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Sample records for normal conducting state

  1. Normal-state conductance used to probe superconducting tunnel junctions for quantum computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaparro, Carlos; Bavier, Richard; Kim, Yong-Seung; Kim, Eunyoung; Oh, Seongshik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Kline, Jeffrey S; Pappas, David P, E-mail: carlosch@physics.rutgers.ed, E-mail: ohsean@physics.rutgers.ed [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Here we report normal-state conductance measurements of three different types of superconducting tunnel junctions that are being used or proposed for quantum computing applications: p-Al/a-AlO/p-Al, e-Re/e-AlO/p-Al, and e-V/e-MgO/p-V, where p stands for polycrystalline, e for epitaxial, and a for amorphous. All three junctions exhibited significant deviations from the parabolic behavior predicted by the WKB approximation models. In the p-Al/a-AlO/p-Al junction, we observed enhancement of tunneling conductances at voltages matching harmonics of Al-O stretching modes. On the other hand, such Al-O vibration modes were missing in the epitaxial e-Re/e-AlO/p-Al junction. This suggests that absence or existence of the Al-O stretching mode might be related to the crystallinity of the AlO tunnel barrier and the interface between the electrode and the barrier. In the e-V/e-MgO/p-V junction, which is one of the candidate systems for future superconducting qubits, we observed suppression of the density of states at zero bias. This implies that the interface is electronically disordered, presumably due to oxidation of the vanadium surface underneath the MgO barrier, even if the interface was structurally well ordered, suggesting that the e-V/e-MgO/p-V junction will not be suitable for qubit applications in its present form. This also demonstrates that the normal-state conductance measurement can be effectively used to screen out low quality samples in the search for better superconducting tunnel junctions.

  2. Superconducting versus normal conducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Podlech, Holger

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important issues of high-power hadron linacs is the choice of technology with respect to superconducting or room-temperature operation. The favour for a specific technology depends on several parameters such as the beam energy, beam current, beam power and duty factor. This contribution gives an overview of the comparison between superconducting and normal conducting cavities. This includes basic radiofrequency (RF) parameters, design criteria, limitations, required RF and plug power as well as case studies.

  3. One-dimensional time-dependent conduction states and temperature distribution along a normal zone during a quench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.

    1991-01-01

    The quench simulations of a superconducting (s.c.) magnet requires some assumptions about the evolution of the normal zone and its temperature profile. The axial evolution of the normal zone is considered through the longitudinal quench velocity. However, the transversal quench propagation may be considered through the transversal quench velocity or with the turn-to-turn time delay quench propagation. The temperature distribution has been assumed adiabatic-like or cosine-like in two different computer programs. Although both profiles are different, they bring about more or less the same qualitative quench results differing only in about 8%. Unfortunately, there are not experimental data for the temperature profile along the conductor in a quench event to have a realistic comparison. Little attention has received the temperature profile, mainly because it is not so critical parameter in the quench analysis. Nonetheless, a confident quench analysis requires that the temperature distribution along the normal zone be taken into account with good approximation. In this paper, an analytical study is made about the temperature profile

  4. Heat Capacity and Thermal Conductance Measurements of a Superconducting-Normal Mixed State by Detection of Single 3 eV Photons in a Magnetic Penetration Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Balvin, M. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Denis, K. L.; Lee, S.-J.; Nagler, P. C.; Smith, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    We report on measurements of the detected signal pulses in a molybdenum-gold Magnetic Penetration Thermometer (MPT) in response to absorption of one or more 3 eV photons. We designed and used this MPT sensor for x-ray microcalorimetry. In this device, the diamagnetic response of a superconducting MoAu bilayer is used to sense temperature changes in response to absorbed photons, and responsivity is enhanced by a Meissner transition in which the magnetic flux penetrating the sensor changes rapidly to minimize free energy in a mixed superconducting normal state. We have previously reported on use of our MPT to study a thermal phonon energy loss to the substrate when absorbing x-rays. We now describe results of extracting heat capacity C and thermal conductance G values from pulse height and decay time of MPT pulses generated by 3 eV photons. The variation in C and G at temperatures near the Meissner transition temperature (set by an internal magnetic bias field) allow us to probe the behavior in superconducting normal mixed state of the condensation energy and the electron cooling power resulting from quasi-particle recombination and phonon emission. The information gained on electron cooling power is also relevant to the operation of other superconducting detectors, such as Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors.

  5. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Summers, D.

    2010-01-01

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  6. Effect of normal processes on thermal conductivity of germanium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of normal scattering processes is considered to redistribute the phonon momentum in (a) the same phonon branch – KK-S model and (b) between differ- ent phonon branches – KK-H model. Simplified thermal conductivity relations are used to estimate the thermal conductivity of germanium, silicon and ...

  7. Imaging of Conductive Hearing Loss With a Normal Tympanic Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Hugh D

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an approach to imaging conductive hearing loss in patients with normal tympanic membranes and discusses entities that should be checked as the radiologist evaluates this potentially complicated issue. Conductive hearing loss in a patient with a normal tympanic membrane is a complicated condition that requires a careful imaging approach. Imaging should focus on otosclerosis, and possible mimics and potential surgical considerations should be evaluated. The radiologist should examine the ossicular chain and the round window and keep in mind that a defect in the superior semicircular canal can disturb the hydraulic integrity of the labyrinth.

  8. Design study of a normal conducting helical snake for AGS

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Junpei; Okamura, Masahiro; Roser, Thomas; MacKay, William W; Luccio, Alfredo U; Takano, Koji

    2004-01-01

    A new normal conducting snake magnet is being fabricated for the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) project, a superconducting type helical dipole magnets had been developed and it performed successfully in high-energy polarized proton acceleration. The new AGS helical snake has the same basic magnetic structure but is more complicated. To achieve no beam shift and no beam deflection in one magnetic device, helical pitches and rotating angles were carefully calculated. Compared to a superconducting magnet, a normal warm magnet must have a large cross- sectional area of conductors which make it difficult to design a magnet with large helical pitch. We developed a modified window frame structure to accommodate the large number of conductors. Its three dimensional magnetic field was simulated by using OPERA3D/TOSCA. 3 Refs.

  9. A New RF System for the CEBAF Normal Conducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curt Hovater; Hai Dong; Alicia Hofler; George Lahti; John Musson; Tomasz Plawski

    2004-01-01

    The CEBAF Accelerator at Jefferson Lab is a 6 GeV five pass electron accelerator consisting of two superconducting linacs joined by independent magnetic transport arcs. CEBAF also has numerous normal conducting cavities for beam conditioning in the injector and for RF extraction to the experimental halls. The RF systems that presently control these cavities are becoming expensive to maintain, therefore a replacement RF control system is now being developed. For the new RF system, cavity field control is maintained digitally using an FPGA which contains the feedback algorithm. The system incorporates digital down conversion, using quadrature under-sampling at an IF frequency of 70 MHz. The VXI bus-crate was chosen as the operating platform because of its excellent RFI/EMI properties and its compatibility with the EPICS control system. The normal conducting cavities operate at both the 1497 MHz accelerating frequency and the sub-harmonic frequency of 499 MHz. To accommodate this, the ne w design will use different receiver-transmitter daughter cards for each frequency. This paper discusses the development of the new RF system and reports on initial results

  10. Normal Conducting Separation Dipoles For The Lhc Beam Cleaning Insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, V; de Rijk, G; Gerard, D; Hans, O; Kalbreier, Willi; Kiselev, O; Protopopov, I V; Pupkov, Yu; Ramberger, S; Ruvinsky, E; Sukhanov, A

    2004-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), two straight sections, IR3 and IR7, will be dedicated to beam cleaning [1]. These cleaning insertions will be equipped with normal conducting magnets. MBW magnets are dipole magnets used to increase the separation of the two beams. They have a core length of 3.4 m and a gap height of 52 mm and will operate at a magnetic field ranging from 0.09 T to 1.53 T. Limitations on the dimensions and total weight of the magnet resulted in a special design with a common yoke for the two beams. The orbits of the two beams will be separated horizontally by a distance between 194 mm and 224 mm in the gap of the magnet. The magnet was designed in collaboration between CERN and BINP. The report presents the main design issues and results of the pre-series acceptance tests including mechanical, electrical and magnetic field measurements. Index terms - LHC, normal conducting magnet, twin aperture design, separation dipole

  11. RF Breakdown in Normal Conducting Single-cell Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgashev, Valery A; Higo, Toshiyasu; Nantista, Christopher D; Tantawi, Sami G

    2005-01-01

    Operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The limit depends on multiple parameters, including input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Experimental and theoretical study of the effects of these parameters on the breakdown limit in full scale structures is difficult and costly. We use 11.4 GHz single-cell traveling wave and standing wave accelerating structures for experiments and modeling of rf breakdown behavior. These test structures are designed so that the electromagnetic fields in one cell mimic the fields in prototype multicell structures for the X-band linear collider. Fields elsewhere in the test structures are significantly lower than that of the single cell. The setup uses matched mode converters that launch the circular TM01 mode into short test structures. The test structures are connected to the mode launchers with vacuum rf flanges. This setup allows economic testing of different cell geometries, cell materials an...

  12. The Properties of Normal Conducting Cathodes in FZD Superconducting Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, R; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schamlott, A; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Teichert, J

    2009-01-01

    The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF photoinjector) is one of the latest applications of SC technology in the accelerator field. Since superconducting cathodes with high QE are not available up to now, normal conducting cathode material is the main choice for the SRF photoinjectors. However, the compatibility between the cathode and the cavity is one of the challenges for this concept. The SRF gun with Cs2Te cathode has been successfully operated under the collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZD, and MBI. In this paper, some experience gained in the gun commissioning will be concluded. The results of the properties of Cs2Te photocathode in the cavity will be presented, such as the Q.E., the life time, the dark current and the thermal emittance.

  13. Normal Conducting Separation Dipoles for the LHC Beam Cleaning Insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Bidon, S; Hans, O; Kalbreier, Willi; Kiselev, O; Petrov, V; Protopopov, I V; Pupkov, Yu A; Ramberger, S; de Rijk, G; Ruvinsky, E; Sukhanov, A

    2004-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), two straight sections, IR3 and IR7, will be dedicated to beam cleaning. These cleaning insertions will be equipped with normal conducting magnets. MBW magnets are dipole magnets used to increase the separation of the two beams. They have a core length of 3.4 m and a gap height of 52 mm and will operate at a magnetic field ranging from 0.09 T to 1.53 T. Limitations on the dimensions and total weight of the magnet resulted in a special design with a common yoke for the two beams. The orbits of the two beams will be separated horizontally by a distance between 194 mm and 224 mm in the gap of the magnet. The magnet was designed in collaboration between CERN and BINP. The report presents the main design issues and results of the pre-series acceptance tests including mechanical, electrical and magnetic field measurements.

  14. Normal Conducting Deflecting Cavity Development at the Cockcroft Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Burt, G; Dexter, A C; Woolley, B; Jones, R M; Grudiev, A; Dolgashev, V; Wheelhouse, A; Mackenzie, J; McIntosh, P A; Hill, C; Goudket, P; Buckley, S; Lingwood, C

    2013-01-01

    Two normal conducting deflecting structures are currently being developed at the Cockcroft Institute, one as a crab cavity for CERN linear collider CLIC and one for bunch slice diagnostics on low energy electron beams for Electron Beam Test Facility EBTF at Daresbury. Each has its own challenges that need overcome. For CLIC the phase and amplitude tolerances are very stringent and hence beamloading effects and wakefields must be minimised. Significant work has been undertook to understand the effect of the couplers on beamloading and the effect of the couplers on the wakefields. For EBTF the difficulty is avoiding the large beam offset caused by the cavities internal deflecting voltage at the low beam energy. Prototypes for both cavities have been manufactured and results will be presented.

  15. Coherent tunnelling conductance in normal-metal/d-wave superconductor/normal-metal double tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Z C; Zheng, Z M; Xing, D Y

    2004-01-01

    Taking simultaneously into account the electron-injected current from one normal-metal (N) electrode and the hole-injected current from the other N electrode, we study the coherent tunnelling conductance and quantum interference effects in N/d-wave superconductor (S)/N double tunnel junctions. It is found that oscillations of all quasiparticle transport coefficients and the conductance spectrum with quasiparticle energy and thickness of the d-wave S depend to a great extent on the crystal orientation of the d-wave S. The zero-bias conductance peak is gradually lowered with increasing barrier strength and/or temperature, its magnitude exhibiting damped oscillatory behaviour with thickness of S

  16. Avoiding vacuum arcs in high gradient normal conducting RF structures

    CERN Document Server

    Sjøbæk, Kyrre Ness; Adli, Erik; Grudiev, Alexej; Wuensch, Walter

    In order to build the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC), accelerating structures reaching extremely high accelerating gradients are needed. Such structures have been built and tested using normal-conducting copper, powered by X-band RF power and reaching gradients of 100 MV/m and above. One phenomenon that must be avoided in order to reliably reach such gradients, is vacuum arcs or “breakdowns”. This can be accomplished by carefully designing the structure geometry such that high surface fields and large local power flows are avoided. The research presented in this thesis presents a method for optimizing the geometry of accelerating structures so that these breakdowns are made less likely, allowing the structure to operate reliably at high gradients. This was done primarily based on a phenomenological scaling model, which predicted the maximum gradient as a function of the break down rate, pulse length, and field distribution in the structure. The model is written in such a way that it allows direct comparis...

  17. Physics design of APT linac with normal conducting rf cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, S.; Billen, J.H.; Stovall, J.E.; Takeda, Harunori; Young, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    The accelerator based production of tritium calls for a high-power, cw proton linac. Previous designs for such a linac use a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), followed by a drift-tube linac (DTL) to an intermediate energy and a coupled-cavity linc (CCL) to the final energy. The Los Alamos design uses a high-energy (6.7 MeV) RFQ followed by the newly developed coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) and a CCL. This design accommodates external electromagnetic quadrupole lenses which provide a strong uniform focusing lattice from the end of the RFQ to the end of the CCL. The cell lengths in linacs of traditional design are typically graded as a function of particle velocity. By making groups of cells symmetric in both the CCDTL and CCL, the cavity design as well as mechanical design and fabrication is simplified without compromising the performance. At higher energies, there are some advantages of using superconducting rf cavities. Currently, such schemes are under vigorous study. This paper describes the linac design based on normal conducting cavities and presents simulation results

  18. RF Breakdown in Normal Conducting Single-Cell Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgashev, V.A.; Nantista, C.D.; Tantawi, S.G.; Higashi, Y.; Higo, T.

    2006-01-01

    Operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The limit depends on multiple parameters, including input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Experimental and theoretical study of the effects of these parameters on the breakdown limit in full scale structures is difficult and costly. We use 11.4 GHz single-cell traveling wave and standing wave accelerating structures for experiments and modeling of rf breakdown behavior. These test structures are designed so that the electromagnetic fields in one cell mimic the fields in prototype multicell structures for the X-band linear collider. Fields elsewhere in the test structures are significantly lower than that of the single cell. The setup uses matched mode converters that launch the circular TM 01 mode into short test structures. The test structures are connected to the mode launchers with vacuum rf flanges. This setup allows economic testing of different cell geometries, cell materials and preparation techniques with short turn-around time. Simple 2D geometry of the test structures simplifies modeling of the breakdown currents and their thermal effects

  19. Computation of Normal Conducting and Superconducting Linear Accelerator (LINAC) Availabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    A brief study was conducted to roughly estimate the availability of a superconducting (SC) linear accelerator (LINAC) as compared to a normal conducting (NC) one. Potentially, SC radio frequency cavities have substantial reserve capability, which allows them to compensate for failed cavities, thus increasing the availability of the overall LINAC. In the initial SC design, there is a klystron and associated equipment (e.g., power supply) for every cavity of an SC LINAC. On the other hand, a single klystron may service eight cavities in the NC LINAC. This study modeled that portion of the Spallation Neutron Source LINAC (between 200 and 1,000 MeV) that is initially proposed for conversion from NC to SC technology. Equipment common to both designs was not evaluated. Tabular fault-tree calculations and computer-event-driven simulation (EDS) computer computations were performed. The estimated gain in availability when using the SC option ranges from 3 to 13% under certain equipment and conditions and spatial separation requirements. The availability of an NC LINAC is estimated to be 83%. Tabular fault-tree calculations and computer EDS modeling gave the same 83% answer to within one-tenth of a percent for the NC case. Tabular fault-tree calculations of the availability of the SC LINAC (where a klystron and associated equipment drive a single cavity) give 97%, whereas EDS computer calculations give 96%, a disagreement of only 1%. This result may be somewhat fortuitous because of limitations of tabular fault-tree calculations. For example, tabular fault-tree calculations can not handle spatial effects (separation distance between failures), equipment network configurations, and some failure combinations. EDS computer modeling of various equipment configurations were examined. When there is a klystron and associated equipment for every cavity and adjacent cavity, failure can be tolerated and the SC availability was estimated to be 96%. SC availability decreased as

  20. SOLID STATE BATTERIES WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bénière , F.; Boils , D.; Cánepa , H.; Franco , J.; Le Corre , A.; Louboutin , J.

    1983-01-01

    The conducting polymers like (CH)x are very interesting materials for electrodes in electrochemical cells. We have combined such electrodes with solid electrolytes to build "all solid-state" batteries. The first prototypes using a silver anode and a silver conducting electrolyte have been working satisfactorily since two years. The performances have been tested with many batteries to study the electrical properties as well as the thermodynamical parameters. A number of cycles of charge-discha...

  1. Tunneling Conductance in Ferromagnetic Metal/Normal Metal/Spin-Singlet -Wave Ferromagnetic Superconductor Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Emamipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of scattering theory, we study the tunneling conductance in a system including two junctions, ferromagnetic metal/normal metal/ferromagnetic superconductor, where ferromagnetic superconductor is in spin-singlet -wave pairing state. The non-magnetic normal metal is placed in the intermediate layer with the thickness ( which varies from 1 nm to 10000 nm. The interesting result which we have found is the existence of oscillations in conductance curves. The period of oscillations is independent of FS and FN exchange field while it depends on . The obtained results can serve as a useful tool to determine the kind of pairing symmetry in ferromagnetic superconductors.

  2. Tunneling Conductance in Two-Dimensional Junctions between a Normal Metal and a Ferromagnetic Rashba Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Daisuke; Taguchi, Katsuhisa; Tanaka, Yukio

    2018-03-01

    We have studied charge transport in a ferromagnetic Rashba metal (FRM), where both Rashba type spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) and exchange coupling coexist. It has nontrivial metallic states, i.e., a normal Rashba metal (NRM), anomalous Rashba metal (ARM), and Rashba ring metal (RRM), and they are manipulated by tuning the Fermi level with an applied gate voltage. We theoretically studied the tunneling conductance (G) in a normal metal/FRM junction by changing the Fermi level via an applied gate voltage (Vg) on the FRM. We found a wide variation in the Vg dependence of G, which depends on the metallic states. In an NRM, the Vg dependence of G is the same as that in a conventional two-dimensional system. However, in an ARM, the Vg dependence of G is similar to that in a conventional one- (two-)dimensional system for a large (small) RSOC. Furthermore, in an RRM, which is generated by a large RSOC, the Vg dependence of G is similar to that in the one-dimensional system. In addition, these anomalous properties stem from the density of states in the ARM and RRM caused by the large RSOC and exchange coupling rather than the spin-momentum locking of RSOC.

  3. On the possibility of a normal conducting photo-injector for Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travier, C.

    1992-12-01

    The possibility of using a normal conducting photo-injector for the TESLA linear collider is investigated. It is shown that the 8 nC,3 ps bunch can be produced with a normalized emittance less than 100 Π mm mrad. The generation of the train depends on the feasibility of the laser which has to be looked at more carefully

  4. Normalized Excited Squeezed Vacuum State and Its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangguo; Wang Jisuo; Liang Baolong

    2007-01-01

    By using the intermediate coordinate-momentum representation in quantum optics and generating function for the normalization of the excited squeezed vacuum state (ESVS), the normalized ESVS is obtained. We find that its normalization constants obtained via two new methods are uniform and a new form which is different from the result obtained by Zhang and Fan [Phys. Lett. A 165 (1992) 14]. By virtue of the normalization constant of the ESVS and the intermediate coordinate-momentum representation, the tomogram of the normalized ESVS and some useful formulae are derived.

  5. Ionic conduction in the solid state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Li+, its lower weight, ease of handling and its poten- tial use in high energy density batteries. Li2SiO4 is one of the .... that influence the ionic conductivity of a crystal the activation energy is of utmost importance since the .... fraction techniques are commonly employed to elu- cidate the structure features of superionic solids.

  6. Superconducting and Normal State Properties of OsB2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Niazi, A.; Zong, X.; Suh, B. J.; Vannette, M. W.; Prozorov, R.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-03-01

    OsB2 is a layered superhard metallic material that was found to superconduct below Tc= 2.1 K.^1 We report the first detailed measurements of the static and dynamic magnetic susceptibilities χ, electrical resistivity, heat capacity Cp, penetration depth, and ^11B NMR on OsB2 to characterize its superconducting and normal state properties. The results confirm that OsB2 is a bulk superconductor below Tc= 2.1 K@. Its properties can be described by a close to weak-coupling s-wave BCS model with an electron-phonon coupling constant λ= 0.4--0.5, δ(0)/(kBTc) 1.9, a small Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ of order 5 or less, and a small zero-temperature critical magnetic field of roughly 500 Oe. The ^11B NMR measurements in the normal state show a nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time T1= 2.1 s at room temperature and a Korringa law with T1T = 610 s.K at lower T, and a correspondingly small T-independent Knight shift. These results indicate a small s character of the conduction electron wave function at the B site at the Fermi level. Our results will be compared to corresponding data for MgB2.1. J. K. Vandenberg et al., Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 889 (1975).^*Supported by the USDOE under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-82. Permanent address: Dept. Phys., The Catholic Univ. Korea.

  7. Normal state Raman spectra of high-Tc cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishoyi, K.C.; Rout, G.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    We present a microscopic theory to explain Raman spectra of high-T c cuprates R 2-x M x CuO 4 in the normal state. We used electronic Hamiltonian prescribed by Fulde in presence of anti-ferromagnetism. Phonon interaction to the hybridization between the conduction electrons of the system and the f-electrons has been incorporated in the calculation. The phonon spectral density is calculated by the Green function technique of Zubarev at zero wave vector and finite (room) temperature limit. Parameter dependence of Raman active phonon frequencies are studied by varying model parameters of the system i.e. the position of f-level (ε f ), the effective electron-phonon coupling strength (g), the staggered magnetic field (h 1 ), and the hybridization parameter (v). The four Raman active peaks (P 1 to P 4 ) represent the electronic states of the atomic sub-systems of the cuprate systems. They show up as phonon excitations due to the coupling of the phonon to the electrons and the anti-ferromagnetic gap. (author)

  8. Conductance of graphene based normal-superconductor junction with double magnetic barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahipour, B.; Mohebalipour, A.; Maleki, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    We study conductance of a graphene based normal metal-superconductor junction with two magnetic barriers. The magnetic barriers are induced via two applied magnetic fields with the same magnitudes and opposite directions accompanied by an applied electrostatic potential. We solve Dirac-Bogoliubov-De-Gennes (DBdG) equation to calculate conductance of the junction. We find that applying the magnetic field leads to suppression of the Andreev reflection and conductance for all energies. On the other hand, we observe a crossover from oscillatory to tunneling behavior of the conductance as a function of the applied potential by increasing the magnetic field.

  9. Protection of Hardware: Powering Systems (Power Converter, Normal Conducting, and Superconducting Magnets)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, H. [Fermilab; Flora, B. [Fermilab; Wolff, D. [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    Along with the protection of magnets and power converters, we have added a section on personnel protection because this is our highest priority in the design and operation of power systems. Thus, our topics are the protection of people, power converters, and magnet loads (protected from the powering equipment), including normal conducting magnets and superconducting magnets.

  10. Behavior of conduct disordered children in interaction with each other and with normal peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MATTHYS, W; VANLOO, P; PACHEN, [No Value; de Vries, Han; VANHOOFF, JARAM; VANENGELAND, H

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the behavior of children with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder (CD/ODD) in interaction with each other and with normal control (NC) children in a semi-standardized setting over a period of 25 minutes. This short time turned out to be sufficient to demonstrate

  11. Identification of Raman peaks of high-Tc cuprates in normal state through density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishoyi, K.C.; Rout, G.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We present a microscopic theory to explain and identify the Raman spectral peaks of high-T c cuprates R 2-x M x CuO 4 in the normal state. We used electronic Hamiltonian prescribed by Fulde in presence of anti-ferromagnetism. Phonon interaction to the hybridization between the conduction electrons of the system and the f-electrons has been incorporated in the calculation. The phonon spectral density is calculated by the Green's function technique of Zubarev at zero wave vector and finite (room) temperature limit. The four Raman active peaks (P 1 -P 4 ) representing the electronic states of the atomic sub-systems of the cuprate system are identified by the calculated quasi-particle energy bands and electron density of states (DOS). The effect of interactions on these peaks are also explained

  12. Reflectance Measures from Infant Ears With Normal Hearing and Transient Conductive Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Susan E; Herrmann, Barbara S; Horton, Nicholas J; Amadei, Elizabeth A; Kujawa, Sharon G

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to develop methods to utilize newborn reflectance measures for the identification of middle-ear transient conditions (e.g., middle-ear fluid) during the newborn period and ultimately during the first few months of life. Transient middle-ear conditions are a suspected source of failure to pass a newborn hearing screening. The ability to identify a conductive loss during the screening procedure could enable the referred ear to be either (1) cleared of a middle-ear condition and recommended for more extensive hearing assessment as soon as possible, or (2) suspected of a transient middle-ear condition, and if desired, be rescreened before more extensive hearing assessment. Reflectance measurements are reported from full-term, healthy, newborn babies in which one ear referred and one ear passed an initial auditory brainstem response newborn hearing screening and a subsequent distortion product otoacoustic emission screening on the same day. These same subjects returned for a detailed follow-up evaluation at age 1 month (range 14 to 35 days). In total, measurements were made on 30 subjects who had a unilateral refer near birth (during their first 2 days of life) and bilateral normal hearing at follow-up (about 1 month old). Three specific comparisons were made: (1) Association of ear's state with power reflectance near birth (referred versus passed ear), (2) Changes in power reflectance of normal ears between newborn and 1 month old (maturation effects), and (3) Association of ear's newborn state (referred versus passed) with ear's power reflectance at 1 month. In addition to these measurements, a set of preliminary data selection criteria were developed to ensure that analyzed data were not corrupted by acoustic leaks and other measurement problems. Within 2 days of birth, the power reflectance measured in newborn ears with transient middle-ear conditions (referred newborn hearing screening and passed hearing assessment at age 1 month) was significantly

  13. Normal processes of phonon-phonon scattering and thermal conductivity of germanium crystals with isotopic disorder

    CERN Document Server

    Kuleev, I G

    2001-01-01

    The effect of normal processes of the phonon-phonon scattering on the thermal conductivity of the germanium crystals with various isotopic disorder degrees is considered. The phonon pulse redistribution in the normal scattering processes both inside each oscillatory branch (the Simons mechanism) and between various phonon oscillatory branches (the Herring mechanism) is accounted for. The contributions of the longitudinal and cross-sectional phonons drift motion into the thermal conductivity are analyzed. It is shown that the pulse redistribution in the Herring relaxation mechanism leads to essential suppression of the longitudinal phonons drift motion in the isotopically pure germanium crystals. The calculations results of thermal conductivity for the Herring relaxation mechanism agree well with experimental data on the germanium crystals with various isotopic disorder degrees

  14. Zero-bias conductance quantization in a normal / superconducting junction of nano wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a strong relationship between Majorana fermions and odd-frequency Cooper pairs which appear at a disordered normal nano wire attached to a topologically nontrivial superconducting one. The zero-bias differential conductance in a normal / superconducting nano wire junctions is quantized at 2e 2 /h irrespective of degree of disorder, length of disordered segment, and random realization of disordered potential. Such behaviors are exactly the same as those in the anomalous proximity effect of p x -wave spin-triplet superconductors. We show that odd-frequency Cooper pairs assist the unusual transport properties.

  15. Binaural Hearing Ability With Bilateral Bone Conduction Stimulation in Subjects With Normal Hearing: Implications for Bone Conduction Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitooni, Mehrnaz; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Stenfelt, Stefan

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate binaural hearing ability in adults with normal hearing when bone conduction (BC) stimulation is bilaterally applied at the bone conduction hearing aid (BCHA) implant position as well as at the audiometric position on the mastoid. The results with BC stimulation are compared with bilateral air conduction (AC) stimulation through earphones. Binaural hearing ability is investigated with tests of spatial release from masking and binaural intelligibility level difference using sentence material, binaural masking level difference with tonal chirp stimulation, and precedence effect using noise stimulus. In all tests, results with bilateral BC stimulation at the BCHA position illustrate an ability to extract binaural cues similar to BC stimulation at the mastoid position. The binaural benefit is overall greater with AC stimulation than BC stimulation at both positions. The binaural benefit for BC stimulation at the mastoid and BCHA position is approximately half in terms of decibels compared with AC stimulation in the speech based tests (spatial release from masking and binaural intelligibility level difference). For binaural masking level difference, the binaural benefit for the two BC positions with chirp signal phase inversion is approximately twice the benefit with inverted phase of the noise. The precedence effect results with BC stimulation at the mastoid and BCHA position are similar for low frequency noise stimulation but differ with high-frequency noise stimulation. The results confirm that binaural hearing processing with bilateral BC stimulation at the mastoid position is also present at the BCHA implant position. This indicates the ability for binaural hearing in patients with good cochlear function when using bilateral BCHAs.

  16. Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows during Normal Operation and Pressurized Conduction Cooldown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn E McCreery; Keith G Condie

    2006-09-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. The present document addresses experimental modeling of flow and thermal mixing phenomena of importance during normal or reduced power operation and during a loss of forced reactor cooling (pressurized conduction cooldown) scenario. The objectives of the experiments are, 1), provide benchmark data for assessment and improvement of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, and, 2), obtain a better understanding of related phenomena, behavior and needs. Physical models of VHTR vessel upper and lower plenums which use various working fluids to scale phenomena of interest are described. The models may be used to both simulate natural convection conditions during pressurized conduction cooldown and turbulent lower plenum flow during normal or reduced power operation.

  17. DESCRIPTION OF BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSES (AIR AND BONE CONDUCTION IN CHILDREN WITH NORMAL HEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pashkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hearing level in small children with conductive hearing loss associated with congenital craniofacial abnormalities, particularly with agenesis of external ear and external auditory meatus is a pressing issue. Conventional methods of assessing hearing in the first years of life, i. e. registration of brainstem auditory evoked responses to acoustic stimuli in the event of air conduction, does not give an indication of the auditory analyzer’s condition due to potential conductive hearing loss in these patients. This study was aimed at assessing potential of diagnosing the auditory analyzer’s function with registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs to acoustic stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator. The study involved 17 children aged 3–10 years with normal hearing. We compared parameters of registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (peak V depending on the type of stimulus transmission (air/bone in children with normal hearing. The data on thresholds of the BAERs registered to acoustic stimuli in the event of air and bone conduction obtained in this study are comparable; hearing thresholds in the event of acoustic stimulation by means of a bone vibrator correlates with the results of the BAERs registered to the stimuli transmitted by means of air conduction earphones (r = 0.9. High correlation of thresholds of BAERs to the stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator with thresholds of BAERs registered when air conduction earphones were used helps to assess auditory analyzer’s condition in patients with any form of conductive hearing loss.  

  18. Systematic study on the tunneling conductance in a normal-metal/px+y ± ipy-x-wave superconductor junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Biao; Zhang Yinhan; Cheng Qiang

    2010-01-01

    The chiral p x+y ± ip y-x -wave state is currently considered to be a promising candidate state for Sr 2 RuO 4 in the light of microscopic theories. We theoretically investigate the tunneling conductance in a normal-metal/p x+y ± ip y-x -wave superconductor junction over a wide range of temperature and barrier strength. For a cylindrical Fermi surface with the magnitude of the radius R, the p x+y ± ip y-x -wave gap function exhibits two typical types of nodal structures when R = 1.0 and R=1/√2, respectively. It is found, in particular, that the line shapes of the conductance spectra for R∼1/√2 cases can qualitatively account for the existing in-plane tunneling experiments on Sr 2 RuO 4 .

  19. Feasibility and normal values of an integrated conductivity (Nanoduct™) sweat test system in healthy newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Claudia E; Schindler, Matthias; Mazur, Agnieszka; Malzacher, Andreas; Hornung, René; Barben, Juerg

    2017-07-01

    Nanoduct™ is a simple and practical sweat analysis system measuring conductivity in situ. It requires only three microlitres of sweat, making it especially applicable to newborns. We measured conductivity in 260 healthy term infants at the age of four days, and again at four weeks to determine the proportion of successful tests, test duration, and normal values for sweat conductivity in newborns. Sufficient sweat was collected in 159/260 of four-day olds (61%), and in 225/239 of four-week olds (94%). Mean (sd) test duration was 27 (5) and 25 (5) min. Mean (sd, range) conductivity was 53mmol/l (16, 8-114) at age four days, and 36 (9, 12-64) at four weeks. Determination of sweat conductivity using Nanoduct™ cannot be recommended for four-day old newborns. However, at the age of four weeks the success rate is high (94%), and conductivity values at that age are comparable to older healthy children. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Operative findings of conductive hearing loss with intact tympanic membrane and normal temporal bone computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Despite recent technological advances in diagnostic methods including imaging technology, it is often difficult to establish a preoperative diagnosis of conductive hearing loss (CHL) in patients with an intact tympanic membrane (TM). Especially, in patients with a normal temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT), preoperative diagnosis is more difficult. We investigated middle ear disorders encountered in patients with CHL involving an intact TM and normal TBCT. We also analyzed the surgical results with special reference to the pathology. We reviewed the medical records of 365 patients with intact TM, who underwent exploratory tympanotomy for CHL. Fifty nine patients (67 ears, eight bilateral surgeries) had a normal preoperative TBCT findings reported by neuro-radiologists. Demographic data, otologic history, TM findings, preoperative imaging findings, intraoperative findings, and pre- and postoperative audiologic data were obtained and analyzed. Exploration was performed most frequently in the second and fifth decades. The most common postoperative diagnosis was stapedial fixation with non-progressive hearing loss. The most commonly performed hearing-restoring procedure was stapedotomy with piston wire prosthesis insertion. Various types of hearing-restoring procedures during exploration resulted in effective hearing improvement, especially with better outcome in the ossicular chain fixation group. In patients with CHL who have intact TM and normal TBCT, we should consider an exploratory tympanotomy for exact diagnosis and hearing improvement. Information of the common operative findings from this study may help in preoperative counseling.

  1. Effects of Consolidation Stress State on Normally Consolidated Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lade, Poul V.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of consolidation stress state on the stress-strain and strength characteristics has been studied from experiments on undisturbed block samples of a natural, normally consolidated clay known as San Francisco Bay Mud. The results of experiments on K0-consolidated, hollow cylinder specimens...... and on isotropically consolidated, cubical specimens, both tested in triaxial compression and extension, clearly showed the influence of the undisturbed fabric as well as the effect of the initial consolidation stress states. While the K0-consolidated specimens appeared to retain their original fabric and exhibit...

  2. Detailed spectroscopy of the normally deformed states in 132Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, E.S.; Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Santos, D.; Nyako, B.M.; O'Brien, N.J.; Parry, C.M.; Wadsworth, R.

    1997-01-01

    High-spin states have been studied in 132 Ce produced in the 100 Mo( 36 S,4nγ) reaction using the EUROGAM II spectrometer. The structure of the normally deformed states (β 2 ∝0.2) has been investigated. Eight ΔI=2 bands and three ΔI=1 bands have been identified and the level scheme extended up to spin and parity (40 + ) at an excitation energy 19.79 MeV. The results are interpreted with the aid of Woods-Saxon cranking calculations, which suggest a variety of triaxial (γ) shapes in this nucleus stabilised by specific active quasiparticle orbitals. (orig.)

  3. Stewart analysis of apparently normal acid-base state in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moviat, M.; Boogaard, M. van den; Intven, F.; Voort, P. van der; Hoeven, H. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe Stewart parameters in critically ill patients with an apparently normal acid-base state and to determine the incidence of mixed metabolic acid-base disorders in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational multicenter study of

  4. Cs2Te normal conducting photocathodes in the superconducting rf gun

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, R; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schamlott, A; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Teichert, J

    2010-01-01

    The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF gun) is one of the latest applications of superconducting rf technology in the accelerator field. Since superconducting photocathodes with high quantum efficiency are yet unavailable, normal conducting cathode material is the main choice for SRF photoinjectors. However, the compatibility between the photocathode and the cavity is one of the challenges for this concept. Recently, a SRF gun with Cs2Te cathode has been successfully operated in Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. In this paper, we will present the physical properties of Cs2Te photocathodes in the SC cavity, such as the quantum efficiency, the lifetime, the rejuvenation, the charge saturation, and the dark current.

  5. Studies on normal-conducting coils for Wendelstein VII-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmeyer, E.; Kisslinger, J.; Rau, F.; Sapper, J.; Wobig, H.

    1990-08-01

    For Wendelstein VII-X, the next step stellarator experiment at IPP Garching, a Helias configuration has been chosen. The goals of Wendelstein VII-X are to continue the development of the modular stellarator and to demonstrate the reactor capability of this stellarator line. The main data of the selected HS5-10 configuration with five field periods are: major radius R 0 = 5.5 m, magnetic induction B 0 = 3 T and stored magnetic energy W ≅ 0.6 GJ. For comparison with the superconducting coil system which is foreseen for Wendelstein VII-X, a pulsed water-cooled normal-conducting version has been designed in order to explore the limitations and restrictions of this approach. Limitations are the high ohmic power dissipated in the coils and the electric energy currently available at IPP. Normal-conducting coils would allow to apply the well-known techniques in manufactoring these coils, as successful in use in the Wendelstein VII-AS experiment. But these techniques are applicable also for the conductor proposed for the superconducting coils of Wendelstein VII-X. In this report the time-dependent current and resistance of the coil system circuit is considered; the electric power needed, the total dissipated energy, and the temperature rise of the coil copper is calculated. Scaling laws are derived and parameter studies are made by varying the geometrical dimensions of the system. (orig.)

  6. High power coupler issues in normal conducting and superconducting accelerator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    The ceramic material (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) commonly used for the klystron output coupler in normal conducting, and for an input coupler to superconducting cavities is one of the most troublesome parts in accelerator applications. But the performance can be improved very much by starting with high purity (>99.9%) alumina powder of controlled grain-size (0.1-0.5-{mu}m), and reducing the magnesium (Mg) sintering-binder to lower the dielectric loss to the order of 10{sup -4} at S-band frequencies. It has been confirmed that the new ceramic can stand a peak S-band frequency rf power of up to 300 MW and 2.5 {mu}sec pulse width. (author)

  7. Beam dynamics design of the 211 MeV APT normal conducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.M.; Billen, J.H.; Takeda, H.; Wood, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the normal conducting linac design that is part of the Accelerator for Production of Tritium (APT) project. The new version of PARMILA designed this linac. This linac accepts the beam from the 6.7 MeV radio frequency quadrupole without a separate matching section. At about 10 MeV, it has a smooth transition in the length of period from 8βλ to 9βλ in quadrupole focusing lattice. This adjustment of the period was needed to provide sufficient space for the quadrupole focusing magnets and beam diagnostic equipment. The linac consists of the coupled cavity drift tube linac up to 97 MeV and coupled cavity linac above 97 MeV

  8. Cs_{2}Te normal conducting photocathodes in the superconducting rf gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Xiang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF gun is one of the latest applications of superconducting rf technology in the accelerator field. Since superconducting photocathodes with high quantum efficiency are yet unavailable, normal conducting cathode material is the main choice for SRF photoinjectors. However, the compatibility between the photocathode and the cavity is one of the challenges for this concept. Recently, a SRF gun with Cs_{2}Te cathode has been successfully operated in Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. In this paper, we will present the physical properties of Cs_{2}Te photocathodes in the SC cavity, such as the quantum efficiency, the lifetime, the rejuvenation, the charge saturation, and the dark current.

  9. A 201-MHz Normal Conducting RF Cavity for the International MICE Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.J.; Virostek, Steve; Zisman, Michael S.; Rimmer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    MICE is a demonstration experiment for the ionization cooling of muon beams. Eight RF cavities are proposed to be used in the MICE cooling channel. These cavities will be operated in a strong magnetic field; therefore, they must be normal conducting. The cavity design and construction are based on the successful experience and techniques developed for a 201-MHz prototype cavity for the US MUCOOL program. Taking advantage of a muon beamΛ s penetration property, the cavity employs a pair of curved thin beryllium windows to terminate conventional beam irises and achieve higher cavity shunt impedance. The cavity resembles a round, closed pillbox cavity. Two half-shells spun from copper sheets are joined by e-beam welding to form the cavity body. There are four ports on the cavity equator for RF couplers, vacuum pumping and field probes. The ports are formed by means of an extruding technique.

  10. Normal-Conducting Separation and Compensation Dipoles for the LHC Experimental Insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramberger, S; Cornuet, D; Gérard, D; Gurov, D; Hans, O; Kalbreier, Willi; Kiselev, O; Morozov, I; Ogurtsov, A; Petrov, V; de Rijk, G; Ruvinsky, E; Sukhanov, A; Zhilayev, K

    2006-01-01

    The experimental insertions of the LHC make use of normal-conducting magnets to provide for part of the beam separation and to compensate the effect of two large spectrometer dipoles. Three different types with respect to the length were designed and are based on the same type of lamination. The main type of magnet MBXW has a core length of 3.4 m while the MBXWT and MBXWS magnets are 1.5 m and 0.75 m long versions respectively. The magnet design was done in collaboration between CERN and BINP and the dipole magnets are produced by BINP. So far all three MBXWS magnets, all three MBXWT magnets and fifteen of twenty-nine MBXW magnets have been manufactured and delivered to CERN. The report presents the main design issues and results of the acceptance tests including mechanical, electrical and magnetic field measurements.

  11. Open-type congenital cholesteatoma: differential diagnosis for conductive hearing loss with a normal tympanic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Chu, Ho-Suk; Jang, Jeon-Yeob; Chung, Won-Ho; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2012-06-01

    In patients with progressive conductive hearing loss and a normal tympanic membrane (TM), and with soft tissue density in the middle ear cavity (MEC) on temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT) scan, open-type congenital cholesteatoma (OCC) should be highly suspected and a proper surgical plan that includes mastoid exploration and second-stage operation is required. The clinical presentation of OCC is very similar to congenital ossicular anomaly (COA) presenting with a conductive hearing loss with intact TM. Therefore, it is challenging to make a correct preoperative diagnosis in patients with OCC. We evaluated the clinical characteristics of OCC compared with those of COA to find diagnostic clues useful in diagnosis of OCC. The medical records of 12 patients with surgically proven OCC and 14 patients with surgically proven COA were reviewed for demographic data, otologic history, preoperative TBCT findings, intraoperative findings, and pre- and postoperative audiologic data. There was no difference between OCC and COA based on demographic data, preoperative hearing, and ossicular status on TBCT. However, the presence of progressive hearing loss, soft tissue density in the MEC on TBCT scan, and the need for mastoid surgery and second-stage operation were significantly more frequent in OCC patients.

  12. State of hydration and electrical conductance of ichthyotic skin

    OpenAIRE

    A B Gupta; Manisha Bhattacharya; B Haldar

    1990-01-01

    Dry skin of twelve subjects suffering from ichthyosis vulgaris and the efficacy of a moisturiser-Cotaryl were quantitatively assessed by measuring the skin surface hydration and high frequency (3.5 MHz) electrical conductance of skin. The state of hydration and conductance of ichthyotic skin were 86.9 + 24.6 and 11.0 + 5.7 micro-mho respectively, being much less-compared to 132. 0 + 5.3 and 72.5 + 54.0 micro-mho ofnormal subjects. The moisturiser increased the state of hydration and also the ...

  13. The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcock, Harry R.; Benesi, Alan; Macdonald, Digby D.

    2010-08-27

    The research carried out under grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46371, "The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes", during the period June 1, 2008 - May 31, 2010 was comprised of three related parts. These are: 1. An examination of the state of water in classical proton conduction membranes with the use of deuterium T1 NMR spectroscopy (Allcock and Benesi groups). 2. A dielectric relaxation examination of the behavior of water in classical ionomer membranes (Macdonald program). 3. Attempts to synthesize new proton-conduction polymers and membranes derived from the polyphosphazene system. (Allcock program) All three are closely related, crucial aspects of the design and development of new and improved polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes on which the future of fuel cell technology for portable applications depends.

  14. Large optical conductivity of Dirac semimetal Fermi arc surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-kun; Song, Justin C. W.

    2017-08-01

    Fermi arc surface states, a hallmark of topological Dirac semimetals, can host carriers that exhibit unusual dynamics distinct from that of their parent bulk. Here we find that Fermi arc carriers in intrinsic Dirac semimetals possess a strong and anisotropic light-matter interaction. This is characterized by a large Fermi arc optical conductivity when light is polarized transverse to the Fermi arc; when light is polarized along the Fermi arc, Fermi arc optical conductivity is significantly muted. The large surface spectral weight is locked to the wide separation between Dirac nodes and persists as a large Drude weight of Fermi arc carriers when the system is doped. As a result, large and anisotropic Fermi arc conductivity provides a novel means of optically interrogating the topological surfaces states of Dirac semimetals.

  15. Simultaneous identification of a contaminant source and hydraulic conductivity via the restart normal-score ensemble Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Teng; Gómez-Hernández, J. Jaime

    2018-02-01

    Detecting where and when a contaminant entered an aquifer from observations downgradient of the source is a difficult task; this identification becomes more challenging when the uncertainty about the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity is accounted for. In this paper, we have implemented an application of the restart normal-score ensemble Kalman filter (NS-EnKF) for the simultaneous identification of a contaminant source and the spatially variable hydraulic conductivity in an aquifer. The method is capable of providing estimates of the spatial location, initial release time, the duration of the release and the mass load of a point-contamination event, plus the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity together with an assessment of the estimation uncertainty of all the parameters. The method has been applied in synthetic aquifers exhibiting both Gaussian and non-Gaussian patterns. The identification is made possible by assimilating in time both piezometric head and concentration observations from an array of observation wells. The method is demonstrated in three different synthetic scenarios that combine hydraulic conductivities with unimodal and bimodal histograms, and releases in high and low conductivity zones. The results prove that the specific implementation of the EnKF is capable of recovering the source parameters with some uncertainty and of recovering the main patterns of heterogeneity of the hydraulic conductivity fields by assimilating a sufficient number of state variable observations. The proposed approach is an important step towards contaminant source identification in real aquifers, which may have logconductivity spatial distributions with either Gaussian or non-Gaussian features, yet, it is still far from practical applications since the transport parameters, the external sinks and sources and the initial and boundary conditions are assumed known.

  16. Axonal Conduction Delays, Brain State, and Corticogeniculate Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelzel, Carl R; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Alonso, Jose-Manuel; Swadlow, Harvey A

    2017-06-28

    Thalamocortical conduction times are short, but layer 6 corticothalamic axons display an enormous range of conduction times, some exceeding 40-50 ms. Here, we investigate (1) how axonal conduction times of corticogeniculate (CG) neurons are related to the visual information conveyed to the thalamus, and (2) how alert versus nonalert awake brain states affect visual processing across the spectrum of CG conduction times. In awake female Dutch-Belted rabbits, we found 58% of CG neurons to be visually responsive, and 42% to be unresponsive. All responsive CG neurons had simple, orientation-selective receptive fields, and generated sustained responses to stationary stimuli. CG axonal conduction times were strongly related to modulated firing rates (F1 values) generated by drifting grating stimuli, and their associated interspike interval distributions, suggesting a continuum of visual responsiveness spanning the spectrum of axonal conduction times. CG conduction times were also significantly related to visual response latency, contrast sensitivity (C-50 values), directional selectivity, and optimal stimulus velocity. Increasing alertness did not cause visually unresponsive CG neurons to become responsive and did not change the response linearity (F1/F0 ratios) of visually responsive CG neurons. However, for visually responsive CG neurons, increased alertness nearly doubled the modulated response amplitude to optimal visual stimulation (F1 values), significantly shortened response latency, and dramatically increased response reliability. These effects of alertness were uniform across the broad spectrum of CG axonal conduction times. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Corticothalamic neurons of layer 6 send a dense feedback projection to thalamic nuclei that provide input to sensory neocortex. While sensory information reaches the cortex after brief thalamocortical axonal delays, corticothalamic axons can exhibit conduction delays of <2 ms to 40-50 ms. Here, in the corticogeniculate

  17. High-gradient normal-conducting RF structures for muon cooling channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.; Green, M.A.; Hartman, N.; Ladran, A.; Li, D.; MacGill, R.; Rimmer, R.; Moretti, A.; Jurgens, T.; Holtkamp, N.; Black, E.; Summers, D.; Booke, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a status report on the research and development of high-gradient normal-conducting RF structures for the ionization cooling of muons in a neutrino factory or muon collider. High-gradient RF structures are required in regions enclosed in strong focusing solenoidal magnets, precluding the application of superconducting RF technology [1]. We propose using linear accelerating structures, with individual cells electromagnetically isolated, to achieve the required gradients of over 15 MV/m at 201 MHz and 30 MV/m at 805 MHz. Each cell will be powered independently, and cell length and drive phase adjusted to optimize shunt impedance of the assembled structure. This efficient design allows for relatively small field enhancement on the structure walls, and an accelerating field approximately 1.7 times greater than the peak surface field. The electromagnetic boundary of each cell may be provided by a thin Be sheet, or an assembly of thin-walled metal tubes. Use of thin, low-Z materials will allow passage of the muon beams without significant deterioration in beam quality due to scattering. R and D in design and analysis of robust structures that will operate under large electric and magnetic fields and RF current heating are discussed, including the experimental program based in a high-power test laboratory developed for this purpose

  18. Hopping conductivity via deep impurity states in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.P.; Messerer, M.A.; Omel'yanovskij, Eh.M.

    1984-01-01

    Hopping (epsilon 3 ) and Mott conductivities via deep impurity compounds with localization radius below 10 A have been studied using as an example Mn in InP. It is shown, that the existing theory of hopping conductivity in low-alloyed semiconductors with Na 3 << 1 can be Used for the case of deep centres as successfully as for the case of insignificant hydrogen-like impurities. Fundamental parameters of the theory: localization radius of wave function of deep impurities, state density near the Fermi level, mean hop length, are determined

  19. Conductive Hearing Loss in Autistic, Learning-Disabled, and Normal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald E. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Repeated impedance measures were given over five weeks to 11 autistic, 20 learning-disabled, and 20 normal children. A repeated measures analysis of variance led to the conclusion that fluctuating, negative middle ear pressure greater than normal characterizes both autistic and learning-disabled children with the more abnormal pressures typical in…

  20. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-02-16

    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm−3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm−3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds.

  1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is correlated closely with sperm progressive motility and normal morphology in healthy and fertile men with normal sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L-Y; Shan, J-J; Tong, X-M; Zhu, H-Y; Yang, L-Y; Zheng, Q; Luo, Y; Shi, Q-X; Zhang, S-Y

    2014-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been demonstrated to be expressed in mature spermatozoa and correlated with sperm quality. Sperm CFTR expression in fertile men is higher than that in infertile men suffering from teratospermia, asthenoteratospermia, asthenospermia and oligospermia, but it is unknown whether CFTR is correlated with sperm parameters when sperm parameters are normal. In this study, 282 healthy and fertile men with normal semen parameters were classified into three age groups, group (I): age group of 20-29 years (98 cases, 27.1 ± 6.2), group (II): age group of 30-39 years (142 cases, 33.7 ± 2.6) and group (III): age group of more than or equal to 40 years (42 cases, 44.1 ± 4.6). Sperm concentration, total count and progressive motility were analysed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Sperm morphology was analysed by modified Papanicolaou staining. Sperm CFTR expression was conducted by indirect immunofluorescence staining. There was a significant positive correlation (P sperm progressive motility (r = 0.221) and normal morphology (r = 0.202), but there were no correlations between sperm CFTR expression and semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm total count as well as male age (P > 0.05). Our findings show that CFTR expression is associated with sperm progressive motility and normal morphology in healthy and fertile men with normal sperm parameters, but not associated with the number of spermatozoa and male age. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Conduction in Carbon Nanotubes Through Metastable Resonant States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengfan; Chandrasekhar, Venkat; Dikin, Dmitriy A.; Ruoff, Rodney S.

    2004-03-01

    We have made transport measurements on individual multi-walled carbon nanotubes [1]. The measurements show that the presence or movement of impurities or defects in the carbon nanotube can radically change its low temperature transport characteristics. The low temperature conductance can either decrease monotonically with decreasing temperature, or show a sudden increase at very low temperatures, sometimes in the same sample. This unusual behavior of the temperature dependence of the conductance is correlated with large variations in the differential conductance as a function of the dc voltage across the wire. The effect is well described as arising from quantum interference of conduction channels corresponding to direct transmission through the nanotube and resonant transmission through a discrete electron state, the so-called Fano resonance. We thank the group of R. P. H. Chang for providing us the nanotubes used in these experiments. Funding for this work was provided by a NASA/MSFC Phase II SBIR, Contract No. NAS8-02102, through a subcontract from Lytec, LLC. [1] Z. Zhang et al., cond-mat/0311360.

  3. Auditory Steady-State Response Thresholds in Adults With Conductive and Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinabadi, Reza; Jafarzadeh, Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Auditory steady state response (ASSR) provides a frequency-specific and automatic assessment of hearing sensitivity and is used in infants and difficult-to-test adults. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the ASSR thresholds among various types (normal, conductive, and sensorineural), degree (normal, mild, and moderate), and configuration (flat and sloping) of hearing sensitivity, and measuring the cutoff point between normal condition and hearing loss for differe...

  4. The United States and Iran: Prospects for Normalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, William

    1999-01-01

    .... Even then, normalization will not come quickly or easily. It will require steady, long-term US effort and will be complicated by two decades of hostility and by domestic political dynamics in both countries that hinder rational policy debate.

  5. Identification of Raman peaks of high-T{sub c} cuprates in normal state through density of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishoyi, K.C. [P.G. Department of Physics, F.M. College (Auto.), Balasore 756 001 (India)]. E-mail: bishoyi@iopb.res.in; Rout, G.C. [Condensed Matter Physics Group, Govt. Science College, Chatrapur 761 020, Orissa (India); Behera, S.N. [Physics Enclave, H.I.G.-23/1, Housing Board Phase-I, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar 7510016 (India)

    2007-05-31

    We present a microscopic theory to explain and identify the Raman spectral peaks of high-T{sub c} cuprates R{sub 2-x}M{sub x}CuO{sub 4} in the normal state. We used electronic Hamiltonian prescribed by Fulde in presence of anti-ferromagnetism. Phonon interaction to the hybridization between the conduction electrons of the system and the f-electrons has been incorporated in the calculation. The phonon spectral density is calculated by the Green's function technique of Zubarev at zero wave vector and finite (room) temperature limit. The four Raman active peaks (P{sub 1}-P{sub 4}) representing the electronic states of the atomic sub-systems of the cuprate system are identified by the calculated quasi-particle energy bands and electron density of states (DOS). The effect of interactions on these peaks are also explained.

