WorldWideScience

Sample records for normal canine prostate

  1. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F

    2011-01-01

    Canine prostatic tumours exhibit similarities to those of man and may represent a useful model system to explore the mechanisms of cancer progression. Tumour progression to malignancy requires a change from an epithelial phenotype to a fibroblastic or mesenchymal phenotype. Vimentin expression is...

  3. Evaluation of NKX3.1 and C-MYC expression in canine prostatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Kobayashi, Priscila Emiko; Laufer-Amorim, Renée

    2018-04-10

    NKX3.1/C-MYC cross-regulation has been reported in the normal human prostate, and loss of NKX3.1 and gain of C-MYC seem to be important events in prostate cancer development and progression. The dog can be an interesting model for human prostatic disease, and yet only one previous research study has shown deregulation of NKX3.1 and MYC in the canine prostate. To address the expression of NKX3.1 and C-MYC in different canine prostatic lesions, this study verified the gene and protein expression of NKX3.1 and C-MYC in normal canine prostatic tissues. We identified a 26 kDa band that corresponded to the NKX3.1 protein, while C-MYC showed a 50 kDa band on Western blotting analysis of all prostatic tissues. We observed that NKX3.1 protein and transcript were down-regulated in prostate cancer (PC) samples compared with non-neoplastic samples. We also observed that C-MYC protein was overexpressed in PC samples compared with normal (P = .001) and proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) samples (P = .003). We found a positive correlation between NKX3.1 and C-MYC protein expression in normal and PIA samples. Interestingly, a negative correlation (NKX3.1 downregulation and MYC overexpression) was observed between NKX3.1 and MYC transcripts in PC. Thus, samples with higher C-MYC expression also exhibited higher NKX3.1 expression, which indicates the regulation of C-MYC by NKX3.1 protein. As in humans, these two genes and proteins were found to be related to canine prostate cancer. However, in contrast from what is observed in humans, in canine PC samples, the downregulation of NKX3.1 cannot be explained by DNA hypermethylation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Normal blood supply of the canine patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.E.; Wilson, J.W.; Robbins, T.A.; Ribble, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The normal blood supply of the canine patella was evaluated, using microangiography and correlated histology. Arterioles entered the cortex of the patella at multiple sites along the medial, lateral, and dorsal aspects. The body of the patella was vascularized uniformly, with many arterioles that branched and anastomosed extensively throughout the patella. The patella was not dependent on a single nutrient artery for its afferent supply, but had an extensive interior vascular network. These factors should ensure rapid revascularization and healing of patellar fractures, provided appropriate fracture fixation is achieved

  5. Computed Tomography Imaging of the Topographical Anatomy of Canine Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimtrox, R.; Yonkova, P.; Vladova, D.; Kostov, D.

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the topographical anatomy of canine prostate gland by computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic imaging purposes. ÐœATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven clinically healthy mongrel male dogs at the age of 3−4 years and body weight of 10−15 kg were submitted to transverse computerized axial tomography (CAT) with cross section thickness of 5 mm. RESULTS: The CT image of canine prostate is visualized throughout the scans of the pelvis in the planes through the first sacral vertebra (S1) dorsally; the bodies of iliac bones laterally and cranially to the pelvic brim (ventrally). The body of prostate appears as an oval homogenous relatively hypo dense finding with soft tissue density. The gland is well differentiated from the adjacent soft tissues. CONCLUSION: By means of CT, the cranial part of prostate gland in adult dogs aged 3−4 years exhibited an abdominal localization. (author)

  6. Cloning and characterization of canine prostate-specific membrane antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sonja; Fracasso, Giulio; Colombatti, Marco; Naim, Hassan Y

    2013-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising biomarker in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and a potential target for antibody-based therapeutic strategies. We isolated the canine PSMA cDNA and investigated the cellular and biochemical characteristics of the recombinant protein as a potential target for animal preclinical studies of antibody based-therapies. Canine PSMA cDNA was isolated by PCR, cloned into expression vectors and transfected into COS-1 and MDCK cells. The biosynthesis and glycosylation of the recombinant protein were investigated in pulse-chase experiments, the cellular localization by confocal laser microscopy, the mode of association of PSMA with the membrane with solubilization in different detergents and its quaternary structure in sucrose-density gradients. Canine PSMA shows 91% amino acid homology to human PSMA, whereby the major difference is a longer cytoplasmic tail of canine PSMA compared to its human counterpart. Canine PSMA is trafficked efficiently along the secretory pathway, undergoes homodimerization when it acquires complex glycosylated mature form. It associates with detergent-resistant membranes, which act as platforms along its intracellular trafficking. Confocal analysis revealed canine PSMA at the cell surface, Golgi, and the endoplasmic reticulum. A similar distribution is revealed for human PSMA, yet with reduced cell surface levels. The cloning, expression, biosynthesis, processing and localization of canine PSMA in mammalian cells is described. We demonstrate that canine PSMA reveals similar characteristics to human PSMA rendering this protein useful as a translational model for investigations of prostate cancer as well as a suitable antigen for targeted therapy studies in dogs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Epithelial Na, K-ATPase expression is down-regulated in canine prostate cancer; a possible consequence of metabolic transformation in the process of prostate malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Vasallo Pablo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important physiological function of the normal prostate gland is the synthesis and secretion of a citrate rich prostatic fluid. In prostate cancer, citrate production levels are reduced as a result of altered cellular metabolism and bioenergetics. Na, K-ATPase is essential for citrate production since the inward Na+ gradients it generates are utilized for the Na+ dependent uptake of aspartate, a major substrate for citrate synthesis. The objective of this study was to compare the expression of previously identified Na, K-ATPase isoforms in normal canine prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa using immunohistochemistry in order to determine whether reduced citrate levels in PCa are also accompanied by changes in Na, K-ATPase expression. Results Expression of Na, K-ATPase α1 and β1 isoforms was observed in the lateral and basolateral plasma membrane domains of prostatic epithelial cells in normal and BPH prostates. Canine kidney was used as positive control for expression of Na, K-ATPase α1 and γ isoforms. The α1 isoform was detected in abundance in prostatic epithelial cells but there was no evidence of α2, α3 or γ subunit expression. In advanced PCa, Na, K-ATPase α1 isoform expression was significantly lower compared to normal and BPH glands. The abundant basolateral immunostaining observed in normal and BPH tissue was significantly attenuated in PCa. Conclusion The loss of epithelial structure and function and the transformation of normal epithelial cells to malignant cells in the canine prostate have important implications for cellular metabolism and are accompanied by a down regulation of Na, K-ATPase.

  8. Histopathologic evaluation of the canine prostate following electrovaporization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, D S; Oberg, K C; Saukel, G W; Ruckle, H C; Stewart, S C

    1997-03-01

    Transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate (TVP) for symptomatic benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) has proven to be efficacious with minimal patient morbidity. When compared to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), TVP demonstrates comparable postoperative flow rates, American Urologic Association (AUA) symptom score indices, and a potential cost savings. However, in the human studies it has not been possible to correlate these clinical parameters with procedure-related histopathologic changes in the prostate immediately postoperative or during wound healing. The following study was done using a canine model in an effort to evaluate these histopathologic changes. Fifteen hounds (25-35 kg.) underwent antegrade electrovaporization of the prostate, via an open cystotomy, using a Circon ACMI USA series resectoscope and video equipment. The dogs were sacrificed and the prostates harvested at various intervals postoperatively (0-11 weeks). The prostates were evaluated grossly as well as histologically for cavitary defects, depth of necrosis, and cellular response. Prostates examined immediately following the procedure demonstrated superficial necrosis (less than 2 mm.) in the region of vaporized tissue. One week postoperatively, the vaporized regions demonstrated an intense acute inflammation amidst superficial necrosis with focal hemorrhage and dystrophic calcification. Transient glandular cystic changes developed, but were resolving by seven weeks postoperatively. Re-epithelialization was underway by the third postoperative week and epithelial stratification underway by the fifth week. There was no extension of the initial two millimeter zone of necrosis at any time point examined. TVP in the canine model vaporizes prostatic tissue at the site of contact. Only a shallow remnant of necrosis remains at the site of vaporization, indicating the highly localized effect of this technique. Healing at the site of vaporization occurs in a rapid and expected

  9. Effect of tin etiopurpurin and light on the canine prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Steven H.; Keck, Rick W.; Doiron, Daniel R.

    1995-03-01

    A series of experiments was undertaken to determine the effects of the combination of light and the tissue photosensitizer, tin etiopurpurin, on the canine prostate. Mongrel dogs were injected intravenously with 1.0 mg/kg of photosensitizer twenty-four hours prior to light delivery. Laser light, 660 nm, was administered either transurethrally or interstitially and tissue effects were assessed by histopathologic examination. Both techniques of light delivery resulted in hemorrhagic necrosis of the surrounding tissue. Photodynamic therapy may offer a novel approach to the treatment of both benign and malignant diseases of the prostate.

  10. The Aging Prostate Is Never "Normal"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlomm, Thorsten; Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Korbel, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We argue against the recently published statement that tumor-specific molecular alterations found in "normal" prostate tissue from cancer patients challenge focal therapy approaches that only target a visible cancer lesion and not the adjacent molecular field....

  11. A compendium of canine normal tissue gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Briggs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our understanding of disease is increasingly informed by changes in gene expression between normal and abnormal tissues. The release of the canine genome sequence in 2005 provided an opportunity to better understand human health and disease using the dog as clinically relevant model. Accordingly, we now present the first genome-wide, canine normal tissue gene expression compendium with corresponding human cross-species analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Affymetrix platform was utilized to catalogue gene expression signatures of 10 normal canine tissues including: liver, kidney, heart, lung, cerebrum, lymph node, spleen, jejunum, pancreas and skeletal muscle. The quality of the database was assessed in several ways. Organ defining gene sets were identified for each tissue and functional enrichment analysis revealed themes consistent with known physio-anatomic functions for each organ. In addition, a comparison of orthologous gene expression between matched canine and human normal tissues uncovered remarkable similarity. To demonstrate the utility of this dataset, novel canine gene annotations were established based on comparative analysis of dog and human tissue selective gene expression and manual curation of canine probeset mapping. Public access, using infrastructure identical to that currently in use for human normal tissues, has been established and allows for additional comparisons across species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data advance our understanding of the canine genome through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in a diverse set of tissues, contributing to improved functional annotation that has been lacking. Importantly, it will be used to inform future studies of disease in the dog as a model for human translational research and provides a novel resource to the community at large.

  12. Nuclear morphometry in histological specimens of canine prostate cancer: Correlation with histological subtypes, Gleason score, methods of collection and survival time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, Guido; Laufer-Amorim, Renée; Palmieri, Chiara

    2017-10-01

    Ten normal prostates, 22 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 29 prostate cancer (PC) were morphometrically analyzed with regard to mean nuclear area (MNA), mean nuclear perimeter (MNP), mean nuclear diameter (MND), coefficient of variation of the nuclear area (NACV), mean nuclear diameter maximum (MDx), mean nuclear diameter minimum (MDm), mean nuclear form ellipse (MNFe) and form factor (FF). The relationship between nuclear morphometric parameters and histological type, Gleason score, methods of sample collection, presence of metastases and survival time of canine PC were also investigated. Overall, nuclei from neoplastic cells were larger, with greater variation in nuclear size and shape compared to normal and hyperplastic cells. Significant differences were found between more (small acinar/ductal) and less (cribriform, solid) differentiated PCs with regard to FF (pnuclear morphometric analysis in combination with Gleason score can help in canine prostate cancer grading, thus contributing to the establishment of a more precise prognosis and patient's management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Endocrinologic control of normal canine ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, P W

    2009-07-01

    regression after day 20 to 30 involves periodic cell death, diminution in cell size, low levels of apoptosis and minimal or modest involvement of endogenous prostaglandin F (PGF) production. The canine corpus luteum (CL) is dependent on both LH and prolactin as stimulating luteotrophins by day 15, and as required luteotrophins by days 20-25, if not earlier. Thereafter, both luteotrophins likely have cellular mechanisms of action similar to those reported for other species. Progesterone secretion during pregnancy is greatly enhanced by characteristic, and probably relaxin-stimulated, increases in prolactin concentration starting at or after day 25, and persisting to term. Near term, foetoplacental maturation results in the placental release of large, luteolytic amounts of PGF for 1-2 days pre-partum. Pre-partum luteolysis, like that induced by exogenous prostaglandin, likely involves a cascade enhanced by the removal of progesterone inhibition of PGF release and some degree of intra-luteal PGF synthesis. That a likely twofold or greater increase in progesterone production by the CL of pregnancy does not result in significantly higher serum progesterone than in non-pregnant metoestrus relates to several biological changes, including a large increase in plasma volume of distribution, increased metabolism of progesterone by increased uterine, placental and mammary masses and increased liver clearance and excretion of progesterone and progesterone metabolite. Anoestrus length and ovarian cycle intervals, variable within and among bitches, are likely affected by neuroendocrine components of an endogenous circannual cycle, albeit only photo-entrained in the Basenji breed. This may be modified by the prior luteal phase, exposure to oestrus female pheromones and as yet unknown mechanisms that likely operate via inhibitory opioidergic and/or stimulatory dopaminergic hypothalamic pathways affecting late anoestrus increases in LH.

  14. Alterations in PTEN, MDM2, TP53 and AR protein and gene expression are associated with canine prostate carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Calderón, Luis Gabriel; Fonseca-Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Kobayashi, Priscila Emiko; Carvalho, Marcio; Drigo, Sandra Aparecida; de Oliveira Vasconcelos, Rosemeri; Laufer-Amorim, Renée

    2016-06-01

    The PTEN, AR, MDM2 and p53 protein network plays a central role in the development of many human cancers, thus eliciting the development of targeted cancer therapeutics. Dogs spontaneously develop tumours, and they are considered a good model for comparative oncology initiatives. Due to the limited information on these proteins in canine tumours, this study aimed to investigate gene and protein alterations in PTEN, AR, MDM2 and p53 in canine prostate cancer (PC). Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (15 normal, 22 proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) and 19 PC samples) and Western blotting (2 normal prostate tissue, 2 BPH, 2 PIA samples and 2 PC samples) and gene expression by RT-qPCR (10 normal, 10 PIA and 15 PC samples) of formalin-fixed tissue. We identified nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of PTEN and p53 in all samples, with only nuclear staining found for MDM2 and AR. Our results revealed high expression of MDM2 in PC and PIA samples compared to normal samples, whereas PTEN, P53 and AR expression was down-regulated in PC compared to normal tissue. All tumour samples (n=19) showed loss of nuclear PTEN expression, and all cancer mimickers showed positive nuclear staining. Therefore, nuclear PTEN staining could be a good diagnostic marker for differentiating between malignant lesions and mimickers. Canine prostate carcinogenesis involves increased expression of MDM2 in association with decreased expression of PTEN, p53 and AR, such as occurs in hormone refractory PC in men. Thus, dogs may be an important model for studying advanced stage PC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stromal Androgen Receptor Roles in the Development of Normal Prostate, Benign Prostate Hyperplasia, and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Simeng; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Tian, Jing; Shang, Zhiqun; Niu, Yuanjie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2016-01-01

    The prostate is an androgen-sensitive organ that needs proper androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals for normal development. The progression of prostate diseases, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), also needs proper androgen/AR signals. Tissue recombination studies report that stromal, but not epithelial, AR plays more critical roles via the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions to influence the early process of prostate development. However, in BPH and PCa, much more attention has been focused on epithelial AR roles. However, accumulating evidence indicates that stromal AR is also irreplaceable and plays critical roles in prostate disease progression. Herein, we summarize the roles of stromal AR in the development of normal prostate, BPH, and PCa, with evidence from the recent results of in vitro cell line studies, tissue recombination experiments, and AR knockout animal models. Current evidence suggests that stromal AR may play positive roles to promote BPH and PCa progression, and targeting stromal AR selectively with AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, may allow development of better therapies with fewer adverse effects to battle BPH and PCa. PMID:25432062

  16. Evaluation of prostatic optical properties and tissue response to photodynamic therapy in a canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sugandh D.; Chen, Qun; Schultz, Daniel; Wilson, Brian C.; Patterson, Michael S.; Hetzel, Fred W.; Cerny, Joseph C.

    1994-03-01

    A new modality of interstitial therapy to treat prostate cancer using photodynamic principles has been studied in a canine model. The effect of interstitial application of monochromatic light from an argon pumped dye laser at 630 nm was studied in a canine model. No significant hyperthermia was seen during the treatment. A concentric zone around the treatment fiber was seen during the treatment. A concentric zone around the treatment fiber was seen in PDT treated dogs and the maximum size was 18 mm. The data suggests that PDT may be clinically applicable in achieving tissue necrosis using interstitial light application in a solid organ like prostate.

  17. Characterization of adenoviral transduction profile in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jianzhong; Tai, Phillip W L; Lu, Yi; Li, Jia; Ma, Hong; Su, Qin; Wei, Qiang; Li, Hong; Gao, Guangping

    2017-09-01

    Prostate diseases are common in males worldwide with high morbidity. Gene therapy is an attractive therapeutic strategy for prostate diseases, however, it is currently underdeveloped. As well known, adeno virus (Ad) is the most widely used gene therapy vector. The aims of this study are to explore transduction efficiency of Ad in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue, thus further providing guidance for future prostate pathophysiological studies and therapeutic development of prostate diseases. We produced Ad expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and characterized the transduction efficiency of Ad in both human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, as well as prostate tumor xenograft, and wild-type mouse prostate tissue in vivo. Ad transduction efficiency was determined by EGFP fluorescence using microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell type-specific transduction was examined by immunofluorescence staining of cell markers. Our data showed that Ad efficiently transduced human and mouse prostate cancer cells in vitro in a dose dependent manner. Following intratumoral and intraprostate injection, Ad could efficiently transduce prostate tumor xenograft and the major prostatic cell types in vivo, respectively. Our findings suggest that Ad can efficiently transduce prostate tumor cells in vitro as well as xenograft and normal prostate tissue in vivo, and further indicate that Ad could be a potentially powerful toolbox for future gene therapy of prostate diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Re-epithelialization resulted from prostate basal cells in canine prostatic urethra may represent the ideal healing method after two-micron laser resection of the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to characterize the re-epithelialization of wound healing in canine prostatic urethra and to evaluate the effect of this re-epithelialization way after two-micron laser resection of the prostate (TmLRP. TmLRP and partial bladder neck mucosa were performed in 15 healthy adult male crossbred canines. Wound specimens were harvested at 3 days, and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after operation, respectively. The histopathologic characteristics were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression of cytokeratin 14 (CK14, CK5, CK18, synaptophysin (Syn, chromogranin A (CgA, uroplakin, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 , and TGF-β type II receptor in prostatic urethra wound were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Van Gieson staining was performed to determine the expression of collagen fibers in prostatic urethra and bladder neck would. The results showed that the re-epithelialization of the prostatic urethra resulted from the mobilization of proliferating epithelial cells from residual prostate tissue under the wound. The proliferating cells expressed CK14, CK5, but not CK18, Syn, and CgA and re-epithelialize expressed uroplakin since 3 weeks. There were enhanced TGF-β1 and TGF-β type II receptor expression in proliferating cells and regenerated cells, which correlated with specific phases of re-epithelialization. Compared with the re-epithelialization of the bladder neck, re-epithelialization of canine prostatic urethra was faster, and the expression of collagen fibers was relatively low. In conclusion, re-epithelialization in canine prostatic urethra resulted from prostate basal cells after TmLRP and this re-epithelialization way may represent the ideal healing method from anatomic repair to functional recovery after injury.

  19. Canine Prostate Palpation Simulator as a Teaching Tool in Veterinary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilé, Karynn V; Campos, Gabriela M B; Stedile, Rafael; Oliveira, Simone T

    2015-01-01

    Adult dogs, especially elderly ones, are commonly affected by prostate diseases. Performing rectal palpation during physical examination in dogs is important in small animal clinical diagnosis. Prostate palpation training allows students to learn how to correctly introduce the finger into the rectum and identify the location, size, symmetry, and consistency of the prostate. Alternative methods are needed to teach this technique without using live dogs. Thus, our aim was to develop a canine prostate palpation simulator to provide students with the opportunity to learn the prostate palpation technique in dogs and to assess their opinion of this simulator as a teaching tool. The inner part of the canine mannequin contains a rotation system with three types of prostates that can be exchanged during the exam. Of the 64 participating students, 81% had never used alternative methods and 92.2% had never performed any prostatic palpation. According to the students' opinions, performing a clinical examination on a simulator allowed them to be prepared and familiarized with the palpation technique. They felt satisfied learning a practical method in a harmless way. Both the 3R (replacement, reduction, and refinement) and dog welfare principles were present in most of the students' concerns. We conclude that the simulator can help students to develop clinical skills for prostate palpation in dogs.

