevus on the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamo, R; Floristan, U; Pampín, A; Caro, D; Pinedo, F; López-Estebaranz, J L

    2015-10-01

    The clinical distinction between basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and intradermal melanocytic nevus lesions on the face can be difficult, particularly in young patients or patients with multiple nevi. Dermoscopy is a useful tool for analyzing characteristic dermoscopic features of BCC, such as cartwheel structures, maple leaf-like areas, blue-gray nests and dots, and ulceration. It also reveals arborizing telangiectatic vessels and prominent curved vessels, which are typical of BCC, and comma vessels, which are typical of intradermal melanocytic nevi. It is, however, not always easy to distinguish between these 2 conditions, even when dermoscopy is used. We describe 2 facial lesions that posed a clinical and dermoscopic challenge in two 38-year-old patients; confocal microscopy showed separation between tumor nests and stroma and polarized nuclei, which are confocal microscopy features of basal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  14. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  15. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket module under normal operation steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Arena, P. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Aubert, J. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Bongiovì, G. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Chiovaro, P., E-mail: pierluigi.chiovaro@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Giammusso, R. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Li Puma, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Tincani, A. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A DEMO WCLL blanket module thermo-mechanical behaviour has been investigated. • Two models of the WCLL blanket module have been set-up adopting a code based on FEM. • The water flow domain in the module has been considered. • A set of uncoupled steady state thermo-mechanical analyses has been carried out. • Critical temperature is not overcome. Safety verifications are generally satisfied. - Abstract: Within the framework of DEMO R&D activities, a research cooperation has been launched between ENEA, the University of Palermo and CEA to investigate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the outboard equatorial module of the DEMO1 Water-Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) blanket under normal operation steady state scenario. The research campaign has been carried out following a theoretical–computational approach based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. In particular, two different 3D FEM models (Model 1 and Model 2), reproducing respectively the central and the lateral poloidal–radial slices of the WCLL blanket module, have been set up. A particular attention has been paid to the modelling of water flow domain, within both the segment box channels and the breeder zone tubes, to simulate realistically the coolant-box thermal coupling. Results obtained are herewith reported and critically discussed.

  16. Circadian rhythms in the incidence of apoptotic cells and number of clonogenic cells in intestinal crypts after radiation using normal and reversed light conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, K.; Potten, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Variations in the number of radiation-induced morphologically dead or dying cells (apoptotic cells) in the crypts in the small intestine of the mouse have been studied throughout a 24-h period under a normal light regimen. A clear circadian rhythm was displayed in the apoptotic incidence 3 or 6 h after irradiation for each gamma-ray dose studied (range 0.14-9.0 Gy). The most prominent circadian rhythm was obtained after 0.5 Gy. Peak time of day for inducing apoptosis was 06.00-09.00 h, and the trough occurred at 18.00-21.00 h. Some mice were also transferred to a reversed light cycle, and irradiated on different days after transfer. Apoptosis induced by 0.5 Gy or 9.0 Gy, or number of surviving crypts (microcolonies) after 11.0 Gy or 13.0 Gy was examined. The transition point for reversal of circadian rhythm in apoptosis (after 0.5 Gy) occurred 7 days after transfer and the rhythm was reversed by 14 days. The rhythm for crypt survival (i.e. for clonogenic cell radiosensitivity) was disturbed on 1 day and transition point for reversal occurred 3 days after transfer. The rhythm became reversed by 7 days. (author)

  17. RANS simulation of the thermal mixing in HTTF LP during normal operation conditions – High Temperature Test Facility at Oregon State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradecka, Malwina J.; Woods, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Since High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors are being considered as the most promising design of upcoming IV Gen reactors, key research areas were identified to address safety aspects of this design. A number of simulations and experiments need to be conducted in this field. In this paper, thermal-hydraulics aspects of coolant flow through Lower Plenum (LP) of HTGR were considered, specifically flow characteristics to identify the risk of temperature stratification in LP and hot spotting on LP floor. Local temperature gradients can cause material degradation. As the power profile is non-uniform across the core, jets of coolant exit the core region at different temperatures and enter the LP impinging on LP floor causing hot spots at LP structure and temperature stratification. To address those issues numerical simulation and an experiment are being developed. The numerical simulation provides coolant flow velocity and temperature fields. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mixing phenomenon in the LP due to risk of the hot streaking and thermal stratification phenomena during normal operation of HTTF. The following aspect are being examined: identification of gas flow behavior in lower plenum of HTTF based on CFD simulations, identification of hot streaking issue in the HTTF lower plenum using CFD tools, and computational investigation of gas mixing efficiency. This paper includes a description of experimental setup of HTTF, guidance for LP CFD modeling, and the results and analysis of CFD simulation. (author)

  18. Validation of reference genes for normalization of qPCR mRNA expression levels in Staphylococcus aureus exposed to osmotic and lactic acid stress conditions encountered during food production and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihto, Henna-Maria; Tasara, Taurai; Stephan, Roger; Johler, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus represents the most prevalent cause of food-borne intoxications worldwide. While being repressed by competing bacteria in most matrices, this pathogen exhibits crucial competitive advantages during growth at high salt concentrations or low pH, conditions frequently encountered in food production and preservation. We aimed to identify reference genes that could be used to normalize qPCR mRNA expression levels during growth of S. aureus in food-related osmotic (NaCl) and acidic (lactic acid) stress adaptation models. Expression stability of nine housekeeping genes was evaluated in full (LB) and nutrient-deficient (CYGP w/o glucose) medium under conditions of osmotic (4.5% NaCl) and acidic stress (lactic acid, pH 6.0) after 2-h exposure. Among the set of candidate reference genes investigated, rplD, rpoB,gyrB, and rho were most stably expressed in LB and thus represent the most suitable reference genes for normalization of qPCR data in osmotic or lactic acid stress models in a rich medium. Under nutrient-deficient conditions, expression of rho and rpoB was highly stable across all tested conditions. The presented comprehensive data on changes in expression of various S. aureus housekeeping genes under conditions of osmotic and lactic acid stress facilitate selection of reference genes for qPCR-based stress response models. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gas phase 1H NMR studies and kinetic modeling of dihydrogen isotope equilibration catalyzed by Ru-nanoparticles under normal conditions: dissociative vs. associative exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Pery, Tal; Rothermel, Niels; Chaudret, Bruno; Gutmann, Torsten; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2018-04-25

    The equilibration of H2, HD and D2 between the gas phase and surface hydrides of solid organic-ligand-stabilized Ru metal nanoparticles has been studied by gas phase 1H NMR spectroscopy using closed NMR tubes as batch reactors at room temperature and 800 mbar. When two different nanoparticle systems, Ru/PVP (PVP ≡ polyvinylpyrrolidone) and Ru/HDA (HDA ≡ hexadecylamine) were exposed to D2 gas, only the release of HD from the hydride containing surface could be detected in the initial stages of the reaction, but no H2. In the case of Ru/HDA also the reverse experiment was performed where surface deuterated nanoparticles were exposed to H2. In that case, the conversion of H2 into gaseous HD was detected. In order to analyze the experimental kinetic and spectroscopic data, we explored two different mechanisms taking into account potential kinetic and equilibrium H/D isotope effects. Firstly, we explored the dissociative exchange mechanism consisting of dissociative adsorption of dihydrogen, fast hydride surface diffusion and associative desorption of dihydrogen. It is shown that if D2 is the reaction partner, only H2 will be released in the beginning of the reaction, and HD only in later reaction stages. The second mechanism, dubbed here associative exchange consists of the binding of dihydrogen to Ru surface atoms, followed by a H-transfer to or by H-exchange with an adjacent hydride site, and finally of the associative desorption of dihydrogen. In that case, in the exchange with D2, only HD will be released in the beginning of the reaction. Our experimental results are not compatible with the dissociative exchange but can be explained in terms of the associative exchange. Whereas the former will dominate at low temperatures and pressures, the latter will prevail around room temperature and normal pressures where transition metal nanoparticles are generally used as reaction catalysts.

  20. In vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy of the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, N J; Hendrikse, F; March, W F

    1999-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of a confocal Raman spectroscopic technique for the noninvasive assessment of corneal hydration in vivo in two legally blind subjects. A laser beam (632.8 nm; 15 mJ) was maintained on the cornea by using a microscope objective lens (x25 magnification, NA = 0.5, f = 10 mm) both for focusing the incident light as well as collecting the Raman backscattered light, in a 180 degrees backscatter configuration. An optical fiber, acting as the confocal pinhole for elimination of light from out-of-focus places, was coupled to a spectrometer that dispersed the collected light onto a sensitive array detector for rapid spectral data acquisition over a range from 2,890 to 3,590/cm(-1). Raman spectra were recorded from the anterior 100-150 microm of the cornea over a period before and after topical application of a mild dehydrating solution. The ratio between the amplitudes of the signals at 3,400/cm(-1) (OH-vibrational mode of water) and 2,940/cm(-1) (CH-vibrational mode of proteins) was used as a measure for corneal hydration. High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR = 25) Raman spectra were obtained from the human corneas by using 15 mJ of laser light energy. Qualitative changes in the hydration of the anteriormost part of the corneas could be observed as a result of the dehydrating agent. With adequate improvements in system safety, confocal Raman spectroscopy could potentially be applied clinically as a noninvasive tool for the assessment of corneal hydration in vivo.

  1. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  2. In vitro confocal imaging of the rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, B R; Paddock, S

    1990-05-01

    We were able to observe in vitro the fine structure of the rabbit cornea using a laser scanning confocal microscope, especially in the regions between Descemet's membrane and the epithelial basal lamina. We observed submicrometre filaments throughout the stroma with high concentrations adjacent to Descemet's membrane, and found extensive interconnecting processes between stromal keratocytes. There are numerous regions containing nerve plexuses in the stroma. We found a deeply convoluted basal lamina adjacent to the epithelium, and observed regions containing junctions between endothelial cells in fluorescent images of rabbit corneas stained with the actin-specific compound fluorescein phalloidin.

  3. 3D confocal imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehrhoff, I.; Bocancea, D.; Vaquero, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Lorrio, M.T.; Ripoll, J.; Desco, M.; Gomez-Gaviro, M.V.

    2016-07-01

    Acquiring high resolution 3D images of the heart enables the ability to study heart diseases more in detail. Here, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was adapted for thick mouse heart sections to increase the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. The adapted CUBIC clearing of the heart lets the antibody penetrate deeper into the tissue by a factor of five. The here shown protocol enables deep 3D highresolution image acquisition in the heart. This allows a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. (Author)

  4. 3D Volumetric Analysis of Fluid Inclusions Using Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussevitch, A.; Mulukutla, G.; Sahagian, D.; Bodnar, B.

    2009-05-01

    Fluid inclusions preserve valuable information regarding hydrothermal, metamorphic, and magmatic processes. The molar quantities of liquid and gaseous components in the inclusions can be estimated from their volumetric measurements at room temperatures combined with knowledge of the PVTX properties of the fluid and homogenization temperatures. Thus, accurate measurements of inclusion volumes and their two phase components are critical. One of the greatest advantages of the Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) in application to fluid inclsion analsyis is that it is affordable for large numbers of samples, given the appropriate software analysis tools and methodology. Our present work is directed toward developing those tools and methods. For the last decade LSCM has been considered as a potential method for inclusion volume measurements. Nevertheless, the adequate and accurate measurement by LSCM has not yet been successful for fluid inclusions containing non-fluorescing fluids due to many technical challenges in image analysis despite the fact that the cost of collecting raw LSCM imagery has dramatically decreased in recent years. These problems mostly relate to image analysis methodology and software tools that are needed for pre-processing and image segmentation, which enable solid, liquid and gaseous components to be delineated. Other challenges involve image quality and contrast, which is controlled by fluorescence of the material (most aqueous fluid inclusions do not fluoresce at the appropriate laser wavelengths), material optical properties, and application of transmitted and/or reflected confocal illumination. In this work we have identified the key problems of image analysis and propose some potential solutions. For instance, we found that better contrast of pseudo-confocal transmitted light images could be overlayed with poor-contrast true-confocal reflected light images within the same stack of z-ordered slices. This approach allows one to narrow

  5. Confocal laser feedback tomography for skin cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowla, Alireza; Du, Benjamin Wensheng; Taimre, Thomas; Bertling, Karl; Wilson, Stephen; Soyer, H Peter; Rakić, Aleksandar D

    2017-09-01

    Tomographic imaging of soft tissue such as skin has a potential role in cancer detection. The penetration of infrared wavelengths makes a confocal approach based on laser feedback interferometry feasible. We present a compact system using a semiconductor laser as both transmitter and receiver. Numerical and physical models based on the known optical properties of keratinocyte cancers were developed. We validated the technique on three phantoms containing macro-structural changes in optical properties. Experimental results were in agreement with numerical simulations and structural changes were evident which would permit discrimination of healthy tissue and tumour. Furthermore, cancer type discrimination was also able to be visualized using this imaging technique.

  6. 3D confocal imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehrhoff, I.; Bocancea, D.; Vaquero, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Lorrio, M.T.; Ripoll, J.; Desco, M.; Gomez-Gaviro, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring high resolution 3D images of the heart enables the ability to study heart diseases more in detail. Here, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was adapted for thick mouse heart sections to increase the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. The adapted CUBIC clearing of the heart lets the antibody penetrate deeper into the tissue by a factor of five. The here shown protocol enables deep 3D highresolution image acquisition in the heart. This allows a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. (Author)

  7. Volume visualization of biological tissue specimens using confocal microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Martin; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie; Smrčka, P.; Hána, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2006), s. 240-244 ISSN 0301-5491. [Biomedical Engineering Conference of Young Biomedical Engineers and Researchers /2./. Kladno, 19.07.2006-21.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110502; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500200510; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : 3D reconstruction * confocal microscopy Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  8. The platelet P2Y(12) receptor under normal and pathological conditions. Assessment with the radiolabeled selective antagonist [(3)H]PSB-0413.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmann, Philippe; Lecchi, Anna; El-Tayeb, Ali; Müller, Christa E; Cattaneo, Marco; Gachet, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Various radioligands have been used to characterize and quantify the platelet P2Y(12) receptor, which share several weaknesses: (a) they are metabolically unstable and substrates for ectoenzymes, (b) they are agonists, and (c) they do not discriminate between P2Y(1) and P2Y(12). We used the [(3)H]PSB-0413 selective P2Y(12) receptor antagonist radioligand to reevaluate the number of P2Y(12) receptors in intact platelets and in membrane preparations. Studies in humans showed that: (1) [(3)H]PSB-0413 bound to 425 ± 50 sites/platelet (K (D) = 3.3 ± 0.6 nM), (2) 0.5 ± 0.2 pmol [(3)H]PSB-0413 bound to 1 mg protein of platelet membranes (K (D) = 6.5 ± 3.6 nM), and (3) competition studies confirmed the known features of P2Y(12), with the expected rank order of potency: AR-C69931MX > 2MeSADP ≫ ADPβS > ADP, while the P2Y(1) ligand MRS2179 and the P2X(1) ligand α,β-Met-ATP did not displace [(3)H]PSB-0413 binding. Patients with severe P2Y(12) deficiency displayed virtually no binding of [(3)H]PSB-0413 to intact platelets, while a patient with a dysfunctional P2Y(12) receptor had normal binding. Studies in mice showed that: (1) [(3)H]PSB-0413 bound to 634 ± 87 sites/platelet (K (D) = 14 ± 4.5 nM) and (2) 0.7 pmol ± 0.3 [(3)H]PSB-0413 bound to 1 mg protein of platelet membranes (K (D) = 9.1 ± 5.3 nM). Clopidogrel and other thiol reagents like pCMBS or DTT abolished the binding both to intact platelets and membrane preparations. Therefore, [(3)H]PSB-0413 is an accurate and selective tool for radioligand binding studies aimed at quantifying P2Y(12) receptors, to identify patients with P2Y(12) deficiencies or quantify the effect of P2Y(12) targeting drugs.

  9. Characteristics of six small heat shock protein genes from Bactrocera dorsalis: Diverse expression under conditions of thermal stress and normal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Wei; Tian, Yi; Liu, Hong; Shi, Yan; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-11-01

    To explore the functions of small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in relation to thermal stress and development in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most economically important pest species attacking a wide range of fruits and vegetables, six full-length cDNAs of sHsp genes (BdHsp17.7, 18.4, 20.4, 20.6, 21.6 and 23.8) were cloned, and the expression patterns in different developmental stages and tissues, as well as in response to both thermal and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) exposures, were examined using real time quantitative PCR. The open reading frames (ORFs) of six sHsps are 453, 489, 537, 543, 567 and 630bp in length, encoding proteins with molecular weights of 17.7, 18.4, 20.4, 20.6, 21.6 and 23.8kDa, respectively. BdHsp18.4 and BdHsp20.4 maintained lower expression levels in both eggs and larvae, whereas remarkably up-regulated after the larval-pupal transformation, suggesting that these two sHsps may be involved in metamorphosis. Significant tissue specificity exists among sHsps: the highest expression of BdHsp20.6 and BdHsp23.8 in the Malpighian tubules and ovary, respectively, versus a peak in the fat body for others. BdHsp20.4 and BdHsp20.6 were significantly up-regulated by thermal stress. In contrast, BdHsp18.4 and BdHsp23.8 reacted only to heat stress. BdHsp17.7 and BdHsp21.6 were insensitive to both heat and cold stresses. The degree of sHsps response depends on intensity of 20E treatment, i.e., dose and time. These results strongly suggest functional differentiation within the sHsp subfamily in B. dorsalis. The physiological function of sHsp members under thermal stress and normal growth remains the subjects of further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Yield and Essential Oil of Two Ecotypes of Savory (Satureja hortensis L. under Normal and Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Akrami nejad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Savory (Satureja hortensis L. is an annual and aromatic plant from Labiatae family, which has plenty of essential oil and is important in medicinal, food, health and beauty industries (6. In comparison with chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers especially manure have lots of organic material sources, and can be used as nutrients, especially Nitrogen, Phosphor and Potassium. Organic fertilizers also keeps more water in the soil (14. Water deficit is one of the most important boundaries of production in arid and semi-arid regions. Drought stress reduces water content, limits plant growth and changes some physiological and metabolic activities (31. This experiment was conducted as there is a global interest for production of medicinal plants with sustainable agriculture system, and with low input and shortage of information about Savory reaction to fertilization in drought stress condition. The objective of this research was to compare the effects of chemical fertilizers and different organic fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of two ecotypes of savory under drought stress condition. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of organic and mineral (N, P and K fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of savory in drought stress condition, two separate split plot designs with three replications were carried out in 2012-2013 year, at the research field of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran. In each design fertilizers including cow manure (30 ton per hectare, poultry manure (10 ton per hectare, chemical fertilizers (used equally with macro elements existing in both poultry and cow manure and control (no fertilizer were used as main factor. Kerman and Khuzestan ecotypes were sub-factor. One of the experiments was irrigated to 100% and the other to 50% of field capacity. Two experiments were analyzed as a combined design. The important characteristics of Savory such as plant

  11. 3D image restoration for confocal microscopy: toward a wavelet deconvolution for the study of complex biological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Le Calvez, Sophie; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2000-05-01

    Image restoration algorithms provide efficient tools for recovering part of the information lost in the imaging process of a microscope. We describe recent progress in the application of deconvolution to confocal microscopy. The point spread function of a Biorad-MRC1024 confocal microscope was measured under various imaging conditions, and used to process 3D-confocal images acquired in an intact preparation of the inner ear developed at Karolinska Institutet. Using these experiments we investigate the application of denoising methods based on wavelet analysis as a natural regularization of the deconvolution process. Within the Bayesian approach to image restoration, we compare wavelet denoising with the use of a maximum entropy constraint as another natural regularization method. Numerical experiments performed with test images show a clear advantage of the wavelet denoising approach, allowing to `cool down' the image with respect to the signal, while suppressing much of the fine-scale artifacts appearing during deconvolution due to the presence of noise, incomplete knowledge of the point spread function, or undersampling problems. We further describe a natural development of this approach, which consists of performing the Bayesian inference directly in the wavelet domain.