  6. DIFFERENCE IN THE INTENSITY OF DEPRESSION BETWEEN PARENTS HAVING CHILDREN WITH CONDUCT DISORDER AND PARENTS HAVING NORMAL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Meethale Veettil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Parents experience psychological trauma if they recognise that their children are having conduct disorder, which is unacceptable to the society and against the social norms. The intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder is included in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS Exploratory research was used in this study as the method of study. A sample was selected from parents having children with conduct disorder reported in various psychiatric settings in Kerala, India, and also from parents having normal children. Random sampling was used for selecting the sample. All the parents of children diagnosed with conduct disorder in the age group of 6 to 12 reported in the psychiatric settings on a random day is selected as sample. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Depression in parents affect their skills in caregiving, support to their children, nurturance and it will affect proper development of children physically and mentally. Similarly, conduct disorder in children will affect their parents mental and social functioning and their life functioning and the parents maybe suffering from depression. Mothers of children with conduct disorders are reported to have exhibit more depressed and they show very poor parenting skills and negative interactions with their children compared to normal mothers. Parents having children with conduct disorder did have higher intensity of depression compared to parents having normal children. CONCLUSION The study hopes to make contributions in identifying the intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder and it’s serious and least recognised impact on their parents. The study will also help to find out the areas in which parents need intervention and to decide which type of therapy will be more helpful to the family as a whole. Identifying and understanding the relevant and feasible components of therapy can then facilitate

  7. One-dimensional classical many-body system having a normal thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casati, G.; Ford, J.; Vivaldi, F.; Visscher, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    By numerically computing orbits for a chaotic, one-dimensional, many-body system placed between two thermal reservoirs, we verify directly that its energy transport obeys the Fourier heat law and we determine its thermal conductivity K. The same value of K is independently obtained by use of the Green-Kubo formalism. These numerical studies verify that chaos is the essential ingredient of diffusive energy transport, and they validate the Green-Kubo formalism

  8. A new technique for precise measurement of thermal conductivity of metals at normal and high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkele, L.

    1990-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on a new measuring technique are described; a technique similar to the well known Kohlrausch measuring technique, which is characterized by direct electrical sample heating. Subject of the investigations is a cylindrical metallic sample, 5 mm thick and 200 mm in length, which is positioned vertically between water-cooled clamps in a vacuum container. The sample can be heated using two simultaneously operating current sources, a 50 Hz-source for axial flow (main heating) as well as a 200 kHz-induction source for generating eddy currents in two short regions above and below the sample centre (additional heating). By using two heating sources different symmetrical temperature profiles in a central eddy-current-free area of about ± 10mm can be produced for any given central sample temperature. The last chapter contains thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity measuring curves for Pt, W, Fe, Ni, Ag, Al, Mg, Ir, Ru, Re, Ho and Y in the temperature range 273 to 1500 K representative of all the metals and alloys investigated. In cases where comparisons with published precise conductivity data, established by other measuring techniques in restricted temperature ranges, were posible, the new measuring method is greatly supported (in the case of Pt, W, Ni, Ag, Al). For the Metals Ir, Ru, Re, Ho and Y high temperature thermal conductivity data are given for the first time. (orig./MM) [de

  9. All-solid-state reference electrodes based on conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Marcisz, Honorata; Michalska, Agata; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof

    2005-12-01

    A novel construction of solution free (pseudo)reference electrodes, compatible with all-solid-state potentiometric indicator electrodes, has been proposed. These electrodes use conducting polymers (CP): polypyrrole (PPy) or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Two different arrangements have been tested: solely based on CP and those where the CP phase is covered with a poly(vinyl chloride) based outer membrane of tailored composition. The former arrangement was designed to suppress or compensate cation- and anion-exchange, using mobile perchlorate ions and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) or dodecylbenzenesulfonate anions as immobilized dopants. The following systems were used: (i) polypyrrole layers doped simultaneously by two kinds of anions, both mobile and immobilized in the polymer layer; (ii) bilayers of polypyrrole with anion exchanging inner layer and cation-exchanging outer layer; (iii) polypyrrole doped by surfactant dodecylbenzenesulfonate ions, which inhibit ion exchange on the polymer/solution interface. For the above systems, recorded potentials have been found to be practically independent of electrolyte concentration. The best results, profound stability of potentials, have been obtained for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or polypyrrole doped by poly(4-styrenesulfonate) anions covered by a poly(vinyl chloride) based membrane, containing both anion- and cation-exchangers as well as solid potassium chloride and silver chloride with metallic silver. Differently to the cases (i)-(iii) these electrodes are much less sensitive to the influence of redox and pH interferences. This arrangement has been also characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronopotentiometry.

  10. Single-Phase Full-Wave Rectifier as an Effective Example to Teach Normalization, Conduction Modes, and Circuit Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Pejovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of a single phase rectifier as an example in teaching circuit modeling, normalization, operating modes of nonlinear circuits, and circuit analysis methods is proposed.The rectifier supplied from a voltage source by an inductive impedance is analyzed in the discontinuous as well as in the continuous conduction mode. Completely analytical solution for the continuous conduction mode is derived. Appropriate numerical methods are proposed to obtain the circuit waveforms in both of the operating modes, and to compute the performance parameters. Source code of the program that performs such computation is provided.

  11. Quasiclassical calculation of the quasiparticle thermal conductivity in a mixed state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Hiroto; Miranovic, Predrag; Ichioka, Masanori; Machida, Kazushige

    2007-01-01

    We report the result of calculation of the quasiparticle thermal conductivity κ xx (∇T orthogonal B) in the vortex state of a two-dimensional superconductor. We compute κ xx for both s-wave and d-wave superconductors, taking account of the spatial dependence of normal Green's function g, which is neglected in the previous studies using the Brandt-Pesch-Tewordt (BPT) method. Our results indicate that κ xx based on the BPT method is slightly underestimated due to its incoherent spatial averaging procedure

  12. The Thalamostriatal System in Normal and Diseased States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoland eSmith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of our limited knowledge of the functional role of the thalamostriatal system, this massive network is often ignored in models of the pathophysiology of brain disorders of basal ganglia origin, such as Parkinson’s disease. However, over the past decade, significant advances have led to a deeper understanding of the anatomical, electrophysiological, behavioral and pathological aspects of the thalamostriatal system. The cloning of the vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (vGluT1 and vGluT2 has provided powerful tools to differentiate thalamostriatal from corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals, allowing us to carry out comparative studies of the synaptology and plasticity of these two systems in normal and pathological conditions. Findings from these studies have led to the recognition of two thalamostriatal systems, based on their differential origin from the caudal intralaminar nuclear group, the centre median/parafascicular (CM/Pf complex, or other thalamic nuclei. The recent use of optogenetic methods supports this model of the organization of the thalamostriatal systems, showing differences in functionality and glutamate receptor localization at thalamostriatal synapses from Pf and other thalamic nuclei. At the functional level, evidence largely gathered from thalamic recordings in awake monkeys strongly suggests that the thalamostriatal system from the CM/Pf is involved in regulating alertness and switching behaviors. Importantly, there is evidence that the caudal intralaminar nuclei and their axonal projections to the striatum partly degenerate in Parkinson’s disease and that CM/Pf deep brain stimulation may be therapeutically useful in several movement disorders.

  13. Thermal Conductivity of Superconductors in the Intermediate State: Size Effect in a Longitudinal Lamellar Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, J.M.; Rinderer, L.

    1978-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of type I superconductors has been measured in a well-defined, optically controlled intermediate-state configuration the so-called longitudinal lamellar structure (LLS). A regular arrangement of alternating normal and superconducting lamellas is obtained in an elongated plate by applying the magnetic field obliquely (following Sharvin) and decreasing it from the critical values. The heat current is set parallel to the lamellas. Due to the peculiar reflection law governing the quasiparticle reflections at a normal-superconductor interphase boundary, the thermal conductivity of the LLS is reduced when the electronic mean free path is larger than or comparable to the width of the lamellas. As first pointed out by Andreev, the reflection occurs with vecotr-momentum conservation, and only the quasiparticles moving nearly parallel to the lamellas can transport heat efficiently. The corresponding reduction of the thermal conductivity is a size effect.Systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of the LLS in high-purity lead and tin are interpreted in terms of the size-effect model. The parameters of the model were experimentally determined in a preliminary study, to enable an unambiguous comparison with the theory. In particular, the geometrical aspects of the structures were studied using a magnetooptical technique. Interesting results on the characteristics of the LLS were obtained. The thermal conductivity data on lead essentially confirm the size-effect description. In tin heat transport by the lamellas of both types takes place, the heat carriers being the electrons (T > or approx. = 1.6 K). The discrepancy between the predictions of the size-effect model and the observed values in tin are attributed to an oversimplified calculation of the contribution of the superconducting lamellas to the conductivity

  14. Annealing Effects on the Normal-State Resistive Properties of Underdoped Cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovk, R. V.; Khadzhai, G. Ya.; Nazyrov, Z. F.; Kamchatnaya, S. N.; Feher, A.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of room-temperature annealing on the parameters of the basal-plane electrical resistance of underdoped YBa_2Cu_3O_{7-δ } and HoBa_2Cu_3O_{7-δ } single crystals in the normal and superconducting states is investigated. The form of the derivatives dρ (T)/dT makes it possible to determine the onset temperature of the fluctuation conductivity and indicates a nonuniform distribution of the labile oxygen. Annealing has been revealed to lead to a monotonic decrease in the oxygen deficiency, that primarily manifests itself as a decrease in the residual resistance, an increase of T_c, and a decrease in the Debye temperature.

  15. High energy (MeV) ion-irradiated π-conjugated polyaniline: Transition from insulating state to carbonized conducting state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.K.; Lee, S.Y.; Lee, C.S.; Kim, H.M.; Joo, J.; Beag, Y.W.; Koh, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    High energy (MeV) C 2+ , F 2+ , and Cl 2+ ions were irradiated onto π-conjugated polyaniline emeraldine base (PAN-EB) samples. The energy of an ion beam was controlled to a range of 3-4.5 MeV, with the ion dosage varying from 1x10 12 to 1x10 16 ions/cm 2 . The highest dc conductivity (σ dc ) at room temperature was measured to be ∼60 S/cm for 4.5 MeV Cl 2+ ion-irradiated PAN-EB samples with a dose of 1x10 16 ions/cm 2 . We observed the transition of high energy ion-irradiated PAN-EB samples from insulating state to conducting state as a function of ion dosage based on σ dc and its temperature dependence. The characteristic peaks of the Raman spectrum of the PAN-EB samples were reduced, while the D-peak (disordered peak) and the G peak (graphitic peak) appeared as the ion dose increased. From the analysis of the D and G peaks of the Raman spectra of the systems compared to multiwalled carbon nanotubes, ion-irradiated graphites, and annealed carbon films, the number of the clusters of hexagon rings with conducting sp 2 -bonded carbons increased with ion dosage. We also observed the increase in the size of the nanocrystalline graphitic domain of the systems with increasing ion dosage. The intensity of normalized electron paramagnelic resonance signal also increased in correlation with ion dose. The results of this study demonstrate that π-conjugated pristine PAN-EB systems changed from insulating state to carbonized conducting state through high energy ion irradiation with high ion dosage

  16. Parametrisation of the niobium thermal conductivity in the superconducting state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koechlin, F.; Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements of niobium sheets manufactured for deep-drawing of superconducting cavities have been gathered. Due to various histories of the niobium samples and a wide range of metal purities (35< RRR<1750) the data offer a large scatter of thermal conductivities. An attempt is made to obtain an analytical expression with realistic parameters for the thermal conductivity between 1.8 K and 9.25 K. The set of parameters deduced from a least square fit of experimental data is not very different from those yielded by the theory of superconducting metals, taken as a starting point. This should make possible to obtain a reasonable guess of the thermal conductivity of niobium in this temperature range, once the RRR and the past history of the metal samples have been determined. (author)

  17. Unusually large magnetic moments in the normal state and superconducting state of Sn nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Chi-Hang; Lee, Chi-Hung; Hsu, Chien-Kang; Li, Chi-Yen; Karna, Sunil K.; Wang, Chin-Wei; Wu, Chun-Ming; Li, Wen-Hsien, E-mail: whli@phy.ncu.edu.tw [National Central University, Department of Physics and Center for Neutron Beam Applications (China)

    2013-09-15

    We report on the observations of spontaneous magnetic moments in the normal as well as in the superconducting states of a 9 nm Sn nanoparticle assembly, through X-ray diffraction, magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility, and neutron diffraction measurements. The saturation magnetization reaches an unexpectedly large value of 1.04 emu/g at 5 K, with a temperature profile that can be described by Bloch's law with an exponent of b = 1.8. A magnetic moment of Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {mu}{sub Z} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 0.38 {mu}{sub B} develops after cooling from 260 to 4 K. Superconductivity develops below T{sub C} = 3.98 K, which is 7 % higher than the T{sub C} = 3.72 K of bulk Sn. Surprisingly, an addition magnetic moment of Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {mu}{sub Z} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 0.05 {mu}{sub B} develops upon entering the superconducting state.

  18. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra; Wang, Ruiqi; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid

  19. Methodological Approaches in Conducting Overviews: Current State in HTA Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Dawid; Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Morfeld, Jana-Carina; Mathes, Tim; Eikermann, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Overviews search for reviews rather than for primary studies. They might have the potential to support decision making within a shorter time frame by reducing production time. We aimed to summarize available instructions for authors intending to conduct overviews as well as the currently applied methodology of overviews in…

  20. Burnup credit activities being conducted in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes burnup credit activities being conducted in the U.S. where burnup credit is either being used or being planned to be used for storage, transport, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Currently approved uses of burnup credit are for wet storage of PWR fuel. For dry storage of spent PWR fuel, burnup credit is used to supplement a principle of moderator exclusion. These storage applications have been pursued by the private sector. The Department of Energy (DOE) which is an organization of the U.S. Federal government is seeking approval for burnup credit for transport and disposal applications. For transport of spent fuel, regulatory review of an actinide-only PWR burnup credit method is now being conducted. A request by DOE for regulatory review of actinide and fission product burnup credit for disposal of spent BWR and PWR fuel is scheduled to occur in 1998. (author)

  1. Steady-state magnetohydrodynamic flow around an unmagnetized conducting sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanelli, N.; Gómez, D.; Bertucci, C. [Group of Astrophysical Flows, Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Delva, M., E-mail: nromanelli@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: Magda.Delva@oeaw.ac.at [Space Research Institute, Graz (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    The noncollisional interaction between conducting obstacles and magnetized plasma winds can be found in different scenarios, from the interaction occurring between regions inside galaxy clusters to the interaction between the solar wind and Mars, Venus, and active comets, or even the interaction between Titan and the Saturnian magnetospheric flow. These objects generate, through several current systems, perturbations in the streaming magnetic field leading to its draping around the obstacle's effective conducting surface. Recent observational results suggest that several properties associated with magnetic field draping, such as the location of the polarity reversal layer of the induced magnetotail, are affected by variations in the conditions of the streaming magnetic field. To improve our understanding of these phenomena, we perform a characterization of several magnetic field draping signatures by analytically solving an ideal problem in which a perfectly conducting magnetized plasma (with frozen-in magnetic field conditions) flows around a spherical body for various orientations of the streaming magnetic field. In particular, we compute the shift of the inverse polarity reversal layer as the orientation of the background magnetic field is changed.

  2. Spectrum of {gamma} rays connecting superdeformed and normal states in {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.G.; Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Almost a hundred superdeformed bands were found in the mass 150 and 190 regions. Nevertheless, the energies and spins of the SD levels are still not measured (with one possible exception). Many attempts were made to decipher the highly-fragmented pathways connecting SD and normal states, but with hitherto no success. We adopted a new approach that consists of characterizing the overall spectral shape of the {gamma} rays linking SD and normal states.

  3. Steady-state properties of Josephson junctions with direct conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubkov, A.A.; Kupriyanov, M.Y.; Semenov, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    A new criterion for determining the kinetic inductance of Josephson junctions is introduced. The effects of temperature T, the critical temperatures of the superconducting electrodes T/sub c/1 and T/sub c/2, and the weak-link length on the kinetic inductance of ''dirty'' junctions with direct conductivity are analyzed within the framework of the Usadel equations. Numerical calculations show that both a large characteristic voltage and a nearly harmonic dependence of the current on the phase difference of the superconducting-electrode wave functions cannot be obtained by varying the junction parameters

  4. Charge state of finely divided conducting systems in dielectric matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Yu.V.; Grishin, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The calculation of the high statistic sum Z of the charged metal granules in the dielectric matrix is carried out with an account of the excess number of the Fermi-particles fluctuations on the granules. Application of a microscopic Hamiltonian for the energy of electrostatic interaction between the charge densities in the system makes it possible to accomplish these calculations in the average field approximation. The effect of the number of the Fermi-particles fluctuations on the charge state of the finely divided granules in the dielectric matrix is studied. It is supposed that the charge exchange between the composite metal elements occurs on the account of the electron overbarrier heat transfer. It is followed from the system high statistic sum calculation results that the i-granule medium charge is connected by the nonlinear ratio with the conductors V i potentials [ru

  5. Calculation of the spectrum of {gamma} rays connecting superdeformed and normally deformed nuclear states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossing, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The decay out of superdeformed states occurs by coupling to compound nuclear states of normal deformation. The coupling is very weak, resulting in mixing of the SD state with one or two normal compound states. With a high energy available for decay, a statistical spectrum ensues. The shape of this statistical spectrum contains information on the level densities of the excited states below the SD level. The level densities are sensitively affected by the pair correlations. Thus decay-out of a SD state (which presents us with a means to start a statistical cascade from a highly-excited sharp state) provides a method for investigating the reduction of pairing with increasing thermal excitation energy.

  6. The normalization of data in the Constant-Murley score for the shoulder. A study conducted on 563 healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, F A; Tajana, M S

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted in order to evaluate the theoretical design of the Constant-Murley system and to reveal any difficulties in obtaining data when it is used in 563 subjects not affected with shoulder pathology. The total mean score for the subjects examined was 85.2 points (minimum 75, maximum 100 points). Values revealed a decreasing trend beginning at 50 years of age for men and 30 for women. Only 4 subjects achieved a maximum score of 100. The measurements taken allowed us to elaborate a reference table based on sex and age, which was required to calculate the correct score. These values differ from those reported by the inventors of the system and they reveal the need to compile personal tables for the normalization of scores.

  7. Blocking-state influence on shot noise and conductance in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harabula, M.-C.; Ranjan, V.; Haller, R.; Fülöp, G.; Schönenberger, C.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) investigated through electron transport measurements often exhibit varying, state-dependent tunnel couplings to the leads. Under specific conditions, weakly coupled states can result in a strong suppression of the electrical current, and they are correspondingly called blocking states. Using the combination of conductance and shot noise measurements, we investigate blocking states in carbon nanotube (CNT) QDs. We report negative differential conductance and super-Poissonian noise. The enhanced noise is the signature of electron bunching, which originates from random switches between the strongly and weakly conducting states of the QD. Negative differential conductance appears here when the blocking state is an excited state. In this case, at the threshold voltage where the blocking state becomes populated, the current is reduced. Using a master equation approach, we provide numerical simulations reproducing both the conductance and the shot noise pattern observed in our measurements.

  8. Anisotropic magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance of conducting filaments in NiO with different resistance states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Diyang; Qiao, Shuang; Luo, Yuxiang; Chen, Aitian; Zhang, Pengfei; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Zhong; Guo, Minghua; Chiang, F.-K.; Wu, Jian; Luo, Jianlin; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Yayu; Zhao, Yonggang; Tsinghua University Team; Chinese Academy of Sciences Collaboration

    Resistive switching (RS) effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks has attracted much attention due to its interesting physics and potentials for applications. NiO is one of the most representative systems and its RS effect has been generally explained by the formation and rupture of Ni related conducting filaments, which are very unique since they are formed by electric forming process. We study the MR behaviors in NiO RS films with different resistance states. Rich and interesting MR behaviors were observed, including the normal and anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), etc., which provide new insights into the nature of the filaments and their evolution in the resistive switching process. First-principles calculation reveals the essential role of oxygen migration into the filaments during the RESET process and can account for the experimental results. Our work provides a new avenue for the exploration of the conducting filaments in RS materials, and is significant for understanding the RS mechanism as well as multifunctional device design.

  9. Magnetoresistance Behavior of Conducting Filaments in Resistive-Switching NiO with Different Resistance States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Diyang; Qiao, Shuang; Luo, Yuxiang; Chen, Aitian; Zhang, Pengfei; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Zhong; Guo, Minghua; Chiang, Fu-Kuo; Wu, Jian; Luo, Jianlin; Li, Jianqi; Kokado, Satoshi; Wang, Yayu; Zhao, Yonggang

    2017-03-29

    The resistive switching (RS) effect in various materials has attracted much attention due to its interesting physics and potential for applications. NiO is an important system and its RS effect has been generally explained by the formation/rupture of Ni-related conducting filaments. These filaments are unique since they are formed by an electroforming process, so it is interesting to explore their magnetoresistance (MR) behavior, which can also shed light on unsolved issues such as the nature of the filaments and their evolution in the RS process, and this behavior is also important for multifunctional devices. Here, we focus on MR behavior in NiO RS films with different resistance states. Rich and interesting MR behaviors have been observed, including the normal and anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance, which provide new insights into the nature of the filaments and their evolution in the RS process. First-principles calculation reveals the essential role of oxygen migration into the filaments during the RESET process and can account for the experimental results. Our work provides a new avenue for exploration of the conducting filaments in resistive switching materials and is significant for understanding the mechanism of RS effect and multifunctional devices.

  10. Accelerating Convergence in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Solutes in Lipid Membranes by Conducting a Random Walk along the Bilayer Normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Chris; Madill, Chris; Rauscher, Sarah; Pomès, Régis

    2013-08-13

    All molecular dynamics simulations are susceptible to sampling errors, which degrade the accuracy and precision of observed values. The statistical convergence of simulations containing atomistic lipid bilayers is limited by the slow relaxation of the lipid phase, which can exceed hundreds of nanoseconds. These long conformational autocorrelation times are exacerbated in the presence of charged solutes, which can induce significant distortions of the bilayer structure. Such long relaxation times represent hidden barriers that induce systematic sampling errors in simulations of solute insertion. To identify optimal methods for enhancing sampling efficiency, we quantitatively evaluate convergence rates using generalized ensemble sampling algorithms in calculations of the potential of mean force for the insertion of the ionic side chain analog of arginine in a lipid bilayer. Umbrella sampling (US) is used to restrain solute insertion depth along the bilayer normal, the order parameter commonly used in simulations of molecular solutes in lipid bilayers. When US simulations are modified to conduct random walks along the bilayer normal using a Hamiltonian exchange algorithm, systematic sampling errors are eliminated more rapidly and the rate of statistical convergence of the standard free energy of binding of the solute to the lipid bilayer is increased 3-fold. We compute the ratio of the replica flux transmitted across a defined region of the order parameter to the replica flux that entered that region in Hamiltonian exchange simulations. We show that this quantity, the transmission factor, identifies sampling barriers in degrees of freedom orthogonal to the order parameter. The transmission factor is used to estimate the depth-dependent conformational autocorrelation times of the simulation system, some of which exceed the simulation time, and thereby identify solute insertion depths that are prone to systematic sampling errors and estimate the lower bound of the

  11. Effect of annealing treatments on normal state resistivity of YBa 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of YBa2(Cu1-xTix)3Oy superconductor with x=0.00 , 0.01, 0.03 have been prepared by solide state reaction method. The effect of annealing treatments on normal electrical resistivity has been done using the bipolaron model. The results of this study show the increase of localized charge when the dopant content ...

  12. Normal state resistivity of single crystalline V3Si as a function of neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, R.; Viswanathan, R.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of the normal state resistivity of a neutron damaged single crystal of V 3 Si shows two different regions of behavior: one for T/sub c/ equal to or greater than 10 0 K and another for T/sub c/ equal to or less than 10 0 K

  13. Studies of the transition temperature and normal state resistivity of Nb3Ge and Nb films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.; Weismann, H.; Gurvitch, M.; Goland, A.N.; Kammerer, O.F.; Strongin, M.

    1976-01-01

    Correlations between T/sub c/ and specific features of the normal state resistance vs temperature curves are discussed for both Nb 3 Ge and ion damaged Nb films. Of particular interest is the correlation between T/sub c/ and rho 0 in Nb 3 Ge films

  14. Normal ground state of dense relativistic matter in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of the ground state of relativistic matter in a magnetic field are examined within the framework of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The main emphasis of this study is the normal ground state, which is realized at sufficiently high temperatures and/or sufficiently large chemical potentials. In contrast to the vacuum state, which is characterized by the magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking, the normal state is accompanied by the dynamical generation of the chiral shift parameter Δ. In the chiral limit, the value of Δ determines a relative shift of the longitudinal momenta (along the direction of the magnetic field) in the dispersion relations of opposite chirality fermions. We argue that the chirality remains a good approximate quantum number even for massive fermions in the vicinity of the Fermi surface and, therefore, the chiral shift is expected to play an important role in many types of cold dense relativistic matter, relevant for applications in compact stars. The qualitative implications of the revealed structure of the normal ground state on the physics of protoneutron stars are discussed. A noticeable feature of the Δ parameter is that it is insensitive to temperature when T 0 , where μ 0 is the chemical potential, and increases with temperature for T>μ 0 . The latter implies that the chiral shift parameter is also generated in the regime relevant for heavy ion collisions.

  15. EEG Oscillatory States: Universality, Uniqueness and Specificity across Healthy-Normal, Altered and Pathological Brain Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the dynamic repertoires and oscillatory types of local EEG states in 13 diverse conditions (examined over 9 studies) that covered healthy-normal, altered and pathological brain states were quantified within the same methodological and conceptual framework. EEG oscillatory states were assessed by the probability-classification analysis of short-term EEG spectral patterns. The results demonstrated that brain activity consists of a limited repertoire of local EEG states in any of the examined conditions. The size of the state repertoires was associated with changes in cognition and vigilance or neuropsychopathologic conditions. Additionally universal, optional and unique EEG states across 13 diverse conditions were observed. It was demonstrated also that EEG oscillations which constituted EEG states were characteristic for different groups of conditions in accordance to oscillations’ functional significance. The results suggested that (a) there is a limit in the number of local states available to the cortex and many ways in which these local states can rearrange themselves and still produce the same global state and (b) EEG individuality is determined by varying proportions of universal, optional and unique oscillatory states. The results enriched our understanding about dynamic microstructure of EEG-signal. PMID:24505292

  16. Auditory steady-state response thresholds in adults with conductive and mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinabadi, Reza; Jafarzadeh, Sadegh

    2015-01-01

    The Auditory steady state response (ASSR) provides a frequency-specific and automatic assessment of hearing sensitivity and is used in infants and difficult-to-test adults. The aim of this study was to compare the ASSR thresholds among various types (normal, conductive, and sensorineural), degree (normal, mild, and moderate), and configuration (flat and sloping) of hearing sensitivity, and measuring the cutoff point between normal condition and hearing loss for different frequencies. This clinical trial was performed in Iran and included patients who were referred from Ear, Nose, and Throat Department. A total of 54 adults (27 with sensorineural hearing loss, 17 with conductive hearing losses, and 10 with normal hearing) were randomly chosen to participate in our study. The type and degree of hearing loss were determined through testing by otoscopy, tympanometry, acoustic reflex, and pure tone audiometry. Then the ASSR was tested at carrier frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The ASSR accurately estimates the behavioral thresholds as well as flat and sloping configurations. There was no correlation between types of hearing loss and difference of behavioral and ASSR thresholds (P = 0.69). The difference between ASSR and behavioral thresholds decreased as severity of hearing loss increased. The 40, 35, 30, and 35 dB could be considered as cutoffs between normal hearing and hearing loss for 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz, respectively. The ASSR can accurately predict the degree and configuration of hearing loss and discriminate the normal hearing from mild or moderate hearing loss and mild from moderate hearing loss, except for 500 Hz. The Air-conducted ASSR could not define the type of hearing loss.

  17. Pressure effect on the superconducting and the normal state of β -B i2Pd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristáš, G.; Orendáč, Mat.; Gabáni, S.; Kačmarčík, J.; Gažo, E.; Pribulová, Z.; Correa-Orellana, A.; Herrera, E.; Suderow, H.; Samuely, P.

    2018-04-01

    The pressure effect up to 24.0 kbar on superconducting and normal-state properties of β -B i2Pd single crystal (Tc≈4.98 K at ambient pressure) has been investigated by measurements of the electrical resistivity. In addition, we have performed the heat capacity measurements in the temperature range 0.7-300 K at ambient pressure. The recent calculations of electronic density of states, electron-phonon interaction spectral function, and phonon density of states of β -B i2Pd [Zheng and Margine, Phys. Rev. B 95, 014512 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.014512], are used to fit the resistivity and the heat capacity data. In the superconducting state we have focused on the influence of pressure on the superconducting transition temperature Tc and upper critical field Hc 2 and a negative effect with d Tc/d p =-0.025 K /kbar and d Hc 2/d p =-8 mT /kbar is found. A simplified Bloch-Grüneisen model was used to analyze the pressure effect on the temperature dependence of the normal-state resistivity. The obtained results point to a decrease of the electron-phonon coupling parameter λ and to a shift of phonon frequencies to higher values with pressure. Moreover, the temperature dependence of the normal-state resistivity follows a T2 dependence above Tc up to about 25 K. Together with the enhanced value of Sommerfeld coefficient γ =13.23 mJ mo l-1K-2 these results point to a certain role of the electron-electron interaction in the superconducting pairing mechanism in β -B i2Pd .

  18. Investigation of current redistribution in superstabilized superconducting winding when switching to the normal resistive state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the electromagnetic behavior of a layer of superstabilized superconductive composite conductors when switching instantaneously and uniformly to the normal resistive state. The Laplace transform was used to solve the current diffusion equation in the superstabilizing material. The value of power dissipated per unit volume, averaged over the layer thickness, was then computed using the ''pseudo''-convolution theorem in the complex plane. Last, we present a simple interpretation of the phenomenon with the help of two time constants

  19. Temperature dependence of velocity of sound in high-Tc superconductors in normal state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishoyi, K.C.; Rout, G.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2002-01-01

    A microscopic theoretical calculation of temperature dependence of velocity of sound in high temperature superconductors is addressed in this paper. The influence of model parameters of the system in its normal phase is investigated through numerical calculations. The results at the room temperature as well as low temperatures (∼ 25 K), are discussed. The dimensionless parameters involved in the calculations are the electron-phonon coupling (g), staggered magnetic field (h), hybridization (V), position of the f-level (d), temperature (t) and the conduction band width (ω). The model Hamiltonian contains the antiferromagnetism in conduction electrons of cooper and the electron-phonon interaction through the hybridization between conduction electrons and f-electrons of impurity atoms. The phonon Green's functions are calculated by Zubarev's technique. The velocity of sound is calculated in the long wavelength and finite temperature limit. (author)

  20. Disruptive behavior in preschool children: distinguishing normal misbehavior from markers of current and later childhood conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji S; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L

    2015-03-01

    To investigate which disruptive behaviors in preschool were normative and transient vs markers of conduct disorder, as well as which disruptive behaviors predicted the persistence of conduct disorder into school age. Data from a longitudinal study of preschool children were used to investigate disruptive behaviors. Caregivers of preschoolers ages 3.0-5.11 years (n = 273) were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment to derive the following diagnostic groups: conduct disorder, externalizing disorder without conduct disorder, internalizing disorder without externalizing disorder, and healthy. At school age, participants were again assessed via an age-appropriate diagnostic interview. Logistic and linear regression with pairwise group comparisons was used to investigate clinical markers of preschool conduct disorder and predictors of school age conduct disorder. Losing one's temper, low-intensity destruction of property, and low-intensity deceitfulness/stealing in the preschool period were found in both healthy and disordered groups. In contrast, high-intensity argument/defiant behavior, both low- and high-intensity aggression to people/animals, high-intensity destruction of property, high-intensity deceitfulness/stealing, and high-intensity peer problems were markers of preschool conduct disorder and predictors of school age conduct disorder. Inappropriate sexual behavior was not a marker for preschool conduct disorder but was a predictor of school age conduct disorder. These findings provide a guide for primary care clinicians to help identify preschoolers with clinical conduct disorder and those who are at risk for persistent conduct disorder in childhood. Preschoolers displaying these symptoms should be targeted for mental health assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DIFFERENCE IN THE INTENSITY OF DEPRESSION BETWEEN PARENTS HAVING CHILDREN WITH CONDUCT DISORDER AND PARENTS HAVING NORMAL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu Meethale Veettil; Sheeba Damodar; Jayadevan Sreedharan; Vimal Rohan K; Jayasree Ananda Bhavan Kumaran

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Parents experience psychological trauma if they recognise that their children are having conduct disorder, which is unacceptable to the society and against the social norms. The intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder is included in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS Exploratory research was used in this study as the method of study. A sample was selected from parents having children with conduct disorder reported in various psychia...

  2. A Study of Master's Degrees in Orchestral Conducting in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Brian Allen

    2010-01-01

    In order to learn to be an orchestra conductor in the United States of America, students often begins their formal education by seeking to earn a master's degree in orchestral conducting. This project compiled a listing of American universities which offer a master's degree in orchestral conducting and categorized the component parts of their…

  3. Voltage-dependent conductance states of a single-molecule junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y F; Néel, N; Kröger, J

    2012-01-01

    Ag–Sn-phthalocyanine–Ag junctions are shown to exhibit three conductance states. While the junctions are conductive at low bias, their impedance drastically increases above a critical bias. Two-level fluctuations occur at intermediate bias. These characteristics may be used to protect a nanoscale...

  4. The influence of normal fault on initial state of stress in rock mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajduś Antoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of original state of stress in rock mass is a very difficult task for rock mechanics. Yet, original state of stress in rock mass has fundamental influence on secondary state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of mining headings. This, in turn, is the cause of the occurrence of a number of mining hazards, i.e., seismic events, rock bursts, gas and rock outbursts, falls of roof. From experience, it is known that original state of stress depends a lot on tectonic disturbances, i.e., faults and folds. In the area of faults, a great number of seismic events occur, often of high energies. These seismic events, in many cases, are the cause of rock bursts and damage to the constructions located inside the rock mass and on the surface of the ground. To estimate the influence of fault existence on the disturbance of original state of stress in rock mass, numerical calculations were done by means of Finite Element Method. In the calculations, it was tried to determine the influence of different factors on state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of a normal fault, i.e., the influence of normal fault inclination, deformability of rock mass, values of friction coefficient on the fault contact. Critical value of friction coefficient was also determined, when mutual dislocation of rock mass part separated by a fault is impossible. The obtained results enabled formulation of a number of conclusions, which are important in the context of seismic events and rock bursts in the area of faults.

  5. The influence of normal fault on initial state of stress in rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajduś, Antoni; Cała, Marek; Tajduś, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    Determination of original state of stress in rock mass is a very difficult task for rock mechanics. Yet, original state of stress in rock mass has fundamental influence on secondary state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of mining headings. This, in turn, is the cause of the occurrence of a number of mining hazards, i.e., seismic events, rock bursts, gas and rock outbursts, falls of roof. From experience, it is known that original state of stress depends a lot on tectonic disturbances, i.e., faults and folds. In the area of faults, a great number of seismic events occur, often of high energies. These seismic events, in many cases, are the cause of rock bursts and damage to the constructions located inside the rock mass and on the surface of the ground. To estimate the influence of fault existence on the disturbance of original state of stress in rock mass, numerical calculations were done by means of Finite Element Method. In the calculations, it was tried to determine the influence of different factors on state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of a normal fault, i.e., the influence of normal fault inclination, deformability of rock mass, values of friction coefficient on the fault contact. Critical value of friction coefficient was also determined, when mutual dislocation of rock mass part separated by a fault is impossible. The obtained results enabled formulation of a number of conclusions, which are important in the context of seismic events and rock bursts in the area of faults.

  6. Sustainable business conduct as business model or business identity : a stakeholder review of a potential trend towards a new normal

    OpenAIRE

    Kvarnström, Lovisa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the thesis is to analyse how stakeholder influence has transformed sustainability work from being primarily risk management into becoming an integral part of business conduct and even business identities of today. To detect this trend I gather theoretical information that elaborate on the meaning and drivers of sustainable business conduct, sustainability as corporate identity, relevant stakeholders and ways of communicating to stakeholders. A case study of Ben & Jerry’s ...

  7. Effect of the subgap conductance on the metastable states in a Josephson tunnel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, R.; Pagano, S.; Silvestrini, P.; Gray, K.E.; Liengme, O.

    1987-09-01

    An investigation of the decay rate of metastable states in Josephson tunnel junctions in presence of thermal noise is presented. We have observed that, in the extremely underdamped regime, there is an exponential temperature dependence of the best fit value for the shunt conductance. Such a dependence shows a close relation with the temperature dependence of the subgap conductance, suggesting that the effective conductance for the escape from the metastable states obeys to a quasi-particle thermal activation mechanism. The introduction of this effective conductance into the lifetime expression for the zero-voltage states leads to significant changes in the width of the switching current distributions. A comparisons of the experimental data with the proposed model is reported. 7 refs., 2 figs

  8. Superconducting and normal state properties of carbon doped and neutron irradiated MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, R.H.T.; Samuely, P.; Szabo, P.; Holanova, Z.; Bud'ko, S.L.; Canfield, P.C.; Finnemore, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    Current research in MgB 2 focuses on the effects various types of perturbations have on the superconducting properties of this novel two-gap superconductor. In this article we summarize the effects of carbon doping and neutron irradiation in bulk MgB 2 . Low levels of carbon doping and light neutron irradiation result in significant enhancements in H c2 . At high fluences, where superconductivity is nearly fully suppressed, superconductivity can be restored through post exposure annealing. However, this results in a change in the interdependencies of the normal state and superconducting properties (ρ 0 , T c , H c2 ), with little or no enhancement in H c2

  9. Study on electric parameters of wild and cultivated cotton forms being in normal state and irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazirov, N.N.; Kamalov, N.; Norbaev, N.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation effect on electric conductivity of tissues in case of alternating current, electrical capacity and cell impedance has been studied. Gamma irradiation of seedlings results in definite changes of electric factors of cells (electric conductivity, electric capacity, impedance). It is shown that especially strong changes have been revealed during gamma irradiation of radiosensitive wild form of cotton plants. The deviation of cell electric factors from the standard depends on the violation of evolutionally composed ion heterogeneity and cell colloid system state, which results in changes in their structure and metabolism in them

  10. Mood states, sympathetic activity, and in vivo beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bum-Hee; Kang, Eun-Ho; Ziegler, Michael G; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mood states and beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population. We also examined if sympathetic nervous system activity is related to mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. Sixty-two participants aged 25-50 years were enrolled in this study. Mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Beta-adrenergic receptor function was determined using the chronotropic 25 dose isoproterenol infusion test. Level of sympathetic nervous system activity was estimated from 24-hr urine norepinephrine excretion. Higher tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and anger-hostility were related to decreased beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity (i.e., higher chronotropic 25 dose values), but tension-anxiety was the only remaining independent predictor of beta-adrenergic receptor function after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Urinary norepinephrine excretion was unrelated to either mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. These findings replicate previous reports that anxiety is related to decreased (i.e., desensitized) beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, even after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index.

  11. The Mothering of Conduct Problem and Normal Children in Spain and the USA: Authoritarian and Permissive Asynchrony

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo Jiménez, María Ángeles; Wahler, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    Ninety-two clinic-referred and nonclinical mother-child dyads in Spain and the USA were observed in their home settings under naturalistic conditions for a total of 477 hours. Children in the clinic-referred dyads were considered troubled because of conduct problems. The observations were aimed at assessing two forms of mother-child asynchrony, either of which was expected to differentiate clinic referred from nonclinical dyads. Authoritarian asynchrony was defined as a mother’s indiscriminat...

  12. Membrane potential and response properties of populations of cortical neurons in the high conductance state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Bote, Ruben; Parga, Nestor

    2005-01-01

    Because of intense synaptic activity, cortical neurons are in a high conductance state. We show that this state has important consequences on the properties of a population of independent model neurons with conductance-based synapses. Using an adiabaticlike approximation we study both the membrane potential and the firing probability distributions across the population. We find that the latter is bimodal in such a way that at any particular moment some neurons are inactive while others are active. The population rate and the response variability are also characterized

  13. Distribution Log Normal of 222 Rn in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.L.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the evaluation of the concentration of 222 Rn in air for Zacatecas is shown. The Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were used as the technique for the realization of the measurements in large scale with cellulose nitrate LR-115, type 2, in open chambers of 222 Rn. The measurements were carried out during three months in different times of the year. In the results it is presented the log normal distribution, arithmetic mean and geometric media for the concentration at indoor and outdoor of residence constructions, the concentration at indoor of occupational constructions and in the 57 municipal heads of the state of Zacatecas. The statistics of the values in the concentration showed variation according to the time of the year, obtaining high quantities in winter seasons for both cases. The distribution of the concentration of 222 Rn is presented in the state map for each one of the municipalities, representing the measurement places in the entire state of Zacatecas. Finally the places where the values in the concentration of 222 Rn in air are near to the one limit settled down by the EPA of 148 Bq/m 3 are presented. (Author)

  14. The equation of state and ionization equilibrium of dense aluminum plasma with conductivity verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kun; Shi, Zongqian; Shi, Yuanjie; Bai, Jun; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli

    2015-01-01

    The equation of state, ionization equilibrium, and conductivity are the most important parameters for investigation of dense plasma. The equation of state is calculated with the non-ideal effects taken into consideration. The electron chemical potential and pressure, which are commonly used thermodynamic quantities, are calculated by the non-ideal free energy and compared with results of a semi-empirical equation of state based on Thomas-Fermi-Kirzhnits model. The lowering of ionization potential, which is a crucial factor in the calculation of non-ideal Saha equation, is settled according to the non-ideal free energy. The full coupled non-ideal Saha equation is applied to describe the ionization equilibrium of dense plasma. The conductivity calculated by the Lee-More-Desjarlais model combined with non-ideal Saha equation is compared with experimental data. It provides a possible approach to verify the accuracy of the equation of state and ionization equilibrium

  15. Multi-Stable Conductance States in Metallic Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ci Lijie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electrical transport properties of individual metallic double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs were measured down to liquid helium temperature, and multi-stable conductance states were found in DWCNTs. At a certain temperature, DWCNTs can switch continuously between two or more electronic states, but below certain temperature, DWCNTs are stable only at one of them. The temperature for switching is always different from tube to tube, and even different from thermal cycle to cycle for the same tube. In addition to thermal activation, gate voltage scanning can also realize such switching among different electronic states. The multi-stable conductance states in metallic DWCNTs can be attributed to different Fermi level or occasional scattering centers induced by different configurations between their inner and outer tubes.

  16. Electronic properties of high-Tc superconductors. The normal and the superconducting state of high-Tc materials. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmany, H.; Mehring, M.; Fink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The International Winter School on Electronic Properties of High-Temperature Superconductors, held between March 7-14, 1992, in Kirchberg, (Tyrol) Austria, was the sixth in a series of meetings to be held at this venue. Four of the earlier meetings were dedicated to issues in the field of conducting polymers, while the winter school held in 1990 was devoted to the new discipline of high-Tc superconductivity. This year's meeting constituted a forum not only for the large number of scientists engaged in high-Tc research, but also for those involved in the new and exciting field of fullerenes. Many of the issues raised during the earlier winter schools on conducting polymers, and the last one on high-Tc superconductivity, have taken on a new significance in the light of the discovery of superconducting C 60 materials. The Kirchberg meetings are organized in the style of a school where experienced scientists from universities, research laboratories and industry have the opportunity to discuss their most recent results, and where students and young scientists can learn about the present status of research and applications from some of the most eminent workers in their field. In common with the previous winter school on high-Tc superconductors, the present one focused on the electronic properties of the cuprate superconductors. In addition, consideration was given to related compounds which are relevant to the understanding of the electronic structure of the cuprates in the normal state, to other oxide superconductors and to fulleride superconductors. Contributions dealing with their preparation, transport and thermal properties, high-energy spectroscopies, nuclear magnetic resonance, inelastic neutron scattering, and optical spectroscopy are presented in this volume. The theory of the normal and superconducting states also occupies a central position. (orig.)

  17. State-of-the-art computer technologies used to train nuclear specialists and to conduct research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, Yu.A.; Tikhonenko, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses innovative methods used in the process of training nuclear specialists and conducting research which are based on state-of-the-art computer technologies. The approach proposed makes wide use of mathematical modeling and state-of-the-art programming techniques. It is based on the development, improvement and application of problem-oriented computer codes to support the teaching process and to solve fundamental and applied problems of nuclear physics and nuclear engineering.

  18. Alpha particle spectra in coincidence with normal and superdeformed states in {sup 150}Tb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viesti, G.; Lunardon, M.; Bazzacco, D. [dell`Universita, Padova (Italy)]|[INFN, Padova (Italy)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The study of correlations between particle evaporation from highly excited compound nuclei at large angular momenta and the states in the final evaporation residues (ER) is a field of investigation which has been opened, in the last years, with the advent of the new large {gamma}-ray arrays. It is now possible to correlate the evaporation spectra to various bands with shapes ranging from spherical to superdeformed (SD) in the same final nucleus. It is generally accepted that the particle evaporation from the compound nucleus is chaotic and that only in the near-yrast {gamma} cascade, where the feeding of different classes of states takes place, the ordered motion is restored. The sensitivity of the particle spectra on the feeding of specific states in the residual nuclei can be taken as an indication that additional degrees of freedom might be important in the evaporation process or that particular regions of the phase space open to the decay populate preferentially some selected structures in the final cold nucleus. This latter point is important for the understanding of the feeding mechanism of SD states. Several experiments performed so far did not find a clear dependence of the shapes of the particle spectra on the excited states having different deformations in the ER. For example, the proton spectra in coincidence with transitions in the SD bands of {sup 133}Nd and {sup 152}Dy nuclei were found to be similar to those in coincidence with transitions in the normal deformed (ND) bands. Alpha particles have been proposed since long as a sensitive probe of the deformation of the emitting nucleus. Results are presented here of an experiment in which the authors have measured the energy spectra of alpha particles associated with different classes of states (ND and SD) in the {sup 150}Tb nucleus populated in the reaction {sup 37}Cl({sup 120}Sn, {alpha}3n{gamma}){sup 150}Tb.

  19. Direct measurement of surface-state conductance by microscopic four-point probe method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasegawa, S.; Shiraki, I.; Tanikawa, T.

    2002-01-01

    For in situ measurements of local electrical conductivity of well defined crystal surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum, we have developed microscopic four-point probes with a probe spacing of several micrometres, installed in a scanning-electron - microscope/electron-diffraction chamber. The probe...... is precisely positioned on targeted areas of the sample surface by using piezoactuators. This apparatus enables conductivity measurement with extremely high surface sensitivity, resulting in direct access to surface-state conductivity of the surface superstructures, and clarifying the influence of atomic steps...

  20. The mothering of conduct problem and normal children in Spain and the USA: authoritarian and permissive asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahler, Robert G; Cerezo, M Angeles

    2005-11-01

    Ninety-two clinic-referred and nonclinical mother-child dyads in Spain and the USA were observed in their home settings under naturalistic conditions for a total of 477 hours. Children in the clinic-referred dyads were considered troubled because of conduct problems. The observations were aimed at assessing two forms of mother-child asynchrony, either of which was expected to differentiate clinic referred from nonclinical dyads. Authoritarian asynchrony was defined as a mother's indiscriminate use of aversive reactions to her child, whereas the permissive form entailed indiscriminate positive reactions. Results showed the American mothers to generate more permissive asynchrony, whereas the Spanish mothers were inclined in the authoritarian direction. Only authoritarian asynchrony differentiated the clinical versus nonclinical dyads in each country. Discussion was centered on the greater salience of aversive as opposed to positive maternal attention, and cultural differences between countries that might have accounted for the different parenting styles.

  1. Conducting need-for-power review for nuclear power plants: guidelines to states. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.A.

    1982-12-01

    The report is intended to describe the state regulatory commissions and other state agencies the standards and criteria used by NRC in conducting need-for-power evaluations for the licensing of nuclear power plants. These are intended as guidelines to states which may wish to perform a need-for-power review that will suffice for adoption by the NRC in its licensing process. Three methodologies which have been used for need-for-power evaluations and which meet NRC standards are included

  2. Language Patterns Discriminate Mild Depression From Normal Sadness and Euthymic State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Daria; Cumming, Paul; Sloeva, Elena; Kuvshinova, Natalia; Romanov, Dmitry; Nosachev, Gennadii

    2018-01-01

    Deviations from typical word use have been previously reported in clinical depression, but language patterns of mild depression (MD), as distinct from normal sadness (NS) and euthymic state, are unknown. In this study, we aimed to apply the linguistic approach as an additional diagnostic key for understanding clinical variability along the continuum of affective states. We studied 402 written reports from 124 Russian-speaking patients and 77 healthy controls (HC), including 35 cases of NS, using hand-coding procedures. The focus of our psycholinguistic methods was on lexico-semantic [e.g., rhetorical figures (metaphors, similes)], syntactic [e.g., predominant sentence type (single-clause and multi-clause)], and lexico-grammatical [e.g., pronouns (indefinite, personal)] variables. Statistical evaluations included Cohen's kappa for inter-rater reliability measures, a non-parametric approach (Mann-Whitney U -test and Pearson chi-square test), one-way ANOVA for between-group differences, Spearman's and point-biserial correlations to analyze relationships between linguistic and gender variables, discriminant analysis (Wilks' λ) of linguistic variables in relation to the affective diagnostic types, all using SPSS-22 (significant, p  language, single-clause sentences domination over multi-clause, atypical word order, increased use of personal and indefinite pronouns, and verb use in continuous/imperfective and past tenses. In NS, as compared with HC, we found greater use of lexical repetitions, omission of words, and verbs in continuous and present tenses. MD was significantly differentiated from NS and euthymic state by linguistic variables [98.6%; Wilks' λ(40) = 0.009; p  language use distinguishing depression from NS and euthymic state, which points to a potential role of linguistic indicators in diagnosing affective states.

  3. Dynamic conductivity modified by impurity resonant states in doping three-dimensional Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Chen; Zheng, Shi-Han; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Li, Jun; Yang, Mou

    2018-04-01

    The impurity effect is studied in three-dimensional Dirac semimetals in the framework of a T-matrix method to consider the multiple scattering events of Dirac electrons off impurities. It has been found that a strong impurity potential can significantly restructure the energy dispersion and the density of states of Dirac electrons. An impurity-induced resonant state emerges and significantly modifies the pristine optical response. It is shown that the impurity state disturbs the common longitudinal optical conductivity by creating either an optical conductivity peak or double absorption jumps, depending on the relative position of the impurity band and the Fermi level. More importantly, these conductivity features appear in the forbidden region between the Drude and interband transition, completely or partially filling the Pauli block region of optical response. The underlying physics is that the appearance of resonance states as well as the broadening of the bands leads to a more complicated selection rule for the optical transitions, making it possible to excite new electron-hole pairs in the forbidden region. These features in optical conductivity provide valuable information to understand the impurity behaviors in 3D Dirac materials.

  4. On the conductance sum rule for the hierarchical edge states of the fractional quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongshui; Chen Yixin; Su Zhaobin.

    1993-09-01

    The conductance sum rule for the hierarchical edge channel currents of a Fractional Quantum Hall Effect state is derived analytically within the Haldane-Halperin hierarchy scheme. We provide also an intuitive interpretation for the hierarchical drift velocities of the edge excitations. (author). 12 refs

  5. Determination of oxidation state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czapla-Masztafiak, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Lis, G.J.; Gajda, M.; Jasek, E. [Department of Histology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Kraków (Poland); Czubek, U. [Department of Coronary Disease, Jagiellonian University Medical College, John Paul II Hospital, Prądnicka 80, 31-202 Kraków (Poland); Bolechała, F. [Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Grzegórzecka 16, 31-531 Kraków (Poland); Borca, C. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kwiatek, W.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate changes in chemical state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves X-ray absorption spectroscopy was applied. Since Fe is suspected to play detrimental role in aortic valve stenosis pathogenesis the oxidation state of this element has been determined. The experimental material consisted of 10 μm sections of valves excised during routine surgery and from autopsies. The experiment was performed at the MicroXAS beamline of the SLS synchrotron facility in Villigen (Switzerland). The Fe K-edge XANES spectra obtained from tissue samples were carefully analyzed and compared with the spectra of reference compounds containing iron in various chemical structures. The analysis of absorption edge position and shape of the spectra revealed that both chemical forms of iron are presented in valve tissue but Fe{sup 3+} is the predominant form. Small shift of the absorption edge toward higher energy in the spectra from stenotic valve samples indicates higher content of the Fe{sup 3+} form in pathological tissue. Such a phenomenon suggests the role of Fenton reaction and reactive oxygen species in the etiology of aortic valve stenosis. The comparison of pre-edge regions of XANES spectra for control and stenotic valve tissue confirmed no differences in local symmetry or spin state of iron in analyzed samples.

  6. Enhancing the Electronic Conductivity of Vanadium-tellurite Glasses by Tuning the Redox State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Transition metal oxides are used in a variety of electronic purposes, e.g., vanadium tellurite as cathode material in high-power demanding batteries. By tuning the redox state of vanadium, it is possible to achieve a lower internal resistance within the entire battery unit, thus a higher capacity....... In this work we vary the redox state of a given vanadium tellurite system by performing post heat-treatment in controlled atmosphere. This process is in theory not limited only to varying electronic conductivity, but also varying the glass structure, and hence, changing properties of the glasses, e.g, thermal...... and mechanical properties. Finally we give insight into the relation between the redox state and electronic conductivity....

  7. Normal state resistance and low temperature magnetoresistance of superconducting cables for accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, W.B.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    The normal state resistivity of the superconducting NbTi cable used in accelerator magnets is usually specified by the resistance per unit length at room temperature (295 K) and the residual resistance ratio (RRR). Using these resistance parameters, the amount of copper in the multifilamentary wire can be calculated. This method is consistent with the traditional etch and weigh technique, and as such is a alternative and convenient way of specifying the copper to superconductor ratio. In principle the magnetoresistance can be calculated from the RRR and the ''Kohler Plot'', for copper. In practice however, measurements of magnetoresistance for a wide variety of SSC inner cables show considerable disagreement with calculation. In this paper the magnetoresistance data on cables with RRR ranging from 50 to 175 are analyzed taking into account the conductor geometry and the effect of the small interfilamentary spacing on the resistivity of copper. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Normal-state Nernst effect of a high-critical-temperature superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, S.; Ausloos, M.

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed the data of Clayhold et al. for the Nernst effect in the normal state of a high critical superconductor, i.e., Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ . This requested to derive a kinetic expression for the Nernst effect, an expression able to take into account inelastic scattering and magnetic-field dependence. This was done along a relaxation time formalism for the solution of the Boltzmann equation but leaving a background term which can be calculated by the most appropriate method. The final calculation leads to the evaluation of the background term resulting from the thermoelectric field-free effect. In order to do this we have considered a model of Livanov and Sergeev. The Nernst effect is explained by a simple two band model for electrons and holes with different mobilities. The resulting fit to the experimental data looks rather convincing. Several predictions are made thereafter. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. Prevalence of sarcopenia among older community-dwelling people with normal health and nutritional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Kerstin Khalaj; Dittmar, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed whether sarcopenia, a risk factor for disability in the aged, also occurs in healthy community-dwelling elders with normal nutritional state. As indicators, body cell mass (BCM) and lean body mass (LBM) were determined in 110 Germans (ages 60-83) using bioimpedance analysis. Nutritional status, muscle function, anthropometry, and physical activity level were investigated. Sarcopenia was already present in well nourished healthy elders. Its prevalence depended on the measure of muscle mass used (BCM percent, 22 percent males, 20 percent females; LBM percent, 4 percent males, 11 percent females). In conclusion, screening for presence of sarcopenia is needed in healthy, well-nourished elderly populations requiring an international standardization. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  10. Tunnel and thermal c-axis transport in BSCCO in the normal and pseudogap states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giura, M; Fastampa, R; Sarti, S; Pompeo, N; Silva, E

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of c-axis transport in double-layered cuprates, in particular with reference to Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ compounds. We exploit the effect of the two barriers on the thermal and tunnel transport. The resulting model is able to describe accurately the normal state c-axis resistivity in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ , from the underdoped side up to the strongly overdoped. We extend the model, without introducing additional parameters, in order to allow for the decrease of the barrier when an external voltage bias is applied. The extended model is found to describe properly the c-axis resistivity for small voltage bias above the pseudogap temperature T * , the c-axis resistivity for large voltage bias even below T c , and the differential dI/dV curves taken in mesa structures

  11. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodin, P; Martinsen, S; Mannerkorpi, K; Löfgren, M; Bileviciute-Ljungar, I; Kosek, E; Fransson, P

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown aberrant patterns of intrinsic brain activity in FM. Fourteen FM patients and eleven healthy controls successfully completed the physical exercise treatment. We investigated post- versus pre-treatment changes of brain connectivity, as well as changes in clinical symptoms in the patient group. FM patients reported improvements in symptom severity. Although several brain regions showed a treatment-related change in connectivity, only the connectivity between the right anterior insula and the left primary sensorimotor area was significantly more affected by the physical exercise among the fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls. Our results suggest that previously observed aberrant intrinsic brain connectivity patterns in FM are partly normalized by the physical exercise therapy. However, none of the observed normalizations in intrinsic brain connectivity were significantly correlated with symptom changes. Further studies conducted in larger cohorts are warranted to investigate the precise relationship between improvements in fibromyalgia symptoms and changes in intrinsic brain activity.