  20. Diagnostic investigations of canine prostatitis incidence together with benign prostate hyperplasia, prostate malignancies, and biochemical recurrence in high-risk prostate cancer as a model for human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Radmehr; Shariat, Alireza; Khalili, Soheil; Malayeri, Hamed Zamankhan; Mokarizadeh, Aram; Anissian, Ali; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Hafezi; Hosseini, Ehsan; Naderafif, Mostafa; Mohsenzadeh, Siamak; Rasoulian, Mohammad Hosein; Rezapour, Reza; Pourzaer, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of acute and chronic inflammation, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and cancer of the prostate glands in the canine as a human model in prostate disorders. The study was carried out on 12 cases of different male dogs of terrier (50%), German shepherd (25%) breeds, and Greden (25%), and the age of the dogs ranged from 6 to 13 years (average age 7.8 ± 3.6). The bodyweight ranged from 3.6 to 7.9 kg. Signalment, clinical signs, and diagnostic tools such as ultrasonography, urinary cytology, and histopathology are presented. Dysuria was the most common clinical sign in this study and occurred in 10/12 canine (83.3%) included. Other clinical signs included lameness (5/12 canine, 41.6%) and constipation (3/12 canine, 25%). The range of duration of clinical signs was 5 days to 7 months. Moreover, in the present study, the urinary biochemical markers of different prostate lesions include blood, protein, and glucose and were detected in 11/12 cases (91.6%), 5/12 cases (41.6%), and 2/12 cases (16.6%), respectively. Taken together, sonographic data were classified into four groups based on histological diagnosis. In 7/12 cases (58.4%), the prostate appeared to have BPH lesions, and the remaining lesions included inflammation (3/12 cases, 25%), abscess (1 case, 8.3%), and adenocarcinoma (1 case, 8/3%) on ultrasound. In all cases, prostate tissue had an irregular echotexture. None of the dogs had sonographic evidence of sublumbar lymph node enlargement. Histopathologically, we looked at the prevalence of inflammation (33.3% chronic and 8.3% acute) and BPH (58.4%) in dogs of different ages and breeds, and also, we observed chronic inflammation in >20% of dogs, which was about 25% in 3 cases of the 12 cases referred. More chronic inflammation was associated with more BPH. The majority of the asymptomatic inflammation that is detected in the prostate is classified as chronic inflammation (i.e., as evidenced by the

  1. Accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia: comparison with prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Takei, Toshiki; Shiga, Tohru; Nakada, Kunihiro; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita 15, Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Kuge, Yuji; Katoh, Chietsugu [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shinohara, Nobuo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography (PET) has been reported to be of clinical value for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, no detailed analysis has yet been carried out on the physiological accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in the prostate. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physiological accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in the prostate using dynamic PET. The study included 30 subjects without prostate cancer [21 with normal prostate and nine with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)] and six patients with prostate cancer. A dynamic PET study was performed for 20 min after intravenous administration of 555 MBq of [{sup 11}C]acetate. The standardised uptake value (SUV) at 16-20 min post tracer administration and the early-to-late-activity ratio of the SUV (E/L ratio), which was determined by dividing the SUV{sub 6-10} {sub min} by the SUV {sub 16-20min}, were calculated to evaluate the accumulation of [ {sup 11}C]acetate. The prostate was clearly visualised and distinguished from adjacent organs in PET images in most of the cases. The SUV of the prostate (2.6 {+-}0.8) was significantly higher than that of the rectum (1.7 {+-}0.4) or bone marrow (1.3 {+-}0.3) (P <0.0001 in each case). The SUV of the normal prostate of subjects aged <50 years (3.4 {+-}0.7) was significantly higher than both the SUV for the normal prostate of subjects aged {>=}50 years (2.3 {+-}0.7) and that of subjects with BPH (2.1 {+-}0.6) (P <0.01 in each case). The primary prostate cancer in six cases was visualised by [ {sup 11}C]acetate PET. However, the difference in the SUV between subjects aged {>=}50 with normal prostate or with BPH and the patients with prostate cancer (1.9 {+-}0.6) was not statistically significant. There was also no significant difference in the E/L ratio between subjects aged {>=}50 with normal prostate (0.98 {+-}0.04) or BPH (0.96 {+-}0.08) and patients with prostate cancer (1.02 {+-}0.12). In conclusion, a normal prostate exhibits age

  2. Immunohistochemical Expression of FXR1 in Canine Normal Tissues and Melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Laura; Marques, Andreia T; Lecchi, Cristina; Luciano, Alberto M; Stefanello, Damiano; Giudice, Chiara

    2018-04-01

    Fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 (FXR1) is a cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein highly conserved among vertebrates. It has been studied for its role in muscle development, inflammation, and tumorigenesis, being related, for example, to metastasizing behavior in human and canine uveal melanoma. Anti-FXR1 antibodies have never been validated in the canine species. To investigate FXR1 expression in canine melanocytic tumors, the present study tested two commercially available polyclonal anti-human FXR1 antibodies, raised in goat and rabbit, respectively. The cross-reactivity of the anti-FXR1 antibodies was assessed by Western blot analysis, and the protein was localized by IHC in a set of normal canine tissues and in canine melanocytic tumors (10 uveal and 10 oral). Western blot results demonstrated that the antibody raised in rabbit specifically recognized the canine FXR1, while the antibody raised in goat did not cross-react with this canine protein. FXR1 protein was immunodetected using rabbit anti-FXR1 antibody, in canine normal tissues with different levels of intensity and distribution. It was also detected in 10/10 uveal and 9/10 oral melanocytic tumors. The present study validated for the first time the use of anti-FXR1 antibody in dogs and highlighted different FXR1 protein expression in canine melanocytic tumors, the significance of which is undergoing further investigations.

  3. Accumulation of [11C]acetate in normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia: comparison with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Takei, Toshiki; Shiga, Tohru; Nakada, Kunihiro; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuge, Yuji; Katoh, Chietsugu; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2002-01-01

    Carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography (PET) has been reported to be of clinical value for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, no detailed analysis has yet been carried out on the physiological accumulation of [ 11 C]acetate in the prostate. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physiological accumulation of [ 11 C]acetate in the prostate using dynamic PET. The study included 30 subjects without prostate cancer [21 with normal prostate and nine with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)] and six patients with prostate cancer. A dynamic PET study was performed for 20 min after intravenous administration of 555 MBq of [ 11 C]acetate. The standardised uptake value (SUV) at 16-20 min post tracer administration and the early-to-late-activity ratio of the SUV (E/L ratio), which was determined by dividing the SUV 6-10 min by the SUV 16-20min , were calculated to evaluate the accumulation of [ 11 C]acetate. The prostate was clearly visualised and distinguished from adjacent organs in PET images in most of the cases. The SUV of the prostate (2.6 ±0.8) was significantly higher than that of the rectum (1.7 ±0.4) or bone marrow (1.3 ±0.3) (P 11 C]acetate PET. However, the difference in the SUV between subjects aged ≥50 with normal prostate or with BPH and the patients with prostate cancer (1.9 ±0.6) was not statistically significant. There was also no significant difference in the E/L ratio between subjects aged ≥50 with normal prostate (0.98 ±0.04) or BPH (0.96 ±0.08) and patients with prostate cancer (1.02 ±0.12). In conclusion, a normal prostate exhibits age-related physiological accumulation of [ 11 C]acetate. Careful interpretation of [ 11 C]acetate PET images of prostate cancer is necessary because the SUV and the E/L ratio for the normal prostate and for BPH overlap significantly with those for prostate cancer. (orig.)

  4. Establishing an in vivo model of canine prostate carcinoma using the new cell line CT1258

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fork, Melani AM; Bullerdiek, Jörn; Nolte, Ingo; Escobar, Hugo Murua; Soller, Jan T; Sterenczak, Katharina A; Willenbrock, Saskia; Winkler, Susanne; Dorsch, Martina; Reimann-Berg, Nicola; Hedrich, Hans J

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a frequent finding in man. In dogs, malignant disease of the prostate is also of clinical relevance, although it is a less common diagnosis. Even though there are numerous differences in origin and development of the disease, man and dog share many similarities in the pathological presentation. For this reason, the dog might be a useful animal model for prostate malignancies in man. Although prostate cancer is of great importance in veterinary medicine as well as in comparative medicine, there are only few cell lines available. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to determine whether the formerly established prostate carcinoma cell line CT1258 is a suitable tool for in vivo testing, and to distinguish the growth pattern of the induced tumours. For characterisation of the in vivo behaviour of the in vitro established canine prostate carcinoma cell line CT1258, cells were inoculated in 19 NOD.CB17-Prkdc Scid /J (in the following: NOD-Scid) mice, either subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. After sacrifice, the obtained specimens were examined histologically and compared to the pattern of the original tumour in the donor. Cytogenetic investigation was performed. The cell line CT 1258 not only showed to be highly tumourigenic after subcutaneous as well as intraperitoneal inoculation, but also mimicked the behaviour of the original tumour. Tumours induced by inoculation of the cell line CT1258 resemble the situation in naturally occurring prostate carcinoma in the dog, and thus could be used as in vivo model for future studies

  5. 5-ALA-assisted photodynamic therapy in canine prostates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Ronald; Muschter, Rolf; Knuechel, Ruth; Steinbach, Pia; Perlmutter, Aaron P.; Martin, Thomas; Baumgartner, Reinhold

    1996-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and interstitial thermotherapy are well known treatment modalities in urology. The approach of this study is to combine both to achieve a selective treatment procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma. Measurements of thy in-vivo pharmacokinetics of 5-ALA induced porphyrins by means of fiber assisted ratiofluorometry showed a maximum fluorescence intensity at time intervals of 3 - 4 h post administration. Fluorescence microscopy at that time showed bright fluorescence in epithelial cells while in the stroma fluorescence could not be observed. Interstitial PDT using a 635-nm dye laser with an irradiation of 50 J/cm2 resulted in a nonthermic hemorrhagic lesion. The lesion size did not change significantly when an irradiation of 100 J/cm2 was used. The usefulness of PDT for treating BPH as well as prostate carcinoma has to be proven in further studies.

  6. Evaluation of biomarker canine-prostate specific arginine esterase (CPSE) for the diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Dora; Machado, João; Viegas, Carlos; Baptista, Cláudia; Bastos, Estela; Magalhães, Joana; Pires, Maria A; Cardoso, Luís; Martins-Bessa, Ana

    2017-03-23

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common canine prostatic disorder. Although most or even all intact male dogs may develop BPH by 5-8 years of age, many show no clinical signs. Taking into account the non-specific character of clinical and ultrasonographic findings, a new diagnostic approach has recently been proposed based on the augmentation of blood canine prostate-specific arginine esterase (CPSE) in hyperplasic dogs. The aim of the present study was to verify CPSE levels in negative controls and hyperplasic dogs, considering cytological findings as the reference method and taking into account the fact that controls were middle-aged intact dogs (median of 5.0 years), contrarily to previous studies carried out with very young control dogs. Significant differences of median CPSE levels were found between controls and hyperplasic dogs (29.1 versus 160.7 ng/mL, respectively); and significant positive correlations were found between median CPSE levels and age or prostatic volume (r = 0.549 and 0.448, respectively; p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios put into evidence the good performance of the test. The agreement between methods was found to be very high, notably between CPSE levels and cytological results (Cohen's kappa coefficients above 0.8). Considering the results all together, measurement of CPSE is confirmed as a useful and accurate method and should be considered as an alternative or complementary tool to conventional methods for the diagnosis of BPH in middle-aged dogs.

  7. Establishing an in vivo model of canine prostate carcinoma using the new cell line CT1258

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler Susanne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is a frequent finding in man. In dogs, malignant disease of the prostate is also of clinical relevance, although it is a less common diagnosis. Even though there are numerous differences in origin and development of the disease, man and dog share many similarities in the pathological presentation. For this reason, the dog might be a useful animal model for prostate malignancies in man. Although prostate cancer is of great importance in veterinary medicine as well as in comparative medicine, there are only few cell lines available. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to determine whether the formerly established prostate carcinoma cell line CT1258 is a suitable tool for in vivo testing, and to distinguish the growth pattern of the induced tumours. Methods For characterisation of the in vivo behaviour of the in vitro established canine prostate carcinoma cell line CT1258, cells were inoculated in 19 NOD.CB17-PrkdcScid/J (in the following: NOD-Scid mice, either subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. After sacrifice, the obtained specimens were examined histologically and compared to the pattern of the original tumour in the donor. Cytogenetic investigation was performed. Results The cell line CT 1258 not only showed to be highly tumourigenic after subcutaneous as well as intraperitoneal inoculation, but also mimicked the behaviour of the original tumour. Conclusion Tumours induced by inoculation of the cell line CT1258 resemble the situation in naturally occurring prostate carcinoma in the dog, and thus could be used as in vivo model for future studies.

  8. GC-MS-Based Endometabolome Analysis Differentiates Prostate Cancer from Normal Prostate Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is an important health problem worldwide. Diagnosis and management of PCa is very complex because the detection of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA has several drawbacks. Metabolomics brings promise for cancer biomarker discovery and for better understanding PCa biochemistry. In this study, a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS based metabolomic profiling of PCa cell lines was performed. The cell lines include 22RV1 and LNCaP from PCa with androgen receptor (AR expression, DU145 and PC3 (which lack AR expression, and one normal prostate cell line (PNT2. Regarding the metastatic potential, PC3 is from an adenocarcinoma grade IV with high metastatic potential, DU145 has a moderate metastatic potential, and LNCaP has a low metastatic potential. Using multivariate analysis, alterations in levels of several intracellular metabolites were detected, disclosing the capability of the endometabolome to discriminate all PCa cell lines from the normal prostate cell line. Discriminant metabolites included amino acids, fatty acids, steroids, and sugars. Six stood out for the separation of all the studied PCa cell lines from the normal prostate cell line: ethanolamine, lactic acid, β-Alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, and L-tyrosine.

  9. Retinoic acid binding protein in normal and neopolastic rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, M S; Brandes, M J; Arnold, E A; Isaacs, J T; Ueda, H; Millan, J C; Brandes, D

    1982-01-01

    Sucrose density gradient analysis of cytosol from normal and neoplastic rat prostatic tissues exhibited a peak of (3H) retinoic acid binding in the 2S region, corresponding to the cytoplasmic retinoic acid binding protein (cRABP). In the Fisher-Copenhagen F1 rat, cRABP was present in the lateral lobe, but could not be detected in the ventral nor in the dorsal prostatic lobes. Four sublines of the R-3327 rat prostatic tumor contained similar levels of this binding protein. The absence of cRABP in the normal tissue of origin of the R-3327 tumor, the rat dorsal prostate, and reappearance in the neoplastic tissues follows a pattern described in other human and animal tumors. The occurrence of cRABP in the well-differentiated as well as in the anaplastic R-3327 tumors in which markers which reflect a state of differentiation and hormonal regulation, such as androgen receptor, 5 alpha reductase, and secretory acid phosphatase are either markedly reduced or absent, points to cRABP as a marker of malignant transformation.

  10. Peran Volume Prostat Dan PSA Serum Untuk Deteksi Kanker Prostat Pada Penderita LUTS Dengan Colok Dubur Normal

    OpenAIRE

    Ariani, Devinta Tirza; Umbas, Rainy

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran volume prostat danprostate specific antigen(PSA) serum > 4 ng/ml untuk mendeteksi angka kejadian dangradingkanker prostat pada penderitaLower Urinary Tract Symptoms(LUTS) dengan colok dubur normal yang dilakukan biopsi. Data yang dikumpulkan dari rekam medik penderitabenign prostate hyperplasia(BPH) dan kanker prostat di Klinik Khusus Urologi periode Januari 1995 sampai dengan Desember 2009 di departemen urologi Rumah Sakit Cipto Mangunkusumo da...

  11. Methylation Profiling Defines an Extensive Field Defect in Histologically Normal Prostate Tissues Associated with Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Yang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is typically found as a multifocal disease suggesting the potential for molecular defects within the morphologically normal tissue. The frequency and spatial extent of DNA methylation changes encompassing a potential field defect are unknown. A comparison of non-tumor-associated (NTA prostate to histologically indistinguishable tumor-associated (TA prostate tissues detected a distinct profile of DNA methylation alterations (0.2% using genome-wide DNA arrays based on the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements 18 sequence that tile both gene-rich and poor regions. Hypomethylation (87% occurred more frequently than hypermethylation (13%. Several of the most significantly altered loci (CAV1, EVX1, MCF2L, and FGF1 were then used as probes to map the extent of these DNA methylation changes in normal tissues from prostates containing cancer. In TA tissues, the extent of methylation was similar both adjacent (2 mm and at a distance (>1 cm from tumor foci. These loci were also able to distinguish NTA from TA tissues in a validation set of patient samples. These mapping studies indicate that a spatially widespread epigenetic defect occurs in the peripheral prostate tissues of men who have PCa that may be useful in the detection of this disease.

  12. Expression of steroidogenic factor 1 in canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galac, S; Kool, M M J; van den Berg, M F; Mol, J A; Kooistra, H S

    2014-01-01

    We report on a screening for the relative messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) in normal canine adrenals (n = 10) and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors (11 adenomas and 26 carcinomas). The relative mRNA expression of SF-1 was determined by quantitative

  13. MR-guided conformal heating of canine prostate using interstitial applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, William H.; Diederich, Chris J.; Ross, Anthony; Butts, R. K.; Rieke, Viola; Bouley, Donna; Gill, Harchi; Daniel, Bruce; Sommer, Graham

    2003-06-01

    MRI compatible, multi-element ultrasound applicators were fabricated using cylindrical piezoceramic transducers sectored to 180 degrees to provide angular directional heating. The applicators were designed to be inserted into standard 13 or 14 gage brachytherapy catheters integrated with water-cooling. Two applicators were inserted transperinealy into the posterior region of a canine prostate. Power output ranged from 5-15 W per element during the 15 minute heating period. Phase-sensitive gradient-recalled MR imaging was used to monitor the treatment in real-time on a 0.5 Tesla MRT system. Gadolinium-enhanced T1 weighted images and diffusion-weighted images were obtained to view the regions which had been ablated during the heating procedure. Upon euthanasia, the prostate was removed, axially sectioned, and stained with TTC to reveal any regions of remaining viable tissue. Results from this study indicated a large volume of ablated tissue within the prostate which was highly correlated to the regions in the T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted images which had decreased intensity, and to the 52C contour displayed in the images obtained during the treatment. This study demonstrates the ability to control thermal coagulation within a targeted tissue volume while protecting surrounding tissue from thermal damage.