  12. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) for rapid assessment of breast excision specimens (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachtel, Elena F.; Johnson, Nicole B.; Huck, Amelia E.; Rice-Stitt, Travis L.; Vangel, Mark G.; Smith, Barbara L.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Kang, DongKyun

    2016-03-01

    Unacceptably large percentage (20-40%) of breast cancer lumpectomy patients are required to undergo multiple surgeries when positive margins are found upon post-operative histologic assessment. If the margin status can be determined during surgery, surgeon can resect additional tissues to achieve tumor-free margin, which will reduce the need for additional surgeries. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed reflectance confocal microscopy technology that has a potential to image the entire surgical margin within a short procedural time. Previously, SECM was shown to rapidly image a large area (10 mm by 10 mm) of human esophageal tissue within a short procedural time (15 seconds). When used in lumpectomy, SECM will be able to image the entire margin surface of ~30 cm2 in around 7.5 minutes. SECM images will then be used to determine margin status intra-operatively. In this paper, we present results from a study of testing accuracy of SECM for diagnosing malignant breast tissues. We have imaged freshly-excised breast specimens (N=46) with SECM. SECM images clearly visualized histomorphologic features associated with normal/benign and malignant breast tissues in a similar manner to histologic images. Diagnostic accuracy was tested by comparing SECM diagnoses made by three junior pathologists with corresponding histologic diagnoses made by a senior pathologist. SECM sensitivity and specificity were high, 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. Intra-observer agreement and inter-observer agreement were also high, 0.87 and 0.84, respectively. Results from this study showed that SECM has a potential to accurately determine margin status during breast cancer lumpectomy.

  13. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  14. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  15. Smartphone confocal microscopy for imaging cellular structures in human skin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Esther E; Semeere, Aggrey; Osman, Hany; Peterson, Gary; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; González, Salvador; Martin, Jeffery N; Anderson, R Rox; Tearney, Guillermo J; Kang, Dongkyun

    2018-04-01

    We report development of a low-cost smartphone confocal microscope and its first demonstration of in vivo human skin imaging. The smartphone confocal microscope uses a slit aperture and diffraction grating to conduct two-dimensional confocal imaging without using any beam scanning devices. Lateral and axial resolutions of the smartphone confocal microscope were measured as 2 and 5 µm, respectively. In vivo confocal images of human skin revealed characteristic cellular structures, including spinous and basal keratinocytes and papillary dermis. Results suggest that the smartphone confocal microscope has a potential to examine cellular details in vivo and may help disease diagnosis in resource-poor settings, where conducting standard histopathologic analysis is challenging.

  16. Microscopia confocal en córneas de cien ojos sanos Confocal microscopy results of one hundred healthy eye corneas

    OpenAIRE

    Zulema Gómez Castillo; Keyly Fernández García; Alain Pérez Tejeda; Susana Márquez Villalón; Madelyn Jareño Ochoa; Judith Cuevas Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar las estructuras celulares por microscopia confocal, Confoscan 4, en córneas sanas en nuestro medio. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo longitudinal a 100 ojos sanos de médicos que trabajan en nuestra institución, y pacientes que asistieron al servicio de córnea. Esta investigación fue desde mayo de 2007 a mayo 2008, en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", La Habana. En los médicos se examinaron ambos ojos y en los pacientes el ojo no afectado. S...

  17. Microscopia confocal de la córnea en facoemulsificación Confocal microscopy of the cornea on phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Raúl Hernández Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los cambios estructurales de la córnea en la cirugía de catarata por facoemulsificación sin complicaciones. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de pacientes operados de catarata por facoemulsificación coaxial por la técnica de pre chop sin complicaciones. A estos se les realizó microscopia confocal de la córnea con el CONFOSCAN 4 (Nidek Technologies con el objetivo de 40x y adaptador Z-Ring. Se realizó el estudio en el preoperatorio y en el posoperatorio (a las 24 horas, después de una semana, de un mes y a los tres meses. Resultados: Se demostraron cambios estructurales en la córnea como células epiteliales con núcleos hiperreflectivos alargadas en ocasiones y áreas de hiperreflectividad anómala a las 24 horas del posoperatorio. Persistieron queratocitos activados y la disminución de la hiperreflectividad de la matriz extracelular que desapareció al mes. Conclusiones: Aunque por biomicroscopia no se observen alteraciones corneales en el posoperatorio de la cirugía de catarata por facoemulsificación, sí se pueden demostrar por microscopia confocal de la córnea. Estas variaciones no influyen en la recuperación visual óptima de los pacientes.Objective: To determine the structural changes in the cornea in the cataract surgery using phacoemulsification without complications. Methods: A prospective study of patients operated on from cataract using the coaxial phacoemulsification (Pre Chop technique without complications was carried out. These patients also underwent confocal microscopy of the cornea with Confoscan4 (Nidek Technologies with 40x target and Z - Ring adapter. The study was performed in the preoperative period and postoperative period for 24 hours, one week, one month and three months after surgery. Results: Structural changes were observed in the cornea such as epithelial cells with hypereflectivity nucleus, occasionally elongated, , areas of anomalous hypereflectivity 24 hours after

  18. Confocal stereology and image analysis: methods for estimating geometrical characteristics of cells and tissues from three-dimensional confocal images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubínová, Lucie; Janáček, Jiří; Karen, Petr; Radochová, Barbora; Difato, Francesco; Krekule, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, Suppl.1 (2004), s. S47-S55 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/01/0257; GA ČR GA310/02/1470; GA AV ČR KJB6011309; GA AV ČR KJB5039302 Grant - others:SI - CZ(CZ) KONTAKT 001/2001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : confocal microscopy * image analysis * stereology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  19. Low-dimensional models of ‘Neuro-glio-vascular unit’ for describing neural dynamics under normal and energy-starved conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma eChhabria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of developing simple minimal models for neuro-glio-vascular system arises from a recent modeling study elucidating the bidirectional information flow within the neuro-glio-vascular system having 89 dynamic equations (Chander and Chakravarthy 2012. While this was one of the first attempts at formulating a comprehensive model for neuro-glia-vascular system, it poses severe restrictions in scaling up to network levels. On the contrary, low dimensional models are convenient devices in simulating large networks that also provide an intuitive understanding of the complex interactions occurring within the neuro-glio-vascular system. The key idea underlying the proposed models is to describe the glio-vascular system as a lumped system which takes neural firing rate as input and returns an ‘energy’ variable (analogous to ATP as output. To this end we present two models: Biophysical neuro-energy (Model #1 with 5 variables, comprising of KATP channel activity governed by neuronal ATP dynamics and the Dynamic threshold (Model #2 with 3 variables depicting the dependence of neural firing threshold on the ATP dynamics. Both the models show different firing regimes such as continuous spiking, phasic and tonic bursting depending on the ATP production coefficient, εp and external current. We then demonstrate that in a network comprising of such energy-dependent neuron units, εp could modulate the Local field potential (LFP frequency and amplitude. Interestingly, low frequency LFP dominates under low εp conditions, which is thought to be reminiscent of seizure-like activity observed in epilepsy. The proposed ‘neuron-energy’ unit may be implemented in building models of neuro-glio-vascular networks to simulate data obtained from multimodal neuroimaging systems such as fNIRS-EEG and fMRI-EEG. Such models could also provide a theoretical basis for devising optimal neurorehabilitation strategies such as non-invasive brain stimulation for

  20. Low-Dimensional Models of "Neuro-Glio-Vascular Unit" for Describing Neural Dynamics under Normal and Energy-Starved Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabria, Karishma; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa

    2016-01-01

    The motivation of developing simple minimal models for neuro-glio-vascular (NGV) system arises from a recent modeling study elucidating the bidirectional information flow within the NGV system having 89 dynamic equations (1). While this was one of the first attempts at formulating a comprehensive model for neuro-glio-vascular system, it poses severe restrictions in scaling up to network levels. On the contrary, low--dimensional models are convenient devices in simulating large networks that also provide an intuitive understanding of the complex interactions occurring within the NGV system. The key idea underlying the proposed models is to describe the glio-vascular system as a lumped system, which takes neural firing rate as input and returns an "energy" variable (analogous to ATP) as output. To this end, we present two models: biophysical neuro-energy (Model 1 with five variables), comprising KATP channel activity governed by neuronal ATP dynamics, and the dynamic threshold (Model 2 with three variables), depicting the dependence of neural firing threshold on the ATP dynamics. Both the models show different firing regimes, such as continuous spiking, phasic, and tonic bursting depending on the ATP production coefficient, ɛp, and external current. We then demonstrate that in a network comprising such energy-dependent neuron units, ɛp could modulate the local field potential (LFP) frequency and amplitude. Interestingly, low-frequency LFP dominates under low ɛp conditions, which is thought to be reminiscent of seizure-like activity observed in epilepsy. The proposed "neuron-energy" unit may be implemented in building models of NGV networks to simulate data obtained from multimodal neuroimaging systems, such as functional near infrared spectroscopy coupled to electroencephalogram and functional magnetic resonance imaging coupled to electroencephalogram. Such models could also provide a theoretical basis for devising optimal neurorehabilitation strategies, such as

  1. Embryonic Heart Morphogenesis from Confocal Microscopy Imaging and Automatic Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongda Mao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic heart morphogenesis (EHM is a complex and dynamic process where the heart transforms from a single tube into a four-chambered pump. This process is of great biological and clinical interest but is still poorly understood for two main reasons. On the one hand, the existing imaging modalities for investigating EHM suffered from either limited penetration depth or limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, current works typically adopted manual segmentation, which was tedious, subjective, and time consuming considering the complexity of developing heart geometry and the large size of images. In this paper, we propose to utilize confocal microscopy imaging with tissue optical immersion clearing technique to image the heart at different stages of development for EHM study. The imaging method is able to produce high spatial resolution images and achieve large penetration depth at the same time. Furthermore, we propose a novel convex active contour model for automatic image segmentation. The model has the ability to deal with intensity fall-off in depth which is characterized by confocal microscopy images. We acquired the images of embryonic quail hearts from day 6 to day 14 of incubation for EHM study. The experimental results were promising and provided us with an insight view of early heart growth pattern and also paved the road for data-driven heart growth modeling.

  2. The confocal plane grating spectrometer at BESSY II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Könnecke, R.; Follath, R.; Pontius, N.; Schlappa, J.; Eggenstein, F.; Zeschke, T.; Bischoff, P.; Schmidt, J.-S.; Noll, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► At the electron storage ring BESSY II a confocal plane grating RIXS endstation with a spot size of 4 μm × 1 μm is presently being installed. ► A resolving power above 10,000 is expected for low energy excitations below 500 eV. ► The sample will be excited with a photon flux up to 10 15 photons/(s 300 mA 0.1%bandwidth). ► Sample environments for solid, gaseous and liquid samples will be provided. ► A fast detecting system is being set up for future pump-probe experiments. -- Abstract: At BESSY II a confocal plane grating spectrometer for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) is currently under commissioning. The new endstation operates with a source size of 4 × 1 μm 2 provided by its dedicated beamline. The RIXS-spectrometer covers an energy range from 50 eV to 1000 eV, providing a resolving power E/ΔE of 5000–15,000. The beamline allows full polarization control and gives a photon flux of up to 7 × 10 14 photons/s/0.1 A/0.1%bandwidth by offering a resolving power E/ΔE of 4000–12,000

  3. Fluorescent ligands for studying neuropeptide receptors by confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beaudet

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of confocal microscopy as it pertains to the identification of G-protein coupled receptors and the study of their dynamic properties in cell cultures and in mammalian brain following their tagging with specific fluorescent ligands. Principles that should guide the choice of suitable ligands and fluorophores are discussed. Examples are provided from the work carried out in the authors' laboratory using custom synthetized fluoresceinylated or BODIPY-tagged bioactive peptides. The results show that confocal microscopic detection of specifically bound fluorescent ligands permits high resolution appraisal of neuropeptide receptor distribution both in cell culture and in brain sections. Within the framework of time course experiments, it also allows for a dynamic assessment of the internalization and subsequent intracellular trafficking of bound fluorescent molecules. Thus, it was found that neurotensin, somatostatin and mu- and delta-selective opioid peptides are internalized in a receptor-dependent fashion and according to receptor-specific patterns into their target cells. In the case of neurotensin, this internalization process was found to be clathrin-mediated, to proceed through classical endosomal pathways and, in neurons, to result in a mobilization of newly formed endosomes from neural processes to nerve cell bodies and from the periphery of cell bodies towards the perinuclear zone. These mechanisms are likely to play an important role for ligand inactivation, receptor regulation and perhaps also transmembrane signaling.

  4. Laser confocal microscope for analysis of 3013 inner container closure weld region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Rodriguez, M. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-26

    As part of the protocol to investigate the corrosion in the inner container closure weld region (ICCWR) a laser confocal microscope (LCM) was used to perform close visual examination of the surface and measurements of corrosion features on the surface. However, initial analysis of selected destructively evaluated (DE) containers using the LCM revealed several challenges for acquiring, processing and interpreting the data. These challenges include topography of the ICCWR sample, surface features, and the amount of surface area for collecting data at high magnification conditions. In FY17, the LCM parameters were investigated to identify the appropriate parameter values for data acquisition and identification of regions of interest. Using these parameter values, selected DE containers were analyzed to determine the extent of the ICCWR to be examined.

  5. Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis of Barrett´s esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut eNeumann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Barrett´s esophagus (BE is established as a premalignant condition in the distal esophagus. Current surveillance guidelines recommend random biopsies every 1-2 cm at intervals of 3-5 years. Advanced endoscopic imaging of BE underwent several technical revolutions within the last decade including broad-field (red-flag techniques (e.g. chromoendoscopy and small-field techniques with confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE at the forefront. In this review we will focus on advanced endoscopic imaging using CLE for the diagnosis and characterization of BE and associated neoplasia. In addition, we will critically discuss the technique of CLE and provide some tricks and hints for the daily routine practice of CLE for diagnosis of BE.

  6. Characterization of LiF-based soft X-ray imaging detectors by confocal fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfigli, F; Gaudio, P; Lupelli, I; Nichelatti, E; Richetta, M; Vincenti, M A; Montereali, R M

    2010-01-01

    X-ray microscopy represents a powerful tool to obtain images of samples with very high spatial resolution. The main limitation of this technique is represented by the poor spatial resolution of standard imaging detectors. We proposed an innovative high-performance X-ray imaging detector based on the visible photoluminescence of colour centres in lithium fluoride. In this work, a confocal microscope in fluorescence mode was used to characterize LiF-based imaging detectors measuring CC integrated visible fluorescence signals of LiF crystals and films (grown on several kinds of substrates) irradiated by soft X-rays produced by a laser plasma source in different exposure conditions. The results are compared with the CC photoluminescence spectra measured on the same samples and discussed.

  7. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  8. Live Imaging of Shoot Meristems on an Inverted Confocal Microscope Using an Objective Lens Inverter Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchuk, Zachary L.; Perdue, Tony D.

    2017-01-01

    Live imaging of above ground meristems can lead to new insights in plant development not possible from static imaging of fixed tissue. The use of an upright confocal microscope offers several technical and biological advantages for live imaging floral or shoot meristems. However, many departments and core facilities possess only inverted confocal microscopes and lack the funding for an additional upright confocal microscope. Here we show that imaging of living apical meristems can be performed on existing inverted confocal microscopes with the use of an affordable and detachable InverterScope accessory. PMID:28579995

  9. Live Imaging of Shoot Meristems on an Inverted Confocal Microscope Using an Objective Lens Inverter Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchuk, Zachary L; Perdue, Tony D

    2017-01-01

    Live imaging of above ground meristems can lead to new insights in plant development not possible from static imaging of fixed tissue. The use of an upright confocal microscope offers several technical and biological advantages for live imaging floral or shoot meristems. However, many departments and core facilities possess only inverted confocal microscopes and lack the funding for an additional upright confocal microscope. Here we show that imaging of living apical meristems can be performed on existing inverted confocal microscopes with the use of an affordable and detachable InverterScope accessory.

  10. Nanostructured transdermal hormone replacement therapy for relieving menopausal symptoms: a confocal Raman spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Botelho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of a transdermal nanostructured formulation of progesterone (10% combined with estriol (0.1% + estradiol (0.25% for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. METHODS: A total of 66 postmenopausal Brazilian women with climacteric symptoms of natural menopause received transdermal nanostructured formulations of progesterone and estrogens in the forearm daily for 60 months to mimic the normal ovarian secretory pattern. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of hormones in skin layers was performed. Clinical parameters, serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, blood pressure, BI-RADS classification from bilateral mammography, and symptomatic relief were compared between baseline and 60 months post-treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02033512. RESULTS: An improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 92.5% of women evaluated before and after 60 months of treatment. The serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone changed significantly (p<0.05 after treatment; the values of serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased after 60 months from 82.04±4.9 to 57.12±4.1 IU/mL. A bilateral mammography assessment of the breasts revealed normal results in all women. No adverse health-related events were attributed to this hormone replacement therapy protocol. CONCLUSION: The nanostructured formulation is safe and effective in re-establishing optimal serum levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and relieving the symptoms of menopause. This transdermal hormone replacement therapy may alleviate climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women.

  11. Post-PRK corneal scatter measurements with a scanning confocal slit photon counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, John; Gaines, David; Perez, Mary A.; Waller, Steve G.; Ivan, Douglas J.; Baldwin, J. Bruce; LoRusso, Frank; Tutt, Ronald C.; Perez, Jose; Tredici, Thomas; Johnson, Dan A.

    2000-06-01

    Increased corneal light scatter or 'haze' has been associated with excimer laser photorefractive surgery of the cornea. The increased scatter can affect visual performance; however, topical steroid treatment post surgery substantially reduces the post PRK scatter. For the treatment and monitoring of the scattering characteristics of the cornea, various methods have been developed to objectively measure the magnitude of the scatter. These methods generally can measure scatter associated with clinically observable levels of haze. For patients with moderate to low PRK corrections receiving steroid treatment, measurement becomes fairly difficult as the haze clinical rating is non observable. The goal of this development was to realize an objective, non-invasive physical measurement that could produce a significant reading for any level including the background present in a normal cornea. As back-scatter is the only readily accessible observable, the instrument is based on this measurement. To achieve this end required the use of a confocal method to bias out the background light that would normally confound conventional methods. A number of subjects with nominal refractive errors in an Air Force study have undergone PRK surgery. A measurable increase in corneal scatter has been observed in these subjects whereas clinical ratings of the haze were noted as level zero. Other favorable aspects of this back-scatter based instrument include an optical capability to perform what is equivalent to an optical A-scan of the anterior chamber. Lens scatter can also be measured.