  12. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Flodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM. However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown aberrant patterns of intrinsic brain activity in FM. Fourteen FM patients and eleven healthy controls successfully completed the physical exercise treatment. We investigated post- versus pre-treatment changes of brain connectivity, as well as changes in clinical symptoms in the patient group. FM patients reported improvements in symptom severity. Although several brain regions showed a treatment-related change in connectivity, only the connectivity between the right anterior insula and the left primary sensorimotor area was significantly more affected by the physical exercise among the fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls. Our results suggest that previously observed aberrant intrinsic brain connectivity patterns in FM are partly normalized by the physical exercise therapy. However, none of the observed normalizations in intrinsic brain connectivity were significantly correlated with symptom changes. Further studies conducted in larger cohorts are warranted to investigate the precise relationship between improvements in fibromyalgia symptoms and changes in intrinsic brain activity.

  13. Superconducting and normal-state properties of the layered boride OsB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Niazi, A.; Vannette, M. D.; Prozorov, R.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-12-01

    OsB2 crystallizes in an orthorhombic structure (Pmmn) which contains alternate boron and osmium layers stacked along the c axis. The boron layers consist of puckered hexagons as opposed to the flat graphite-like boron layers in MgB2 . OsB2 is reported to become superconducting below 2.1K . We report results of the dynamic and static magnetic susceptibilities, electrical resistivity, Hall effect, heat capacity, and penetration depth measurements on arc-melted polycrystalline samples of OsB2 to characterize its superconducting and normal-state properties. These measurements confirmed that OsB2 becomes a bulk superconductor below Tc=2.1K . Our results indicate that OsB2 is a moderate-coupling type-II superconductor with an electron-phonon coupling constant λep≈0.4-0.5 , a small Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ˜1-2 , and an upper critical magnetic field Hc2(0.5K)˜420Oe for an unannealed sample and Hc2(1K)˜330Oe for an annealed sample. The temperature dependence of the superfluid density ns(T) for the unannealed sample is consistent with an s -wave superconductor with a slightly enhanced zero temperature gap Δ(0)=1.9kBTc and a zero temperature London penetration depth λ(0)=0.38(2)μm . The ns(T) data for the annealed sample show deviations from the predictions of the single-band s -wave BCS model. The magnetic, transport, and thermal properties in the normal state of isostructural and isoelectronic RuB2 , which is reported to become superconducting below 1.6K , are also reported.

  14. Irregular Firing and High-Conductance States in Spinal Motoneurons during Scratching and Swimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Hounsgaard, Jorn; Alaburda, Aidas

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Intense synaptic transmission during scratch network activity increases conductance and induces irregular firing in spinal motoneurons. It is not known whether this high-conductance state is a select feature for scratching or a property that goes with spinal motor network activity...... in general. Here we compare conductance and firing patterns in spinal motoneurons during network activity for scratching and swimming in an ex vivo carapace-spinal cord preparation from adult turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). The pattern and relative engagement of motoneurons are distinctly different...... in scratching and swimming. Nevertheless, we found increased synaptic fluctuations in membrane potential, irregular firing, and increased conductance in spinal motoneurons during scratch and swim network activity. Our finding indicates that intense synaptic activation of motoneurons is a general feature...

  15. From Physiological data to Emotional States: Conducting a User Study and Comparing Machine Learning Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mehmood KHAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing emotional states is becoming a major part of a user's context for wearable computing applications. The system should be able to acquire a user's emotional states by using physiological sensors. We want to develop a personal emotional states recognition system that is practical, reliable, and can be used for health-care related applications. We propose to use the eHealth platform 1 which is a ready-made, light weight, small and easy to use device for recognizing a few emotional states like ‘Sad’, ‘Dislike’, ‘Joy’, ‘Stress’, ‘Normal’, ‘No-Idea’, ‘Positive’ and ‘Negative’ using decision tree (J48 and k-Nearest Neighbors (IBK classifiers. In this paper, we present an approach to build a system that exhibits this property and provides evidence based on data for 8 different emotional states collected from 24 different subjects. Our results indicate that the system has an accuracy rate of approximately 98 %. In our work, we used four physiological sensors i.e. ‘Blood Volume Pulse’ (BVP, ‘Electromyogram’ (EMG, ‘Galvanic Skin Response’ (GSR, and ‘Skin Temperature’ in order to recognize emotional states (i.e. Stress, Joy/Happy, Sad, Normal/Neutral, Dislike, No-idea, Positive and Negative.

  16. 3D imaging of the mitochondrial redox state of rat hearts under normal and fasting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He N. Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The heart requires continuous ATP availability that is generated in the mitochondria. Although studies using the cell culture and perfused organ models have been carried out to investigate the biochemistry in the mitochondria in response to a change in substrate supply, mitochondrial bioenergetics of heart under normal feed or fasting conditions has not been studied at the tissue level with a sub-millimeter spatial resolution either in vivo or ex vivo. Oxidation of many food-derived metabolites to generate ATP in the mitochondria is realized through the NADH/NAD+ couple acting as a central electron carrier. We employed the Chance redox scanner — the low-temperature fluorescence scanner to image the three-dimensional (3D spatial distribution of the mitochondrial redox states in heart tissues of rats under normal feeding or an overnight starvation for 14.5 h. Multiple consecutive sections of each heart were imaged to map three redox indices, i.e., NADH, oxidized flavoproteins (Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD and the redox ratio NADH/Fp. The imaging results revealed the micro-heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of these redox indices. The quantitative analysis showed that in the fasted hearts the standard deviation of both NADH and Fp, i.e., SD_NADH and SD_Fp, significantly decreased with a p value of 0.032 and 0.045, respectively, indicating that the hearts become relatively more homogeneous after fasting. The fasted hearts contained 28.6% less NADH (p = 0.038. No significant change in Fp was found (p = 0.4. The NADH/Fp ratio decreased with a marginal p value (0.076. The decreased NADH in the fasted hearts is consistent with the cardiac cells' reliance of fatty acids consumption for energy metabolism when glucose becomes scarce. The experimental observation of NADH decrease induced by dietary restriction in the heart at tissue level has not been reported to our best knowledge. The Chance redox scanner demonstrated the

  17. 3D IMAGING OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL REDOX STATE OF RAT HEARTS UNDER NORMAL AND FASTING CONDITIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N; Zhou, Rong; Moon, Lily; Feng, Min; Li, Lin Z

    2014-03-01

    The heart requires continuous ATP availability that is generated in the mitochondria. Although studies using the cell culture and perfused organ models have been carried out to investigate the biochemistry in the mitochondria in response to a change in substrate supply, mitochondrial bioenergetics of heart under normal feed or fasting conditions has not been studied at the tissue level with a sub-millimeter spatial resolution either in vivo or ex vivo . Oxidation of many food-derived metabolites to generate ATP in the mitochondria is realized through the NADH/NAD + couple acting as a central electron carrier. We employed the Chance redox scanner - the low-temperature fluorescence scanner to image the three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of the mitochondrial redox states in heart tissues of rats under normal feeding or an overnight starvation for 14.5 h. Multiple consecutive sections of each heart were imaged to map three redox indices, i.e., NADH, oxidized flavoproteins (Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)) and the redox ratio NADH/Fp. The imaging results revealed the micro-heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of these redox indices. The quantitative analysis showed that in the fasted hearts the standard deviation of both NADH and Fp, i.e., SD_NADH and SD_Fp, significantly decreased with a p value of 0.032 and 0.045, respectively, indicating that the hearts become relatively more homogeneous after fasting. The fasted hearts contained 28.6% less NADH ( p = 0.038). No significant change in Fp was found ( p = 0.4). The NADH/Fp ratio decreased with a marginal p value (0.076). The decreased NADH in the fasted hearts is consistent with the cardiac cells' reliance of fatty acids consumption for energy metabolism when glucose becomes scarce. The experimental observation of NADH decrease induced by dietary restriction in the heart at tissue level has not been reported to our best knowledge. The Chance redox scanner demonstrated the feasibility of 3D

  18. Multiply gapped density of states in a normal metal in contact with a superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reutlinger, Johannes; Belzig, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Nazarov, Yuli V. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Glazman, Leonid I. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven CT 06511-8499 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The spectral properties of a normal metal adjacent to a superconductor are strongly dependent on the characteristic mesoscopic energy scale - the Thouless energy E{sub Th} - and the strength of the connection. In this work, we predict that the local density of states (LDOS), besides the well know minigap {proportional_to}E{sub Th}, can exhibit a multiple gap structure, which strongly depends on the type of the contact. For ballistic contacts we calculate these secondary gaps analytically in the framework of quantum circuit theory of mesoscopic transport. The secondary gaps are absent in the case of tunnel contacts. In the general case the equations are solved numerically for more realistic contacts, like for example diffusive connectors or dirty interfaces, which are characterized by continuous distributions of transmission eigenvalues between 0 and 1. We find that the gap vanishes in these cases, but the density of states is still suppressed around the superconducting gap edge. Distribution functions with a stronger weight at higher transmissions can be modeled through asymmetric ballistic double junctions, which even exhibit multiple gaps. Such spectral signatures are fundamental to disordered nanoscopic conductors and experimentally accessible.

  19. High-conductance states in a mean-field cortical network model

    CERN Document Server

    Lerchner, A; Hertz, J

    2004-01-01

    Measured responses from visual cortical neurons show that spike times tend to be correlated rather than exactly Poisson distributed. Fano factors vary and are usually greater than 1 due to the tendency of spikes being clustered into bursts. We show that this behavior emerges naturally in a balanced cortical network model with random connectivity and conductance-based synapses. We employ mean field theory with correctly colored noise to describe temporal correlations in the neuronal activity. Our results illuminate the connection between two independent experimental findings: high conductance states of cortical neurons in their natural environment, and variable non-Poissonian spike statistics with Fano factors greater than 1.

  20. Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of liquid aluminum in the two-temperature state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Yu V.; Inogamov, N. A.; Mokshin, A. V.; Galimzyanov, B. N.

    2018-01-01

    The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of liquid aluminum in the two-temperature state is calculated by using the relaxation time approach and structural factor of ions obtained by molecular dynamics simulation. Resistivity witin the Ziman-Evans approach is also considered to be higher than in the approach with previously calculated conductivity via the relaxation time. Calculations based on the construction of the ion structural factor through the classical molecular dynamics and kinetic equation for electrons are more economical in terms of computing resources and give results close to the Kubo-Greenwood with the quantum molecular dynamics calculations.

  1. Possibility of producing the event-ready two-photon polarization entangled state with normal photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangbin

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme to produce the maximally two-photon polarization entangled state with single-photon sources and the passive linear optics devices. In particular, our scheme only requires the normal photon detectors which distinguish the vacuum and non-vacuum Fock number states. A sophisticated photon detector distinguishing between one-photon state and two-photon state is unnecessary in the scheme

  2. A multipoint flux approximation of the steady-state heat conduction equation in anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu; El-Amin, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we introduce multipoint flux (MF) approximation method to the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic media. In such media, the heat flux vector is no longer coincident with the temperature gradient vector. In this case, thermal conductivity is described as a second order tensor that usually requires, at least, six quantities to be fully defined in general three-dimensional problems. The two-point flux finite differences approximation may not handle such anisotropy and essentially more points need to be involved to describe the heat flux vector. In the framework of mixed finite element method (MFE), the MFMFE methods are locally conservative with continuous normal fluxes. We consider the lowest order Brezzi-Douglas-Marini (BDM) mixed finite element method with a special quadrature rule that allows for nodal velocity elimination resulting in a cell-centered system for the temperature. We show comparisons with some analytical solution of the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic long strip. We also consider the problem of heat conduction in a bounded, rectangular domain with different anisotropy scenarios. It is noticed that the temperature field is significantly affected by such anisotropy scenarios. Also, the technique used in this work has shown that it is possible to use the finite difference settings to handle heat transfer in anisotropic media. In this case, heat flux vectors, for the case of rectangular mesh, generally require six points to be described. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  3. A multipoint flux approximation of the steady-state heat conduction equation in anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2013-03-20

    In this work, we introduce multipoint flux (MF) approximation method to the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic media. In such media, the heat flux vector is no longer coincident with the temperature gradient vector. In this case, thermal conductivity is described as a second order tensor that usually requires, at least, six quantities to be fully defined in general three-dimensional problems. The two-point flux finite differences approximation may not handle such anisotropy and essentially more points need to be involved to describe the heat flux vector. In the framework of mixed finite element method (MFE), the MFMFE methods are locally conservative with continuous normal fluxes. We consider the lowest order Brezzi-Douglas-Marini (BDM) mixed finite element method with a special quadrature rule that allows for nodal velocity elimination resulting in a cell-centered system for the temperature. We show comparisons with some analytical solution of the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic long strip. We also consider the problem of heat conduction in a bounded, rectangular domain with different anisotropy scenarios. It is noticed that the temperature field is significantly affected by such anisotropy scenarios. Also, the technique used in this work has shown that it is possible to use the finite difference settings to handle heat transfer in anisotropic media. In this case, heat flux vectors, for the case of rectangular mesh, generally require six points to be described. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  4. Normal state magnetic behavior of (U/sub 1-x/RE/sub x/)Be13 pseudobinaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirngiebl, E.; Thompson, J.D.; Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Any impurity doping seems to modify the low temperature properties of UBe 13 in a way rather unusual compared to normal superconductors. So far, however, little attention has been paid to the modification of the normal state properties of impurity doped UB 13 . We have investigated the normal state magnetic behavior of impurity doped (U/sub 1-x/RE/sub x/)Be 13 pseudobinaries (RE = Th, Y, La, Lu, Sc) in the temperature range between 2 K and 380 K for impurity concentrations x ≤ 0.05 to see if there are correlations with T/sub c/(x)

  5. Transport and solid state battery characteristic studies of silver based super ion conducting glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaseelan, S.; Muralidharan, P.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Satyanarayana, N.

    2005-01-01

    Silverarsenotellurite (SAT), silverphosphotellurite (SPT) and silvervanadotellurite (SVT) quaternary glass systems were prepared with various formers compositions by a melt quenching method. Glass nature, glass transition temperature (T g ) and structure of the prepared glasses were identified respectively by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) technique. Electrical conductivity studies were carried out by impedance measurement in the frequency range 40 Hz to 100 KHz at different temperatures for all three sets of AgI-Ag 2 O-[TeO 2 -M 2 O 5 ] (M 2 O 5 = As 2 O 5 , P 2 O 5 , V 2 O 5 ) glasses. The high conducting compositions of SAT, SPT and SVT glass samples were fixed from the results of total conductivity (σ t ). Electronic conductivity (σ e ) studies were made on high conducting composition of each glass system by Wagner's polarization method. Total current (i t ) is due to ion and electron. Electronic current (i e ) due to electron were estimated through mobility studies. Ionic conductivity (σ i ) and ionic current (i i ) were calculated respectively using the conductivity (σ t and σ e ) and current (i t and i e ) results for the SAT, SPT and SVT glasses. Transport numbers due to ion (t i ) and electron (t e ) were calculated using the conductivity and mobility results for each glass system. The high conducting composition of the SAT, SPT and SVT glasses were used as solid electrolytes with silver metal as an anode and iodine:graphite (I:C) as a cathode for the fabrication of solid state batteries (SSBs). All the fabricated batteries were characterized by measuring the open circuit voltage (OCV) and polarization properties and estimated the batteries performances

  6. Estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity and air permeability from soil physical properties using state-space analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe; Møldrup, Per; Nielsen, Don

    2003-01-01

    and gaseous chemicals in the vadose zone. In this study, three modeling approaches were used to identify the dependence of saturated hydraulic conductivity (K-S) and air permeability at -100 cm H2O soil-water potential (k(a100)) on soil physical properties in undisturbed soil: (i) Multiple regression, (ii......) ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) modeling, and (iii) State-space modeling. In addition to actual soil property values, ARIMA and state-space models account for effects of spatial correlation in soil properties. Measured data along two 70-m-long transects at a 20-year old constructed......Estimates of soil hydraulic conductivity (K) and air permeability (k(a)) at given soil-water potentials are often used as reference points in constitutive models for K and k(a) as functions of moisture content and are, therefore, a prerequisite for predicting migration of water, air, and dissolved...

  7. Dynamic tunneling force microscopy for characterizing electronic trap states in non-conductive surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R.; Williams, C. C., E-mail: clayton@physics.utah.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Dynamic tunneling force microscopy (DTFM) is a scanning probe technique for real space mapping and characterization of individual electronic trap states in non-conductive films with atomic scale spatial resolution. The method is based upon the quantum mechanical tunneling of a single electron back and forth between a metallic atomic force microscopy tip and individual trap states in completely non-conducting surface. This single electron shuttling is measured by detecting the electrostatic force induced on the probe tip at the shuttling frequency. In this paper, the physical basis for the DTFM method is unfolded through a physical model and a derivation of the dynamic tunneling signal as a function of several experimental parameters is shown. Experimental data are compared with the theoretical simulations, showing quantitative consistency and verifying the physical model used. The experimental system is described and representative imaging results are shown.

  8. Comparative study of attachment relationships in young children with symptoms of externalizing disorders: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Najafi Shoar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the relationship of attachment between children with externalizing disorder (ADHD and less conflict and conduct disorder was performed with normal children. And the correlation was causalcomparative research design. The study population included all male students in Year 94 was 12.7 years in Tabriz To this aim, and to a multi-stage random sampling method, a sample of 200 (150 patients with symptoms and 50 normal KCAQ people were selected and CSI-4 was performed on them. The data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results showed that children with externalizing disorders and normal children in terms of attachment there is a significant difference (P <0/005. So that children with attention disorders and children with the disorder more or less active and less conflict in relationships have insecure attachment styles. Another finding of the study showed that children with conduct disorder, avoidant, ambivalent insecure attachment relationships are the common children are secure attachment relationships. Thus, the results of this study have practical implications in clinical areas to the extent that the design of such attachment-based interventions are necessary.

  9. Thermal Conductance and High-Frequency Properties of Cryogenic Normal or Superconducting Semi-rigid Coaxial Cables in the Temperature Range of 1-8 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushino, A.; Kasai, S.; Ukibe, M.; Ohkubo, M.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the characteristics of thin semi-rigid cables composed of different conductors and with outer diameters ranging from 0.86 to 1.19 mm were investigated at low temperatures. The thermal conductance was measured between approximately 1 and 8 K, and the frequency dependence of the attenuation in the cables was obtained at 3 K. The electrical conductors used in the cables were alloys: beryllium copper, brass, stainless steel (SUS304), phosphor bronze, cupronickel (CuNi), and niobium-titanium (NbTi). The thermal conductance of a commercial miniature coaxial cable with braided wires forming the outer electrical conductor was also examined for reference. The measured thermal conductance was compared to published data and that generated from material libraries and databases. Among the measured cables using normal metals, the semi-rigid cable composed of SUS304 conductors and a polytetrafluoroethylene insulator showed the lowest thermal conductance. The transmission performance of the semi-rigid cables using SUS304 or CuNi was improved by plating the central conductors with a silver coating of approximately 3 μm thickness, and their thermal conductance with the plating increased by approximately one order of magnitude. The superconducting NbTi semi-rigid cable exhibited the lowest thermal conductance of all the cables considered in the present study along with very small attenuation up to above 5 GHz.

  10. Fructose intake at current levels in the United States may cause gastrointestinal distress in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Peter L; Caviar, Elena M; McCallum, Richard W

    2005-10-01

    Fructose intake has increased considerably in the United States, primarily as a result of increased consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, fruits and juices, and crystalline fructose. The purpose was to determine how often fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, would result in malabsorption and/or symptoms in healthy persons. Fructose absorption was measured using 3-hour breath hydrogen tests and symptom scores were used to rate subjective responses for gas, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and loose stools. The study included 15 normal, free-living volunteers from a medical center community and was performed in a gastrointestinal specialty clinic. Subjects consumed 25- and 50-g doses of crystalline fructose with water after an overnight fast on separate test days. Mean peak breath hydrogen, time of peak, area under the curve (AUC) for breath hydrogen and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured during a 3-hour period after subjects consumed both 25- and 50-g doses of fructose. Differences in mean breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptom scores between doses were analyzed using paired t tests. Correlations among peak breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptoms were also evaluated. More than half of the 15 adults tested showed evidence of fructose malabsorption after 25 g fructose and greater than two thirds showed malabsorption after 50 g fructose. AUC, representing overall breath hydrogen response, was significantly greater after the 50-g dose. Overall symptom scores were significantly greater than baseline after each dose, but scores were only marginally greater after 50 g than 25 g. Peak hydrogen levels and AUC were highly correlated, but neither was significantly related to symptoms. Fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, may result in mild gastrointestinal distress in normal people. Additional study is warranted to evaluate the response to fructose-glucose mixtures (as in high-fructose corn syrup) and fructose taken with food in both normal people and those with

  11. Theory of novel normal and superconducting states in doped oxide high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhumanov, S.

    2001-10-01

    A consistent and complete theory of the novel normal and superconducting (SC) states of doped high-T c superconductors (HTSC) is developed by combining the continuum model of carrier self-trapping, the tight-binding model and the novel Fermi-Bose-liquid (FBL) model. The ground-state energy of carriers in lightly doped HTSC is calculated within the continuum model and adiabatic approximation using the variational method. The destruction of the long-range antiferromagnetic (AF) order at low doping x≥ x cl ≅0.015, the formation of the in-gap states or bands and novel (bi)polaronic insulating phases at x c2 ≅0.06-0.08, and the new metal- insulator transition at x≅x c2 in HTSC are studied within the continuum model of impurity (defect) centers and large (bi)polarons by using the appropriate tight-binding approximations. It is found that the three-dimensional (3d) large (bi)polarons are formed at ε ∞ /ε 0 ≤0.1 and become itinerant when the (bi)polaronic insulator-to-(bi)polaronic metal transitions occur at x x c2 . We show that the novel pseudogapped metallic and SC states in HTSC are formed at x c2 ≤x≤x p ≅0.20-0.24. We demonstrate that the large polaronic and small BCS-like pairing pseudogaps opening in the excitation spectrum of underdoped (x c2 BCS =0.125), optimally doped (x BCS o ≅0.20) and overdoped (x>x o ) HTSC above T c are unrelated to superconductivity and they are responsible for the observed anomalous optical, transport, magnetic and other properties of these HTSC. We develop the original two-stage FBL model of novel superconductivity describing the combined novel BCS-like pairing scenario of fermions and true superfluid (SF) condensation scenario of composite bosons (i.e. bipolarons and cooperons) in any Fermi-systems, where the SF condensate gap Δ B and the BCS-like pairing pseudogap Δ F have different origins. The pair and single particle condensations of attracting 3d and two- dimensional (2d) composite bosons are responsible for

  12. Thermal conductivity of the vortex lattice state involving the antiferromagnetism around the core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigawa, Mitsuaki; Ichioka, Masanori; Machida, Kazushige

    2004-01-01

    The thermal conductivity κ xx is the difference between higher and lower temperature regions, because the spatially-resolved thermal conductivity κ xx (r) is localized around the vortex core at lower temperature and delocalized at higher temperature. On one hand, much attention is focused on the spin and charge ordering around the vortex. When the antiferromagnetism appears around the core, the energy gap suppresses the density of states on the Fermi energy, and the zero-energy peak at the vortex core splits or vanishes. The κ xx under the Neel temperature is suppressed by the antiferromagnetism. We solve the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation self-consistently by two-dimensional extended Hubbard model including the repulsive interaction U, and calculate the κ xx on the basis of the linear response theory. The picture of the spatial variation of the thermal conductivity κ(r) through the spin resolved local DOS well explains recent experiments

  13. Solid-state ionics: Studies of lithium-conducting sulfide glasses and a superconducting oxide compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byung Tae.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of this work studies lithium-conducting sulfide glasses for battery applications, while the second part studies the thermodynamic properties of a superconducting oxide compound by using an oxide electrolyte. Lithium conducting glasses based on the SiS 2 -Li 2 S system are possible solid electrolytes for high-energy-density lithium batteries. The foremost requirement for solid electrolytes is that they should have high ionic conductivities. Unfortunately, most crystalline lithium conductors have low ionic conductivities at room temperature. However, glass ionic conductors show higher ionic conductivities than do crystalline forms of the same material. In addition to higher ionic conductivities, glasses appear to have several advantages over crystalline materials. These advantages include isotropic conductivity, absence of grain boundary effects, ease of glass forming, and the potential for a wide range of stability to oxidizing and reducing conditions. Using pyrolitic graphite-coated quartz ampoules, new ternary compounds and glasses in the SiS 2 -Li 2 S system were prepared. Several techniques were used to characterize the materials: powder x-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and AC impedance spectroscopy. The measured lithium conductivity of the sulfide glasses was one of the highest among the known solid lithium conductors. Measuring the equilibrium open circuit voltages assisted in determining the electrochemical stabilities of the ternary compounds and glasses with respect to pure Li. A solid-state ionic technique called oxygen coulometric titration was used to measure the thermodynamic stability, the oxygen stoichiometry, and the effects of the oxygen stoichiometry, and the effects of the oxygen stoichiometry and the cooling rate on superconductivity of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x compound were investigated

  14. Visualizing One-Dimensional Electronic States and their Scattering in Semi-conducting Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidenkopf, Haim; Reiner, Jonathan; Norris, Andrew; Nayak, Abhay Kumar; Avraham, Nurit; Shtrikman, Hadas

    One-dimensional electronic systems constitute a fascinating playground for the emergence of exotic electronic effects and phases, within and beyond the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid paradigm. More recently topological superconductivity and Majorana modes were added to that long list of phenomena. We report scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements conducted on pristine, epitaxialy grown InAs nanowires. We resolve the 1D electronic band structure manifested both via Van-Hove singularities in the local density-of-states, as well as by the quasi-particle interference patterns, induced by scattering from surface impurities. By studying the scattering of the one-dimensional electronic states off various scatterers, including crystallographic defects and the nanowire end, we identify new one-dimensional relaxation regimes and yet unexplored effects of interactions. Some of these may bear implications on the topological superconducting state and Majorana modes therein. The authors acknowledge support from the Israeli Science Foundation (ISF).

  15. Language Patterns Discriminate Mild Depression From Normal Sadness and Euthymic State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Smirnova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesDeviations from typical word use have been previously reported in clinical depression, but language patterns of mild depression (MD, as distinct from normal sadness (NS and euthymic state, are unknown. In this study, we aimed to apply the linguistic approach as an additional diagnostic key for understanding clinical variability along the continuum of affective states.MethodsWe studied 402 written reports from 124 Russian-speaking patients and 77 healthy controls (HC, including 35 cases of NS, using hand-coding procedures. The focus of our psycholinguistic methods was on lexico-semantic [e.g., rhetorical figures (metaphors, similes], syntactic [e.g., predominant sentence type (single-clause and multi-clause], and lexico-grammatical [e.g., pronouns (indefinite, personal] variables. Statistical evaluations included Cohen’s kappa for inter-rater reliability measures, a non-parametric approach (Mann–Whitney U-test and Pearson chi-square test, one-way ANOVA for between-group differences, Spearman’s and point-biserial correlations to analyze relationships between linguistic and gender variables, discriminant analysis (Wilks’ λ of linguistic variables in relation to the affective diagnostic types, all using SPSS-22 (significant, p < 0.05.ResultsIn MD, as compared with healthy individuals, written responses were longer, demonstrated descriptive rather than analytic style, showed signs of spoken and figurative language, single-clause sentences domination over multi-clause, atypical word order, increased use of personal and indefinite pronouns, and verb use in continuous/imperfective and past tenses. In NS, as compared with HC, we found greater use of lexical repetitions, omission of words, and verbs in continuous and present tenses. MD was significantly differentiated from NS and euthymic state by linguistic variables [98.6%; Wilks’ λ(40 = 0.009; p < 0.001; r = 0.992]. The highest predictors in discrimination between

  16. Large-scale grain growth in the solid-state process: From "Abnormal" to "Normal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minhong; Han, Shengnan; Zhang, Jingwei; Song, Jiageng; Hao, Chongyan; Deng, Manjiao; Ge, Lingjing; Gu, Zhengfei; Liu, Xinyu

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal grain growth (AGG) has been a common phenomenon during the ceramic or metallurgy processing since prehistoric times. However, usually it had been very difficult to grow big single crystal (centimeter scale over) by using the AGG method due to its so-called occasionality. Based on the AGG, a solid-state crystal growth (SSCG) method was developed. The greatest advantages of the SSCG technology are the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of the technique. But the traditional SSCG technology is still uncontrollable. This article first summarizes the history and current status of AGG, and then reports recent technical developments from AGG to SSCG, and further introduces a new seed-free, solid-state crystal growth (SFSSCG) technology. This SFSSCG method allows us to repeatedly and controllably fabricate large-scale single crystals with appreciable high quality and relatively stable chemical composition at a relatively low temperature, at least in (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3(KNN) and Cu-Al-Mn systems. In this sense, the exaggerated grain growth is no longer 'Abnormal' but 'Normal' since it is able to be artificially controllable and repeated now. This article also provides a crystal growth model to qualitatively explain the mechanism of SFSSCG for KNN system. Compared with the traditional melt and high temperature solution growth methods, the SFSSCG method has the advantages of low energy consumption, low investment, simple technique, composition homogeneity overcoming the issues with incongruent melting and high volatility. This SFSSCG could be helpful for improving the mechanical and physical properties of single crystals, which should be promising for industrial applications.

  17. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Imaging the Conductance of Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Edge States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Pascher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We measure the conductance of a quantum point contact while the biased tip of a scanning probe microscope induces a depleted region in the electron gas underneath. At a finite magnetic field, we find plateaus in the real-space maps of the conductance as a function of tip position at integer (ν=1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and fractional (ν=1/3, 2/3, 5/3, 4/5 values of transmission. They resemble theoretically predicted compressible and incompressible stripes of quantum Hall edge states. The scanning tip allows us to shift the constriction limiting the conductance in real space over distances of many microns. The resulting stripes of integer and fractional filling factors are rugged on scales of a few hundred nanometers, i.e., on a scale much smaller than the zero-field elastic mean free path of the electrons. Our experiments demonstrate that microscopic inhomogeneities are relevant even in high-quality samples and lead to locally strongly fluctuating widths of incompressible regions even down to their complete suppression for certain tip positions. The macroscopic quantization of the Hall resistance measured experimentally in a nonlocal contact configuration survives in the presence of these inhomogeneities, and the relevant local energy scale for the ν=2 state turns out to be independent of tip position.

  19. The effect of inertia, viscous damping, temperature and normal stress on chaotic behaviour of the rate and state friction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Nitish; Singh, Arun K.; Singh, Trilok N.

    2018-04-01

    A fundamental understanding of frictional sliding at rock surfaces is of practical importance for nucleation and propagation of earthquakes and rock slope stability. We investigate numerically the effect of different physical parameters such as inertia, viscous damping, temperature and normal stress on the chaotic behaviour of the two state variables rate and state friction (2sRSF) model. In general, a slight variation in any of inertia, viscous damping, temperature and effective normal stress reduces the chaotic behaviour of the sliding system. However, the present study has shown the appearance of chaos for the specific values of normal stress before it disappears again as the normal stress varies further. It is also observed that magnitude of system stiffness at which chaotic motion occurs, is less than the corresponding value of critical stiffness determined by using the linear stability analysis. These results explain the practical observation why chaotic nucleation of an earthquake is a rare phenomenon as reported in literature.

  20. The regulation of visitors conduction activity in the State System os Brazilian Conservation Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Alves Nascimento

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Beyond to conserving biodiversity, conservation units must promote public use in contact with nature, assisting in increasing the economic resource of the area, approximating the society to nature and promoting their sustainable use. In Brazil, there are rules of the Ministry of Environment and Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation that regulate the conduction of visitors in federal conservation units. Remains to know how the activity is regulated in other spheres of the National Conservation Units System. Therefore, this article purpose to identify the legal basis for the conduction of visitors in the state conservation units and their adherence to guidelines of the Ministry of Environment. The methodology consisted in documentary research and data survey of the legal basis, done through visits to websites and sending e-mails to state management agencies. Adherence to the guidelines of the regulations was done through the evaluation to fulfillment or not from them. Legal basis were found in 18.5% of federal units of Brazil, being that only Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro meet almost all of the guideline. The conclusion was that there is a long way to go forward as the creation of rules and procedures that simultaneously encourage visitation accompanied to qualified conductors and biodiversity conservation. It is recommended greater efforts of state management agencies for the development of these legal basis, promoting improvements in desenvolviment of the activity and awareness of society.

  1. Hydraulic conductivity of Red-Yellow Podzolic Soil from Zona da Mata in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Netto, Andre; Antonino, Antonio C.D.; Dall'Olio, Attilio; Carneiro, Clemente J.G.; Audry, Pierre

    1997-01-01

    The determination of the hydraulic conductivity of a Red-Yellow Podzolic Soil was carried out during an experiment in a plot measuring 3,5 m x 3,5 m at the Experimental Station of Itapirema, Goiania, in the State of Pernambuco. The internal drainage method was used to obtain the hydraulic conductivity as a function of soil water content, K (THETA), in there characteristic horizons of the soil. In relation to the methodological aspects, processing of data from internal drainage experiments, including the initial phase of fast drainage, the adjustment of the required parameters, it is necessary to use functions that reproduce the distinct transition between the fast and slow phases of drainage. From all five tested functions, those of power sum of two exponentials and sum of three exponentials, especially this last one, adjusted well to this distinct transition. Three characteristic horizons of the Red-yellow Podzolic Soil were investigated for hydraulic conductivity. The sandy a horizon with large pores, has a high conductivity while the B1t horizon, with massive structure and few visible pores, has a low infiltration rate. The hydraulic dynamics of the B2 horizon is more complex due to its heterogeneity. The precise characterization of the A and B1t, horizons, which are the most important to agriculture and soil conservation makes it possible to elaborate numeric simulation models of the water transference process in the superficial horizons of this type of soil. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. High-conductance states in a mean-field cortical network model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerchner, Alexander; Ahmadi, Mandana; Hertz, John

    2004-01-01

    cortical network model with random connectivity and conductance-based synapses. We employ mean-field theory with correctly colored noise to describe temporal correlations in the neuronal activity. Our results illuminate the connection between two independent experimental findings: high-conductance states......Measured responses from visual cortical neurons show that spike times tend to be correlated rather than exactly Poisson distributed. Fano factors vary and are usually greater than 1, indicating a tendency toward spikes being clustered. We show that this behavior emerges naturally in a balanced...... of cortical neurons in their natural environment, and variable non-Poissonian spike statistics with Fano factors greater than 1. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. A 15O-H2O PET study of meditation and the resting state of normal consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Kjaer, T W; Friberg, L

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the neural structures subserving meditation can be reproducibly measured, and, if so, whether they are different from those supporting the resting state of normal consciousness. Cerebral blood flow distribution was investigated with the 15O-H20...... PET technique in nine young adults, who were highly experienced yoga teachers, during the relaxation meditation (Yoga Nidra), and during the resting state of normal consciousness. In addition, global CBF was measured in two of the subjects. Spectral EEG analysis was performed throughout...... the investigations. In meditation, differential activity was seen, with the noticeable exception of V1, in the posterior sensory and associative cortices known to participate in imagery tasks. In the resting state of normal consciousness (compared with meditation as a baseline), differential activity was found...

  4. Implementation of IAEA Code of Conduct and Guidance – Exporting State Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, T.

    2010-01-01

    Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is a federal agency reporting to Parliament through Natural Resources Minister It Regulates all nuclear facilities and activities to protect the health, safety and security of persons and the environment, assure that Canada meets its international commitments and obligations on the peaceful use of nuclear energy by Implementation of the IAEA Code and Guidance. There were 99 States committed to the IAEA Code of Conduct (as of July 2010) while 59 States committed to the IAEA Guidance on Import and Export (as of July 2010) Use of risk-informed regulatory processes to optimize resource allocation and decision-making. Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Control of Radioactive Sources. As such, the Canadian Government is a strong proponent of the establishment and maintenance of an effective, efficient and harmonized international regime for ensuring the safety and security of such sources

  5. Competing pseudogap and impurity effects on the normal-state specific heat properties of cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhumanov, S.; Karimboev, E. X.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we show that the pseudogap in the excitation spectra of high-Tc cuprates together with the impurity phase and charge inhomogeneity plays key roles in determining the essential features of their anomalous specific heat properties observed above Tc. We consider the doped cuprate superconductor as a multi-carrier model system (which consists of intrinsic and extrinsic polarons and pre-formed bosonic Cooper pairs) and study the competing pseudogap and impurity effects on the normal-state electronic specific heat of high-Tc cuprates taking into account charge inhomogeneities. We argue that unconventional electron-phonon interactions are responsible for the precursor Cooper pairing in the polaronic band below a mean-field temperature T∗ and the existence of a pseudogap above Tc in the cuprates. The electronic specific heat Ce(T) of doped cuprates below T∗ is calculated taking into account three contributions coming from the excited components of Cooper pairs, the ideal Bose-gas of incoherent Cooper pairs and the unpaired carriers in the impurity band. Above T∗, two contributions to Ce(T) coming from the unpaired intrinsic and extrinsic polarons are calculated within the two-component degenerate Fermi-gas model. By comparing our results with the experimental Ce(T) data obtained for La- and Y-based cuprates, we find that the observed behaviors of Ce(T) (below and above T∗) are similar to the calculated results for Ce(T) and the BCS-type jumps of Ce(T) at T∗ may be depressed by the impurity effects and may become more or less pronounced BCS-type anomalies in Ce(T) .

  6. Information processing in micro and meso-scale neural circuits during normal and disease states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Francisco

    Neural computation can occur at multiple spatial and temporal timescales. The sum total of all of these processes is to guide optimal behaviors within the context of the constraints imposed by the physical world. How the circuits of the brain achieves this goal represents a central question in systems neuroscience. Here I explore the many ways in which the circuits of the brain can process information at both the micro and meso scale. Understanding the way information is represented and processed in the brain could shed light on the neuropathology underlying complex neuropsychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia. Chapter 2 establishes an experimental paradigm for assaying patterns of microcircuit activity and examines the role of dopaminergic modulation on prefrontal microcircuits. We find that dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor activation results in an increase in spontaneous activity while dopamine type 1 (D1) activation does not. Chapter 3 of this dissertation presents a study that illustrates how cholingergic activation normally produces what has been suggested as a neural substrate of attention; pairwise decorrelation in microcircuit activity. This study also shows that in two etiologicall distinct mouse models of autism, FMR1 knockout mice and Valproic Acid exposed mice, this ability to decorrelate in the presence of cholinergic activation is lost. This represents a putative microcircuit level biomarker of autism. Chapter 4 examines the structure/function relationship within the prefrontal microcircuit. Spontaneous activity in prefrontal microcircuits is shown to be organized according to a small world architecture. Interestingly, this architecture is important for one concrete function of neuronal microcircuits; the ability to produce temporally stereotyped patterns of activation. In the final chapter, we identify subnetworks in chronic intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings using pairwise electrode coherence and dimensionality reduction

  7. Development of Normalization Factors for Canada and the United States and Comparison with European Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), normalization calculates the magnitude of an impact (midpoint or endpoint) relative to the total effect of a given reference. Using a country or a continent as a reference system is a first step towards global normalization. The goal of this wor...

  8. Magneto-conductance fingerprints of purely quantum states in the open quantum dot limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Michel; Ujevic, Sebastian

    2012-06-01

    We present quantum magneto-conductance simulations, at the quantum low energy condition, to study the open quantum dot limit. The longitudinal conductance G(E,B) of spinless and non-interacting electrons is mapped as a function of the magnetic field B and the energy E of the electrons. The quantum dot linked to the semi-infinite leads is tuned by quantum point contacts of variable width w. We analyze the transition from a quantum wire to an open quantum dot and then to an effective closed system. The transition, as a function of w, occurs in the following sequence: evolution of quasi-Landau levels to Fano resonances and quasi-bound states between the quasi-Landau levels, followed by the formation of crossings that evolve to anti-crossings inside the quasi-Landau level region. After that, Fano resonances are created between the quasi-Landau states with the final generation of resonant tunneling peaks. By comparing the G(E,B) maps, we identify the closed and open-like limits of the system as a function of the applied magnetic field. These results were used to build quantum openness diagrams G(w,B). Also, these maps allow us to determine the w-limit value from which we can qualitatively relate the closed system properties to the open one. The above analysis can be used to identify single spinless particle effects in experimental measurements of the open quantum dot limit.

  9. Magneto-conductance fingerprints of purely quantum states in the open quantum dot limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Michel; Ujevic, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    We present quantum magneto-conductance simulations, at the quantum low energy condition, to study the open quantum dot limit. The longitudinal conductance G(E,B) of spinless and non-interacting electrons is mapped as a function of the magnetic field B and the energy E of the electrons. The quantum dot linked to the semi-infinite leads is tuned by quantum point contacts of variable width w. We analyze the transition from a quantum wire to an open quantum dot and then to an effective closed system. The transition, as a function of w, occurs in the following sequence: evolution of quasi-Landau levels to Fano resonances and quasi-bound states between the quasi-Landau levels, followed by the formation of crossings that evolve to anti-crossings inside the quasi-Landau level region. After that, Fano resonances are created between the quasi-Landau states with the final generation of resonant tunneling peaks. By comparing the G(E,B) maps, we identify the closed and open-like limits of the system as a function of the applied magnetic field. These results were used to build quantum openness diagrams G(w,B). Also, these maps allow us to determine the w-limit value from which we can qualitatively relate the closed system properties to the open one. The above analysis can be used to identify single spinless particle effects in experimental measurements of the open quantum dot limit. (paper)

  10. Theoretical prediction of ion conductivity in solid state HfO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Wen-Zhou; Sun, Jiu-Yu; Jiang, Zhen-Yi

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical prediction of ion conductivity for solid state HfO2 is carried out in analogy to ZrO2 based on the density functional calculation. Geometric and electronic structures of pure bulks exhibit similarity for the two materials. Negative formation enthalpy and negative vacancy formation energy are found for YSH (yttria-stabilized hafnia) and YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia), suggesting the stability of both materials. Low activation energies (below 0.7 eV) of diffusion are found in both materials, and YSH's is a little higher than that of YSZ. In addition, for both HfO2 and ZrO2, the supercells with native oxygen vacancies are also studied. The so-called defect states are observed in the supercells with neutral and +1 charge native vacancy but not in the +2 charge one. It can give an explanation to the relatively lower activation energies of yttria-doped oxides and +2 charge vacancy supercells. A brief discussion is presented to explain the different YSH ion conductivities in the experiment and obtained by us, and we attribute this to the different ion vibrations at different temperatures.

  11. Lifetime analysis of the ITER first wall under steady-state and off-normal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitteau, R; Sugihara, M; Raffray, R; Carpentier-Chouchana, S; Merola, M; Pitts, R A; Labidi, H; Stangeby, P

    2011-01-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium armor of the ITER first wall is evaluated for normal and off-normal operation. For the individual events considered, the lifetime spans between 930 and 35×10 6 discharges. The discrepancy between low and high estimates is caused by uncertainties about the behavior of the melt layer during off-normal events, variable plasma operation parameters and variability of the sputtering yields. These large uncertainties in beryllium armor loss estimates are a good example of the experimental nature of the ITER project and will not be truly resolved until ITER begins burning plasma operation.

  12. Development of Normalization Factors for Canada and the United States and Comparison with European Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautier, Anne; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Margni, Manuele

    2010-01-01

    In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), normalization calculates the magnitude of an impact (midpoint or endpoint) relative to the total effect of a given reference. The goal of this work is to calculate normalization factors for Canada and the US and to compare them with existing European normalization...... factors. The differences between geographical areas were highlighted by identifying and comparing the main contributors to a given impact category in Canada, the US and Europe. This comparison verified that the main contributors in Europe and in the US are also present in the Canadian inventory. It also...

  13. Mechanical design and fabrication of the VHF-gun, the Berkeley normal-conducting continuous-wave high-brightness electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R. P.; Ghiorso, W.; Staples, J.; Huang, T. M.; Sannibale, F.; Kramasz, T. D.

    2016-02-01

    A high repetition rate, MHz-class, high-brightness electron source is a key element in future high-repetition-rate x-ray free electron laser-based light sources. The VHF-gun, a novel low frequency radio-frequency gun, is the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) response to that need. The gun design is based on a normal conducting, single cell cavity resonating at 186 MHz in the VHF band and capable of continuous wave operation while still delivering the high accelerating fields at the cathode required for the high brightness performance. The VHF-gun was fabricated and successfully commissioned in the framework of the Advanced Photo-injector EXperiment, an injector built at LBNL to demonstrate the capability of the gun to deliver the required beam quality. The basis for the selection of the VHF-gun technology, novel design features, and fabrication techniques are described.

  14. A conducting polymer nucleation scheme for efficient solid-state supercapacitors on paper

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra; Park, Jihoon; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a thin nucleation layer is used to tune the morphology of conducting polymer electrodes and to optimize the performance of paper based solid-state supercapacitors. It is found that using an acid-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) nucleation layer, prior to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, electrochemical deposition, gives 5-6 times higher areal capacitance compared to a gold metal nucleation layer. Specifically, PEDOT supercapacitors with a high volumetric capacitance of 327 F cm-3, higher than any other PEDOT based supercapacitors reported in the literature, is achieved on the PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer; for the same devices, an areal capacitance of 242 mF cm-2 and an energy density of 14.5 mW h cm-3 at a power density of 350 mW cm-3 are obtained. Furthermore, these optimized PEDOT/PEDOT:PSS/paper electrodes are employed to fabricate solid-state supercapacitors using aqueous and ion gel electrolytes, with 32 and 11 mF cm-2 cell capacitance, respectively. The solid-state PEDOT device showed an energy density of 1.5 mW h cm-3 (normalised to the volume of the whole cell, including both the electrodes and the electrolyte), which is higher than the best reported ppy/paper (E = 1 mW h cm-3) and PAni/pencil/paper (E = 0.32 mW h cm-3) solid-state devices. The cycling performance showed that capacitance retention up to 80% is achieved after 10000 cycles. This journal is

  15. A conducting polymer nucleation scheme for efficient solid-state supercapacitors on paper

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2014-08-19

    In this study, a thin nucleation layer is used to tune the morphology of conducting polymer electrodes and to optimize the performance of paper based solid-state supercapacitors. It is found that using an acid-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) nucleation layer, prior to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, electrochemical deposition, gives 5-6 times higher areal capacitance compared to a gold metal nucleation layer. Specifically, PEDOT supercapacitors with a high volumetric capacitance of 327 F cm-3, higher than any other PEDOT based supercapacitors reported in the literature, is achieved on the PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer; for the same devices, an areal capacitance of 242 mF cm-2 and an energy density of 14.5 mW h cm-3 at a power density of 350 mW cm-3 are obtained. Furthermore, these optimized PEDOT/PEDOT:PSS/paper electrodes are employed to fabricate solid-state supercapacitors using aqueous and ion gel electrolytes, with 32 and 11 mF cm-2 cell capacitance, respectively. The solid-state PEDOT device showed an energy density of 1.5 mW h cm-3 (normalised to the volume of the whole cell, including both the electrodes and the electrolyte), which is higher than the best reported ppy/paper (E = 1 mW h cm-3) and PAni/pencil/paper (E = 0.32 mW h cm-3) solid-state devices. The cycling performance showed that capacitance retention up to 80% is achieved after 10000 cycles. This journal is

  16. Ground state magnetization of conduction electrons in graphene with Zeeman effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudero, F., E-mail: federico.escudero@uns.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Instituto de Física del Sur (IFISUR, UNS-CONICET), Av. Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Ardenghi, J.S., E-mail: jsardenhi@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Instituto de Física del Sur (IFISUR, UNS-CONICET), Av. Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Sourrouille, L., E-mail: lsourrouille@yahoo.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Instituto de Física del Sur (IFISUR, UNS-CONICET), Av. Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Jasen, P., E-mail: pvjasen@uns.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Instituto de Física del Sur (IFISUR, UNS-CONICET), Av. Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahía Blanca (Argentina)

    2017-05-01

    In this work we address the ground state magnetization in graphene, considering the Zeeman effect and taking into account the conduction electrons in the long wavelength approximation. We obtain analytical expressions for the magnetization at T=0 K, where the oscillations given by the de Haas van Alphen (dHvA) effect are present. We find that the Zeeman effect modifies the magnetization by introducing new peaks associated with the spin splitting of the Landau levels. These peaks are very small for typical carrier densities in graphene, but become more important for higher densities. The obtained results provide insight of the way in which the Zeeman effect modifies the magnetization, which can be useful to control and manipulate the spin degrees of freedom. - Highlights: • The magnetization has peaks whenever the last energy level changes discontinuously. • The peaks amplitude depends on the electron density. • The Zeeman effect introduces new peaks in the magnetization.

  17. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  18. Solid-state electroanalytical characterization of the nonaqueous proton-conducting redox gel containing polyoxometallates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewera, Adam [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Zukowska, Grazyna [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, PL-00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Miecznikowski, Krzysztof [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Chojak, Malgorzata [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Wieczorek, Wladyslaw [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, PL-00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Kulesza, Pawel J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: pkulesza@chem.uw.edu.pl

    2005-04-22

    A novel polymetacrylate-based redox-conducting polymeric gel, into which Keggin-type polyoxometallate, phosphododecatungstic acid (H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), had been incorporated, was electrochemically characterized in the absence of external liquid supporting electrolyte using an ultramicrodisk-working electrode. The phosphotungstate component (15 wt.% of the gel block) was entrapped as the polar organic solvent solution within pores of the polymer matrix. H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} plays bifunctional role: it provides well-behaved redox centers and serves as strong acid (source of mobile protons). The solid-state voltammetric properties of the system are defined by the reversible one-electron transfers between phosphotungstate redox centers. The following parameters have been determined from the combination of potential step experiments performed in two limiting (radial and linear) diffusional regimes: the concentration of heteropolytungstate redox centers, 6 x 10{sup -2} mol dm{sup -3}, and the apparent diffusion coefficient, 5 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. The room temperature ionic (protonic) conductivity of the bulk gel was equal to 1.6 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}. The charge propagation mechanism was found to be primarily controlled by physical diffusion of heteropolytungstate units within the gel pores rather than by electron hopping (self-exchange) between mixed-valence sites.

  19. Solid-state electroanalytical characterization of the nonaqueous proton-conducting redox gel containing polyoxometallates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewera, Adam; Zukowska, Grazyna; Miecznikowski, Krzysztof; Chojak, Malgorzata; Wieczorek, Wladyslaw; Kulesza, Pawel J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel polymetacrylate-based redox-conducting polymeric gel, into which Keggin-type polyoxometallate, phosphododecatungstic acid (H 3 PW 12 O 40 ), had been incorporated, was electrochemically characterized in the absence of external liquid supporting electrolyte using an ultramicrodisk-working electrode. The phosphotungstate component (15 wt.% of the gel block) was entrapped as the polar organic solvent solution within pores of the polymer matrix. H 3 PW 12 O 40 plays bifunctional role: it provides well-behaved redox centers and serves as strong acid (source of mobile protons). The solid-state voltammetric properties of the system are defined by the reversible one-electron transfers between phosphotungstate redox centers. The following parameters have been determined from the combination of potential step experiments performed in two limiting (radial and linear) diffusional regimes: the concentration of heteropolytungstate redox centers, 6 x 10 -2 mol dm -3 , and the apparent diffusion coefficient, 5 x 10 -7 cm 2 s -1 . The room temperature ionic (protonic) conductivity of the bulk gel was equal to 1.6 x 10 -3 S cm -1 . The charge propagation mechanism was found to be primarily controlled by physical diffusion of heteropolytungstate units within the gel pores rather than by electron hopping (self-exchange) between mixed-valence sites

  20. Normal mode splitting and ground state cooling in a Fabry—Perot optical cavity and transmission line resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hua-Jun; Mi Xian-Wu

    2011-01-01

    Optomechanical dynamics in two systems which are a transmission line resonator and Fabrya—Perot optical cavity via radiation—pressure are investigated by linearized quantum Langevin equation. We work in the resolved sideband regime where the oscillator resonance frequency exceeds the cavity linewidth. Normal mode splittings of the mechanical resonator as a pure result of the coupling interaction in the two optomechanical systems is studied, and we make a comparison of normal mode splitting of mechanical resonator between the two systems. In the optical cavity, the normal mode splitting of the movable mirror approaches the latest experiment very well. In addition, an approximation scheme is introduced to demonstrate the ground state cooling, and we make a comparison of cooling between the two systems dominated by two key factors, which are the initial bath temperature and the mechanical quality factor. Since both the normal mode splitting and cooling require working in the resolved sideband regime, whether the normal mode splitting influences the cooling of the mirror is considered. Considering the size of the mechanical resonator and precooling the system, the mechanical resonator in the transmission line resonator system is easier to achieve the ground state cooling than in optical cavity. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  1. Analysis of normalized-characteristic curves and determination of the granulometric state of dissolved uranium dioxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melichar, F.; Neumann, L.

    1977-01-01

    Methods are presented for the analysis of normalized-characteristic curves, which make it possible to determine the granulometric composition of a dissolved polydispersion - the cumulative mass distribution of particles - as a function of the relative particle size. If the size of the largest particle in the dissolved polydispersion is known, these methods allow the determination of the dependence of cumulative mass ratios of particles on their absolute sizes. In the inverse method of the geometrical model for determining the granulometric composition of a dissolved polydispersion, the polydispersion is represented by a finite number of monodispersions. An accurate analysis of normalized-characteristic equations leads to the Akselrud dissolution model. As against the other two methods, the latter allows the determination of the granulometric composition for an arbitrary number of particle sizes. The method of the granulometric atlas is a method for estimating the granulometric composition of a dissolved polydispersion and is based on comparison of a normalized-characteristic curve for an unknown granulometric composition with an atlas of normalized-characteristic curves for selected granulometric spectra of polydispersions. (author)

  2. Capacitor energy needed to induce transitions from the superconducting to the normal state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.; Ross, R.R.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a technique to turn a long length of superconducting wire normal by dumping a charged capacitor into it and justify some formulae needed in the design. The physical phenomenon is described. A formula for the energy to be stored in the capacitor is given. There are circumstances where the dc in an electrical circuit containing superconducting elements has to be turned off quickly and where the most convenient way to switch the current off is to turn a large portion or all of the superconducting wire normal. Such was the case of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) superconducting magnet as soon as a quench was detected. The technique used was the discharge of a capacitor into the coil center tap. It turned the magnet winding normal in ten milliseconds or so and provided an adequate quench protection. The technique of discharging a capacitor into a superconducting wire should have many other applications whenever a substantial resistance in a superconducting circuit has to be generated in that kind of time scale. The process involves generating a pulse of large currents in some part of the circuit and heating the wire up by ac losses until the value of the wire critical current is smaller than the dc current. Use of low inductance connections to the circuit is necessary. Then the dc gets turned off due to the resistance of the wire as in a magnet quench

  3. Vitamin D levels in patients with albinism compared with those in normally pigmented Black patients attending dermatology clinics in the Free State province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Walt, Johanna E C; Sinclair, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Associations between vitamin D deficiency and a broad variety of independent diseases, including several bone diseases, various types of cancer, autoimmune diseases, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, have been suggested. It is therefore important to detect and treat vitamin D deficiency in high-risk groups. Because patients with albinism (PWA) practice a policy of strict sun avoidance, they may be at risk for low levels of vitamin D. This study was conducted in patients attending dermatology clinics in the Free State, South Africa, to determine sun avoidance behavior in the patient population and to compare 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in PWA with those in normally pigmented Black patients attending the same clinics. Serum 25(OH)D levels were assessed in 50 PWA and 50 normally pigmented Black control subjects. Questionnaires on sun exposure avoidance behaviors were administered to all participants. The present study showed no statistically significant difference in median 25(OH)D levels between PWA and controls with normally pigmented Black skin. Rather, the study found a tendency for controls to have lower 25(OH)D levels. A total of 53% (n = 53) of all study participants (PWA and controls) had a 25(OH)D level of albinism attending dermatology clinics in the Free State, South Africa, need not be viewed as specifically at risk for low vitamin D levels. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  5. Complementary-relationship-based 30 year normals (1981-2010) of monthly latent heat fluxes across the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    2015-11-01

    Thirty year normal (1981-2010) monthly latent heat fluxes (ET) over the conterminous United States were estimated by a modified Advection-Aridity model from North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) radiation and wind as well as Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) air and dew-point temperature data. Mean annual ET values were calibrated with PRISM precipitation (P) and validated against United States Geological Survey runoff (Q) data. At the six-digit Hydrologic Unit Code level (sample size of 334) the estimated 30 year normal runoff (P - ET) had a bias of 18 mm yr-1, a root-mean-square error of 96 mm yr-1, and a linear correlation coefficient value of 0.95, making the estimates on par with the latest Land Surface Model results but without the need for soil and vegetation information or any soil moisture budgeting.