  14. Coherence-based photoacoustic imaging of brachytherapy seeds implanted in a canine prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Song, Danny Y.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-03-01

    Visualization of individual brachytherapy seed locations assists with intraoperative updates to brachytherapy treatment plans. Photoacoustic imaging is advantageous when compared to current ultrasound imaging methods, due to its superior sensitivity to metal surrounded by tissue. However, photoacoustic images suffer from poor contrast with insufficient laser fluence. A short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) beamformer was implemented to enhance these low-contrast photoacoustic signals. Photoacoustic imaging was performed with a transrectal ultrasound probe and an optical fiber surrounded by a light-diffusing sheath, placed at a distance of approximately 4-5 mm from the location of seeds implanted in an in vivo canine prostate. The average energy density through the tip of the sheath was varied from 8 to 167 mJ/cm2. When compared to a fast Fourier transform (FFT)- based reconstruction method, the mean contrast and signal-to-noise ratios were improved by up to 22 dB and a factor of 4, respectively, with the SLSC beamformer (12% of the receive aperture elements were included in the short-lag sum). Image artifacts that were spatially coherent had spatial frequency spectra that were quadrantally symmetric about the origin, while the spatial frequency spectra of the seed signals possessed diagonal symmetry. These differences were utilized to reduce artifacts by 9-14 dB after applying a bandpass filter with diagonal symmetry. Results indicate that advanced methods, such as SLSC beamforming or frequency-based filters, hold promise for intraoperative localization of prostate brachytherapy seeds

  15. Evaluation of transurethral and transperineal tin ethyl etiopurpurin-photodynamic therapy on the canine prostate one week after drug injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Steven H.; Keck, Rick W.; Kondo, Sandy; Albrecht, Detlef

    1999-06-01

    We have been investigating the potential applicability of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of benign and malignant disease of the prostate. Both transurethral and transperineal approaches to the delivery of light to the tin ethyl etiopurpurin sensitized canine prostate have been studied. Pharmacologic studies were performed and suggested that delaying light treatment for 7 days after drug administration would maximize the desired effect on the targeted prostatic tissue while minimizing the damage to surrounding bladder and rectum. A total of 12 dogs were treated with transurethral light alone (n=6) or the combination of transurethral light and transperineal light one week after tin ethyl etiopurpurin administration. (Previous studies have shown that light alone has no effect on prostate size or histology.) Animals were euthanized 48 hours and 3 weeks after completion of treatment (drug, 1mg/kg day 0, light [400mw/750sec]day 7). Tissue response was determined by gross and microscopic examination. Additionally, pre- and post- treatment transrectal ultrasounds were compared to assess changes in prostate volume and tissue echogenicity. The combination of transurethral and transperineal light results in extensive destruction of glandular epithelium with minimal damage to surrounding structures. Prostate volumes decreased by an average of 52%. Untreated areas were found to lie greater than 0.5 cm from the light diffuser. These studies have encouraged us to continue to investigate this modality as a technique for total ablation of prostatic glandular epithelium.

  16. Expression of steroidogenic factor 1 in canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galac, S; Kool, M M J; van den Berg, M F; Mol, J A; Kooistra, H S

    2014-10-01

    We report on a screening for the relative messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) in normal canine adrenals (n = 10) and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors (11 adenomas and 26 carcinomas). The relative mRNA expression of SF-1 was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and revealed no differences between normal adrenals, adenomas, and carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated SF-1 protein expression in a nuclear pattern throughout the normal adrenal cortex and a predominantly nuclear staining pattern in adrenocortical tumors. Of the 15 dogs available for follow up, 7 dogs developed hypercortisolism within 2.5 yr after adrenalectomy, with metastatic disease in 6 dogs and adrenocortical tumor regrowth in 1 dog. The relative SF-1 mRNA expression in dogs with early recurrence was greater (2.46-fold, P = 0.020) than in dogs in remission for at least 2.5 yr after adrenalectomy. In conclusion, we demonstrated the presence of SF-1 expression in normal canine adrenals and adrenocortical tumors. The high SF-1 mRNA expression in carcinomas with early recurrence might indicate its value as a prognostic marker, as well as its potential for therapeutic development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative volumetric imaging of normal, neoplastic and hyperplastic mouse prostate using ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shalini; Pan, Chunliu; Wood, Ronald; Yeh, Chiuan-Ren; Yeh, Shuyuan; Sha, Kai; Krolewski, John J; Nastiuk, Kent L

    2015-09-21

    Genetically engineered mouse models are essential to the investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying human prostate pathology and the effects of therapy on the diseased prostate. Serial in vivo volumetric imaging expands the scope and accuracy of experimental investigations of models of normal prostate physiology, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer, which are otherwise limited by the anatomy of the mouse prostate. Moreover, accurate imaging of hyperplastic and tumorigenic prostates is now recognized as essential to rigorous pre-clinical trials of new therapies. Bioluminescent imaging has been widely used to determine prostate tumor size, but is semi-quantitative at best. Magnetic resonance imaging can determine prostate volume very accurately, but is expensive and has low throughput. We therefore sought to develop and implement a high throughput, low cost, and accurate serial imaging protocol for the mouse prostate. We developed a high frequency ultrasound imaging technique employing 3D reconstruction that allows rapid and precise assessment of mouse prostate volume. Wild-type mouse prostates were examined (n = 4) for reproducible baseline imaging, and treatment effects on volume were compared, and blinded data analyzed for intra- and inter-operator assessments of reproducibility by correlation and for Bland-Altman analysis. Examples of benign prostatic hyperplasia mouse model prostate (n = 2) and mouse prostate implantation of orthotopic human prostate cancer tumor and its growth (n =  ) are also demonstrated. Serial measurement volume of the mouse prostate revealed that high frequency ultrasound was very precise. Following endocrine manipulation, regression and regrowth of the prostate could be monitored with very low intra- and interobserver variability. This technique was also valuable to monitor the development of prostate growth in a model of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Additionally, we demonstrate accurate ultrasound image

  18. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on prostate volume and vascularity in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a pilot study in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoci, Raffaella; Aiudi, Giulio; Silvestre, Fabio; Lissner, Elaine; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2014-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a result of urogenital aging. Recent studies suggest that an age-related impairment of the blood supply to the lower urinary tract plays a role in the development of BPH and thus may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of BPH. The canine prostate is a model for understanding abnormal growth of the human prostate gland. We studied the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) in dogs to modify prostate blood flow and evaluated its effect on BPH. PEMF (5 min, twice a day for 3 weeks) was performed on 20 dogs affected by BPH. Prostatic volume, Doppler assessment by ultrasonography, libido, semen quality, testosterone levels, and seminal plasma volume, composition and pH were evaluated before and after treatment. The 3 weeks of PEMF produced a significant reduction in prostatic volume (average 57%) without any interference with semen quality, testosterone levels or libido. Doppler parameters showed a reduction of peripheral resistances and a progressive reduction throughout the trial of the systolic peak velocity, end-diastolic velocity, mean velocity, mean, and peak gradient of the blood flow in the dorsal branch of the prostatic artery. The pulsatility index and the resistance index did not vary significantly over time. The efficacy of PEMF on BPH in dogs, with no side effects, suggests the suitability of this treatment in humans and supports the hypothesis that impairment of blood supply to the lower urinary tract may be a causative factor in the development of BPH. © 2014 The Authors. The Prostate published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in normal prostate tissue, postatrophic hyperplasia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and tumor histological lesions in men with and without prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Sabina; Andren, Ove; Ohlson, Anna-Lena; Carlsson, Jessica; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Giunchi, Francesca; Rider, Jennifer R; Fiorentino, Michelangelo

    2018-01-01

    The tumor promoting or counteracting effects of the immune response to cancer development are thought to be mediated to some extent by the infiltration of regulatory T cells (T regs ). In the present study we evaluated the prevalence of T reg populations in stromal and epithelial compartments of normal, post atrophic hyperplasia (PAH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and tumor lesions in men with and without prostate cancer. Study subjects were 102 men consecutively diagnosed with localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy and 38 men diagnosed with bladder cancer undergoing cystoprostatectomy without prostate cancer at the pathological examination. Whole mount sections from all patients were evaluated for the epithelial and stromal expression of CD4 + T regs and CD8 + T regs in normal, PAH, PIN, and tumor lesions. A Friedmańs test was used to investigate differences in the mean number of T regs across histological lesions. Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for prostate cancer for each histological area. In men with prostate cancer, similarly high numbers of stromal CD4 + T regs were identified in PAH and tumor, but CD4 + T regs were less common in PIN. Greater numbers of epithelial CD4+ T regs in normal prostatic tissue were positively associated with both Gleason score and pT-stage. We observed a fourfold increased risk of prostate cancer in men with epithelial CD4 + T regs in the normal prostatic tissue counterpart. Our results may suggest a possible pathway through which PAH develops directly into prostate cancer in the presence of CD4 + T regs and indicate that transformation of the anti-tumor immune response may be initiated even before the primary tumor is established. © 2017 The Authors. The Prostate Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  20. A Cancer-Indicative microRNA Pattern in Normal Prostate Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schlomm

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the levels of selected micro-RNAs in normal prostate tissue to assess their potential to indicate tumor foci elsewhere in the prostate. Histologically normal prostate tissue samples from 31 prostate cancer patients and two cancer negative control groups with either unsuspicious or elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA levels (14 and 17 individuals, respectively were analyzed. Based on the expression analysis of 157 microRNAs in a pool of prostate tissue samples and information from data bases/literature, we selected eight microRNAs for quantification by real-time polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs. Selected miRNAs were analyzed in histologically tumor-free biopsy samples from patients and healthy controls. We identified seven microRNAs (miR-124a, miR-146a & b, miR-185, miR-16 and let-7a & b, which displayed significant differential expression in normal prostate tissue from men with prostate cancer compared to both cancer negative control groups. Four microRNAs (miR-185, miR-16 and let-7a and let-7b remained to significantly discriminate normal tissues from prostate cancer patients from those of the cancer negative control group with elevated PSA levels. The transcript levels of these microRNAs were highly indicative for the presence of cancer in the prostates, independently of the PSA level. Our results suggest a microRNA-pattern in histologically normal prostate tissue, indicating prostate cancer elsewhere in the organ.

  1. Uterine and placental expression of canine oxytocin receptor during pregnancy and normal and induced parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, A; Boos, A; Kowalewski, M P

    2014-06-01

    Oxytocin (OT) plays an important role as an inducer of uterine contractility, acting together with its receptor (OTR) to increase synthesis of prostaglandins. Although OT is commonly used in the treatment for dystocia and uterine inertia in the bitch, little attention has been paid to the role of OT in mechanisms regulating parturition in the dog, so that knowledge about the expression of OTR in the canine uterus and placenta is sparse. Consequently, the expression and cellular localization of OTR were investigated in canine utero/placental compartments and interplacental sites throughout pregnancy and at normal and antigestagen-induced parturition, by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot and in situ hybridization. The utero/placental and interplacental expression of OTR was constant from pre-implantation until mid-gestation, with a significant increase observed at prepartum luteolysis. In antigestagen-treated mid-pregnant dogs, OTR was upregulated in both interplacental and utero/placental samples. Besides clear myometrial signals, cellular localization of OTR was evident in the endometrial surface epithelial, stromal and vascular endothelial cells. Weaker signals were observed in superficial and deep uterine glandular epithelial cells. Placental OTR was localized in maternal decidual cells and capillary pericytes. Finally, OTR was colocalized with the progesterone receptor (PGR) in maternal decidual cells, coinciding with previously reported increased availability of prostaglandins in the foetal part of the placenta during normal and induced parturition. These findings suggest involvement of OTR in the signalling cascade leading to the prepartum release of prostaglandins from the pregnant canine uterus. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Prostate disorders in an apparently normal Nigerian population 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, prostate disorders constitute a lot of health concern for men. Early identification of risk factors and groups at risk minimizes the adverse effects of these disorders. The possible relationship between prostate disorders and parameters like age, blood group, Rhesus factor, haemoglobin genotype, serum total ...

  3. Estimation of fetal lung development using quantitative analysis of ultrasonographic images in normal canine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, T; Zovi, G; Milani, C

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the quantitative analysis of sonographic images to predict fetal lung maturity of the canine foetus in normal pregnancy. Twelve bitches were recruited in the present study. Serial ultrasonographic exams were performed at three pre-determined time periods corresponding to the pseudoglandular (40-48 days of pregnancy), canalicular (49-56 days of pregnancy) and saccular phase (57-63 days of pregnancy) of lung development. Mean grey level (MGL) and the standard deviation of the histogram (SDH) of fetal lung and liver sonographic images were measured with dedicated software. The lung-to-liver ratio (LLR) for both parameters was also calculated. Measurements were taken on the two caudal-most foetuses and then averaged. SDH did not show any statistically significant difference between the three time periods in the lungs or in the liver. MGL measured in the lungs significantly increased in the first period and reached a plateau during the last two periods. Liver echogenicity was constant during the first two periods and significantly increased during the last week of gestation. The LLR of MGL significantly decreased during the last week of pregnancy. The LLR was a very good test to detect fetal lung maturity (area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC) = 0.875); using a cut-off value of LLR < 1.541, sensitivity was 83.33% and specificity was 83.33%, positive likelihood ratio = 5. LLR of MGL is an accurate test to estimate lung development in normal canine pregnancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High grade intraepithelial neoplasia of prostate is associated with values of prostate specific antigen related parameters intermediate between prostate cancer and normal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obralic, Nermina; Kulovac, Benjamin

    2011-11-01

    High grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is widely regarded as the precancerous. The aim of this study was to determine PSA related parameters in patients with initial PSA values 2-10 ng/mL and diagnosis of HGPIN without finding carcinoma at the time of their first needle biopsy. Study groups consisted of 100 men who were diagnosed HGPIN, 84 with cancer and 183 with benign hyperplasia on first biopsy of prostate. Total PSA and free PSA were measured and ratio free/total PSA and PSA density calculated. Mean values of these parameters were compared, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used for comparison of PSA related parameters to discriminate groups of patients.Total PSA, free PSA level and PSA density in patients with HGPIN (6.388 ng/mL) did not differ significantly compared to prostate carcinoma (6.976 ng/mL) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (6.07 ng/mL) patients. Patients with HGPIN had significantly higher ratio free/total PSA than those with prostate carcinoma (0.168 vs 0.133), but significantly lower than patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (0.168 vs 0.185). Ratio of free/total PSA significantly discriminate HGPIN from prostate carcinoma with sensitivity 84.52 and specify 45.00 at cut-off point of ≤ 0.18. Values of PSA, free PSA and ratio free/total PSA in cases of HGPIN appear to be intermediate between prostate cancer and normal levels. Ratio of free/total PSA may help in decision to repeat biopsies in the presence of HGPIN on biopsy, without concomitant prostate cancer, in patients suitable for curative treatment, with normal digito-rectal examination and trans-rectal sonography.

  5. High grade intraepithelial neoplasia of prostate is associated with values of prostate specific antigen related parameters intermediate between prostate cancer and normal levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermina Obralic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available High grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN is widely regarded as the precancerous. The aim of this study was to determine PSA related parameters in patients with initial PSA values 2-10 ng/mL and diagnosis of HGPIN without finding carcinoma at the time of their first needle biopsy. Study groups consisted of 100 men who were diagnosed HGPIN, 84 with cancer and 183 with benign hyperplasia on first biopsy of prostate. Total PSA and free PSA were measured and ratio free/total PSA and PSA density calculated. Mean values of these parameters were compared, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used for comparison of PSA related parameters to discriminate groups of patients. Total PSA, free PSA level and PSA density in patients with HGPIN (6.388 ng/mL did not differ significantly compared to prostate carcinoma (6.976 ng/mL or benign prostatic hyperplasia (6.07 ng/mL patients. Patients with HGPIN had significantly higher ratio free/total PSA than those with prostate carcinoma (0.168 vs 0.133, but significantly lower than patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (0.168 vs 0.185. Ratio of free/total PSA significantly discriminate HGPIN from prostate carcinoma with sensitivity 84.52 and specify 45.00 at cut-off point of ≤ 0.18. Values of PSA, free PSA and ratio free/total PSA in cases of HGPIN appear to be intermediate between prostate cancer and normal levels. Ratio of free/total PSA may help in decision to repeat biopsies in the presence of HGPIN on biopsy, without concomitant prostate cancer, in patients suitable for curative treatment, with normal digito-rectal examination and trans-rectal sonography.

  6. A miRNA expression signature that separates between normal and malignant prostate tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubovac Zelmina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs constitute a class of small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate genes involved in several key biological processes and thus are involved in various diseases, including cancer. In this study we aimed to identify a miRNA expression signature that could be used to separate between normal and malignant prostate tissues. Results Nine miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed (p Conclusions We found an expression signature based on nine differentially expressed miRNAs that with high accuracy (85% could classify the normal and malignant prostate tissues in patients from the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort. The results show that there are significant differences in miRNA expression between normal and malignant prostate tissue, indicating that these small RNA molecules might be important in the biogenesis of prostate cancer and potentially useful for clinical diagnosis of the disease.

  7. Normal appearance of the prostate and seminal tract: MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Moo Sang; Choi, Pil Sik; Hong, Sung Joon; Lee, Yeon Hee; Choi, Hak Yong [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    To assess the ability of MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil for the depiction of normal anatomical structure of prostate and its adjacent organs. MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil was performed in 23 male patients(age ; 20-75) to evaluate various prostatic and vasovesicular disorders, i. e, 14 cases of ejaculatory problems, 3 cases of hypogonadism, and 4 cases of prostatic cancers and 2 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia. MR images were obtained with axial, sagittal and coronal fast spin echo long TR/TE images and axial spin echo short TR/TE images. Field of views was 10-12 cm and scan thickness was 3-5 mm. Depiction of normal anatomcial structures was excellent in all cases. On T2WI, zonal anatomy of the prostate and prostatic urethra, urethral crest, and ejaculatory duct were cleary visualized. On T1WI, periprostatic fat plane is more cleary visualized. On transverse images, periprostatic structures were well visualized on T1WI,and on T2WI, anterior fibromuscular stroma, transition zone and peripheral zone could be readily differentiated. Coronal images were more helpful in visualization of both central and peripheral zones. Vas deferens, ejaculatory duct and vermontanum were also more easily defined on these images. Sagittal images was helpful in the depiction of anterior fibromuscular stroma, central zone and peripheral zone with prostatic urethra and ejaculatory duct in a single plane. High resolution MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil can readily visualize the normal anatomy of the prostate and its related structures and may be useful in the evaluation of various diseases of prostate and vasvesicular system.

  8. Normalization of prostate specific antigen in patients treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Matthew D; Padula, Gilbert DA; Chun, Patrick Y; Davis, Alan T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the expected time to prostate specific antigen (PSA) normalization with or without neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (NAAD) therapy after treatment with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. A retrospective cohort research design was used. A total of 133 patients with clinical stage T1c to T3b prostate cancer (2002 AJCC staging) treated in a community setting between January 2002 and July 2005 were reviewed for time to PSA normalization using 1 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL as criteria. All patients received IMRT as part of their management. Times to PSA normalization were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Significance was assessed at p < 0.05. Fifty-six of the 133 patients received NAAD (42.1%). Thirty-one patients (23.8%) received radiation to a limited pelvic field followed by an IMRT boost, while 99 patients received IMRT alone (76.2%). The times to serum PSA normalization < 2 ng/mL when treated with or without NAAD were 298 ± 24 and 302 ± 33 days (mean ± SEM), respectively (p > 0.05), and 303 ± 24 and 405 ± 46 days, respectively, for PSA < 1 ng/mL (p < 0.05). Stage T1 and T2 tumors had significantly increased time to PSA normalization < 1 ng/mL in comparison to Stage T3 tumors. Also, higher Gleason scores were significantly correlated with a faster time to PSA normalization < 1 ng/mL. Use of NAAD in conjunction with IMRT leads to a significantly shortened time to normalization of serum PSA < 1 ng/mL in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer

  9. Prostate disorders in an apparently normal Nigerian population 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) index was used to establish the presence of BPH, respondents' choice of most troublesome symptom and respondents' perception of their quality of life. The results show that 25.35% of the studied population had symptoms suggestive of BPH. The severity of symptoms was ...

  10. Dimensions of the prostatic and membranous urethra in normal male dogs during maximum distension retrograde urethrocystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.; Osborne, C.A.; Tomlinson, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Prostatic and membranous urethral diameter was measured in 24 normal mature male Beagle dogs during maximum distension retrograde urethrocystography. This technique involved retrograde urethral distension by infusion with contrast medium until the urinary bladder was distended and the vesicourethral junction remained opened as observed by fluoroscopy. Lateral and ventro-dorsal radiographs were made during subsequent injections of 5–10 ml of contrast medium. The prostatic urethra was consistently greater in diameter than the membranous urethra. However, the numerical ratio between the prostatic urethral diameter and the membranous urethral diameter varied among these dogs by a factor of 2 at the numerical extremes

  11. A population study of neutering status as a risk factor for canine prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jeffrey N; Keeler, Matthew R; Henry, Carolyn J; Bryan, Margaret E; Hahn, Allen W; Caldwell, Charles W

    2007-08-01

    Prostate cancer has been reported to occur more commonly in neutered than intact male dogs in several case series. This study was undertaken to evaluate risk of prostate cancer in a large population database. The hypothesis was that castration is a risk factor for prostate cancer in male companion dogs. Data were derived from recorded visits to North American veterinary teaching hospitals. The Veterinary Medical Databases (VMDB) were queried to yield male dogs with urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), prostate adenocarcinoma (ACA), prostate TCC, prostate carcinoma (CA), and prostate tumors. A second query yielded all male dogs over the age of 4 years without a diagnosis of urinary tract cancer. These populations were compared to determine relative risks for developing each disease, singly and collectively, associated with neutering status. Odds ratios were calculated for breed as a risk factor. Neutered males had a significantly increased risk for each form of cancer. Neutered males had an odds ratio of 3.56 (3.02-4.21) for urinary bladder TCC, 8.00 (5.60-11.42) for prostate TCC, 2.12 (1.80-2.49) for prostate adenocarcinoma, 3.86 (3.13-4.16) for prostate carcinoma, and 2.84 (2.57-3.14) for all prostate cancers. Relative risks were highly similar when cases were limited to those with a histologically confirmed diagnosis. Breed predisposition suggests that genetic factors play a role in the development of prostate cancer. The risk associated with being neutered is highest for TCC, supporting previous work identifying the urothelium and ductular rather than acinar epithelium as the source of these tumors. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Normalized gradient fields cross-correlation for automated detection of prostate in magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotin, Sergei V.; Yin, Yin; Periaswamy, Senthil; Kunz, Justin; Haldankar, Hrishikesh; Muradyan, Naira; Cornud, François; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L.