  12. Nanostructured transdermal hormone replacement therapy for relieving menopausal symptoms: a confocal Raman spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Marco Antonio; Queiroz, Dinalva Brito; Barros, Gisele; Guerreiro, Stela; Umbelino, Sonia; Lyra, Arao; Borges, Boniek; Freitas, Allan; Almeida, Jackson Guedes; Quintans Junior, Lucindo

    2014-01-01

    Objective:to determine the safety and efficacy of a transdermal nanostructured formulation of progesterone (10%) combined with estriol (0.1%) + estradiol (0.25%) for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. Methods: a total of 66 postmenopausal Brazilian women with climacteric symptoms of natural menopause received transdermal nanostructured formulations of progesterone and estrogens in the forearm daily for 60 months to mimic the normal ovarian secretory pattern. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of hormones in skin layers was performed. Clinical parameters, serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, blood pressure, BI-RADS classification from bilateral mammography, and symptomatic relief were compared between baseline and 60 months post-treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02033512. Results: an improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 92.5% of women evaluated before and after 60 months of treatment. The serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone changed significantly (p<0.05) after treatment; the values of serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased after 60 months from 82.04 ± 4.9 to 57.12 ± 4.1 IU/mL. A bilateral mammography assessment of the breasts revealed normal results in all women. No adverse health-related events were attributed to this hormone replacement therapy protocol. Conclusion: the nanostructured formulation is safe and effective in re-establishing optimal serum levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and relieving the symptoms of menopause. This transdermal hormone replacement therapy may alleviate climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. (author)

  13. [In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy in dermatology: a proposal concerning French terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitakis, J; Bahadoran, P; Braun, R; Debarbieux, S; Labeille, B; Perrot, J-L; Vabres, P

    2013-11-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a recently introduced non-invasive imaging technique allowing real-time examination of the skin in vivo. Whereas a substantial literature concerning RCM exists in English, so far there is no official terminology in French, despite the fact that an ever-growing number of French-speaking dermatologists now use this new imaging technique. The aim of the present study is to propose a French terminology for RCM in order to allow French-speaking dermatologists to communicate in a precise and homogeneous language on this topic. A group of French-speaking dermatologists with solid experience of RCM, members of the Non-invasive Cutaneous Imaging group of the French Society of Dermatology, endeavored to suggest terms in French concerning RCM. Each group member dealt with a specific paragraph. The members exchanged comments via email and the terminology was finalized during a meeting of the group members in Paris in June 2012. Descriptive terms referring to the RCM aspects of normal and diseased skin were proposed. Some of these already existed, being used in routine dermatopathology, while other specific terms were created or adapted from the English terminology. This terminology will allow French-speaking dermatologists using RCM to communicate their findings in a homogeneous language. It may be enriched in the future by the introduction of additional terms describing new aspects of both normal and, especially, diseased skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanostructured transdermal hormone replacement therapy for relieving menopausal symptoms: a confocal Raman spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Marco Antonio; Queiroz, Dinalva Brito; Barros, Gisele; Guerreiro, Stela; Umbelino, Sonia; Lyra, Arao; Borges, Boniek; Freitas, Allan, E-mail: marcobotelho@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Potiguar, Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Nanotecnologia; Fechine, Pierre [Universidade Federal do Ceara (GQMAT/UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica. Grupo Avancado de Biomateriais em Quimica; Queiroz, Danilo Caldas de [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia (IFCT), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Biotecnologia; Ruela, Ronaldo [Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada (INBIOS), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Almeida, Jackson Guedes [Universidade Federal do Vale de Sao Francisco (UNIVALE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Quintans Junior, Lucindo [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia

    2014-06-01

    Objective:to determine the safety and efficacy of a transdermal nanostructured formulation of progesterone (10%) combined with estriol (0.1%) + estradiol (0.25%) for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. Methods: a total of 66 postmenopausal Brazilian women with climacteric symptoms of natural menopause received transdermal nanostructured formulations of progesterone and estrogens in the forearm daily for 60 months to mimic the normal ovarian secretory pattern. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of hormones in skin layers was performed. Clinical parameters, serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, blood pressure, BI-RADS classification from bilateral mammography, and symptomatic relief were compared between baseline and 60 months post-treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02033512. Results: an improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 92.5% of women evaluated before and after 60 months of treatment. The serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone changed significantly (p<0.05) after treatment; the values of serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased after 60 months from 82.04 ± 4.9 to 57.12 ± 4.1 IU/mL. A bilateral mammography assessment of the breasts revealed normal results in all women. No adverse health-related events were attributed to this hormone replacement therapy protocol. Conclusion: the nanostructured formulation is safe and effective in re-establishing optimal serum levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and relieving the symptoms of menopause. This transdermal hormone replacement therapy may alleviate climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. (author)

  15. Comparison of confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy in mouse cornea in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Seunghun; Gho, Yong Song; Song, In Seok; Tchah, Hungwon; Kim, Myoung Joon; Kim, Ki Hean

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution imaging of the cornea is important for studying corneal diseases at cellular levels. Confocal microscopy (CM) has been widely used in the clinic, and two-photon microscopy (TPM) has recently been introduced in various pre-clinical studies. We compared the performance of CM and TPM in normal mouse corneas and neovascularized mouse corneas induced by suturing. Balb/C mice and C57BL/6 mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used to compare modalities based on intrinsic contrast and extrinsic fluorescence contrast. CM based on reflection (CMR), CM based on fluorescence (CMF), and TPM based on intrinsic/extrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) were compared by imaging the same sections of mouse corneas sequentially in vivo. In normal mouse corneas, CMR visualized corneal cell morphologies with some background noise, and CMF visualized GFP expressing corneal cells clearly. TPM visualized corneal cells and collagen in the stroma based on fluorescence and SHG, respectively. However, in neovascularized mouse corneas, CMR could not resolve cells deep inside the cornea due to high background noise from the effects of increased structural irregularity induced by suturing. CMF and TPM visualized cells and induced vasculature better than CMR because both collect signals from fluorescent cells only. Both CMF and TPM had signal decays with depth due to the structural irregularity, with CMF having faster signal decay than TPM. CMR, CMF, and TPM showed different degrees of image degradation in neovascularized mouse corneas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    irrelevant for readers. The Swiss media's way of handling the contaminated irradiated fuel element transports and their politically delicate resumption in September 1999 after a 15 months ban confirmed the advantage of being treated as a normal industry, even in a peculiar situation, rather than being treated as a special case, even in routine conditions

  17. The Effect of Phase-to-earth Faults on the Operating Conditions of a Separated 110 kV Grid Normally Operated with Effectively Earthed Neutral, and Temporarily Supplied from a Compensated 110 kV Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Rojewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the interoperability of the German compensated 110 kV grid and the Polish effectively earthed 110 kV grid. It is assumed that an area of one grid, separated from its power system, will be temporarily supplied from the other grid in its normal regime. Reference is made to the risks associated with phase-to-earth faults in grids so interconnected. Particular attention is paid to the working conditions of surge arresters and voltage transformers in the Polish 110 kV grid deprived of its neutral earthing when supplied from the German grid.

  18. Confocal Raman spectrocopy for the analysis of nail polish evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Maria; Vaz, Joana; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Nail polishes are cosmetic paints that may be susceptible of forensic analysis offering useful information to assist in a crime reconstruction. Although the nail polish appearance could allow a quick visual identification of the sample, this analysis is subjected to the perception and subjective interpretation of the forensic examiner. The chemical analysis of the nail polishes offers great deal of information not subjected to analyst interpretation. Confocal Raman spectroscopy is a well-suited technique for the analysis of paints due to its non-invasive and non-destructive nature and its ability to supply information about the organic and inorganic components of the sample. In this work, 77 regular and gel nail polishes were analyzed with confocal Raman spectroscopy using two laser wavelengths (532 and 780 nm). The sample behavior under the two laser wavelengths and the differences in the spectra taken at different points of the sample were studied for each nail polish. Additionally, the spectra obtained for all the nail polishes were visually compared. The results concluded that the longer laser wavelength prevents sample burning and fluorescence effects; the similarity among the spectra collected within the sample is not directly related with the presence of glitter particles; and 64% of the samples analyzed showed a characteristic spectrum. Additionally, the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy for the forensic analysis of nail polishes evidence in the form of flakes or smudges on different surfaces were studied. The results showed that both types of evidence can be analyzed by the technique. Also, two non-invasive sampling methods for the collection of the evidence from the nails of the suspect or the victim were proposed: (i) to use acetone-soaked cotton swabs to remove the nail varnishes and (ii) to scrape the nail polish from the nail with a blade. Both approaches, each exhibiting advantages and drawbacks in terms of transport and handling were appropriate

  19. Integrated Confocal and Scanning Probe Microscopy for Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. Haupt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM continues to be developed, not only in design, but also in application. The new focus of using AFM is changing from pure material to biomedical studies. More frequently, it is being used in combination with other optical imaging methods, such as confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and fluorescent imaging, to provide a more comprehensive understanding of biological systems. To date, AFM has been used increasingly as a precise micromanipulator, probing and altering the mechanobiological characteristics of living cells and tissues, in order to examine specific, receptor-ligand interactions, material properties, and cell behavior. In this review, we discuss the development of this new hybrid AFM, current research, and potential applications in diagnosis and the detection of disease.

  20. Materials and corrosion characterization using the confocal resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigges, C.P.; Sorensen, N.R.; Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A. [and others

    1997-05-01

    Improved characterization and process control is important to many Sandia and DOE programs related to manufacturing. Many processes/structures are currently under-characterized including thin film growth, corrosion and semiconductor structures, such as implant profiles. A sensitive tool is required that is able to provide lateral and vertical imaging of the electromagnetic properties of a sample. The confocal resonator is able to characterize the surface and near-surface impedance of materials. This device may be applied to a broad range of applications including in situ evaluation of thin film processes, physical defect detection/characterization, the characterization of semiconductor devices and corrosion studies. In all of these cases, the technology should work as a real-time process diagnostic or as a feedback mechanism regarding the quality of a manufacturing process. This report summarizes the development and exploration of several diagnostic applications.

  1. Confocal mapping of myelin figures with micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jung-Ren; Cheng, Yu-Che; Huang, Hung Ji; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2018-01-01

    We employ confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy (CMRS) with submicron spatial resolution to study the myelin structures (cylindrical lamellae) composed of nested surfactant C12E3 or lipid DMPC bilayers. The CMRS mapping indicates that for a straight C12E3 myelin, the surfactant concentration increases with the myelin width and is higher in the center region than in the peripheral region. For a curved C12E3 myelin, the convex side has a higher surfactant concentration than the corresponding concave side. The spectrum of DMPC myelins undergoes a qualitative change as the temperature increases above 60 °C, suggesting that the surfactant molecules may be damaged. Our work demonstrates the utility of CMRS in bio-soft material research.

  2. Confocal imaging of protein distributions in porous silicon optical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stefano, Luca; D'Auria, Sabato

    2007-01-01

    The performances of porous silicon optical biosensors depend strongly on the arrangement of the biological probes into their sponge-like structures: it is well known that in this case the sensing species do not fill the pores but instead cover their internal surface. In this paper, the direct imaging of labelled proteins into different porous silicon structures by using a confocal laser microscope is reported. The distribution of the biological matter in the nanostructured material follows a Gaussian behaviour which is typical of the diffusion process in the porous media but with substantial differences between a porous silicon monolayer and a multilayer such as a Bragg mirror. Even if semi-quantitative, the results can be very useful in the design of the porous silicon based biosensing devices

  3. Signal and noise modeling in confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberich, Gerlind; Windoffer, Reinhard; Leube, Rudolf E; Aach, Til

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) has revolutionized imaging of subcellular structures in biomedical research by enabling the acquisition of 3D time-series of fluorescently-tagged proteins in living cells, hence forming the basis for an automated quantification of their morphological and dynamic characteristics. Due to the inherently weak fluorescence, CLSM images exhibit a low SNR. We present a novel model for the transfer of signal and noise in CLSM that is both theoretically sound as well as corroborated by a rigorous analysis of the pixel intensity statistics via measurement of the 3D noise power spectra, signal-dependence and distribution. Our model provides a better fit to the data than previously proposed models. Further, it forms the basis for (i) the simulation of the CLSM imaging process indispensable for the quantitative evaluation of CLSM image analysis algorithms, (ii) the application of Poisson denoising algorithms and (iii) the reconstruction of the fluorescence signal.

  4. Ex vivo confocal microscopy: an emerging technique in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Jean Luc; Labeille, Bruno; Cambazard, Frédéric; Rubegni, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to give an overview of the current available applications of ex vivo confocal microscopy (EVCM) in dermatology. EVCM is a relatively new imaging technique that allows microscopic examination of freshly excised unfixed tissue. It enables a rapid examination of the skin sample directly in the surgery room and thus represents an alternative to the intraoperative micrographic control of the surgical margins of cutaneous tumors by standard microscopic examination on cryopreserved sections during Mohs surgery. Although this technique has mainly been developed for the margin’s control of basal cell carcinoma, many other skin tumors have been studied, including melanoma. Use of EVCM is continuing to evolve, and many possible applications are under investigation, such as the study of nails and hair diseases and the diagnosis of skin infections. PMID:29785327

  5. Neutrophil migration under normal and sepsis conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Yelena V; Kim, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil migration is critical for pathogen clearance and host survival during severe sepsis. Interaction of neutrophil adhesion receptors with ligands on endothelial cells results in firm adhesion of the circulating neutrophils, followed by neutrophil activation and directed migration to sites of infection through the basement membrane and interstitial extracellular matrix. Proteolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species are produced and released by neutrophils in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli. Although these mediators are important for host defense, they also promote tissue damage. Excessive neutrophil migration during the early stages of sepsis may lead to an exaggerated inflammatory response with associated tissue damage and subsequent organ dysfunction. On the other hand, dysregulation of migration and insufficient migratory response that occurs during the latter stages of severe sepsis contributes to neutrophils' inability to contain and control infection and impaired wound healing. This review discusses the major steps and associated molecules involved in the balance of neutrophil trafficking, the precise regulation of which during sepsis spells life or death for the host.

  6. Effect of Azospirillum brasilense on the harvest and radical development of sugar cane plants, variety C86 - 456, obtained by in vitro culture in normal conditions and under overhumidity of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to know the influence of the bacteria Azospirillum brasilense on plants of sugar cane, cultivar C86-456, from tissue culture under normal conditions and flooded soil in a Vertisol from El Valle del Cauto, an experiment was carried out using an at random blocks design. The main crop variables (pol in cane, t. caña.ha-1 and t. pol.ha-1 at the twelve months of age were taken, as stump of spring of the year and the development reached by the radical system in its more active area to achieve this experiment. The best results in the crop variables and development of the radical system were obtained it the treatments where the bacteria was present, although non significant under both conditions, evidencing that the stress due to excess of water in the soil affects the normal development of the sugar cane in general by modifying the kindness that the rhizospheric microorganism provides. Key words: biofertilizer, radical system, Saccharum, yield

  7. Dissolution rates of unirradiated UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2} doped with {sup 233}U, and spent fuel under normal atmospheric conditions and under reducing conditions using an isotope dilution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollila, Kaija [VTT Processes, Helsinki (Finland); Albinsson, Yngve [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Oversby, Virginia [VMO Konsult, Stockholm (Sweden); Cowper, Mark [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-01

    The experimental results given in this report allow us to draw the following conclusions. 1) Tests using unirradiated fuel pellet materials from two different manufacturers gave very different dissolution rates under air atmosphere testing. Tests for fragments of pellets from different pellets made by the same manufacturer gave good agreement. This indicates that details of the manufacturing process have a large effect on the behavior of unirradiated UO{sub 2} in dissolution experiments. Care must be taken in interpreting differences in results obtained in different laboratories because the results may be affected by manufacturing effects. 2) Long-term tests under air atmosphere have begun to show the effects of precipitation. Further testing will be needed before the samples reach steady state. 3) Testing of unirradiated UO{sub 2} in systems containing an iron strip to produce reducing conditions gave [U] less than detection limits (<0.02 ppb) after a few days to a few weeks of testing. Uranium recovered from the rinsing of reaction vessels and from acid stripping of vessels was shown to be from dissolution of grains of solid dislodged when the samples were handled after the tests were terminated. 4) Batch tests conducted under reducing conditions showed evidence of colloidal material in the early solution samples. 5) In the batch tests, measurements taken at day 3 and day 5 show that precipitation occurs from day 3 to day 5 without any further dissolution of the solid. 6) At termination of the batch tests, all but one sample had [U] in solution less than detection limits (< 0.02 ppb). Materials recovered in test termination samples showed evidence for recovery of small amounts - amounts corresponding to that expected from a few grains of 5 to 10 {mu}m size - in the acidified solution samples. These are interpreted to have been dislodged during sample handling operations. 7) Batch test data show that increasing test duration beyond 2 weeks does not provide

  8. Automated Microscopy: Macro Language Controlling a Confocal Microscope and its External Illumination: Adaptation for Photosynthetic Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Gábor; Kaňa, Radek

    2016-04-01

    Photosynthesis research employs several biophysical methods, including the detection of fluorescence. Even though fluorescence is a key method to detect photosynthetic efficiency, it has not been applied/adapted to single-cell confocal microscopy measurements to examine photosynthetic microorganisms. Experiments with photosynthetic cells may require automation to perform a large number of measurements with different parameters, especially concerning light conditions. However, commercial microscopes support custom protocols (through Time Controller offered by Olympus or Experiment Designer offered by Zeiss) that are often unable to provide special set-ups and connection to external devices (e.g., for irradiation). Our new system combining an Arduino microcontroller with the Cell⊕Finder software was developed for controlling Olympus FV1000 and FV1200 confocal microscopes and the attached hardware modules. Our software/hardware solution offers (1) a text file-based macro language to control the imaging functions of the microscope; (2) programmable control of several external hardware devices (light sources, thermal controllers, actuators) during imaging via the Arduino microcontroller; (3) the Cell⊕Finder software with ergonomic user environment, a fast selection method for the biologically important cells and precise positioning feature that reduces unwanted bleaching of the cells by the scanning laser. Cell⊕Finder can be downloaded from http://www.alga.cz/cellfinder. The system was applied to study changes in fluorescence intensity in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 cells under long-term illumination. Thus, we were able to describe the kinetics of phycobilisome decoupling. Microscopy data showed that phycobilisome decoupling appears slowly after long-term (>1 h) exposure to high light.