  6. Normalized Mini-Mental State Examination for assessing cognitive change in population-based brain aging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipps, Viviane; Amieva, Hélène; Andrieu, Sandrine; Dufouil, Carole; Berr, Claudine; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Proust-Lima, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in population-based longitudinal studies to quantify cognitive change. However, its poor metrological properties, mainly ceiling/floor effects and varying sensitivity to change, have largely restricted its usefulness. We propose a normalizing transformation that corrects these properties, and makes possible the use of standard statistical methods to analyze change in MMSE scores. The normalizing transformation designed to correct at best the metrological properties of MMSE was estimated and validated on two population-based studies (n = 4,889, 20-year follow-up) by cross-validation. The transformation was also validated on two external studies with heterogeneous samples mixing normal and pathological aging, and samples including only demented subjects. The normalizing transformation provided correct inference in contrast with models analyzing the change in crude MMSE that most often lead to biased estimates of risk factors and incorrect conclusions. Cognitive change can be easily and properly assessed with the normalized MMSE using standard statistical methods such as linear (mixed) models. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Thermo mechanical design of normal-conducting deflecting cavities at the Advanced Photon Source for short x-ray pulse generation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brajuskovic, B.; Collins, J.; Den Hartog, P.; Morrison, L.; Waldschmidt, G.

    2008-01-01

    A normal-conducting deflecting cavity is being designed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) as a part of the short x-ray pulse project intended to provide users with approximately 2 picosecond x-rays. The system will use two pairs of 3-cell cavities in sectors 6ID and 7ID for the generation of the x-ray pulse in the 7ID beamline. The 3-cell cavities are designed to provide the desired beam deflection while absorbing in excess of 4 kW of power from a pulsed rf system and up to 2.6 kW in the damper system of high-order mode (HOM) and low-order mode (LOM) waveguides. Since the cavity frequency is very sensitive to thermal expansion, the cooling water system is designed so that it is able to control cavity temperature to within 0.1 C. This paper describes the optimization of the thermomechanical design of the cavity based on calculation of thermal stresses and displacement caused by the generated heat loads, and presents the design of a cooling water system required for the proper operation of the cavities.

  8. Study of the Correlations and the MAXI Hardness Ratio between the Anomalous and Normal Low States of LMC X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpin, Trevor; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    The bright, unusual black-hole X-ray binary LMC X-3 has been monitored virtually continuously by the Japanese MAXI X-ray All-Sky Monitor aboard the International Space Station (Matsuoka, et al., PASJ, 2009) from August 2009 to the present. Comparison with RXTE PCA and ASM light curves during the ~2.33-year period of overlap demonstrate that despite slight differences in energy-band boundaries both the ASM and MAXI faithfully reproduce characteristics of the high-amplitude, nonperiodic long-term variability, on the order of 100-300 days, clearly seen in the more sensitive PCA monitoring. The mechanism for this variability at a timescale many times longer than the 1.7-day orbital period is still unknown. Models to explain the long-term variability invoke mechanisms such as changes in mass transfer rate, and/or a precessing warped accretion disk. Observations of LMC X-3 have not definitely determined whether wind accretion or Roche-love overflow is the driver of the long-term variability. Recent MAXI monitoring of LMC X-3 includes excellent coverage of a rare anomalous low state (ALS) where the X-ray source cannot be distinguished from the background, as well as several normal low states, in which the source count rate passes smoothly through a low, yet detectable value. Pointed Swift XRT and UVOT observations also sample this ALS and one normal low state well. We combine these data sets to study the correlations between the wavelength regimes observed during the ALS versus the normal low. We also examine the behavior of the X-ray hardness ratios using XRT and MAXI monitoring data during the ALS versus the normal low state.

  9. [Carbon monoxide tests in a steady state. Uptake and transfer capacity, normal values and lower limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonatxo, M; Préfaut, C; Guerrero, H; Moutou, H; Bansard, X; Chardon, G

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish data which would best demonstrate the variations of different tests using Carbon Monoxide as a tracer gas (total and partial functional uptake coefficient and transfer capacity) to establish mean values and lower limits of normal of these tests. Multivariate statistical analysis was used; in the first stage a connection was sought between the fractional uptake coefficient (partial and total) to other parameters, comparing subjects and data. In the second stage the comparison was refined by eliminating the least useful data, trying, despite a small loss of material, to reveal the most important connections, linear or otherwise. The fractional uptake coefficients varied according to sex, also the variation of the partial alveolar-expired fractional uptake equivalent (DuACO) was largely a function of respiratory rate and tidal volume. The alveolar-arterial partial fractional uptake equivalent (DuaCO) depended more on respiratory frequency and age. Finally the total fractional uptake coefficient (DuCO) and the transfer capacity corrected per liter of ventilation (TLCO/V) were functions of these parameters. The last stage of this work, after taking account of the statistical observations consistent with the facts of these physiological hypotheses led to a search for a better way of approaching the laws linking the collected data to the fractional uptake coefficient. The lower limits of normal were arbitrarily defined, separating those 5% of subjects deviating most strongly from the mean. As a result, the relationship between the lower limit of normal and the theoretical mean value was 90% for the partial and total fractional uptake coefficient and 70% for the transfer capacity corrected per liter of ventilation.

  10. An Analysis of the United States-Led Coalition Air Campaign Conducted During the 1991 War with IRAQ: Desert Storm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, John

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of the 1991 United States led coalition Persian Gulf War (DESERT STORM) Air Campaign is performed to measure its adherence to basic principles of war and to determine the potential implications for the future conduct of war...

  11. Power and Thermal Technologies for Air and Space. Delivery Order 0001: Single Ionic Conducting Solid-State Electrolyte

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turner, Allen

    2005-01-01

    This report focuses on the development of a lithium-ion conducting channel as a solid-state electrolyte for rechargeable lithium batteries through the use of thin films of dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc...

  12. ATTRIBUTION OF CONDUCT TO A STATE-THE SUBJECTIVE ELEMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY OT THE STATE FOR INTERNATIONALLY WRONGFUL ACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA MAXIM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish responsibility of states for internationally wrongful act, two elements are identified. First, the conduct in question must be attributable to the State under international law. Secondly, for responsibility to attach to the act of the State, the conduct must constitute a breach of an international legal obligation in force for that State at that time. For particular conduct to be characterized as an internationally wrongful act, it must first be attributable to the State. The State is a real organized entity, a legal person with full authority to act under international law. But to recognize this is not to deny the elementary fact that the State cannot act of itself. States can act only by and through their agents and representatives. In determining what constitutes an organ of a State for the purposes of responsibility, the internal law and practice of each State are of prime importance. The structure of the State and the functions of its organs are not, in general, governed by international law. It is a matter for each State to decide how its administration is to be structured and which functions are to be assumed by government. But while the State remains free to determine its internal structure and functions through its own law and practice, international law has a distinct role. Conduct is thereby attributed to the State as a subject of international law and not as a subject of internal law. The State as a subject of international law is held responsible for the conduct of all the organs, instrumentalities and officials which form part of its organization and act in that capacity, whether or not they have separate legal personality under its internal law.

  13. Method for the determination of the equation of state of advanced fuels based on the properties of normal fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.J.; Catton, I.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1976-12-01

    An equation of state based on the properties of normal fluids, the law of rectilinear averages, and the second law of thermodynamics can be derived for advanced LMFBR fuels on the basis of the vapor pressure, enthalpy of vaporization, change in heat capacity upon vaporization, and liquid density at the melting point. The method consists of estimating an equation of state by means of the law of rectilinear averages and the second law of thermodynamics, integrating by means of the second law until an instability is reached, and then extrapolating by means of a self-consistent estimation of the enthalpy of vaporization

  14. Phenomenological theory of the normal and superconductive states of Cu-O and Bi-O metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    The universal normal state anomalies in the CuO metals follow from a marginal Fermi liquid hypothesis: there exists a contribution to the polarizability over most of momentum space proportional to omega/T for omega/T much less than 1 and constant thereafter up to a cutoff omega(sub c). Using the same excitation spectrum, the properties of the superconductive state were calculated. The right order of T(sub c) can be obtained, the zero temperature gap, 2 delta (0)/T(sub c) and the nuclear relaxation rate near T(sub c). The possible microscopic physics leading to the marginal Fermi liquid hypothesis is discussed

  15. Flowing cerebrospinal fluid in normal and hydrocephalic states: Appearance on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Kortman, K.E.; Burgoyne, B.; Eng, D.

    1986-01-01

    The signal intensity of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral aqueduct and lateral ventricles on magnetic resonance (MR) images was evaluated in 16 healthy individuals and in 32 patients with various forms of hydrocephalus (20 with chronic normal pressure hydrocephalus [NPH], seven with acute communicating hydrocephalus, and five with hydrocephalus ex vacuo [atrophy]). The low signal intensity frequently observed in the cerebral aqueduct is believed to reflect the pulsatile motion of CSF, which is related to the cardiac cycle. While this aqueductal flow void phenomenon can be observed in healthy individuals, it is most pronounced in patients with chronic, communicating NPH; is less evident in patients with acute, communicating hydrocephalus and is least evident in patients with atrophy. Ventricular compliance is known to be essentially normal in atrophy, mildly decreased in acute, communicating hydrocephalus; and severely decreased in NPH. The degree of aqueductal signal loss is believed to reflect the velocity of the pulsatile CSF motion, which in turn depends on the relative ventricular compliance and surface area

  16. 49 CFR 1103.11 - Standards of ethical conduct in courts of the United States to be observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards of ethical conduct in courts of the... PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics The Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities Toward the Board § 1103.11 Standards of ethical conduct in courts of the United States to be observed. These canons further the purpose...

  17. Normal pure states of the von Nuemann algebra of bounded operators as Kaehler manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirelli, R.; Lanzavecchia, P.; Mania, A.

    1983-01-01

    The projective space of a complex Hilbert space H is considered both as a Kaehler manifold and as the set of pure states of the von Neumann algebra B(H). A link is given between these two structures. Special attention is devoted to topology, orientation and automorphisms of the structures and Wigner's theorem. (author)

  18. Efficient Computation of Transition State Resonances and Reaction Rates from a Quantum Normal Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, Roman; Waalkens, Holger; Wiggins, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    A quantum version of a recent formulation of transition state theory in phase space is presented. The theory developed provides an algorithm to compute quantum reaction rates and the associated Gamov-Siegert resonances with very high accuracy. The algorithm is especially efficient for

  19. Spectrum of {gamma} rays from the decay of SD to normal states in {sup 191}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassmann, D.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T. [and others

    1995-08-01

    In B.a.7. we propose that the statistical spectrum emitted from a sharp single excited state serves as a probe of pairing in excited states. A specific test of this proposal is the comparison of the spectra from even-even and odd-even nuclei. Whereas a pair gap exists in an even-even nucleus, it gets filled in an odd-even nucleus. Consequently, low-energy transitions can arise in the latter case, whereas they are calculated to be absent in the former case because very few levels exist in the cold gap region. In addition, transitions between 1.4 - 2.2 MeV, which {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes} across the gap, are predicted to have lower yield in the odd-even nuclei. Serendipitously, decay from a superdeformed state serves as a good initial excited sharp state. We extracted the spectrum pairwise-coincident with SD lines in {sup 191}Hg from Gammasphere data and compared it with the equivalent spectra from the even-even nuclei {sup 192,194}Hg. The differences that are predicted to occur are indeed observed. Thus, the data support our proposal that the reduction of pairing with thermal excitation energy can be probed with statistical decay spectra.

  20. Excitation of non-normal parity states by inelastic proton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, G. T. [Indiana Univ. (USA). Cyclotron Facility; Ikegami, Hidetsugu; Muraoka, Mitsuo [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1980-01-01

    This is a review of the works done at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. The purposes of works are to find excitations that should have especially simple particle-hole structure in proton inelastic scattering, to use the data on these excitations to try to understand the mechanism and the effective interaction for the (p, p') reaction in this energy range, and to go on to study the nuclear structure involved in less simple excitation. As an example, the single-nucleon level diagram for the region of Si-28 is presented. A high spin state was made, and its spin-parity was 6/sup -/. It was tried to interpret the data in terms of a on-step distorted-wave impulse approximation. The optical model parameters derived from the extensive and precise elastic scattering results were used. The cross sections for the excitation of the 6/sup -/ states found in various reactions were not large. The T = 1 state is mainly excited by the direct tensor interaction, while the T = 0 state gets its strength mainly from the knock-on exchange contribution of both the tensor and spin-orbit interactions. Experiments on Pb-208 and Fe-54 are being performed.

  1. The steady-state of the (Normalized) LMS is schur convex

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hujaili, Khaled A.

    2016-06-24

    In this work, we demonstrate how the theory of majorization and schur-convexity can be used to assess the impact of input-spread on the Mean Squares Error (MSE) performance of adaptive filters. First, we show that the concept of majorization can be utilized to measure the spread in input-regressors and subsequently order the input-regressors according to their spread. Second, we prove that the MSE of the Least Mean Squares Error (LMS) and Normalized LMS (NLMS) algorithms are schur-convex, that is, the MSE of the LMS and the NLMS algorithms preserve the majorization order of the inputs which provide an analytical justification to why and how much the MSE performance of the LMS and the NLMS algorithms deteriorate as the spread in input increases. © 2016 IEEE.

  2. Pediatric and adult MRI atlas of bone marrow. Normal appearances, variants and diffuse disease states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic Department of Radiology, OH (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive atlas is unique in being devoted to the MRI appearances of bone marrow in the axial and appendicular skeleton of adults and children. Normal MRI findings, including common variants and degenerative changes, are first documented. MRI appearances in the entire spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic infiltrative marrow disorders are then presented, with accompanying explanatory text. Among the conditions considered are multiple myeloma, the acute and chronic leukemias, diffuse metastases, diffuse lymphomas, the anemias, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, storage disorders, and infections. Characteristic changes to bone marrow following various forms of treatment are also displayed and discussed. The selected images reflect the use of a variety of sequences and techniques, such as fat suppression, and contrast-enhanced imaging.

  3. The steady-state of the (Normalized) LMS is schur convex

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hujaili, Khaled A.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Moinuddin, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate how the theory of majorization and schur-convexity can be used to assess the impact of input-spread on the Mean Squares Error (MSE) performance of adaptive filters. First, we show that the concept of majorization can be utilized to measure the spread in input-regressors and subsequently order the input-regressors according to their spread. Second, we prove that the MSE of the Least Mean Squares Error (LMS) and Normalized LMS (NLMS) algorithms are schur-convex, that is, the MSE of the LMS and the NLMS algorithms preserve the majorization order of the inputs which provide an analytical justification to why and how much the MSE performance of the LMS and the NLMS algorithms deteriorate as the spread in input increases. © 2016 IEEE.

  4. Uninstructed BIAT faking when ego depleted or in normal state: differential effect on brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Wanja; Schindler, Sebastian; Englert, Christoph; Brand, Ralf; Kissler, Johanna

    2016-05-03

    Deception can distort psychological tests on socially sensitive topics. Understanding the cerebral processes that are involved in such faking can be useful in detection and prevention of deception. Previous research shows that faking a brief implicit association test (BIAT) evokes a characteristic ERP response. It is not yet known whether temporarily available self-control resources moderate this response. We randomly assigned 22 participants (15 females, 24.23 ± 2.91 years old) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design. Participants first completed a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on doping attitudes as a baseline measure and were then instructed to fake a negative doping attitude both when self-control resources were depleted and non-depleted. Cerebral activity during BIAT performance was assessed using high-density EEG. Compared to the baseline BIAT, event-related potentials showed a first interaction at the parietal P1, while significant post hoc differences were found only at the later occurring late positive potential. Here, significantly decreased amplitudes were recorded for 'normal' faking, but not in the depletion condition. In source space, enhanced activity was found for 'normal' faking in the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Behaviorally, participants were successful in faking the BIAT successfully in both conditions. Results indicate that temporarily available self-control resources do not affect overt faking success on a BIAT. However, differences were found on an electrophysiological level. This indicates that while on a phenotypical level self-control resources play a negligible role in deliberate test faking the underlying cerebral processes are markedly different.

  5. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - El Nino Warm Water Pool Returns to Near Normal State, Mar, 14, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on Mar. 14, 1998 and sea surface height is an indicator of the heat content of the ocean. The image shows that the sea surface height along the central equatorial Pacific has returned to a near normal state. Oceanographers indicate this is a classic pattern, typical of a mature El Nino condition. Remnants of the El Nino warm water pool, shown in red and white, are situated to the north and south of the equator. These sea surface height measurements have provided scientists with a detailed view of how the 1997-98 El Nino's warm pool behaves because the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite measures the changing sea surface height with unprecedented precision. In this image, the white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level. The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using satellite imagery, buoy and ship data, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA), has continued to issue an advisory indicating the so-called El Nino weather

  6. Dynamics of large-scale brain activity in normal arousal states and epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Rowe, D. L.

    2002-04-01

    Links between electroencephalograms (EEGs) and underlying aspects of neurophysiology and anatomy are poorly understood. Here a nonlinear continuum model of large-scale brain electrical activity is used to analyze arousal states and their stability and nonlinear dynamics for physiologically realistic parameters. A simple ordered arousal sequence in a reduced parameter space is inferred and found to be consistent with experimentally determined parameters of waking states. Instabilities arise at spectral peaks of the major clinically observed EEG rhythms-mainly slow wave, delta, theta, alpha, and sleep spindle-with each instability zone lying near its most common experimental precursor arousal states in the reduced space. Theta, alpha, and spindle instabilities evolve toward low-dimensional nonlinear limit cycles that correspond closely to EEGs of petit mal seizures for theta instability, and grand mal seizures for the other types. Nonlinear stimulus-induced entrainment and seizures are also seen, EEG spectra and potentials evoked by stimuli are reproduced, and numerous other points of experimental agreement are found. Inverse modeling enables physiological parameters underlying observed EEGs to be determined by a new, noninvasive route. This model thus provides a single, powerful framework for quantitative understanding of a wide variety of brain phenomena.

  7. A general native-state method for determination of proliferation capacity of human normal and tumor tissues in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.M.; Connors, K.M.; Meerson-Monosov, A.Z.; Herrera, H.; Price, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    An important need in cancer research and treatment is a physiological means in vitro by which to assess the proliferation capacity of human tumors and corresponding normal tissue for comparison. The authors have recently developed a native-state, three-dimensional, gel-supported primary culture system that allows every type of human cancer to grow in vitro at more than 90% frequency, with maintenance of tissue architecture, tumor-stromal interaction, and differentiated functions. Here they demonstrate that the native-state culture system allows proliferation indices to be determined for all solid cancer types explanted directly from surgery into long-term culture. Normal tissues also proliferate readily in this system. The degree of resolution of measurement of cell proliferation by histological autoradiography within the cultured tissues is greatly enhanced with the use of epi-illumination polarization microscopy. The histological status of the cultured tissues can be assessed simultaneously with the proliferation status. Carcinomas generally have areas of high epithelial proliferation with quiescent stromal cells. Sarcomas have high proliferation of cells of mesenchymal organ. Normal tissues can also proliferate at high rates. An image analysis system has been developed to automate proliferation determination. The high-resolution physiological means described here to measure the proliferation capacity of tissues will be important in further understanding of the deregulation of cell proliferation in cancer as well as in cancer prognosis and treatment

  8. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L.; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We newly developed the whole-mount imaging method of the tympanic membrane. •Lymphatic vessel loops were localized around the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. •In regeneration, abundant lymphatic vessels were observed in the pars tensa. •Site-specific lymphatic vessels may play an important role in the tympanic membrane. -- Abstract: We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane

  9. Normal and superconducting state properties of U6Fe at low temperatures and high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLong, L.E.; Crabtree, G.W.; Hall, L.N.; Kierstead, H.; Aoki, H.; Dhar, S.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Junod, A.

    1985-01-01

    High purity U 6 Fe polycrystals with a resistance ratio rrr=9 at T=4 K are found to exhibit a record onset temperature (T 0 >4.0 K) to superconductivity for U materials. Our measured values of the electronic coefficient of heat capacity Csup(*)=(150+-3) mJ/mol.K 2 , the mean Debye temperature THETA(T->0)=116 K and the normalized jump in heat capacity at Tsub(c), ΔC/γsup(*)Tsub(c)=2.3+-0.1, are all in good agreement with previous work, and suggest that U 6 Fe is a strong-coupled superconductor. Resistive upper critical field measurements on high purity samples revealed a pronounced S-shaped curvature of Hsub(c2)(T) and evidence for anisotropy, similar to effects seen in UPt 3 , but not observed in lower purity U 6 Fe samples. We find Hsub(c2)(0)>10 T and transition widths ΔTsub(c)proportionalHsup(1/2) at moderate fields, followed by an abrupt increase in ΔTsub(c) for H>8 T. Our Hsub(c2) data cannot be explained by existing theoretical models. Preliminary heat capacity measurements in magnetic fields 0 6 Fe at T< or approx.110 K. (orig.)

  10. β-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington dos Santos Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Five restriction site polymorphisms in the β-globin gene cluster (HincII-5'ε, HindIII-Gγ, HindIII-ªγ, HincII-'ψβ1 and HincII-3''ψβ1 were analyzed in three populations (n = 114 from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the "quilombo community", from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+----,3(----+,4(-+--+and6(-++-+onthe βA chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (-++++and 14 (++--+, were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16 had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin and CAR (Central African Republic, with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil.

  11. Influence of the Kozloduy NPP on the health state of personnel at a normal operation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliznakov, V [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    Medical observation of the Kozloduy NPP personnel has been carried out for 20 years (1974-1993). The general disease incidence with temporary incapacity of the Kozloduy workers is lower than the general data for the country and workers at thermal power stations in particular. No cases of radiation injuries have been registered. The level of cumulative radiation doses varies from 50 to 620 mSv for the full working period of the personnel. Data about dependence of peripheral blood indicators on the cumulative dose are presented. It is concluded that the health state of the Kozloduy personnel is very good and does not indicate any specific pathology. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Influence of the Kozloduy NPP on the health state of personnel at a normal operation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakov, V.

    1995-01-01

    Medical observation of the Kozloduy NPP personnel has been carried out for 20 years (1974-1993). The general disease incidence with temporary incapacity of the Kozloduy workers is lower than the general data for the country and workers at thermal power stations in particular. No cases of radiation injuries have been registered. The level of cumulative radiation doses varies from 50 to 620 mSv for the full working period of the personnel. Data about dependence of peripheral blood indicators on the cumulative dose are presented. It is concluded that the health state of the Kozloduy personnel is very good and does not indicate any specific pathology. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  13. The DC electrical conductivity calculation purely from the dissipative component of the AC conductivity III. statistical ensemble inherent to state with DC current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinski, N.; Milinski, E.

    2002-01-01

    Amorphous conductors such as liquid metals and alloys are subject to dc conductivity σ calculation here. Principal aim is to explore the impact on σ of the constitutive equation α * = 1, formulated and developed in the preceding papers. The nearly free electrons (NFE) model has been applied. Alkali metals are assumed to fit this model well, and sodium the best. Consequently, the results on these metals have been assumed reliable and relevant for conclusions making. The conclusion we made is: instead of the Fermi radius k f proper for the statistical ensemble in state of thermodynamics equilibrium, a new k ' f number is needed to be introduced into the linear response formula when calculating σ and α * . This k ' f is the length of the corresponding axis of ellipsoid proper for describing the statistical ensemble in the state with dc current. In the traditional interpretation of the linear response formula (Kubo formula) this conversion has been overlooked. Parameters of the mentioned ellipsoids are determined in this paper for a number of liquid metals of valency numbers 1,2,3,4, in addition to a selection of some binary and ternary conducting alloys. It is up to experimental measurements to decide how real this concept of restructuring the statistical ensemble is. (Authors)

  14. Neuropsychological profile in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease and normal global cognition according to Mini-Mental State Examination Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jin; Zheng, Xiyuan; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Wenhui; Cao, Hongmei; Qin, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments have been reported to be more common in non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and education levels play an important role in intelligence. The studies on cognitive impairments in Chinese PD patients with higher education levels and normal global cognition according to Mini-Mental State Examination Score (MMSE) have not been reported. We enrolled 69 consecutive PD patients with over 6 years education levels and a MMSE score above 24 (of 30) and performed a battery of neuropsychological scales. There are extensive cognitive domain impairments in PD patients with "normal" global cognitive according to MMSE. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a highly sensitive scale to screen cognitive impairments in PD. The cutoff score of 28 on the MMSE screening for cognitive impairment in Chinese PD patients with high education levels may be more appropriate.

  15. Solid-state reduction of silver nitrate with polyaniline base leading to conducting materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šeděnková, Ivana; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Prokeš, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 9 (2009), s. 1906-1912 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100500902; GA AV ČR IAA400500905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * conducting polymer * conductivity * FTIR spectroscopy * Raman spectroscopy * oxidation * emeraldine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  16. Thermal conductivity coefficients of water and heavy water in the liquid state up to 3700C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Neindre, B.; Bury, P.; Tufeu, R.; Vodar, B.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal conductivity coefficients of water and heavy water of 99.75 percent isotopic purity were measured using a coaxial cylinder apparatus, covering room temperature to their critical temperatures, and pressures from 1 to 500 bar for water, and from 1 to 1000 bar for heavy water. Following the behavior of the thermal conductivity coefficient of water, which shows a maximum close to 135 0 C, the thermal conductivity coefficient of heavy water exhibits a maximum near 95 0 C and near saturation pressures. This maximum is displaced to higher temperatures when the pressure is increased. Under the same temperature and pressure conditions the thermal conductivity coefficient of heavy water was lower than for water. The pressure effect was similar for water and heavy water. In the temperature range of our experiments, isotherms of thermal conductivity coefficients were almost linear functions of density

  17. Charge state analysis of heavy ions after penetration of uncleaned and sputter cleaned conducting surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, M.; Schosnig, M.; Kroneberger, K.; Tobisch, M.; Maier, R.; Kuzel, M.; Fiedler, C.; Hofmann, D.; Groeneveld, K.O.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the charge state distribution of fast ions inside a solid is of basic interest in various research fields as stopping power measurements etc. The existing models for the charge state evolution differ in the treatment of the projectile-exit-surface interaction, which has a strong influence on the final charge state distributions. We measured the charge state distributions for C + , N + , and O + (30≤E/M≤130 keV/u) impact on thin C, Cu, and Au foils, where the surface properties were modified by sputter cleaning. The mesurements show a pronounced change of the mean projectile charge state to lower values in the case of sputter cleaned surfaces. This result underlines the importance of the projectile-surface interaction for the generation of the outcoming charge state distribution. (orig.)

  18. Effect of normal impurities on anisotropic superconductors with variable density of states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M. D.; Carbotte, J. P.

    1982-06-01

    We develop a generalized BCS theory of impure superconductors with an anisotropic electron-electron interaction represented by the factorizable model introduced by Markowitz and Kadanoff, and a variable electronic density of states N(ɛ), assumed to peak at the Fermi energy, which is modeled by a Lorentzian superimposed on a uniform background. As the impurity scattering is increased, the enhancement of T c by both the anisotropy and the peak in N(ɛ) is washed out. The reduction is investigated for different values of the anisotropy and different peak heights and widths. It is concluded that the effects of anisotropy and the peak are reduced together in such a way that any effect due to anisotropy is not easily distinguishable from that due to the peak.

  19. Effect of normal impurities on anisotropic superconductors with variable density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, M.D.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    We develop a generalized BCS theory of impure superconductors with an anisotropic electron--electron interaction represented by the factorizable model introduced by Markowitz and Kadanoff, and a variable electronic density of states N(epsilon-c), assumed to peak at the Fermi energy, which is modeled by a Lorentzian superimposed on a uniform background. As the impurity scattering is increased, the enhancement of T/sub c/ by both the anisotropy and the peak in N(epsilon-c) is washed out. The reduction is investigated for different values of the anisotropy and different peak heights and widths. It is concluded that the effects of anisotropy and the peak are reduced together in such a way that any effect due to anisotropy is not easily distinguishable from that due to the peak

  20. Infrared studies of the superconducting energy gap and normal-state dynamics of the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, Z.; Collins, R.T.; Holtzberg, F.; Feild, C.; Koren, G.; Gupta, A.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed study of infrared properties (reflectivity, conductivity, and dielectric response), emphasizing reproducible results from fully oxygenated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 crystals (T c congruent 93 K) and films, is presented. The extrapolated values of σ 1 (ω) at low frequency are roughly consistent with the measured temperature-dependent dc resistivity. Although not well understood, this infrared conductivity can be interpreted in terms of a frequency-dependent scattering rate of ∼kT+ℎω, with a low-frequency mass enhancement of roughly 2 to 4 associated with a carrier-spin related interaction. Infrared measurements polarized along the c axis suggest a conductivity anisotropy of roughly 40:1 near T c in the normal state. In the superconducting state an energy scale of 2Δ c congruent 3kT c is suggested by c-axis polarized measurements, while a much larger characteristic energy of 2Δ a-b congruent 8kT c is evident in the (a-b)-plane conductivity. From the area missing from the conductivity up to this very large gap, a reasonable estimate (congruent 1700 A) for the (a-b)-plane penetration depth is obtained. Evidence for non-BCS temperature dependence, strong pair breaking scattering, and possible fluctuation effects is discussed. A comparison to infrared data from Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8-y shows a similarly large energy scale, 2Δ a-b congruent 8kT c ; for the cubic Ba 0.6 K 0.4 BiO 3 superconductor a more conventional energy scale, 2Δ congruent 4kT c is observed

  1. Temperature dependence of hole mobility in Mott insulators: Normal-state resistivity of high-T/sub c/ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.

    1989-01-01

    We consider the diffusion of a hole injected in a Mott insulator described by a one-band Hubbard Hamiltonian at half-filling and in the atomic limit. The diffusion coefficient turns out to be temperature independent exactly giving 1/T dependence for the drift mobility via the Einstein relation. This is in marked disagreement with the (1/T)/sup 1/2/ dependence obtaining in the self-retracing path approximation at low temperatures. We note the possible relevance of our result to the linear T dependence of the normal-state resistivity observed in the high-T/sub c/ oxide superconductors

  2. Protonation states of histidine and other key residues in deoxy normal human adult hemoglobin by neutron protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevsky, Andrey; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Shibayama, Naoya; Park, Sam-Yong; Ishikawa, Takuya; Mustyakimov, Marat; Fisher, S. Zoe; Langan, Paul; Morimoto, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    Using neutron diffraction analysis, the protonation states of 35 of 38 histidine residues were determined for the deoxy form of normal human adult hemoglobin. Distal and buried histidines may contribute to the increased affinity of the deoxy state for hydrogen ions and its decreased affinity for oxygen compared with the oxygenated form. The protonation states of the histidine residues key to the function of deoxy (T-state) human hemoglobin have been investigated using neutron protein crystallography. These residues can reversibly bind protons, thereby regulating the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. By examining the OMIT F o − F c and 2F o − F c neutron scattering maps, the protonation states of 35 of the 38 His residues were directly determined. The remaining three residues were found to be disordered. Surprisingly, seven pairs of His residues from equivalent α or β chains, αHis20, αHis50, αHis58, αHis89, βHis63, βHis143 and βHis146, have different protonation states. The protonation of distal His residues in the α 1 β 1 heterodimer and the protonation of αHis103 in both subunits demonstrates that these residues may participate in buffering hydrogen ions and may influence the oxygen binding. The observed protonation states of His residues are compared with their ΔpK a between the deoxy and oxy states. Examination of inter-subunit interfaces provided evidence for interactions that are essential for the stability of the deoxy tertiary structure

  3. 49 CFR Appendix to Subtitle A - United States Railway Association-Employee Responsibilities and Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accident insurance plan or other employee welfare or benefit plan that is maintained by a business or... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false United States Railway Association-Employee... Subtitle A, App. Appendix to Subtitle A—United States Railway Association—Employee Responsibilities and...

  4. Energy information needs for U. S. state-level policy making: Minimal data requirements during normal and emergency periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Leff, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil embargo of 1973, state governments have increased their efforts to track and understand energy flows within their boundaries. There is a commonly perceived need to comprehend the status of present and expected future energy availability, demand, and price and to be prepared to exercise responsible and effective management during energy emergencies. This responsibility has brought with it new needs for accurate and timely state-level information on energy transactions and the external parameters that effect energy availability and disposition. What energy data are needed by a state, regardless of its idiosyncracies, during both normal and energy emergency periods, and to what extent are these data available now. The authors find that needed ongoing (core) data are only partially available at present, and that emergency data can be obtained only with a carefully planned monitoring program that can be fitted to specific emergency conditions. Overall, this paper provides a realistic assessment of the state-level energy data needed to provide state policy makers with sufficient information to make considered judgments.

  5. Energy-information needs for US state-level policy making: minimal data requirements during normal and emergency periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Leff, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil embargo of 1973, state governments have increased their efforts to track and understand energy flows within their boundaries. There is a commonly perceived need to comprehend the status of present and expected future energy availability, demand, and price and to be prepared to exercise responsible and effective management during energy emergencies. This responsibility has brought with it new needs for accurate and timely state-level information on energy transactions and the external parameters that effect energy availability and disposition. Hence, we ask: what energy data are needed by a state, regardless of its idiosyncracies, during both normal and energy emergency periods, and to what extent are these data available now. We find that needed ongoing (core) data are only partially available at present, and that emergency data can be obtained only with a carefully planned monitoring program that can be fitted to specific emergency conditions. Overall, this paper provides a realistic assessment of the state-level energy data needed to provide state policy makers with sufficient information to make considered judgments. 7 references, 6 tables.

  6. Electrogenic properties of the Na+/K+ ATPase control transitions between normal and pathological brain states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Giri P.; Filatov, Gregory; Shilnikov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Ionic concentrations fluctuate significantly during epileptic seizures. In this study, using a combination of in vitro electrophysiology, computer modeling, and dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate that changes in the potassium and sodium intra- and extracellular ion concentrations ([K+] and [Na+], respectively) during seizure affect the neuron dynamics by modulating the outward Na+/K+ pump current. First, we show that an increase of the outward Na+/K+ pump current mediates termination of seizures when there is a progressive increase in the intracellular [Na+]. Second, we show that the Na+/K+ pump current is crucial in maintaining the stability of the physiological network state; a reduction of this current leads to the onset of seizures via a positive-feedback loop. We then present a novel dynamical mechanism for bursting in neurons with a reduced Na+/K+ pump. Overall, our study demonstrates the profound role of the current mediated by Na+/K+ ATPase on the stability of neuronal dynamics that was previously unknown. PMID:25589588

  7. [Basophilic line of the articular cartilage in normal and various pathological states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, L R

    1987-04-01

    Epiphyses of long tubular bones in the man and animals of various age, as well as experimental material of the adjuvant arthritis, with special reference to the basal part of the articular cartilage have been studied by means of histological, histochemical and histometrical methods. The structural-chemical organization of the basophilic line (tidemark) of the articular cartilage ensures its barrier role and participation in regulating selective permeability. Reconstruction of the tidemark in the process of physiological ageing and in cases of the articular pathology is aimed to preserve its integrity and in this way a complete differentiation of the noncalcified and calcified structures is secured. Disturbance of the basophilic line results in changes of the articular selective permeability, in invasion of vessels and structural elements of the bone marrow, and in development of profound distrophic and destructive changes of the cartilage--in deforming artrosis. Deflations in the structural-chemical organization of the tidemark indicate certain disturbances in the state of the system articular cartilage--subchondral bone. These data can be of prognostic importance.

  8. A particle-number conserving microscopic approach to octupole deformation of normal deformed and superdeformed states in 194Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhan Hao, T.V.; Phu Dat, D.H.; Hoang Tung, N.; Tran, H.N.

    2015-01-01

    The left–right asymmetric deformation of normal deformed (ND) and superdeformed (SD) states of 194 Pb has been investigated in the framework of the parity-symmetry projection of the highly truncated diagonalization approach (HTDA), which is suited to treat the correlations in an explicitly particle-number conserving microscopic approach. A Skyrme energy density functional using the SIII and SkM* interactions has been considered to treat the particle–hole channel, whereas a density-independent δ force has been adopted for the residual interaction. The obtained results are compared with previous approaches. The calculated octupole phonon excitation energy is found to be in good qualitative agreement with available data in the ND state. (author)

  9. Cerebral blood flow measured by arterial spin labeling MRI at resting state in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Gordon, Marc L; Goldberg, Terry E

    2017-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging uses arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this review, based on ASL studies in the resting state, we discuss state-of-the-art technical and data processing improvements in ASL, and ASL CBF changes in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other types of dementia. We propose that vascular and AD risk factors should be considered when evaluating CBF changes in aging, and that other validated biomarkers should be used as inclusion criteria or covariates when evaluating CBF changes in MCI and AD. With improvements in hardware and experimental design, ASL is proving to be an increasingly promising tool for exploring pathogenetic mechanisms, early detection, monitoring disease progression and pharmacological response, and differential diagnosis of AD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary study to evaluate the validity of the mini-mental state examination in a normal population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükdeveci, Ayse A; Kutlay, Sehim; Elhan, Atilla H; Tennant, Alan

    2005-03-01

    Although the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in clinical practice, normative scores for a healthy population have not been documented in Turkey. The aim in this study was to validate the MMSE in a healthy population and to provide normal scores. Internal construct validity of the Turkish version of MMSE among a preliminary sample of 406 normal people was assessed by Rasch unidimensional measurement model. Scores of the normal sample varied according to age and education but not according to sex. The data derived from this sample showed poor fit to the Rasch model (mean item fit, -2.082, SD 3.022). Only four of 11 items met model expectations. There was also differential item functioning by education and age for most items. Thus the internal construct validity of the Turkish MMSE in a normative sample could not be demonstrated by Rasch analysis. The scale failed modern psychometric criteria for scalability. We would therefore suggest other large normative MMSE data sets to be tested in terms of internal construct validity. If these findings are replicated, the validity of MMSE norms and their consequent use in clinical practice should be reconsidered.

  11. Implementing a finite-state off-normal and fault response system for disruption avoidance in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidietis, N. W.; Choi, W.; Hahn, S. H.; Humphreys, D. A.; Sammuli, B. S.; Walker, M. L.

    2018-05-01

    A finite-state off-normal and fault response (ONFR) system is presented that provides the supervisory logic for comprehensive disruption avoidance and machine protection in tokamaks. Robust event handling is critical for ITER and future large tokamaks, where plasma parameters will necessarily approach stability limits and many systems will operate near their engineering limits. Events can be classified as off-normal plasmas events, e.g. neoclassical tearing modes or vertical displacements events, or faults, e.g. coil power supply failures. The ONFR system presented provides four critical features of a robust event handling system: sequential responses to cascading events, event recovery, simultaneous handling of multiple events and actuator prioritization. The finite-state logic is implemented in Matlab®/Stateflow® to allow rapid development and testing in an easily understood graphical format before automated export to the real-time plasma control system code. Experimental demonstrations of the ONFR algorithm on the DIII-D and KSTAR tokamaks are presented. In the most complex demonstration, the ONFR algorithm asynchronously applies ‘catch and subdue’ electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) injection scheme to suppress a virulent 2/1 neoclassical tearing mode, subsequently shuts down ECCD for machine protection when the plasma becomes over-dense, and enables rotating 3D field entrainment of the ensuing locked mode to allow a safe rampdown, all in the same discharge without user intervention. When multiple ONFR states are active simultaneously and requesting the same actuator (e.g. neutral beam injection or gyrotrons), actuator prioritization is accomplished by sorting the pre-assigned priority values of each active ONFR state and giving complete control of the actuator to the state with highest priority. This early experience makes evident that additional research is required to develop an improved actuator sharing protocol, as well as a methodology to

  12. Role of Interchain Coupling in the Metallic State of Conducting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nara; Lee, Byoung Hoon; Choi, Doowhan; Kim, Geunjin; Kim, Heejoo; Kim, Jae-Ryoung; Lee, Jongjin; Kahng, Yung Ho; Lee, Kwanghee

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the charge dynamics of the conductivity enhancement from 2 to 1000S/cm in poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) as induced by structural changes through the addition of a polar solvent and the following solvent bath treatment. Our results indicate that the addition of a polar solvent selectively enhanced the π-π coupling of the polymer chains, resulting in the reduction of disorder and tremendously increasing the charge carrier mobility, which yielded an insulator-to-metal transition. In contrast, the following solvent bath treatment selectively enhanced the intergrain coupling, which did not affect the disorder or the mobility but increased the charge carrier density. Therefore, we demonstrate that the conduction-character defining disorder in this conducting polymer system is determined by the extent of interchain coupling.

  13. Conduction band-edge d-states in high-k dielectrics due to Jahn-Teller term splittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucovsky, G.; Fulton, C.C.; Zhang, Y.; Luning, J.; Edge, L.; Whitten, J.L.; Nemanich, R.J.; Schlom, D.G.; Afanase'v, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is used to study conduction band edge electronic structure of high-k transition metal (TM) and trivalent lanthanide series rare earth (RE) oxide dielectrics. Empty TM/RE d-states are studied by intra-atomic transitions originating in core level spin-orbit split p-states, and conduction band states are studied in inter-atomic transitions which originate in the oxygen atom 1s core level state. In non-crystalline Zr and Hf silicate alloys, the local bonding symmetry, or crystal field splits these d-states into doubly and triply degenerate features. In nano-crystalline oxides, there are additional d-state splittings due to contributions of more distant neighbors that completely remove d-state degeneracies via the Jahn-Teller effect mechanism. This gives rise to highly localized band edge states that are electronically active in photoconductivity, internal photoemission, and act as bulk traps in metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices

  14. Steady state method to determine unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the ambient water potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUbbell, Joel M.

    2014-08-19

    The present invention relates to a new laboratory apparatus for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at a single water potential. One or more embodiments of the invented apparatus can be used over a wide range of water potential values within the tensiometric range, requires minimal laboratory preparation, and operates unattended for extended periods with minimal supervision. The present invention relates to a new laboratory apparatus for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at a single water potential. One or more embodiments of the invented apparatus can be used over a wide range of water potential values within the tensiometric range, requires minimal laboratory preparation, and operates unattended for extended periods with minimal supervision.

  15. Conductance mechanism in a linear non-conjugated trimethylsilyl-acetylene molecule: tunneling through localized states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrov, E.G.; Marchenko, A.; Kapitanchuk, O.; Katsonis, Nathalie Hélène; Fichou, D.

    2014-01-01

    The conductance properties of 1,3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-tridecene-6,12-diyne, a non-conjugated trimethylsil-acetylene molecule have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Based on scanning tunnelling spectroscopy experiments, a discussion on the mechanisms controlling the charge

  16. Recent results of clinical therapeutic trials for gastrointenstinal malignancies conducted in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, D.L.; Schein, P.S.; Macdonald, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States, causing more than 100,000 deaths a year. Carcinoma of the pancreas is increasing in incidence in the United States. Carcinoma of the stomach has progressively decreased in incidence. Because of the high rate of primary unresectability and recurrence after resection most patients at some time in their course become candidates for therapy directed at locoregional or metastatic disease. Recent clinical research in the United States has been aimed at identifying and confirming the activity of chemotherapy or combined modality treatments for patients with advanced metastatic disease for future application in the locoregional or surgical adjuvant setting. The purpose of this report is to highlight the pertinent recent data and outline ongoing studies of interest. (orig./BWU)

  17. Primary transitions between the yrast superdeformed band and low-lying normal deformed states in {sup 194}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, K.; Bernstein, L.A.; Becker, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The observation of one-step `primary` gamma-ray transitions directly linking the superdeformed (SD) states to the normal deformed (ND) low-lying states of known excitation energies (E{sub x}), spins and parities (J{sup {pi}}) is crucial to determining the E{sub x} and J{sup {pi}} of the SD states. With this knowledge one can begin to address some of the outstanding problems associated with SD nuclei, such as the identical band issue, and one can also place more stringent restrictions on theoretical calculations which predict SD states and their properties. Brinkman, et al., used the early implementation of the GAMMASPHERE spectrometer array (32 detectors) and proposed a single, candidate {gamma} ray linking the {sup 194}Pb yrast SD band to the low-lying ND states in {sup 194}Pb. Using 55 detectors in the GAMMASPHERE array Khoo, et al., observed multiple links between the yrast SD band in {sup 194}Hg and the low-lying level scheme and conclusively determined E{sub x} and J of the yrast SD states. Here the authors report on an experiment in which Gammasphere with 88 detectors was used and the E{sub x} and J{sup {pi}} values of the yrast SD states in {sup 194}Pb were uniquely determined. Twelve one-step linking transitions between the yrast SD band and low-lying states in {sup 194}Pb have been identified, including the transition proposed by Brinkman. These transitions have been placed in the level scheme of {sup 194}Pb using coincidence relationships and agreements between the energies of the primary transitions and the energy differences in level spacings. Furthermore, measurements of angular asymmetries have yielded the multipolarities of the primaries which have allowed J{sup {pi}} assignments of the {sup 194}Pb SD states to be unambiguously determined for the first time without a priori assumptions about the character of SD bands. A study performed in parallel to this work using the EUROGAM-II array reports similar, but somewhat less extensive, results.

  18. A complementary switching mechanism for organic memory devices to regulate the conductance of binary states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Giriraj; Dagar, Parveen; Sahu, Satyajit

    2016-06-01

    We have fabricated an organic non-volatile memory device wherein the ON/OFF current ratio has been controlled by varying the concentration of a small organic molecule, 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ), in an insulating matrix of a polymer Poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP). A maximum ON-OFF ratio of 106 is obtained when the concentration of DDQ is half or 10 wt. % of PVP. In this process, the switching direction for the devices has also been altered, indicating the disparity in conduction mechanism. Conduction due to metal filament formation through the active material and the voltage dependent conformational change of the organic molecule seem to be the motivation behind the gradual change in the switching direction.

  19. All-solid-state ion-selective silicone rubber membrane electrodes with a new conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Rang; Chung, Yeon Joon; Hwang, Sun Woo

    2012-01-01

    New conducting polymers containing heterocyclic rings with carbazole, ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) and benzobisthiazole were synthesized and the characterized by using organic spectroscopic methods. Potentiometric ion-selective membrane electrodes (ISMEs) have been extensively used for ion analysis in clinical, environmental, and industrial fields owing to their wide response range (4 to 7 orders of magnitude), no effect of sample turbidity, fast response time, and ease of miniaturization. Considerable attention has been given to alternative use of room-temperature vulcanizing (RTV)-type silicone rubber (SR) owing to its strong adhesion and high thermal durability. Unfortunately, the high membrane resistance of SR-based ion-selective membranes (ISMs) (2 to 3 higher orders of magnitude compared to those of poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC)-based ones) has significantly restricted their application. Herein, we demonstrate a new method to reduce the membrane resistance via addition of a new conducting polymer into the SR-based ISMs.

  20. Alloying effects on superionic conductivity in lithium indium halides for all-solid-state batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevgolis, Alysia; Wood, Brandon C.; Mehmedović, Zerina; Hall, Alex T.; Alves, Thomaz C.; Adelstein, Nicole

    2018-04-01

    Alloying of anions is a promising engineering strategy for tuning ionic conductivity in halide-based inorganic solid electrolytes. We explain the alloying effects in Li3InBr6-xClx, in terms of strain, chemistry, and microstructure, using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure analysis. We find that strain and bond chemistry can be tuned through alloying and affect the activation energy and maximum diffusivity coefficient. The similar conductivities of the x = 3 and x = 6 compositions can be understood by assuming that the alloy separates into Br-rich and Cl-rich regions. Phase-separation increases diffusivity at the interface and in the expanded Cl-region, suggesting microstructure effects are critical. Similarities with other halide superionic conductors are highlighted.

  1. Some problems in steady-state thermal conductivity with variable heat transfer rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malov, Yu.I.; Martinson, L.K.; Pavlov, K.B.

    1975-01-01

    Some boundary-value problems of steady heat conductivity with an alternating heat exchange coefficient have been solved for a cylindrical region. The solutions have been performed as expansion in series with respect to eigenfunctions with the coefficients consistent with infinite systems of linear algebraic equations. A reduction method has been substantiated for those systems. The paper presents results of calculation of the temperature distribution inside the infinite cylinder with concrete tasks of heat exchange coefficient variations on the cylinder surface

  2. Current state and future directions of research and development in conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, G.M.; Innis, P.C.; Lewis, T.W.; Kane-Maghire, L.A.P.; Wallace, G.G.

    2000-01-01

    Polymers that inherently conduct electricity have been researched intensively for a little over 20 years. An enormous research effort in academic and industrial institutions has resulted in over 17,000 publications published in the last 10 years alone. Significant advances in the synthesis of new polymers and the methods for processing these polymers into products have resulted from this research activity. A number of commercial developments have emerged, some of which have reached maturity as marketed products. Some others have failed in the marketplace. The diversity of applications for conducting polymers continues to fuel research and development and ensures that new products will emerge over the foreseeable future. In the more distant future, truly intelligent polymer systems remain as an achievable objective. By developing appropriate processing and fabrication technologies, it should be possible to integrate sensing, actuating and energy storage functions into a single system. Further developments in self-assembly of conducting polymers from the nano- to the meso-scale will open up applications in MEMS and nanotechnology

  3. All-Solid-State Textile Batteries Made from Nano-Emulsion Conducting Polymer Inks for Wearable Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Ryhänen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A rollable and all-solid-state textile lithium battery based on fabric matrix and polymer electrolyte that allows flexibility and fast-charging capability is reported. When immerged into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT nano-emulsion inks, an insulating fabric is converted into a conductive battery electrode for a fully solid state lithium battery with the highest specific energy capacity of 68 mAh/g. This is superior to most of the solid-state conducting polymer primary and/or secondary batteries reported. The bending radius of such a textile battery is less than 1.5 mm while lightening up an LED. This new material combination and inherent flexibility is well suited to provide an energy source for future wearable and woven electronics.

  4. Spin fluctuations in liquid 3He: a strong-coupling calculation of T/sub c/ and the normal-state distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, D.; Layzer, A.

    1975-01-01

    The Berk--Schrieffer method of strong-coupling superconductivity for nearly ferromagnetic systems is generalized to arbitrary L-state pairing and realistic (hard-core) potentials. Application to 3 He yields a P-state transition but very low values for T/sub c/ and an unsatisfactory normal-state momentum distribution

  5. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of a red-yellow podzolic soil in the Northern Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel Netto, A.

    1994-08-01

    The determination of the hydraulic conductivity of a Red-Yellow Podzolic Soil was carried out during an experiment in a plot measuring 3.5 m x 3.5 m, at the Experimental Station of Itapirema, Goiania, in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The internal drainage method proposed by Hillel (1972) was used to obtain the hydraulic conductivity as a function of soil water content, K(θ), in the three characteristic horizons of the soil. Three neutron probes were used for measuring the humidity, that was determined by a calibration curve. Three characteristic horizons of the Red-Yellow Podzolic Soil were investigated for hydraulic conductivity. The sandy A horizon, with large pores, has a high conductivity while the B1t horizon, with a massive structure and few visible pores, has a low infiltration rate. The hydraulic dynamics of the B2 horizon is more complex due to its heterogeneity. (author). 79 refs, 17 figs, 11 tabs

  6. Thermal Conductivity of EB-PVD Thermal Barrier Coatings Evaluated by a Steady-State Laser Heat Flux Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Nagaraj, Ben A.; Bruce, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) Zr02-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined by a steady-state heat flux laser technique. Thermal conductivity change kinetics of the EB-PVD ceramic coatings were also obtained in real time, at high temperatures, under the laser high heat flux, long term test conditions. The thermal conductivity increase due to micro-pore sintering and the decrease due to coating micro-delaminations in the EB-PVD coatings were evaluated for grooved and non-grooved EB-PVD coating systems under isothermal and thermal cycling conditions. The coating failure modes under the high heat flux test conditions were also investigated. The test technique provides a viable means for obtaining coating thermal conductivity data for use in design, development, and life prediction for engine applications.

  7. Evaluation of normal values of Ca-15-3 and PSA for the people of Northern State of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bafaraj, S.M.I.

    2007-06-01

    In this study blood samples were collected from 665 female from Northern State of Sudan, 606 of those females are married and only 59 females are singles. These samples were used to estimate the normal CA 15-3 which was found to be similar to the international one and that is ranged from zero to 35 mlu/ml. When the same techniques were used using samples collected from patients who have been clinically diagnosed as breast cancer, CA 15-3 levels were found to be higher in most of these samples and the other finding is that the risk of getting breast cancer is starting from age 25 years. On the other hand , 650 males were participated in this study to estimate normal value of PSA, of them 553 were married. And again the levels estimated for this marker was found to be the same as that used globally which is ranged from zero to four ng/ml. When blood samples from prostate patients were assayed for PSA, the results showed high levels of this marker in almost all the samples as expected but the important finding is that prostate cancer is age depend. At the end of the project, many recommendations highlighted to be considered in the near future.(Author)

  8. Normal-state transport parameters of epitaxial thin films of YBa2Cu3O/sub 7-//sub δ/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormer, H.L.; Levi, A.F.J.; Baldwin, K.W.; Anzlowar, M.; Boebinger, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    We report on a striking correlation in the electrical transport behavior of very high-quality (j/sub c/∼3.4 x 10 6 A/cm 2 at T = 77 K) epitaxial thin films of high-T/sub c/ Y-Ba-Cu-O in the normal state. With increasing superconducting performance, as characterized by the transition temperature, transition-temperature width, and critical current density, the resistivity rho, and the Hall coefficient R/sub H/, both assume remarkably simple temperature dependences rho = αT and R/sub H//sup -1/ = βT leading to a Hall mobility μ/sub H/proportionalT/sup -2/. The magnetoresistance at 10 T is less than Δrho/rho<10/sup -3/. We discuss an extreme two-carrier model to assess the T dependence of R/sub H/. .AE

  9. A simple differential steady-state method to measure the thermal conductivity of solid bulk materials with high accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, D; Chen, G

    2014-02-01

    Accurate measurements of thermal conductivity are of great importance for materials research and development. Steady-state methods determine thermal conductivity directly from the proportionality between heat flow and an applied temperature difference (Fourier Law). Although theoretically simple, in practice, achieving high accuracies with steady-state methods is challenging and requires rather complex experimental setups due to temperature sensor uncertainties and parasitic heat loss. We developed a simple differential steady-state method in which the sample is mounted between an electric heater and a temperature-controlled heat sink. Our method calibrates for parasitic heat losses from the electric heater during the measurement by maintaining a constant heater temperature close to the environmental temperature while varying the heat sink temperature. This enables a large signal-to-noise ratio which permits accurate measurements of samples with small thermal conductance values without an additional heater calibration measurement or sophisticated heater guards to eliminate parasitic heater losses. Additionally, the differential nature of the method largely eliminates the uncertainties of the temperature sensors, permitting measurements with small temperature differences, which is advantageous for samples with high thermal conductance values and/or with strongly temperature-dependent thermal conductivities. In order to accelerate measurements of more than one sample, the proposed method allows for measuring several samples consecutively at each temperature measurement point without adding significant error. We demonstrate the method by performing thermal conductivity measurements on commercial bulk thermoelectric Bi2Te3 samples in the temperature range of 30-150 °C with an error below 3%.