    2012-02-01

    Fully automated prostate segmentation helps to address several problems in prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment: it can assist in objective evaluation of multiparametric MR imagery, provides a prostate contour for MR-ultrasound (or CT) image fusion for computer-assisted image-guided biopsy or therapy planning, may facilitate reporting and enables direct prostate volume calculation. Among the challenges in automated analysis of MR images of the prostate are the variations of overall image intensities across scanners, the presence of nonuniform multiplicative bias field within scans and differences in acquisition setup. Furthermore, images acquired with the presence of an endorectal coil suffer from localized high-intensity artifacts at the posterior part of the prostate. In this work, a three-dimensional method for fast automated prostate detection based on normalized gradient fields cross-correlation, insensitive to intensity variations and coil-induced artifacts, is presented and evaluated. The components of the method, offline template learning and the localization algorithm, are described in detail. The method was validated on a dataset of 522 T2-weighted MR images acquired at the National Cancer Institute, USA that was split in two halves for development and testing. In addition, second dataset of 29 MR exams from Centre d'Imagerie Médicale Tourville, France were used to test the algorithm. The 95% confidence intervals for the mean Euclidean distance between automatically and manually identified prostate centroids were 4.06 +/- 0.33 mm and 3.10 +/- 0.43 mm for the first and second test datasets respectively. Moreover, the algorithm provided the centroid within the true prostate volume in 100% of images from both datasets. Obtained results demonstrate high utility of the detection method for a fully automated prostate segmentation.

  13. Canine prostate carcinoma: epidemiological evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teske, E.; Naan, E.C.; Dijk, E.M. van; Garderen, E. van; Schalken, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The present retrospective study investigated the frequency of prostate carcinoma (PCA) among prostate abnormalities in dogs and determined whether castration influences the incidence of PCA in dogs. During the years 1993-1998, 15363 male dogs were admitted to the Utrecht University Clinic of

  14. Feasibility of interstitial near-infrared radiance spectroscopy platform for ex vivo canine prostate studies: optical properties extraction, hemoglobin and water concentration, and gold nanoparticles detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabtchak, Serge; Montgomery, Logan G.; Whelan, William M.

    2014-05-01

    The canine prostate is a close match for the human prostate and is used in research of prostate cancers. Determining accurately optical absorption and scattering properties of the gland in a wide spectral range (preferably in a minimally invasive way), linking optical properties to concentrations of major endogenous chromophores, and detecting the presence of localized optical inhomogeneities like inclusions of gold nanoparticles for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes, are among the major challenges for researchers. The goal of the article is to demonstrate a feasibility of the multifunctional radiance spectroscopy platform in providing the required information. For ex vivo canine prostate, extraction of the effective attenuation and diffusion coefficients using relative cw radiance measurements was demonstrated in the 650- to 900-nm range. The derived absorption coefficient was decomposed to contributions from 9.0 μM HbO2, 29.6 μM Hb, and 0.47 fractional volume of H2O. Detection of a localized inclusion containing ˜1.5.1010 gold nanorods (0.8 μg Au) at 10 mm distance from the urethra was achieved with the detector in the urethra and the light source in a virtual rectum position. The platform offers the framework for a systematic study of various chromophores in the prostate that can be used as comprehensive diagnostic markers.

  15. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal near-infrared optical tomography of canine prostate bearing transmissible venereal tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Piao, Daqing

    2009-02-01

    In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography is conducted on a tumor-bearing canine prostate with the assistance of trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS). The canine prostate tumor model is made possible by a unique round cell neoplasm of dogs, transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) that can be transferred from dog to dog regardless of histocompatibility. A characterized TVT cell line was homogenized and passed twice in subcutaneous tissue of NOD/SCID mice. Following the second passage, the tumor was recovered, homogenized and then inoculated by ultrasound guidance into the prostate gland of a healthy dog. The dog was then imaged with a combined trans-rectal NIR and TRUS imager using an integrated trans-rectal NIR/US applicator. The image was taken by NIR and US modalities concurrently, both in sagittal view. The trans-rectal NIR imager is a continuous-wave system that illuminates 7 source channels sequentially by a fiber switch to deliver sufficient light power to the relatively more absorbing prostate tissue and samples 7 detection channels simultaneously by a gated intensified high-resolution CCD camera. This work tests the feasibility of detecting prostate tumor by trans-rectal NIR optical tomography and the benefit of augmenting TRUS with trans-rectal NIR imaging.

  16. Role of ART-27, a Novel Androgen Receptor Coactivator, in Normal Prostate and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    07$15.00/0 Printed m U 8 .A. Molecular Endocrino logy 21 (12):2864- 2876 Copyright C’l 2007 by The Endocrine Society d ol: 10.121G/ me.2007-0094...mutations identified in prostate cancer and androgen insensitivity syndrome display aberrant ART -27 coacti- vator function. Mol Endocrino l 19

  17. Anterior segment angiography of the normal canine eye: a comparison between indocyanine green and sodium fluorescein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, C G; Alario, A

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare indocyanine green (IG) and sodium fluorescein (SF) angiographic findings in the normal canine anterior segment using a digital single lens reflex (dSLR) camera adaptor. Images were obtained from 10 brown-eyed Beagles, free of ocular and systemic disease. All animals received butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg IM), maropitant citrate (1.0 mg/kg SC) and diphenhydramine (2.0 mg/kg SC) 20 min prior to propofol (4 mg/kg IV bolus, 0.2 mg/kg/min continuous rate infusion). Standard color imaging was performed prior to the administration of 0.25% IG (1 mg/kg IV). Imaging was performed using a full spectrum dSLR camera, dSLR camera adaptor, camera lens (Canon 60 mm f/2.8 Macro) and an accessory flash. Images were obtained at a rate of 1/s immediately following IG bolus for 30 s, then at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 min. Ten minutes later, 10% SF (20 mg/kg IV) was administered. Imaging was repeated using the same adaptor system and imaging sequence protocol. Arterial, capillary and venous phases were identified during anterior segment IG angiography (ASIGA) and their time sequences were recorded. ASIGA offered improved visualization of the iris vasculature in heavily pigmented eyes compared to anterior segment SF angiography (ASSFA), since visualization of the vascular pattern during ASSFA was not possible due to pigment masking. Leakage of SF was noted in a total of six eyes. The use of IG and SF was not associated with any observed adverse events. The adaptor described here provides a cost-effective alternative to existing imaging systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of normal, benign and malignant conditions in the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visschere, Pieter J.L. de; Pattyn, Eva; Villeirs, Geert M. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Vral, Anne [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent (Belgium); Perletti, Gianpaolo [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent (Belgium); University of Insubria, Clinical Pharmacology, Medical and Surgical Sciences Section, Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy); Praet, Marleen [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Ghent (Belgium); Magri, Vittorio [Instituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, Urology Clinic, Milano (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    To identify the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) characteristics of normal, benign and malignant conditions in the prostate. Fifty-six histopathological whole-mount radical prostatectomy specimens from ten randomly selected patients with prostate cancer (PC) were matched with corresponding transverse mpMRI slices. The mpMRI was performed prior to biopsy and consisted of T2-weighted imaging (T2-WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCE) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). In each prostate specimen, a wide range of histopathological conditions were observed. They showed consistent but overlapping characteristics on mpMRI. Normal glands in the transition zone showed lower signal intensity (SI) on T2-WI, lower ADC values and lower citrate peaks on MRSI as compared to the peripheral zone (PZ) due to sparser glandular elements and more prominent collagenous fibres. In the PZ, normal glands were iso-intense on T2-WI, while high SI areas represented cystic atrophy. Mimickers of well-differentiated PC on mpMRI were inflammation, adenosis, HG-PIN and post-atrophic hyperplasia. Each prostate is a unique mix of normal, benign and/or malignant areas that vary in extent and distribution resulting in very heterogeneous characteristics on mpMRI. Understanding the main concepts of this mpMRI-histopathological correlation may increase the diagnostic confidence in reporting mpMRI. (orig.)

  19. Proximal and distal alignment of normal canine femurs: A morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Mehmet Erkut; Sevil-Kilimci, Figen; Dilek, Ömer Gürkan; Onar, Vedat

    2018-05-01

    Many researchers are interested in femoral conformation because most orthopaedic problems of the long bones occur in the femur and its joints. The neck-shaft (NSA) and the anteversion (AVA) angles are good predictors for understanding the orientation of the proximal end of the femur. The varus (aLDFA) and procurvatum (CDFA) angles have also been used to understand the orientation of the distal end of the femur. The purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship between the proximal and distal angles of the femur and to compare the distal femoral angles in male and female dogs in order to investigate the sexual dimorphism. The measurements of normal CDFAs, which have not been previously reported, may also provide a database of canine distal femoral morphology. A total of 75 cleaned healthy femora from different breeds or mixed breed of dogs were used. The three-dimensional images were reconstructed from computed tomographic images. The AVA, NSA, aLDFA and CDFA were measured on the 3D images. The correlation coefficients were calculated among the measured angles. The distal femoral angles were also compared between male and female femora. The 95% confidence intervals of the AVA and the NSA were calculated to be 24.22°-29.50° and 144.97°-147.50°, respectively. The 95% confidence intervals of the aLDFA and the CDFA for all studied dogs were 92.62°-94.08° and 89.09°-91.94°, respectively. The NSA showed no correlation with either the aLDFA or CDFA. There was a weak inverse correlation between the AVA and CDFA and a weak positive correlation between the AVA and aLDFA. The differences in the aLDFA and CDFA measurements between male and female dog were not significant. In conclusion, femoral version, regardless of the plane, might have little influence on distal femoral morphology in normal dogs. Besides this, there is no evidence of a sexual dimorphism in the varus and procurvatum angles of the dog distal femur. The data from this study may be used in

  20. Métodos de diagnóstico para detecção de prostatopatias caninas Canine prostatic disease: diagnosis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres Mussel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As doenças prostáticas são comuns em cães, desenvolvendo-se após a maturidade sexual. Entre as afecções que acometem a próstata desses animais, a mais frequente é a hiperplasia prostática benigna (HPB. As neoplasias prostáticas, apesar de menos frequentes, são altamente malignas e um diagnóstico tardio está associado a um prognóstico ruim. Os principais métodos de diagnóstico das enfermidades prostáticas em cães incluem um exame clínico detalhado, ultrassonografia, punção aspirativa e biópsia. A utilização de biomarcadores séricos vem sendo estudada como uma maneira de se detectar a doença precocemente, evitando possíveis complicações no quadro clínico dos pacientes. Assim, estudos visando ao diagnóstico precoce de prostatopatias caninas, especialmente o câncer prostático, são cruciais para um tratamento eficaz e melhora da qualidade de vida do animal acometido.Prostatic diseases are common in older dogs, developing after sexual maturity. The most common affecting canine prostate is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Although less frequent, prostatic neoplasias are highly malignant, and a late diagnosis is closely associated with a poor prognosis. The main methods of diagnosis of the canine prostatic disease include a detailed clinical exam, ultrasound, prostatic fine-needle aspirate and biopsy. Studies towards early diagnosis of this condition are crucial for effective treatment and improvement of quality of life of affected animals. The use of biomarkers has been studied for early detection of the disease, avoiding possible complications in clinical patients.

  1. CNTF induces dose-dependent alterations in retinal morphology in normal and rcd-1 canine retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiss, Caroline J; Allore, Heather G; Towle, Virginia; Tao, Weng

    2006-03-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) provides morphologic preservation of rods in several animal models of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). However, CNTF may alter photoreceptor morphology and rod photoreceptor differentiation in vitro, as well as affecting normal retinal electrophysiology. In addition, the capacity of CNTF to support other cell types affected secondarily in RP (cones and ganglion cells) is unclear. The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of CNTF upon a canine model of RP, the rod-cone degeneration (rcd-1) dog. Archival tissue from a previous study assessing the capacity of CNTF to rescue photoreceptors in rcd-1 dogs was used. One eye was treated for 7 weeks before being explanted. The contralateral eye was untreated. A total of 23 rcd-1 dogs and seven control dogs (four untreated and three CNTF-treated) were used. Morphometric data describing outer and inner nuclear layer thickness, inner retinal thickness, cones and ganglion cells were collected at nine evenly spaced points along each retina and analysed using a mixed effects model. Immunohistochemistry was performed on a subset of 11 dogs for expression of rhodopsin, human cone arrestin (hCAR) and recoverin. CNTF protected the outer nuclear layer and increased inner retinal thickness in a dose-dependent manner (both were maximal at CNTF doses of 1-6 ng day-1). Significant cone loss or reduction of inner nuclear layer width in rcd-1 did not occur in this model, therefore we were unable to assess the protective effect of CNTF upon these parameters. CNTF did not afford significant ganglion cell protection. CNTF induced morphologic changes in rods and ganglion cells, as well as reducing expression of hCAR and rhodopsin, but not recoverin. The dose of CNTF which provided optimal outer nuclear layer protection also resulted in several other effects, including altered ganglion cell morphology, increased thickness of the entire retina, and reduced expression of some phototransduction proteins

  2. Canine epidermal lipid sampling by skin scrub revealed variations between different body sites and normal and atopic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelbeck-Schulze, Mandy; Mischke, Reinhard; Rohn, Karl; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Naim, Hassan Y; Bäumer, Wolfgang

    2014-07-10

    Previously, we evaluated a minimally invasive epidermal lipid sampling method called skin scrub, which achieved reproducible and comparable results to skin scraping. The present study aimed at investigating regional variations in canine epidermal lipid composition using the skin scrub technique and its suitability for collecting skin lipids in dogs suffering from certain skin diseases. Eight different body sites (5 highly and 3 lowly predisposed for atopic lesions) were sampled by skin scrub in 8 control dogs with normal skin. Additionally, lesional and non-lesional skin was sampled from 12 atopic dogs and 4 dogs with other skin diseases by skin scrub. Lipid fractions were separated by high performance thin layer chromatography and analysed densitometrically. No significant differences in total lipid content were found among the body sites tested in the control dogs. However, the pinna, lip and caudal back contained significantly lower concentrations of ceramides, whereas the palmar metacarpus and the axillary region contained significantly higher amounts of ceramides and cholesterol than most other body sites. The amount of total lipids and ceramides including all ceramide classes were significantly lower in both lesional and non-lesional skin of atopic dogs compared to normal skin, with the reduction being more pronounced in lesional skin. The sampling by skin scrub was relatively painless and caused only slight erythema at the sampled areas but no oedema. Histological examinations of skin biopsies at 2 skin scrubbed areas revealed a potential lipid extraction from the transition zone between stratum corneum and granulosum. The present study revealed regional variations in the epidermal lipid and ceramide composition in dogs without skin abnormalities but no connection between lipid composition and predilection sites for canine atopic dermatitis lesions. The skin scrub technique proved to be a practicable sampling method for canine epidermal lipids, revealed

  3. Studies on 192Ir afterloading irradiation of the canine prostate with special consideration of thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, M.

    1986-01-01

    A method for high dose rate afterloading irradiation of the prostate with iridium 192 was developed. The isodoses of the urethra and rectum, which were measured by means of thermoluminescent dosimetry, showed deviations from the doses pre-calculated by computer (BRACHY), because this calculation is based on an anatomically ideal condition. (MBC) [de

  4. Temporal changes in the canine prostate after transurethral prostatectomy with a cylindrically diffusing fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromeens, Douglas M.; Price, Roger E.; Johnson, Douglas E.

    1994-05-01

    Visual laser ablation of the prostate was performed on 8 mongrel dogs employing a cylindrically diffusing fiber delivery system and a 1.06 neodymium:YAG laser. Each dog received 15,000 J of laser energy delivered to the prostate in one continuous dose of 25 W for 10 min. Gross and histopathologic examination of serial sections of the prostate was performed at intervals from 2 hours to 7 weeks postoperatively. Grossly, a spherical zone of destruction averaging 2.8 cm in diameter was present in all dogs. Histopathologic changes in the prostate consisted of acute coagulative necrosis with interstitial edema at 2 hours, becoming hemorrhagic at 24 hours. A prominent circular area of acute coagulative necrosis with extensive areas of liquefaction and hemorrhage was presented at 4 days. Early re- epithelialization of the resulting cavity was present at 3 weeks with nearly complete resolution 7 weeks postoperatively. We believe that, because of the simplified fiber placement and complete lack of postoperative complications in this small group of dogs, the cylindrically diffusing fiber could offer significant advantage over side fire-style fibers for transurethral prostatectomies.

  5. Online dosimetry for temoporfin-mediated interstitial photodynamic therapy using the canine prostate as model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartling, Johannes; Höglund, Odd V.; Hansson, Kerstin; Södersten, Fredrik; Axelsson, Johan; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie

    2016-02-01

    Online light dosimetry with real-time feedback was applied for temoporfin-mediated interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT) of dog prostate. The aim was to investigate the performance of online dosimetry by studying the correlation between light dose plans and the tissue response, i.e., extent of induced tissue necrosis and damage to surrounding organs at risk. Light-dose planning software provided dose plans, including light source positions and light doses, based on ultrasound images. A laser instrument provided therapeutic light and dosimetric measurements. The procedure was designed to closely emulate the procedure for whole-prostate PDT in humans with prostate cancer. Nine healthy dogs were subjected to the procedure according to a light-dose escalation plan. About 0.15 mg/kg temoporfin was administered 72 h before the procedure. The results of the procedure were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, and gross pathology and histopathology of excised tissue. Light dose planning and online dosimetry clearly resulted in more focused effect and less damage to surrounding tissue than interstitial PDT without dosimetry. A light energy dose-response relationship was established where the threshold dose to induce prostate gland necrosis was estimated from 20 to 30 J/cm2.

  6. Uterine and placental expression of canine oxytocin receptor during pregnancy and normal and induced parturition.

    OpenAIRE

    Gram A Boos A Kowalewski MP.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Oxytocin (OT) plays an important role as an inducer of uterine contractility acting together with its receptor (OTR) to increase synthesis of prostaglandins. Although OT is commonly used in the treatment for dystocia and uterine inertia in the bitch little attention has been paid to the role of OT in mechanisms regulating parturition in the dog so that knowledge about the expression of OTR in the canine uterus and placenta is sparse. Consequently the expression and cellular localizat...

  7. Prostate stem cell antigen is expressed in normal and malignant human brain tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroe; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Saeki, Norihisa

    2018-03-01

    Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface protein and exhibits an organ-dependent expression pattern in cancer. PSCA is upregulated in prostate cancer and downregulated in gastric cancer. PSCA is expressed in a variety of human organs. Although certain studies previously demonstrated its expression in the mammalian and avian brain, its expression in the human brain has not been thoroughly elucidated. Additionally, it was previously reported that PSCA is weakly expressed in the astrocytes of the normal human brain but aberrantly expressed in glioma, suggesting that PSCA is a promising target of glioma therapy and prostate cancer therapy. The current study identified PSCA expression in the neural and choroid plexus cells of the normal human brain by immunohistochemistry. In brain tumors, PSCA was expressed in medulloblastoma and glioma, and its expression was also observed in papilloma and papillary carcinoma of the choroid plexus, ependymoma and meningioma. The results suggest that PSCA may have a tumor-promoting function in brain tumors and is a potential target for their therapy. However, its expression in normal neuronal and choroid plexus cells implies that a PSCA-targeted therapy may lead to certain adverse phenomena.