  9. Confocal microscopy and electrophysiological study of single patient corneal endothelium cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatini, Francesca; Rossi, Francesca; Coppi, Elisabetta; Magni, Giada; Fusco, Irene; Menabuoni, Luca; Pedata, Felicita; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Pini, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of the ion channels in corneal endothelial cells and the elucidation of their involvement in corneal pathologies would lead to the identification of new molecular target for pharmacological treatments and to the clarification of corneal physiology. The corneal endothelium is an amitotic cell monolayer with a major role in preserving corneal transparency and in regulating the water and solute flux across the posterior surface of the cornea. Although endothelial cells are non-excitable, they express a range of ion channels, such as voltage-dependent Na+ channels and K+ channels, L-type Ca2 channels and many others. Interestingly, purinergic receptors have been linked to a variety of conditions within the eye but their presence in the endothelium and their role in its pathophysiology is still uncertain. In this study, we were able to extract endothelial cells from single human corneas, thus obtaining primary cultures that represent the peculiarity of each donor. Corneas were from tissues not suitable for transplant in patients. We characterized the endothelial cells by confocal microscopy, both within the intact cornea and in the primary endothelial cells cultures. We also studied the functional role of the purinergic system (adenosine, ATP and their receptors) by means of electrophysiological recordings. The experiments were performed by patch clamp recordings and confocal time-lapse microscopy and our results indicate that the application of purinergic compounds modulates the amplitude of outward currents in the isolated endothelial cells. These findings may lead to the proposal of new therapies for endothelium-related corneal diseases.

  10. Transient gels in colloid-polymer mixtures studied with fluorescence confocal scanning laser microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, N.A.M.; Asnaghi, D.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    1999-01-01

    We study the structure and the time evolution of transient gels formed in colloid-polymer mixtures, by means of uorescence Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM). This technique is used in conjunction with novel colloidal silica particles containing a uorescent core. The confocal micrographs

  11. Configurations of the Re-scan Confocal Microscope (RCM) for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Luca, G. M. R.; Desclos, E.; Breedijk, R. M. P.; Dolz-Edo, L.; Smits, G. J.; Bielefeld, P.; Picavet, L.; Fitzsimons, C. P.; Hoebe, R.; Manders, E. M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The new high-sensitive and high-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), is based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan detection unit. The re-scan unit includes a pair of re-scanning mirrors that project the emission light onto a camera in a scanning manner. The

  12. Configurations of the Re-scan Confocal Microscope (RCM) for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, G.M.R.; Desclos, E.; Breedijk, R.M.P.; Dolz-Edo, L.; Smits, G.J.; Nahidiazar, L.; Bielefeld, P.; Picavet, L.; Fitzsimons, C.P.; Hoebe, R.; Manders, E.M.M.

    The new high-sensitive and high-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), is based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan detection unit. The re-scan unit includes a pair of re-scanning mirrors that project the emission light onto a camera in a scanning manner. The

  13. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy Imaging-Guided Confocal Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Desheng; Kaldaras, Leonora; Lu, H. Peter

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an integrated spectroscopy system combining total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging with confocal single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy for two-dimensional interfaces. This spectroscopy approach is capable of both multiple molecules simultaneously sampling and in situ confocal fluorescence dynamics analyses of individual molecules of interest. We have demonstrated the calibration with fluorescent microspheres, and carried out single-molecule spectroscop...

  14. Improved axial resolution of FINCH fluorescence microscopy when combined with spinning disk confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Nisan; Brooker, Gary

    2014-09-22

    FINCH holographic fluorescence microscopy creates super-resolved images with enhanced depth of focus. Addition of a Nipkow disk real-time confocal image scanner is shown to reduce the FINCH depth of focus while improving transverse confocal resolution in a combined method called "CINCH".

  15. Iris ultrastructure in patients with synechiae as revealed by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy : In vivo iris ultrastructure in patients with Synechiae by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Cheng, Hongbo; Guo, Ping; Zhang, Chun; Tang, Song; Wang, Shusheng

    2016-04-26

    Iris plays important roles in ocular physiology and disease pathogenesis. Currently it is technically challenging to noninvasively examine the human iris ultrastructure in vivo. The purpose of the current study is to reveal human iris ultrastructure in patients with synechiae by using noninvasive in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The ultrastructure of iris in thirty one patients, each with synechiae but transparent cornea, was examined by in vivo LSCM. Five characteristic iris ultrastructures was revealed in patients with synechiae by in vivo LSCM, which include: 1. tree trunk-like structure; 2. tree branch/bush-like structure; 3. Fruit-like structure; 4. Epithelioid-like structure; 5. deep structure. Pigment granules can be observed as a loose structure on the top of the arborization structure. In iris-associated diseases with Tyndall's Phenomenon and keratic precipitates, the pigment particles are more likely to fall off from the arborization structure. The ultrastructure of iris in patients with synechiae has been visualized using in vivo LSCM. Five iris ultrastructures can be clearly observed, with some of the structures maybe disease-associated. The fall-off of the pigment particles may cause the Tyndall's Phenomenon positive. In vivo LSCM provides a non-invasive approach to observe the human iris ultrastructure under certain eye disease conditions, which sets up a foundation to visualize certain iris-associated diseases in the future.

  16. Subnuclear localization, rates and effectiveness of UVC-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis visualized by fluorescence widefield, confocal and super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzyńska-Mach, Agnieszka; Szczurek, Aleksander; Cella Zanacchi, Francesca; Pennacchietti, Francesca; Drukała, Justyna; Diaspro, Alberto; Cremer, Christoph; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Dobrucki, Jurek W

    2016-01-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) is the final stage of the process of repair of DNA lesions induced by UVC. We detected UDS using a DNA precursor, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). Using wide-field, confocal and super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and normal human fibroblasts, derived from healthy subjects, we demonstrate that the sub-nuclear pattern of UDS detected via incorporation of EdU is different from that when BrdU is used as DNA precursor. EdU incorporation occurs evenly throughout chromatin, as opposed to just a few small and large repair foci detected by BrdU. We attribute this difference to the fact that BrdU antibody is of much larger size than EdU, and its accessibility to the incorporated precursor requires the presence of denatured sections of DNA. It appears that under the standard conditions of immunocytochemical detection of BrdU only fragments of DNA of various length are being denatured. We argue that, compared with BrdU, the UDS pattern visualized by EdU constitutes a more faithful representation of sub-nuclear distribution of the final stage of nucleotide excision repair induced by UVC. Using the optimized integrated EdU detection procedure we also measured the relative amount of the DNA precursor incorporated by cells during UDS following exposure to various doses of UVC. Also described is the high degree of heterogeneity in terms of the UVC-induced EdU incorporation per cell, presumably reflecting various DNA repair efficiencies or differences in the level of endogenous dT competing with EdU within a population of normal human fibroblasts.

  17. The application of confocal technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics in surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Guangcui; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo; Yuan, Hao; Li, Yude; Liu, Hehe; Zhao, Weigang; Zhang, Ruixia; Min, Qin; Peng, Song

    2013-01-01

    A confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics was proposed for determining surface topography. This confocal topography method involves elemental sensitivity and can be used to classify the objects according to their elemental composition while obtaining their surface topography. To improve the spatial resolution of this confocal topography technology, the center of the confocal micro-volume was overlapped with the output focal spot of the polycapillary X-ray, focusing the lens in the excitation channel. The input focal spot of the X-ray lens parallel to the detection channel was used to determine the surface position of the sample. The corresponding surface adaptive algorithm was designed to obtain the surface topography. The surface topography of a ceramic chip was obtained. This confocal MXRF surface topography method could find application in the materials sciences

  18. In-vivo diagnosis and non-inasive monitoring of Imiquimod 5% cream for non-melanoma skin cancer using confocal laser scanning microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietterle, S; Lademann, J; Röwert-Huber, H-J; Stockfleth, E; Astner, S; Antoniou, C; Sterry, W

    2008-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cutaneous malignancy with increasing incidence rates worldwide. A number of established treatments are available, including surgical excision. The emergence of new non-invasive treatment modalities has prompted the development of non-invasive optical devices for therapeutic monitoring and evaluating treatment efficacy. This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical applicability of a fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscope (CFLSM) for non-invasive therapeutic monitoring of basal cell carcinoma treated with Imiquimod (Aldara®) as topical immune-response modifier. Eight participants with a diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were enrolled in this investigation. Sequential evaluation during treatment with Imiquimod showed progressive normalization of the confocal histomorphologic parameters in correlation with normal skin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was able to identify characteristic features of BCC and allowed the visualization of therapeutic effects over time. Thus our results indicate the clinical applicability of CFLSM imaging to evaluate treatment efficacy in vivo and non-invasively

  19. Characterization of Protein-Excipient Microheterogeneity in Biopharmaceutical Solid-State Formulations by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshari, Stijn H S; Ross, Jean L; Nayak, Purnendu K; Zarraga, Isidro E; Rajagopal, Karthikan; Wagner, Norman J; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2017-02-06

    Protein-stabilizer microheterogeneity is believed to influence long-term protein stability in solid-state biopharmaceutical formulations and its characterization is therefore essential for the rational design of stable formulations. However, the spatial distribution of the protein and the stabilizer in a solid-state formulation is, in general, difficult to characterize because of the lack of a functional, simple, and reliable characterization technique. We demonstrate the use of confocal fluorescence microscopy with fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments (Fabs) to directly visualize three-dimensional particle morphologies and protein distributions in dried biopharmaceutical formulations, without restrictions on processing conditions or the need for extensive data analysis. While industrially relevant lyophilization procedures of a model IgG1 mAb generally lead to uniform protein-excipient distribution, the method shows that specific spray-drying conditions lead to distinct protein-excipient segregation. Therefore, this method can enable more definitive optimization of formulation conditions than has previously been possible.

  20. Assessment of skin pigmentation by confocal microscopy: Influence of solar exposure and protection habits on cutaneous hyperchromias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ana Paula M; Mercurio, Daiane G; Maia Campos, Patrícia M B G

    2017-09-01

    Cutaneous hyperchromias are disorders of skin pigmentation involving an increase of melanin production and its irregular accumulation in skin cells. It is known that the use of sunscreens helps to prevent changes in the skin pigmentation pattern, but the structural and morphological alterations that occur in the different types of hyperpigmentations need better elucidation. To assess the influence of solar exposure and protection habits on the pattern of skin pigmentation using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). Forty volunteers aged 18-39 years with skin hyperpigmentation participated in the study. Skin characterization was performed by imaging techniques and by assessing the habits of solar exposure and protection by applying questionnaires to the volunteers. RCM was used to record sequences of confocal sections at areas of interest and to examine cell shape and brightness in the basal cell layer of the lesion and in normal perilesional skin. Furthermore, high-resolution images were obtained for analysis of the spots. Sunlight influences the number and location of spots as the face of volunteers with higher solar exposure was covered with spots, whereas volunteers with less exposure had fewer spots located in the nose and cheeks region due to greater exposure of these areas to the sun. The data showed the importance of sun protection for preventing changes in the pattern of skin pigmentation, and RCM proved to be an important tool for skin characterization. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Drain current enhancement induced by hole injection from gate of 600-V-class normally off gate injection transistor under high temperature conditions up to 200 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hajime; Ueno, Hiroaki; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of a 600-V-class normally off GaN gate injection transistor (GIT) from 25 to 200 °C are analyzed, and it is revealed that the drain current of the GIT increases during high-temperature operation. It is found that the maximum drain current (I dmax) of the GIT is 86% higher than that of a conventional 600-V-class normally off GaN metal insulator semiconductor hetero-FET (MIS-HFET) at 150 °C, whereas the GIT obtains 56% I dmax even at 200 °C. Moreover, the mechanism of the drain current increase of the GIT is clarified by examining the relationship between the temperature dependence of the I–V characteristics of the GIT and the gate hole injection effect determined from the shift of the second transconductance (g m) peak of the g m–V g characteristic. From the above, the GIT is a promising device with enough drivability for future power switching applications even under high-temperature conditions.

  2. High-speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging for human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Gu, Boyu; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Continuous and rapid eye movement causes significant intraframe distortion in adaptive optics high resolution retinal imaging. To minimize this artifact, we developed a high speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging system. A high speed line camera was employed to acquire retinal image and custom adaptive optics was developed to compensate the wave aberration of the human eye's optics. The spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio were assessed in model eye and in living human eye. The improvement of imaging fidelity was estimated by reduction of intra-frame distortion of retinal images acquired in the living human eyes with frame rates at 30 frames/second (FPS), 100 FPS, and 200 FPS. The device produced retinal image with cellular level resolution at 200 FPS with a digitization of 512×512 pixels/frame in the living human eye. Cone photoreceptors in the central fovea and rod photoreceptors near the fovea were resolved in three human subjects in normal chorioretinal health. Compared with retinal images acquired at 30 FPS, the intra-frame distortion in images taken at 200 FPS was reduced by 50.9% to 79.7%. We demonstrated the feasibility of acquiring high resolution retinal images in the living human eye at a speed that minimizes retinal motion artifact. This device may facilitate research involving subjects with nystagmus or unsteady fixation due to central vision loss.

  3. Progress in reflectance confocal microscopy for imaging oral tissues in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gary; Zanoni, Daniella K.; Migliacci, Jocelyn; Cordova, Miguel; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Patel, Snehal

    2016-02-01

    We report progress in development and feasibility testing of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) for imaging in the oral cavity of humans. We adapted a small rigid relay telescope (120mm long x 14mm diameter) and a small water immersion objective lens (12mm diameter, NA 0.7) to a commercial handheld RCM scanner (Vivascope 3000, Caliber ID, Rochester NY). This scanner is designed for imaging skin but we adapted the front end (the objective lens and the stepper motor that axially translates) for intra-oral use. This adaption required a new approach to address the loss of the automated stepper motor for acquisition of images in depth. A helical spring-like cap (with a coverslip to contact tissue) was designed for approximately 150 um of travel. Additionally other methods for focusing optics were designed and evaluated. The relay telescope optics is being tested in a clinical setting. With the capture of video and "video-mosaicing", extended areas can be imaged. The feasibility of imaging oral tissues was initially investigated in volunteers. RCM imaging in buccal mucosa in vivo shows nuclear and cellular detail in the epithelium and epithelial junction, and connective tissue and blood flow in the underlying lamina propria. Similar detail, including filiform and fungiform papillae, can be seen on the tongue in vivo. Clinical testing during head and neck surgery is now in progress and patients are being imaged for both normal tissue and cancerous margins in lip and tongue mucosa.

  4. Demeclocycline as a contrast agent for detecting brain neoplasms using confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Dennis; Smith, Thomas W.; Moser, Richard; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2015-04-01

    Complete resection of brain tumors improves life expectancy and quality. Thus, there is a strong need for high-resolution detection and microscopically controlled removal of brain neoplasms. The goal of this study was to test demeclocycline as a contrast enhancer for the intraoperative detection of brain tumors. We have imaged benign and cancerous brain tumors using multimodal confocal microscopy. The tumors investigated included pituitary adenoma, meningiomas, glioblastomas, and metastatic brain cancers. Freshly excised brain tissues were stained in 0.75 mg ml-1 aqueous solution of demeclocyline. Reflectance images were acquired at 402 nm. Fluorescence signals were excited at 402 nm and registered between 500 and 540 nm. After imaging, histological sections were processed from the imaged specimens and compared to the optical images. Fluorescence images highlighted normal and cancerous brain cells, while reflectance images emphasized the morphology of connective tissue. The optical and histological images were in accordance with each other for all types of tumors investigated. Demeclocyline shows promise as a contrast agent for intraoperative detection of brain tumors.

  5. Demeclocycline as a contrast agent for detecting brain neoplasms using confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, Dennis; Yaroslavsky, Anna N; Smith, Thomas W; Moser, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Complete resection of brain tumors improves life expectancy and quality. Thus, there is a strong need for high-resolution detection and microscopically controlled removal of brain neoplasms. The goal of this study was to test demeclocycline as a contrast enhancer for the intraoperative detection of brain tumors. We have imaged benign and cancerous brain tumors using multimodal confocal microscopy. The tumors investigated included pituitary adenoma, meningiomas, glioblastomas, and metastatic brain cancers. Freshly excised brain tissues were stained in 0.75 mg ml −1 aqueous solution of demeclocyline. Reflectance images were acquired at 402 nm. Fluorescence signals were excited at 402 nm and registered between 500 and 540 nm. After imaging, histological sections were processed from the imaged specimens and compared to the optical images. Fluorescence images highlighted normal and cancerous brain cells, while reflectance images emphasized the morphology of connective tissue. The optical and histological images were in accordance with each other for all types of tumors investigated. Demeclocyline shows promise as a contrast agent for intraoperative detection of brain tumors. (paper)

  6. Fibred confocal fluorescence microscopy in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Tan, Gan Liang; Low, Su Ying; Takano, Angela; Ng, Yuen Li; Anantham, Devanand

    2016-12-01

    Accurate diagnosis is critical to both therapeutic decisions and prognostication in interstitial lung diseases (ILD). However, surgical lung biopsies carry high complication rates. Fibred confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) offers an alternative as it can visualize lung tissue in vivo at the cellular level with minimal adverse events. We wanted to investigate the diagnostic utility, and safety of using FCFM for patients with ILD. In patients with suspected ILD, FCFM images were obtained from multiple bronchopulmonary segments using a miniprobe inserted through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope. The procedure was performed under moderate sedation in an outpatient setting. Morphometric measurements and fibre pattern analyses were co-related with computed tomography (CT) findings and patients' final diagnoses based on multi-disciplinary consensus. One hundred and eighty four segments were imaged in 27 patients (18 males) with a median age of 67 years (range, 24-79 years). They were grouped into chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia (16 patients) and other ILDs. Six distinct FCFM patterns were observed: normal, increased fibres, densely packed fibres, hypercellular, thickened fibres and others/non-specific. The pattern resembling densely packed fibres was seen in at least one segment in 68.8% patients with chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia, but only 36.4% in other ILD (P=0.097). An association between inflammatory patterns on CT and a hypercellular pattern on FCFM was also found (P<0.001). Our study shows the potential of FCFM in classifying ILD, but its role in further diagnosis remains limited.