  10. Space charge and steady state current in LDPE samples containing a permittivity/conductivity gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Bambery, K. R.; Fleming, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic theory predicts that a dielectric sample in which a steady DC current of density ε is flowing, and in which the ratio of permittivity ε to conductivity σ varies with position, will acquire a space charge density j·grad(ε/σ). A simple and convenient way to generate an ε/σ gradient...... in a homogeneous sample is to establish a temperature gradient across it. The resulting spatial variation in ε is usually small in polymeric insulators, but the variation in σ can be appreciable. Laser induced pressure pulse (LIPP) measurements were made on 1.5 mm thick plaques of ultra pure LDPE equipped...... with vacuum-evaporated aluminium electrodes. Temperature differences up to 27°C were maintained across the samples, which were subjected to DC fields up to 20 kV/mm. Current density was measured as a function of temperature and field. Negligible thermally generated space charge was observed. The charge...

  11. A quality approach for conducting training needs assessments in the Ministry of Health, State of Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, S; al-Darazi, F

    2000-01-01

    In health care organizations around the world, Training Needs Assessments (TNAs) have generally followed a professions-based approach. For example, the training needs of doctors, nurses, each allied health profession, and distinct support staff have been analyzed separately--individualized TNAs conducted for each speciality and functional area. Although a professions-based TNA model can provide useful information to human resource development (HRD) professionals, there are two major drawbacks: (1) it is possible that important training needs might be overlooked because of lack of information sharing among professions and (2) such an approach does not encourage an interdisciplinary, team orientation to service provision. This paper proposes an improved method of conceptualizing TNAs, using an approach that builds on the quality management literature (TQM, CQI, etc.) which stresses the importance of customer- and service-orientations to organizing and measuring organizational and individual performance.

  12. Anomalous temperature dependent magneto-conductance in organic light-emitting diodes with multiple emissive states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen-xiao; Jia, Wei-yao; Huang, Ke-Xun; Zhang, Qiao-ming; Yang, Xiao-hui; Xiong, Zu-hong

    2015-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the magneto-conductance (MC) in organic electron donor-acceptor hybrid and layer heterojunction diodes was studied. The MC value increased with temperature in layer heterojunction and in 10 wt. % hybrid devices. An anomalous decrease of the MC with temperature was observed in 25 wt. %-50 wt. % hybrid devices. Further increasing donor concentration to 75 wt. %, the MC again increased with temperature. The endothermic exciplex-exciton energy transfer and the change in electroplex/exciton ratio caused by change in charge transport with temperature may account for these phenomena. Comparative studies of the temperature evolutions of the IV curves and the electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra back our hypothesis.

  13. Anomalous temperature dependent magneto-conductance in organic light-emitting diodes with multiple emissive states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chen-xiao; Jia, Wei-yao; Huang, Ke-Xun; Zhang, Qiao-ming; Yang, Xiao-hui; Xiong, Zu-hong

    2015-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the magneto-conductance (MC) in organic electron donor-acceptor hybrid and layer heterojunction diodes was studied. The MC value increased with temperature in layer heterojunction and in 10 wt. % hybrid devices. An anomalous decrease of the MC with temperature was observed in 25 wt. %–50 wt. % hybrid devices. Further increasing donor concentration to 75 wt. %, the MC again increased with temperature. The endothermic exciplex-exciton energy transfer and the change in electroplex/exciton ratio caused by change in charge transport with temperature may account for these phenomena. Comparative studies of the temperature evolutions of the IV curves and the electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra back our hypothesis

  14. Anomalous temperature dependent magneto-conductance in organic light-emitting diodes with multiple emissive states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chen-xiao; Jia, Wei-yao; Huang, Ke-Xun; Zhang, Qiao-ming; Yang, Xiao-hui; Xiong, Zu-hong, E-mail: zhxiong@swu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, MOE Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2015-07-13

    The temperature dependence of the magneto-conductance (MC) in organic electron donor-acceptor hybrid and layer heterojunction diodes was studied. The MC value increased with temperature in layer heterojunction and in 10 wt. % hybrid devices. An anomalous decrease of the MC with temperature was observed in 25 wt. %–50 wt. % hybrid devices. Further increasing donor concentration to 75 wt. %, the MC again increased with temperature. The endothermic exciplex-exciton energy transfer and the change in electroplex/exciton ratio caused by change in charge transport with temperature may account for these phenomena. Comparative studies of the temperature evolutions of the IV curves and the electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra back our hypothesis.

  15. A simple model for conduction band states of nitride-based double heteroestructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaggero-Sager, L M; Mora-Ramos, M E, E-mail: lgaggero@uaem.m [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    In this work we propose an analytical expression for the approximate modeling of the potential energy function describing conduction band bending in III-V nitride quantum wells. It is an alternative approach to the self-consistent Poisson-Schoedinger calculation. The model considers the influence of the many electron system and the built-in electric field inside the well. Hartree and exchange contributions are included along the lines of a local-density Thomas-Fermi-based theory. The effects due to the modulated doping in the barriers is also considered. We report the calculation of the energy spectrum as a function of several input parameters: alloy composition in the barriers, barrier doping concentration, and quantum well width. Our results could be of usefulness in the study of optoelectronic properties in this kind of systems.

  16. Spiral magnetic order, non-uniform states and electron correlations in the conducting transition metal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoshev, P. A.; Timirgazin, M. A.; Arzhnikov, A. K.; Antipin, T. V.; Irkhin, V. Yu.

    2017-10-01

    The ground-state magnetic phase diagram is calculated within the Hubbard and s-d exchange (Kondo) models for square and simple cubic lattices vs. band filling and interaction parameter. The difference of the results owing to the presence of localized moments in the latter model is discussed. We employ a generalized Hartree-Fock approximation (HFA) to treat commensurate ferromagnetic (FM), antiferromagnetic (AFM), and incommensurate (spiral) magnetic phases. The electron correlations are taken into account within the Hubbard model by using the Kotliar-Ruckenstein slave boson approximation (SBA). The main advantage of this approach is a correct qualitative description of the paramagnetic phase: its energy becomes considerably lower as compared with HFA, and the gain in the energy of magnetic phases is substantially reduced.

  17. Reversible control of kinesin activity and microtubule gliding speeds by switching the doping states of a conducting polymer support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Brett D [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Velea, Luminita M [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Soto, Carissa M [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Whitaker, Craig M [US Naval Academy, Department of Chemistry, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Gaber, Bruce P [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ratna, Banahalli [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2007-02-07

    We describe a method for reversibly controlling the ATPase activity of streptavidin-linked kinesin by changing the doping states of a conducting polymer support. When the polymer (poly(CH{sub 2}OH-EDOT)) was electrochemically switched from its dedoped (semiconducting) state to its doped (conducting) state, the ATPase activity of the adsorbed kinesin complex decreased by 35% with a concomitant decrease in the gliding speeds of kinesin-driven microtubules. When the polymer was switched back to its original dedoped state, nearly identical increases were observed in the kinesin ATPase activity and microtubule speeds. Use of a fluorescent ATP substrate analogue showed that the total amount of kinesin adsorbed on the poly(CH{sub 2}OH-EDOT) surface remained constant as the doping state of the polymer was switched. The microtubules exhibited nearly identical speed differences on the doped and dedoped surfaces for both chemical and electrochemical doping methods. Michaelis-Menten modelling suggests that the doped surface acts as an 'uncompetitive inhibitor' of kinesin. This work represents an investigation into the phenomenon of an electrically switchable surface exerting a moderating effect on the activity of an adsorbed protein that does not contain a bound, electroactive metal ion.

  18. Chronological, spatial, regulatory and financial aspects of conducting training practices in Transnistrian state university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Бурла

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the educational practices with the students enrolled in the direction of «geography» of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods. The problems are associated with the organization and conduct of practices at the present stage, among which are: regulatory constraints (lack of passports, travel documents for vehicles, financial constraints, military and political processes, the financial and currency crisis of 2015 in Transnistria, no final international political and legal status of Transnistria, and others. The measures to address the identified problems: timely execution of foreign passports, finding sponsors willing to finance part of the costs related to the practices; increase in the share of self-financing; conclusion of agreements with foreign universities on exchange of students, trainees; utilization of charitable funds and grants; inclusion of the Transnistrian University in an international program of the European Union on the interuniversity interaction «ERASMUS»; the use of the potential for the study programs of the European Union countries (e. g, programs, short-term accommodation of foreign students in families.

  19. Analysis Of Soil NPK Ph And Electrical Conductivity At Adham Area- Renk Upper Nile State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubaker Haroun Mohamed Adam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to investigate soil type potentiality and reaction in relation to the scattered remaining vegetation species and to quantify soil suitability for growing field crops. Adham area witnessed serious land degradation due to the rapid expansion of Rain-fed Mechanized Farming and overgrazing. Consequently the low crop yield enforced the local communities to shift to the alternative sources of income generating activities particularly those related to forest products like charcoal making firewood production logging and tree lobbing. By using Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD with emphasizes on Macro nutrients particularly the Nitrogen Phosphorous and potassium NPK in addition to soil pH and Electrical Conductivity EC. random soil samples each with three levels of depths 0 - 15 15 - 30 30 - 45 cm. were collected. All collected data were analyzed in the laboratory. The result of revealed several types of soils including the cracking and non -cracking clay sandy and red soils. The result of statistical analysis depicted variability in NPK pH and EC between the different locations and soil depths. Furthermore the result showed an association between some studied soil attributes and the spatial distribution of the vegetation species. Rational use through participatory approach is recommended for natural resources management conservation and sustainability. Moreover further study using space technology also recommended.

  20. Objective classification of latent behavioral states in bio-logging data using multivariate-normal hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Joe Scutt; Patterson, Toby A; Leroy, Bruno; Pilling, Graham M; Nicol, Simon J

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of complex time-series data from ecological system study requires quantitative tools for objective description and classification. These tools must take into account largely ignored problems of bias in manual classification, autocorrelation, and noise. Here we describe a method using existing estimation techniques for multivariate-normal hidden Markov models (HMMs) to develop such a classification. We use high-resolution behavioral data from bio-loggers attached to free-roaming pelagic tuna as an example. Observed patterns are assumed to be generated by an unseen Markov process that switches between several multivariate-normal distributions. Our approach is assessed in two parts. The first uses simulation experiments, from which the ability of the HMM to estimate known parameter values is examined using artificial time series of data consistent with hypotheses about pelagic predator foraging ecology. The second is the application to time series of continuous vertical movement data from yellowfin and bigeye tuna taken from tuna tagging experiments. These data were compressed into summary metrics capturing the variation of patterns in diving behavior and formed into a multivariate time series used to estimate a HMM. Each observation was associated with covariate information incorporating the effect of day and night on behavioral switching. Known parameter values were well recovered by the HMMs in our simulation experiments, resulting in mean correct classification rates of 90-97%, although some variance-covariance parameters were estimated less accurately. HMMs with two distinct behavioral states were selected for every time series of real tuna data, predicting a shallow warm state, which was similar across all individuals, and a deep colder state, which was more variable. Marked diurnal behavioral switching was predicted, consistent with many previous empirical studies on tuna. HMMs provide easily interpretable models for the objective classification of

  1. Electrical conductivity and equation of state of liquid nitrogen, oxygen, benzene, and 1-butene shocked to 60 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements are reported for the electrical conductivity of liquid nitrogen (N 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ) and benzene (C 6 H 6 ), and Hugoniot equation of state of liquid 1-butene (C 4 H 8 ) under shock compressed conditions. The conductivity data span 7 x 10 -4 to 7 x 10 1 Ω -1 cm -1 over a dynamic pressure range 18.1 to 61.5 GPa and are discussed in terms of amorphous semiconduction models which include such transport phenomena as hopping, percolation, pseudogaps, and metallization. Excellent agreement is found between the equation-of-state measurements, which span a dynamic pressure range 12.3 to 53.8 GPa, and Ree's calculated values which assume a 2-phase mixture consisting of molecular hydrogen and carbon in a dense diamond-like phase. There is a 2-1/2 fold increase in the thermal pressure contribution over a less dense, stoichiometrically equivalent liquid. 90 refs., 48 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Calculations of the electronic density of states and conductivity consistent with the generalized optical theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosten, A.B. van; Geertsma, W.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study density of states (DOS) effects on the resistivity of liquid metals and alloys we derive a set of integral equations for these quantities so that this set satisfies the generalized optical theorem. The DOS is calculated up to second order in the scattering potential using renormalized propagators. The theory is applicable to weak scattering systems, for example, alkali and alkaline earth metals and, for example, to Li-Pb alloys for compositions where the mean free path is much larger that the average interatomic distance. From our numerical results we conclude that the Ziman equation for the resistivity should be multiplied by g 2 =N 2 (Esub(F))/N 2 sub(O)(Esub(F)) where N(Esub(F)) is the DOS at the Fermi level as calculated in our model and Nsub(O)(Esub(F)) is the free electron DOS. This solves the long standing problem of whether or not one should correct the Ziman equation by an effective mass correction. Our model is only valid for alloys consisting of atoms with a small difference in electronegativity. This is clearly shown in the results for the liquid Li-Pb system. Some of the existing resistivity theories for weak and intermediate scattering are examined in the light of our calculations. (author)

  3. Ultraflexible and tailorable all-solid-state supercapacitors using polyacrylamide-based hydrogel electrolyte with high ionic conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huili; Lv, Tian; Li, Ning; Yao, Yao; Liu, Kai; Chen, Tao

    2017-11-30

    Hydrogels with high ionic conductivity consisting of a cross-linked polymer network swollen in water are very promising to be used as an electrolyte for all-solid-state supercapacitors. However, there are rather few flexible supercapacitors using ionic conducting hydrogel electrolytes reported to date. In this work, highly flexible and ionic conducting polyacrylamide hydrogels were synthesized through a simple approach. On using the ionic hydrogels as the electrolyte, the resulting supercapacitors not only exhibited a high specific capacitance but also showed a long self-discharge time (over 10 hours to the half of original open-circuit voltage) and a low leakage current. These newly-developed all-solid-state supercapacitors can be bent, knot, and kneaded for 5000 cycles without performance decay, suggesting excellent flexibility and mechanical stability. These all-solid-state supercapacitors can also be easily tailored into strip-like supercapacitors without a short circuit, which provides an efficient approach to fabricate wearable energy storage devices.

  4. Recent Advances in Fast Ion Conducting Materials and Devices - Proceedings of the 2nd Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Liu, Qingguo; Chen, Liquan

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Invited Papers * Recent Trends in Solid State Ionics * Theoretical Aspects of Fast Ion Conduction in Solids * Chemical Bonding and Intercalation Processes in Framework Structures * Extra-Large Near-Electrode Regions and Diffusion Length on the Solid Electrolyte-Electrode Interface as Studied by Photo-EMF Method * Frequency Response of Glasses * XPS Studies on Ion Conducting Glasses * Characterization of New Ambient Temperature Lithium Polymer-Electrolyte * Recent Development of Polymer Electrolytes: Solid State Voltammetry in Polymer Electrolytes * Secondary Solid State Batteries: From Material Properties to Commercial Development * Silver Vanadium Oxide Bronze and its Applications for Electrochemical Devices * Study on β''-Alumina Solid Electrolyte and β Battery in SIC * Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * Processing for Super Superionic Ceramics * Hydrogen Production Using Oxide Ionic or Protonic Conductor * Ionically Conductive Sulfide-Based Lithium Glasses * Relation of Conductivity to Structure and Structural Relaxation in Ion-Conducting Glasses * The Mechanism of Ionic Conductivity in Glass * The Role of Synthesis and Structure in Solid State Ionics - Electrodes to Superconductors * Electrochromism in Spin-Coated Thin Films from Peroxo-Poly tungstate Solutions * Electrochemical Studies on High Tc Superconductors * Multivalence Fast Ionic Conductors - Montmorillonites * Contributed Papers * Volt-Ampere Characteristics and Interface Charge Transport in Solid Electrolytes * Internal Friction of Silver Chalcogenides * Thermal Expansion of Ionic and Superionic Solids * Improvement of PEO-LiCF3SO3 Complex Electrolytes Using Additives * Ionic Conductivity of Modified Poly (Methoxy Polyethylene Glycol Methacrylate) s-Lithium Salt Complexes * Solid Polymer Electrolytes of Crosslinked Polyethylene Glycol and Lithium Salts * Single Ionic Conductors Prepared by in Situ Polymerization of Methacrylic Acid

  5. Influence of the valence states of atoms on conducting properties of PrBa2Cu3O6+x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanenko, A.I.; Zakharchuk, N.F.; Naumov, N.G.; Fedorov, V.E.; Paek, U.H.

    1997-01-01

    Pr 3+ valent state only was discovered in PrBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x within the oxygen content range 0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.6. Out of this range, Pr 4+ state appears also. All the samples obtained showed insulating behavior of resistivity r(T). In PrBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x (0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.6), the resistivity is Mott variable-range hopping conduction type and is connected with oxygen disorder only. Out of this range, the localization is much stronger; this increase is due to Pr 4+ /Pr 3+ position disorder. Also, the localization decreases after annealing at room temperature is the result of ordering. Thus, the absence of metallic (and therefore superconducting) state in PrBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x is due to the presence of both Pr 4+ and Pr 4+ /Pr 3+ disorder

  6. Model-based analysis and control of a network of basal ganglia spiking neurons in the normal and Parkinsonian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Khalil, Hassan K.; Oweiss, Karim G.

    2011-08-01

    Controlling the spatiotemporal firing pattern of an intricately connected network of neurons through microstimulation is highly desirable in many applications. We investigated in this paper the feasibility of using a model-based approach to the analysis and control of a basal ganglia (BG) network model of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) spiking neurons through microstimulation. Detailed analysis of this network model suggests that it can reproduce the experimentally observed characteristics of BG neurons under a normal and a pathological Parkinsonian state. A simplified neuronal firing rate model, identified from the detailed HH network model, is shown to capture the essential network dynamics. Mathematical analysis of the simplified model reveals the presence of a systematic relationship between the network's structure and its dynamic response to spatiotemporally patterned microstimulation. We show that both the network synaptic organization and the local mechanism of microstimulation can impose tight constraints on the possible spatiotemporal firing patterns that can be generated by the microstimulated network, which may hinder the effectiveness of microstimulation to achieve a desired objective under certain conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that the feedback control design aided by the mathematical analysis of the simplified model is indeed effective in driving the BG network in the normal and Parskinsonian states to follow a prescribed spatiotemporal firing pattern. We further show that the rhythmic/oscillatory patterns that characterize a dopamine-depleted BG network can be suppressed as a direct consequence of controlling the spatiotemporal pattern of a subpopulation of the output Globus Pallidus internalis (GPi) neurons in the network. This work may provide plausible explanations for the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease and pave the way towards a model-based, network level analysis and closed

  7. Generalized time evolution of the homogeneous cooling state of a granular gas with positive and negative coefficient of normal restitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Nagi

    2018-04-01

    The homogeneous cooling state (HCS) of a granular gas described by the inelastic Boltzmann equation is reconsidered. As usual, particles are taken as inelastic hard disks or spheres, but now the coefficient of normal restitution α is allowed to take negative values , which is a simple way of modeling more complicated inelastic interactions. The distribution function of the HCS is studied at the long-time limit, as well as intermediate times. At the long-time limit, the relevant information of the HCS is given by a scaling distribution function , where the time dependence occurs through a dimensionless velocity c. For , remains close to the Gaussian distribution in the thermal region, its cumulants and exponential tails being well described by the first Sonine approximation. In contrast, for , the distribution function becomes multimodal, its maxima located at , and its observable tails algebraic. The latter is a consequence of an unbalanced relaxation–dissipation competition, and is analytically demonstrated for , thanks to a reduction of the Boltzmann equation to a Fokker–Plank-like equation. Finally, a generalized scaling solution to the Boltzmann equation is also found . Apart from the time dependence occurring through the dimensionless velocity, depends on time through a new parameter β measuring the departure of the HCS from its long-time limit. It is shown that describes the time evolution of the HCS for almost all times. The relevance of the new scaling is also discussed.

  8. Dextran based highly conductive hydrogel polysulfide electrolyte for efficient quasi-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lin, Ling; Yu, Xiao-Yun; Qiu, Kang-Qiang; Lü, Xian-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dextran based hydrogel is first used to prepare quasi-solid-state polysulfide electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. ► The ion conductivity of hydrogel electrolyte shows almost the same value as the liquid electrolyte. ► The liquid state at elevated temperature of hydrogel electrolyte allows for a good contact between electrolyte and CdS/CdSe co-sensitized TiO 2 photoanode. ► The hydrogel electrolyte based cell exhibits slightly lower power conversion efficiency than that of liquid electrolyte based cell. ► The dynamic electron transfer mechanism in hydrogel electrolyte based cell is examined in detail by EIS and CIMPS/IMVS. -- Abstract: Highly conductive hydrogel polysulfide electrolyte is first fabricated using dextran as gelator and used as quasi-solid-state electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The hydrogel electrolyte with gelator concentration of 15 wt% shows almost the same conductivity as the liquid one. Moreover, its liquid state at elevated temperature allow for the well penetration into the pores in electrodeposited CdS/CdSe co-sensitized TiO 2 photoanode. This gel electrolyte based QDSSC exhibits power conversion efficiency (η) of 3.23% under AG 1.5 G one sun (100 mW cm −2 ) illumination, slightly lower than that of liquid electrolyte based cell (3.69%). The dynamic electron transfer mechanism of the gel and liquid electrolyte based QDSSC are examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (CIMPS/IMVS). It is found that the electron transport in gel electrolyte based cell is much faster than the liquid electrolyte based cell but it tends to recombine more easily than the latter. However, these differences fade away with increasing the light intensity, showing declining electron collection efficiency at higher light intensity illumination. As a result, a conversion efficiency of 4.58% is obtained for the gel

  9. Effect of surface states of layered double hydroxides on conductive and transport properties of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.-S.; Ye, W.-B.

    2004-01-01

    All solid-state poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanocomposite electrolytes were made containing nanoscale fillers of layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Two kinds of LDHs with different surface states were prepared by aqueous co-precipitation method. The LDHs were added into PEO matrix to study the structures, conductivities and ionic transport properties of nanocomposite electrolytes. The structures of LDHs were characterized by infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. With enhanced compatibility of LDH sheets by oligo(ethylene oxide) surface modification, the PEO/OMLDH nanocomposite electrolyte exhibits an amorphous morphology and an enhancement of conductivity by three orders of magnitude as compared to pure PEO electrolyte. The lithium ion transference number T Li + of PEO/LDH nanocomposite electrolyte measured with a value of 0.42 is two times higher than the one of pure PEO electrolyte, which can be attributed to the Lewis acid-base interaction between surface states of metal hydroxides and counter anions of lithium salts

  10. Numerical Simulation of Steady State Conduction Heat Transfer During the Solidification of Aluminum Casting in Green Sand Mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor ANJO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The solidification of molten metal during the casting process involves heat transfer from the molten metal to the mould, then to the atmosphere. The mechanical properties and grain size of metals are determined by the heat transfer process during solidification. The aim of this study is to numerically stimulate the steady conduction heat transfer during the solidification of aluminum in green sand mould using finite difference analysis 2D. The properties of materials used are industrial AI 50/60 AFS green sand mould, pure aluminum and MATLAB 7.0.1. for the numerical simulation. The method includes; the finite difference analysis of the heat conduction equation in steady (Laplace’s and transient states and using MATLAB to numerically stimulate the thermal flow and cooling curve. The results obtained are: the steady state thermal flow in 2D and transient state cooling curve of casting. The results obtain were consider relevant in the control of the grain size and mechanical properties of the casting.

  11. A state-space modeling approach to estimating canopy conductance and associated uncertainties from sap flux density data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M; Ward, Eric J; Oishi, A Christopher; Oren, Ram; Flikkema, Paul G; Clark, James S

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainties in ecophysiological responses to environment, such as the impact of atmospheric and soil moisture conditions on plant water regulation, limit our ability to estimate key inputs for ecosystem models. Advanced statistical frameworks provide coherent methodologies for relating observed data, such as stem sap flux density, to unobserved processes, such as canopy conductance and transpiration. To address this need, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian State-Space Canopy Conductance (StaCC) model linking canopy conductance and transpiration to tree sap flux density from a 4-year experiment in the North Carolina Piedmont, USA. Our model builds on existing ecophysiological knowledge, but explicitly incorporates uncertainty in canopy conductance, internal tree hydraulics and observation error to improve estimation of canopy conductance responses to atmospheric drought (i.e., vapor pressure deficit), soil drought (i.e., soil moisture) and above canopy light. Our statistical framework not only predicted sap flux observations well, but it also allowed us to simultaneously gap-fill missing data as we made inference on canopy processes, marking a substantial advance over traditional methods. The predicted and observed sap flux data were highly correlated (mean sensor-level Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.88). Variations in canopy conductance and transpiration associated with environmental variation across days to years were many times greater than the variation associated with model uncertainties. Because some variables, such as vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture, were correlated at the scale of days to weeks, canopy conductance responses to individual environmental variables were difficult to interpret in isolation. Still, our results highlight the importance of accounting for uncertainty in models of ecophysiological and ecosystem function where the process of interest, canopy conductance in this case, is not observed directly. The StaCC modeling

  12. Effect of trap states and microstructure on charge carrier conduction mechanism through semicrystalline poly(vinyl alcohol) granular film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A. K.; Bhowmik, R. N.; Meikap, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    We report a comprehensive study on hysteresis behaviour of current-voltage characteristic and impedance spectroscopy of granular semicrystalline poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film. The charge carrier conduction mechanism and charge traps of granular PVA film by measuring and analyzing the temperature dependent current-voltage characteristic indicate a bi-stable electronic state in the film. A sharp transformation of charge carrier conduction mechanism from Poole-Frenkel emission to space charge limited current mechanism has been observed. An anomalous oscillatory behaviour of current has been observed due to electric pulse effect on the molecular chain of the polymer. Effect of microstructure on charge transport mechanism has been investigated from impedance spectroscopy analysis. An equivalent circuit model has been proposed to explain the result.

  13. Thermal conductivity and expansion enhancement associated with formation of the superionic state in SrCl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.P.; Weaver, F.J.; Graves, R.S.; McElroy, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    A second-order phase transition in SrCl 2 near 1000 K produces superionic conduction and is often called the Bredig transition. Fine-grained, 99% dense, SrCl 2 samples containing three volume percent TiO 2 to reduce radiant transport were used to measure the differential thermal expansion coefficient (α) by push-rod dilatometry and the thermal conductivity (lambda) by a radial heat flow method. Both properties show maxima near the Bredig transition. The peak α-value is over 75 x 10 -6 K -1 . The data obtained from the radial heat flow method show good agreement with earlier tests at low temperatures, and the high temperature results show a local enhancement of lambda if about 0.06 W/m.K. This enhancement cannot be attributed to electronic or radiant transport, but is due to a new mechanism of thermal diffusion of vacancy-anion interstitial pairs in the superionic state

  14. Enhanced Electrical Conductivity of Molecularly p-Doped Poly(3-hexylthiophene) through Understanding the Correlation with Solid-State Order

    KAUST Repository

    Hynynen, Jonna; Kiefer, David; Yu, Liyang; Kroon, Renee; Munir, Rahim; Amassian, Aram; Kemerink, Martijn; Mü ller, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Molecular p-doping of the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) is a widely studied model system. Underlying structure–property relationships are poorly understood because processing and doping are often carried out simultaneously. Here, we exploit doping from the vapor phase, which allows us to disentangle the influence of processing and doping. Through this approach, we are able to establish how the electrical conductivity varies with regard to a series of predefined structural parameters. We demonstrate that improving the degree of solid-state order, which we control through the choice of processing solvent and regioregularity, strongly increases the electrical conductivity. As a result, we achieve a value of up to 12.7 S cm–1 for P3HT:F4TCNQ. We determine the F4TCNQ anion concentration and find that the number of (bound + mobile) charge carriers of about 10–4 mol cm–3 is not influenced by the degree of solid-state order. Thus, the observed increase in electrical conductivity by almost 2 orders of magnitude can be attributed to an increase in charge-carrier mobility to more than 10–1 cm2 V–1 s–1. Surprisingly, in contrast to charge transport in undoped P3HT, we find that the molecular weight of the polymer does not strongly influence the electrical conductivity, which highlights the need for studies that elucidate structure–property relationships of strongly doped conjugated polymers.

  15. Enhanced Electrical Conductivity of Molecularly p-Doped Poly(3-hexylthiophene) through Understanding the Correlation with Solid-State Order

    KAUST Repository

    Hynynen, Jonna

    2017-10-11

    Molecular p-doping of the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) is a widely studied model system. Underlying structure–property relationships are poorly understood because processing and doping are often carried out simultaneously. Here, we exploit doping from the vapor phase, which allows us to disentangle the influence of processing and doping. Through this approach, we are able to establish how the electrical conductivity varies with regard to a series of predefined structural parameters. We demonstrate that improving the degree of solid-state order, which we control through the choice of processing solvent and regioregularity, strongly increases the electrical conductivity. As a result, we achieve a value of up to 12.7 S cm–1 for P3HT:F4TCNQ. We determine the F4TCNQ anion concentration and find that the number of (bound + mobile) charge carriers of about 10–4 mol cm–3 is not influenced by the degree of solid-state order. Thus, the observed increase in electrical conductivity by almost 2 orders of magnitude can be attributed to an increase in charge-carrier mobility to more than 10–1 cm2 V–1 s–1. Surprisingly, in contrast to charge transport in undoped P3HT, we find that the molecular weight of the polymer does not strongly influence the electrical conductivity, which highlights the need for studies that elucidate structure–property relationships of strongly doped conjugated polymers.

  16. Intrinsic conduction through topological surface states of insulating Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefer, Katharina; Becker, Christoph; Rata, Diana; Thalmeier, Peter; Tjeng, Liu Hao [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Swanson, Jesse [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Topological insulators represent a new state of matter that open up new opportunities to create unique quantum particles. Many exciting experiments have been proposed by theory, yet, the main obstacle for their execution is material quality and cleanliness of the experimental conditions. The presence of tiny amounts of defects in the bulk or contaminants at the surface already mask these phenomena. We present the preparation, structural and spectroscopic characterisation of MBE-grown Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films that are insulating in the bulk. Moreover, temperature dependent four-point-probe resistivity measurements of the Dirac states on surfaces that are intrinsically clean were conducted. The total amount of surface charge carries is in the order of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and mobilities up to 4600 cm{sup 2}/Vs are observed. Importantly, these results are achieved by carrying out the preparation and characterisation all in-situ under ultra-high-vacuum conditions.

  17. Software for determining the direction of movement, shear and normal stresses of a fault under a determined stress state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez del Castillo, Alejandra; Alaniz-Álvarez, Susana Alicia; Nieto-Samaniego, Angel Francisco; Xu, Shunshan; Ochoa-González, Gil Humberto; Velasquillo-Martínez, Luis Germán

    2017-07-01

    In the oil, gas and geothermal industry, the extraction or the input of fluids induces changes in the stress field of the reservoir, if the in-situ stress state of a fault plane is sufficiently disturbed, a fault may slip and can trigger fluid leakage or the reservoir might fracture and become damaged. The goal of the SSLIPO 1.0 software is to obtain data that can reduce the risk of affecting the stability of wellbores. The input data are the magnitudes of the three principal stresses and their orientation in geographic coordinates. The output data are the slip direction of a fracture in geographic coordinates, and its normal (σn) and shear (τ) stresses resolved on a single or multiple fracture planes. With this information, it is possible to calculate the slip tendency (τ/σn) and the propensity to open a fracture that is inversely proportional to σn. This software could analyze any compressional stress system, even non-Andersonian. An example is given from an oilfield in southern Mexico, in a region that contains fractures formed in three events of deformation. In the example SSLIPO 1.0 was used to determine in which deformation event the oil migrated. SSLIPO 1.0 is an open code application developed in MATLAB. The URL to obtain the source code and to download SSLIPO 1.0 are: http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/ alaniz/main_code.txt, http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/ alaniz/ SSLIPO_pkg.exe.

  18. Interleukin-1 antagonism moderates the inflammatory state associated with Type 1 diabetes during clinical trials conducted at disease onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Susanne M; Wang, Xujing; Chen, Yi-Guang; Jia, Shuang; Kaldunski, Mary L; Greenbaum, Carla J; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Hessner, Martin J

    2016-04-01

    It was hypothesized that IL-1 antagonism would preserve β-cell function in new onset Type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the Anti-Interleukin-1 in Diabetes Action (AIDA) and TrialNet Canakinumab (TN-14) trials failed to show efficacy of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) or canakinumab, as measured by stimulated C-peptide response. Additional measures are needed to define immune state changes associated with therapeutic responses. Here, we studied these trial participants with plasma-induced transcriptional analysis. In blinded analyses, 70.2% of AIDA and 68.9% of TN-14 participants were correctly called to their treatment arm. While the transcriptional signatures from the two trials were distinct, both therapies achieved varying immunomodulation consistent with IL-1 inhibition. On average, IL-1 antagonism resulted in modest normalization relative to healthy controls. At endpoint, signatures were quantified using a gene ontology-based inflammatory index, and an inverse relationship was observed between measured inflammation and stimulated C-peptide response in IL-1Ra- and canakinumab-treated patients. Cytokine neutralization studies showed that IL-1α and IL-1β additively contribute to the T1D inflammatory state. Finally, analyses of baseline signatures were indicative of later therapeutic response. Despite the absence of clinical efficacy by IL-1 antagonist therapy, transcriptional analysis detected immunomodulation and may yield new insight when applied to other clinical trials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Anisotropy of the nitrogen conduction states in the group III nitrides studied by polarized x-ray absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Gullikson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Group III nitrides (AlN, GaN, and InN) consist of the semiconductors which appear recently as a basic materials for optoelectronic devices active in the visible/ultraviolet spectrum as well as high-temperature and high-power microelectronic devices. However, understanding of the basic physical properties leading to application is still not satisfactory. One of the reasons consists in unsufficient knowledge of the band structure of the considered semiconductors. Several theoretical studies of III-nitrides band structure have been published but relatively few experimental studies have been carried out, particularly with respect to their conduction band structure. This motivated the authors to examine the conduction band structure projected onto p-states of the nitrogen atoms for AlN, GaN and InN. An additional advantage of their studies is the availability of the studied nitrides in two structures, hexagonal (wurtzite) and cubic (zincblende). This offers an opportunity to gain information about the role of the anisotropy of electronic band states in determining various physical properties

  20. Anisotropy of the nitrogen conduction states in the group III nitrides studied by polarized x-ray absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Institute of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Liliental-Weber, Z.; Gullikson, E.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Group III nitrides (AlN, GaN, and InN) consist of the semiconductors which appear recently as a basic materials for optoelectronic devices active in the visible/ultraviolet spectrum as well as high-temperature and high-power microelectronic devices. However, understanding of the basic physical properties leading to application is still not satisfactory. One of the reasons consists in unsufficient knowledge of the band structure of the considered semiconductors. Several theoretical studies of III-nitrides band structure have been published but relatively few experimental studies have been carried out, particularly with respect to their conduction band structure. This motivated the authors to examine the conduction band structure projected onto p-states of the nitrogen atoms for AlN, GaN and InN. An additional advantage of their studies is the availability of the studied nitrides in two structures, hexagonal (wurtzite) and cubic (zincblende). This offers an opportunity to gain information about the role of the anisotropy of electronic band states in determining various physical properties.

  1. Electrical conductivity and equation of state of liquid nitrogen, oxygen, benzene, and 1-butene shocked to 60 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, D.C.

    1986-10-08

    Measurements are reported for the electrical conductivity of liquid nitrogen (N/sub 2/), oxygen (O/sub 2/) and benzene (C/sub 6/H/sub 6/), and Hugoniot equation of state of liquid 1-butene (C/sub 4/H/sub 8/) under shock compressed conditions. The conductivity data span 7 x 10/sup -4/ to 7 x 10/sup 1/ ..cap omega../sup -1/cm/sup -1/ over a dynamic pressure range 18.1 to 61.5 GPa and are discussed in terms of amorphous semiconduction models which include such transport phenomena as hopping, percolation, pseudogaps, and metallization. Excellent agreement is found between the equation-of-state measurements, which span a dynamic pressure range 12.3 to 53.8 GPa, and Ree's calculated values which assume a 2-phase mixture consisting of molecular hydrogen and carbon in a dense diamond-like phase. There is a 2-1/2 fold increase in the thermal pressure contribution over a less dense, stoichiometrically equivalent liquid. 90 refs., 48 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. A Combined Theoretical and Experimental View on Valence and Conduction Band Densities of States of Lead Halide Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronik, Leeor; Endres, James; Egger, David A.; Kulbak, Michael; Kerner, Ross A.; Zhao, Lianfeng; Silver, Scott H.; Hodes, Gary; Rand, Barry P.; Cahen, David; Kahn, Antoine

    We present results for the valence and conduction band density of states (DOS), measured via ultraviolet and inverse photoemission spectroscopies for three lead halide perovskites. Specifically, the DOS of MAPbI3, MAPbBr3, and CsPbBr3, grown on different substrates, are compared. Theoretical DOS, calculated via hybrid density functional theory and including spin-orbit coupling, are compared to experimental data. The agreement between experiment and theory, obtained after correcting the latter for quantitative discrepancies, leads to the identification of valence and conduction band spectral features. In particular, this comparison allows for precise determination of the energy position of the band edges, namely ionization energies and electron affinities of these materials. We find an unusually low DOS at the valence band maximum (VBM) of these systems, which confirms and generalizes previous findings of strong band dispersion and low DOS at the VBM of MAPbI3. This calls for special attention when using electron spectroscopy to determine the frontier electronic states of lead halide perovskites.

  3. Optical spectroscopy, optical conductivity, dielectric properties and new methods for determining the gap states of CuSe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakr, G.B.; Yahia, I.S.; Fadel, M.; Fouad, S.S.; Romcevic, N.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The structural, optical dispersion parameters and the Raman spectroscopy have been studied for CuSe thin films. → X-ray diffraction results indicate the amorphous nature of the thermally evaporated CuSe thin films. → The refractive index shows an anomalous dispersion at the lower wavelength (absorption region) and a normal dispersion at the higher wavelengths (transparent region). → The refractive index dispersion obeys the single oscillator model proposed by Wemple and DiDomenico WDD model and the single oscillator parameters were determined. → The band gap of CuSe thin films was determined by three novel methods i.e. (relaxation time, real and imaginary dielectric constant and real and imaginary optical conductivity) which in a good agreement with the Tauc band gap value. - Abstract: The paper describes the structural and optical properties of CuSe thin films. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates that CuSe thin film has an amorphous structure. Transmittance T(λ) and reflectance R(λ) measurements in the wavelength range (300-1700 nm) were used to calculate the refractive index n(λ), the absorption index and the optical dispersion parameters according to Wemple and Didomenico WDD model. The dispersion curve of the refractive index shows an anomalous dispersion in the absorption region and a normal dispersion in the transparent region. The optical bandgap has been estimated and confirmed by four different methods. The value for the direct bandgap for the as-deposited CuSe thin film approximately equals 2.7 eV. The Raman spectroscopy was used to identify and quantify the individual phases presented in the CuSe films.

  4. Hardness of the subchondral bone of the patella in the normal state, in chondromalacia, and in osteoarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkström, S; Goldie, I F

    1982-06-01

    The hardness of bone is its property of withstanding the impact of a penetrating agent. It has been found that articular degenerative changes in, for example, the tibia (knee) are combined with a decrease in the hardness of the subchondral bone. In this investigation the hardness of subchondral bone in chondromalacia and osteoarthrosis of the patella has been analysed and compared with normal subchondral bone. Using an indentation method originally described by Brinell the hardness of the subchondral bone was evaluated in 7 normal patellae, in 20 with chondromalacia and in 33 with osteoarthrosis. A microscopic and microradiographic study of the subchondral bone was carried out simultaneously. Hardness was lowest in the normal material. The mean hardness value beneath the degenerated cartilage differed only slightly from that of the normal material, but the variation of values was increased. The hardness in bone in the chondromalacia area was lower than the hardness in bone covered by surrounding normal cartilage. The mean hardness value in bone beneath normal parts of cartilage in specimens with chondromalacia was higher than the mean hardness value of the normal material. In the microscopic and microradiographic examination it became evident that there was a relationship between trabecular structure and subchondral bone hardness; high values: coarse and solid structure; low values: slender and less regular structure.

  5. A simple model for normal state in- and out-of-plane resistivities of hole doped cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqib, S.H., E-mail: shnaqib.physicsru@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Azam, M. Afsana [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of Physics, DUET, Gazipur, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Uddin, M. Borhan [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of CSE, International Islamic University Chittagong, Sitakunda, IIUC Rd, Kumira 4314 Bangladesh (Bangladesh); Cole, J.R. [Cambridge Flow Solutions Ltd., Histon, Cambridge CB24 9AD (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • In- and out-of-plane charge transport have been investigated for hole doped cuprates. • Effect of quantum critical point (QCP) on non-Fermi liquid behavior has been explored. • The impact of pseudogap (PG) on carrier scattering rate has been studied. • In- and out-of plane resistivities have been modeled by considering the QCP and the PG. • The model explains the non-Fermi liquid charge transport in hole doped cuprates. - Abstract: The highly anisotropic and qualitatively different nature of the normal state in- and out-of-plane charge dynamics in high-T{sub c} cuprates cannot be accommodated within the conventional Boltzmann transport theory. The variation of in-plane and out-of-plane resistivities with temperature and hole content are anomalous and cannot be explained by Fermi-liquid theory. In this study, we have proposed a simple phenomenological model for the dc resistivity of cuprates by incorporating two firmly established generic features of all hole doped cuprate superconductors—(i) the pseudogap in the quasiparticle energy spectrum and (ii) the T-linear resistivity at high temperatures. This T-linear behavior over an extended temperature range can be attributed to a quantum criticality, affecting the electronic phase diagram of cuprates. Experimental in-plane and out-of-plane resistivities (ρ{sub p}(T) and ρ{sub c}(T), respectively) of double-layer Y(Ca)123 have been analyzed using the proposed model. This phenomenological model describes the temperature and the hole content dependent resistivity over a wide range of temperature and hole content, p. The characteristic PG energy scale, ε{sub g}(p), extracted from the analysis of the resistivity data, agrees quite well with those found in variety of other experiments. Various other extracted parameters from the analysis of ρ{sub p}(T) and ρ{sub c}(T) data showed systematic trends with changing hole concentration. We have discussed important features found from the analysis in

  6. Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Coated with Conducting Polyaniline Nanocomposites for Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT coated with conducting polyaniline (PAni nanocomposites has been enforced as for quasi-solid-state electrolyte layer in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, and the incorporation of MWNT-PAni nanoparticles on the cell performance has been examined. The MWNT-PAni nanoparticles exploited as the extended electron transfer materials, which can reduce charge diffusion length and serve simultaneously as catalyst for the electrochemical reduction of I3-. An ionic liquid of 1-methyl-3-propyl-imidazolium iodide (PMII together with the hybrid MWNT-PAni nanocomposites was placed between the dye-sensitized porous TiO2 and the Pt counter electrode without adding iodine and achieved a moderately higher cell efficiency (3.15%, as compared to that containing bare PMII (0.26%.

  7. Functional Connectivity Estimated from Resting-State fMRI Reveals Selective Alterations in Male Adolescents with Pure Conduct Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Mei Lu

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder (CD is characterized by a persistent pattern of antisocial behavior and aggression in childhood and adolescence. Previous task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have revealed widespread brain regional abnormalities in adolescents with CD. However, whether the resting-state networks (RSNs are altered in adolescents with CD remains unknown. In this study, resting-state fMRI data were first acquired from eighteen male adolescents with pure CD and eighteen age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD individuals. Independent component analysis (ICA was implemented to extract nine representative RSNs, and the generated RSNs were then compared to show the differences between the CD and TD groups. Interestingly, it was observed from the brain mapping results that compared with the TD group, the CD group manifested decreased functional connectivity in four representative RSNs: the anterior default mode network (left middle frontal gyrus, which is considered to be correlated with impaired social cognition, the somatosensory network (bilateral supplementary motor area and right postcentral gyrus, the lateral visual network (left superior occipital gyrus, and the medial visual network (right fusiform, left lingual gyrus and right calcarine, which are expected to be relevant to the perceptual systems responsible for perceptual dysfunction in male adolescents with CD. Importantly, the novel findings suggested that male adolescents with pure CD were identified to have dysfunctions in both low-level perceptual networks (the somatosensory network and visual network and a high-order cognitive network (the default mode network. Revealing the changes in the functional connectivity of these RSNs enhances our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of emotion and social cognition and the regulation of perception in adolescents with CD.

  8. Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Unfrozen and Frozen Food Materials by a Steady State Method with Coaxial Dual-cylinder Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsawatmanit, R; Miyawaki, O; Yano, T

    1993-01-01

    Coaxial dual-cylinder apparatus was used to measure the effective thermal conductivity of aqueous solutions of glucose, sucrose, gelatin and egg albumin over a temperature range from -20° to 20°C by the steady state method. The accuracy of the apparatus was confirmed by testing with water and ice. The effective thermal conductivity decreased with an increase in the total solid content in both the frozen and unfrozen states. In the unfrozen state, the effective thermal conductivity was slightly dependent on temperature. In the frozen state, however, the effective thermal conductivity was strongly dependent on temperature; lower temperatures gave higher effective thermal conductivity, reflecting the increase in the ice fration. For the unfrozen samples, the intrinsic thermal conductivity of each solid component was calculated by heat transfer models. All the models tested, series, parallel and Maxwell-Eucken, were equally applicable to describe the heat conduction in the unfrozen state. In the frozen state, however, the strong temperature dependency of the effective thermal conductivity suggests that the effect of the temperature dependency of the ice fraction should be incorporated into theoretical models.

  9. Testing the equation of state and electrical conductivity of copper by the electrical wire explosion in air: Experiment and magnetohydrodynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barysevich, A. E.; Cherkas, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    We perform experiments on testing the equations of state and electrical conductivity of copper in three different regimes of copper wire electrical explosion, when the inserted energy (i) is slightly exceeded, (ii) is approximately equal, and (iii) is substantially exceeded the energy needed for the wire complete evaporation. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation is performed. The results predicted by the two different equations of state are compared with the experiment. Empirical expression for the copper electrical conductivity is presented. Parameters in this expression is fit on every of two equations of state. Map of copper conductivity is plotted.

  10. Signatures of spin-orbital states of t2g 2 system in optical conductivity: R VO3 (R =Y and La)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjae

    2018-04-01

    We investigate signatures of the spin and orbital states of R VO3 (R =Y and La) in optical conductivity using density functional theory plus dynamical mean-field theory (DFT+DMFT). From the assignment of multiplet state configurations to optical transitions, the DFT+DMFT reproduces experimental temperature-dependent evolutions of optical conductivity for both YVO3 and LaVO3. We also show that the optical conductivity is a useful quantity to probe the evolution of the orbital state even in the absence of spin order. The result provides a reference to investigate the spin and orbital states of t2g 2 vanadate systems, which is an important issue for both fundamental physics on spin and orbital states and applications of vanadates by means of orbital state control.

  11. The calculation of electron chemical potential and ion charge state and their influence on plasma conductivity in electrical explosion of metal wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Zongqian; Wang, Kun; Li, Yao; Shi, Yuanjie; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli

    2014-01-01

    The electron chemical potential and ion charge state (average ion charge and ion distribution) are important parameters in calculating plasma conductivity in electrical explosion of metal wire. In this paper, the calculating method of electron chemical potential and ion charge state is discussed at first. For the calculation of electron chemical potential, the ideal free electron gas model and Thomas-Fermi model are compared and analyzed in terms of the coupling constant of plasma. The Thomas-Fermi ionization model, which is used to calculate ion charge state, is compared with the method based on Saha equation. Furthermore, the influence of electron degenerated energy levels and ion excited states in Saha equation on the ion charge state is also analyzed. Then the influence of different calculating methods of electron chemical potential and ion charge state on plasma conductivity is discussed by applying them in the Lee-More conductivity model

  12. Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4 nanowires with a high conductance for flexible solid state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Dai, Shuge; Wang, Mingjun; Xi, Yi; Lang, Qiang; Guo, Donglin; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-08-01

    The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in a high pseudocapacitive performance with a relatively high specific energy and specific power. Such a new type of pseudocapacitive material of Cu7S4-NWs with its low cost is very promising for actual application in supercapacitors.The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in

  13. Analytical Plans Supporting The Sludge Batch 8 Glass Variability Study Being Conducted By Energysolutions And CUA's Vitreous State Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T. B.; Peeler, D. K.

    2012-01-01

    EnergySolutions (ES) and its partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of The Catholic University of America (CUA), are to provide engineering and technical services support to Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) for ongoing operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet as well as for modifications to improve overall plant performance. SRR has requested via a statement of work that ES/VSL conduct a glass variability study (VS) for Sludge Batch 8. SRR issued a technical task request (TTR) asking that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provide planning and data reduction support for the ES/VSL effort. This document provides two analytical plans for use by ES/VSL: one plan is to guide the measurement of the chemical composition of the study glasses while the second is to guide the measurement of the durability of the study glasses. The measurements generated by ES/VSL are to be provided to SRNL for data reduction and evaluation. SRNL is to review the results of its evaluation with ES/VSL and SRR. The results will subsequently be incorporated into a joint report with ES/VSL as a deliverable to SRR to support the processing of SB8 at DWPF

  14. Steady state conductance in a double quantum dot array: the nonequilibrium equation-of-motion Green function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Tal J; Rabani, Eran

    2013-04-28

    We study steady state transport through a double quantum dot array using the equation-of-motion approach to the nonequilibrium Green functions formalism. This popular technique relies on uncontrolled approximations to obtain a closure for a hierarchy of equations; however, its accuracy is questioned. We focus on 4 different closures, 2 of which were previously proposed in the context of the single quantum dot system (Anderson impurity model) and were extended to the double quantum dot array, and develop 2 new closures. Results for the differential conductance are compared to those attained by a master equation approach known to be accurate for weak system-leads couplings and high temperatures. While all 4 closures provide an accurate description of the Coulomb blockade and other transport properties in the single quantum dot case, they differ in the case of the double quantum dot array, where only one of the developed closures provides satisfactory results. This is rationalized by comparing the poles of the Green functions to the exact many-particle energy differences for the isolate system. Our analysis provides means to extend the equation-of-motion technique to more elaborate models of large bridge systems with strong electronic interactions.

  15. Liquid state behaviour of semi-conducting materials; Comportement a l'etat liquide des materiaux semiconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandevyver, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This work is a review of the present state of knowledge concerning the behaviour in the liquid state of materials having semi-conducting properties in the solid state. In the case of many materials it is observed that a 'short-distance order' persists (with modifications) at temperatures above the melting point; this phenomenon is responsible for the semi-conducting properties of certain liquids. A decrease in the mobility of the carriers is generally observed on fusion, whereas the width of the forbidden zone increases: {delta}E{sub g} = {delta}E{sub g1} + {delta}E{sub g2}; {delta}E{sub g1} which is related to the expansion of the crystal is usually positive whereas {delta}E{sub g2} which is related to a change in the short-distance order is negative. According to the relative importance of these two phenomena, {delta}E{sub g} is either positive or negative, involving an increase or a decrease in the semiconducting nature of the material at its melting point. Various examples are presented, in particular that of selenium-tellurium solutions. The experimental study of the electrical properties of liquids comes up against major difficulties (the Hall effect in particular). It is shown nevertheless that the theoretical studies explain semi-quantitatively the known experimental results. (author) [French] Cette etude fait le point sur l'etat actuel des connaissances relatives au comportement a l'etat liquide des materiaux presentant a l'etat solide des proprietes semiconductrices. Dans de nombreux materiaux on observe la persistance (avec modification), d'un 'ordre a courte distance' a des temperatures superieures a celles de la fusion; ceci est a l'origine des proprietes semiconductrices de certains liquides. A la fusion on observe generalement une diminution de la mobilite des porteurs tandis que la largeur de la bande interdite subit un accroissement: {delta}E{sub g} = {delta}E{sub g1} + {delta}E{sub g2}; {delta}E{sub g1

  16. Effect of annealing on the superconducting and normal state properties of the doped multifilamentary Cu-Nb composite wires prepared by in situ technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, S.S.; Dheer, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of annealing on the superconducting and normal state properties of the Ga-, In-, Ti- and Zr-doped (1 wt%) Cu-Nb composite wires prepared by in situ technique have been investigated in this paper. The wires annealed at 700 C for 10 h and then quenched at room temperature, show a decrease in the superconducting transition temperature, T c , and increase in the transition width, ΔT. Doping of the Cu-Nb wires causes an increase in the normal state resistivity and hence the upper critical field, H C2 . This results in a significant increase of J c . Annealing of these doped samples decreases H C2 and J c . In the case of In- and Ga-doped samples J c shows a marginal improvement at lower field but decreases at higher field. Zr and Ti doping appears to be beneficial for the improved J c in these in situ materials. (orig.)

  17. Preparation of hydroxide ion conductive KOH–layered double hydroxide electrolytes for an all-solid-state iron–air secondary battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Tsuneishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anion conductive solid electrolytes based on Mg–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH were prepared for application in an all-solid-state Fe–air battery. The ionic conductivity and the conducting ion species were evaluated from impedance and electromotive force measurements. The ion conductivity of LDH was markedly enhanced upon addition of KOH. The electromotive force in a water vapor concentration cell was similar to that of an anion-conducting polymer membrane. The KOH–LDH obtained was used as a hydroxide ion conductive electrolyte for all-solid-state Fe–air batteries. The cell performance of the Fe–air batteries was examined using a mixture of KOH–LDH and iron-oxide-supported carbon as the negative electrode.

  18. Comparative analysis of morphological and topometric parameters of lumbar spine in normal state and in degenerative-dystrophic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisimova Е.А.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to carry out comparative analysis and identify patterns of topographic variation patterns of lumbar spine in normal and degenerative changes. Material and methods. CT- and MRT-grams for men and women I (M1-22-35 years; W — 21-35 years and II (M2-36-60 years; W2-36-55 years periods of mature age with no signs of trauma, scoliosis and systemic diseases of the spine (n=140 and CT- and MRT-grams in patients with revealed degenerative changes in the lumbar spine degree II-III (n=120. The pictures with digital PACS system measure the height of the vertebral body, intervertebral disc height, vertical, horizontal diameter and the area of intervertebral foramen. Results. The height of the lumbar vertebral bodies normally increased from27,90±0,38mmatthe level of L, to 29,93±0,33 mm Lm, and then decreased to 24,35±0,27 mm at level L^, in osteochondrosis it is statistically significantly lower at all levels on average by 20%. The height of the intervertebral disc with osteochondrosis below at all levels by an average of 25% of its value in the range 5,27±0,19 to 6,13±0,17mm, while the normal disc height varies from 6,88±030 to 9,36±0,28mm. The area of intervertebral holes normally ranging from 103,29±5,78 to 127,99±5,92mm2, with osteochondrosis aperture area is reduced to a greater extent by decreasing the vertical diameter in comparison with the horizontal. Conclusion. For the studied parameters characteristic topographic variability has been determined. The maximum values parameters are marked at the top of the lumbar lordosis, at chest height, lumbar and lumbosacral junctions sizes are reduced. In osteochondrosis the intervertebral disc height and the height of lumbar vertebral bodies are reduced; intervertebral foramina area is also reduced to a greater extent by reducing the vertical diameter than the horizontal one.