  8. Free prostate-specific antigen improves prostate cancer detection in a high-risk population of men with a normal total PSA and digitalrectal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzo, Robert G; Pinover, Wayne H; Horwitz, Eric M; Parlanti, Alicia; Mazzoni, Susan; Raysor, Susan; Mirchandani, Ila; Greenberg, Richard E; Pollack, Alan; Hanks, Gerald E; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah

    2003-04-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding optimal prostate cancer screening parameters for high-risk populations. The purpose of this study is to report the use of percent free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as an indication for biopsy in men at increased risk for developing prostate cancer who have a normal digital rectal examination (DRE) and total PSA level between 2 and 4 ng/mL. African-American men and men with at least one first-degree relative with prostate cancer are eligible for enrollment into the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP) at our institution. Between October 1996 and April 2002, 310 asymptomatic high-risk men with no history of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) were screened in the PRAP with DRE and total PSA. Percent free PSA was obtained in men with a total PSA between 2 and 10 ng/mL. Men with a normal DRE and total PSA between 2 and 4 ng/mL were advised to undergo transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) biopsies of the prostate if the percent free PSA was less than 27%. Other indications for biopsy included an abnormal DRE or a total PSA greater than 4 ng/mL. The primary endpoint evaluated was prostate cancer detection in high-risk men with a benign prostate examination, a normal total PSA between 2 and 4 ng/mL, and percent free PSA less than 27%. Of the 310 men, 174 (56%) were African American and 202 (65%) had at least one first-degree relative with prostate cancer. Sixty-two of the 310 men were referred for prostate biopsy, and 40 of 62 had biopsy performed. Twenty-one of 40 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer for a cancer detection rate of 53% in all men undergoing biopsy and an overall cancer detection rate of 6.8% in this high-risk population. Thirty-seven high-risk men (median age 54 years) with a total PSA level between 2 and 4 ng/mL (median 2.7 ng/mL) and a normal DRE were found to have a percent free PSA level of less than 27% (median 16%, range 8% to 25%). Twenty

  9. Apparent diffusion coefficient values in peripheral and transition zones of the prostate: comparison between normal and malignant prostatic tissues and correlation with histologic grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Sone, Teruki; Jo, Yoshimasa; Toshimitsu, Shinya; Yamashita, Takenori; Yamamoto, Akira; Tanimoto, Daigo; Ito, Katsuyoshi

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for discriminating tumor in patients with prostate cancer from normal prostatic tissues in healthy adult men, and to identify correlations between ADC and histologic grade of prostate cancer. A total of 125 healthy male volunteers (mean age, 60 years; range, 50-86 years) and 90 prostate cancer patients (mean age, 71 years; range, 51-88 years) underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the prostate with a single-shot echo-planar imaging sequence using b-factors of 0 and 800 sec/mm2. ADC was measured from two locations in the peripheral zone (PZ) and two locations in the central gland (CG) in normal subjects, and tumor locations of PZ or transition zone (TZ) in patients with prostate cancer. Mean ADC values of tumor regions in both PZ (1.02+/-0.25x10(-3) mm2/sec) and TZ (0.94+/-0.21x10(-3) mm2/sec) were significantly lower than those in the corresponding normal regions (1.80+/-0.27x10(-3) mm2/sec and 1.34+/-0.14x10(-3) mm2/sec, respectively) (P<0.0001 each). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was identified between ADC in PZ cancer and tumor Gleason score (rho=-0.497, P<0.0001). ADC values appear to provide acceptable diagnostic accuracy in both PZ and TZ. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Pilot Comparison of Stromal Gene Expression among Normal Prostate Tissues and Primary Prostate Cancer Tissues in White and Black Men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bova, G. S

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in prostate biology suggest that stromal cells surrounding prostate epithelia may play a key role in permitting or stimulating epithelial cells to lose control and form precancerous and cancerous lesions...

  11. LITT on canine prostates: an in-vivo study to compare the effects of different wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Ronald; Perlmutter, Aaron P.; Martin, Thomas; Muschter, Rolf

    1996-05-01

    Laser induced interstitial thermotherapy is a new minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Since high power laser diode lasers became available for clinical use a comparison of tissue effects of different wavelengths under controlled conditions is needed. In this study three different laser wavelengths were compared at output powers of 4 W and 8 W with 10 min and 90 s irradiation time, respectively, resulting in applied energies of 2700 J and 720 J. The results in both groups showed that the use of a wavelength close to the relative water absorption peak at 980 nm gave tendentiously but not significantly larger coagulated areas. Furthermore it became obvious that the use of 8 W for 90 sec results in higher maximum temperatures and larger lesions compared to the application of 4 W over a period of 10 min, although the energy used in the latter group was 4 fold higher.

  12. Evaluation of the Effects of Temporary Covered Nitinol Stent Placement in the Prostatic Urethra: Short-Term Study in the Canine Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisostomo, Veronica; Song, Ho Young; Maynar, Manuel; Sun, Fei; Soria, Federico; Lima, Juan Rafael; Yoon, Chang Jin; Uson-Gargallo, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effect of temporary stent placement on the canine prostatic urethra. Methods. Retrievable PTFE-covered nitinol stents were placed in the prostatic urethras of 8 beagle dogs under fluoroscopic guidance. Retrograde urethrography was obtained before and after stenting. Retrograde urethrography and endoscopy were performed 1 and 2 months after deployment. The endoscopic degree of hyperplasia was rated on a scale of 0 to 4 (0 absence, 4 = occlusion). On day 60, stents were removed and urethrography was performed immediately before euthanasia. Pathologic analysis was performed to determine the degree of glandular atrophy, periurethral fibrosis, and urethral dilation. Results. Stent deployment was technically successful in 7 animals, and failed in 1 dog due to a narrow urethral lumen. Complete migration was seen in 2 animals at 1 month, and an additional stent was deployed. On day 30, endoscopy showed slight hyperplasia (grade 1) in 3 animals. On day 60, moderate hyperplasia (grade 2) was evidenced in 4 cases. No impairment of urinary flow was seen during follow-up. Retrieval was technically easy to perform, and was successful in all dogs. The major histologic findings were chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates; prostate glandular atrophy, with a mean value of 1.86 (SD 0.90); periurethral fibrosis, with a mean ratio of 29.37 (SD 10.41); and dilatation of the prostatic urethra, with a mean ratio of 6.75 (SD 3.22). Conclusion. Temporary prostatic stent placement in dogs is safe and feasible, causing marked enlargement of the prostatic urethral lumen. Retrievable covered stents may therefore be an option for bladder outlet obstruction management in men

  13. A Network Biology Approach Identifies Molecular Cross-Talk between Normal Prostate Epithelial and Prostate Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Victor; Cassese, Alberto; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Herbert, John; Antczak, Philipp; Clarke, Kim; Davies, Nicholas; Rahman, Ayesha; Campbell, Moray J; Guindani, Michele; Bicknell, Roy; Vannucci, Marina; Falciani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The advent of functional genomics has enabled the genome-wide characterization of the molecular state of cells and tissues, virtually at every level of biological organization. The difficulty in organizing and mining this unprecedented amount of information has stimulated the development of computational methods designed to infer the underlying structure of regulatory networks from observational data. These important developments had a profound impact in biological sciences since they triggered the development of a novel data-driven investigative approach. In cancer research, this strategy has been particularly successful. It has contributed to the identification of novel biomarkers, to a better characterization of disease heterogeneity and to a more in depth understanding of cancer pathophysiology. However, so far these approaches have not explicitly addressed the challenge of identifying networks representing the interaction of different cell types in a complex tissue. Since these interactions represent an essential part of the biology of both diseased and healthy tissues, it is of paramount importance that this challenge is addressed. Here we report the definition of a network reverse engineering strategy designed to infer directional signals linking adjacent cell types within a complex tissue. The application of this inference strategy to prostate cancer genome-wide expression profiling data validated the approach and revealed that normal epithelial cells exert an anti-tumour activity on prostate carcinoma cells. Moreover, by using a Bayesian hierarchical model integrating genetics and gene expression data and combining this with survival analysis, we show that the expression of putative cell communication genes related to focal adhesion and secretion is affected by epistatic gene copy number variation and it is predictive of patient survival. Ultimately, this study represents a generalizable approach to the challenge of deciphering cell communication networks

  14. A Network Biology Approach Identifies Molecular Cross-Talk between Normal Prostate Epithelial and Prostate Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Trevino

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of functional genomics has enabled the genome-wide characterization of the molecular state of cells and tissues, virtually at every level of biological organization. The difficulty in organizing and mining this unprecedented amount of information has stimulated the development of computational methods designed to infer the underlying structure of regulatory networks from observational data. These important developments had a profound impact in biological sciences since they triggered the development of a novel data-driven investigative approach. In cancer research, this strategy has been particularly successful. It has contributed to the identification of novel biomarkers, to a better characterization of disease heterogeneity and to a more in depth understanding of cancer pathophysiology. However, so far these approaches have not explicitly addressed the challenge of identifying networks representing the interaction of different cell types in a complex tissue. Since these interactions represent an essential part of the biology of both diseased and healthy tissues, it is of paramount importance that this challenge is addressed. Here we report the definition of a network reverse engineering strategy designed to infer directional signals linking adjacent cell types within a complex tissue. The application of this inference strategy to prostate cancer genome-wide expression profiling data validated the approach and revealed that normal epithelial cells exert an anti-tumour activity on prostate carcinoma cells. Moreover, by using a Bayesian hierarchical model integrating genetics and gene expression data and combining this with survival analysis, we show that the expression of putative cell communication genes related to focal adhesion and secretion is affected by epistatic gene copy number variation and it is predictive of patient survival. Ultimately, this study represents a generalizable approach to the challenge of deciphering cell

  15. Fully automated prostate segmentation in 3D MR based on normalized gradient fields cross-correlation initialization and LOGISMOS refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yin; Fotin, Sergei V.; Periaswamy, Senthil; Kunz, Justin; Haldankar, Hrishikesh; Muradyan, Naira; Cornud, François; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Manual delineation of the prostate is a challenging task for a clinician due to its complex and irregular shape. Furthermore, the need for precisely targeting the prostate boundary continues to grow. Planning for radiation therapy, MR-ultrasound fusion for image-guided biopsy, multi-parametric MRI tissue characterization, and context-based organ retrieval are examples where accurate prostate delineation can play a critical role in a successful patient outcome. Therefore, a robust automated full prostate segmentation system is desired. In this paper, we present an automated prostate segmentation system for 3D MR images. In this system, the prostate is segmented in two steps: the prostate displacement and size are first detected, and then the boundary is refined by a shape model. The detection approach is based on normalized gradient fields cross-correlation. This approach is fast, robust to intensity variation and provides good accuracy to initialize a prostate mean shape model. The refinement model is based on a graph-search based framework, which contains both shape and topology information during deformation. We generated the graph cost using trained classifiers and used coarse-to-fine search and region-specific classifier training. The proposed algorithm was developed using 261 training images and tested on another 290 cases. The segmentation performance using mean DSC ranging from 0.89 to 0.91 depending on the evaluation subset demonstrates state of the art performance. Running time for the system is about 20 to 40 seconds depending on image size and resolution.

  16. Lack of expression of preproorexin and orexin receptors genes in human normal and prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Marta; Paschke, Lukasz; Tyczewska, Marianna; Rucinski, Marcin; Grabowska, Paulina; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2015-01-01

    Studies on expression of orexins (OXs) and their receptors in human prostate gland and human prostatic cell lines are scanty and their results contradictory. Regarding this, we carefully reinvestigated this problem on human prostatic cell lines. Expression of preproorexin (ppOX) (6 primer pairs), and orexin receptors 1 and 2 (OXR1, OXR2) (4 and 2 primer pairs, respectively) was assessed by conventional PCR and QPCR in human normal (PrEC, PrSc, PrSmC) and prostate carcinoma (Du145, LNCaP, and PC3) cell lines. We designed intron spanning primers and also we applied primers from earlier publications and commercially available ones. With the designed primer pairs, in all studied cell lines we failed to demonstrate expression of ppOX, OXR1 and OXR2 genes at the mRNA level, while reaction products were observed in control tissues (human placenta and adrenals). Primers applied in earlier studies did not form amplification products specific for preproorexin or orexin 1 receptor. Some commercially available primers for orexin receptor 1 produced false positive results. We found no evidence for the presence of preproorexin-orexin receptors system genes' mRNAs in human prostate cell lines. The reported premises for these genes’ expression in prostate and prostatic cell lines may have arisen either from the presence of non-prostate cells included in the samples or from faulty PCR settings.

  17. Dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with high-dose-rate brachytherapy for large prostate volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, George; Strom, Tobin J.; Shrinath, Kushagra; Mellon, Eric A.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Biagioli, Matthew C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States); Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: mcbiagioli@yahoo.com [Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Newnan, GA (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: to evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes. Materials and methods: one hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL) were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38%) unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4. Results: median follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3%) patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17%) patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p-0.04). There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity. Conclusions: dosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes. (author)

  18. Dosimetric Coverage of the Prostate, Normal Tissue Sparing, and Acute Toxicity with High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Large Prostate Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurposeTo evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes.Materials and MethodsOne hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38% unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.ResultsMedian follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3% patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17% patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p=0.04. There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity.ConclusionsDosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes.

  19. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF PROSTATIC SECRETION : I. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NORMAL SECRETION; THE INFLUENCE OF THYROID, SUPRARENAL, AND TESTIS EXTIRPATION AND ANDROGEN SUBSTITUTION ON THE PROSTATIC OUTPUT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, C; Masina, M H; Eichelberger, L; Wharton, J D

    1939-11-30

    A simple isolation of the prostate enabled quantitative collection of prostatic secretion in dogs over periods of months. The secretory stimulant was pilocarpine and 2 similar amounts injected with a 6 hour interval gave smaller amounts at the second testing, suggesting a fatigue effect. The prostate was not absolutely refractory since doubling the amount of alkaloid injected at the second test increased the volume to equal or exceed the preliminary secretion. The depression effect had disappeared at 24 hours. In normal dogs the secretory curves were essentially regular, with occasional prolonged rises or depressions. The amount of secretion did not bear a direct relationship to the weight of the gland in adult dogs. The germinal epithelium of the testis underwent atrophy during the first few weeks of cage life while the prostatic secretion was maintained, showing that the atrophy was differential and did not involve the cells producing the androgenic hormone. The atrophy was reversible and all dogs kept for more than 4 months showed restoration of the germ cells. A few dogs developed atrophy of the germinal cells with cessation of prostatic secretion for many weeks but with final recovery. Removal of the suprarenal glands with suprarenal insufficiency did not produce sterility. The distribution of electrolytes in the prostatic secretion differed from that in the serum-transudate system, although the concentration of osmotically active substances was the same, being made up almost entirely of sodium and chloride. The distribution was not affected by the different physiological procedures used in this study. Protein concentrations were less than 1 per cent. The rate of prostatic atrophy following castration was determined, and cessation of secretion occurred in 7 to 23 days. The restoration of prostatic fluid in castrate dogs following daily injections of testosterone propionate followed a smooth curve to form a plateau which was interrupted occasionally by

  20. Cascaded discrimination of normal, abnormal, and confounder classes in histopathology: Gleason grading of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle Scott

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated classification of histopathology involves identification of multiple classes, including benign, cancerous, and confounder categories. The confounder tissue classes can often mimic and share attributes with both the diseased and normal tissue classes, and can be particularly difficult to identify, both manually and by automated classifiers. In the case of prostate cancer, they may be several confounding tissue types present in a biopsy sample, posing as major sources of diagnostic error for pathologists. Two common multi-class approaches are one-shot classification (OSC, where all classes are identified simultaneously, and one-versus-all (OVA, where a “target” class is distinguished from all “non-target” classes. OSC is typically unable to handle discrimination of classes of varying similarity (e.g. with images of prostate atrophy and high grade cancer, while OVA forces several heterogeneous classes into a single “non-target” class. In this work, we present a cascaded (CAS approach to classifying prostate biopsy tissue samples, where images from different classes are grouped to maximize intra-group homogeneity while maximizing inter-group heterogeneity. Results We apply the CAS approach to categorize 2000 tissue samples taken from 214 patient studies into seven classes: epithelium, stroma, atrophy, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, and prostate cancer Gleason grades 3, 4, and 5. A series of increasingly granular binary classifiers are used to split the different tissue classes until the images have been categorized into a single unique class. Our automatically-extracted image feature set includes architectural features based on location of the nuclei within the tissue sample as well as texture features extracted on a per-pixel level. The CAS strategy yields a positive predictive value (PPV of 0.86 in classifying the 2000 tissue images into one of 7 classes, compared with the OVA (0.77 PPV and OSC

  1. Extended use of Prostate Health Index and percentage of [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen in Chinese men with prostate specific antigen 10–20 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ka-Fung Chiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated the extended use of Prostate Health Index (PHI and percentage of [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen (%p2PSA in Chinese men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination (DRE. Materials and Methods: All consecutive Chinese men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE who agreed for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS-guided 10-core prostate biopsy were recruited. Blood samples were taken immediately before TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. The performances of total PSA (tPSA, %free-to-total PSA (%fPSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were compared using logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic, and decision curve analyses (DCA. Results: From 2008 to 2015, 312 consecutive Chinese men were included. Among them, 53 out of 312 (17.0% men were diagnosed to have prostate cancer on biopsy. The proportions of men with positive biopsies were 6.7% in PHI55 (chi-square test, p55 (chi-square test, p<0.001. By utilizing the PHI cutoff of 35 to men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE, 57.1% (178 of 312 biopsies could be avoided. Conclusions: Both PHI and %p2PSA performed well in predicting prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer. The use of PHI and %p2PSA should be extended to Chinese men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE.

  2. Altered glycosylation pattern allows the distinction between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) from normal and tumor origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracaula, Rosa; Tabarés, Glòria; Royle, Louise; Harvey, David J; Dwek, Raymond A; Rudd, Pauline M; de Llorens, Rafael

    2003-06-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein secreted by prostate epithelial cells. PSA is currently used as a marker of prostate carcinoma because high levels of PSA are indicative of a tumor situation. However, PSA tests still suffer from a lack of specificity to distinguish between benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. To determine whether PSA glycosylation could provide a means of differentiating between PSA from normal and tumor origins, N-glycan characterization of PSA from seminal fluid and prostate cancer cells (LNCaP cell line) by sequencing analysis and mass spectrometry was carried out. Glycans from normal PSA (that correspond to low and high pI PSA fractions) were sialylated biantennary complex structures, half of them being disialylated in the low pI PSA fraction and mostly monosialylated in the high pI PSA. PSA from LNCaP cells was purified to homogeneity, and its glycan analysis showed a significantly different pattern, especially in the outer ends of the biantennary complex structures. In contrast to normal PSA glycans, which were sialylated, LNCaP PSA oligosaccharides were all neutral and contained a higher fucose content. In 10-15% of the structures fucose was linked alpha1-2 to galactose, forming the H2 epitope absent in normal PSA. GalNAc was increased in LNCaP glycans to 65%, whereas in normal PSA it was only present in 25% of the structures. These carbohydrate differences allow a distinction to be made between PSA from normal and tumor origins and suggest a valuable biochemical tool for diagnosis and follow-up purposes.

  3. Molecular cloning of canine protease-activated receptor-2 and its expression in normal dog tissues and atopic skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shingo; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Shibata, Sanae; Chimura, Naoki; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2009-05-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) belongs to a new G protein-coupled receptor subfamily and is activated by serine proteases. PAR-2 has been demonstrated to play an important role in inflammation and immune response in allergic diseases. In this study, we cloned canine PAR-2 cDNA from the canine kidney by RT-PCR. The canine PAR-2 clone contained a full-length open reading frame encoding 397 amino acids that had 84% and 80% homology with human and mouse homologues, respectively. Canine PAR-2 mRNA was detected in the heart, lung, liver, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, colon, kidney, adrenal gland, spleen, thyroid gland, thymus, skeletal muscle, lymph node, fat and skin of three healthy dogs. The expression pattern of PAR-2 mRNA in canine tissues was similar to that in humans. The expression level of PAR-2 mRNA in skin was not different between the atopic dermatitis (AD) and healthy dogs, suggesting that the level of PAR-2 mRNA transcription may not be associated with development of canine AD. The canine PAR-2 cDNA clone obtained in this study will be useful for further investigation of the immunopathogenesis of canine allergic diseases.