  7. Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Caterina; Lallas, Aimilios; Kyrgidis, Athanassios; Rabinovitz, Harold; Moscarella, Elvira; Ciardo, Silvana; Zalaudek, Iris; Oliviero, Margaret; Losi, Amanda; Gonzalez, Salvador; Guitera, Pascale; Piana, Simonetta; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    The current guidelines for the management of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) suggest a different therapeutic approach according to histopathologic subtype. Although dermatoscopic and confocal criteria of BCC have been investigated, no specific studies were performed to evaluate the distinct reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) aspects of BCC subtypes. To define the specific dermatoscopic and confocal criteria for delineating different BCC subtypes. Dermatoscopic and confocal images of histopathologically confirmed BCCs were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of predefined criteria. Frequencies of dermatoscopic and confocal parameters are provided. Univariate and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Discriminant analyses were performed to define the independent confocal criteria for distinct BCC subtypes. Eighty-eight BCCs were included. Dermatoscopically, superficial BCCs (n=44) were primarily typified by the presence of fine telangiectasia, multiple erosions, leaf-like structures, and revealed cords connected to the epidermis and epidermal streaming upon RCM. Nodular BCCs (n=22) featured the classic dermatoscopic features and well outlined large basaloid islands upon RCM. Infiltrative BCCs (n=22) featured structureless, shiny red areas, fine telangiectasia, and arborizing vessels on dermatoscopy and dark silhouettes upon RCM. The retrospective design. Dermatoscopy and confocal microscopy can reliably classify different BCC subtypes. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intravital Confocal and Two-photon Imaging of Dual-color Cells and Extracellular Matrix Mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Ufuk; Andresen, Volker; Baggett, Brenda; Utzinger, Urs

    2013-01-01

    To optimize imaging of cells in three dimensional culture we studied confocal backscattering, Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and autofluorescence as source of contrast in extracellular matrix (ECM) mimics and evaluated the attenuation as well as bleaching of endogenous cellular fluorescence signals. All common ECM mimics exhibit contrast observable with confocal reflectance microscopy. SHG imaging on collagen I based hydrogels provides high contrast and good optical penetration depth. Agarose is a useful embedding medium because it allows for large optical penetration and exhibits minimal autofluorescence while still providing good reflectance to detect voids in the embedding medium. We labeled breast cancer cells’ outline with DsRed2 and nucleus with eGFP. DsRed2 can be excited with confocal imaging at 568nm, and with two photon excitation (TPE) in the red and longer NIR. eGFP was excited at 488nm for confocal and in the NIR for TPE. While there is small difference in the bleaching rate for eGFP between confocal and TPE we observed significant difference for DsRed2 where bleaching is strongest during TPE in the red wavelengths and smallest during confocal imaging. After a few hundred microns depth in a collagen I hydrogel, TPE fluorescence becomes twice as strong compared to confocal imaging. PMID:23380006

  9. Conversion efficiency of implanted ions by confocal micro-luminescence mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshko, Y.; Huang, Mengbing; Gorokhovsky, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the further development of the statistical approach to determine the conversion efficiency of implanted ions into emitting centers and present the measurement method based on the confocal micro-luminescence mapping. It involves the micro-luminescence mapping with a narrow-open confocal aperture, followed by the statistical analysis of the photoluminescence signal from an ensemble of emitting centers. The confocal mapping method has two important advantages compared to the recently discussed aperture-free method (J. Lumin. 131 (2011) 489): it is less sensitive to errors in the laser spot size and has a well defined useful area. The confocal mapping has been applied to the Xe center in diamond. The conversion efficiency has been found to be about 0.28, which is in good agreement with the results of the aperture-free method. - Highlights: ► Conversion efficiency of implanted ions into emitting centers – statistical approach. ► Micro-luminescence mapping with open and narrow confocal aperture – comparison. ► Advantages of the confocal micro-luminescence mapping. ► Confocal micro-luminescence mapping has been applied to the Xe center in diamond. ► The conversion efficiency has been found to be about 0.28.

  10. Application of function-oriented roughness parameters using confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Klauer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical measuring instruments are widely used for the functional characterization of surface topography. However, due to the interaction of the surface with the incident light, effects occur that can influence the measured topography height values and the obtained surface texture parameters. Therefore, we describe a systematic investigation of the influences of optical surface topography measurement on the acquisition of function-oriented roughness parameters. The same evaluation areas of varying cylinder liners which represent a typical application of function-oriented roughness parameters were measured with a confocal microscope and a stylus instrument. Functional surface texture parameters as given in the standards ISO 13565–2, ISO 13565–3 and ISO 25178–2 were evaluated for both measurement methods and compared. The transmission of specific surface features was described and a correlation analysis for the surface topographies obtained with the different measurement methods and their resulting functional roughness parameters was carried out. Keywords: Functional surface characterization, Optical metrology, Topography measurement, Roughness

  11. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari; Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito; Imai, Koichi; Tanaka, Akio

    2012-12-01

    Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 μm/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  12. Application of Reflectance Confocal Microscopy in Dermatology Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Esra Koku Aksu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM is a non-invasive method, imaging cellular structures in living skin at a level close to the histological resolution. It is easier to diagnose melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin tumors especially in difficult cases when RCM features have been identified. Determination of the cellular features, presence of cellular and structural atypia with RCM allows the discrimination of benign and malignant lesions. Preoperative differential diagnosis of malignant lesions, determining preoperative lesion borders in complicated cases, identification of local recurrence after excision of malignant lesions, monitoring the treatment efficacy in patients using topical treatment and who can not be operated, are the main areas of RCM in tumoral lesions. Besides, RCM is helpful in the establishing the diagnosis of inflammatory disease like psoriasis, contact dermatitis, lichen planus and in evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, detecting of infestation like tinea, skabiyes, demodicosis and determining the level of bullae in bullous disease. Due to being noninvasive, RCM is preferred in cosmetology, in clinical research and practice for the evaluation of the effectiveness of cosmetic products and cosmetic procedures.

  13. Confocal fluorescence microscopy for minimal-invasive tumor diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenzinger, M.; Bille, J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the project ''stereotactic laser-neurosurgery'' is the development of a system for careful and minimal-invasive resection of brain tumors with ultrashort laser pulses through a thin probe. A confocal laser-scanning-microscope is integrated in the probe. In this paper, the simulation of its optical properties by a laboratory setup and the expansion by the ability for fluorescence microscopy are reported. For a valuation of the imaging properties, the point-spread-function in three dimensions and the axial depth-transfer-function were measured and thus, among other things, the resolving power and the capacity for depth discrimination were analysed. The microscope will enable intra-operative detection of tumor cells by the method of immunofluorescence. As a first model of the application in the brain, cell cultures, that fluorescein-labelled antibodies were bound to specifically, were used in this work. Due to the fluorescence signal, it was possible to detect and identify clearly the areas that had been marked in this manner, proving the suitability of the setup for minimal-invasive tumor diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. A new method for depth profiling reconstruction in confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Rosario; Scherillo, Giuseppe; Mensitieri, Giuseppe

    2018-05-01

    Confocal microscopy is commonly used to reconstruct depth profiles of chemical species in multicomponent systems and to image nuclear and cellular details in human tissues via image intensity measurements of optical sections. However, the performance of this technique is reduced by inherent effects related to wave diffraction phenomena, refractive index mismatch and finite beam spot size. All these effects distort the optical wave and cause an image to be captured of a small volume around the desired illuminated focal point within the specimen rather than an image of the focal point itself. The size of this small volume increases with depth, thus causing a further loss of resolution and distortion of the profile. Recently, we proposed a theoretical model that accounts for the above wave distortion and allows for a correct reconstruction of the depth profiles for homogeneous samples. In this paper, this theoretical approach has been adapted for describing the profiles measured from non-homogeneous distributions of emitters inside the investigated samples. The intensity image is built by summing the intensities collected from each of the emitters planes belonging to the illuminated volume, weighed by the emitters concentration. The true distribution of the emitters concentration is recovered by a new approach that implements this theoretical model in a numerical algorithm based on the Maximum Entropy Method. Comparisons with experimental data and numerical simulations show that this new approach is able to recover the real unknown concentration distribution from experimental profiles with an accuracy better than 3%.

  15. Confocal fluorescence microscopy to evaluate changes in adipocytes in the tumor microenvironment associated with invasive ductal carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Jessica L; Shin, Dongsuk; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Kuerer, Henry; Yang, Wei; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic organ that provides endocrine, inflammatory and angiogenic factors, which can assist breast carcinoma cells with invasion and metastasis. Previous studies have shown that adipocytes adjacent to carcinoma, known as cancer-associated adipocytes, undergo extensive changes that correspond to an "activated phenotype," such as reduced size relative to adipocytes in non-neoplastic breast tissue. Optical imaging provides a tool that can be used to characterize adipocyte morphology and other features of the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we used confocal fluorescence microscopy to acquire images of freshly excised breast tissue stained topically with proflavine. We developed a computerized algorithm to identify and quantitatively measure phenotypic properties of adipocytes located adjacent to and far from normal collagen, ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma. Adipocytes were measured in confocal fluorescence images of fresh breast tissue collected from 22 patients. Results show that adipocytes adjacent to neoplastic tissue margins have significantly smaller area compared to adipocytes far from the margins of neoplastic lesions and compared to adipocytes adjacent to non-neoplastic collagenous stroma. These findings suggest that confocal microscopic images can be utilized to evaluate phenotypic properties of adipocytes in breast stroma which may be useful in defining alterations in microenvironment that may aid in the development and progression of neoplastic lesions. © 2016 UICC.

  16. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari, E-mail: tetsu-n@cc.osaka-dent.ac.jp [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Imai, Koichi [Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Tanaka, Akio [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-magnification images with depth selection, and thin sections were observed using CLSM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The direction and velocity of calcification of the bone was observed by administration of 2 fluorescent dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In dog femora grafted with coral blocks, newly-formed bone was observed in the coral block space with a rough surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twelve weeks after dental implant was grafted in dog femora, the space between screws was filled with newly-formed bones. - Abstract: Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 {mu}m/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  17. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari; Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito; Imai, Koichi; Tanaka, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► High-magnification images with depth selection, and thin sections were observed using CLSM. ► The direction and velocity of calcification of the bone was observed by administration of 2 fluorescent dyes. ► In dog femora grafted with coral blocks, newly-formed bone was observed in the coral block space with a rough surface. ► Twelve weeks after dental implant was grafted in dog femora, the space between screws was filled with newly-formed bones. - Abstract: Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 μm/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  18. Confocal examination of subsurface cracking in ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etman, Maged K

    2009-10-01

    The original ceramic surface finish and its microstructure may have an effect on crack propagation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between crack propagation and ceramic microstructure following cyclic fatigue loading, and to qualitatively evaluate and quantitatively measure the surface and subsurface crack depths of three types of ceramic restorations with different microstructures using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Twenty (8 x 4 x 2 mm(3)) blocks of AllCeram (AC), experimental ceramic (EC, IPS e.max Press), and Sensation SL (SSL) were prepared, ten glazed and ten polished of each material. Sixty antagonist enamel specimens were made from the labial surfaces of permanent incisors. The ceramic abraders were attached to a wear machine, so that each enamel specimen presented at 45 degrees to the vertical movement of the abraders, and immersed in artificial saliva. Wear was induced for 80K cycles at 60 cycles/min with a load of 40 N and 2-mm horizontal deflection. The specimens were examined for cracks at baseline, 5K, 10K, 20K, 40K, and 80K cycles. Twenty- to 30-microm deep subsurface cracking appeared in SSL, with 8 to 10 microm in AC, and 7 microm close to the margin of the wear facets in glazed EC after 5K cycles. The EC showed no cracks with increasing wear cycles. Seventy-microm deep subsurface cracks were detected in SSL and 45 microm in AC after 80K cycles. Statistically, there was significant difference among the three materials (p 0.05) in crack depth within the same ceramic material with different surface finishes. The ceramic materials with different microstructures showed different patterns of subsurface cracking.

  19. A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope for retinal vessel oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lompado, Arthur

    Measurement of a person's blood oxygen saturation has long been recognized as a useful metric for the characterizing ailments ranging from chronic respiratory disorders to acute, potentially life threatening, traumas. The ubiquity of oxygen saturation monitors in the medical field, including portable pulse oximeters and laboratory based CO-oximeters, is a testament to the importance of this technique. The work presented here documents the design, fabrication and development of a unique type of oxygen saturation monitor, a confocal scanning retinal vessel oximeter, with the potential to expand the usefulness of the present devices. A large part of the knowledge base required to construct the instrument comes from the consideration of light scattering by red blood cells in a blood vessel. Therefore, a substantial portion of this work is devoted to the process of light scattering by whole human blood and its effects on the development of a more accurate oximeter. This light scattering effect has been both measured and modeled stochastically to determine its contribution to the measured oximeter signal. It is shown that, although well accepted in the published literature, the model only correlates marginally to the measurements due to inherent limitations imposed by the model assumptions. Nonetheless, enough material has been learned about the scattering to allow development of a mathematical model for the interaction of light with blood in a vessel, and this knowledge has been applied to the data reduction of the present oximeter. This data reduction technique has been tested in a controlled experiment employing a model eye with a blood filled mock retinal vessel. It will be shown that the presently developed technique exhibited strong correlation between the known blood oxygen saturation and that calculated by the new system.

  20. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  1. RELIABILITY OF CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SPECTRAL IMAGING SYSTEMS: USE OF MULTISPECTRAL BEADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is a need for a standardized, impartial calibration, and validation protocol on confocal spectral imaging (CSI) microscope systems. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to have testing tools to provide a reproducible way to evaluate instrument performance. ...

  2. A four-phase strategy for the implementation of reflectance confocal microscopy in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogedoorn, L.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; Wolberink, E.A.W.; Peppelman, M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Erp, P.E.J. van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is gradually implemented in dermatology. Strategies for further implementation and practical 'hands on' guidelines are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The primary outcome was to conduct a general strategy for further implementation of RCM. The secondary outcome

  3. Characterization of the main error sources of chromatic confocal probes for dimensional measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouira, H; El-Hayek, N; Yuan, X; Anwer, N

    2014-01-01

    Chromatic confocal probes are increasingly used in high-precision dimensional metrology applications such as roughness, form, thickness and surface profile measurements; however, their measurement behaviour is not well understood and must be characterized at a nanometre level. This paper provides a calibration bench for the characterization of two chromatic confocal probes of 20 and 350 µm travel ranges. The metrology loop that includes the chromatic confocal probe is stable and enables measurement repeatability at the nanometer level. With the proposed system, the major error sources, such as the relative axial and radial motions of the probe with respect to the sample, the material, colour and roughness of the measured sample, the relative deviation/tilt of the probe and the scanning speed are identified. Experimental test results show that the chromatic confocal probes are sensitive to these errors and that their measurement behaviour is highly dependent on them. (paper)

  4. Visualization of carbon nanotubes dispersion in composite by using confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ilčíková, M.; Danko, M.; Doroshenko, M.; Best, A.; Mrlík, M.; Csomorová, K.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Chorvát Jr., D.; Koynov, K.; Mosnáček, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, June (2016), s. 187-197 ISSN 0014-3057 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : confocal laser scanning microscopy * composites * carbon nanotubes dispersion Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  5. Ex Vivo (Fluorescence) Confocal Microscopy in Surgical Pathology: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzi, Moira; Longo, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta

    2016-05-01

    First developed in 1957, confocal microscopy is a powerful imaging tool that can be used to obtain near real-time reflected light images of untreated human tissue with nearly histologic resolution. Besides its research applications, in the last decades, confocal microscopy technology has been proposed as a useful device to improve clinical diagnosis, especially in ophthalmology, dermatology, and endomicroscopy settings, thanks to advances in instrument development. Compared with the wider use of the in vivo tissue assessment, ex vivo applications of confocal microscopy are not fully explored. A comprehensive review of the current literature was performed here, focusing on the reliable applications of ex vivo confocal microscopy in surgical pathology and on some potential evolutions of this new technique from pathologists' viewpoint.

  6. Dual-detection confocal fluorescence microscopy: fluorescence axial imaging without axial scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Ryoung; Kim, Young-Duk; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Yoo, Hongki

    2013-07-29

    We propose a new method for high-speed, three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence imaging, which we refer to as dual-detection confocal fluorescence microscopy (DDCFM). In contrast to conventional beam-scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy, where the focal spot must be scanned either optically or mechanically over a sample volume to reconstruct a 3-D image, DDCFM can obtain the depth of a fluorescent emitter without depth scanning. DDCFM comprises two photodetectors, each with a pinhole of different size, in the confocal detection system. Axial information on fluorescent emitters can be measured by the axial response curve through the ratio of intensity signals. DDCFM can rapidly acquire a 3-D fluorescent image from a single two-dimensional scan with less phototoxicity and photobleaching than confocal fluorescence microscopy because no mechanical depth scans are needed. We demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method by phantom studies.

  7. Real-Time Demonstration of Split Skin Graft Inosculation and Integra Dermal Matrix Neovascularization Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, John; Amjadi, Mahyar; Dearman, Bronwyn; Mackie, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: During the first 48 hours after placement, an autograft “drinks” nutrients and dissolved oxygen from fluid exuding from the underlying recipient bed (“plasmatic imbibition”). The theory of inosculation (that skin grafts subsequently obtain nourishment via blood vessel “anastomosis” between new vessels invading from the wound bed and existing graft vessels) was hotly debated from the late 19th to mid-20th century. This study aimed to noninvasively observe blood flow in split skin grafts and Integra™ dermal regeneration matrix to provide further proof of inosculation and to contrast the structure of vascularization in both materials, reflecting mechanism. Methods: Observations were made both clinically and using confocal microscopy on normal skin, split skin graft, and Integra™. The VivaScope™ allows noninvasive, real-time, in vivo images of tissue to be obtained. Results: Observations of blood flow and tissue architecture in autologous skin graft and Integra™ suggest that 2 very different processes are occurring in the establishment of circulation in each case. Inosculation provides rapid circulatory return to skin grafts whereas slower neovascularization creates an unusual initial Integra™ circulation. Conclusions: The advent of confocal laser microscopy like the VivaScope 1500™, together with “virtual” journals such as ePlasty, enables us to provide exciting images and distribute them widely to a “reading” audience. The development of the early Integra™ vasculature by neovascularization results in a large-vessel, high-volume, rapid flow circulation contrasting markedly from the inosculatory process in skin grafts and the capillary circulation in normal skin and merits further (planned) investigation. PMID:19787028

  8. Intraoperative confocal microscopy in the visualization of 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanai, Nader; Snyder, Laura A; Honea, Norissa J; Coons, Stephen W; Eschbacher, Jennifer M; Smith, Kris A; Spetzler, Robert F

    2011-10-01

    Greater extent of resection (EOR) for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) corresponds with improved clinical outcome, yet remains a central challenge to the neurosurgical oncologist. Although 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced tumor fluorescence is a strategy that can improve EOR in gliomas, only glioblastomas routinely fluoresce following 5-ALA administration. Intraoperative confocal microscopy adapts conventional confocal technology to a handheld probe that provides real-time fluorescent imaging at up to 1000× magnification. The authors report a combined approach in which intraoperative confocal microscopy is used to visualize 5-ALA tumor fluorescence in LGGs during the course of microsurgical resection. Following 5-ALA administration, patients with newly diagnosed LGG underwent microsurgical resection. Intraoperative confocal microscopy was conducted at the following points: 1) initial encounter with the tumor; 2) the midpoint of tumor resection; and 3) the presumed brain-tumor interface. Histopathological analysis of these sites correlated tumor infiltration with intraoperative cellular tumor fluorescence. Ten consecutive patients with WHO Grades I and II gliomas underwent microsurgical resection with 5-ALA and intraoperative confocal microscopy. Macroscopic tumor fluorescence was not evident in any patient. However, in each case, intraoperative confocal microscopy identified tumor fluorescence at a cellular level, a finding that corresponded to tumor infiltration on matched histological analyses. Intraoperative confocal microscopy can visualize cellular 5-ALA-induced tumor fluorescence within LGGs and at the brain-tumor interface. To assess the clinical value of 5-ALA for high-grade gliomas in conjunction with neuronavigation, and for LGGs in combination with intraoperative confocal microscopy and neuronavigation, a Phase IIIa randomized placebo-controlled trial (BALANCE) is underway at the authors' institution.