  19. Potassium conductances mediate bidirectional state-dependent modulation of action potential evoked dendritic calcium signals in dentate gyrus granule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Brunner

    2014-03-01

    resulted in faster repolarization and increased AP related calcium signals relative to the control (i. e. in the absence of the extra conductance at the same membrane potential. In conclusion, our results revealed that activation of potassium currents can profoundly enhance dendritic bAP-evoked calcium signals in GC dendrites, thus providing a previously unknown state-dependent modulatory mechanism in dendritic signalization.

  20. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function

  1. Estimating the saturated soil hydraulic conductivity by the near steady-state phase of a beerkan infiltration run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    Simple infiltration experiments carried out in the field allow an easy and inexpensive way of characterizing soil hydraulic behavior, maintaining the functional connection of the sampled soil volume with the surrounding soil. The beerkan method consists of a three-dimensional (3D) infiltration experiment at zero pressure head (Haverkamp et al., 1996). It uses a simple annular ring inserted to a depth of about 0.01 m to avoid lateral loss of the ponded water. Soil disturbance is minimized by the limited ring insertion depth. Infiltration time of small volumes of water repeatedly poured on the confined soil are measured to determine the cumulative infiltration. Different algorithms based on this methodology (the so-called BEST family of algorithms) were developed for the determination of soil hydraulic characteristic parameters (Bagarello et al., 2014a; Lassabatere et al., 2006; Yilmaz et al., 2010). Recently, Bagarello et al. (2014b) developed a Simplified method based on a Beerkan Infiltration run (SBI method) to determine saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, Ks, by only the transient phase of a beerkan infiltration run and an estimate of the α* parameter, expressing the relative importance of gravity and capillary forces during an infiltration process (Reynolds and Elrick, 1990). However, several problems yet arise with the existing BEST-algorithms and the SBI method, including (i) the need of supplementary field and laboratory measurements (Bagarello et al., 2013); (ii) the difficulty to detect a linear relationship between I / √t and √t in the early stage of the infiltration process (Bagarello et al., 2014b); (iii) estimation of negative Ks values for hydrophobic soils (Di Prima et al., 2016). In this investigation, a new Simplified method based on the analysis of the Steady-state Beerkan Infiltration run (SSBI method) was proposed and tested. In particular, analytical data were generated to simulate beerkan infiltration experiments for six contrasting

  2. Evidence of a Normal-State Pseudogap in Bulk Superconducting Tunneling Junctions of YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Guerra

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Planar contact tunneling experiments have been performed on bulk superconducting tunneling junctions of YBa2Cu3O7-δ in the temperature range 77 -295K. A clear depression in the conductance curves measured, attributed to the pseudogap, has been observed in temperatures above Tc (approx. 90K determined from dc resistivity measurements before disappearing at T*=275K. The width of the pseudogap has been quantitatively measured as Dps, ave = 25.6meV from the differential conductance plots. These results agree with the current understanding of the phenomenology and nature of this pseudogap, namely: (I the pseudogap value is relatively temperature-independent; (2 the superconducting gap and the pseudogap have the same d-wave nature; and (3 the superconducting gap evolves from the pseudogap.

  3. Higher resting-state activity in reward-related brain circuits in obese versus normal-weight females independent of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Zhou, W; Dahlberg, L S; Stark, J; Larsen, A L; Olivo, G; Wiemerslage, L; Larsson, E-M; Sundbom, M; Benedict, C; Schiöth, H B

    2016-11-01

    In response to food cues, obese vs normal-weight individuals show greater activation in brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake under both fasted and sated conditions. Putative effects of obesity on task-independent low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signals-that is, resting-state brain activity-in the context of food intake are, however, less well studied. To compare eyes closed, whole-brain low-frequency BOLD signals between severely obese and normal-weight females, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations were measured in the morning following an overnight fast in 17 obese (age: 39±11 years, body mass index (BMI): 42.3±4.8 kg m - 2 ) and 12 normal-weight females (age: 36±12 years, BMI: 22.7±1.8 kg m - 2 ), both before and 30 min after consumption of a standardized meal (~260 kcal). Compared with normal-weight controls, obese females had increased low-frequency activity in clusters located in the putamen, claustrum and insula (Pfood intake. Self-reported hunger dropped and plasma glucose concentrations increased after food intake (Pfood intake under the experimental settings applied in the current study. Future studies involving males and females, as well as utilizing repeated post-prandial resting-state fMRI scans and various types of meals are needed to further investigate how food intake alters resting-state brain activity in obese humans.

  4. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  5. Zero-bias peaks in the tunneling conductance of spin-orbit-coupled superconducting wires with and without Majorana end-states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Potter, Andrew C; Law, K T; Lee, Patrick A

    2012-12-28

    One of the simplest proposed experimental probes of a Majorana bound state is a quantized (2e(2)/h) value of zero-bias tunneling conductance. When temperature is somewhat larger than the intrinsic width of the Majorana peak, conductance is no longer quantized, but a zero-bias peak can remain. Such a nonquantized zero-bias peak has been recently reported for semiconducting nanowires with proximity induced superconductivity. In this Letter we analyze the relation of the zero-bias peak to the presence of Majorana end states, by simulating the tunneling conductance for multiband wires with realistic amounts of disorder. We show that this system generically exhibits a (nonquantized) zero-bias peak even when the wire is topologically trivial and does not possess Majorana end states. We make comparisons to recent experiments, and discuss the necessary requirements for confirming the existence of a Majorana state.

  6. Magnetic properties of κ-(MDTTTF)2AuI2 salt in the normal and superconducting states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhaes, P.; Amiell, J.; Flandrois, S.; Ducasse, L.; Fritsch, A.; Hilti, B.; Mayer, C.W.; Zambounis, J.; Papavassiliou, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the magnetic properties (ESR, static susceptibility and magnetization experiments) of the new organic superconductor κ-(MDTTTF) 2 AuI 2 above and below the SC phase transition temperature (T c ≥ 4 K). At ambient pressure the electronic structures of this salt and of two related compounds κ-(BEDT) 2 Cu(SCN) 2 and κ-(BEDT) 2 Ag(CN) 2 , H 2 O have been calculated using an extended Huckel method. The analysis of both experimental results and calculated data has led us to propose a unified picture independently of the present molecular blocks. Finally the problem of the competition between the SC and AF low-temperature states which is based on the experimental evidences of electronic correlations has been examined. However, in the absence of any experimental evidence of an AF state, the origin of the electron pairing is still unclear in these quasi 2d materials

  7. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy

    OpenAIRE

    P. Flodin; S. Martinsen; K. Mannerkorpi; M. Löfgren; I. Bileviciute-Ljungar; E. Kosek; P. Fransson

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown ...

  8. Thermal conductivity of Glycerol's liquid, glass, and crystal states, glass-liquid-glass transition, and crystallization at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ove; Johari, G P

    2016-02-14

    To investigate the effects of local density fluctuations on phonon propagation in a hydrogen bonded structure, we studied the thermal conductivity κ of the crystal, liquid, and glassy states of pure glycerol as a function of the temperature, T, and the pressure, p. We find that the following: (i) κcrystal is 3.6-times the κliquid value at 140 K at 0.1 MPa and 2.2-times at 290 K, and it varies with T according to 138 × T(-0.95); (ii) the ratio κliquid (p)/κliquid (0.1 MPa) is 1.45 GPa(-1) at 280 K, which, unexpectedly, is about the same as κcrystal (p)/κcrystal (0.1 MPa) of 1.42 GPa(-1) at 298 K; (iii) κglass is relatively insensitive to T but sensitive to the applied p (1.38 GPa(-1) at 150 K); (iv) κglass-T plots show an enhanced, pressure-dependent peak-like feature, which is due to the glass to liquid transition on heating; (v) continuous heating cold-crystallizes ultraviscous glycerol under pressure, at a higher T when p is high; and (vi) glycerol formed by cooling at a high p and then measured at a low p has a significantly higher κ than the glass formed by cooling at a low p. On heating at a fixed low p, its κ decreases before its glass-liquid transition range at that p is reached. We attribute this effect to thermally assisted loss of the configurational and vibrational instabilities of a glass formed at high p and recovered at low p, which is different from the usual glass-aging effect. While the heat capacity, entropy, and volume of glycerol crystal are less than those for its glass and liquid, κcrystal of glycerol, like its elastic modulus and refractive index, is higher. We discuss these findings in terms of the role of fluctuations in local density and structure, and the relations between κ and the thermodynamic quantities.

  9. [Water-exchange processes in hyaline cartilage and its basic components in a normal state and in osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, S S; Chkhol, K Z; Bykov, V A; Roshchina, A A; Iakovleva, L V; Koroleva, O A; Omel'ianenko, N P; Rebrov, L B

    2000-01-01

    The content of different forms of tissue water was studied in the normal articular cartilage and osteoarthrosis cartilage and its structural components: collagen, potassium hyaluronate, sodium chondroitinsulphate and its complexes. In the components of cartilage matrix a few of fractions of bound water different in the strength of binding are present. At the maximal humidity, all water in collagen binds with the active groups of biopolymers and in the glycosaminoglycans, in addition to bound water, are present, two crystal forms of freezing water (free water) at least. The quantity of free water in the collagen-chondroitin sulphat membrane, is increased with the increase of chondroitin sulphate. In the collagen-hyaluronate complex, fraction of free water is found only at the low concentration of hyaluronate kalium. It was shown that in the hyalin cartilage, in different from the other connective tissue (skin, achilles tendon), the most part of water is free water and its quantity is increased in the osteoarthrosis. It is supposed that the rearrangement of binding and free-water fractions in the osteoarthrosis is the result of deficiency of hyaluronic acid and therefore this may be regarded in the improvement of methods of treatment. This scientific and methodical approach allow to receive information on the forms and binding energy of water in the biological tissues, which is absorbed from fluids and steam phase and determine characters of the pathological changes.

  10. Correcting human heart 31P NMR spectra for partial saturation. Evidence that saturation factors for PCr/ATP are homogeneous in normal and disease states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, Paul A.; Hardy, Christopher J.; Weiss, Robert G.

    Heart PCr/ATP ratios measured from spatially localized 31P NMR spectra can be corrected for partial saturation effects using saturation factors derived from unlocalized chest surface-coil spectra acquired at the heart rate and approximate Ernst angle for phosphor creatine (PCr) and again under fully relaxed conditions during each 31P exam. To validate this approach in studies of normal and disease states where the possibility of heterogeneity in metabolite T1 values between both chest muscle and heart and normal and disease states exists, the properties of saturation factors for metabolite ratios were investigated theoretically under conditions applicable in typical cardiac spectroscopy exams and empirically using data from 82 cardiac 31P exams in six study groups comprising normal controls ( n = 19) and patients with dilated ( n = 20) and hypertrophic ( n = 5) cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease ( n = 16), heart transplants ( n = 19), and valvular heart disease ( n = 3). When TR ≪ T1,(PCr), with T1(PCr) ⩾ T1(ATP), the saturation factor for PCr/ATP lies in the range 1.5 ± 0.5, regardless of the T1 values. The precise value depends on the ratio of metabolite T1 values rather than their absolute values and is insensitive to modest changes in TR. Published data suggest that the metabolite T1 ratio is the same in heart and muscle. Our empirical data reveal that the saturation factors do not vary significantly with disease state, nor with the relative fractions of muscle and heart contributing to the chest surface-coil spectra. Also, the corrected myocardial PCr/ATP ratios in each normal or disease state bear no correlation with the corresponding saturation factors nor the fraction of muscle in the unlocalized chest spectra. However, application of the saturation correction (mean value, 1.36 ± 0.03 SE) significantly reduced scatter in myocardial PCr/ATP data by 14 ± 11% (SD) ( p ⩽ 0.05). The findings suggest that the relative T1 values of PCr and ATP are

  11. Theory of the Andreev reflection and the density of states in proximity contact normal-superconducting infinite double-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagato, Yasushi; Nagai, Katsuhiko

    1993-01-01

    Proximity contact N-S double-layer with infinite layer widths is studied in the clean limit. The finite reflection at the interface is taken into account. Starting from a recent theory of finite width double-layer by Ashida et al., the authors obtain explicit expressions for the quasi-classical Green's function which already satisfy the boundary condition and include no exploding terms at infinities. The self-consistent pair potentials are obtained numerically with sufficient accuracy. The Andreev reflection at the N-S interface is discussed on the basis of the self-consistent pair potential. It is shown that there exists a resonance state in a potential valley formed between the depressed pair potential and the partially reflecting interface, which leads to a peak of the Andreev reflection coefficient with the height unity slightly below the bulk superconductor energy gap. They also find general relationship between the Andreev reflection coefficient and the local density of states of the superconductor just at the interface

  12. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  13. Physical properties in the normal state of the molecular superconductor Κ-(BEDT)2Cu2(CN)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavassiliou, G.C.; Lagouvardos, D.J.; Terzis, A.; Amiell, J.; Garrigou-Lagrange, C.; Delhaes, P.; Hilti, B.; Pfeiffer, J.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the electrical, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of the K-phase molecular conductor K-(BEDT) 2 Cu 2 (CN) 3 between room temperature and the liquid He 4 temperature range. We have shown that an intermittent superconducting material is present around or below 4 K which presents above this temperature limited spin fluctuations. The influence of disorder inside the anionic layers is discussed with respect to the X-ray crystal structure, and also the intrinsic effects due to temperature or pressure to explain this situation. Finally, the specific behaviour of the ESR linewidth at low temperature is analysed as a magnetic precursor regime of the supposed superconducting ground state. (orig.)

  14. Enhancement of relaxation rates in the normal state of superconductor PuRhGa5:NQR relaxation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, H.; Kambe, S.; Tokunaga, Y.; Fujimoto, T.; Walstedt, R.E.; Yasuoka, H.; Aoki, D.; Homma, Y.; Yamamoto, E.; Nakamura, A.; Shiokawa, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Arai, Y.; Matsuda, T.D.; Haga, Y.; Onuki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation rates (1/T 1 ) have been measured under zero field using nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) lines in superconductor PuRhGa 5 and Pauli-paramagnet LuCoGa 5 . In the reference LuCoGa 5 with fully-occupied 4f shell, the 1/T 1 shows the constant behavior of (T 1 T) -1 =0.495+/-0.002(sK) -1 . On the other hand, in PuRhGa 5 , 1/T 1 is much larger than in LuCoGa 5 and the 1/T 1 ∝T behavior below ∼30K is seen, where its (T 1 T) -1 value is 3.27+/-0.005(sK) -1 . These results suggest a development of coherent Fermi liquid state incorporated with 5f electrons below ∼30K in PuRhGa 5

  15. Resting-state functional connectivity predicts the strength of hemispheric lateralization for language processing in temporal lobe epilepsy and normals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaëlle E; Pustina, Dorian; Skidmore, Christopher; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R; Tracy, Joseph I

    2015-01-01

    In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), determining the hemispheric specialization for language before surgery is critical to preserving a patient's cognitive abilities post-surgery. To date, the major techniques utilized are limited by the capacity of patients to efficiently realize the task. We determined whether resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is a reliable predictor of language hemispheric dominance in right and left TLE patients, relative to controls. We chose three subregions of the inferior frontal cortex (pars orbitalis, pars triangularis, and pars opercularis) as the seed regions. All participants performed both a verb generation task and a resting-state fMRI procedure. Based on the language task, we computed a laterality index (LI) for the resulting network. This revealed that 96% of the participants were left-hemisphere dominant, although there remained a large degree of variability in the strength of left lateralization. We tested whether LI correlated with rsFC values emerging from each seed. We revealed a set of regions that was specific to each group. Unique correlations involving the epileptic mesial temporal lobe were revealed for the right and left TLE patients, but not for the controls. Importantly, for both TLE groups, the rsFC emerging from a contralateral seed was the most predictive of LI. Overall, our data depict the broad patterns of rsFC that support strong versus weak left hemisphere language laterality. This project provides the first evidence that rsFC data may potentially be used on its own to verify the strength of hemispheric dominance for language in impaired or pathologic populations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Classification of single normal and Alzheimer’s disease individuals from cortical sources of resting state EEG rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eBabiloni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown abnormal power and functional connectivity of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG rhythms in groups of Alzheimer’s disease (AD compared to healthy elderly (Nold subjects. Here we tested the best classification rate of 120 AD patients and 100 matched Nold subjects using EEG markers based on cortical sources of power and functional connectivity of these rhythms. EEG data were recorded during resting state eyes-closed condition. Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA estimated the power and functional connectivity of cortical sources in frontal, central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic regions. Delta (2-4 Hz, theta (4-8 Hz, alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz, alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz, beta 1 (13-20 Hz, beta 2 (20-30 Hz, and gamma (30-40 Hz were the frequency bands of interest. The classification rates of interest were those with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC higher than 0.7 as a threshold for a moderate classification rate (i.e. 70%. Results showed that the following EEG markers overcame this threshold: (i central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 1 current density; (ii central, parietal, occipital temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 2 current density; (iii frontal theta/alpha 1 current density; (iv occipital delta/alpha 1 inter-hemispherical connectivity; (v occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1 right and left intra-hemispherical connectivity; and (vi parietal-limbic alpha 1 right intra-hemispherical connectivity. Occipital delta/alpha 1 current density showed the best classification rate (sensitivity of 73.3%, specificity of 78%, accuracy of 75.5%, and AUROC of 82%. These results suggest that EEG source markers can classify Nold and AD individuals with a moderate classification rate higher than 80%.

  17. Evidence of non-coincidence of normalized sigmoidal curves of two different structural properties for two-state protein folding/unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Hamidur; Khan, Md. Khurshid Alam; Hassan, Md. Imtaiyaz; Islam, Asimul; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ahmad, Faizan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Non-coincidence of normalized sigmoidal curves of two different structural properties is consistence with the two-state protein folding/unfolding. ► DSC measurements of denaturation show a two-state behavior of g-cyt-c at pH 6.0. ► Urea-induced denaturation of g-cyt-c is a variable two- state process at pH 6.0. ► GdmCl-induced denaturation of g-cyt-c is a fixed two- state process at pH 6.0. -- Abstract: In practice, the observation of non-coincidence of normalized sigmoidal transition curves measured by two different structural properties constitutes a proof of existence of thermodynamically stable intermediate(s) on the folding ↔ unfolding pathway of a protein. Here we give first experimental evidence that this non-coincidence is also observed for a two-state protein denaturation. Proof of this evidence comes from our studies of denaturation of goat cytochrome-c (g-cyt-c) at pH 6.0. These studies involve differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements in the absence of urea and measurements of urea-induced denaturation curves monitored by observing changes in absorbance at 405, 530, and 695 nm and circular dichroism (CD) at 222, 405, and 416 nm. DSC measurements showed that denaturation of the protein is a two-state process, for calorimetric and van’t Hoff enthalpy changes are, within experimental errors, identical. Normalization of urea-induced denaturation curves monitored by optical properties leads to noncoincident sigmoidal curves. Heat-induced transition of g-cyt-c in the presence of different urea concentrations was monitored by CD at 222 nm and absorption at 405 nm. It was observed that these two different structural probes gave not only identical values of T m (transition temperature), ΔH m (change in enthalpy at T m ) and ΔC p (constant-pressure heat capacity change), but these thermodynamic parameters in the absence of urea are also in agreement with those obtained from DSC measurements

  18. Higher resting-state activity in reward-related brain circuits in obese versus normal-weight females independent of food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Hogenkamp, P S; Zhou, W; Dahlberg, L S; Stark, J; Larsen, A L; Olivo, G; Wiemerslage, L; Larsson, E-M; Sundbom, M; Benedict, C; Schi?th, H B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In response to food cues, obese vs normal-weight individuals show greater activation in brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake under both fasted and sated conditions. Putative effects of obesity on task-independent low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signals-that is, resting-state brain activity-in the context of food intake are, however, less well studied. OBJECTIVE: To compare eyes closed, whole-brain low-frequency BOLD signals between severely obese...

  19. Electrogenic properties of the Na⁺/K⁺ ATPase control transitions between normal and pathological brain states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Giri P; Filatov, Gregory; Shilnikov, Andrey; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2015-05-01

    Ionic concentrations fluctuate significantly during epileptic seizures. In this study, using a combination of in vitro electrophysiology, computer modeling, and dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate that changes in the potassium and sodium intra- and extracellular ion concentrations ([K(+)] and [Na(+)], respectively) during seizure affect the neuron dynamics by modulating the outward Na(+)/K(+) pump current. First, we show that an increase of the outward Na(+)/K(+) pump current mediates termination of seizures when there is a progressive increase in the intracellular [Na(+)]. Second, we show that the Na(+)/K(+) pump current is crucial in maintaining the stability of the physiological network state; a reduction of this current leads to the onset of seizures via a positive-feedback loop. We then present a novel dynamical mechanism for bursting in neurons with a reduced Na(+)/K(+) pump. Overall, our study demonstrates the profound role of the current mediated by Na(+)/K(+) ATPase on the stability of neuronal dynamics that was previously unknown. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  1. How Can Polarization States of Reflected Light from Snow Surfaces Inform Us on Surface Normals and Ultimately Snow Grain Size Measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. M.; Flanner, M.; Yang, P.; Yi, B.; Huang, X.; Feldman, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Snow Grain Size and Pollution (SGSP) algorithm is a method applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data to estimate snow grain size from space-borne measurements. Previous studies validate and quantify potential sources of error in this method, but because it assumes flat snow surfaces, however, large scale variations in surface normals can cause biases in its estimates due to its dependence on solar and observation zenith angles. To address these variations, we apply the Monte Carlo method for photon transport using data containing the single scattering properties of different ice crystals to calculate polarization states of reflected monochromatic light at 1500nm from modeled snow surfaces. We evaluate the dependence of these polarization states on solar and observation geometry at 1500nm because multiple scattering is generally a mechanism for depolarization and the ice crystals are relatively absorptive at this wavelength. Using 1500nm thus results in a higher number of reflected photons undergoing fewer scattering events, increasing the likelihood of reflected light having higher degrees of polarization. In evaluating the validity of the model, we find agreement with previous studies pertaining to near-infrared spectral directional hemispherical reflectance (i.e. black-sky albedo) and similarities in measured bidirectional reflectance factors, but few studies exist modeling polarization states of reflected light from snow surfaces. Here, we present novel results pertaining to calculated polarization states and compare dependences on solar and observation geometry for different idealized snow surfaces. If these dependencies are consistent across different ice particle shapes and sizes, then these findings could inform the SGSP algorithm by providing useful relationships between measurable physical quantities and solar and observation geometry to better understand variations in snow surface normals from remote sensing observations.

  2. Multidimensional Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of multidimensional heat conduction. General heat conduction equation in three dimensions. Steay state, analytical solutions. The Laplace equation. Method of separation of variables. Principle of superposition. Shape factors. Transient, multidimensional heat conduction....

  3. Coexpression of Human α- and Circularly Permuted β-Globins Yields a Hemoglobin with Normal R State but Modified T State Properties†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmundson, Anna L.; Taber, Alexandria M.; van der Walde, Adella; Lin, Danielle H.; Olson, John S.; Anthony-Cahill, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, a circularly permuted human β-globin (cpβ) has been coexpressed with human α-globin in bacterial cells and shown to associate to form α-cpβ hemoglobin in solution. Flash photolysis studies of α-cpβ show markedly biphasic CO and O2 kinetics with the amplitudes for the fast association phases being dominant due the presence of large amounts of high-affinity liganded hemoglobin dimers. Extensive dimerization of liganded but not deoxygenated α-cpβ was observed by gel chromatography. The rate constants for O2 and CO binding to the R state forms of α-cpβ are almost identical to those of native HbA (k′R(CO) ≈ 5.0 μM−1 s−1; k′R(O2) ≈ 50 μM−1 s−1), and the rate of O2 dissociation from fully oxygenated α-cpβ is also very similar to that observed for HbA (kR(O2) ≈ 21–28 s−1). When the equilibrium deoxyHb form of α-cpβ is reacted with CO in rapid mixing experiments, the observed time courses are monophasic and the observed bimolecular association rate constant is ∼1.0 μM−1 s−1, which is intermediate between the R state rate measured in partial photolysis experiments (∼5 μM−1 s−1) and that observed for T state deoxyHbA (k′T(CO) ≈ 0.1 to 0.2 μM−1 s−1). Thus the deoxygenated permutated β subunits generate an intermediate, higher affinity, deoxyHb quaternary state. This conclusion is supported by equilibrium oxygen binding measurements in which α-cpβ exhibits a P50 of ∼1.5 mmHg and a low n-value (∼1.3) at pH 7, 20 °C, compared to 8.5 mmHg and n ≈ 2.8 for native HbA under identical, dilute conditions. PMID:19397368

  4. Semi-analytical quasi-normal mode theory for the local density of states in coupled photonic crystal cavity-waveguide structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We present and validate a semi-analytical quasi-normal mode (QNM) theory for the local density of states (LDOS) in coupled photonic crystal (PhC) cavity-waveguide structures. By means of an expansion of the Green's function on one or a few QNMs, a closed-form expression for the LDOS is obtained, ......-trivial spectrum with a peak and a dip is found, which is reproduced only when including both the two relevant QNMs in the theory. In both cases, we find relative errors below 1% in the bandwidth of interest.......We present and validate a semi-analytical quasi-normal mode (QNM) theory for the local density of states (LDOS) in coupled photonic crystal (PhC) cavity-waveguide structures. By means of an expansion of the Green's function on one or a few QNMs, a closed-form expression for the LDOS is obtained......, and for two types of two-dimensional PhCs, with one and two cavities side-coupled to an extended waveguide, the theory is validated against numerically exact computations. For the single cavity, a slightly asymmetric spectrum is found, which the QNM theory reproduces, and for two cavities a non...

  5. Ionic conductivity of metal oxides : an essential property for all-solid-state Lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.; Eichel, R.-A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2017-01-01

    Essential progress has been made for adopting metal oxides (MeO) in various energy storage and energy conversion applications. Among these, utilizing MeO in Lithium-ions batteries (LIBs) seems to be one of the most promising applications. In particular, conductive Li-containing oxides or

  6. High conductive, long-term durable, anhydrous proton conductive solid-state electrolyte based on a metal-organic framework impregnated with binary ionic liquids: Synthesis, characteristic and effect of anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Han, Shu-Yan; Liu, Rui-Heng; Chen, Teng-Fei; Bi, Kai-Lun; Liang, Jian-Bo; Deng, Yu-Heng; Wan, Chong-Qing

    2018-02-01

    Incorporating ionic liquids (abbreviated as ILs) into porous metal-organic framework (MOF) to obtain ILs@MOF nanocomposites is documented as a feasible method to achieve new type of anhydrous proton conductor with high performance. We newly synthesized a series of ILs with different acid counter anions (R-SO3-) and their ILs@MOF hybrid materials, i.e. SA-EIMS@MIL-101, MSA-EIMS@MIL-101 and PTSA-EIMS@MIL-101 (SA = sulfate acid, MSA = methanesulfonate acid, PTSA = p-toluenesulfonate acid, EIMS = 1-(1-ethyl-3-imidazolium)propane-3-sulfonate). Such hybrid materials displayed as anhydrous proton conduction with long-term durability even heated at 150 °C open to air. σ value of SA-EIMS@MIL-101 is up to 1.89 × 10-3 S cm-1, being in the range of the most conductive MOF-based materials. MOF support exhibited favorable proton transport and long-term retention for ILs. Anion volumes of R-SO3- displayed significant effects on the proton conductivity of such hybrid ILs@MOF materials. The smaller the van der Waals volume of R-SO3- is, the higher the conductivity of ILs@MOF is. This work suggests that the combination of a variety of the incorporated ILs and a MOF framework would afford high proton transport and gives an idea to explore the safe, anhydrous, solid-state electrolyte for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

  7. A Directory of Public Employment Relations Boards and Agencies. A Guide to the Administrative Machinery for the Conduct of Public Employee-Management Relations Within the States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labor-Management Services Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Given the diversity of existing patterns of regulations and agencies, this directory is intended to be a guide to the administrative structure and functional responsibilities of the agencies within the various states for the conduct of public sector labor relations. It is not meant to be a statutory analysis nor does it deal with the extent of…

  8. Vocational and Special Education. Program Review. A Study Conducted on Behalf of the State of Alaska Department of Education--Dr. Marshall Lind, Commissioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini and Associates, Ltd., Anchorage, AK.

    The State of Alaska Department of Education, through management consultants, conducted a study in eight selected school districts to ascertain the following: (1) effectiveness of vocational education programs offered at the secondary level, (2) adequacy of special education services provided to exceptional children at all levels, and (3)…

  9. Rules of the New York State Board of Regents Relating to Definitions of Unprofessional Conduct, with Amendments Adopted through November 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Rules concerning unprofessional conduct are offered by the New York State Board of Regents. Attention is directed to: general provisions for all professions, health professions, and design professions (e.g., architecture and engineering), as well as special provisions for: the medical profession, the dentistry and dental hygiene professions, the…

  10. East Tennessee State University's "Make a Difference" Project: Using a Team-Based Consultative Model To Conduct Functional Behavioral Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Kelley; Hales, Cindy; Bush, Marta; Fox, James

    1998-01-01

    Describes implementation of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) through collaboration between a university (East Tennessee State University) and the local school system. Discusses related issues such as factors in team training, team size, FBA adaptations, and replicability of the FBA team model. (Author/DB)

  11. A serosurvey for ruminant pestivirus exposure conducted using cattle sera collected for brucellosis surveillance in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of ruminant pestivirus are currently circulating in the United States (U.S.): Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 (predominant host cattle), Border disease virus (BDV) (predominant host sheep) and the Pronghorn virus (sporadically detected in wild ruminants). A third bovin...

  12. Applications of alternating direction methods to the solution of the heat conduction equation, with source, and in transient state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Barroso, A.C. de; Alvim, A.C.M.; Gebrin, A.N.; Santos, R.S. dos

    1981-01-01

    Various types and variants of alternating direction methods. (ADM), were applied to the solution of the time-dependent heat conduction equation, with source, in regions with axial simmetry. Among the basic ADM's, the alternating direction explicit was the one which performed better. An exponential transformation coupled to the ADE seems to be the variant with greater potential, especially if used with a variable time step scheme. (Author) [pt

  13. In-situ Plasticized Cross-linked Polymer Composite Electrolyte Enhanced with Lithium-ion Conducting Nanofibers for Ambient All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chaoyi; Zhu, Pei; Jia, Hao; Zhu, Jiadeng; Selvan, R. Kalai; Li, Ya; Dong, Xia; Du, Zhuang; Angunawela, Indunil; Wu, Nianqiang; Dirican, Mahmut

    2018-04-29

    Solid electrolytes have been gaining attention recently for the development of next-generation Li-ion batteries due to the substantial improvements in stability and safety. Among various types of solid electrolytes, composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) exhibit both high ionic conductivity and excellent interfacial contact with the electrodes. Incorporating active nanofibers into the polymer matrix demonstrates an effective method to fabricate CSEs. However, current CSEs based on traditional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer suffer from the poor ionic conductivity of PEO and agglomeration effect of inorganic fillers at high concentrations, which limit further improvements in Li+ conductivity and electrochemical stability. Herein, we synthesize a novel PEO based cross-linked polymer (CLP) as the polymer matrix with naturally amorphous structure and high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 2.40 × 10-4 S cm-1. Li0.3La0.557TiO3 (LLTO) nanofibers incorporated composite solid electrolytes (L-CLPCSE) exhibit enhanced ionic conductivity without showing filler agglomeration. The high content of Li-conductive nanofibers improves the mechanical strength, ensures the conductive networks, and increases the total Li+ conductivity to 3.31 × 10-4 S cm-1. The all-solid-state Li|LiFePO4 batteries with L-CLPCSE are able to deliver attractive specific capacity of 147 mAh g-1 at room temperature, and no evident dendrite is found at the anode/electrolyte interface after 100 cycles.

  14. Ab initio calculation of transition state normal mode properties and rate constants for the H(T)+CH4(CD4) abstraction and exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, G.C.; Walch, S.P.; Wagner, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    We present ab initio (GVB--POL--CI) calculations for enough of the region about the abstraction and exchange saddle points for H(T)+CH 4 (CD 4 ) to perform a full normal mode analysis of the transition states. The resulting normal mode frequencies are compared to four other published surfaces: an ab initio UHF--SCF calculation by Carsky and Zahradnik, a semiempirical surface by Raff, and two semiempirical surfaces by Kurylo, Hollinden, and Timmons. Significant quantitative and qualitative differences exist between the POL--CI results and those of the other surfaces. Transition state theory rate constants and vibrationally adiabatic reaction threshold energies were computed for all surfaces and compared to available experimental values. For abstraction, the POL--CI rates are in good agreement with experimental rates and in better agreement than are the rates of any of the other surfaces. For exchange, uncertainties in the experimental values and in the importance of vibrationally nonadiabatic effects cloud the comparison of theory to experiment. Tentative conclusions are that the POL--CI barrier is too low by several kcal. Unless vibrationaly nonadiabatic effects are severe, the POL--CI surface is still in better agreement with experiment than are the other surfaces. The rates for a simple 3-atom transition state theory model (where CH 3 is treated as an atom) are compared to the rates for the full 6-atom model. The kinetic energy coupling of reaction coordinate modes to methyl group modes is identified as being of primary importance in determining the accuracy of the 3-atom model for this system. Substantial coupling in abstraction, but not exchange, causes the model to fail for abstraction but succeed for exchange

  15. INTERLAYER OPTICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF A SUPERCONDUCTING BILAYER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GARTSTEIN, YN; RICE, MJ; VANDERMAREL, D

    1994-01-01

    We employ the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory to calculate the frequency-dependent interlayer conductivity of a superconducting bilayer, the two layers of which are coupled by weak single-particle tunneling. The effect of the superconducting transition on the normal-state absorption band is to

  16. Left ventricular function impairment in patients with normal-weight obesity: contribution of abdominal fat deposition, profibrotic state, reduced insulin sensitivity, and proinflammatory activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Wojciech; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Derzhko, Roksolana; Przewlocka-Kosmala, Monika; Mysiak, Andrzej; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grazyna

    2012-05-01

    Obesity predisposes to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and heart failure; however, the risk of these complications has not been assessed in patients with a normal body mass index (BMI) but increased body fat content (normal-weight obesity, NWO). We hypothesized that LV performance in NWO may be impaired and sought to investigate potential contributors to cardiac functional abnormalities. One hundred sixty-eight subjects (age, 38±7 years) with BMI affecting the myocardium were classified on the basis of body fat content into 2 groups: with NWO and without NWO. Echocardiographic indices of LV systolic and diastolic function, including myocardial velocities and deformation, serological fibrosis markers, indicators of proinflammatory activation, and metabolic control, were evaluated. Subjects with NWO demonstrated impaired LV systolic and diastolic function, increased fibrosis intensity (assessed by procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide [PICP]), impaired insulin sensitivity, and increased proinflammatory activation as compared with individuals with normal body fat. The independent correlates of LV systolic and diastolic function variables were as follows: for strain, IL-18 (β=-0.17, P<0.006), C-reactive protein (β=-0.20, P<0.002) and abdominal fat deposit (β=-0.20, P<0.003); for tissue S velocity, PICP (β=-0.21, P<0.002) and abdominal fat deposit (β=-0.43, P<0.0001); for tissue E velocity, abdominal fat deposit (β=-0.30, P<0.0001), PICP (β=-0.31, P<0.0001) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA IR; β=-0.20, P<0.002); and for E/e'-PICP, IL-18 (both β=0.18, P<0.01) and HOMA IR (β=0.16, P<0.04). In patients with NWO, subclinical disturbances of LV function are independently associated with the extent of abdominal fat deposit, profibrotic state (as reflected by circulating PICP), reduced insulin sensitivity, and proinflammatory activation.

  17. A semimetal model of the normal state magnetic susceptibility and transport properties of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, B.C.; McGuire, M.A.; Sefat, A.S.; Mandrus, D.

    2010-01-01

    A simple two-band 3D model of a semimetal is constructed to determine which normal state features of the Ba(Fe 1-x Co x ) 2 As 2 superconductors can be qualitatively understood within this framework. The model is able to account in a semiquantitative fashion for the measured magnetic susceptibility, Hall, and Seebeck data, and the low temperature Sommerfeld coefficient for 0 < x < 0.3 with only three parameters for all x. The purpose of the model is not to fit the data but to provide a simple starting point for thinking about the physics of these interesting materials. Although many of the static magnetic properties, such as the increase of the magnetic susceptibility with temperature, are reproduced by the model, none of the spin-fluctuation dynamics are addressed. A general conclusion from the model is that the magnetic susceptibility of most semimetals should increase with temperatures.

  18. A Semimetal Model of the Normal State Susceptibility and Transport Properties of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Brian; Sefat, Athena; McGuire, Michael; Mandrus, David

    2010-03-01

    A simple two-band 3D model of a semimetal is constructed to see which normal state features of the Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 superconductors can be qualitatively understood within this framework. The model is able to account in a semiquantitative fashion for the measured magnetic susceptibility, Hall, and Seebeck data, and the low temperature Sommerfeld coefficient for 0 general conclusion from the model is that the magnetic susceptibility of most semimetals should increase with temperatures. This is indeed found to be the case for two well-known semimetals Bi and TiSe2. Research supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering.

  19. United States Department of Energy commercial reactor spent fuel programs being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piscitella, R.R.; Rasmussen, T.L.; Uhl, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory participation in OCRWM programs includes the Spent Fuel Storage Cask Testing Program, Dry Rod Consolidation Technology Program, Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Program, the Nuclear Fuel Services Project, and the Cask Systems Acquisition Program. The DOE has entered into a cooperative agreement with Virginia Power and the Electric Power Research Institute to demonstrate storage of commercial spent fuel in steel storage casks. The Program conducted heat transfer and shielding tests with three storage casks with intact spent fuel assemblies and two casks with consolidated spent fuel rods, one of which was previously tested with intact fuel, and provides test information in support of Virginia Power's at-reactor dry storage licensing effort. 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Chemical degradation of proton conducting perflurosulfonic acid ionomer membranes studied by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemzadeh, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Marrony, M. [European Institute for Energy Research, Emmy-Noether-Strasse 11, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Barrera, R. [Edison, Via Giorgio La Pira, 2, I-10028 Trofarello (Italy); Kreuer, K.D.; Maier, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Mueller, K. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The degradation of two different types of perfluorinated polymer membranes, Nafion and Hyflon Ion, has been examined by solid-state {sup 19}F and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique is demonstrated to be a valuable tool for the study of the membrane structure and its alterations after in situ degradation in a fuel cell. The structural changes in different parts of the polymers are clearly distinguished, which provides unique insight into details of the degradation processes. The experimental NMR spectra prove that degradation mostly takes place within the polymer side chains, as reflected by the intensity losses of NMR signals associated with SO{sub 3}H, CF{sub 3}, OCF{sub 2} and CF groups. The integral degree of degradation is found to decrease with increasing membrane thickness while for a given thickness, Hyflon Ion appears to degrade less than Nafion. (author)

  1. Densely-packed graphene/conducting polymer nanoparticle papers for high-volumetric-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-08-01

    Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) are one of the most ideal candidates for high-performance flexible power sources. The achievement of high volumetric energy density is highly desired for practical application of this type of ASSSCs. Here, we present a facile method to boost volumetric performances of graphene-based flexible ASSSCs through incorporation of ultrafine polyaniline-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PANI-PSS) nanoparticles in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) papers. A compact structure is obtained via intimate contact and π-π interaction between PANI-PSS nanoparticles and rGO sheets. The hybrid paper electrode with the film thickness of 13.5 μm, shows an extremely high volumetric specific capacitance of 272 F/cm3 (0.37 A/cm3 in a three-electrode cell). The assembled ASSSCs show a large volumetric specific capacitance of 217 F/cm3 (0.37 A/cm3 in a two-electrode cell), high volumetric energy and power density, excellent capacitance stability, small leakage current as well as low self-discharge characteristics, revealing the usefulness of this robust hybrid paper for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  2. Highly conductive Al-doped tetra-needle-like ZnO whiskers prepared by a solid state method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Cuifeng; Tan Hairen; Jin Shengming; Yang Huaming; Tang Motang; He Jing

    2008-01-01

    Tetra-needle-like zinc oxide whiskers (T-ZnO W ) were doped with Al 3+ by a solid state method. In this study, modification conditions were thoroughly investigated to obtain low resistivity T-ZnO W , without destroying the tetra-needle-like structure. The Al-doped T-ZnO W was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transition infrared (FT-IR) spectra and electrical resistance measurement. The SEM and XRD results indicated that the tetra-needle-like structure of ZnO whiskers could be well maintained after modification and the doped (0 0 2) face was preferred. FT-IR results showed that the decrease of resistivity of Al-doped T-ZnO W resulted from formation of [AlO 4 ] configuration in T-ZnO W bulk. Experiment results showed that the annealing temperature, doping concentration and type of Al sources affected the resistivity of T-ZnO W considerably. The optimum Al-doped concentration was 7.0 at.% and the resistivity of T-ZnO W could be considerably decreased from 10 8 to 10 2 Ω cm

  3. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket module under normal operation steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Arena, P. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Aubert, J. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Bongiovì, G. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Chiovaro, P., E-mail: pierluigi.chiovaro@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Giammusso, R. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Li Puma, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Tincani, A. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A DEMO WCLL blanket module thermo-mechanical behaviour has been investigated. • Two models of the WCLL blanket module have been set-up adopting a code based on FEM. • The water flow domain in the module has been considered. • A set of uncoupled steady state thermo-mechanical analyses has been carried out. • Critical temperature is not overcome. Safety verifications are generally satisfied. - Abstract: Within the framework of DEMO R&D activities, a research cooperation has been launched between ENEA, the University of Palermo and CEA to investigate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the outboard equatorial module of the DEMO1 Water-Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) blanket under normal operation steady state scenario. The research campaign has been carried out following a theoretical–computational approach based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. In particular, two different 3D FEM models (Model 1 and Model 2), reproducing respectively the central and the lateral poloidal–radial slices of the WCLL blanket module, have been set up. A particular attention has been paid to the modelling of water flow domain, within both the segment box channels and the breeder zone tubes, to simulate realistically the coolant-box thermal coupling. Results obtained are herewith reported and critically discussed.

  4. Copper NMR and hole depletion in the normal state of Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLaughlin, D.E.; Reyes, A.P.; Takigawa, M.; Hammel, P.C.; Heffner, R.H.; Thompson, J.D.; Crow, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Normal-state copper NMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxation rates 1/T 1 have been measured in the planar cuprate system YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . With Pr doping the Knight shift K decreases and develops a temperature dependence at both plane and chain sites. Analysis of the bulk susceptibility and NMR data indicate that pair breaking and hole depletion both take part in the suppression of the superconducting transition temperature T c . The Knight shift behavior resembles that in oxygen-deficient YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y , as does the temperature dependence of 1/T 1 for plane Cu sites and magnetic field perpendicular to the c axis. This agreement leads to a consistent picture of the role of antiferromagnetic fluctuations in these materials. An analysis of the data in the framework of the phenomenological theory of Millis, Monien, and Pines is given. In the end compound PrBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 the NMR signal from plane Cu sites indicates antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering at a Neel temperature ∼280 K, and in the AF state yields an internal field similar to those found in AF YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6 and La 2 CuO 4 . 32 refs., 7 figs

  5. Gender differences in brain regional homogeneity of healthy subjects after normal sleep and after sleep deprivation: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xi-Jian; Gong, Hong-Han; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Zhou, Fu-Qing; Min, You-Jiang; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Si-Yong; Liu, Bi-Xia; Xiao, Xiang-Zuo

    2012-06-01

    To explore the gender differences of brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) in healthy subjects during the resting-state, after normal sleep, and after sleep deprivation (SD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the ReHo method. Sixteen healthy subjects (eight males and eight females) each underwent the resting-state fMRI exams twice, i.e., once after normal sleep and again after 24h's SD. According to the gender and sleep, 16 subjects were all measured twice and divided into four groups: the male control group (MC), female control group (FC), male SD group (MSD), and female SD group (FSD). The ReHo method was used to calculate and analyze the data, SPM5 software was used to perform a two-sample T-test and a two-pair T-test with a P value right paracentral lobule (BA3/6), but in no obviously lower regions. Compared with the FC, the FSD showed significantly higher ReHo in bilateral parietal lobes (BA2/3), bilateral vision-related regions of occipital lobes (BA17/18/19), right frontal lobe (BA4/6), and lower ReHo in the right frontal lobe. Compared with the FC, the MC showed significantly higher ReHo in the left occipital lobe (BA18/19), and left temporal lobe (BA21), left frontal lobe, and lower ReHo in the right insula and in the left parietal lobe. Compared with the FSD, the MSD showed significantly higher ReHo in the left cerebellum posterior lobe (uvula/declive of vermis), left parietal lobe, and bilateral frontal lobes, and lower ReHo in the right occipital lobe (BA17) and right frontal lobe (BA4). The differences of brain activity in the resting state can be widely found not only between the control and SD group in a same gender group, but also between the male group and female group. Thus, we should take the gender differences into consideration in future fMRI studies, especially the treatment of brain-related diseases (e.g., depression). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High ion conductive Sb2O5-doped β-Li3PS4 with excellent stability against Li for all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dongjiu; Chen, Shaojie; Zhang, Zhihua; Ren, Jie; Yao, Lili; Wu, Linbin; Yao, Xiayin; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2018-06-01

    The combination of high conductivity and good stability against Li is not easy to achieve for solid electrolytes, hindering the development of high energy solid-state batteries. In this study, doped electrolytes of Li3P1-xSbxS4-2.5xO2.5x are successfully prepared via the high energy ball milling and subsequent heat treatment. Plenty of techniques like XRD, Raman, SEM, EDS and TEM are utilized to characterize the crystal structures, particle sizes, and morphologies of the glass-ceramic electrolytes. Among them, the Li3P0.98Sb0.02S3.95O0.05 (x = 0.02) exhibits the highest ionic conductivity (∼1.08 mS cm-1) at room temperature with an excellent stability against lithium. In addition, all-solid-state lithium batteries are assembled with LiCoO2 as cathode, Li10GeP2S12/Li3P0.98Sb0.02S3.95O0.05 as the bi-layer electrolyte, and lithium as anode. The constructed solid-state batteries delivers a high initial discharge capacity of 133 mAh g-1 at 0.1C in the range of 3.0-4.3 V vs. Li/Li+ at room temperature, and shows a capacity retention of 78.6% after 50 cycles. Most importantly, the all-solid-state lithium batteries with the Li10GeP2S12/Li3P0.98Sb0.02S3.95O0.05 electrolyte can be workable even at -10 °C. This study provides a promising electrolyte with the improved conductivity and stability against Li for the application of all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  7. Room temperature solid-state synthesis of a conductive polymer for applications in stable I₂-free dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeonggwan; Koh, Jong Kwan; Kim, Jeonghun; Chi, Won Seok; Kim, Jong Hak; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2012-11-01

    A solid-state polymerizable monomer, 2,5-dibromo-3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (DBProDOT), was synthesized at 25 °C to produce a conducting polymer, poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene) (PProDOT). Crystallographic studies revealed a short interplane distance between DBProDOT molecules, which was responsible for polymerization at low temperature with a lower activation energy and higher exothermic reaction than 2,5-dibromo-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (DBEDOT) or its derivatives. Upon solid-state polymerization (SSP) of DBProDOT at 25 °C, PProDOT was obtained in a self-doped state with tribromide ions and an electrical conductivity of 0.05 S cm⁻¹, which is considerably higher than that of chemically-polymerized PProDOT (2×10⁻⁶ S cm⁻¹). Solid-state ¹³C NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations revealed polarons in PProDOT and a strong perturbation of carbon nuclei in thiophenes as a result of paramagnetic broadening. DBProDOT molecules deeply penetrated and polymerized to fill nanocrystalline TiO₂ pores with PProDOT, which functioned as a hole-transporting material (HTM) for I₂-free solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). With the introduction of an organized mesoporous TiO₂ (OM-TiO₂) layer, the energy conversion efficiency reached 3.5 % at 100 mW cm⁻², which was quite stable up to at least 1500 h. The cell performance and stability was attributed to the high stability of PProDOT, with the high conductivity and improved interfacial contact of the electrode/HTM resulting in reduced interfacial resistance and enhanced electron lifetime. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A serosurvey for ruminant pestivirus exposure conducted using cattle sera collected for brucellosis surveillance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermann, Fernando V; Ridpath, Julia F; Dargatz, David A

    2017-01-01

    Four species of ruminant pestivirus are currently circulating in the United States: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, -2; predominant host: cattle), Border disease virus (BDV; predominant host: sheep), and pronghorn virus (sporadically detected in wild ruminants). A third bovine pestivirus called HoBi-like virus has been detected in cattle and water buffalo in South America, Asia, and Europe. To date, no isolations of HoBi-like viruses from U.S. cattle have been reported. To assess exposure, 2,000 cattle sera, collected between 2014 and 2015 as part of the U.S. brucellosis surveillance program, were tested for antibodies against BVDV-1, BVDV-2, and HoBi-like viruses. In addition, RNA was extracted and tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of pestiviruses; all samples tested negative. The percent of VN-positive samples was 91.3% for BVDV-1, 89.3% for BVDV-2, and 84.9% for HoBi-like viruses. Because the 3 bovine pestiviruses are antigenically cross-reactive, the comparative level of antibody against each pestivirus species was determined. Based on comparative titers, samples were segregated into 6 categories: no titers (7.6%), titers clearly higher against BVDV-1 (22.2%), titers substantially higher against BVDV-2 (9.1%), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 titers equivalent but substantially higher than HoBi titers (25.7%), titers substantially higher against HoBi-like viruses (0%), and equivocal (35.4%). Titers tended to be higher against BVDV-1 than BVDV-2. However, the overall percentage of animals with titers below levels considered protective against acute bovine pestivirus infection were ~11% for BVDV-1, 12% BVDV-2, and 18% for HoBi-like virus.

  9. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  10. [State and trait anxiety level and increase of depression among mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolafnczyk, Tomasz; Wolafnczyk, Tomasz; Kolakowski, Artur; Pisula, Agnieszka; Liwska, Monika; Zlotkowska, Malgorzata; Srebnicki, Tomasz; Bryliska, Anita

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate anxiety level (as a trait and as a state) and the intensity of depressive symptoms in mothers of children with hyperkinetic disorder (HD) and with and without comorbid conduct disorder (CD); to determine the relationship between the intensity of anxiety and depression and intensity of symptoms of HD. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and STAI questionnaire to measure state-trait anxiety were filled by 24 mothers of children with HD and 26 mothers of children without HD. Mothers of children with HD were also asked to complete the Conners Questionnaire for Parents and Teachers (IOWA). Teachers were asked to complete the Conners Questionnaire for Teachers (RCTS). 75% of HD subjects had a comorbid CD, in comparison with 19.2 % in the control group. No significant differences were found between the mothers of children with HD and the control group in the results of BDI scale and STAI questionnaire in anxiety state and anxiety trait subscales. The difference was found between mothers of children with CD and without CD in anxiety-state subscale in STAI questionnaire. No correlations were found between the number of depressive symptoms, anxiety as a state and as a trait and the results of Conners IOWA and RCTS. The presence of HD in children does not correlate with the level of depression and anxiety in their mothers. There is a relationship between the presence of CD in children and elevated levels of state anxiety in their mothers.

  11. Steady- and transient-state analyses of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel loaded reactor core via two-temperature homogenized thermal-conductivity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Cho, Nam Zin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel-loaded core is analyzed via a two-temperature homogenized thermal-conductivity model. • The model is compared to harmonic- and volumetric-average thermal conductivity models. • The three thermal analysis models show ∼100 pcm differences in the k eff eigenvalue. • The three thermal analysis models show more than 70 K differences in the maximum temperature. • There occur more than 3 times differences in the maximum power for a control rod ejection accident. - Abstract: Fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel, a type of accident-tolerant fuel (ATF), consists of TRISO particles randomly dispersed in a SiC matrix. In this study, for a thermal analysis of the FCM fuel with such a high heterogeneity, a two-temperature homogenized thermal-conductivity model was applied by the authors. This model provides separate temperatures for the fuel-kernels and the SiC matrix. It also provides more realistic temperature profiles than those of harmonic- and volumetric-average thermal conductivity models, which are used for thermal analysis of a fuel element in VHTRs having a composition similar to the FCM fuel, because such models are unable to provide the fuel-kernel and graphite matrix temperatures separately. In this study, coupled with a neutron diffusion model, a FCM fuel-loaded reactor core is analyzed via a two-temperature homogenized thermal-conductivity model at steady- and transient-states. The results are compared to those from harmonic- and volumetric-average thermal conductivity models, i.e., we compare k eff eigenvalues, power distributions, and temperature profiles in the hottest single-channel at steady-state. At transient-state, we compare total powers, reactivity, and maximum temperatures in the hottest single-channel obtained by the different thermal analysis models. The different thermal analysis models and the availability of fuel-kernel temperatures in the two-temperature homogenized thermal-conductivity

  12. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  13. RANS simulation of the thermal mixing in HTTF LP during normal operation conditions – High Temperature Test Facility at Oregon State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradecka, Malwina J.; Woods, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Since High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors are being considered as the most promising design of upcoming IV Gen reactors, key research areas were identified to address safety aspects of this design. A number of simulations and experiments need to be conducted in this field. In this paper, thermal-hydraulics aspects of coolant flow through Lower Plenum (LP) of HTGR were considered, specifically flow characteristics to identify the risk of temperature stratification in LP and hot spotting on LP floor. Local temperature gradients can cause material degradation. As the power profile is non-uniform across the core, jets of coolant exit the core region at different temperatures and enter the LP impinging on LP floor causing hot spots at LP structure and temperature stratification. To address those issues numerical simulation and an experiment are being developed. The numerical simulation provides coolant flow velocity and temperature fields. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mixing phenomenon in the LP due to risk of the hot streaking and thermal stratification phenomena during normal operation of HTTF. The following aspect are being examined: identification of gas flow behavior in lower plenum of HTTF based on CFD simulations, identification of hot streaking issue in the HTTF lower plenum using CFD tools, and computational investigation of gas mixing efficiency. This paper includes a description of experimental setup of HTTF, guidance for LP CFD modeling, and the results and analysis of CFD simulation. (author)

  14. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abukari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ωB for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ωB for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  15. Improvement of ionic conductivity and performance of quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aram, E.; Ehsani, M.; Khonakdar, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Reduced interfacial resistance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell with PEO/PMMA blend gel electrolytes. - Highlights: • A new polymer gel electrolyte containing PEO/PMMA was developed for DSSCs. • Optimization of polymer gel electrolyte was done for dye sensitized solar cell. • The best ionic conductivity was found in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. • The DSSC with the PEO/PMMA based electrolyte showed good photovoltaic performance. • Significant stability improvement for quasi-solid state DSSC was obtained. - Abstract: Polymer blend gel electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as host polymers with various weight ratios, LiI/I 2 as redox couple in electrolyte and 4-tert-butyl pyridine as additive were prepared by solution method. The introduction of PMMA in the PEO gel electrolyte reduced the degree of crystallinity of PEO, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Complexation and ionic conductivity as a function of temperature were investigated with Fourier transform infrared and ionic conductometry, respectively. A good correlation was found between the degree of crystallinity and ionic conductivity. The reduction in crystallinity, governed by blending ratio, led to improvement of ionic conductivity. The best ionic conductivity was attained in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. The performance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using the optimized polymer gel electrolyte was investigated. The optimized system of high ionic conductivity of 7 mS cm −1 , with fill factor of 0.59, short-circuit density of 11.11 mA cm −2 , open-circuit voltage of 0.75 V and the conversion efficiency of 4.9% under air mass 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm −2 ) was obtained. The long-term stability of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) during 600 h was improved by using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte relative to a liquid type electrolyte

  16. Improvement of ionic conductivity and performance of quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aram, E. [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, 14965/115 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, M., E-mail: m.ehsani@ippi.ac.ir [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, 14965/115 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khonakdar, H.A. [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, 14965/115 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research, D-01067 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Graphical abstract: Reduced interfacial resistance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell with PEO/PMMA blend gel electrolytes. - Highlights: • A new polymer gel electrolyte containing PEO/PMMA was developed for DSSCs. • Optimization of polymer gel electrolyte was done for dye sensitized solar cell. • The best ionic conductivity was found in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. • The DSSC with the PEO/PMMA based electrolyte showed good photovoltaic performance. • Significant stability improvement for quasi-solid state DSSC was obtained. - Abstract: Polymer blend gel electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as host polymers with various weight ratios, LiI/I{sub 2} as redox couple in electrolyte and 4-tert-butyl pyridine as additive were prepared by solution method. The introduction of PMMA in the PEO gel electrolyte reduced the degree of crystallinity of PEO, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Complexation and ionic conductivity as a function of temperature were investigated with Fourier transform infrared and ionic conductometry, respectively. A good correlation was found between the degree of crystallinity and ionic conductivity. The reduction in crystallinity, governed by blending ratio, led to improvement of ionic conductivity. The best ionic conductivity was attained in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. The performance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using the optimized polymer gel electrolyte was investigated. The optimized system of high ionic conductivity of 7 mS cm{sup −1}, with fill factor of 0.59, short-circuit density of 11.11 mA cm{sup −2}, open-circuit voltage of 0.75 V and the conversion efficiency of 4.9% under air mass 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm{sup −2}) was obtained. The long-term stability of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) during 600 h was improved by using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte relative to a liquid type

  17. Terahertz and direct current losses and the origin of non-Drude terahertz conductivity in the crystalline states of phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimakawa, Koichi [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Pardubice, Pardubice (Czech Republic); Department of Electrical Engineering, Gifu University (Japan); Wagner, Tomas; Frumar, Miloslav [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Pardubice, Pardubice (Czech Republic); Kadlec, Filip; Kadlec, Christelle [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Kasap, Safa [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2013-12-21

    THz and DC losses in crystalline states of GeSbTe and AgInSbTe phase-change material systems are re-examined and discussed. Although a simple free carrier transport has been assumed so far in the GeSbTe (GST) system, it is shown through recent experimental results that a series sequence of intragrain and intergrain (tunneling) transport, as recently formulated in Shimakawa et al., “The origin of non-Drude terahertz conductivity in nanomaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 132102 (2012) may dominate the electronic transport in the commercially utilized GST system, producing a non-Drude THz conductivity. The extracted physical parameters such as the free-carrier density and mobility are significantly different from those obtained from the Drude law. These physical parameters are consistent with those obtained from the DC loss data, and provide further support for the model. Negative temperature coefficient of resistivity is found even in the metallic state, similar to amorphous metals, when the mean free path is short. It is shown that the concept of minimum metallic conductivity, often used in the metal-insulator transition, cannot be applied to electronic transport in these materials.