  4. Optimization of b-value distribution for biexponential diffusion-weighted MR imaging of normal prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Ivan; Merisaari, Harri; Aronen, Hannu J; Järvinen, Jukka; Saunavaara, Jani; Kauko, Tommi; Borra, Ronald; Pesola, Marko

    2014-05-01

    To determine the optimal b-value distribution for biexponential diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of normal prostate using both a computer modeling approach and in vivo measurements. Optimal b-value distributions for the fit of three parameters (fast diffusion Df, slow diffusion Ds, and fraction of fast diffusion f) were determined using Monte-Carlo simulations. The optimal b-value distribution was calculated using four individual optimization methods. Eight healthy volunteers underwent four repeated 3 Tesla prostate DWI scans using both 16 equally distributed b-values and an optimized b-value distribution obtained from the simulations. The b-value distributions were compared in terms of measurement reliability and repeatability using Shrout-Fleiss analysis. Using low noise levels, the optimal b-value distribution formed three separate clusters at low (0-400 s/mm2), mid-range (650-1200 s/mm2), and high b-values (1700-2000 s/mm2). Higher noise levels resulted into less pronounced clustering of b-values. The clustered optimized b-value distribution demonstrated better measurement reliability and repeatability in Shrout-Fleiss analysis compared with 16 equally distributed b-values. The optimal b-value distribution was found to be a clustered distribution with b-values concentrated in the low, mid, and high ranges and was shown to improve the estimation quality of biexponential DWI parameters of in vivo experiments. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Investigation of normal tissue complication probabilities in prostate and partial breast irradiation radiotherapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, E.; Takam, R.; Bensaleh, S.; Yeoh, E.; Marcu, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Normal- Tissue-Complication Probabilities of rectum, bladder and urethra following various radiation techniques for prostate cancer were evaluated using the relative-seriality and Lyman models. NTCPs of lungs, heart and skin, their dependence on sourceposition, balloon-deformation were also investigated for HDR mammosite brachytherapy. The prostate treatment techniques included external three dimentional conformal-radiotherapy, Low-Dose-Rate brachytherapy (1-125), High-Dose-Rate brachytherapy (Ir-I92). Dose- Volume-Histograms of critical structures for prostate and breast radiotherapy, retrieved from corresponding treatment planning systems, were converted to Biological Effective Dose (BEffD)-based and Equivalent Dose(Deq)-based DVHs to account for differences in radiation delivery and fractionation schedule. Literature-based model parameters were used to calculate NTCPs. Hypofractionated 3D-CRT (2.75 Gy/fraction, total dose 55 Gy) NTCPs of rectum, bladder and urethra were less than those for standard fractionated 4-field 3D-CRT (2-Gy/fraction, 64 Gy) and dose-escalated 4- and 5-field 3D-CRT (74 Gy). Rectal and bladder NTCPs (5.2% and 6.6%) following the dose-escalated 4-field 3D-CRT (74 Gy) were the highest among analyzed techniques. The average NTCP for rectum and urethra were 0.6% and 24.7% for LDRBT and 0.5% and 11.2% for HDR-BT. For Mammosite, NTCP was estimated to be 0.1 %, 0.1 %, 1.2% and 3.5% for skin desquamation, erythema, telangiectasia and fibrosis respectively (the source positioned at the balloon centre). A 4 mm Mammosite-balloon deformation leads to overdosing of PTV regions by ∼40%, resulting in excessive skin dose and increased NTCP. Conclusions Prostate brachytherapy resulted in NTCPs lower compared to external beam techniques. Mammosite-brachytherapy resulted in no heart/lung complications regardless of balloon deformation. However, 4 mm deformation caused 0.6% increase in tissue fibrosis NTCP.

  6. Acid-base changes in canine neonates following normal birth or dystocia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio, C F; Silva, L C G; Rodrigues, J A; Veiga, G A L; Vannucchi, C I

    2009-07-01

    There are limited data concerning blood gas parameters in neonatal dogs. Knowledge of the normal physiology may facilitate effective therapeutic intervention and potentially reduce neonatal mortality. This study examined acid-base parameters in pups born at normal parturition (n = 27) compared with those born after obstetrical assistance or caesarean operation (n = 13) and those born following oxytocin (OXY) administration for treatment of uterine inertia (n = 11). Pups were subjected to an objective scoring method of neonatal health adapted from use in humans (the Apgar score) at birth and again at 5 and 60 min after birth. Venous blood samples were collected at 5 and 60 min after birth for evaluation of blood gas parameters. At birth, all pups had low Apgar scores and a mixed acidosis. The base excess was lowest for pups delivered after OXY administration. The Apgar score improved for all pups after 5 min of birth and there was an improvement in carbon dioxide tension, base excess and venous blood pH at 1 h, although in all pups a metabolic acidosis persisted. These data provide an important insight into neonatal physiology and the variability of blood gas parameters in pups born at normal and abnormal parturition and provide the basis for clinical decision making following dystocia.

  7. Global Bi-ventricular endocardial distribution of activation rate during long duration ventricular fibrillation in normal and heart failure canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingzhi; Jin, Qi; Zhang, Ning; Han, Yanxin; Wang, Yilong; Huang, Shangwei; Lin, Changjian; Ling, Tianyou; Chen, Kang; Pan, Wenqi; Wu, Liqun

    2017-04-13

    The objective of this study was to detect differences in the distribution of the left and right ventricle (LV & RV) activation rate (AR) during short-duration ventricular fibrillation (SDVF, 1 min) in normal and heart failure (HF) canine hearts. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was electrically induced in six healthy dogs (control group) and six dogs with right ventricular pacing-induced congestive HF (HF group). Two 64-electrode basket catheters deployed in the LV and RV were used for global endocardium electrical mapping. The AR of VF was estimated by fast Fourier transform analysis from each electrode. In the control group, the LV was activated faster than the RV in the first 20 s, after which there was no detectable difference in the AR between them. When analyzing the distribution of the AR within the bi-ventricles at 3 min of LDVF, the posterior LV was activated fastest, while the anterior was slowest. In the HF group, a detectable AR gradient existed between the two ventricles within 3 min of VF, with the LV activating more quickly than the RV. When analyzing the distribution of the AR within the bi-ventricles at 3 min of LDVF, the septum of the LV was activated fastest, while the anterior was activated slowest. A global bi-ventricular endocardial AR gradient existed within the first 20 s of VF but disappeared in the LDVF in healthy hearts. However, the AR gradient was always observed in both SDVF and LDVF in HF hearts. The findings of this study suggest that LDVF in HF hearts can be maintained differently from normal hearts, which accordingly should lead to the development of different management strategies for LDVF resuscitation.

  8. Cell Survival and DNA Damage in Normal Prostate Cells Irradiated Out-of-Field.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, L

    2014-10-31

    Interest in out-of-field radiation dose has been increasing with the introduction of new techniques, such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). These new techniques offer superior conformity of high-dose regions to the target compared to conventional techniques, however more normal tissue is exposed to low-dose radiation with VMAT. There is a potential increase in radiobiological effectiveness associated with lower energy photons delivered during VMAT as normal cells are exposed to a temporal change in incident photon energy spectrum. During VMAT deliveries, normal cells can be exposed to the primary radiation beam, as well as to transmission and scatter radiation. The impact of low-dose radiation, radiation-induced bystander effect and change in energy spectrum on normal cells are not well understood. The current study examined cell survival and DNA damage in normal prostate cells after exposure to out-of-field radiation both with and without the transfer of bystander factors. The effect of a change in energy spectrum out-of-field compared to in-field was also investigated. Prostate cancer (LNCaP) and normal prostate (PNT1A) cells were placed in-field and out-of-field, respectively, with the PNT1A cells being located 1 cm from the field edge when in-field cells were being irradiated with 2 Gy. Clonogenic and γ-H2AX assays were performed postirradiation to examine cell survival and DNA damage. The assays were repeated when bystander factors from the LNCaP cells were transferred to the PNT1A cells and also when the PNT1A cells were irradiated in-field to a different energy spectrum. An average out-of-field dose of 10.8 ± 4.2 cGy produced a significant reduction in colony volume and increase in the number of γ-H2AX foci\\/cell in the PNT1A cells compared to the sham-irradiated control cells. An adaptive response was observed in the PNT1A cells having first received a low out-of-field dose and then the bystander factors. The PNT1A cells showed a significant

  9. Discrimination of prostate cancer from normal peripheral zone and central gland tissue by using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbrecht, Marc R.; Huisman, Henkjan J.; Laheij, Robert J. F.; Jager, Gerrit J.; van Leenders, Geert J. L. H.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Blickman, Johan G.; Barentsz, Jelle O.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate which parameters of dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and T2 relaxation rate would result in optimal discrimination of prostatic carcinoma from normal peripheral zone (PZ) and central gland (CG) tissues and to correlate these parameters with tumor stage, Gleason score,

  10. Isolation and genome-wide expression and methylation characterization of CD31+ cells from normal and malignant human prostate tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Deeb, Kristin K.; Ma, Yingyu; Morrison, Carl D.; Liu, Song; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are an important component involved in the angiogenesis. Little is known about the global gene expression and epigenetic regulation in tumor endothelial cells. The identification of gene expression and epigenetic difference between human prostate tumor-derived endothelial cells (TdECs) and those in normal tissues may uncover unique biological features of TdEC and facilitate the discovery of new anti-angiogenic targets. We established a method for isolation of CD31+ endothelial cells from malignant and normal prostate tissues obtained at prostatectomy. TdECs and normal-derived ECs (NdECs) showed >90% enrichment in primary culture and demonstrated microvascular endothelial cell characteristics such as cobblestone morphology in monolayer culture, diI-acetyl-LDL uptake and capillary-tube like formation in Matrigel®. In vitro primary cultures of ECs maintained expression of endothelial markers such as CD31, von Willebrand factor, intercellular adhesion molecule, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. We then conducted a pilot study of transcriptome and methylome analysis of TdECs and matched NdECs from patients with prostate cancer. We observed a wide spectrum of differences in gene expression and methylation patterns in endothelial cells, between malignant and normal prostate tissues. Array-based expression and methylation data were validated by qRT-PCR and bisulfite DNA pyrosequencing. Further analysis of transcriptome and methylome data revealed a number of differentially expressed genes with loci whose methylation change is accompanied by an inverse change in gene expression. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of isolation of ECs from histologically normal prostate and prostate cancer via CD31+ selection. The data, although preliminary, indicates that there exist widespread differences in methylation and transcription between TdECs and NdECs. Interestingly, only a small

  11. Lectin binding patterns in normal canine endometrium and in bitches with pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, M; Aurich, J E; Galabova, G; Aurich, C; Walter, I

    2003-07-01

    Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and pyometra in the bitch are dioestral syndromes, supposed to be caused by hormonal disturbances and changes in endometrial steroid hormone receptor levels. Histologically, the endometria show cystic dilated glands and, if bacteria succeed in invading the uterus, pyometra may develop in the following metoestrus. In this study, lectin histochemistry was performed on paraffin sections to compare carbohydrate expression of uterine glands and surface epithelium in healthy dogs and in dogs with CEH and pyometra. Lectin binding is a useful tool to identify glycoconjugates, especially of the glycocalyx, which has essential functions in the endometrium during reproduction. Uterine tissue was obtained from 18 healthy bitches in metoestrus or anoestrus and 18 bitches with a clinical diagnosis of CEH or pyometra. Normal endometria showed cycle-dependent changes in SBA, PNA, HPA and UEA binding during metoestrus and anoestrus. LCA did not show cycle-dependent changes and WGA bound to Golgi regions in the apical parts of surface epithelial cells only in metoestrous. Endometria with inflammatory alterations lost cycle-specific lectin binding patterns and, with increasing severity of pathological changes, showed a marked decrease in binding intensity to the glandular and surface epithelial glycocalyx and secretions. In dogs with CEH, unaltered glands with generally strong lectin binding to the glycocoalyx and Golgi regions were found adjacent to altered glands. The decrease of lectin binding in pyometra cases is supposed to be a result of glandular exhaustion after cystic hyperplasia. In addition, bacterial adhesion to sugar residues on the uterine surface epithelium might impede lectin binding.

  12. Morphometry of normal and teratozoospermic canine sperm heads using an image analyzer: work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlbom, M; Andersson, M; Vierula, M; Alanko, M

    1997-09-01

    Combining the traditional morphologic evaluation of spermatozoa with computer assisted image analysis adds randomness, objectivity, repeatability and accuracy to morphometric measurements. We collected semen from 10 fertile, normospermic dogs aged 1 to 7 yr and from 3 teratozoospermic breed-matched dogs. Sperm head morphology was examined in Giemsa-stained smears by light microscopy, using a computer-assisted image analyzer and by transmission electron microscopy. We found significant variation in sperm head area, length, width and degree of roundness among normospermic individual dogs, indicating that it would be necessary to examine many more dogs before the size and shape of normal dog spermatozoa could be determined. The normospermic dogs were used as controls for the teratozoospermic cases. Case 1: A 2-yr-old subfertile Cavalier King Charles Spaniel had semen with small and narrow-based sperm heads and a proximal cytoplasmic droplet in most of the spermatozoa. With the image analysis system, sperm heads were shown to be smaller and more oval than in normospermic dogs. The variatons in size and shape were similar in magnitude to those of control dogs. An examined infertile half-brother had similar semen quality. Case 2: A 3-yr-old Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen with 2 unsuccesfull matings exhibited spermatozoa with severe abnormalities. Measured by image analyzer, sperm heads were irregular in shape and very small in area. One of the two littermates examined had semen of the same quality as the case dog. Case 3: A 3-yr-old fertile Golden Retriever had semen with giant sperm heads in about 50% of spermatozoa. Image analyzing results revealed 2 populations of different sized sperm heads. Giant heads consisted of 52.2% of all spermatozoa. The results of the study reported here suggest that the image analysis technique may be useful in evaluating structural changes in sperm morphology, supplementing visual assessment that is used in conventional methods.

  13. Myocardial kinetics of thallium-201 after stress in normal and perfusion-reduced canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the emerging use of quantitative computer programs for assessing myocardial thallium uptake and clearance after exercise, little is known about the kinetics of thallium after exercise stress. Accordingly, 11 mongrel dogs with experimental left anterior descending coronary stenoses were given thallium during norepinephrine infusion to simulate exercise. The infusion was discontinued and thallium activity was monitored regionally using miniature radiation detectors for 3 hours. Heart rate, arterial pressure and double product all increased significantly during norepinephrine infusion. The mean fractional myocardial thallium clearance was lower (0.47 +/- 0.03 [+/- standard error of the mean]) for the stenosis zone than for the no-stenosis zone (0.57 +/- 0.03) (p less than 0.0001). The stress blood flow ratio (stenosis/no-stenosis zone = 0.27 +/- 0.06) was significantly lower than the final thallium activity ratio (0.68 +/- 0.07) (p less than 0.001), consistent with thallium redistribution occurring over the 3-hour period. Myocardial thallium activity in the stenosis zone peaked in a mean of 2.2 minutes, then washed out biexponentially with a final decay constant of 0.0035 +/- 0.0005 min-1. Myocardial thallium activity in the no-stenosis zone peaked within 1 minute in all dogs, then washed out biexponentially, with a final decay constant of 0.0043 +/- 0.0003 (p less than 0.001 compared with stenosis zone). In conclusion, fractional clearance of thallium can differentiate myocardium distal to a coronary artery stenosis from that supplied by a normal coronary vessel

  14. Computational imaging reveals shape differences between normal and malignant prostates on MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Purysko, Andrei S.; Verma, Sadhna; Kiechle, Jonathan; Gollamudi, Jay; Ghose, Soumya; Herrmann, Karin; Gulani, Vikas; Paspulati, Raj; Ponsky, Lee; Böhm, Maret; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Moses, Daniel; Shnier, Ron; Delprado, Warick; Thompson, James; Stricker, Phillip; Madabhushi, Anant

    2017-01-01

    We seek to characterize differences in the shape of the prostate and the central gland (combined central and transitional zones) between men with biopsy confirmed prostate cancer and men who were identified as not having prostate cancer either on account of a negative biopsy or had pelvic imaging done for a non-prostate malignancy. T2w MRI from 70 men were acquired at three institutions. The cancer positive group (PCa+) comprised 35 biopsy positive (Bx+) subjects from three institutions (Gleason scores: 6–9, Stage: T1–T3). The negative group (PCa−) combined 24 biopsy negative (Bx−) from two institutions and 11 subjects diagnosed with rectal cancer but with no clinical or MRI indications of prostate cancer (Cl−). The boundaries of the prostate and central gland were delineated on T2w MRI by two expert raters and were used to construct statistical shape atlases for the PCa+, Bx− and Cl− prostates. An atlas comparison was performed via per-voxel statistical tests to localize shape differences (significance assessed at p hypertrophy in the Bx− subpopulation, resulting in significant volume and posterior side shape differences relative to PCa+ group. Significant differences in the corresponding prostate shapes were noted at the apex when comparing the Cl− and PCa+ prostates. PMID:28145532

  15. PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY OF THE CANINE PERITONEUM - NORMAL TISSUE-RESPONSE TO INTRAPERITONEAL AND INTRAVENOUS PHOTOFRIN FOLLOWED BY 630NM LIGHT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TOCHNER, Z; MITCHELL, JB; HOEKSTRA, HJ; SMITH, P; DELUCA, AM; BARNES, M; HARRINGTON, F; MANYAK, M; RUSSO, D; RUSSO, A

    1991-01-01

    A toxicity study was performed in a canine model to explore the feasibility of using intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Dogs received 1.25 mg/kg Photofrin II both intravenously (48 hours) and intraperitoneally (2 hours) before intraperitoneal light

  16. Comparison of normal tissue pharmacokinetics with 111In/9Y monoclonal antibody m170 for breast and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Joerg; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Yuan, Aina; Shen Sui; O'Donnell, Robert T.; Richman, Carol M.; De Nardo, Sally J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Radioactivity deposition in normal tissues limits the dose deliverable by radiopharmaceuticals (RP) in radioimmunotherapy (RIT). This study investigated the absorbed radiation dose in normal tissues for prostate cancer patients in comparison to breast cancer patients for 2 RPs using the monoclonal antibody (MAb) m170. Methods and Materials: 111 In-DOTA-glycylglycylglycyl-L-p-isothiocyanatophenylalanine amide (GGGF)-m170 and 111 In-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) 2-iminothiolane (2IT)-m170, representing the same MAb and chelate with and without a cleavable linkage, were studied in 13 breast cancer and 26 prostate cancer patients. Dosimetry for 9 Y was calculated using 111 In MAb pharmacokinetics from the initial imaging study for each patient, using reference man- and patient-specific masses. Results: The reference man-specific radiation doses (cGy/MBq) were not significantly different for the breast and the prostate cancer patients for both RPs in all but one tissue-RP combination (liver, DOTA-2IT). The patient-specific doses had differences between the groups most of which can be related to weight differences. Conclusions: Similar normal tissue doses were calculated for two groups of patients having different cancers and genders. This similarity combined with continued careful analysis of the imaging data might allow the use of higher starting doses in early phase RIT studies

  17. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostfa Shahabi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planmeca Romexis Viewer 4.0. Furthermore, crown shape as well as root length and anatomy of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines were investigated and compared with the other side on the dental arch, where canine eruption was normal. Results: Root length of impacted canines was significantly lower than that of normal canines (P=0.011. There were no significant differences between root length of lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines and root length of lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.221. Moreover, the resorption intensity of the adjacent lateral incisors was higher than that of the impacted canines. No significant differences were noted in root resorption intensity between the lateral incisors adjacent to the imacted canines and the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.36. In addition, resorption intensity was significantly higher in impacted canines than in normal canines (P=0.024. Root anatomy of impacted canines was not significantly different from that of normal canines (P=0.055. The crown shape of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines was not significantly different from that of the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.052. Conclusion: Impaction can probably affect root length and canine resorption severity. However, root and crown shape of lateral incisors cannot always be associated with canine impaction.

  18. Prostate lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node identification in canines: reproducibility, uptake, and biokinetics depending on different injection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawroschek, Friedhelm; Wengenmair, Hermann; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Hamm, Michael; Henke, Julia; Schönberger, Tanja; Hauser, Andrea; Erhardt, Wolf; Harzmann, Rolf

    2003-07-01

    At present there are neither clinical nor experimental data available on the influence of technical details on the quality and reproducibility of prostate lymphoscintigraphy. Six adult fox hounds received repeated transrectal ultrasound guided intraprostatic injections of a technetium 99m labeled nanocolloid to prove the influence of different techniques of injection (one central injection in both prostate lobes vs two peripheral injections in both lobes) on tracer accumulation in sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) and other organs. The reproducibility of the favored technique was examined and in a last step it was subject to scrutiny following a reduction of the injected volume to 1% of the prostate volume. The number of scintigraphically visualized SLN varied between four and seven. They were located in the region of the internal and external iliac vessels, presacrally, paravesically, and directly paraprostatically. In five of six cases, the localization was reproducible both with the central application of an identical volume as well as with the volume reduced central injection. Tracer accumulation of SLNs and other organs varied enormously. We expect that with the combination of both injection techniques, even with the reduced injection volume, an optimized prostate lymphoscintigraphy will be the outcome.