  9. Bright-field scanning confocal electron microscopy using a double aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Behan, Gavin; Kirkland, Angus I. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Nellist, Peter D., E-mail: peter.nellist@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Cosgriff, Eireann C.; D' Alfonso, Adrian J.; Morgan, Andrew J.; Allen, Leslie J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Hashimoto, Ayako [Advanced Nano-characterization Center, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Takeguchi, Masaki [Advanced Nano-characterization Center, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); High Voltage Electron Microscopy Station, NIMS, 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Mitsuishi, Kazutaka [Advanced Nano-characterization Center, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Quantum Dot Research Center, NIMS, 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Shimojo, Masayuki [High Voltage Electron Microscopy Station, NIMS, 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Laboratory, Saitama Institute of Technology, 1690 Fusaiji, Fukaya 369-0293 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) offers a mechanism for three-dimensional imaging of materials, which makes use of the reduced depth of field in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. The simplest configuration of SCEM is the bright-field mode. In this paper we present experimental data and simulations showing the form of bright-field SCEM images. We show that the depth dependence of the three-dimensional image can be explained in terms of two-dimensional images formed in the detector plane. For a crystalline sample, this so-called probe image is shown to be similar to a conventional diffraction pattern. Experimental results and simulations show how the diffracted probes in this image are elongated in thicker crystals and the use of this elongation to estimate sample thickness is explored. -- Research Highlights: {yields} The confocal probe image in a scanning confocal electron microscopy image reveals information about the thickness and height of the crystalline layer. {yields} The form of the contrast in a three-dimensional bright-field scanning confocal electron microscopy image can be explained in terms of the confocal probe image. {yields} Despite the complicated form of the contrast in bright-field scanning confocal electron microscopy, we see that depth information is transferred on a 10 nm scale.

  10. Development of an add-on kit for scanning confocal microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kaikai; Zheng, Guoan

    2017-03-01

    Scanning confocal microscopy is a standard choice for many fluorescence imaging applications in basic biomedical research. It is able to produce optically sectioned images and provide acquisition versatility to address many samples and application demands. However, scanning a focused point across the specimen limits the speed of image acquisition. As a result, scanning confocal microscope only works well with stationary samples. Researchers have performed parallel confocal scanning using digital-micromirror-device (DMD), which was used to project a scanning multi-point pattern across the sample. The DMD based parallel confocal systems increase the imaging speed while maintaining the optical sectioning ability. In this paper, we report the development of an add-on kit for high-speed and low-cost confocal microscopy. By adapting this add-on kit to an existing regular microscope, one can convert it into a confocal microscope without significant hardware modifications. Compared with current DMD-based implementations, the reported approach is able to recover multiple layers along the z axis simultaneously. It may find applications in wafer inspection and 3D metrology of semiconductor circuit. The dissemination of the proposed add-on kit under $1000 budget could also lead to new types of experimental designs for biological research labs, e.g., cytology analysis in cell culture experiments, genetic studies on multicellular organisms, pharmaceutical drug profiling, RNA interference studies, investigation of microbial communities in environmental systems, and etc.

  11. Rose Bengal Photothrombosis by Confocal Optical Imaging In Vivo: A Model of Single Vessel Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley Watts, Lora; Zheng, Wei; Garling, R Justin; Frohlich, Victoria C; Lechleiter, James Donald

    2015-06-23

    In vivo imaging techniques have increased in utilization due to recent advances in imaging dyes and optical technologies, allowing for the ability to image cellular events in an intact animal. Additionally, the ability to induce physiological disease states such as stroke in vivo increases its utility. The technique described herein allows for physiological assessment of cellular responses within the CNS following a stroke and can be adapted for other pathological conditions being studied. The technique presented uses laser excitation of the photosensitive dye Rose Bengal in vivo to induce a focal ischemic event in a single blood vessel. The video protocol demonstrates the preparation of a thin-skulled cranial window over the somatosensory cortex in a mouse for the induction of a Rose Bengal photothrombotic event keeping injury to the underlying dura matter and brain at a minimum. Surgical preparation is initially performed under a dissecting microscope with a custom-made surgical/imaging platform, which is then transferred to a confocal microscope equipped with an inverted objective adaptor. Representative images acquired utilizing this protocol are presented as well as time-lapse sequences of stroke induction. This technique is powerful in that the same area can be imaged repeatedly on subsequent days facilitating longitudinal in vivo studies of pathological processes following stroke.

  12. Modeling enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates using confocal fluorescence microscopy I: filter paper cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Moran-Mirabal, Jose M; Burkholder, Eric W; Walker, Larry P

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the critical steps in depolymerizing lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars for further upgrading into fuels and/or chemicals. However, many studies still rely on empirical trends to optimize enzymatic reactions. An improved understanding of enzymatic hydrolysis could allow research efforts to follow a rational design guided by an appropriate theoretical framework. In this study, we present a method to image cellulosic substrates with complex three-dimensional structure, such as filter paper, undergoing hydrolysis under conditions relevant to industrial saccharification processes (i.e., temperature of 50°C, using commercial cellulolytic cocktails). Fluorescence intensities resulting from confocal images were used to estimate parameters for a diffusion and reaction model. Furthermore, the observation of a relatively constant bound enzyme fluorescence signal throughout hydrolysis supported our modeling assumption regarding the structure of biomass during hydrolysis. The observed behavior suggests that pore evolution can be modeled as widening of infinitely long slits. The resulting model accurately predicts the concentrations of soluble carbohydrates obtained from independent saccharification experiments conducted in bulk, demonstrating its relevance to biomass conversion work. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Direct Extraction of InP/GaAsSb/InP DHBT Equivalent-Circuit Elements From S-Parameters Measured at Cut-Off and Normal Bias Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Leblanc, Rémy; Poulain, Julien

    2016-01-01

    A unique direct parameter extraction method for the small-signal equivalent-circuit model of InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) is presented. $S$-parameters measured at cut-off bias are used, at first, to extract the distribution factor $X_{0}$ for the base-collector......A unique direct parameter extraction method for the small-signal equivalent-circuit model of InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) is presented. $S$-parameters measured at cut-off bias are used, at first, to extract the distribution factor $X_{0}$ for the base......-collector capacitance at zero collector current and the collector-to-emitter overlap capacitance $C_{ceo}$ present in InP DHBT devices. Low-frequency $S$-parameters measured at normal bias conditions then allows the extraction of the external access resistances $R_{bx}$, $R_{e}$, and $R_{cx}$ as well as the intrinsic...

  14. Computer Aided Diagnosis for Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Advanced Colorectal Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ştefănescu

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is becoming a popular method for optical biopsy of digestive mucosa for both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Computer aided diagnosis of CLE images, using image processing and fractal analysis can be used to quantify the histological structures in the CLE generated images. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic diagnosis algorithm of colorectal cancer (CRC, based on fractal analysis and neural network modeling of the CLE-generated colon mucosa images.We retrospectively analyzed a series of 1035 artifact-free endomicroscopy images, obtained during CLE examinations from normal mucosa (356 images and tumor regions (679 images. The images were processed using a computer aided diagnosis (CAD medical imaging system in order to obtain an automatic diagnosis. The CAD application includes image reading and processing functions, a module for fractal analysis, grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM computation module, and a feature identification module based on the Marching Squares and linear interpolation methods. A two-layer neural network was trained to automatically interpret the imaging data and diagnose the pathological samples based on the fractal dimension and the characteristic features of the biological tissues.Normal colon mucosa is characterized by regular polyhedral crypt structures whereas malignant colon mucosa is characterized by irregular and interrupted crypts, which can be diagnosed by CAD. For this purpose, seven geometric parameters were defined for each image: fractal dimension, lacunarity, contrast correlation, energy, homogeneity, and feature number. Of the seven parameters only contrast, homogeneity and feature number were significantly different between normal and cancer samples. Next, a two-layer feed forward neural network was used to train and automatically diagnose the malignant samples, based on the seven parameters tested. The neural network operations were cross

  15. Clinical applications of in vivo fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chilhwan; Park, Sangyong; Kim, Junhyung; Ha, Seunghan; Park, Gyuman; Lee, Gunwoo; Lee, Onseok; Chun, Byungseon; Gweon, Daegab

    2008-02-01

    Living skin for basic and clinical research can be evaluated by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) non-invasively. CLSM imaging system can achieve skin image its native state either "in vivo" or "fresh biopsy (ex vivo)" without fixation, sectioning and staining that is necessary for routine histology. This study examines the potential fluorescent CLSM with a various exogenous fluorescent contrast agent, to provide with more resolution images in skin. In addition, in vivo fluorescent CLSM researchers will be extended a range of potential clinical application. The prototype of our CLSM system has been developed by Prof. Gweon's group. The operating parameters are composed of some units, such as illuminated wavelength 488 nm, argon illumination power up to 20mW on the skin, objective lens, 0.9NA oil immersion, axial resolution 1.0μm, field of view 200μm x 100μm (lateral resolution , 0.3μm). In human volunteer, fluorescein sodium was administrated topically and intradermally. Animal studies were done in GFP transgenic mouse, IRC mouse and pig skin. For imaging of animal skin, fluorescein sodium, acridine orange, and curcumine were used for fluorescein contrast agent. We also used the GFP transgenic mouse for fluorescein CLSM imaging. In intact skin, absorption of fluorescein sodium by individual corneocyte and hair. Intradermal administrated the fluorescein sodium, distinct outline of keratinocyte cell border could be seen. Curcumin is a yellow food dye that has similar fluorescent properties to fluorescein sodium. Acridin Orange can be highlight nuclei in viable keratinocyte. In vivo CLSM of transgenic GFP mouse enable on in vivo, high resolution view of GFP expressing skin tissue. GFP signals are brightest in corneocyte, kertinocyte, hair and eccrine gland. In intact skin, absorption of fluorescein sodium by individual corneocyte and hair. Intradermal administrated the fluorescein sodium, distinct outline of keratinocyte cell border could be seen. In

  16. Improved sampling and analysis of images in corneal confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaldemose, E L; Fontain, F I; Karlsson, P; Nyengaard, J R

    2017-10-01

    Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a noninvasive clinical method to analyse and quantify corneal nerve fibres in vivo. Although the CCM technique is in constant progress, there are methodological limitations in terms of sampling of images and objectivity of the nerve quantification. The aim of this study was to present a randomized sampling method of the CCM images and to develop an adjusted area-dependent image analysis. Furthermore, a manual nerve fibre analysis method was compared to a fully automated method. 23 idiopathic small-fibre neuropathy patients were investigated using CCM. Corneal nerve fibre length density (CNFL) and corneal nerve fibre branch density (CNBD) were determined in both a manual and automatic manner. Differences in CNFL and CNBD between (1) the randomized and the most common sampling method, (2) the adjusted and the unadjusted area and (3) the manual and automated quantification method were investigated. The CNFL values were significantly lower when using the randomized sampling method compared to the most common method (p = 0.01). There was not a statistical significant difference in the CNBD values between the randomized and the most common sampling method (p = 0.85). CNFL and CNBD values were increased when using the adjusted area compared to the standard area. Additionally, the study found a significant increase in the CNFL and CNBD values when using the manual method compared to the automatic method (p ≤ 0.001). The study demonstrated a significant difference in the CNFL values between the randomized and common sampling method indicating the importance of clear guidelines for the image sampling. The increase in CNFL and CNBD values when using the adjusted cornea area is not surprising. The observed increases in both CNFL and CNBD values when using the manual method of nerve quantification compared to the automatic method are consistent with earlier findings. This study underlines the importance of improving the analysis of the

  17. Confocal Microscopy of Jammed Matter: From Elasticity to Granular Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjadze, Ivane

    Packings of particles are ubiquitous in nature and are of interest not only to the scientific community but also to the food, pharmaceutical, and oil industries. In this thesis we use confocal microscopy to investigate packing geometry and stress transmission in 3D jammed particulate systems. By introducing weak depletion attraction we probe the accessible phase-space and demonstrate that a microscopic approach to jammed matter gives validity to statistical mechanics framework, which is intriguing because our particles are not thermally activated. We show that the fluctuations of the local packing parameters can be successfully captured by the recently proposed 'granocentric' model, which generates packing statistics according to simple stochastic processes. This model enables us to calculate packing entropy and granular temperature, the so-called 'compactivity', therefore, providing a basis for a statistical mechanics of granular matter. At a jamming transition point at which there are formed just enough number of contacts to guarantee the mechanical stability, theoretical arguments suggest a singularity which gives rise to the surprising scaling behavior of the elastic moduli and the microstructure, as observed in numerical simulations. Since the contact network in 3D is typically hidden from view, experimental test of the scaling law between the coordination number and the applied pressure is lacking in the literature. Our data show corrections to the linear scaling of the pressure with density which takes into account the creation of contacts. Numerical studies of vibrational spectra, in turn, reveal sudden features such as excess of low frequency modes, dependence of mode localization and structure on the pressure. Chapter four describes the first calculation of vibrational density of states from the experimental 3D data and is in qualitative agreement with the analogous computer simulations. We study the configurational role of the pressure and demonstrate

  18. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  19. In vivo confocal microscopy and tear cytokine analysis in post-LASIK ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahuja, Natasha Kishore; Shetty, Rohit; Deshmukh, Rashmi; Sharma, Anupam; Nuijts, Rudy M M A; Jhanji, Vishal; Sethu, Swaminathan; Ghosh, Arkasubhra

    2017-12-01

    Corneal keratectasia is one of the complications associated with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) that results in vision impairment. The pathogenesis of post-LASIK ectasia (PLE) remains underexplored. We report the tear cytokine profile and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) findings in eyes with PLE. This retrospective study included age-matched 7 (14 eyes) post-LASIK controls (PLCs) and 6 (12 eyes) PLE subjects. Corneal topography was used to categorise the subjects into PLC and PLE groups. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores obtained were based on standard questionnaire and IVCM images were used to determine corneal dendritic cells density (DCD) and sub-basal nerve plexus morphology. Inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the tears were quantified using flow cytometry based cytometric bead array. Pentacam-based scores, OSDI scores and corneal DCD were significantly (pPLE compared with PLC. Discomfort-related subscale of OSDI score exhibited a positive correlation with total corneal DCD in the PLE cohort. The fold difference of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2/MCP1) (3.4±0.6) was found to be significantly (pPLE cohorts and a positive correlation between CCL2/MCP1 levels and total corneal DCD was also observed in the PLE cohort. The current study found a significant difference in the tear film cytokine profile between normal and PLE eyes. Presence of increased corneal dendritic cells and altered tear cytokines suggests an ongoing inflammatory response in PLE. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Monitoring pancreatic carcinogenesis by the molecular imaging of cathepsin E in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    Full Text Available The monitoring of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC in high-risk populations is essential. Cathepsin E (CTSE is specifically and highly expressed in PDAC and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs, and its expression gradually increases along with disease progression. In this study, we first established an in situ 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA-induced rat model for PanINs and PDAC and then confirmed that tumorigenesis properties in this model were consistent with those of human PDAC in that CTSE expression gradually increased with tumor development using histology and immunohistochemistry. Then, using in vivo imaging of heterotopically implanted tumors generated from CTSE- overexpressing cells (PANC-1-CTSE in nude mice and in vitro imaging of PanINs and PDAC in DMBA-induced rats, the specificity of the synthesized CTSE-activatable probe was verified. Quantitative determination identified that the fluorescence signal ratio of pancreatic tumor to normal pancreas gradually increased in association with progressive pathological grades, with the exception of no significant difference between PanIN-II and PanIN-III grades. Finally, we monitored pancreatic carcinogenesis in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE in combination with the CTSE-activatable probe. A prospective double-blind control study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of this method in diagnosing PDAC and PanINs of all grades (>82.7%. This allowed us to establish effective diagnostic criteria for CLE in PDAC and PanINs to facilitate the monitoring of PDAC in high-risk populations.

  1. Confocal arthroscopy-based patient-specific constitutive models of cartilaginous tissues - II: prediction of reaction force history of meniscal cartilage specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zeike A; Kirk, Thomas B; Miller, Karol

    2007-10-01

    The theoretical framework developed in a companion paper (Part I) is used to derive estimates of mechanical response of two meniscal cartilage specimens. The previously developed framework consisted of a constitutive model capable of incorporating confocal image-derived tissue microstructural data. In the present paper (Part II) fibre and matrix constitutive parameters are first estimated from mechanical testing of a batch of specimens similar to, but independent from those under consideration. Image analysis techniques which allow estimation of tissue microstructural parameters form confocal images are presented. The constitutive model and image-derived structural parameters are then used to predict the reaction force history of the two meniscal specimens subjected to partially confined compression. The predictions are made on the basis of the specimens' individual structural condition as assessed by confocal microscopy and involve no tuning of material parameters. Although the model does not reproduce all features of the experimental curves, as an unfitted estimate of mechanical response the prediction is quite accurate. In light of the obtained results it is judged that more general non-invasive estimation of tissue mechanical properties is possible using the developed framework.

  2. Latest developments and opportunities for 3D analysis of biological samples by confocal μ-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Roberto D.; Sanchez, Hector J.; Perez, Carlos A.; Rubio, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis performed with a primary radiation focused in the micrometer range is known as micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF). It is characterized by a penetration depth higher than other micro-analytical methods, reaching hundreds of micrometers in biological samples. This characteristic of the X-ray beam can be employed in 3D analysis. An innovative method to perform 3D analysis by μ-XRF is the so-called confocal setup. The confocal setup consists of X-ray lenses in the excitation as well as in the detection channel. In this configuration, a micro-volume defined by the overlap of the foci of both X-ray lenses is analyzed. Scanning this micro-volume through the sample can be used to perform a study in three dimensions. At present, X-ray lenses used in confocal μ-XRF experiments are mainly glass capillaries and polycapillaries. Glass capillaries are used in the excitation channel with sources of high photon flux like synchrotron radiation. Half polycapillaries or conical polycapillary concentrators are used almost exclusively in the detection channel. Spatial resolution of the confocal μ-XRF depends on the dimensions of the foci of both X-ray lenses. The overlap of these foci forms an ellipsoid which is the probing volume of the confocal setup. The axis length of the probing volume reported in confocal μ-XRF experiments are of order of few tens of micrometer. In our confocal setup, we used a commercial glass monocapillary in the excitation channel and a monolithic half polycapillary in the detection channel. The polycapillary was home-made by means of drawing of multibundles of glass capillaries in a heating furnace. The experiment was carried out at the beamline D09B-XRF of the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, LNLS) using white beam. A model for the theoretical description of X-ray fluorescence intensity registered by confocal μ-XRF was introduced by Malzer and Kanngieβer [2005. A model for the

  3. In situ protein expression in tumour spheres: development of an immunostaining protocol for confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiswald, Louis-Bastien; Guinebretière, Jean-Marc; Richon, Sophie; Bellet, Dominique; Saubaméa, Bruno; Dangles-Marie, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    Multicellular tumour sphere models have been shown to closely mimic phenotype characteristics of in vivo solid tumours, or to allow in vitro propagation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are usually characterized by the expression of specific membrane markers using flow cytometry (FC) after enzymatic dissociation. Consequently, the spatial location of positive cells within spheres is not documented. Confocal microscopy is the best technique for the imaging of thick biological specimens after multi-labelling but suffers from poor antibody penetration. Thus, we describe here a new protocol for in situ confocal imaging of protein expression in intact spheroids. Protein expression in whole spheroids (150 μm in diameter) from two human colon cancer cell lines, HT29 and CT320X6, has been investigated with confocal immunostaining, then compared with profiles obtained through paraffin immunohistochemistry (pIHC) and FC. Target antigens, relevant for colon cancer and with different expression patterns, have been studied. We first demonstrate that our procedure overcomes the well-known problem of antibody penetration in compact structures by performing immunostaining of EpCAM, a membrane protein expressed by all cells within our spheroids. EpCAM expression is detected in all cells, even the deepest ones. Likewise, antibody access is confirmed with CK20 and CD44 immunostaining. Confocal imaging shows that 100% of cells express β-catenin, mainly present in the plasma membrane with also cytoplasmic and nuclear staining, in agreement with FC and pIHC data. pIHC and confocal imaging show similar CA 19-9 cytoplasmic and membranar expression profile in a cell subpopulation. CA 19-9 + cell count confirms confocal imaging as a highly sensitive method (75%, 62% and 51%, for FC, confocal imaging and pIHC, respectively). Finally, confocal imaging reveals that the weak expression of CD133, a putative colon CSC marker, is restricted to the luminal cell surface of colorectal cancer acini

  4. Non-invasive analysis of hormonal variations and effect of postmenopausal Vagifem treatment on women using in vivo high wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Ng, Joseph; Low, Jeffrey J H; Ilancheran, A; Huang, Zhiwei

    2013-07-21

    This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of applying high wavenumber (HW) confocal Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive assessment of menopause-related hormonal changes in the cervix as well as for determining the effect of Vagifem(®) treatment on postmenopausal women with atrophic cervix. A rapid HW confocal Raman spectroscopy system coupled with a ball lens fiber-optic Raman probe was utilized for in vivo cervical tissue Raman measurements at 785 nm excitation. A total of 164 in vivo HW Raman spectra (premenopausal (n = 104), postmenopausal-prevagifem (n = 34), postmenopausal-postvagifem (n = 26)) were measured from the normal cervix of 26 patients undergoing colposcopy. We established the biochemical basis of premenopausal, postmenopausal-prevagifem and postmenopausal-postvagifem cervix using semiquantitative biomolecular modeling derived from Raman-active biochemicals (i.e., lipids, proteins and water) that play a critical role in HW Raman spectral changes associated with the menopausal process. The diagnostic algorithms developed based on partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) together with leave-one patient-out, cross-validation yielded the diagnostic sensitivities of 88.5%, 91.2% and 88.5%, and specificities of 91.7%, 90.8% and 99.3%, respectively, for non-invasive in vivo discrimination among premenopausal, postmenopausal-prevagifem and postmenopausal-postvagifem cervix. This work demonstrates for the first time that HW confocal Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with biomolecular modeling can be a powerful diagnostic tool for identifying hormone/menopause-related variations in the native squamous epithelium of normal cervix, as well as for assessing the effect of Vagifem treatment on postmenopausal atrophic cervix in vivo during clinical colposcopic inspections.