  18. Growth of self-textured Ga3+-substituted Li7La3Zr2O12 ceramics by solid state reaction and their significant enhancement in ionic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shiying; Zhu, Xiaohong; Jiang, Yue; Ling, Ming'en; Hu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Jiliang

    2018-03-01

    A highly self-textured Ga2O3-substituted Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO-Ga) solid electrolyte with a nominal composition of Li6.55Ga0.15La3Zr2O12 is obtained by a simple and low-cost solid-state reaction technique, requiring no seed crystals to achieve grain orientation. The as-prepared self-textured LLZO-Ga shows a strong (420) preferred orientation with a high Lotgering factor of 0.91. Coherently, a terrace-shaped microstructure consisting of many parallel layers, indicating a two-dimensional-like growth mode, is clearly observed in the self-textured sample. As a result, the highly self-textured garnet-type lithium-ion conducting solid electrolyte of LLZO-Ga exhibits an extremely high ionic conductivity, reaching a state-of-the-art level of 2.06 × 10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature (25 °C) and thus shedding light on an important strategy for improving the structure and ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes.

  19. Development of Lithium Stuffed Garnet-Type Oxide Solid Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity for Application to All-Solid-State Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Inada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state lithium-ion battery (LiB is expected as one of the next generation energy storage devices because of their high energy density, high safety and excellent cycle stability. Although oxide-based solid electrolyte materials have rather lower conductivity and poor deformability than sulfide-based one, they have other advantages such as their chemical stability and easiness for handling. Among the various oxide-based SEs, lithium stuffed garnet-type oxide with the formula of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ have been widely studied because of their high conductivity above 10-4 Scm-1 at room temperature, excellent thermal performance and stability against Li metal anode.Here, we present our recent progress for the development of garnet-type solid electrolytes with high conductivity by simultaneous substitution of Ta5+ into Zr4+ site and Ba2+ into La3+ site in LLZ. Li+ concentration was fixed to 6.5 per chemical formulae, so that the formulae of our Li garnet-type oxide is expressed as Li6.5La3-xBaxZr1.5-xTa0.5+xO12 (LLBZT and Ba contents x are changed from 0 to 0.3. As results, all LLBZT samples have cubic garnet structure without containing any secondary phases. The lattice parameters of LLBZT decrease with increasing Ba2+ contents x < 0.10 while increase with x from 0.10 to 0.30, possibly due to the simultaneous change of Ba2+ and Ta5+ substitution levels. Relative densities of LLBZT are in the range between 89% and 93% and not influenced so much by the compositions. From AC impedance spectroscopy measurements, the total (bulk + grain conductivity at 27ºC of LLBZT shows its maximum value of 8.34 x 10-4 S cm-1 at x = 0.10, which is slightly higher than the conductivity (= 7.94 x 10-4 S cm-1 of LLZT without substituting Ba (x = 0. Activation energy of the conductivity tends to become lower by Ba substation, while excess Ba substitution degrades the conductivity in LLBZT. LLBZT has wide electrochemical potential window of 0-6 V vs. Li+/Li and

  20. Origin of the current discretization in deep reset states of an Al2O3/Cu-based conductive-bridging memory, and impact on state level and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, A.; Degraeve, R.; Fantini, A.; Kim, W.; Houssa, M.; Jurczak, M.; Goux, L.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a Quantum-Point-Contact (QPC) model describing the state conduction in a W/Al2O3/TiW/Cu Conductive-Bridging Memory cell (CBRAM). The model allows describing both the voltage- and the temperature-dependence of the conduction. For deep current levels, a resistance component is added in series to the point-contact constriction to account for electron scattering in the residual filament. The fitting of single-particle perturbation also allowed to estimate the number and effective size of the conduction-controlling particles in the QPC constriction. The results clearly point to smaller particles for CBRAM (Cu particles) as compared to oxide-based resistive RAM involving oxygen-vacancy defects, which is discussed as a possible origin of deeper reset level obtained in CBRAM. We also evidence a beneficial impact of this smaller particle size on lower Random-Telegraph-Noise amplitude measured on CBRAM devices.

  1. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Nitrate (NO3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Nitrate (NO3) for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of NO3 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  2. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Total Inorganic Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Total Inorganic Nitrogen for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of Total Inorganic Nitrogen deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  3. Dually supplied T-junctions in arteriolo-arteriolar anastomosis in mice: key to local hemodynamic homeostasis in normal and ischemic states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriumi, Haruki; Tatarishvili, Jemal; Tomita, Minoru; Tomita, Yutaka; Unekawa, Miyuki; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2009-10-01

    The functional role of arteriolo-arteriolar anastomosis (AAA) between the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and anterior cerebral artery in local hemodynamics is unknown, and was investigated here. Blood flow in AAAs was examined using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled red blood cells (RBCs) as a flow indicator in 16 anesthetized C57BL/6J mice before and after MCA occlusion up to 7 experimental days. We observed paradoxical flow in AAAs; labeled RBCs entered from both the MCA and anterior cerebral artery sides and the opposing flows met at a branching T-junction, where the flows combined and passed into a penetrating arteriole. The dually fed T-junction was not fixed in position, but functionally jumped to adjacent T-junctions in response to changing hemodynamic conditions. On MCA occlusion, RBC flow from the MCA side immediately stopped. After a period of "hesitation," blood started to move retrogradely in one of the MCA branches toward the MCA stem. The retrograde blood flow was statistically significantly (P<0.05), serving to feed blood to other MCA branches after a lag period. In capillaries, MCA occlusion induced immediate RBC disappearance in the ischemic core and to a lesser extent in the marginal zone near AAAs. At day 3 after ischemia, we recognized the beginning of remodeling with angiogenesis centering on AAAs. AAAs appear to play a key role in local hemodynamic homeostasis, both in the normal state and in the development of collateral channels and revascularization during ischemia.

  4. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Ammonium (NH4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of ammonium (NH4) for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of NH4 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  5. Coaxial CoMoO4 nanowire arrays with chemically integrated conductive coating for high-performance flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaping; Liu, Borui; Liu, Qi; Wang, Jun; Li, Zhanshuang; Jing, Xiaoyan; Liu, Lianhe

    2015-09-01

    Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors have offered promising applications as novel energy storage devices based on their merits, such as small size, low cost, light weight and high wearability for high-performance portable electronics. However, one major challenge to make flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors depends on the improvement of electrode materials with higher electrical conductivity properties and longer cycling stability. In this article, we put forward a simple strategy to in situ synthesize 1D CoMoO4 nanowires (NWs), using highly conductive CC and an electrically conductive PPy wrapping layer on CoMoO4 NW arrays for high performance electrode materials. The results show that the CoMoO4/PPy hybrid NW electrode exhibits a high areal specific capacitance of ca. 1.34 F cm-2 at a current density of 2 mA cm-2, which is remarkably better than the corresponding values for a pure CoMoO4 NW electrode of 0.7 F cm-2. An excellent cycling performance of nanocomposites of up to 95.2% (ca. 1.12 F cm-2) is achieved after 2000 cycles compared to pristine CoMoO4 NWs. In addition, we fabricate flexible all-solid-state ASC which can be cycled reversibly in the voltage range of 0-1.7 V, and exhibits a maximum energy density of 104.7 W h kg-1 (3.522 mW h cm-3), demonstrating great potential for practical applications in flexible energy storage electronics.Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors have offered promising applications as novel energy storage devices based on their merits, such as small size, low cost, light weight and high wearability for high-performance portable electronics. However, one major challenge to make flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors depends on the improvement of electrode materials with higher electrical conductivity properties and longer cycling stability. In this article, we put forward a simple strategy to in situ synthesize 1D CoMoO4 nanowires (NWs), using highly conductive CC and an electrically conductive PPy wrapping layer on

  6. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  7. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  8. [On the necessity to prepare new "Rules for the organization and conduction of forensic biological examination and studies by the State Forensic Examination Boards of the Russian Federation"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarov, A A

    2010-01-01

    The author substantiates the necessity to prepare new "Rules for the organization and conduction of forensic biological examination and studies by the State Forensic Examination Boards of the Russian Federation". Their long-term absence of the reviewed document has negatively influenced the quality of work of these facilities. The structure and contents of the three previous versions of the Rules for the study of material evidence (1934, 1956, and 1996) are analysed. The structure of the new variant is designed to optimize the work of forensic medical examination bureaus and the performance of relevant studies.

  9. Variations of structures and solid-state conductivity of isomeric silver(I) coordination polymers having linear and V-shaped thiophene-centered ditriazole ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bin; Geng, Jiao; Zhang, Lie; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A pair of new linear and V-shaped acceptor–donor–acceptor (A−D−A) thiophene-centered ditriazole structural isomers, i.e., 2,5-di(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)thiophene (L 1 ) and 3,4-di(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)thiophene (L 2 ), has been synthesized and characterized. They are used as μ 2 -bridging ligands to prepare a pair of silver(I) coordination polymers formulated as [Ag(L 1 )(NO 3 )] n (1) and [Ag(L 2 )(NO 3 )] n (2), which are also structural isomers at the supramolecular level. X-ray single-crystal diffraction analyses for 1 and 2 reveal that they exhibit the same one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymers but different structural architectures because of the distinguishable shape and configuration of isomeric ligands (L 1 and L 2 ) and the alterations of the coordination numbers. More interestingly, compared with the free ligands, 1D silver(I) polymeric isomers 1 and 2 show significant enhancement of solid-state conductivity to different extents (1.42×10 4 and 2.17×10 3 times), where 6.96 times' enhancement of solid-state conductivity from 1 to 2 has been observed. The formation of Ag–N coordinative bonds and the configurational discrepancy of L 1 and L 2 are believed to play important roles in facilitating the electron transport between molecules, which can also be supported by Density Function Theory calculations of their band gaps. - Graphical abstract: A pair of linear and V-shaped isomeric thiophene-centered ditriazole ligands (L 1 ) and L 2 are used to prepare a pair of silver(I) polymeric isomers (1 and 2), where significant enhancement of solid-state conductivity to different extents are observed originating from the distinguishable shape and configuration of isomeric ligands. - Highlights: • A pair of linear and V-shaped thiophene-centered ditriazole structural isomers is prepared. • They are used as µ 2 -bridging ligands to prepare a pair of silver(I) polymeric isomers. • Significant enhancement of solid-state conductivity is observed

  10. A high performance flexible all solid state supercapacitor based on the MnO2 sphere coated macro/mesoporous Ni/C electrode and ionic conducting electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Jian; Reiser, Oliver; Wang, Youfu; Hu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating layer. By employing butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) modified gels as the ionic conducting electrolyte, the utilization efficiency of MnO2 on the specific capacitance was enhanced up to 88% of the theoretical value, delivering a volumetric capacitance of 81 F cm-3, which is the highest value among MnO2 based solid state supercapacitors. Moreover, such a flexible device exhibits exceptional volumetric energy and power density (6.6 Wh L-1 and 549 W L-1, based on the whole device volume) combined with a small capacity loss of 8.5% after 6000 cycles under twisting. These encouraging findings unambiguously overcome the energy bottleneck of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors, and open up a new application of macro/mesoporous materials in flexible devices.A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating

  11. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xuming Liu,1 Zhihan Yan,2 Tingyu Wang,1 Xiaokai Yang,1 Feng Feng,3 Luping Fan,1 Jian Jiang4 1Department of Radiology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Department of Radiology, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 3Peking Union Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 4Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL after normal sleep (NS and after sleep deprivation (SD. Methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results: Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL, left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the

  12. Gate-modulated conductance of few-layer WSe2 field-effect transistors in the subgap regime: Schottky barrier transistor and subgap impurity states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junjie; Feng, Simin; Rhodes, Daniel; Balicas, Luis; Nguyen, Minh An T.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Mallouk, Thomas E.; Terrones, Mauricio; Zhu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Two key subjects stand out in the pursuit of semiconductor research: material quality and contact technology. The fledging field of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) faces a number of challenges in both efforts. This work attempts to establish a connection between the two by examining the gate-dependent conductance of few-layer (1-5L) WSe 2 field effect devices. Measurements and modeling of the subgap regime reveal Schottky barrier transistor behavior. We show that transmission through the contact barrier is dominated by thermionic field emission (TFE) at room temperature, despite the lack of intentional doping. The TFE process arises due to a large number of subgap impurity states, the presence of which also leads to high mobility edge carrier densities. The density of states of such impurity states is self-consistently determined to be approximately 1–2 × 10 13 /cm 2 /eV in our devices. We demonstrate that substrate is unlikely to be a major source of the impurity states and suspect that lattice defects within the material itself are primarily responsible. Our experiments provide key information to advance the quality and understanding of TMDC materials and electrical devices

  13. Gate-modulated conductance of few-layer WSe{sub 2} field-effect transistors in the subgap regime: Schottky barrier transistor and subgap impurity states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junjie; Feng, Simin [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Rhodes, Daniel; Balicas, Luis [National High Magnetic Field Lab, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Nguyen, Minh An T. [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Mallouk, Thomas E. [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Terrones, Mauricio [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Center for 2-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Zhu, J., E-mail: jzhu@phys.psu.edu [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Center for 2-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Two key subjects stand out in the pursuit of semiconductor research: material quality and contact technology. The fledging field of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) faces a number of challenges in both efforts. This work attempts to establish a connection between the two by examining the gate-dependent conductance of few-layer (1-5L) WSe{sub 2} field effect devices. Measurements and modeling of the subgap regime reveal Schottky barrier transistor behavior. We show that transmission through the contact barrier is dominated by thermionic field emission (TFE) at room temperature, despite the lack of intentional doping. The TFE process arises due to a large number of subgap impurity states, the presence of which also leads to high mobility edge carrier densities. The density of states of such impurity states is self-consistently determined to be approximately 1–2 × 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2}/eV in our devices. We demonstrate that substrate is unlikely to be a major source of the impurity states and suspect that lattice defects within the material itself are primarily responsible. Our experiments provide key information to advance the quality and understanding of TMDC materials and electrical devices.

  14. Investigation of trap states in high Al content AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by frequency dependent capacitance and conductance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jie-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Hou, Bin; Chen, Wei-Wei; Hao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Trap states in Al 0.55 Ga 0.45 N/GaN Schottky-gate high-electron-mobility transistors (S-HEMTs) and Al 2 O 3 /Al 0.55 Ga 0.45 N/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor HEMTs (MOS-HEMTs) were investigated with conductance method in this paper. Surface states with time constant of (0.09–0.12) μs were found in S-HEMTs, and electron tunneling rather than emission was deemed to be the dominant de-trapping mechanism due to the high electric field in high Al content barrier. The density of surface states evaluated in S-HEMTs was (1.02–4.67)×10 13 eV −1 ·cm −2 . Al 2 O 3 gate insulator slightly reduced the surface states, but introduced low density of new traps with time constant of (0.65–1.29) μs into MOS-HEMTs

  15. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would exhibit electronic conductivity, their conductivities (of compressed pellets) were indeed measured by others, and were found to be .... Polyaniline. Polyphenylene. Polypheny lene- vinylene. Table 1. G!NeRAl I ARTICl! structure. Maximum conductivity Stem Stability. Processability. ~. 1.5 x 105. Reacts with Film not n air.

  16. Materials space of solid-state electrolytes: unraveling chemical composition-structure-ionic conductivity relationships in garnet-type metal oxides using cheminformatics virtual screening approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, Natalia; Pervov, Vladislav S

    2017-08-09

    The organic electrolytes of most current commercial rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LiBs) are flammable, toxic, and have limited electrochemical energy windows. All-solid-state battery technology promises improved safety, cycling performance, electrochemical stability, and possibility of device miniaturization and enables a number of breakthrough technologies towards the development of new high power and energy density microbatteries for electronics with low processing cost, solid oxide fuel cells, electrochromic devices, etc. Currently, rational materials design is attracting significant attention, which has resulted in a strong demand for methodologies that can accelerate the design of materials with tailored properties; cheminformatics can be considered as an efficient tool in this respect. This study was focused on several aspects: (i) identification of the parameters responsible for high Li-ion conductivity in garnet structured oxides; (ii) development of quantitative models to elucidate composition-structure-Li ionic conductivity relationships, taking into account the experimental details of sample preparation; (iii) circumscription of the materials space of solid garnet-type electrolytes, which is attractive for virtual screening. Several candidate compounds have been recommended for synthesis as potential solid state electrolyte materials.

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, solid state d.c. electrical conductivity and biological studies of some lanthanide(III chloride complexes with a heterocyclic Schiff base ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with 2-amino-3-carboxyethyl-4,5-dimethylthiophene in 1:1 molar ratio, yielded a potentially tridentate Schiff base viz. 2-[N-(2′-hydroxy-1-naphthylideneamino]-3-carboxyethyl-4,5-dimethylthiophene (HNAT. This ligand formed complexes with lanthanum(III, cerium(III, praseodymium(III, neodymium(III, samarium(III, europium(III and gadolinium(III chloride under well defined conditions. These complexes were characterized through elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment measurements, IR, UV–Vis, FAB mass and 1H NMR spectral studies. Analytical data showed that all the metal complexes exhibited 1:1 metal–ligand ratio. Molar conductance values adequately confirmed the non-electrolytic nature of the metal complexes. The proton NMR spectral observations supplement the IR spectral assignments. The spectral data revealed that the ligand acted as neutral tridentate, coordinating to the metal ion through azomethine nitrogen, ester carbonyl and naphtholate oxygen without deprotonation. The ligand and its lanthanum(III chloride complex were subjected to XRD studies. The lanthanum(III chloride complex has undergone a facile transesterification reaction. The solid state d.c. electrical conductivity of some selected complexes were measured as a function of temperature, indicating the semiconducting nature of the metal complexes. The antimicrobial activities were examined by disk diffusion method against some pathogenic bacterial and fungal species.

  18. Membrane voltage fluctuations reduce spike frequency adaptation and preserve output gain in CA1 pyramidal neurons in a high conductance state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Fernando R.; Broicher, Tilman; Truong, Alan; White, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Modulating the gain of the input-output function of neurons is critical for processing of stimuli and network dynamics. Previous gain control mechanisms have suggested that voltage fluctuations play a key role in determining neuronal gain in vivo. Here we show that, under increased membrane conductance, voltage fluctuations restore Na+ current and reduce spike frequency adaptation in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in vitro. As a consequence, membrane voltage fluctuations produce a leftward shift in the f-I relationship without a change in gain, relative to an increase in conductance alone. Furthermore, we show that these changes have important implications for the integration of inhibitory inputs. Due to the ability to restore Na+ current, hyperpolarizing membrane voltage fluctuations mediated by GABAA-like inputs can increase firing rate in a high conductance state. Finally, our data show that the effects on gain and synaptic integration are mediated by voltage fluctuations within a physiologically relevant range of frequencies (10–40 Hz). PMID:21389243

  19. Liver transplantation nearly normalizes brain spontaneous activity and cognitive function at 1 month: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yue; Huang, Lixiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhong, Jianhui; Ji, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Chen, Lihua; Zuo, Panli; Zhang, Long Jiang; Shen, Wen

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the short-term brain activity changes in cirrhotic patients with Liver transplantation (LT) using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) with regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Twenty-six cirrhotic patients as transplant candidates and 26 healthy controls were included in this study. The assessment was repeated for a sub-group of 12 patients 1 month after LT. ReHo values were calculated to evaluate spontaneous brain activity and whole brain voxel-wise analysis was carried to detect differences between groups. Correlation analyses were performed to explore the relationship between the change of ReHo with the change of clinical indexes pre- and post-LT. Compared to pre-LT, ReHo values increased in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right inferior parietal lobule (IPL), right supplementary motor area (SMA), right STG and left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in patients post-LT. Compared to controls, ReHo values of post-LT patients decreased in the right precuneus, right SMA and increased in bilateral temporal pole, left caudate, left MFG, and right STG. The changes of ReHo in the right SMA, STG and IFG were correlated with change of digit symbol test (DST) scores (P brain activity of most brain regions with decreased ReHo in pre-LT was substantially improved and nearly normalized, while spontaneous brain activity of some brain regions with increased ReHo in pre-LT continuously increased. ReHo may provide information on the neural mechanisms of LT' effects on brain function.

  20. TiO 2 Conduction Band Modulation with In 2 O 3 Recombination Barrier Layers in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.

    2013-11-21

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to grow subnanometer indium oxide recombination barriers in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the spiro-OMeTAD hole-transport material (HTM) and the WN1 donor-π-acceptor organic dye. While optimal device performance was achieved after 3-10 ALD cycles, 15 ALD cycles (∼2 Å of In2O 3) was observed to be optimal for increasing open-circuit voltage (VOC) with an average improvement of over 100 mV, including one device with an extremely high VOC of 1.00 V. An unexpected phenomenon was observed after 15 ALD cycles: the increasing VOC trend reversed, and after 30 ALD cycles VOC dropped by over 100 mV relative to control devices without any In2O3. To explore possible causes of the nonmonotonic behavior resulting from In2O3 barrier layers, we conducted several device measurements, including transient photovoltage experiments and capacitance measurements, as well as density functional theory (DFT) studies. Our results suggest that the VOC gains observed in the first 20 ALD cycles are due to both a surface dipole that pulls up the TiO2 conduction band and recombination suppression. After 30 ALD cycles, however, both effects are reversed: the surface dipole of the In2O3 layer reverses direction, lowering the TiO 2 conduction band, and mid-bandgap states introduced by In 2O3 accelerate recombination, leading to a reduced V OC. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  2. Development of Lithium-Stuffed Garnet-Type Oxide Solid Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity for Application to All-Solid-State Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Ryoji, E-mail: inada@ee.tut.ac.jp; Yasuda, Satoshi; Tojo, Masaru; Tsuritani, Keiji; Tojo, Tomohiro; Sakurai, Yoji [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi (Japan)

    2016-07-20

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries are expected to be one of the next generations of energy storage devices because of their high energy density, high safety, and excellent cycle stability. Although oxide-based solid electrolyte (SE) materials have rather lower conductivity and poor deformability than sulfide-based ones, they have other advantages, such as their chemical stability and ease of handling. Among the various oxide-based SEs, lithium-stuffed garnet-type oxide, with the formula of Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} (LLZ), has been widely studied because of its high conductivity above 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at room temperature, excellent thermal performance, and stability against Li metal anode. Here, we present our recent progress for the development of garnet-type SEs with high conductivity by simultaneous substitution of Ta{sup 5+} into the Zr{sup 4+} site and Ba{sup 2+} into the La{sup 3+} site in LLZ. Li{sup +} concentration was fixed to 6.5 per chemical formulae, so that the formula of our Li garnet-type oxide is expressed as Li{sub 6.5}La{sub 3−x}Ba{sub x}Zr{sub 1.5−x}Ta{sub 0.5+x}O{sub 12} (LLBZT) and Ba contents x are changed from 0 to 0.3. As a result, all LLBZT samples have a cubic garnet structure without containing any secondary phases. The lattice parameters of LLBZT decrease with increasing Ba{sup 2+} contents x ≤ 0.10 while increase with x from 0.10 to 0.30, possibly due to the simultaneous change of Ba{sup 2+} and Ta{sup 5+} substitution levels. The relative densities of LLBZT are in a range between 89 and 93% and are not influenced in any significant way by the compositions. From the AC impedance spectroscopy measurements, the total (bulk + grain) conductivity at 27°C of LLBZT shows its maximum value of 8.34 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at x = 0.10, which is slightly higher than the conductivity (= 7.94 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1}) of LLZT without substituting Ba (x = 0). The activation energy of the conductivity

  3. EnviroAtlas - Average Direct Normal Solar resources kWh/m2/Day by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The annual average direct normal solar resources by 12-Digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) was estimated from maps produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for...

  4. Avalanche mode of high-voltage overloaded p{sup +}–i–n{sup +} diode switching to the conductive state by pulsed illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyuregyan, A. S., E-mail: ask@vei.ru [Lenin All-Russia Electrical Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    A simple analytical theory of the picosecond switching of high-voltage overloaded p{sup +}–i–n{sup +} photodiodes to the conductive state by pulsed illumination is presented. The relations between the parameters of structure, light pulse, external circuit, and main process characteristics, i.e., the amplitude of the active load current pulse, delay time, and switching duration, are derived and confirmed by numerical simulation. It is shown that the picosecond light pulse energy required for efficient switching can be decreased by 6–7 orders of magnitude due to the intense avalanche multiplication of electrons and holes. This offers the possibility of using pulsed semiconductor lasers as a control element of optron pairs.

  5. Avalanche mode of high-voltage overloaded p+–i–n+ diode switching to the conductive state by pulsed illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyuregyan, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    A simple analytical theory of the picosecond switching of high-voltage overloaded p + –i–n + photodiodes to the conductive state by pulsed illumination is presented. The relations between the parameters of structure, light pulse, external circuit, and main process characteristics, i.e., the amplitude of the active load current pulse, delay time, and switching duration, are derived and confirmed by numerical simulation. It is shown that the picosecond light pulse energy required for efficient switching can be decreased by 6–7 orders of magnitude due to the intense avalanche multiplication of electrons and holes. This offers the possibility of using pulsed semiconductor lasers as a control element of optron pairs

  6. Quasi Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Incorporating Highly Conducting Polythiophene-Coated Carbon Nanotube Composites in Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polythiophene (PTh composites with the host filler multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT have been used, for the first time, in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. A quasi solid-state DSCs with the hybrid MWNT-PTh composites, an ionic liquid of 1-methyl-3-propyl imidazolium iodide (PMII, was placed between the dye-sensitized porous TiO2 and the Pt counter electrode without adding iodine and higher cell efficiency (4.76% was achieved, as compared to that containing bare PMII (0.29%. The MWNT-PTh nanoparticles are exploited as the extended electron transfer materials and serve simultaneously as catalyst for the electrochemical reduction of I−3.

  7. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity for Next Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockstaller, Michael [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The low thermal conductivity of state-of-the-art polymer encapsulants (k ~ 0.15 Wm-1K-1) limits the efficiency and power density of current phosphor conversion light emitting diodes (pc-LEDs). The technical objective of this project was to demonstrate synthesis and processing schemes for the fabrication of polymer hybrid encapsulants with a thermal conductivity exceeding k = 0.4 Wm-1K-1 for LED applications. The ‘hybrid polymer’ approach encompasses the dispersion of high thermal conductivity particle fillers (zinc oxide, ZnO as well as the alpha-polymorph of alumina, Al2O3) within a polysiloxane matrix (poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS as well as poly(phenyl methyl siloxane), PPMS) to increase the thermal conductivity while maintaining optical transparency and photothermal stability at levels consistent with LED applications. To accomplish this goal, a novel synthesis method for the fabrication of nanosized ZnO particles was developed and a novel surface chemistry was established to modify the surface of zinc oxide particle fillers and thus to enable their dispersion in poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix polymers. Molecular dynamics and Mie simulations were used to optimize ligand structure and to enable the concurrent mixing of particles in PDMS/PPMS embedding media while also minimizing the thermal boundary resistance as well as optical scattering of particle fillers. Using this approach the synthesis of PDMS/ZnO hybrid encapsulants exhibiting a thermal conductivity of 0.64 Wm-1K-1 and optical transparency > 0.7 mm-1 was demonstrated. A forming process based on micromolding was developed to demonstrate the forming of particle filled PDMS into film and lens shapes. Photothermal stability testing revealed stability of the materials for approximately 4000 min when exposed to blue light LED (450 nm, 30 W/cm2). One postgraduate and seven graduate students were supported by the project. The research performed within this project led to fifteen publications in peer

  8. The role of the State Security Service (Stasi) in the context of international clinical trials conducted by western pharmaceutical companies in Eastern Germany (1961-1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erices, Rainer; Frewer, Andreas; Gumz, Antje

    2018-01-01

    After the building of the Berlin Wall in the 1960s, a number of international pharmaceutical manufacturers from the West had their drugs tested in Eastern Germany (GDR). So far, the extensive collection of documents on the subject stored in the archives of the GDR State Security Service (Stasi, MfS) has not been systematically analysed. Until now, the role of the Stasi with respect to the surveillance of the trials has been unclear. A keyword search within the database of the Stasi files was conducted. All available files were screened in order to identify institutions, companies and personnel involved in the clinical trials. On this basis, further files were requested. A total of 259 files were available for analysis. Relevant data was derived from 160 of these files. A contextualised approach was applied, which critically explored the origin, content, and impact of the data. In addition, an approach guided by the central steps of document analysis was applied. At least 400 clinical trials were conducted during the GDR period. The exact number remains speculative. According to references found in the Stasi files, it might have been considerably higher. Initially, the main goal of the trials was for the GDR authorities to decide whether to import certain Western drugs. By 1983, this intention had changed. Now, the primary aim of the trials was the procurement of foreign currency. The Stasi feared that the pharmaceutical companies could have a significant influence on GDR Health System. Stasi spies were holding positions in the responsible medical committees, universities, and hospitals. Constant surveillance by the Stasi served the purpose of monitoring any contact between people from the West and the East. Unknowingly, representatives of Western companies were surveilled by the Stasi. The studied documents also point to the fact that a number of clinical trials conducted during the GDR period did not comply with GDR regulations, and were therefore deemed illegal

  9. On applicability of PCA, voxel-wise variance normalization and dimensionality assumptions for sliding temporal window sICA in resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Jukka J; Abou Elseoud, Ahmed; Ollila, Esa; Haapea, Marianne; Starck, Tuomo; Nikkinen, Juha; Tervonen, Osmo; Silven, Olli

    2013-10-01

    Subject-level resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) spatial independent component analysis (sICA) may provide new ways to analyze the data when performed in the sliding time window. However, whether principal component analysis (PCA) and voxel-wise variance normalization (VN) are applicable pre-processing procedures in the sliding-window context, as they are for regular sICA, has not been addressed so far. Also model order selection requires further studies concerning sliding-window sICA. In this paper we have addressed these concerns. First, we compared PCA-retained subspaces concerning overlapping parts of consecutive temporal windows to answer whether in-window PCA and VN can confound comparisons between sICA analyses in consecutive windows. Second, we compared the PCA subspaces between windowed and full data to assess expected comparability between windowed and full-data sICA results. Third, temporal evolution of dimensionality estimates in RS-fMRI data sets was monitored to identify potential challenges in model order selection in a sliding-window sICA context. Our results illustrate that in-window VN can be safely used, in-window PCA is applicable with most window widths and that comparisons between windowed and full data should not be performed from a subspace similarity point of view. In addition, our studies on dimensionality estimates demonstrated that there are sustained, periodic and very case-specific changes in signal-to-noise ratio within RS-fMRI data sets. Consequently, dimensionality estimation is needed for well-founded model order determination in the sliding-window case. The observed periodic changes correspond to a frequency band of ≤0.1 Hz, which is commonly associated with brain activity in RS-fMRI and become on average most pronounced at window widths of 80 and 60 time points (144 and 108 s, respectively). Wider windows provided only slightly better comparability between consecutive windows, and 60 time point or shorter windows also provided the

  10. Stretchable All-Gel-State Fiber-Shaped Supercapacitors Enabled by Macromolecularly Interconnected 3D Graphene/Nanostructured Conductive Polymer Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panpan; Jin, Zhaoyu; Peng, Lele; Zhao, Fei; Xiao, Dan; Jin, Yong; Yu, Guihua

    2018-05-01

    Nanostructured conductive polymer hydrogels (CPHs) have been extensively applied in energy storage owing to their advantageous features, such as excellent electrochemical activity and relatively high electrical conductivity, yet the fabrication of self-standing and flexible electrode-based CPHs is still hampered by their limited mechanical properties. Herein, macromolecularly interconnected 3D graphene/nanostructured CPH is synthesized via self-assembly of CPHs and graphene oxide macrostructures. The 3D hybrid hydrogel shows uniform interconnectivity and enhanced mechanical properties due to the strong macromolecular interaction between the CPHs and graphene, thus greatly reducing aggregation in the fiber-shaping process. A proof-of-concept all-gel-state fibrous supercapacitor based on the 3D polyaniline/graphene hydrogel is fabricated to demonstrate the outstanding flexibility and mouldability, as well as superior electrochemical properties enabled by this 3D hybrid hydrogel design. The proposed device can achieve a large strain (up to ≈40%), and deliver a remarkable volumetric energy density of 8.80 mWh cm -3 (at power density of 30.77 mW cm -3 ), outperforming many fiber-shaped supercapacitors reported previously. The all-hydrogel design opens up opportunities in the fabrication of next-generation wearable and portable electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Structural, dielectric and conductivity studies of LiNi0.75Mg0.25-xCuxPO4 synthesized by solid state reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamalige Anand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The olivine structured LiNi0.75Mg0.25-xCuxPO4 (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.1 cathode materials were synthesized by solid state reaction method. The XRD, FTIR and FESEM studies were conducted to investigate the phase purity, crystal structure, lattice parameters and morphology, respectively. The powder X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the single phase formation of the pure and doped compounds which are found to be orthorhombic with the parent LiNiPO4. Morphology and grain sizes of the materials were investigated through FESEM. The FTIR technique was used to characterize the stretching and bending vibrational modes of different functional groups existing in the materials. The cathode properties were analysed through impedance spectroscopy and indicated on improved electrical properties of the doped samples as compared to the pure LiNiPO4. The conductivity and modulus analyses of the samples were carried out at different temperatures and frequencies using the complex impedance spectroscopy technique.

  12. Dye-Sensitized Molecular Charge Transfer Complexes: Magnetic and Conduction Properties in the Photoexcited States of Ni(dmit2 Salts Containing Photosensitive Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoma Yamamoto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitive dyes often induce charge transfer (CT between adjacent chemical species and themselves under irradiation of appropriate wavelengths. Because of the reversibility and selectivity of such CT, it is considered to be interesting to utilize such dyes as optically controllable trigger components for conduction and magnetism in the photoexcited states of organic materials. Based on this idea, such a type of new salts, i.e., γ- and δ-DiCC[Ni(dmit2] in addition to DiCC2[Ni(dmit2]3 have been prepared, characterized and their physical and structural properties have been examined both under dark and irradiated conditions (dmit2− = 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate, DiCC+ = 3,3′-Dihexyloxacarbocyanine monocation. Among them, under UV (254–450 nm irradiation, δ-DiCC[Ni(dmit2] exhibited photoconductivity being six times as high as its dark conductivity at room temperature. The electron spin resonance (ESR spectra have demonstrated that there are photoexcited spins on both DiCC and [Ni(dmit2] species as a result of the CT transition between them, serving as localized spins (DiCC and carriers ([Ni(dmit2], respectively. The results obtained in this work have indicated that the strategy mentioned above is effective in developing organic photoresponsive semiconductors with paramagnetism.

  13. The temperature influence against conductivity of solid state electrolyte of (CuI)0,5(β-Al2O3)0,5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwanto, -P; Kartini, -E; Purnama, Safei

    2004-01-01

    The solid electrolyte (CuI) 0,5 (β-Al 2 O 3 ) 0,5 has been prepared by a solid state reaction, by mixing of CuI with β-Al 2 O 3 powders. The mixture was compacted and heated at the temperature 300 o C for 3 hours. The conductivity values of (CuI) 0,5 (β-Al 2 O 3 ) 0,5 increased with the temperature and frequency. The x ray diffraction peaks of the solid electrolyte (CuI) 0,5 (β-Al 2 O 3 ) 0,5 are dominated by the peaks of CuI than the peaks of β-Al 2 O 3 . The activation energy of the solid electrolyte is relatively stable, with the range from 0.09 eV to 0.13 eV. The conductivities solid electrolyte (CuI) 0,5 (β-Al 2 O 3 ) 0,5 at room temperature and at 300 o C are 1.48 x 10 -5 S/cm and 8.33 x 10 -4 S/cm, respectively

  14. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Ammonium (NH4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average normalized atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms, of Ammonium (NH4) for the year 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. Estimates of NH4 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus

  15. Heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  16. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  17. Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objections runs away from home often truant from school Children who exhibit these behaviors should receive a comprehensive evaluation by an experience mental health professional. Many children with a conduct disorder may ...

  18. Structural relaxation and thermal conductivity of high-pressure formed, high-density di-n-butyl phthalate glass and pressure induced departures from equilibrium state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, G P; Andersson, Ove

    2017-06-21

    We report a study of structural relaxation of high-density glasses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by measuring thermal conductivity, κ, under conditions of pressure and temperature (p,T) designed to modify both the vibrational and configurational states of a glass. Various high-density glassy states of DBP were formed by (i) cooling the liquid under a fixed high p and partially depressurizing the glass, (ii) isothermal annealing of the depressurized glass, and (iii) pressurizing the glass formed by cooling the liquid under low p. At a given low p, κ of the glass formed by cooling under high p is higher than that of the glass formed by cooling under low p, and the difference increases as glass formation p is increased. κ of the glass formed under 1 GPa is ∼20% higher at ambient p than κ of the glass formed at ambient p. On heating at low p, κ decreases until the glass to liquid transition range is reached. This is the opposite of the increase in κ observed when a glass formed under a certain p is heated under the same p. At a given high p, κ of the low-density glass formed by cooling at low p is lower than that of the high-density glass formed by cooling at that high p. On heating at high p, κ increases until the glass to liquid transition range is reached. The effects observed are due to a thermally assisted approach toward equilibrium at p different from the glass formation p. In all cases, the density, enthalpy, and entropy would change until the glasses become metastable liquids at a fixed p, thus qualitatively relating κ to variation in these properties.

  19. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  20. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  1. Novel Non-Stoichiometric Manganese – Cobalt – Nickel – Oxide Composite as Humidity Sensor Through Solid-State Electrical Conductivity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sundaram

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Equimolar amounts of manganese(II chloride, cobalt(III nitrate and nickel(II chloride in aqueous solution were reacted with ammonia and the resulting precipitate of hydroxides was heated to 7500 C in 6h to yield a non stoichiometric oxides having a composition of Mn0.06Co0.6Ni0.6O2.5 as analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy to a pellet and sintered at 6000 C. Characterization of the material has been made with AAS, Far-IR, TG-DTA, XRD, SEM, VSM and electrical conductance measurement. The far-IR spectra indicated the presence of metal-oxygen bonds and the discrete nature of the oxide was established from power X-ray diffraction pattern recorded at room temperature. The thermogravimetric data indicated the successive loss and gain of fraction of oxygen atoms, a specific feature of non-stoichiometric metal oxides. It was subjected to solid-state DC electrical conductivity measurements at room temperature. The current increases linearly with applied field and exponentially with increase in temperature showing conformance to ohmic law and semiconducting nature. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies were carried out to study the surface and pores structure of the sensor materials. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface adsorption studies showed that the radiuses of the pore sizes were found to be distributed from 10-45A with the pore specific volume being 0.01 cm3 g-1. As the composites having micropores are preferred for humidity sensing properties, the material was subjected to water vapour of different humidity achieved by various water buffers at room temperature and the electrical conductivity was measured as a function of relative humidity (RH. The electrical resistivity drastically decreases with increase in humidity, proving the material to be a good water vapour sensor. The sensitivity factor (Sf was 55000 in the range 5–98% RH, meaning the resistivity falls by a factor of 5.5 x 104 when the atmospheric RH increases from 5

  2. Engaging actively with issues in the responsible conduct of science: lessons from international efforts are relevant for undergraduate education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, John D; Connell, Nancy D; Dirks, Clarissa; El-Faham, Mohamed; Hay, Alastair; Heitman, Elizabeth; Stith, James H; Bond, Enriqueta C; Colwell, Rita R; Anestidou, Lida; Husbands, Jo L; Labov, Jay B

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies are demonstrating that engaging undergraduate students in original research can improve their achievement in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and increase the likelihood that some of them will decide to pursue careers in these disciplines. Associated with this increased prominence of research in the undergraduate curriculum are greater expectations from funders, colleges, and universities that faculty mentors will help those students, along with their graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, develop an understanding and sense of personal and collective obligation for responsible conduct of science (RCS). This Feature describes an ongoing National Research Council (NRC) project and a recent report about educating faculty members in culturally diverse settings (Middle East/North Africa and Asia) to employ active-learning strategies to engage their students and colleagues deeply in issues related to RCS. The NRC report describes the first phase of this project, which took place in Aqaba and Amman, Jordan, in September 2012 and April 2013, respectively. Here we highlight the findings from that report and our subsequent experience with a similar interactive institute in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Our work provides insights and perspectives for faculty members in the United States as they engage undergraduate and graduate students, as well as postdoctoral fellows, to help them better understand the intricacies of and connections among various components of RCS. Further, our experiences can provide insights for those who may wish to establish "train-the-trainer" programs at their home institutions.

  3. Synthesis of highly conductive thin-walled Al-doped ZnO single-crystal microtubes by a solid state method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuopeng; Wang, Yue; Wang, Qiang; Xing, Cheng; Yan, Yinzhou; Jiang, Yijian

    2018-06-01

    ZnO has attracted considerable attention in fundamental studies and practical applications for the past decade due to its outstanding performance in gas sensing, photocatalytic degradation, light harvesting, UV-light emitting/lasing, etc. The large-sized thin-walled ZnO (TW-ZnO) microtube with stable and rich VZn-related acceptors grown by optical vapor supersaturated precipitation (OVSP) is a novel multifunctional optoelectronic material. Unfortunately, the OVSP cannot achieve doping due to the vapor growth process. To obtain doped TW-ZnO microtubes, a solid state method is introduced in this work to achieve thin-walled Al-doping ZnO (TW-ZnO:Al) microtubes with high electrical conductivity. The morphology and microstructures of ZnO:Al microtubes are similar to undoped ones. The Al3+ ions are confirmed to substitute Zn2+ sites and Zn(0/-1) vacancies in the lattice of ZnO by EDS, XRD, Raman and temperature-dependent photoluminescence analyses. The Al dopant acting as a donor level offers massive free electrons to increase the carrier concentrations. The resistivity of the ZnO:Al microtube is reduced down to ∼10-3 Ω·cm, which is one order of magnitude lower than that of the undoped microtube. The present work provides a simple way to achieve doped ZnO tubular components for potential device applications in optoelectronics.

  4. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  6. A field-based characterization of conductivity in areas of minimal alteration: A case example in the Cascades of northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Susan M; Zheng, Lei; Hayslip, Gretchen; Flaherty, Colleen M

    2018-08-15

    The concentration of salts in streams is increasing world-wide making freshwater a declining resource. Developing thresholds for freshwater with low specific conductivity (SC), a measure of dissolved ions in water, may protect high quality resources that are refugia for aquatic life and that dilute downstream waters. In this case example, methods are illustrated for estimating protective levels for streams with low SC. The Cascades in the Pacific Northwest of the United States of America was selected for the case study because a geophysical model indicated that the SC of freshwater streams was likely to be very low. Also, there was an insufficient range in the SC data to accurately derive a criterion using the 2011, US Environmental Protection Agency field-based extirpation concentration distribution method. Instead, background and a regression model was used to estimate chronic and acute SC levels that could extirpate 5% of benthic invertebrate genera. Background SC was estimated at the 25th centile (33μS/cm) of the measured data and used as the independent variable in a least squares empirical background-to-criteria (B-C) model. Because no comparison could be made with effect levels estimated from a paired SC and biological data set from the Cascades, the lower 50% prediction limit (PL) was identified as an example chronic water quality criterion (97μS/cm). The maximum exposure threshold was estimated at the 90th centile SC of streams meeting the chronic SC level. The example acute SC level was 190μS/cm. Because paired aquatic life and SC data are often sparse, the B-C method is useful for developing SC criteria for other systems with limited data. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Correlating two-photon excited fluorescence imaging of breast cancer cellular redox state with seahorse flux analysis of normalized cellular oxygen consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Wright, Heather J.; Chan, Nicole; Tran, Richard; Razorenova, Olga V.; Potma, Eric O.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-06-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging of the cellular cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide is widely used to measure cellular metabolism, both in normal and pathological cells and tissues. When dual-wavelength excitation is used, ratiometric TPEF imaging of the intrinsic cofactor fluorescence provides a metabolic index of cells-the "optical redox ratio" (ORR). With increased interest in understanding and controlling cellular metabolism in cancer, there is a need to evaluate the performance of ORR in malignant cells. We compare TPEF metabolic imaging with seahorse flux analysis of cellular oxygen consumption in two different breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). We monitor metabolic index in living cells under both normal culture conditions and, for MCF-7, in response to cell respiration inhibitors and uncouplers. We observe a significant correlation between the TPEF-derived ORR and the flux analyzer measurements (R=0.7901, p<0.001). Our results confirm that the ORR is a valid dynamic index of cell metabolism under a range of oxygen consumption conditions relevant for cancer imaging.

  8. Normal pregnancy: mechanisms underlying the paradox of a ouabain-resistant state with elevated endogenous ouabain, suppressed arterial sodium calcium exchange, and low blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Brandiese E.; Liu, Yong; Pulina, Maria V.; Golovina, Vera A.

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS) raise blood pressure (BP) via vascular sodium calcium exchange (NCX1.3) and transient receptor-operated channels (TRPCs). Circulating CTS are superelevated in pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. However, their significance in normal pregnancy, where BP is low, is paradoxical. Here we test the hypothesis that vascular resistance to endogenous ouabain (EO) develops in normal pregnancy and is mediated by reduced expression of NCX1.3 and TRPCs. We determined plasma and adrenal levels of EO and the impact of exogenous ouabain in pregnancy on arterial expression of Na+ pumps, NCX1.3, TRPC3, and TRPC6 and BP. Pregnant (embryonic day 4) and nonpregnant rats received infusions of ouabain or vehicle. At 14–16 days, tissues and plasma were collected for blotting and EO assay by radioimmunoassay (RIA), liquid chromatography (LC)-RIA, and LC-multidimensional mass spectrometry (MS3). BP (−8 mmHg; P vs. nonpregnant (0.6 ± 0.08 nM; P endogenous and exogenous ouabain is mediated by suppressed NCX1.3 and reduced sensitivity of events downstream of Ca2+ entry. The mechanisms of EO resistance and the impaired fetal and placental growth due to elevated ouabain may be important in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and preeclampsia (PE). PMID:22245773

  9. Conducted Vasoreactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D. E.; Neganova, A Y; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    , the underlying mechanisms are debated. Here, we focus on dynamical aspects of the problem hypothesizing the existence of a bistability-powered mechanism for regenerative pulse transmission along the endothelium. Bistability implies that the cell can have two different stable resting potentials and can switch...... between those states following an appropriate stimulus. Bistability is possible if the current-voltage curve is N shaped instead of monotonically increasing. Specifically, the presence of an inwardly rectifying potassium current may provide the endothelial cell with such properties. We provide...... a theoretical analysis as well as numerical simulations of both single- and multiunit bistable systems mimicking endothelial cells to investigate the self-consistence and stability of the proposed mechanism. We find that the individual cell may switch readily between two stable potentials. An array of coupled...

  10. Nonlinear dynamics in cardiac conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. T.; Smith, J. M.; Saxberg, B. E.; Cohen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrical conduction in the heart shows many phenomena familiar from nonlinear dynamics. Among these phenomena are multiple basins of attraction, phase locking, and perhaps period-doubling bifurcations and chaos. We describe a simple cellular-automation model of electrical conduction which simulates normal conduction patterns in the heart as well as a wide range of disturbances of heart rhythm. In addition, we review the application of percolation theory to the analysis of the development of complex, self-sustaining conduction patterns.

  11. Study on discrimination of oral cancer from normal using blood plasma based on fluorescence steady and excited state at excitation wavelength 280 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekha, Pachaiappan; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-03-01

    Many research works based on fluorescence spectroscopy have proven its potential in the diagnosis of various diseases using the spectral signatures of the native key fluorophores such as tryptophan, tyrosine, collagen, NADH, FAD and porphyrin. These fluorophores distribution, concentration and their conformation may be changed depending upon the pathological and metabolic conditions of cells and tissues. In this study, we have made an attempt to characterize the blood plasma of normal subject and oral cancer patients by native fluorescence spectroscopy at 280 nm excitation. Further, the fluorescence data were analyzed by employing the multivariate statistical method - linear discriminant analyses (LDA) using leaves one out cross validation method. The results illustrate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy technique in the diagnosis of oral cancer using blood plasma.

  12. Conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, Jan K; Smeets, Kirsten C; Herpers, Pierre; Scheepers, Floor; Glennon, Jeffrey; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-02-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CD in the light of the forthcoming DSM-5 definition. The diagnostic criteria for CD will remain unchanged in DSM-5, but the introduction of a specifier of CD with a callous-unemotional (CU) presentation is new. Linked to this, we discuss the pros and cons of various other ways to subtype aggression/CD symptoms. Existing guidelines for CD are, with few exceptions, already of a relatively older date and emphasize that clinical assessment should be systematic and comprehensive and based on a multi-informant approach. Non-medical psychosocial interventions are recommended as the first option for the treatment of CD. There is a role for medication in the treatment of comorbid syndromes and/or in case of insufficient response to psychosocial interventions and severe and dangerous aggressive and violent behaviours.

  13. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  14. Heat conduction in superconducting lead thallium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, J.L.N.

    1975-01-01

    The heat conduction of six strong coupling superconducting Pb--Tl alloy specimens (1 to 20 percent wt Tl) was investigated with the emphasis on the effects of impurities upon the phonon thermal conductivity. All the specimens were annealed at 275 0 C for one week. Results show that the superconducting state phonon thermal conductivity of Pb--Tl is in reasonably good agreement with BRT theory. The strong coupling superconductivity of lead alloys can be handled by scaling the gap parameter using a constant factor. The results presented also show that the phonon thermal conductivity at low temperatures of well annealed lead-thallium alloys can be analyzed in terms of phonon scattering by the grain boundaries, point defects, conduction electrons, and other phonons. The phonon-dislocation scattering was found to be unimportant. The phonon relaxation rate due to point defects is in reasonably good agreement with the Klemens theory for the long range strain field scattering introduced by the thallium impurities. At low temperatures, the normal state phonon thermal conductivity showed an increase in the phonon-electron relaxation rate as the thallium concentration increases. The increase of the phonon-electron relaxation rate is attributed to the change of the Fermi surface caused by the presence of thallium impurity. The effect of the strong electron-phonon coupling character upon the phonon-electron relaxation rate has also been considered in terms of the electron-phonon enhancement factor found in the specific heat measurements

  15. Computing rates of Markov models of voltage-gated ion channels by inverting partial differential equations governing the probability density functions of the conducting and non-conducting states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveito, Aslak; Lines, Glenn T; Edwards, Andrew G; McCulloch, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Markov models are ubiquitously used to represent the function of single ion channels. However, solving the inverse problem to construct a Markov model of single channel dynamics from bilayer or patch-clamp recordings remains challenging, particularly for channels involving complex gating processes. Methods for solving the inverse problem are generally based on data from voltage clamp measurements. Here, we describe an alternative approach to this problem based on measurements of voltage traces. The voltage traces define probability density functions of the functional states of an ion channel. These probability density functions can also be computed by solving a deterministic system of partial differential equations. The inversion is based on tuning the rates of the Markov models used in the deterministic system of partial differential equations such that the solution mimics the properties of the probability density function gathered from (pseudo) experimental data as well as possible. The optimization is done by defining a cost function to measure the difference between the deterministic solution and the solution based on experimental data. By evoking the properties of this function, it is possible to infer whether the rates of the Markov model are identifiable by our method. We present applications to Markov model well-known from the literature. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conduction anisotropy of the Bechgaard salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kezsmarki, I.; Zamborszky, F.; Mihaly, G.; Montgomery, L.K.; Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN

    1999-01-01

    We report the results of a systematic study on the temperature dependence of the normal state conductivity, measured along the a, b', and c * axis, in a representative set of Bechgaard salts. The anisotropic electron transport of four compounds are compared: (TMTSF) 2 ClO 4 , (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 , (TMTTF) 2 Br and (TMTTF) 2 PF 6 . We analyze the tendency, following this order of the compounds, of the metallic ab' plane conductivity change to a semiconductor like behavior, and we discuss the mechanism of inter- and intra-chain transport. The c * -direction conduction is determined by the nature of the counter-ion and seems to be irrelevant in this comparison. (orig.)

  17. Specific heat of the 38-K superconductor MgB_2 in the normal and superconducting state: bulk evidence for a double gap

    OpenAIRE

    Junod, Alain; Wang, Yuxing; Bouquet, Frederic; Toulemonde, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    The specific heat of two polycrystalline samples of MgB_2 is presented and analyzed (2 - 300 K, 0 - 16 T), together with magnetic properties. The main characteristics are a low density of states at the Fermi level, high phonon frequencies, and an anomalous temperature- and field- dependence of the specific heat at T < T_c. A two-gap model with a gap ratio of 3:1 fits the specific heat in zero field. The smaller gap is washed out by a field of 0.5 T.