  19. Selection of suitable reference genes for normalization of genes of interest in canine soft tissue sarcomas using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zornhagen, K. W.; Kristensen, A. T.; Hansen, Anders Elias

    2015-01-01

    was used to analyse the most suitable reference genes. Eight potential reference genes were excluded from this final analysis because of their dissociation curves. β-Glucuronidase (GUSB) and proteasome subunit, beta type, 6 (PSMB6) were most stably expressed with an M value of 0.154 and a CV of 0......Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a sensitive technique for quantifying gene expression. Stably expressed reference genes are necessary for normalization of RT-qPCR data. Only a few articles have been published on reference genes in canine tumours...

  20. Normal and prostate cancer cells display distinct molecular profiles of alpha-tubulin posttranslational modifications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, Karel; Kamaid, A.; Phung, A.D.; Kubala, Lukáš; Bulinski, J.Ch.; Harper, R.W.; Eiserich, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 9 (2006), s. 954-965 ISSN 0270-4137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : prostate cancer * microtubules * detyrosination Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.724, year: 2006

  1. Immunohistochemical Expression of Ornithine Decarboxylase, Diamine Oxidase, Putrescine, and Spermine in Normal Canine Enterocolic Mucosa, in Chronic Colitis, and in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Rossi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the immunohistochemical expression of putrescine (PUT, spermine (SPM, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, and diamine oxidase (DAO in bioptic samples of canine colonic mucosa with chronic inflammation (i.e., granulomatous colitis and lymphoplasmacytic colitis or neoplasia. Single and total polyamines levels were significantly higher in neoplastic tissue than in normal samples. Samples with different degrees of inflammation showed a general decrease expression of ODC if compared to controls; SPM was practically not expressed in control samples and very low in samples with chronic-granulomatous inflammation. In carcinomatous samples, the ODC activity was higher with respect to controls and samples with inflammation. This is the first description of polyamines expression in dog colonic mucosa in normal and in different pathological conditions, suggesting that the balance between polyamine degradation and biosynthesis is evidently disengaged during neoplasia.

  2. Evaluation of the normal-to-diseased apparent diffusion coefficient ratio as an indicator of prostate cancer aggressiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebovici, Andrei; Sfrangeu, Silviu A; Feier, Diana; Caraiani, Cosmin; Lucan, Ciprian; Suciu, Mihai; Elec, Florin; Iacob, Gheorghita; Buruian, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    We tested the feasibility of a simple method for assessment of prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to calculate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratios between prostate cancer and healthy prostatic tissue. The requirement for institutional review board approval was waived. A set of 20 standardized core transperineal saturation biopsy specimens served as the reference standard for placement of regions of interest on ADC maps in tumorous and normal prostatic tissue of 22 men with PCa (median Gleason score: 7; range, 6–9). A total of 128 positive sectors were included for evaluation. Two diagnostic ratios were computed between tumor ADCs and normal sector ADCs: the ADC peripheral ratio (the ratio between tumor ADC and normal peripheral zone tissue, ADC-PR), and the ADC central ratio (the ratio between tumor ADC and normal central zone tissue, ADC-CR). The performance of the two ratios in detecting high-risk tumor foci (Gleason 8 and 9) was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Both ADC ratios presented significantly lower values in high-risk tumors (0.48 ± 0.13 for ADC-CR and 0.40 ± 0.09 for ADC-PR) compared with low-risk tumors (0.66 ± 0.17 for ADC-CR and 0.54 ± 0.09 for ADC-PR) (p < 0.001) and had better diagnostic performance (ADC-CR AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 82.2%, specificity = 66.7% and ADC-PR AUC = 0.90, sensitivity = 93.7%, specificity = 80%) than stand-alone tumor ADCs (AUC of 0.75, sensitivity = 72.7%, specificity = 70.6%) for identifying high-risk lesions. The ADC ratio as an intrapatient-normalized diagnostic tool may be better in detecting high-grade lesions compared with analysis based on tumor ADCs alone, and may reduce the rate of biopsies

  3. Studies of a novel photosensitizer palladium-bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad) for the treatment of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Brun, Pierre-Herve; Wilson, Brian C.; Scherz, Avigdor; Salomon, Yoram; Luck, David L.; Beckers, Jill; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2003-06-01

    In this study, photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a novel, second generation photosensitizer Tookad (palladium-bacteriopheophorbide, WST09, STEBA Biotech, France), is investigated as an alternative modality in the treatment of prostate cancer. In vivo normal canine prostate and spontaneous advanced prostate cancer are used as the animal model. PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm, 150 mW/cm) to activate the i.v. infused photosensitizer. The effects of drug concentration, drug-light interval, and light fluence rate on the PDT efficacy were studied. The prostates and adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were harvested and subjected to histopathological examination. During the one-week to 3-month period post PDT treatment, the dogs recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Prostatic urethra and prostate adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were well preserved. Light irradiation delivered during drug infusion or within 15 min post drug infusion induced the similar extend of damages. PDT induced prostate lesions in both normal and cancerous prostate were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis and atrophy. Maximum lesion size of over 3 cm in dimension could be achieved with a single 1-cm interstitial treatment, suggesting the therapy is very effective in ablating cancerous prostatic tissue. In conclusion, the second generation photosensitizer Tookad mediated PDT may provide an effective alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  4. Glycoproteomics: Identifying the Glycosylation of Prostate Specific Antigen at Normal and High Isoelectric Points by LC–MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Ehwang; Mayampurath, Anoop; Yu, Chuan-Yih; Tang, Haixu; Mechref, Yehia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker to diagnose prostate cancer. PSA testing has been widely used to detect and screen prostate cancer. However, in the diagnostic gray zone, the PSA test does not clearly distinguish between benign prostate hypertrophy and prostate cancer due to their overlap. To develop more specific and sensitive candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer, an in-depth understanding of the biochemical characteristics of PSA (such as glycosylation) i...

  5. Ultrasonographic changes in the normal and malignant prostate after definitive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egawa, S.; Carter, S.S.; Wheeler, T.M.; Scardino, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    As treatments for early localized prostate cancer come under closer scrutiny, the fundamental problem of documenting the success of radiotherapy becomes more obvious. Currently, no satisfactory method exists to determine tumor viability after radiotherapy. Transrectal ultrasonography is particularly valuable for monitoring the response of prostate cancer to radiotherapy. Persistent cancer retains its hypoechoic appearance after definitive radiotherapy. Hypoechoic lesions greater than 5 mm in diameter found more than 12 months after radiotherapy should be suspected of representing persistent local disease. In our study, albeit in a selected group of patients undergoing salvage radical prostatectomy, 92 per cent of such findings were associated with what we interpreted as viable tumor by light microscopy. Ultrasound-guided biopsy should be considered in such circumstances. The persistence of hypoechoic lesions in more than 65 per cent of patients 12 to 36 months after radiotherapy also suggests that local treatment failure may be underestimated by digital rectal examination and random digitally guided biopsy. Serial measurement of the diameter of hypoechoic lesions may provide a valuable indicator of progress in an individual patient. Patients with enlarging foci of tumor within the prostate after radiotherapy might be selected for biopsy and further treatment. If such a policy is employed, it is likely that a higher incidence of persistent cancer will be found after radiotherapy than has previously been discovered by random digitally guided biopsy

  6. Caracterização histomorfológica da atrofia inflamatória proliferativa na próstata canina Histomorphological characterization of proliferative inflammatory atrophy in canine prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Caroline Toledo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A atrofia inflamatória proliferativa (PIA é uma lesão prostática pré-maligna de grande ocorrência na próstata humana e, mais recentemente, também observada em cães. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo verificar os aspectos histomorfológicos da PIA na próstata canina. Foram utilizadas 43 próstatas de cães adultos, de várias raças e portes, e com histórico ou não de doença prostática. Os focos de PIA apresentaram epitélio displásico, formado por ácinos atróficos e com mais de uma camada de células de morfologia atípica, especialmente anisocitose, anisocariose, citoplasma reduzido, núcleo volumoso e com nucléolo evidente. As alterações epiteliais eram sempre acompanhadas de infiltrado inflamatório intersticial periacinar predominantemente linfocitário. Foi observado um índice de 65% de PIA. Destes, 39% corresponderam à PIA com infiltrado inflamatório discreto, 42% à PIA com infiltrado moderado e 19% à PIA com infiltrado acentuado. Dessa forma, foi possível caracterizar a PIA prostática canina e constatar alta ocorrência dessa alteração nos cães examinados. Considera-se de grande importância a caracterização histomorfológica da PIA em cães, já que essa lesão vem sendo estudada na próstata humana quanto ao potencial pré-maligno. Ressalta-se ainda a possibilidade de utilização da próstata do cão como modelo experimental da PIA humana, considerando a semelhança dessa afecção prostática em ambas as espécies.Proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA is a premalignant prostatic change with high occurrence in human prostate and it has been recently observed in dogs. This research aimed to verify the morphologic aspects of the PIA in canine prostate. It was studied 43 glands of adult dogs of several breeds and sizes and with or without a history of prostatic disease. PIA focus was characterized by dysplastic epithelium, atrophic acini formed by several layers of cells with variable degrees of

  7. The biodistribution of boron in normal canine tissues following borocaptate sodium administration and the effect of plasma exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, S.L.; Gavin, P.R.; DeHaan, C.E.; Ary, T.E.; Bauer, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    Normal tissue tolerance establishes the dose limitations for any form of radiation therapy. The complexity of the mixed form of radiation from Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) makes it difficult to predict normal tissue tolerance. A premise for BNCT is that the ideal boron compound should result in minimal boron concentrations in normal tissues and blood and high concentrations in tumor tissue. Borocaptate sodium (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH or BSH) was administered to a set of dogs with naturally-occurring, intracranial tumors to evaluate the relative boron distribution in neoplastic and normal tissue. Data on the biodistribution of boron to these normal tissues is presented here in context of normal tissue tolerance. Since boron from BSH binds significantly to plasma proteins, plasma exchange following BSH infusion in a set of normal laboratory dogs was performed to evaluate the effect on blood and tissue concentrations as a potential means to increase normal tissue tolerance

  8. Canine Distemper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although this brochure provides basic information about canine distemper, your veterinarian is always your best source of ... Consult your veterinarian for more information about canine distemper and its prevention. And Now A Note On ...

  9. Interpatient variation in normal peripheral zone apparent diffusion coefficient: effect on the prediction of prostate cancer aggressiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litjens, G.J.S.; Hambrock, T.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Huisman, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the interpatient variability of prostate peripheral zone (PZ) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and its effect on the assessment of prostate cancer aggressiveness. Materials and Methods: The requirement for institutional review board approval was waived. Intra- and

  10. Gene expression relationship between prostate cancer cells of Gleason 3, 4 and normal epithelial cells as revealed by cell type-specific transcriptomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Laura E; Liu, Alvin Y; Vêncio, Ricardo ZN; Page, Laura S; Liebeskind, Emily S; Shadle, Christina P; Troisch, Pamela; Marzolf, Bruz; True, Lawrence D; Hood, Leroy E

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells in primary tumors have been typed CD10 - /CD13 - /CD24 hi /CD26 + /CD38 lo /CD44 - /CD104 - . This CD phenotype suggests a lineage relationship between cancer cells and luminal cells. The Gleason grade of tumors is a descriptive of tumor glandular differentiation. Higher Gleason scores are associated with treatment failure. CD26 + cancer cells were isolated from Gleason 3+3 (G3) and Gleason 4+4 (G4) tumors by cell sorting, and their gene expression or transcriptome was determined by Affymetrix DNA array analysis. Dataset analysis was used to determine gene expression similarities and differences between G3 and G4 as well as to prostate cancer cell lines and histologically normal prostate luminal cells. The G3 and G4 transcriptomes were compared to those of prostatic cell types of non-cancer, which included luminal, basal, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial. A principal components analysis of the various transcriptome datasets indicated a closer relationship between luminal and G3 than luminal and G4. Dataset comparison also showed that the cancer transcriptomes differed substantially from those of prostate cancer cell lines. Genes differentially expressed in cancer are potential biomarkers for cancer detection, and those differentially expressed between G3 and G4 are potential biomarkers for disease stratification given that G4 cancer is associated with poor outcomes. Differentially expressed genes likely contribute to the prostate cancer phenotype and constitute the signatures of these particular cancer cell types

  11. Withaferin A Induces Cell Death Selectively in Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cells but Not in Normal Fibroblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Nishikawa

    Full Text Available Withaferin A (WA, a major bioactive component of the Indian herb Withania somnifera, induces cell death (apoptosis/necrosis in multiple types of tumor cells, but the molecular mechanism underlying this cytotoxicity remains elusive. We report here that 2 μM WA induced cell death selectively in androgen-insensitive PC-3 and DU-145 prostate adenocarcinoma cells, whereas its toxicity was less severe in androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate adenocarcinoma cells and normal human fibroblasts (TIG-1 and KD. WA also killed PC-3 cells in spheroid-forming medium. DNA microarray analysis revealed that WA significantly increased mRNA levels of c-Fos and 11 heat-shock proteins (HSPs in PC-3 and DU-145, but not in LNCaP and TIG-1. Western analysis revealed increased expression of c-Fos and reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic protein c-FLIP(L. Expression of HSPs such as HSPA6 and Hsp70 was conspicuously elevated; however, because siRNA-mediated depletion of HSF-1, an HSP-inducing transcription factor, reduced PC-3 cell viability, it is likely that these heat-shock genes were involved in protecting against cell death. Moreover, WA induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in PC-3 and DU-145, but not in normal fibroblasts. Immunocytochemistry and immuno-electron microscopy revealed that WA disrupted the vimentin cytoskeleton, possibly inducing the ROS generation, c-Fos expression and c-FLIP(L suppression. These observations suggest that multiple events followed by disruption of the vimentin cytoskeleton play pivotal roles in WA-mediated cell death.

  12. Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Eduardo J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses cornerstone of Montessori theory, normalization, which asserts that if a child is placed in an optimum prepared environment where inner impulses match external opportunities, the undeviated self emerges, a being totally in harmony with its surroundings. Makes distinctions regarding normalization, normalized, and normality, indicating how…

  13. HDR monotherapy for prostate cancer: A simulation study to determine the effect of catheter displacement on target coverage and normal tissue irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.-K.K. Kolkman-Deurloo (Inger-Karina); M.A. Roos (Martin); S. Aluwini (Shafak)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The aim of this study was to systematically analyse the effect of catheter displacements both on target coverage and normal tissue irradiation in fractionated high dose rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy, using a simulation study, and to define tolerances for catheter

  14. Bilateral supernumerary primary maxillary canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Mukhopadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are more common in the permanent than in primary dentition. In the primary dentition, the anomaly is most frequently observed in the maxillary lateral incisor region, followed by the maxillary midline where they are termed as mesiodens. Supernumerary teeth in the primary canine region are rare. This paper describes a rare case of nonsyndromic supernumerary primary maxillary canine distributed bilaterally in a 4-year-old boy. Both the supernumeraries resembled size and shape of normal primary canine. The right supplemental canine is high labially placed, whereas the left one is seen normally aligned in the dental arch distal to lateral incisor. One of the most significant sequelae of primary supernumerary teeth is their duplication in the permanent series. Radiographic examination of supernumerary primary canine did not indicate any such anomaly in the permanent dentition. The patient was kept under observation.

  15. A New MRI-Based Model of Heart Function with Coupled Hemodynamics and Application to Normal and Diseased Canine Left Ventricles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Joon; Constantino, Jason; Vedula, Vijay; Trayanova, Natalia; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    A methodology for the simulation of heart function that combines an MRI-based model of cardiac electromechanics (CE) with a Navier–Stokes-based hemodynamics model is presented. The CE model consists of two coupled components that simulate the electrical and the mechanical functions of the heart. Accurate representations of ventricular geometry and fiber orientations are constructed from the structural magnetic resonance and the diffusion tensor MR images, respectively. The deformation of the ventricle obtained from the electromechanical model serves as input to the hemodynamics model in this one-way coupled approach via imposed kinematic wall velocity boundary conditions and at the same time, governs the blood flow into and out of the ventricular volume. The time-dependent endocardial surfaces are registered using a diffeomorphic mapping algorithm, while the intraventricular blood flow patterns are simulated using a sharp-interface immersed boundary method-based flow solver. The utility of the combined heart-function model is demonstrated by comparing the hemodynamic characteristics of a normal canine heart beating in sinus rhythm against that of the dyssynchronously beating failing heart. We also discuss the potential of coupled CE and hemodynamics models for various clinical applications. PMID:26442254

  16. A new plan-scoring method using normal tissue complication probability for personalized treatment plan decisions in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Hyeon; Lee, Suk; Shim, Jang Bo; Yang, Dae Sik; Yoon, Won Sup; Park, Young Je; Kim, Chul Yong; Cao, Yuan Jie; Chang, Kyung Hwan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to derive a new plan-scoring index using normal tissue complication probabilities to verify different plans in the selection of personalized treatment. Plans for 12 patients treated with tomotherapy were used to compare scoring for ranking. Dosimetric and biological indexes were analyzed for the plans for a clearly distinguishable group ( n = 7) and a similar group ( n = 12), using treatment plan verification software that we developed. The quality factor ( QF) of our support software for treatment decisions was consistent with the final treatment plan for the clearly distinguishable group (average QF = 1.202, 100% match rate, n = 7) and the similar group (average QF = 1.058, 33% match rate, n = 12). Therefore, we propose a normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) based on the plan scoring index for verification of different plans for personalized treatment-plan selection. Scoring using the new QF showed a 100% match rate (average NTCP QF = 1.0420). The NTCP-based new QF scoring method was adequate for obtaining biological verification quality and organ risk saving using the treatment-planning decision-support software we developed for prostate cancer.

  17. Qualitative dose response of the normal canine head to epithermal neutron irradiation with and without boron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHaan, C.E.; Gavin, P.R.; Kraft, S.L.; Wheeler, F.J.; Atkinson, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is being re-evaluated for the treatment of intracranial tumors. Prior to human clinical trials, determination of normal tissue tolerance is critical. Dogs were chosen as a large animal model for the following reasons. Dogs can be evaluated with advanced imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Dogs are amenable to detailed neurologic examination and subtle behavioral changes are easily detected. Specifically, Labrador retrievers were chosen for their large body and head size. The dogs received varying doses of epithermal neutron irradiation and boron neutron capture irradiation using an epithermal neutron source. The dogs were closely monitored for up to one year post irradiation

  18. Reduced activity of double-strand break repair genes in prostate cancer patients with late normal tissue radiation toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, Bregje; Hovingh, Suzanne E.; Moerland, Perry D.; Medema, Jan Paul; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Vrieling, Harry; Franken, Nicolaas A. P.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate clinical parameters and DNA damage response as possible risk factors for radiation toxicity in the setting of prostate cancer. Clinical parameters of 61 prostate cancer patients, 34 with (overresponding, OR) and 27 without (non-responding, NR) severe late radiation toxicity were

  19. Gene expression in normal-appearing tissue adjacent to prostate cancers are predictive of clinical outcome: evidence for a biologically meaningful field effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Maddala, Tara; Falzarano, Sara Moscovita; Cherbavaz, Diana B.; Zhang, Nan; Knezevic, Dejan; Febbo, Phillip G.; Lee, Mark; Lawrence, Hugh Jeffrey; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated gene expression in histologically normal-appearing tissue (NT) adjacent to prostate tumor in radical prostatectomy specimens, assessing for biological significance based on prediction of clinical recurrence (cR - metastatic disease or local recurrence). Results A total of 410 evaluable patients had paired tumor and NT. Fortysix genes, representing diverse biological pathways (androgen signaling, stromal response, stress response, cellular organization, proliferation, cell adhesion, and chromatin remodeling) were associated with cR in NT (FDR < 20%), of which 39 concordantly predicted cR in tumor (FDR < 20%). Overall GPS and its stromal response and androgen-signaling gene group components also significantly predicted time to cR in NT (RM-corrected HR/20 units = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01-1.56; P = 0.024). Experimental Design Expression of 732 genes was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) separately in tumor and adjacent NT specimens from 127 patients with and 374 without cR following radical prostatectomy for T1/T2 prostate cancer. A 17-gene expression signature (Genomic Prostate Score [GPS]), previously validated to predict aggressive prostate cancer when measured in tumor tissue, was also assessed using pre-specified genes and algorithms. Analysis used Cox proportional hazards models, Storey's false discovery rate (FDR) control, and regression to the mean (RM) correction. Conclusions Gene expression profiles, including GPS, from NT adjacent to tumor can predict prostate cancer outcome. These findings suggest that there is a biologically significant field effect in primary prostate cancer that is a marker for aggressive disease. PMID:27121323

  20. TRPM8 ion channels differentially modulate proliferation and cell cycle distribution of normal and cancer prostate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, María Ll; Mello de Queiroz, Fernanda; Stühmer, Walter; Viana, Félix; Pardo, Luis A

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of the cation-permeable channel TRPM8 in prostate cancers might represent a novel opportunity for their treatment. Inhibitors of TRPM8 reduce the growth of prostate cancer cells. We have used two recently described and highly specific blockers, AMTB and JNJ41876666, and RNAi to determine the relevance of TRPM8 expression in the proliferation of non-tumor and tumor cells. Inhibition of the expression or function of the channel reduces proliferation rates and proliferative fraction in all tumor cells tested, but not of non-tumor prostate cells. We observed no consistent acceleration of growth after stimulation of the channel with menthol or icilin, indicating that basal TRPM8 expression is enough to sustain growth of prostate cancer cells.