  5. Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youmin; Raj, Milan; McGuff, H. Stan; Bhave, Gauri; Yang, Bin; Shen, Ting; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate a MEMS micromirror enabled handheld confocal imaging probe for portable oral cancer detection, where a comparatively large field of view (FOV) was generated through the programmable Lissajous scanning pattern of the MEMS micromirror. Miniaturized handheld MEMS confocal imaging probe was developed, and further compared with the desktop confocal prototype under clinical setting. For the handheld confocal imaging system, optical design simulations using CODE VR® shows the lateral and axial resolution to be 0.98 µm and 4.2 µm, where experimental values were determined to be 3 µm and 5.8 µm, respectively, with a FOV of 280 µm×300 µm. Fast Lissajous imaging speed up to 2 fps was realized with improved Labview and Java based real-time imaging software. Properties such as 3D imaging through autofocusing and mosaic imaging for extended lateral view (6 mm × 8 mm) were examined for carcinoma real-time pathology. Neoplastic lesion tissues of giant cell fibroma and peripheral ossifying fibroma, the fibroma inside the paraffin box and ex vivo gross tissues were imaged by the bench-top and handheld imaging modalities, and further compared with commercial microscope imaging results. The MEMS scanner-based handheld confocal imaging probe shows great promise as a potential clinical tool for oral cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Youmin; Raj, Milan; Bhave, Gauri; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Xiaojing; McGuff, H. Stan; Shen, Ting

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a MEMS micromirror enabled handheld confocal imaging probe for portable oral cancer detection, where a comparatively large field of view (FOV) was generated through the programmable Lissajous scanning pattern of the MEMS micromirror. Miniaturized handheld MEMS confocal imaging probe was developed, and further compared with the desktop confocal prototype under clinical setting. For the handheld confocal imaging system, optical design simulations using CODE V R® shows the lateral and axial resolution to be 0.98 µm and 4.2 µm, where experimental values were determined to be 3 µm and 5.8 µm, respectively, with a FOV of 280 µm×300 µm. Fast Lissajous imaging speed up to 2 fps was realized with improved Labview and Java based real-time imaging software. Properties such as 3D imaging through autofocusing and mosaic imaging for extended lateral view (6 mm × 8 mm) were examined for carcinoma real-time pathology. Neoplastic lesion tissues of giant cell fibroma and peripheral ossifying fibroma, the fibroma inside the paraffin box and ex vivo gross tissues were imaged by the bench-top and handheld imaging modalities, and further compared with commercial microscope imaging results. The MEMS scanner-based handheld confocal imaging probe shows great promise as a potential clinical tool for oral cancer diagnosis and treatment. (paper)

  7. Association between dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopy features of cutaneous melanoma with BRAF mutational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombonato, C; Ribero, S; Pozzobon, F C; Puig-Butille, J A; Badenas, C; Carrera, C; Malvehy, J; Moscarella, E; Lallas, A; Piana, S; Puig, S; Argenziano, G; Longo, C

    2017-04-01

    Melanomas harbouring common genetic mutations might share certain morphological features detectable with dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy. BRAF mutational status is crucial for the management of metastatic melanoma. To correlate the dermoscopic characteristics of primary cutaneous melanomas with BRAF mutational status. Furthermore, a subset of tumours has also been analysed for the presence of possible confocal features that might be linked with BRAF status. Retrospectively acquired dermoscopic and confocal images of patients with melanoma in tertiary referral academic centres: Skin Cancer Unit in Reggio Emilia and at the Melanoma Unit in Barcelona. Kruskal-Wallis test, logistic regressions, univariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to find dermoscopic and confocal features significantly correlated with BRAF mutational status. Dermoscopically, the presence of irregular peripheral streaks and ulceration were positive predictors of BRAF-mutated melanomas with a statistically significance value, while dotted vessels were more represented in wild-type melanomas. None of the evaluated reflectance confocal microscopy features were correlated with genetic profiling. Ulceration and irregular peripheral streaks represent dermoscopic feature indicative for BRAF-mutated melanoma, while dotted vessels are suggestive for wild-type melanoma. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Superresolution upgrade for confocal spinning disk systems using image scanning microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbaner, Sebastian; Hähnel, Dirk; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Confocal Spinning Disk Systems are widely used for 3D cell imaging because they offer the advantage of optical sectioning at high framerates and are easy to use. However, as in confocal microscopy, the imaging resolution is diffraction limited, which can be theoretically improved by a factor of 2 using the principle of Image Scanning Microscopy (ISM) [1]. ISM with a Confocal Spinning Disk setup (CSDISM) has been shown to improve contrast as well as lateral resolution (FWHM) from 201 +/- 20 nm to 130 +/- 10 nm at 488 nm excitation. A minimum total acquisition time of one second per ISM image makes this method highly suitable for 3D live cell imaging [2]. Here, we present a multicolor implementation of CSDISM for the popular Micro-Manager Open Source Microscopy platform. Since changes in the optical path are not necessary, this will allow any researcher to easily upgrade their standard Confocal Spinning Disk system at remarkable low cost ( 5000 USD) with an ISM superresolution option. [1]. Müller, C.B. and Enderlein, J. Image Scanning Microscopy. Physical Review Letters 104, (2010). [2]. Schulz, O. et al. Resolution doubling in fluorescence microscopy with confocal spinning-disk image scanning microscopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110, 21000-5 (2013).

  9. An interactive visualization tool for multi-channel confocal microscopy data in neurobiology research

    KAUST Repository

    Yong Wan,

    2009-11-01

    Confocal microscopy is widely used in neurobiology for studying the three-dimensional structure of the nervous system. Confocal image data are often multi-channel, with each channel resulting from a different fluorescent dye or fluorescent protein; one channel may have dense data, while another has sparse; and there are often structures at several spatial scales: subneuronal domains, neurons, and large groups of neurons (brain regions). Even qualitative analysis can therefore require visualization using techniques and parameters fine-tuned to a particular dataset. Despite the plethora of volume rendering techniques that have been available for many years, the techniques standardly used in neurobiological research are somewhat rudimentary, such as looking at image slices or maximal intensity projections. Thus there is a real demand from neurobiologists, and biologists in general, for a flexible visualization tool that allows interactive visualization of multi-channel confocal data, with rapid fine-tuning of parameters to reveal the three-dimensional relationships of structures of interest. Together with neurobiologists, we have designed such a tool, choosing visualization methods to suit the characteristics of confocal data and a typical biologist\\'s workflow. We use interactive volume rendering with intuitive settings for multidimensional transfer functions, multiple render modes and multi-views for multi-channel volume data, and embedding of polygon data into volume data for rendering and editing. As an example, we apply this tool to visualize confocal microscopy datasets of the developing zebrafish visual system.

  10. Lateral resolution testing of a novel developed confocal microscopic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yunhai; Chang, Jian; Huang, Wei; Xue, Xiaojun; Xiao, Yun

    2015-10-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscope has been widely used in biology, medicine and material science owing to its advantages of high resolution and tomographic imaging. Based on a set of confirmatory experiments and system design, a novel confocal microscopic imaging system is developed. The system is composed of a conventional fluorescence microscope and a confocal scanning unit. In the scanning unit a laser beam coupling module provides four different wavelengths 405nm 488nm 561nm and 638nm which can excite a variety of dyes. The system works in spot-to-spot scanning mode with a two-dimensional galvanometer. A 50 microns pinhole is used to guarantee that stray light is blocked and only the fluorescence signal from the focal point can be received . The three-channel spectral splitter is used to perform fluorescence imaging at three different working wavelengths simultaneously. The rat kidney tissue slice is imaged using the developed confocal microscopic imaging system. Nucleues labeled by DAPI and kidney spherule curved pipe labeled by Alexa Fluor 488 can be imaged clearly and respectively, realizing the distinction between the different components of mouse kidney tissue. The three-dimensional tomographic imaging of mouse kidney tissue is reconstructed by several two-dimensional images obtained in different depths. At last the resolution of the confocal microscopic imaging system is tested quantitatively. The experimental result shows that the system can achieve lateral resolution priority to 230nm.

  11. Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM): Combining automated Gigapixel image capture with in silico virtual microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaberg, Emilie; Sabelström, Per; Strandh, Christer; Szekely, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy has revolutionized cell biology. However, the technique has major limitations in speed and sensitivity due to the fact that a single laser beam scans the sample, allowing only a few microseconds signal collection for each pixel. This limitation has been overcome by the introduction of parallel beam illumination techniques in combination with cold CCD camera based image capture. Using the combination of microlens enhanced Nipkow spinning disc confocal illumination together with fully automated image capture and large scale in silico image processing we have developed a system allowing the acquisition, presentation and analysis of maximum resolution confocal panorama images of several Gigapixel size. We call the method Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM). We show using the EFLCM technique that it is possible to create a continuous confocal multi-colour mosaic from thousands of individually captured images. EFLCM can digitize and analyze histological slides, sections of entire rodent organ and full size embryos. It can also record hundreds of thousands cultured cells at multiple wavelength in single event or time-lapse fashion on fixed slides, in live cell imaging chambers or microtiter plates. The observer independent image capture of EFLCM allows quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensities and morphological parameters on a large number of cells. EFLCM therefore bridges the gap between the mainly illustrative fluorescence microscopy and purely quantitative flow cytometry. EFLCM can also be used as high content analysis (HCA) instrument for automated screening processes

  12. Confocal soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy: setup, alignment procedure and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Späth, Andreas; Raabe, Jörg; Fink, Rainer H.

    2015-01-01

    A conventional STXM setup has been upgraded with a second micro zone plate and aligned to confocal geometry. Two confocal geometries (in-line and off-axis) have been evaluated and a discussion on prospects and limitations is presented. Zone-plate-based scanning transmission soft X-ray microspectroscopy (STXM) is a well established technique for high-contrast imaging of sufficiently transparent specimens (e.g. ultrathin biological tissues, polymer materials, archaeometric specimens or magnetic thin films) with spatial resolutions in the regime of 20 nm and high spectroscopic or chemical sensitivity. However, due to the relatively large depth of focus of zone plates, the resolution of STXM along the optical axis so far stays unambiguously behind for thicker X-ray transparent specimens. This challenge can be addressed by the implementation of a second zone plate in the detection pathway of the beam, resulting in a confocal arrangement. Within this paper a first proof-of-principle study for a confocal STXM (cSTXM) and an elaborate alignment procedure in transmission and fluorescence geometry are presented. Based on first confocal soft X-ray micrographs of well known specimens, the advantage and limitation of cSTXM as well as further development potentials for future applications are discussed

  13. Confocal soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy: setup, alignment procedure and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Späth, Andreas [Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Raabe, Jörg [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Fink, Rainer H., E-mail: rainer.fink@fau.de [Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    A conventional STXM setup has been upgraded with a second micro zone plate and aligned to confocal geometry. Two confocal geometries (in-line and off-axis) have been evaluated and a discussion on prospects and limitations is presented. Zone-plate-based scanning transmission soft X-ray microspectroscopy (STXM) is a well established technique for high-contrast imaging of sufficiently transparent specimens (e.g. ultrathin biological tissues, polymer materials, archaeometric specimens or magnetic thin films) with spatial resolutions in the regime of 20 nm and high spectroscopic or chemical sensitivity. However, due to the relatively large depth of focus of zone plates, the resolution of STXM along the optical axis so far stays unambiguously behind for thicker X-ray transparent specimens. This challenge can be addressed by the implementation of a second zone plate in the detection pathway of the beam, resulting in a confocal arrangement. Within this paper a first proof-of-principle study for a confocal STXM (cSTXM) and an elaborate alignment procedure in transmission and fluorescence geometry are presented. Based on first confocal soft X-ray micrographs of well known specimens, the advantage and limitation of cSTXM as well as further development potentials for future applications are discussed.

  14. A note on totally normal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zougdani, H.K.

    1990-10-01

    In this note we give the necessary and sufficient condition for a topological space X such that the product space X x Y is totally normal for any (non discrete) metric space Y, and we show that a totally normal p-space need not be a perfectly normal in general, which makes Theorem 2 doubtful. (author). 6 refs

  15. Application of the laser scanning confocal microscope in fluorescent film sensor research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Liu, Wei-Min; Zhao, Wen-Wen; Dai, Qing; Wang, Peng-Fei

    2010-10-01

    Confocal microscopy offers several advantages over conventional optical microscopy; we show an experimental investigation laser scanning confocal microscope as a tool to be used in cubic boron nitride (cBN) film-based fluorescent sensor research. Cubic boron nitride cBN film sensors are modified with dansyl chloride and rhodamine B isothiocyanate respectively. Fluorescent modification quality on the cubic boron nitride film is clearly express and the sensor ability to Hg2+ cations and pH are investigated in detail. We evidence the rhodamine B isothiocyanate modified quality on cBN surface is much better than that of dansyl chloride. And laser scanning confocal microscope has potential application lighttight fundus film fluorescent sensor research.

  16. Confocal detection of Rayleigh scattering for residual stress measurement in chemically tempered glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hödemann, S., E-mail: siim.hodemann@ut.ee; Möls, P.; Kiisk, V.; Saar, R.; Kikas, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Wilhelm Ostwald st., Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Murata, T. [Nippon Electric Glass Co., 7-1 Seiran 2-chome, Otsu-shi, Shiga 520-8639 (Japan)

    2015-12-28

    A new optical method is presented for evaluation of the stress profile in chemically tempered (chemically strengthened) glass based on confocal detection of scattered laser beam. Theoretically, a lateral resolution of 0.2 μm and a depth resolution of 0.6 μm could be achieved by using a confocal microscope with high-NA immersion objective. The stress profile in the 250 μm thick surface layer of chemically tempered lithium aluminosilicate glass was measured with a high spatial resolution to illustrate the capability of the method. The confocal method is validated using transmission photoelastic and Na{sup +} ion concentration profile measurement. Compositional influence on the stress-optic coefficient is calculated and discussed. Our method opens up new possibilities for three-dimensional scattered light tomography of mechanical imaging in birefringent materials.

  17. Emulation and design of terahertz reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopy based on virtual pinhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-fa; Li, Qi

    2014-12-01

    In the practical application of terahertz reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopy, the size of detector pinhole is an important factor that determines the performance of spatial resolution characteristic of the microscopic system. However, the use of physical pinhole brings some inconvenience to the experiment and the adjustment error has a great influence on the experiment result. Through reasonably selecting the parameter of matrix detector virtual pinhole (VPH), it can efficiently approximate the physical pinhole. By using this approach, the difficulty of experimental calibration is reduced significantly. In this article, an imaging scheme of terahertz reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopy that is based on the matrix detector VPH is put forward. The influence of detector pinhole size on the axial resolution of confocal scanning microscopy is emulated and analyzed. Then, the parameter of VPH is emulated when the best axial imaging performance is reached.

  18. Performance verification of focus variation and confocal microscopes measuring tilted ultra-fine surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Baruffi, Federico; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of two optical instruments, scilicet a laser scanning confocal microscope and a focus-variation microscope, was investigated considering measurements of tilted surfaces. The measured samples were twelve steel artefacts for mould surface finish reference, covering Sa roughness...... parameter in the range (101—103) nm. The 3D surface texture parameters considered were Sa, Sq and Sdq. The small working distance of the confocal microscope objectives influenced the measurement setup, preventing from selecting a high tilting angle. The investigation was carried out comparing measurements...... of flat surfaces (0° tilt) with measurements of 12.5° tilted surfaces. The confocal microscope results showed a high sensitivity to tilting due to the laser beam reflection on the metal surfaces. The focus variation microscope results were more robust with respect to the considered angular variation...

  19. Development of confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy at the Cornell high energy synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woll, A.R.; Huang, R.; Mass, J.; Bisulca, C.; Bilderback, D.H.; Gruner, S.; Gao, N.

    2006-01-01

    A confocal X-ray fluorescence microscope was built at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) to obtain compositional depth profiles of historic paintings. The microscope consists of a single-bounce, borosilicate monocapillary optic to focus the incident beam onto the painting and a commercial borosilicate polycapillary lens to collect the fluorescent X-rays. The resolution of the microscope was measured by scanning a variety of thin metal films through this confocal volume while monitoring the fluorescence signal. The capabilities of the technique were then probed using test paint microstructures with up to four distinct layers, each having a thickness in the range of 10-80 microns. Results from confocal XRF were compared with those from stand-alone XRF and visible light microscopy of the paint cross-sections. A large area, high-resolution scanner is currently being built to perform 3D scans on moderately sized paintings. (orig.)