  18. Frictional response of simulated faults to normal stresses perturbations probed with ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreedharan, S.; Riviere, J.; Marone, C.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a suite of laboratory friction experiments conducted on saw-cut Westerly Granite surfaces to probe frictional response to step changes in normal stress and loading rate. The experiments are conducted to illuminate the fundamental processes that yield friction rate and state dependence. We quantify the microphysical frictional response of the simulated fault surfaces to normal stress steps, in the range of 1% - 600% step increases and decreases from a nominal baseline normal stress. We measure directly the fault slip rate and account for changes in slip rate with changes in normal stress and complement mechanical data acquisition by continuously probing the faults with ultrasonic pulses. We conduct the experiments at room temperature and humidity conditions in a servo controlled biaxial testing apparatus in the double direct shear configuration. The samples are sheared over a range of velocities, from 0.02 - 100 μm/s. We report observations of a transient shear stress and friction evolution with step increases and decreases in normal stress. Specifically, we show that, at low shear velocities and small increases in normal stress ( 5% increases), the shear stress evolves immediately with normal stress. We show that the excursions in slip rate resulting from the changes in normal stress must be accounted for in order to predict fault strength evolution. Ultrasonic wave amplitudes which first increase immediately in response to normal stress steps, then decrease approximately linearly to a new steady state value, in part due to changes in fault slip rate. Previous descriptions of frictional state evolution during normal stress perturbations have not adequately accounted for the effect of large slip velocity excursions. Here, we attempt to do so by using the measured ultrasonic amplitudes as a proxy for frictional state during transient shear stress evolution. Our work aims to improve understanding of induced and triggered seismicity with focus on

  19. Atom states and interatomic interactions in complex perovskite-like oxides. Communication XX. Origin of electron-ionic conductivity in lanthanum gallates doped with strontium and chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chezhina, N.V.; Zolotukhina, N.V.; Pijr, I.V.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibilities and electric conductivities of solid solutions based on lanthanum gallate containing chromium and strontium atoms in the ratio of 10 : 2 were studied. It was shown that no partial oxidation of chromium to Cr(IV) occurs when lanthanum gallate is doped with chromium and strontium simultaneously, whereas the ionic conductivity is associated with the appearance of vacancies stabilized by chromium atoms in the oxygen sublattice [ru

  20. Spin density wave in (Fe{sub x}V{sub 3-x})S{sub 4} and the coexistence of normal and condensate states: A Moessbauer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embaid, B.P., E-mail: pembaid@fisica.ciens.ucv.ve [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 47586, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gonzalez-Jimenez, F. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 47586, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Iron-vanadium sulfides of the monoclinic system Fe{sub x}V{sub 3-x}S{sub 4} (1.0{<=}x{<=}2.0) have been investigated by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy in the temperature range 30-300 K. Incommensurate spin density waves (SDW) have been found in this system. An alternative treatment of the spectra allows a direct measurement of the temperature evolution of condensate density of the SDW state which follows the Maki-Virosztek formula. For composition (x=1.0) the SDW condensate is unpinned while for compositions (x>1.0) the SDW condensate is pinned. Possible causes of the pinning-unpinning SDW will be discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sub x}V{sub 3-x}S{sub 4}(1.0{<=}x{<=}2.0) system was investigated by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incommensurate spin density wave (SDW) has been found in this system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the temperature evolution of the condensate density of SDW state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For composition (x=1.0) the SDW is unpinned while for (x>1.0) is pinned.

  1. The Wiedemann—Franz law in a normal metal—superconductor junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanbari R; Rashedi G

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the influence of superconducting correlations on the thermal and charge conductances in a normal metal—superconductor (NS) junction in the clean limit is studied theoretically. First we solve the quasiclassical Eilenberger equations, and using the obtained density of states we can acquire the thermal and electrical conductances for the NS junction. Then we compare the conductance in a normal region of an NS junction with that in a single layer of normal metal (N). Moreover, we study the Wiedemann—Franz (WF) law for these two cases (N and NS). From our calculations we conclude that the behaviour of the NS junction does not conform to the WF law for all temperatures. The effect of the thickness of normal metal on the thermal conductivity is also theoretically investigated in the paper. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  2. Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology: An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, M.L.; Snee, L.W.; Blythe, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    Application of thermochronological techniques to major normal fault systems can resolve the timing of initiation and duration of extension, rates of motion on detachment faults, timing of ductile mylonite formation and passage of rocks through the crystal-plastic to brittle transition, and multiple events of extensional unroofing. Here we determine the above for the top-to-the-east Raft River detachment fault and shear zone by study of spatial gradients in 40Ar/39Ar and fission track cooling ages of footwall rocks and cooling histories and by comparison of cooling histories with deformation temperatures. Mica 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages indicate that extension-related cooling began at ???25-20 Ma, and apatite fission track ages show that motion on the Raft River detachment proceeded until ???7.4 Ma. Collective cooling curves show acceleration of cooling rates during extension, from 5-10??C/m.y. to rates in excess of 70-100??C/m.y. The apparent slip rate along the Raft River detachment, recorded in spatial gradients of apatite fission track ages, is 7 mm/yr between 13.5 and 7.4 Ma and is interpreted to record the rate of migration of a rolling hinge. Microstructural study of footwall mylonite indicates that deformation conditions were no higher than middle greenschist facies and that deformation occurred during cooling to cataclastic conditions. These data show that the shear zone and detachment fault represent a continuum produced by progressive exhumation and shearing during Miocene extension and preclude the possibility of a Mesozoic age for the ductile shear zone. Moderately rapid cooling in middle Eocene time likely records exhumation resulting from an older, oppositely rooted, extensional shear zone along the west side of the Grouse Creek, Raft River, and Albion Mountains. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Thermal conductivity of niobium single crystals in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladun, C.; Vinzelberg, H.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal conductivity in longitudinal magnetic fields up to 5 T and in the temperature range 3.5 to 15 K is measured in two high purity niobium single crystals having residual resistivity ratios of 22700 and 19200 and orientations of the rod axis [110] and [100]. The investigations show that by means of the longitudinal magnetic field the thermal conductivity may decrease only to a limiting value. In the crystal directions [110] and [100] for the ratio of the thermal conductivity in zero field and the thermal conductivity in the saturation field the temperature-independent factors 1.92 and 1.27, respectively, are determined. With the aid of these factors the thermal conductivity in the normal state is evaluated from the measured values of thermal conductivity below Tsub(c) in the magnetic field. The different conduction and scattering mechanisms are discussed. (author)

  4. Theory of exotic superconductivity and normal states of heavy electron and high temperature superconductivity materials. Progress report, February 15, 1994--February 14, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This is a progress report for the DOE project covering the period 2/15/94 to 2/14/95. The PI had a fruitful sabbatical during this period, and had some important new results, particularly in the area of new phenomenology for heavy fermion superconductivity. Significant new research accomplishments are in the area of odd-in-time-reversal pairing states/staggered superconductivity, the two-channel Kondo lattice, and a general model for Ce impurities which admits one-, two-, and three-channel Kondo effects. Papers submitted touch on these areas: staggered superconductivity - a new phenomenology for UPt 3 ; theory of the two-channel Kondo lattice in infinite dimensions; general model of a Ce 3+ impurity. Other work was done in the areas: Knight shift in heavy fermion alloys and compounds; symmetry analysis of singular pairing correlations for the two-channel Kondo impurity model

  5. The normal state resistivity of CaTh- and La-doped Y(Nd-123 superconductors in the bipolaron model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghorbani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline samples of Y1-2xCaxThxBa2Cu3O7-δ (with 0.00 ≤x ≤ 0.075 and NdBa2-xLaxCu3O7-δ (with 0.0≤x≤ 0.30 were prepared by the standard solid state method. The transport and superconducting properties have been studied by the resistivity measurements as a function of temperature and doping concentration. Data of resistivity as a function of temperature was analyzed in terms of the bipolaran model. The model well described resistivity data up to near the critical temperature. Obtained results suggested that the hole localization is the main reason for superconducting suppression in the charge neutral doped cuprates and the La doped Nd-123 in addition charge filling.

  6. Persistent Fe moments in the normal-state collapsed-tetragonal phase of the pressure-induced superconductor Ca0.67Sr0.33Fe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, J. R.; Butch, N. P.; Lipp, M. J.; Bradley, J. A.; Kirshenbaum, K.; Saha, S. R.; Paglione, J.; Kenney-Benson, C.; Xiao, Y.; Chow, P.; Evans, W. J.

    2014-10-01

    Using nonresonant Fe Kβ x-ray emission spectroscopy, we reveal that Sr substitution into CaFe2As2 decouples the Fe moment from the volume collapse transition, yielding a collapsed-tetragonal, paramagnetic normal state out of which superconductivity develops. X-ray diffraction measurements implicate the c-axis lattice parameter as the controlling criterion for the Fe moment, promoting a generic description for the appearance of pressure-induced superconductivity in the alkaline-earth-based 122 ferropnictides (AFe2As2). The evolution of Tc with pressure lends support to theories for superconductivity involving unconventional pairing mediated by magnetic fluctuations.

  7. Clinical relevance of specific cognitive complaints in determining Mild Cognitive Impairment from Cognitively Normal States in a study of Healthy Elderly Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Avila Villanueva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subjective memory complaints in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ.Material and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI. The Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints. All participants also underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological battery. Combined exploratory factor analysis and item response theory were performed to identify the underlying structure of the EMQ. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses were conducted to study whether single cognitive complaints were able to predict MCI.Results: A suitable five-factor solution was found. Each factor focused on a different cognitive domain. Interestingly, just three of them, namely forgetfulness of immediate information, executive functions and prospective memory proved to be effective in distinguishing between cognitively healthy individuals and MCI. Based on these results we propose a shortened EMQ version comprising 10 items (EMQ-10.Discussion: Not all cognitive complaints have the same clinical relevance. Only subjective complaints on specific cognitive domains are able to discriminate MCI. We encourage clinicians to the EMQ-10 as a useful tool to quantify and monitor the progression of individuals who report cognitive complaints.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization and Conductivity Study of Poly(vinyl 4-HYDROXY-3-METHOXY Benzal) and its Sodio Salt in Solid State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, P.; Hussain, S.; Dutta, A.

    Among the various ion-conducting materials, polymer salt complexes are of current interest due to their possible application as solid electrolyte as well as their physical nature in advanced high-energy electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, photo electro-chemical solar cells52-55 etc. The main advantages of polymeric electrolytes are their mechanical properties, ease of fabrication of thin films of desired sizes and their ability to form proper electrode-electrolyte contact. Polymer electrolyte usually consists of a polymer and a salt and is considered to be solid solutions in which the polymer functions as solvent. In the present paper the synthesis, characterization and the conductivity study of the polymer poly (vinyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzal) (PV-HMB) and its sodio salt (PV-HMB-Na) have been reported. The polymer was prepared by carrying out homogenous acetalization between the prepolymer poly vinylalcohol (PVA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde (vanilline). PVA was dissolved in dimethyl formamide (DMF) and lithium chloride (LiCl) system i.e., in non-aqueous medium. The sodio salt was prepared by alkalization. The polymer and its salt were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and DSC. Frequency and temperature dependence of ac conductivity has been studied to learn about the electrical conduction behaviour in this material. The electrical conductivity of the new polymeric salt was found to be in the range 10-4 to 10-6 Scm-1. There is about 103 to 104 fold increase in the conductivity of the new polymer salt. Apparent activation energy of the polymer and its salt were found to be 0.139 and 0.08998 ev respectively.

  9. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: PRISM Normals Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset represents climate observations within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds. Attributes of the landscape layer were calculated for every local NHDPlusV2 catchment and accumulated to provide watershed-level metrics. (See Supplementary Info for Glossary of Terms) PRISM is a set of monthly, yearly, and single-event gridded data products of mean temperature and precipitation, max/min temperatures, and dewpoints, primarily for the United States. In-situ point measurements are ingested into the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) statistical mapping system. The PRISM products use a weighted regression scheme to account for complex climate regimes associated with orography, rain shadows, temperature inversions, slope aspect, coastal proximity, and other factors. (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and USGS Data) These data are summarized by local catchment and by watershed to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a continuous data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  10. To what extent can dry and water-based EEG electrodes replace conductive gel ones?: A Steady State Visual Evoked Potential Brain-Computer Interface Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, V.; Garcia Molina, G.; Peuscher, J

    2011-01-01

    Recent technological advances in the field of skin electrodes and on-body sensors indicate a possibility of having an alternative to the traditionally used conductive gel electrodes for measuring electrical signals of the brain (electroencephalogram, EEG). This paper evaluates whether water-based

  11. Terahertz and direct current losses and the origin of non-Drude terahertz conductivity in the crystalline states of phase change materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shimakawa, K.; Wágner, T.; Frumar, M.; Kadlec, Filip; Kadlec, Christelle; Kasap, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 23 (2013), "233105-1"-"233105-7" ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12386S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : phase - change materials * terahertz conductivity * nanograins Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.185, year: 2013

  12. Facile Preparation of Chloride-Conducting Membranes : First Step towards a Room-Temperature Solid-State Chloride-Ion Battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gschwind, Fabienne; Steinle, Dominik; Sandbeck, Daniel; Schmidt, Celine; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Three types of chloride-conducting membranes based on polyvinyl chloride, commercial gelatin, and polyvinyldifluoride-hexafluoropolymer are introduced in this report. The polymers are mixed with chloride-containing salts, such as tetrabutylammonium chloride, and cast to form membranes. We studied

  13. Radiative shocks with electron thermal conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studies the influence of electron thermal conduction on radiative shock structure for both one- and two-temperature plasmas. The dimensionless ratio of the conductive length to the cooling length determines whether or not conduction is important, and shock jump conditions with conduction are established for a collisionless shock front. He obtains approximate solutions with the assumptions that the ionization state of the gas is constant and the cooling rate is a function of temperature alone. In the absence of magnetic fields, these solutions indicate that conduction noticeably influences normal-abundance interstellar shocks with velocities 50-100 km s -1 and dramatically affects metal-dominated shocks over a wide range of shock velocities. Magnetic fields inhibit conduction, but the conductive energy flux and the corresponding decrease in the post-shock electron temperature may still be appreciable. He calculates detailed steady-state radiative shock models in gas composed entirely of oxygen, with the purpose of explaining observations of fast-moving knots in Cas A and other oxygen-rich supernova remnants (SNRs). The O III ion, whose forbidden emission usually dominates the observed spectra, is present over a wide range of shock velocities, from 100 to 170 kms -1 . All models with conduction have extensive warm photoionization zones, which provides better agreement with observed optical (O I) line strengths. However, the temperatures in these zones could be lowered by (Si II) 34.8 μm and (Ne II) 12.8 μm cooling if Si and Ne are present in appreciable abundance relative to O. Such low temperatures would be inconsistent with the observed (O I) emission in oxygen-rich SNRs

  14. Under a nonadherent state, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be efficiently induced into functional islet-like cell clusters to normalize hyperglycemia in mice: a control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihua; Dou, Zhongying

    2014-05-08

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess low immunogenicity and immunosuppression as an allograft, can differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) by in vitro induction, and may be a valuable cell source to regenerate pancreatic islets. However, the very low differentiation efficiency of BMSCs towards IPCs under adherent induction has thus far hindered the clinical exploitation of these cells. The aim of this study is to explore a new way to efficiently induce BMSCs into IPCs and lay the groundwork for their clinical exploitation. In comparison with adherent induction, BMSCs of human first-trimester abortus (hfBMSCs) under a nonadherent state were induced towards IPCs in noncoated plastic dishes using a three-stage induction procedure developed by the authors. Induction effects were evaluated by statistics of the cell clustering rate of induced cells, and ultrastructural observation, dithizone staining, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence assay, insulin and c-peptide release under glucose stimulus of cell clusters, as well as transplantation test of the cell clusters in diabetic model mice. With (6.175 ± 0.263) × 105 cells in 508.5 ± 24.5 cell clusters, (3.303 ± 0.331) × 105 single cells and (9.478 ± 0.208) × 105 total cell count on average, 65.08 ± 2.98% hfBMSCs differentiated into pancreatic islet-like cell clusters after nonadherent induction. With (3.993 ± 0.344) × 105 cells in 332.3 ± 41.6 cell clusters, (5.437 ± 0.434) × 105 single cells and (9.430 ± 0.340) × 105 total cell count on average, 42.37 ± 3.70% hfBMSCs differentiated into pancreatic islet-like cell clusters after adherent induction (P produced human insulin in recipients. Our studies demonstrate that nonadherent induction can greatly promote BMSCs to form pancreatic islet-like cell clusters, thereby improving the differentiation efficiency of BMSCs towards IPCs.

  15. Assessment of land use change in the coterminous United States and Alaska for global assessment of forest loss conducted by the food and agricultural organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanushree Biswas; Mike Walterman; Paul Maus; Kevin A. Megown; Sean P. Healey; Kenneth Brewer

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations conducted a global assessment for forest change in 2010 using satellite imagery from 1990, 2000, and 2005. The U.S. Forest Service was responsible for assessing forest change in the United States. A polygon-based, stratified sampling design developed by FAO was used to assess change in forest area...

  16. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender Public...

  17. Rigorous treatment of the non-ohmic d.c. conductivity due to phonon-assisted tunneling from localized to extended states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majernikova, E.

    1984-03-01

    A quantitative treatment of the non-ohmic current response due to delocalization of shallow localized electrons in a model of a disordered solid is given. A phonon-assisted tunneling in electric field from shallow localized to extended states is confirmed as a mechanism leading to the dependence which was experimentally found for chalcogenide glasses. (author)

  18. Measurement of thermal conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1977-01-01

    The 6-m long, 45-kG, warm-iron superconducting magnets envisioned for the Energy Doubler stage of the Fermilab accelerator require stiff supports with minimized thermal conductances in order to keep the refrigeration power reasonable. The large number of supports involved in the system required a careful study of their heat conduction from the room temperature wall to the intercepting refrigeration at 20 0 K and to the liquid helium. For this purpose the thermal conductance of this support was measured by comparing it with the thermal conductance of a copper strap of known geometry. An association of steady-state thermal analysis and experimental thermal conductivity techniques forms the basis of this method. An important advantage is the automatic simulation of the 20 0 K refrigeration intercept by the copper strap, which simplifies the apparatus considerably. This relative resistance technique, which uses electrical analogy as a guideline, is applicable with no restrictions for materials with temperature-independent thermal conductivity. For other materials the results obtained are functions of the specific temperature interval involved in the measurements. A comprehensive review of the literature on thermal conductivity indicates that this approach has not been used before. A demonstration of its self-consistency is stressed here rather than results obtained for different supports

  19. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  20. Sustainable Electricity Supply Scenarios for West Africa. A Case Study Conducted by IAEA Member States in West Africa with the Support of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    This publication covers topics relevant to Member States in the process of evaluation of future electricity supply options and strategies, from resource evaluation to electricity demand analysis and connections to overall social, economic and demographic developments. It is an outcome of a study carried out in West Africa, providing a coherent sub regional platform for the development of a robust policy framework for an enhanced and sustainable provision of electricity services to support socio economic growth

  1. Effect of uniaxial stress on the acceptor ground state and on the hopping conduction in p-type germanium and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buczko, R.; Chroboczek, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    We constructed variational wave functions, with correct asymptotic behaviour, for the ground state of shallow acceptors in Ge and Si, utilizing the spherical tensor representation of the effective mass hamiltonian of Baldereschi and Lipari (1973), at uniaxial stress, X, resulting from the application of a tensile or compressive force along the [001] orientation (respectively X 0). Energies of the components of the ground state, computed variationally, account very well for the X-induced displacements of the binding energies and the stress splitting of shallow acceptors in both Ge and Si, at X>0 (no data for X 0. However, they account only qualitatively for the rho(X) data available for Si (X>0 only), probably because of a larger chemical shift of the acceptor ground state in Si and its possible variation with X. At larger acceptor concentrations rho(X) decreases, at large X, much stronger than predicted for both Ge and Si. We attribute this discrepancy to the increase of the contribution to electron transport of multiple hopping transitions at large X values. (author)

  2. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of a red-yellow podzolic soil in the Northern Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State - Brazil; Condutividade hidraulica nao saturada de um solo podzolico vermelho amarelo da Zona da Mata, Norte de Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel Netto, A

    1994-08-01

    The determination of the hydraulic conductivity of a Red-Yellow Podzolic Soil was carried out during an experiment in a plot measuring 3.5 m x 3.5 m, at the Experimental Station of Itapirema, Goiania, in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The internal drainage method proposed by Hillel (1972) was used to obtain the hydraulic conductivity as a function of soil water content, K({theta}), in the three characteristic horizons of the soil. Three neutron probes were used for measuring the humidity, that was determined by a calibration curve. Three characteristic horizons of the Red-Yellow Podzolic Soil were investigated for hydraulic conductivity. The sandy A horizon, with large pores, has a high conductivity while the B1t horizon, with a massive structure and few visible pores, has a low infiltration rate. The hydraulic dynamics of the B2 horizon is more complex due to its heterogeneity. (author). 79 refs, 17 figs, 11 tabs.

  3. Broadband white light emission from Ce:AlN ceramics: High thermal conductivity down-converters for LED and laser-driven solid state lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Wieg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN as a transparent ceramic host for Ce3+, a well-known active ion dopant. We show that the Ce:AlN ceramics have overlapping photoluminescent (PL emission peaks that cover almost the entire visible range resulting in a white appearance under 375 nm excitation without the need for color mixing. The PL is due to a combination of intrinsic AlN defect complexes and Ce3+ electronic transitions. Importantly, the peak intensities can be tuned by varying the Ce concentration and processing parameters, causing different shades of white light without the need for multiple phosphors or light sources. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage coordinates calculated from the measured spectra confirm white light emission. In addition, we demonstrate the viability of laser driven white light emission by coupling the Ce:AlN to a readily available frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser emitting at 355 nm. The high thermal conductivity of these ceramic down-converters holds significant promise for producing higher power white light sources than those available today.

  4. Variation in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance among red maple (Acer rubrum) urban planted cultivars and wildtype trees in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2018-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a fundamental process that trees perform over fluctuating environmental conditions. This study of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) characterizes photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency in planted cultivars relative to wildtype trees. Red maple is common in cities, yet there is little understanding of how physiological processes affect the long-term growth, condition, and ecosystem services provided by urban trees. In the first year of our study, we measured leaf-level gas exchange and performed short-term temperature curves on urban planted cultivars and on suburban and rural wildtype trees. In the second year, we compared urban planted cultivars and urban wildtype trees. In the first year, urban planted trees had higher maximum rates of photosynthesis and higher overall rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance throughout the summer, relative to suburban or rural wildtype trees. Urban planted trees again had higher maximum rates of photosynthesis in the second year. However, urban wildtype trees had higher water use efficiency as air temperatures increased and similar overall rates of photosynthesis, relative to cultivars, in mid and late summer. Our results show that physiological differences between cultivars and wildtype trees may relate to differences in their genetic background and their responses to local environmental conditions, contingent on the identity of the horticultural variety. Overall, our results suggest that wildtype trees should be considered for some urban locations, and our study is valuable in demonstrating how site type and tree type can inform tree planting strategies and improve long-term urban forest sustainability.

  5. Solid-state poly(ethylene glycol)-polyurethane/polymethylmethacrylate/rutile TiO2 nanofiber composite electrolyte-correlation between morphology and conducting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilaka, Naresh; Ghosh, Sutapa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Semi IPN composite of PEG-PU/PMMA with different wt% of rutile TiO 2 is synthesized. ► Formation of nanocomposite is confirmed by SEM, XRD and IR spectroscopic analysis. ► DSC and TGA confirmed the enhanced thermal stability of the composite. ► Composite with 18 wt% rutile TiO 2 is found to be the best conducting material. - Abstract: A series of lithium electrolyte materials based on hybrid of semi Inter penetrating Polymer Network of [poly(ethylene glycol)-polyurethane-polymethylmethacrylate] [60:40] and TiO 2 nanofibers is described. TiO 2 nanofibers are made by simple solvothermal procedure. Rutile phase of TiO 2 and its fibrous morphology are confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern and scanning electron microscopy image respectively. Semi Inter penetrating Polymer Network of polyethylene glycol-polyurethane/polymethylmethacrylate with LiClO 4 and its nanocomposite with different weight percent of TiO 2 nano fibers have been synthesized. The formation of Inter penetrating Polymer Network and its amorphous nature are confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern and differential scanning calorimetry results. Thermo gravimetric analysis shows enhanced thermal stability of the composite compared to the semi Inter penetrating Polymer Network system. The electrical characterizations of the nanocomposites are done by current–voltage (I–V) measurements and impedance spectroscopy. These results confirm that incorporation of TiO 2 nanofibers by 18% enhances the conductivity of the Inter penetrating Polymer Network system by ten times . The nanoscale structure of the inorganic material is found to be responsible for the bulk properties of the system, especially those that differ from the properties of similar, pure salt-in-polymer electrolytes. Further differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and impedance data confirm the presence of two polymeric phases in the semi Inter penetrating Polymer

  6. Interpretation of anomalous optical conductivity in the ferromagnetic metallic state of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Kaurav, N.; Singh, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Observed frequency dependent optical response of La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 has been analysed within the two- component scheme. One is the coherent free carrier excitations and the other is incoherent motion of carriers from one site to other leading to a polaron formation. The frequency dependent relaxation rates are expressed in terms of memory functions and the coherent carriers leads to a sharp peak at zero frequency and a long tail in the infrared region. The hopping of carriers from Mn to Mn and Mn to O site yields peak values around 0.4 and 4.0 e V in the optical conductivity centred at mid-infrared region. (author)

  7. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  8. 'Penetrated system' or 'normal' state? An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The 'maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a 'normal' state

  9. Penetrated system' or normal' state An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a normal' state.

  10. Spin polarization and magnetization of conduction-band dilute-magnetic-semiconductor quantum wells with non-step-like density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simserides, Constantinos

    2005-01-01

    We study the magnetization, M, and the spin polarization, ζ, of n-doped non-magnetic-semiconductor (NMS)/narrow to wide dilute-magnetic-semiconductor (DMS)/n-doped NMS quantum wells, as a function of the temperature, T, and the in-plane magnetic field, B. Under such conditions the density of states (DOS) deviates from the occasionally stereotypic step-like form, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The DOS modification causes an impressive fluctuation of M in cases of vigorous competition between spatial and magnetic confinement. At low T, the enhanced electron spin-splitting, U oσ , acquires its bigger value. At higher T, U oσ decreases, augmenting the influence of the spin-up electrons. Increasing B, U oσ increases and accordingly electrons populate spin-down subbands while they abandon spin-up subbands. Furthermore, due to the DOS modification, all energetically higher subbands become gradually depopulated

  11. Propagation of normal zones in composite superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1976-08-01

    This paper describes calculations of propagation velocities of normal zones in composite superconductors. Full accounting is made for (1) current sharing, (2) the variation with temperature of the thermal conductivity of the copper matrix, and the specific heats of the matrix and the superconductor, and (3) the variation with temperature of the steady-state heat transfer at a copper-helium interface in the nucleate-boiling, transition, and film-boiling ranges. The theory, which contains no adjustable parameters, is compared with experiments on bare (uninsulated) conductors. Agreement is not good. It is concluded that the effects of transient heat transfer may need to be included in the theory to improve agreement with experiment

  12. Comparison of under-pressure and over-pressure pulse tests conducted in low-permeability basalt horizons at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Over-pressure pulse tests (pressurized slug tests have been widely used by others for hydraulic characterization of low-permeability ( -8 m/sec) rock formations. Recent field studies of low-permeability basalt horizons at the Hanford Site, Washington, indicate that the under-pressure pulse technique is also a viable test method for hydraulic characterization studies. For over-pressure pulse tests, fluid within the test system is rapidly pressurized and the associated pressure decay is monitored as compressed fluid within the test system expands and flows into the test formation. Under-pressure pulse tests are conducted in a similar manner by abruptly decreasing the pressure of fluid within the test system, and monitoring the associated increase in pressure as fluid flows from the formation into the test system. Both pulse test methods have been used in conjunction with other types of tests to determine the hydraulic properties of selected low-permeability basalt horizons at Hanford test sites. Results from both pulse test methods generally provide comparable estimates of hydraulic properties and are in good agreement with those from other tests

  13. Particles Size and Conductivity Study of P-Type Copper (I) Iodide (CuI) Thin Film for Solid State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainun, A R; Mamat, M H; Noor, U M; Rusop, M

    2011-01-01

    Copper Iodide based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) has been reported either deliver small photocurrents or highly unstable. In this research, by added in a small amount of Tetra-methyl-ethylene-diamine (TMED) into CuI sol-gel (CuI in acetonitrile), performance of electrical properties and optical properties of CuI based DSSC have been studied. Particles size and conductivity of CuI solution were measured when addition of TMED to the sol at 0.05M concentrations. Spin-coating technique has been explored to prepare nano-crystalline CuI films at room temperature. The film was examined for their surface morphology, optical and electrical properties by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence (PL) and current-voltage (I-V) measurement respectively. The results were then compared with CuI sol-gel which prepared by dissolving CuI powder with acetonitrile only. It showed some improvement to the CuI-based DSSC by incorporation of a small quantity of TMED in the solution of precursor.

  14. Particle size and conductivity study of P-type copper (I) iodide (CuI) thin film for solid state dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayib Rosdi Zainun; Mohd Hafiz Mamat; Rusop, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Copper Iodide based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) has been reported either deliver small photocurrents or highly unstable. In this research, by added in a small amount of Tetra-methyl-ethylene-diamine (TMED) into CuI sol-gel (CuI in acetonitrile), performance of electrical properties and optical properties of CuI based DSSC have been studied. Particles size and conductivity of CuI solution were measured when addition of TMED to the sol at 0.05 M concentrations. Spin-coating technique has been explored to prepare nano-crystalline CuI films at room temperature. The film was examined for their surface morphology, optical and electrical properties by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence (PL) and current-voltage (I-V) measurement respectively. The results were then compared with CuI sol-gel which prepared by dissolving CuI powder with acetonitrile only. It showed some improvement to the CuI-based DSSC by incorporation of a small quantity of TMED in the solution of precursor. (author)

  15. Conductance enhancement in quantum-point-contact semiconductor-superconductor devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flensberg, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    We present numerical calculations of the conductance of an interface between a phase-coherent two-dimensional electron gas and a superconductor with a quantum point contact in the normal region. Using a scattering matrix approach we reconsider the geometry of De Raedt, Michielsen, and Klapwijk...... [Phys. Rev. B 50, 631 (1994)] which was studied within the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism. We find that the factor-of-2 enhancement of the conductance G(NS) compared to the normal state conductance GN for ideal interfaces may be suppressed for interfaces with a quantum point contact...

  16. Electrodiagnosis and nerve conduction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posuniak, E A

    1984-08-01

    The use of electrodiagnostic techniques in evaluation of complaints in the lower extremities provides an objective method of assessment. A basic understanding of principles of neurophysiology, EMG and NCV methodology, and neuropathology of peripheral nerves greatly enhances physical diagnosis and improves the state of the art in treatment of the lower extremity, especially foot and ankle injuries. Familiarity with the method of reporting electrodiagnostic studies and appreciation of the electromyographer's interpretation of the EMG/NCV studies also reflects an enhanced fund of knowledge, skills, and attitudes as pertains to one's level of professional expertise. Information regarding the etiology of positive sharp waves, fibrillation potentials, fasciculation, and normal motor action potentials and conduction studies serves as a sound basis for the appreciation of the categories of nerve injury. Competence in understanding the degree of axonal or myelin function or dysfunction in a nerve improve one's effectiveness not only in medical/surgical treatment but in prognostication of recovery of function. A review of the entrapment syndromes in the lower extremity with emphasis on tarsal tunnel syndrome summarizes the most common nerve entrapments germane to the practice of podiatry. With regard to tarsal tunnel syndrome, the earliest electrodiagnostic study to suggest compression was reported to be the EMG of the foot and leg muscles, even before prolonged nerve latency was noted.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of ternary oxides in the system Ba-Fe-O using solid-state electrochemical cells with oxide and fluoride ion conducting electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, S. K.; Parida, S. C.; Singh, Ziley; Prasad, R.; Venugopal, V.

    2004-04-01

    The standard molar Gibbs energy of formations of BaFe 12O 19(s), BaFe 2O 4(s), Ba 2Fe 2O 5(s), Ba 3Fe 2O 6(s) and Ba 5Fe 2O 8(s) have been determined using solid-state electrochemical technique employing CaF 2(s) as an electrolyte. The reversible e.m.f. values have been measured in the temperature range from 970 to 1151 K. The oxygen chemical potential corresponding to three phase equilibria involving technologically important compound BaFe 12O 19(s) has been determined using solid-state electrochemical technique employing CSZ as an electrolyte from 1048 to 1221 K. The values of Δ fGm0( T) for the above ternary oxides are given by ΔfG m0( BaFe12O19, s)/ kJ mol -1(±0.6)=-5431.3+1.5317 (T/ K) (970⩽T/ K⩽1151) ΔfG m0( BaFe2O4, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.3)=-1461.4+0.3745 (T/ K) (970⩽T/ K⩽1151) ΔfG m0( Ba2Fe2O5, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.4)=-2038.3+0.4433 (T/ K) (970⩽T/ K⩽1149) ΔfG m0( Ba3Fe2O6, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.5)=-2700.1+0.6090 (T/ K) (969⩽T/ K⩽1150) and ΔfG m0( Ba5Fe2O8, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.6)=-3984.1+0.9300 (T/ K) (973⩽T/ K⩽1150) The uncertainty estimates for Δ fGm0 includes the standard deviation in the e.m.f. and uncertainty in the data taken from the literature. An isothermal oxygen potential diagram for the system Ba-Fe-O was constructed at 1100 K based on the thermodynamic data obtained in this study.

  18. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleurial, J P; Caillat, T; Borshchevsky, A

    1997-07-01

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  19. Discovery of highly spin-polarized conducting surface states in the strong spin-orbit coupling semiconductor Sb2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shekhar; Sirohi, Anshu; Kumar Gupta, Gaurav; Kamboj, Suman; Vasdev, Aastha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Guptasarma, Prasenjit; Das, Tanmoy; Sheet, Goutam

    2018-06-01

    Majority of the A2B3 -type chalcogenide systems with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC), such as Bi2Se3,Bi2Te3 , and Sb2Te3 , etc., are topological insulators. One important exception is Sb2Se3 where a topological nontrivial phase was argued to be possible under ambient conditions, but such a phase could be detected to exist only under pressure. In this paper, we show that Sb2Se3 like Bi2Se3 displays a generation of highly spin-polarized current under mesoscopic superconducting point contacts as measured by point-contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy. In addition, we observe a large negative and anisotropic magnetoresistance of the mesoscopic metallic point contacts formed on Sb2Se3 . Our band-structure calculations confirm the trivial nature of Sb2Se3 crystals and reveal two trivial surface states one of which shows large spin splitting due to Rashba-type SOC. The observed high spin polarization and related phenomena in Sb2Se3 can be attributed to this spin splitting.

  20. Imaging the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum and fornix in children: normal anatomy and variations of normality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Paul D.; Batty, Ruth; Connolly, Dan J.A.; Reeves, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The midline structures of the supra-tentorial brain are important landmarks for judging if the brain has formed correctly. In this article, we consider the normal appearances of the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum and fornix as shown on MR imaging in normal and near-normal states. (orig.)

  1. Factors associated with diarrhea in children under five years old in the state of Pernambuco, according to surveys conducted in 1997 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Maria Josemere de Oliveira Borba; Rissin, Anete; Figueiroa, José Natal; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Describe and compare variations of the factors associated with the prevalence of diarrhea in children under five years old in the state of Pernambuco. METHODS We used the databases of two population-based surveys from the years 1997 and 2006, with 2,078 and 1,650 children, respectively, evaluated in 18 municipalities of Pernambuco (Metropolitan Region of Recife, urban and rural interior). The variables, allocated at hierarchical levels, were analyzed using prevalence and Poisson regression ratios. RESULTS Only four variables were independently associated and were included in the final hierarchical model: geographical area, number of people per room, maternal age and the age of the child. In 1997: urban interior = 1.33 (95%CI 1.06-1.66), rural interior = 1.22 (95%CI 0.97-1.53) and in 2006: urban interior = 1.87 (95%CI 1.31-2.66), rural interior = 2.07 (95%CI 1.50-2.85); number of persons per room (1997): 1 to less than 2 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.98-1.68), two or more = 1.47 (95%CI 1.11-1.95) and in 2006: 1 to less than 2 = 0.86 (95%CI 0.68-1.09), two or more = 1.29 (95%CI 0.94-1.75); maternal age (1997): 10 to 19 years = 1.48 (95%CI 1.05-2.08), 20 to 24 years = 1.23 (95%CI 0.94-1.60), 25 to 34 years = 1.01 (95%CI 0.78-1.30) and in 2006: 10 to 19 years old = 1.70 (95%CI 1.08-2.66), 20 to 24 years old = 1.64 (95%CI 1.16-2.32), 25 to 34 years = 1.20 (95%CI 0.89-1.62); and age of the child (1997): 0-11 months = 1.57 (95%CI 1.27-1.94), 12-23 months = 1.73 (95%CI 1.41-2.12) and in 2006: 0-11 months = 1.04 (95%CI 0.76-1.41), 12-23 months = 1.77 (95%CI 1.41-2.23). CONCLUSIONS There was a great variability of the conditioners of diarrhea in children between the two periods analyzed. At the public policy level, despite changes in terms of people, time sequences, and geographic spaces, diarrhea remains on an important scale in the ranking of government power.

  2. Conducting Polymer Based Nanobiosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Soon Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymer (CP nanomaterials have been used in a variety of fields, such as in energy, environmental, and biomedical applications, owing to their outstanding chemical and physical properties compared to conventional metal materials. In particular, nanobiosensors based on CP nanomaterials exhibit excellent performance sensing target molecules. The performance of CP nanobiosensors varies based on their size, shape, conductivity, and morphology, among other characteristics. Therefore, in this review, we provide an overview of the techniques commonly used to fabricate novel CP nanomaterials and their biosensor applications, including aptasensors, field-effect transistor (FET biosensors, human sense mimicking biosensors, and immunoassays. We also discuss prospects for state-of-the-art nanobiosensors using CP nanomaterials by focusing on strategies to overcome the current limitations.

  3. Responsibilities of the exporting state derived from the application of the code of conduct on the safety and security of radioactive sources and the guidance on the import and export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, Dora

    2008-01-01

    Full text: 'The exporting state in deciding whether to authorize an export of radioactive sources should satisfy itself, insofar as practicable: 1) That the recipient is authorized by the importing state to receive and possess the source in accordance with its laws and regulations; 2) That the importing state has the appropriate technical and administrative capability, resources and regulatory structure needed for the management of the source(s) in a manner consistent with the guidance in the code, and consider, based upon available information: i) Whether the recipient has been engaged in clandestine or illegal procurement of radioactive sources; ii) Whether an import or export authorization for radioactive sources has been denied to the recipient or importing state, or whether the recipient or importing state has made diverted for purposes inconsistent with the code any import or export of radioactive sources previously authorized; and iii) The risk of diversion or malicious acts involving radioactive sources'. It also should take, once it has decided to authorize the export, 'appropriate steps to ensure that the export is conducted in a manner consistent with existing relevant international standards relating to the transport of radioactive materials an the importing State is notified in advance of each shipment'. The Guidance has done a great effort in fixing the requirements that the importing State has to fulfill and it is the exporting State which has to verify, satisfy, and consider if these requirements are in place. It is remarkable the responsibility of the exporting state in analyzing the export from the point of view of the capabilities of the importing State to manage the sources with the purpose of use it has and even once it is not useful any more. This paper has the intention of bringing to reflect the responsibility of the exporting State in relation to those radioactive sources that are exported or are to be exported and have to fulfill with the

  4. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  5. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  6. Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.

  7. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  8. Exercises in anatomy: the normal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    In the first of our exercises in anatomy, created for the Multimedia Manual of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery, we emphasized that thorough knowledge of intracardiac anatomy was an essential part of the training for all budding cardiac surgeons, explaining how we had used the archive of congenitally malformed hearts maintained at Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to prepare a series of videoclips, demonstrating the salient features of tetralogy of Fallot. In this series of videoclips, we extend our analysis of the normal heart, since for our initial exercise we had concentrated exclusively on the structure of the right ventricular outflow tract. We begin our overview of normal anatomy by emphasizing the need, in the current era, to describe the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion. Increasingly, clinicians are demonstrating the features of the heart as it is located within the body. It is no longer satisfactory, therefore, to describe these components in a 'Valentine' fashion, as continues to be the case in most textbooks of normal or cardiac anatomy. We then emphasize the importance of the so-called morphological method, which states that structures within the heart should be defined on the basis of their own intrinsic morphology, and not according to other parts, which are themselves variable. We continue by using this concept to show how it is the appendages that serve to distinguish between the atrial chambers, while the apical trabecular components provide the features to distinguish the ventricles. We then return to the cardiac chambers, emphasizing features of surgical significance, in particular the locations of the cardiac conduction tissues. We proceed by examining the cardiac valves, and conclude by providing a detailed analysis of the septal structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  9. Electric field dependence of excess electrical conductivity below transition temperature in thin superconducting lead films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwini Kumar, P K; Duggal, V P [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1976-01-26

    Results of measurements of the electric field dependence of the excess electrical conductivity are reported in thin superconducting lead films below the transition temperature. It is observed that the normal state sheet resistance has some effect on the nonlinearity but the theory of Yamaji still fits well to the experimental data.

  10. S. 1697: A Bill to require local educational agencies to conduct testing for radon contamination in schools, and for other purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, October 22, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the U.S. Senate on September 28, 1989 to require local educational agencies to conduct testing for radon contamination in schools. Studies indicate that 54% of schools tested have at least one room with elevated levels of radon and that over 20% of all school rooms tested had elevated levels of radon. There is a need for improved information on proper methods and procedures for testing and remediation of radon in school buildings. In addition, there is a need for the federal government to provide financial assistance to states and local educational agencies for implementation of measures to reduce elevated levels of radon

  11. Temperature dependent electronic conduction in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.G.; Munn, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    This review describes the temperature dependence of bulk-controlled electronic currents in semiconductors. The scope of the article is wide in that it contrasts conduction mechanisms in inorganic and organic solids and also single crystal and disordered semiconductors. In many experimental situations it is the metal-semiconductor contact or the interface between two dissimilar semiconductors that governs the temperature dependence of the conductivity. However, in order to keep the length of the review within reasonable bounds, these topics have been largely avoided and emphasis is therefore placed on bulk-limited currents. A central feature of electronic conduction in semiconductors is the concentrations of mobile electrons and holes that contribute to the conductivity. Various statistical approaches may be used to calculate these densities which are normally strongly temperature dependent. Section 1 emphasizes the relationship between the position of the Fermi level, the distribution of quantum states, the total number of electrons available and the absolute temperature of the system. The inclusion of experimental data for several materials is designed to assist the experimentalist in his interpretation of activation energy curves. Sections 2 and 3 refer to electronic conduction in disordered solids and molecular crystals, respectively. In these cases alternative approaches to the conventional band theory approach must be considered. For example, the velocities of the charge carriers are usually substantially lower than those in conventional inorganic single crystal semiconductors, thus introducing the possibility of an activated mobility. Some general electronic properties of these materials are given in the introduction to each of these sections and these help to set the conduction mechanisms in context. (orig.)

  12. Electrode-Impregnable and Cross-Linkable Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) Triblock Polymer Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity and a Large Voltage Window for Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Hee; Lee, Jang Yong; Suh, Dong Hack; Hong, Young Taik; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2017-10-04

    We present cross-linkable precursor-type gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) that have large ionic liquid uptake capability, can easily penetrate electrodes, have high ion conductivity, and are mechanically strong as high-performance, flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (SC). Our polymer precursors feature a hydrophilic-hydrophobic poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock main-chain structure and trifunctional silane end groups that can be multi-cross-linked with each other through a sol-gel process. The cross-linked solid-state electrolyte film with moderate IL content (200 wt %) shows a well-balanced combination of excellent ionic conductivity (5.0 × 10 -3 S cm -1 ) and good mechanical stability (maximum strain = 194%). Moreover, our polymer electrolytes have various advantages including high thermal stability (decomposition temperature > 330 °C) and the capability to impregnate electrodes to form an excellent electrode-electrolyte interface due to the very low viscosity of the precursors. By assembling our GPE-impregnated electrodes and solid-state GPE film, we demonstrate an all-solid-state SC that can operate at 3 V and provides an improved specific capacitance (112.3 F g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 ), better rate capability (64% capacity retention until 20 A g -1 ), and excellent cycle stability (95% capacitance decay over 10 000 charge/discharge cycles) compared with those of a reference SC using a conventional PEO electrolyte. Finally, flexible SCs with a high energy density (22.6 W h kg -1 at 1 A g -1 ) and an excellent flexibility (>93% capacitance retention after 5000 bending cycles) can successfully be obtained.

  13. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  14. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  15. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  16. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  17. Characterizing Normal Groundwater Chemistry in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachera, D.; Lautze, N. C.; Thomas, D. M.; Whittier, R. B.; Frazer, L. N.

    2017-12-01

    Hawaii is dependent on groundwater resources, yet how water moves through the subsurface is not well understood in many locations across the state. As marine air moves across the islands water evaporates from the ocean, along with trace amounts of sea-salt ions, and interacts with the anthropogenic and volcanic aerosols (e.g. sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, HCl), creating a slightly more acidic rain. When this rain falls, it has a chemical signature distinctive of past processes. As this precipitation infiltrates through soil it may pick up another distinctive chemical signature associated with land use and degree of soil development, and as it flows through the underlying geology, its chemistry is influenced by the host rock. We are currently conducting an investigation of groundwater chemistry in selected aquifer areas of Hawaii, having diverse land use, land cover, and soil development conditions, in an effort to investigate and document what may be considered a "normal" water chemistry for an area. Through this effort, we believe we better assess anomalies due to contamination events, hydrothermal alteration, and other processes; and we can use this information to better understand groundwater flow direction. The project has compiled a large amount of precipitation, soil, and groundwater chemistry data in the three focus areas distributed across in the State of Hawaii. Statistical analyses of these data sets will be performed in an effort to determine what is "normal" and what is anomalous chemistry for a given area. Where possible, results will be used to trace groundwater flow paths. Methods and preliminary results will be presented.

  18. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  19. Transport through hybrid superconducting/normal nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterer, David

    2013-01-29

    We mainly investigate transport through interacting quantum dots proximized by superconductors. For this purpose we extend an existing theory to describe transport through proximized quantum dots coupled to normal and superconducting leads. It allows us to study the influence of a strong Coulomb interaction on Andreev currents and Josephson currents. This is a particularly interesting topic because it combines two competing properties: in superconductors Cooper pairs are formed by two electrons which experience an attractive interaction while two electrons located on a quantum dot repel each other due to the Coulomb interaction. It seems at first glance that transport processes involving Cooper pairs should be suppressed because of the two competing interactions. However, it is possible to proximize the dot in nonequilibrium situations. At first, we study a setup composed of a quantum dot coupled to one normal, one ferromagnetic, and one superconducting lead in the limit of an infinitely-large superconducting gap. Within this limit the coupling between dot and superconductor is described exactly by the presented theory. It leads to the formation of Andreev-bound states (ABS) and an additional bias scheme opens in which a pure spin current, i.e. a spin current with a vanishing associated charge current, can be generated. In a second work, starting from the infinite-gap limit, we perform a systematic expansion of the superconducting gap around infinity and investigate Andreev currents and Josephson currents. This allows us to estimate the validity of infinite-gap calculations for real systems in which the superconducting gap is usually a rather small quantity. We find indications that a finite gap renormalizes the ABS and propose a resummation approach to explore the finite-gap ABS. Despite the renormalization effects the modifications of transport by finite gaps are rather small. This result lets us conclude that the infinite-gap calculation is a valuable tool to

  20. Transport through hybrid superconducting/normal nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futterer, David

    2013-01-01

    We mainly investigate transport through interacting quantum dots proximized by superconductors. For this purpose we extend an existing theory to describe transport through proximized quantum dots coupled to normal and superconducting leads. It allows us to study the influence of a strong Coulomb interaction on Andreev currents and Josephson currents. This is a particularly interesting topic because it combines two competing properties: in superconductors Cooper pairs are formed by two electrons which experience an attractive interaction while two electrons located on a quantum dot repel each other due to the Coulomb interaction. It seems at first glance that transport processes involving Cooper pairs should be suppressed because of the two competing interactions. However, it is possible to proximize the dot in nonequilibrium situations. At first, we study a setup composed of a quantum dot coupled to one normal, one ferromagnetic, and one superconducting lead in the limit of an infinitely-large superconducting gap. Within this limit the coupling between dot and superconductor is described exactly by the presented theory. It leads to the formation of Andreev-bound states (ABS) and an additional bias scheme opens in which a pure spin current, i.e. a spin current with a vanishing associated charge current, can be generated. In a second work, starting from the infinite-gap limit, we perform a systematic expansion of the superconducting gap around infinity and investigate Andreev currents and Josephson currents. This allows us to estimate the validity of infinite-gap calculations for real systems in which the superconducting gap is usually a rather small quantity. We find indications that a finite gap renormalizes the ABS and propose a resummation approach to explore the finite-gap ABS. Despite the renormalization effects the modifications of transport by finite gaps are rather small. This result lets us conclude that the infinite-gap calculation is a valuable tool to

  1. Radiative thermal conduction fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, K.J.; Balbus, S.A.; Fristrom, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of the O VI interstellar absorption lines in our Galaxy by the Copernicus observatory was a turning point in our understanding of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). It implied the presence of widespread hot (approx. 10 to the 6th power K) gas in disk galaxies. The detection of highly ionized species in quasi-stellar objects' absorption spectra may be the first indirect observation of this hot phase in external disk galaxies. Previous efforts to understand extensive O VI absorption line data from our Galaxy were not very successful in locating the regions where this absorption originates. The location at interfaces between evaporating ISM clouds and hot gas was favored, but recent studies of steady-state conduction fronts in spherical clouds by Ballet, Arnaud, and Rothenflug (1986) and Bohringer and Hartquist (1987) rejected evaporative fronts as the absorption sites. Researchers report here on time-dependent nonequilibrium calculations of planar conductive fronts whose properties match well with observations, and suggest reasons for the difference between the researchers' results and the above. They included magnetic fields in additional models, not reported here, and the conclusions are not affected by their presence

  2. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  3. Normalization of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  4. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  5. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  6. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  7. Medically-enhanced normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Claus; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To consider public perspectives on the use of medicines for non-medical purposes, a usage called medically-enhanced normality (MEN). Method: Examples from the literature were combined with empirical data derived from two Danish research projects: a Delphi internet study and a Telebus...

  8. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  9. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  10. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Impurities and conductivity in a D-wave superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balatsky, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    Impurity scattering in the unitary limit produces low energy quasiparticles with anisotropic spectrum in a two-dimensional d-wave superconductor. The authors describe a new quasi-one-dimensional limit of the quasiparticle scattering, which might occur in a superconductor with short coherence length and with finite impurity potential range. The dc conductivity in a d-wave superconductor is predicted to be proportional to the normal state scattering rate and is impurity-dependent. They show that quasi-one-dimensional regime might occur in high-T c superconductors with Zn impurities at low temperatures T approx-lt 10 K

  12. Conducting compositions of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  13. Theoretical approaches to superionic conductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    At ground state, in the low temperature (T < 147°C) phase,. Ag+ ion occupies ... Figure 4. Basic physical properties of AgI as functions of temperature. (A) Ionic conductivity .... region and (c) the grain size and shape of the insulating particles.

  14. Normal Non-HDL Cholesterol, Low Total Cholesterol, and HDL Cholesterol Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Patients in the Steady State: A Case-Control Study of Tema Metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim, Richard K D; Adu, Patrick; Ake, Edem; Agbodzakey, Hope; Adoba, Prince; Cudjoe, Obed; Agoni, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Background. Abnormal lipid homeostasis in sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by defects in plasma and erythrocyte lipids and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the lipid profile and non-HDL cholesterol level of SCD patients. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 SCD patients, in the steady state, aged 8-28 years, attending the SCD clinic, and 50 healthy volunteers between the ages of 8-38 years. Serum lipids were determined by enzymatic methods and non-HDL cholesterol calculated by this formula: non-HDL-C = TC-HDL-C. Results. Total cholesterol (TC) ( p = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ( p < 0.0001) were significantly decreased in cases compared to controls. The levels of non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were similar among the participants. The levels of decrease in TC and HDL were associated with whether a patient was SCD-SS or SCD-SC. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were each significantly associated with increased VLDL [SBP, p = 0.01, OR: 0.74 (CI: 0.6-0.93); DBP, p = 0.023, OR: 1.45 (CI: 1.05-2.0)]. Conclusion. Dyslipidemia is common among participants in this study. It was more pronounced in the SCD-SS than in SCD-SC. This dyslipidemia was associated with high VLDL as well as increased SBP and DBP.

  15. a.c. conductance study of polycrystal C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Feng; Wang Yening; Huang Yineng; Gu Min; Zhang Qingming; Shen Huimin

    1995-01-01

    The a.c. (1 60 polycrystal (grain size 30 nm) has been studied from 100 to 350 K. Below 150 K, the a.c. conductance is nearly proportional to the temperature and frequency. This is proposed to be due to the hopping of localized states around the Fermi level. Above 200 K, the a.c. conductance exhibits a rapid increase with temperature, and shows a thermally activated behaviour with an activation energy of 0.389 eV below a certain temperature and 0.104 eV above it. A frequency dependent conductance at a fixed temperature is also obtained with a power law σ similar ω s (s∼0.8). For a sample of normal grain size, we have measured a peak near 250 K and a much smaller conductance. These results indicate that the defective na ture of our sample (small grain size, disorder or impurities) plays an important role for the transport properties. The existence of nanocrystals in the sample may give rise to localized states and improve its a.c. conductance. The two activation energies can be attributed to the coexistence of the crystalline and amorphous phases of C 60 . ((orig.))

  16. Anisotropic generalization of Stinchcombe's solution for the conductivity of random resistor networks on a Bethe lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeriyanov, F.; Saphiannikova, M.; Heinrich, G.

    2009-11-01

    Our study is based on the work of Stinchcombe (1974 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 7 179) and is devoted to the calculations of average conductivity of random resistor networks placed on an anisotropic Bethe lattice. The structure of the Bethe lattice is assumed to represent the normal directions of the regular lattice. We calculate the anisotropic conductivity as an expansion in powers of the inverse coordination number of the Bethe lattice. The expansion terms retained deliver an accurate approximation of the conductivity at resistor concentrations above the percolation threshold. We make a comparison of our analytical results with those of Bernasconi (1974 Phys. Rev. B 9 4575) for the regular lattice.

  17. Anisotropic generalization of Stinchcombe's solution for the conductivity of random resistor networks on a Bethe lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semeriyanov, F; Saphiannikova, M; Heinrich, G

    2009-01-01

    Our study is based on the work of Stinchcombe (1974 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 7 179) and is devoted to the calculations of average conductivity of random resistor networks placed on an anisotropic Bethe lattice. The structure of the Bethe lattice is assumed to represent the normal directions of the regular lattice. We calculate the anisotropic conductivity as an expansion in powers of the inverse coordination number of the Bethe lattice. The expansion terms retained deliver an accurate approximation of the conductivity at resistor concentrations above the percolation threshold. We make a comparison of our analytical results with those of Bernasconi (1974 Phys. Rev. B 9 4575) for the regular lattice.

  18. Propagation of a normal-superconducting interface in type I superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delon, P.

    1976-01-01

    The speed of propagation of an N-S boundary was measured as a function of temperature, and, when the superconductive phase increases, two minima are observed in the speed. Limited thermal conductivity gives the minimum situated at the highest temperature, the second minimum is caused by interference of quasi-particles through a superconductive sheet which covers a part of the normal state [fr

  19. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...

  20. Conducting Polymeric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this collection is to provide the most recent developments within the various areas of conducting polymeric materials. The conductivity of polymeric materials is caused by electrically charged particles, ions, protons and electrons. Materials in which electrons...