  20. CINCH (confocal incoherent correlation holography) super resolution fluorescence microscopy based upon FINCH (Fresnel incoherent correlation holography).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Nisan; Storrie, Brian; Bruce, Marc; Brooker, Gary

    2015-02-07

    FINCH holographic fluorescence microscopy creates high resolution super-resolved images with enhanced depth of focus. The simple addition of a real-time Nipkow disk confocal image scanner in a conjugate plane of this incoherent holographic system is shown to reduce the depth of focus, and the combination of both techniques provides a simple way to enhance the axial resolution of FINCH in a combined method called "CINCH". An important feature of the combined system allows for the simultaneous real-time image capture of widefield and holographic images or confocal and confocal holographic images for ready comparison of each method on the exact same field of view. Additional GPU based complex deconvolution processing of the images further enhances resolution.

  1. Parallel excitation-emission multiplexed fluorescence lifetime confocal microscopy for live cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Li, Yu; Peng, Leilei

    2014-05-05

    We present a novel excitation-emission multiplexed fluorescence lifetime microscopy (FLIM) method that surpasses current FLIM techniques in multiplexing capability. The method employs Fourier multiplexing to simultaneously acquire confocal fluorescence lifetime images of multiple excitation wavelength and emission color combinations at 44,000 pixels/sec. The system is built with low-cost CW laser sources and standard PMTs with versatile spectral configuration, which can be implemented as an add-on to commercial confocal microscopes. The Fourier lifetime confocal method allows fast multiplexed FLIM imaging, which makes it possible to monitor multiple biological processes in live cells. The low cost and compatibility with commercial systems could also make multiplexed FLIM more accessible to biological research community.

  2. Speckle-illuminated fluorescence confocal microscopy, using a digital micro-mirror device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shi-Hong; Walker, John G

    2009-01-01

    An implementation of a speckle-illuminated fluorescence confocal microscope using a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) is described. The DMD not only projects a sequence of imaged binary speckle patterns onto the specimen at a very high frame rate but also operates as a spatial light modulator to perform real-time optical data processing. Frame averaging is accomplished by CCD charge accumulation during a single exposure. The recorded time-averaged image is a confocal image plus an unwanted non-confocal image which can be removed by recording a separate image. Experimental results with image acquisition within a fraction of a second are shown. Images of a thin biological sample are also shown to demonstrate practical application of the technique

  3. A novel method for enhancing the lateral resolution and image SNR in confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youhua; Zhu, Dazhao; Fang, Yue; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu

    2017-12-01

    There is always a tradeoff between the resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in confocal microscopy. In particular, the pinhole size is very important for maintaining a balance between them. In this paper, we propose a method for improving the lateral resolution and image SNR in confocal microscopy without making any changes to the hardware. By using the fluorescence emission difference (FED) approach, we divide the images acquired by different pinhole sizes into one image acquired by the central pinhole and several images acquired by ring-shaped pinholes. Then, they are added together with the deconvolution method. Simulation and experimental results for fluorescent particles and cells show that our method can achieve a far better resolution than a large pinhole and a higher SNR than a small pinhole. Moreover, our method can improve the performance of classic confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to a certain extent, especially CLSM with a continuously variable pinhole.

  4. In vivo detection of basal cell carcinoma: comparison of a reflectance confocal microscope and a multiphoton tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Martina; Klemp, Marisa; Darvin, Maxim E.; König, Karsten; Lademann, Jürgen; Meinke, Martina C.

    2013-06-01

    The standard diagnostic procedure for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is invasive tissue biopsy with time-consuming histological examination. To reduce the number of biopsies, noninvasive optical methods have been developed providing high-resolution skin examination. We present direct comparison of a reflectance confocal microscope (RLSM) and a multiphoton tomograph (MPT) for BCC diagnosis. Both systems are applied to nine patients prior to surgery, and the results are analyzed, including histological results. Both systems prove suitable for detecting typical characteristics of BCC in various stages. The RLSM allows large horizontal overview images to be obtained, enabling the investigator to find the regions of interest quickly, e.g., BCC nests. Elongated cells and palisading structures are easily recognized using both methods. Due to the higher resolution, changes in nucleus diameter or cytoplasm could be visualized with the MPT. Therefore, the nucleus diameter, nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, and cell density are estimated for normal and BCC cells using the MPT. The nucleus of elongated BCC cells is significantly longer than other measured normal skin cells, whereas the cell density and nucleus/cytoplasm ratio of BCC cannot be significantly distinguished from granular cells.

  5. Effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum in different treatments on growth performance and immune gene expression of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and stress of acute low salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoting; Duan, Yafei; Dong, Hongbiao; Zhang, Jiasong

    2017-03-01

    A 45-day feeding trial followed by an acute stress test of low salinity was done to evaluate effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance and anti-stress capability of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Shrimp were randomly allocated in 15 tanks (100 shrimp per tank) and divided into 5 treatments with 3 replicates. Triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different treatments of L. plantarum (fermentation supernatant (FS), live bacteria (LB), dead bacteria (DB) and cell-free extract (CE) of L. plantarum) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were determined after feeding 45 days. Anti-stress capacity was evaluated by determining the gene expression of ProPO, SOD and Lys in gut of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at 96 h post-stress test. Results indicated that supplementation of L. plantarum into diet had significantly improved growth performance of L. vannamei. On the other hand, L. plantarum supplementation had no significant effects on the gene expression of SOD and Lys in gut of shrimp cultured under normal condition for 45 days. Supplementation of L. plantarum had increased survivability of L. vannamei having higher survival rates compared to the control group. However, statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the control group and treatments. Compared with the control group, supplementation of L. plantarum significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the stress of acute low salinity, as indicated by higher survival rate as well as higher transcript levels of ProPo, SOD and Lys gene. Our findings suggested that L. plantarum, especially cell-free extract of L. plantarum has improved the anti-stress capacity of L. vannamei and could serve as a potential feed additive that helps shrimp to overcome environmental stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adipocyte size and cellular expression of caveolar proteins analyzed by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulstrøm, Veronica; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Vinten, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Caveolae are abundant in adipocytes and are involved in the regulation of lipid accumulation, which is the main volume determinant of these cells. We have developed and applied a confocal microscopic technique for measuring individual cellular expression of the caveolar proteins cavin-1 and caveo......Caveolae are abundant in adipocytes and are involved in the regulation of lipid accumulation, which is the main volume determinant of these cells. We have developed and applied a confocal microscopic technique for measuring individual cellular expression of the caveolar proteins cavin-1...

  7. Improved signal model for confocal sensors accounting for object depending artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, Florian; Lyda, Wolfram; Gronle, Marc; Osten, Wolfgang

    2012-08-27

    The conventional signal model of confocal sensors is well established and has proven to be exceptionally robust especially when measuring rough surfaces. Its physical derivation however is explicitly based on plane surfaces or point like objects, respectively. Here we show experimental results of a confocal point sensor measurement of a surface standard. The results illustrate the rise of severe artifacts when measuring curved surfaces. On this basis, we present a systematic extension of the conventional signal model that is proven to be capable of qualitatively explaining these artifacts.

  8. A confocal optical microscope for detection of single impurities in a bulk crystal at cryogenic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jenny; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    A compact sample-scanning confocal optical microscope for detection of single impurities below the surface of a bulk crystal at cryogenic temperatures is described. The sample, lens, and scanners are mounted inside a helium bath cryostat and have a footprint of only 19 × 19 mm. Wide field imaging and confocal imaging using a Blu-ray lens immersed in liquid helium are demonstrated with excitation at 370 nm. A spatial resolution of 300 nm and a detection efficiency of 1.6% were achieved.

  9. Comparison between optical techniques and confocal microscopy for defect detection on thin wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, Philip; Sanchez-Brea, Luis Miguel; Martinez-Anton, Juan Carlos; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2004-01-01

    Conventional microscopy techniques, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal microscopy (CM) are not suitable for on-line surface inspection of fine metallic wires. In the recent years, some optical techniques have been developed to be used for those tasks. However, they need a rigorous validation. In this work, we have used confocal microscopy to obtain the topography z(x,y) of wires with longitudinal defects, such as dielines. The topography has been used to predict the light scattered by the wire. These simulations have been compared with experimental results, showing a good agreement

  10. Numerical study of a confocal ultrasonic setup for creation of cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafond, Maxime, E-mail: maxime.lafond@inserm.fr; Chavrier, Françoise; Prieur, Fabrice [Inserm, U1032, LabTau, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Mestas, Jean-Louis; Lafon, Cyril [Inserm, U1032, LabTau, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Caviskills SAS, Vaulx-En-Velin, F-69120 (France)

    2015-10-28

    Acoustic cavitation is used for various therapeutic applications such as local enhancement of drug delivery, histotripsy or hyperthermia. One of the utmost important parameter for cavitation creation is the rarefaction pressure. The typical magnitude of the rarefaction pressure required to initiate cavitation from gas dissolved in tissue is beyond the range of the megapascal. Because nonlinear effects need to be taken into account, a numerical simulator based on the Westervelt equation was used to study the pressure waveform and the acoustic field generated by a setup for creation of cavitation consisting of two high intensity focused ultrasound transducers mounted confocally. At constant acoustic power, simulations with only one and both transducers from the confocal setup showed that the distortion of the pressure waveform due to the combined effects of nonlinearity and diffraction is less pronounced when both confocal transducers are used. Consequently, the confocal setup generates a greater peak negative pressure at focus which is more favorable for cavitation initiation. Comparison between the confocal setup and a single transducer with the same total emitting surface puts in evidence the role of the spatial separation of the two beams. Furthermore, it has been previously shown that the location of the peak negative pressure created by a single transducer shifts from focus towards the transducers in the presence of nonlinear effects. The simulator was used to study a configuration where the acoustical axes of transducers intersect on the peak negative pressure instead of the geometrical focus. For a representative confocal setup, namely moderate nonlinear effects, a 2% increase of the peak negative pressure and 8% decrease of the peak positive pressure resulted from this configuration. These differences tend to increase by increasing nonlinear effects. Although the optimal position of the transducers varies with the nonlinear regimen, the intersection point

  11. Imaging subsurface damage of grinded fused silica optics by confocal fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neauport, J.; Cormont, P.; Destribats, J.; Legros, P.; Ambard, C.

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental investigation of fluorescence confocal microscopy as a tool to measure subsurface damage on grinded fused silica optics. Confocal fluorescence microscopy was performed with an excitation at the wavelength of 405 nm on fixed abrasive diamond grinded fused silica samples. We detail the measured fluorescence spectrums and compare them to those of oil based coolants and grinding slurries. We evidence that oil based coolant used in diamond grinding induces a fluorescence that marks the subsurface damages and eases its observation. Such residual traces might also be involved in the laser damage process. (authors)

  12. Efeito de giberelina (GA3 e do bioestimulante 'Stimulate' na indução floral e produtividade do maracujazeiro-amarelo em condições de safra normal Effect of gibereline (GA3 and biostimulant 'Stimulate' in floral induction and yield of yellow passion fruit in conditions of normal growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Machado Ataíde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de GA3, nas concentrações de 100; 200 e 300mg L-1 e do bioestimulante Stimulate®, em doses de 2,08; 4,17 e 6,25mL L-1, em duas aplicações via foliar, acrescidas de espalhante adesivo Silwett® a 0,05% e a exposição dos ramos à luminosidade, na indução floral e produtividade do maracujazeiro-amarelo, em condições de safra normal, em Araguari-MG. Aos 30 dias após a primeira aplicação dos tratamentos, iniciaram-se as avaliações do número de flores, com contagens diárias, nos dois lados da espaldeira, nos meses de setembro de 2002 a março de 2003. As colheitas dos frutos foram realizadas semanalmente, no período de novembro de 2002 a abril de 2003, observando-se a produção. O GA3 e o Stimulate não proporcionaram efeito significativo no número de flores, nas sete épocas, assim como no número total de flores. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos para a produtividade e produção total de frutos. Os ramos sob luminosidade pela tarde apresentaram maior número de flores, nos meses de setembro, dezembro, fevereiro e março. A interação entre os tratamentos e a exposição dos ramos à luminosidade não foi significativa para o número de flores, nas épocas avaliadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of GA3 , in concentrations of 100, 200 and 300mg L-1 and biostimulant StimulateTM, in doses of 2,08, 4,17 and 6,25 mL L-1, in two leaf applications, added with the adhesive spreader SilwettTM at 0,05% and branch exposure to brightness, on passion fruit in floral induction and yield, in conditions of normal growing season, in Araguari-MG. At 30 days after the first treatment application, the evaluation of flower number started, with daily counts, in both sides of the plants, from September 2002 to March 2003. Fruit harvest was realized weekly from November 2002 to April 2003, being observed the yield. GA3 and Stimulate did not provide significant effect on flower

  13. The normal development of Platynereis dumerilii (Nereididae, Annelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Thorsten

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polychaete annelid Platynereis dumerilii is an emerging model organism for the study of molecular developmental processes, evolution, neurobiology and marine biology. Annelids belong to the Lophotrochozoa, the so far understudied third major branch of bilaterian animals besides deuterostomes and ecdysozoans. P. dumerilii has proven highly relevant to explore ancient bilaterian conditions via comparison to the deuterostomes, because it has accumulated less evolutionary change than conventional ecdysozoan models. Previous staging was mainly referring to hours post fertilization but did not allow matching stages between studies performed at (even slightly different temperatures. To overcome this, and to provide a first comprehensive description of P. dumerilii normal development, a temperature-independent staging system is needed. Results Platynereis dumerilii normal development is subdivided into 16 stages, starting with the zygote and ending with the death of the mature worms after delivering their gametes. The stages described can be easily identified by conventional light microscopy or even by dissecting scope. Developmental landmarks such as the beginning of phototaxis, the visibility of the stomodeal opening and of the chaetae, the first occurrence of the ciliary bands, the formation of the parapodia, the extension of antennae and cirri, the onset of feeding and other characteristics are used to define different developmental stages. The morphology of all larval stages as well as of juveniles and adults is documented by light microscopy. We also provide an overview of important steps in the development of the nervous system and of the musculature, using fluorescent labeling techniques and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Timing of each developmental stage refers to hours post fertilization at 18 ± 0.1°C. For comparison, we determined the pace of development of larvae raised at 14°C, 16°C, 20°C, 25°C, 28°C and

  14. Transforming Normal Programs by Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Pettorossi, A.; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro

    1992-01-01

    The replacement transformation operation, already defined in [28], is studied wrt normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation wrt Fitting's and Kunen's semantics. We show how replacement can mimic other transformation operations such as thinning,

  15. Three-dimensional measurement and visualization of internal flow of a moving droplet using confocal micro-PIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Haruyuki; Kaneda, Shohei; Fujii, Teruo; Oshima, Marie

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a micro-flow diagnostic technique, 'high-speed confocal micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV)', and its application to the internal flow measurement of a droplet passing through a microchannel. A confocal micro-PIV system has been successfully constructed wherein a high-speed confocal scanner is combined with the conventional micro-PIV technique. The confocal micro-PIV system enables us to obtain a sequence of sharp and high-contrast cross-sectional particle images at 2000 frames s(-1). This study investigates the confocal depth, which is a significant parameter to determine the out-of-plane measurement resolution in confocal micro-PIV. Using the present confocal micro-PIV system, we can measure velocity distributions of micro-flows in a 228 microm x 171 microm region with a confocal depth of 1.88 microm. We also propose a three-dimensional velocity measurement method based on the confocal micro-PIV and the equation of continuity. This method enables us to measure three velocity components in a three-dimensional domain of micro flows. The confocal micro-PIV system is applied to the internal flow measurement of a droplet. We have measured three-dimensional distributions of three-component velocities of a droplet traveling in a 100 microm (width) x 58 microm (depth) channel. A volumetric velocity distribution inside a droplet is obtained by the confocal micro-PIV and the three-dimensional flow structure inside the droplet is investigated. The measurement results suggest that a three-dimensional and complex circulating flow is formed inside the droplet.

  16. Confocal (micro)-XRF for 3D analysis of elements distribution in hot environmental particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielewski, M.; Eriksson, M.; Himbert, J.; Simon, R.; Betti, M.; Hamilton, T.F.

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the fate and transport of radioactive contaminates in the environment are often constrained by a lack of knowledge on the elemental distribution and general behavior of particulate bound radionuclides contained in hot particles. A number of hot particles were previously isolated from soil samples collected at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands and characterized using non-destructive techniques [1]. The present investigation at HASYLAB is a part of larger research program at ITU regarding the characterization of environmental radioactive particles different locations and source-terms. Radioactive particles in the environment are formed under a number of different release scenarios and, as such, their physicochemical properties may provide a basis for identifying source-term specific contamination regimes. Consequently, studies on hot particles are not only important in terms of studying the elemental composition and geochemical behavior of hot particles but may also lead to advances in assessing the long-term impacts of radioactive contamination on the environment. Six particles isolated from soil samples collected at the Marshall Islands were studied. The element distribution in the particles was determined by confocal (micro)-XRF analysis using the ANKA FLUO beam line. The CRL (compound refractive lens) was used to focus the exciting beam and the polycapillary half lens to collimate the detector. The dimensions of confocal spot were measured by 'knife edge scanning' method with thin gold structure placed at Si wafer. The values of 3.1 x 1.4 x 18.4 (micro)m were achieved if defined as FWHMs of measured L?intensity profiles and when the19.1 keV exciting radiation was used. The collected XRF spectra were analyzed offline with AXIL [2] software to obtain net intensities of element characteristic lines.Further data processing and reconstruction of element distribution was done with the software 'R' [3] dedicated for statistical

  17. Detection of UV-induced pigmentary and epidermal changes over time using in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A.; Park, H.-Y.; Lee, Jin; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Gonzalez, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) provides high-resolution optical sections of the skin in its native state, without needing to fix or section the tissue. Melanin provides an excellent contrast for RCM, giving a bright signal in the confocal images. The pigmented guinea-pig is a common

  18. Identification of nodal tissue in the living heart using rapid scanning fiber-optics confocal microscopy and extracellular fluorophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Kaza, Aditya K; Hitchcock, Robert W; Sachse, Frank B

    2013-09-01

    Risks associated with pediatric reconstructive heart surgery include injury of the sinoatrial node (SAN) and atrioventricular node (AVN), requiring cardiac rhythm management using implantable pacemakers. These injuries are the result of difficulties in identifying nodal tissues intraoperatively. Here we describe an approach based on confocal microscopy and extracellular fluorophores to quantify tissue microstructure and identify nodal tissue. Using conventional 3-dimensional confocal microscopy we investigated the microstructural arrangement of SAN, AVN, and atrial working myocardium (AWM) in fixed rat heart. AWM exhibited a regular striated arrangement of the extracellular space. In contrast, SAN and AVN had an irregular, reticulated arrangement. AWM, SAN, and AVN tissues were beneath a thin surface layer of tissue that did not obstruct confocal microscopic imaging. Subsequently, we imaged tissues in living rat hearts with real-time fiber-optics confocal microscopy. Fiber-optics confocal microscopy images resembled images acquired with conventional confocal microscopy. We investigated spatial regularity of tissue microstructure from Fourier analysis and second-order image moments. Fourier analysis of fiber-optics confocal microscopy images showed that the spatial regularity of AWM was greater than that of nodal tissues (37.5 ± 5.0% versus 24.3 ± 3.9% for SAN and 23.8 ± 3.7% for AVN; Pfiber-optics confocal microscopy. Application of the approach in pediatric reconstructive heart surgery may reduce risks of injuring nodal tissues.