  1. PI-RADS version 2: Preoperative role in the detection of normal-sized pelvic lymph node metastasis in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Yoon; Shin, Su-Jin; Jung, Dae Chul; Cho, Nam Hoon; Choi, Young Deuk; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Oh, Young Taik

    2017-06-01

    To analyze whether Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADSv2) scores are associated with a risk of normal-sized pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM) in prostate cancer (PCa). A consecutive series of 221 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging and radical prostatectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) for PCa were retrospectively analyzed under the approval of institutional review board in our institution. No patients had enlarged (≥0.8cm in short-axis diameter) lymph nodes. Clinical parameters [prostate-specific antigen (PSA), greatest percentage of biopsy core, and percentage of positive cores], and PI-RADSv2 score from two independent readers were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating-characteristic curve for PLNM. Diagnostic performance of PI-RADSv2 and Briganti nomogram was compared. Weighted kappa was investigated regarding PI-RADSv2 scoring. Normal-sized PLNM was found in 9.5% (21/221) of patients. In multivariate analysis, PI-RADSv2 (reader 1, p=0.009; reader 2, p=0.026) and PSA (reader 1, p=0.008; reader 2, p=0.037) were predictive of normal-sized PLNM. Threshold of PI-RADSv2 was a score of 5, where PI-RADSv2 was associated with high sensitivity (reader 1, 95.2% [20/21]; reader 2, 90.5% [19/21]) and negative predictive value (reader 1, 99.2% [124/125]; reader 2, 98.6% [136/138]). However, diagnostic performance of PI-RADSv2 (AUC=0.786-0.788) was significantly lower than that of Briganti nomogram (AUC=0.890) for normal-sized PLNM (pPI-RADSv2 of 5 or not (weighted kappa=0.804). PI-RADSv2 scores may be associated with the risk of normal-sized PLNM in PCa. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K.; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-01-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistr...

  3. Glycoproteomics: identifying the glycosylation of prostate specific antigen at normal and high isoelectric points by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ehwang; Mayampurath, Anoop; Yu, Chuan-Yih; Tang, Haixu; Mechref, Yehia

    2014-12-05

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker to diagnose prostate cancer. PSA testing has been widely used to detect and screen prostate cancer. However, in the diagnostic gray zone, the PSA test does not clearly distinguish between benign prostate hypertrophy and prostate cancer due to their overlap. To develop more specific and sensitive candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer, an in-depth understanding of the biochemical characteristics of PSA (such as glycosylation) is needed. PSA has a single glycosylation site at Asn69, with glycans constituting approximately 8% of the protein by weight. Here, we report the comprehensive identification and quantitation of N-glycans from two PSA isoforms using LC-MS/MS. There were 56 N-glycans associated with PSA, whereas 57 N-glycans were observed in the case of the PSA-high isoelectric point (pI) isoform (PSAH). Three sulfated/phosphorylated glycopeptides were detected, the identification of which was supported by tandem MS data. One of these sulfated/phosphorylated N-glycans, HexNAc5Hex4dHex1s/p1 was identified in both PSA and PSAH at relative intensities of 0.52 and 0.28%, respectively. Quantitatively, the variations were monitored between these two isoforms. Because we were one of the laboratories participating in the 2012 ABRF Glycoprotein Research Group (gPRG) study, those results were compared to that presented in this study. Our qualitative and quantitative results summarized here were comparable to those that were summarized in the interlaboratory study.

  4. Glycoproteomics: Identifying the Glycosylation of Prostate Specific Antigen at Normal and High Isoelectric Points by LC–MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker to diagnose prostate cancer. PSA testing has been widely used to detect and screen prostate cancer. However, in the diagnostic gray zone, the PSA test does not clearly distinguish between benign prostate hypertrophy and prostate cancer due to their overlap. To develop more specific and sensitive candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer, an in-depth understanding of the biochemical characteristics of PSA (such as glycosylation) is needed. PSA has a single glycosylation site at Asn69, with glycans constituting approximately 8% of the protein by weight. Here, we report the comprehensive identification and quantitation of N-glycans from two PSA isoforms using LC–MS/MS. There were 56 N-glycans associated with PSA, whereas 57 N-glycans were observed in the case of the PSA-high isoelectric point (pI) isoform (PSAH). Three sulfated/phosphorylated glycopeptides were detected, the identification of which was supported by tandem MS data. One of these sulfated/phosphorylated N-glycans, HexNAc5Hex4dHex1s/p1 was identified in both PSA and PSAH at relative intensities of 0.52 and 0.28%, respectively. Quantitatively, the variations were monitored between these two isoforms. Because we were one of the laboratories participating in the 2012 ABRF Glycoprotein Research Group (gPRG) study, those results were compared to that presented in this study. Our qualitative and quantitative results summarized here were comparable to those that were summarized in the interlaboratory study. PMID:25327667

  5. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Haustermans, Karin; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Van den Heuvel, Frank; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011–0.013) clinical factor was “previous abdominal surgery.” As second significant (p = 0.012–0.016) factor, “cardiac history” was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including “diabetes” was significant (p = 0.039–0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003–0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D 50 . Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions

  6. BTG2 Antiproliferative Gene and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walden, Paul D

    2007-01-01

    Levels of the BTG2 tumor suppressor protein diminish during the transition of normal prostate epithelial cells into prostate cancer cells and restoration of BTG2 expression in prostate cancer cells...

  7. Canine Parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finally, do not let your puppy or adult dog to come into contact with the fecal waste of other dogs while walking or playing outdoors. Prompt and proper ... advisable as a way to limit spread of canine parvovirus infection as well as other diseases that ...

  8. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  9. Canine olfactory detection of malignant melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Leon Frederick; Farmery, Luke; George, Susannah Mary Creighton; Farrant, Paul B J

    2013-01-01

    Our patient is a 75-year-old man who presented after his pet dog licked persistently at an asymptomatic lesion behind his right ear. Examination revealed a nodular lesion in the postauricular sulcus. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma, which was subsequently excised. Canine olfactory detection of human malignancy is a well-documented phenomenon. Advanced olfaction is hypothesised to explain canine detection of bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate and skin cancers. Further research in this area may facilitate the development of a highly accurate aid to diagnosis for many malignancies, including melanoma. PMID:24127369

  10. Danish Prostate Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, J Thomas; Klemann, Nina; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2016-01-01

    of the prostate (TUR-Ps), and the remaining 22,028 (13.6%) specimens were derived from radical prostatectomies, bladder interventions, etc. A total of 48,078 (42.2%) males had histopathologically verified prostate cancer, and of these, 78.8% and 16.8% were diagnosed on prostate biopsies and TUR-Ps, respectively....... FUTURE PERSPECTIVES: A validated algorithm was successfully developed to convert complex prostate SNOMED codes into clinical useful data. A unique database, including males with both normal and cancerous histopathological data, was created to form the most comprehensive national prostate database to date...

  11. Expression and functional implications of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in canine reproductive tissues during normal pregnancy and parturition and at antiprogestin induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Mariusz Pawel; Meyer, Andrea; Hoffmann, Bernd; Aslan, Selim; Boos, Alois

    2011-03-15

    PPARγ is a nuclear hormone receptor of the PPAR family of transcription factors closely related to the steroid hormone receptors serving multiple roles in regulating reproductive function. Endogenous factors from the arachidonic acid metabolites group serve as ligands for PPARs. PPARγ modifies the steroidogenic capacity of reproductive tissues and has been defined as a key mediator of biological actions of progesterone receptor in granulosa cells; it modulates biochemical and morphological placental trophoblast differentiation during implantation and placentation. However, no such information is available for the dog. Hence, the expression and possible functions of PPARγ were assessed in corpora lutea (CL) and utero/placental (Ut/Pl) compartment collected from bitches (n = 3 to 5) on days 8 to 12 (pre-implantation), 18 to 25 (post-implantation), 35 to 40 (mid-gestation) of pregnancy and at prepartal luteolysis. Additionally, 10 mid-pregnant bitches were treated with the antiprogestin Aglepristone [10mg/Kg bw (2x/24h)]; ovariohysterectomy was 24h and 72 h after the 2nd treatment. Of the two PPARγ isoforms, PPARγ1 was the only isoform clearly detectable in all canine CL and utero/placental samples. The luteal PPARγ was upregulated throughout pregnancy, a prepartal downregulation was observed. Placental expression of PPARγ was elevated after implantation and at mid-gestation, followed by a prepartal downregulation. All changes were more pronounced at the protein-level suggesting that the PPARγ expression may be regulated at the post-transcriptional level. Within the CL PPARγ was localized to the luteal cells. Placental expression was targeted solely to the fetal trophoblast cells; a regulatory role of PPARγ in canine placental development possibly through influencing the invasion of fetal trophoblast cells is suggested. Treatment with Aglepristone led to downregulation of PPARγ in either compartment, implying the functional interrelationship with

  12. Next Generation Quality: Assessing the Physician in Clinical History Completeness and Diagnostic Interpretations Using Funnel Plots and Normalized Deviations Plots in 3,854 Prostate Biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonert, Michael; El-Shinnawy, Ihab; Carvalho, Michael; Williams, Phillip; Salama, Samih; Tang, Damu; Kapoor, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Observational data and funnel plots are routinely used outside of pathology to understand trends and improve performance. Extract diagnostic rate (DR) information from free text surgical pathology reports with synoptic elements and assess whether inter-rater variation and clinical history completeness information useful for continuous quality improvement (CQI) can be obtained. All in-house prostate biopsies in a 6-year period at two large teaching hospitals were extracted and then diagnostically categorized using string matching, fuzzy string matching, and hierarchical pruning. DRs were then stratified by the submitting physicians and pathologists. Funnel plots were created to assess for diagnostic bias. 3,854 prostate biopsies were found and all could be diagnostically classified. Two audits involving the review of 700 reports and a comparison of the synoptic elements with the free text interpretations suggest a categorization error rate of 40 cases and together assessed 3,690 biopsies. There was considerable inter-rater variability and a trend toward more World Health Organization/International Society of Urologic Pathology Grade 1 cancers in older pathologists. Normalized deviations plots, constructed using the median DR, and standard error can elucidate associated over- and under-calls for an individual pathologist in relation to their practice group. Clinical history completeness by submitting medical doctor varied significantly (100% to 22%). Free text data analyses have some limitations; however, they could be used for data-driven CQI in anatomical pathology, and could lead to the next generation in quality of care.

  13. Mice lacking lipid droplet-associated hydrolase, a gene linked to human prostate cancer, have normal cholesterol ester metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kory, Nora; Grond, Susanne; Kamat, Siddhesh S

    2017-01-01

    Variations in the gene LDAH (C2ORF43), which encodes lipid droplet-associated hydrolase (LDAH), are among few loci associated with human prostate cancer. Homologs of LDAH have been identified as proteins of lipid droplets (LDs). LDs are cellular organelles that store neutral lipids, such as triac......Variations in the gene LDAH (C2ORF43), which encodes lipid droplet-associated hydrolase (LDAH), are among few loci associated with human prostate cancer. Homologs of LDAH have been identified as proteins of lipid droplets (LDs). LDs are cellular organelles that store neutral lipids......, such as triacylglycerols and sterol esters, as precursors for membrane components and as reservoirs of metabolic energy. LDAH is reported to hydrolyze cholesterol esters and to be important in macrophage cholesterol ester metabolism. Here, we confirm that LDAH is localized to LDs in several model systems. We generated...... a murine model in which Ldah is disrupted but found no evidence for a major function of LDAH in cholesterol ester or triacylglycerol metabolism in vivo, nor a role in energy or glucose metabolism. Our data suggest that LDAH is not a major cholesterol ester hydrolase, and an alternative metabolic function...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the prostate is enlarged, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any ... size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- ...

  15. Proof of Concept for Systematic Collection of Optimal Molecular Quality Anatomically Oriented Normal Prostate from Diverse Age and Race Transplant Donors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bova, G. S

    2006-01-01

    ... (transurethral resection of the prostate) samples from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, cystoprostatectomy specimens in men with bladder cancer, or rarely from autopsy samples collected no sooner than 12-24 hours after death, although...

  16. Molecular cloning of canine Wilms' tumor 1 for immunohistochemical analysis in canine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Osamu; Sakurai, Masashi; Sakai, Hiroki; Kubo, Masahito; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Baba, Kenji; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

    2017-07-28

    Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) expression has been investigated in various human cancers as a target molecule for cancer immunotherapy. However, few studies have focused on WT1 expression in dogs. Firstly, cDNA of canine WT1 (cWT1) was molecularly cloned from normal canine kidney. The cross-reactivity of the anti-human WT1 monoclonal antibody (6F-H2) with cWT1 was confirmed via Western blotting using cells overexpressing cWT1. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that cWT1 expression was detected in all canine lymphoma tissues and in some normal canine tissues, including the kidney and lymph node. cWT1 is a potential immunotherapy target against canine cancers.

  17. Identification of 5α-reductase isoenzymes in canine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi de Souza, Lucilene; Paradis, Manon; Zamberlam, Gustavo; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile; Price, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Alopecia X in dogs is a noninflammatory alopecia that may be caused by a hormonal dysfunction. It may be similar to androgenic alopecia in men that is caused by the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The 5α-reductase isoenzymes, 5αR1 and 5αR2, and a recently described 5αR3, are responsible for the conversion of testosterone into DHT. However, which 5α-reductases are present in canine skin has not yet been described. The main objective of this study was to determine the pattern of expression of 5α-reductase genes in canine skin. Skin biopsies were obtained from healthy, intact young-mature beagles (three males, four females) at three anatomical sites normally affected by alopecia X (dorsal neck, back of thighs and base of tail) and two sites generally unaffected (dorsal head and ventral thorax). Prostate samples (n = 3) were collected as positive controls for 5α-reductase mRNA abundance measurement by real-time PCR. We detected mRNA encoding 5αR1 and 5αR3 but not 5αR2. There were no significant differences in 5αR1 and 5αR3 mRNA levels between the different anatomical sites, irrespective of gender (P > 0.05). Moreover, the mean mRNA abundance in each anatomical site did not differ between males and females (P > 0.05). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the expression of 5α-reductases in canine skin and the expression of 5αR3 in this tissue. These results may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of alopecia X and to determine more appropriate treatments for this disorder. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  18. Pre-therapeutic dosimetry of normal organs and tissues of {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617 prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) inhibitor in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabasakal, Levent; AbuQbeitah, Mohammad; Ayguen, Aslan; Yeyin, Nami [Istanbul University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Ocak, Meltem [Istanbul University, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmacy Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Demirci, Emre [Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Toklu, Turkay [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-12-15

    {sup 177}Lu-617-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand seems to be a promising tracer for radionuclide therapy of progressive prostate cancer. However, there are no published data regarding the radiation dose given to the normal tissues. The aim of the present study was to estimate the pretreatment radiation doses in patients who will undergo radiometabolic therapy using a tracer amount of {sup 177}Lu-labeled PSMA ligand. The study included seven patients with progressive prostate cancer with a mean age of 63.9 ± 3.9 years. All patients had prior PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and had intense tracer uptake at the lesions. The injected {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617 activity ranged from 185 to 210 MBq with a mean of 192.6 ± 11.0 MBq. To evaluate bone marrow absorbed dose 2-cc blood samples were withdrawn in short variable times (3, 15, 30, 60, and 180 min and 24, 48, and 120 h) after injection. Whole-body images were obtained at 4, 24, 48, and 120 h post-injection (p.i.). The geometric mean of anterior and posterior counts was determined through region of interest (ROI) analysis. Attenuation correction was applied using PSMA PET/CT images. The OLINDA/EXM dosimetry program was used for curve fitting, residence time calculation, and absorbed dose calculations. The calculated radiation-absorbed doses for each organ showed substantial variation. The highest radiation estimated doses were calculated for parotid glands and kidneys. Calculated radiation-absorbed doses per megabecquerel were 1.17 ± 0.31 mGy for parotid glands and 0.88 ± 0.40 mGy for kidneys. The radiation dose given to the bone marrow was significantly lower than those of kidney and parotid glands (p < 0.05). The calculated radiation dose to bone marrow was 0.03 ± 0.01 mGy/MBq. Our first results suggested that {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617 therapy seems to be a safe method. The dose-limiting organ seems to be the parotid glands rather than kidneys and bone marrow. The lesion radiation doses are

  19. Pre-therapeutic dosimetry of normal organs and tissues of (177)Lu-PSMA-617 prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) inhibitor in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Levent; AbuQbeitah, Mohammad; Aygün, Aslan; Yeyin, Nami; Ocak, Meltem; Demirci, Emre; Toklu, Turkay

    2015-12-01

    (177)Lu-617-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand seems to be a promising tracer for radionuclide therapy of progressive prostate cancer. However, there are no published data regarding the radiation dose given to the normal tissues. The aim of the present study was to estimate the pretreatment radiation doses in patients who will undergo radiometabolic therapy using a tracer amount of (177)Lu-labeled PSMA ligand. The study included seven patients with progressive prostate cancer with a mean age of 63.9 ± 3.9 years. All patients had prior PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and had intense tracer uptake at the lesions. The injected (177)Lu-PSMA-617 activity ranged from 185 to 210 MBq with a mean of 192.6 ± 11.0 MBq. To evaluate bone marrow absorbed dose 2-cc blood samples were withdrawn in short variable times (3, 15, 30, 60, and 180 min and 24, 48, and 120 h) after injection. Whole-body images were obtained at 4, 24, 48, and 120 h post-injection (p.i.). The geometric mean of anterior and posterior counts was determined through region of interest (ROI) analysis. Attenuation correction was applied using PSMA PET/CT images. The OLINDA/EXM dosimetry program was used for curve fitting, residence time calculation, and absorbed dose calculations. The calculated radiation-absorbed doses for each organ showed substantial variation. The highest radiation estimated doses were calculated for parotid glands and kidneys. Calculated radiation-absorbed doses per megabecquerel were 1.17 ± 0.31 mGy for parotid glands and 0.88 ± 0.40 mGy for kidneys. The radiation dose given to the bone marrow was significantly lower than those of kidney and parotid glands (p method. The dose-limiting organ seems to be the parotid glands rather than kidneys and bone marrow. The lesion radiation doses are within acceptable ranges; however, there is a substantial individual variance so patient dosimetry seems to be mandatory.

  20. Next generation quality: Assessing the physician in clinical history completeness and diagnostic interpretations using funnel plots and normalized deviations plots in 3,854 prostate biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bonert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Observational data and funnel plots are routinely used outside of pathology to understand trends and improve performance. Objective: Extract diagnostic rate (DR information from free text surgical pathology reports with synoptic elements and assess whether inter-rater variation and clinical history completeness information useful for continuous quality improvement (CQI can be obtained. Methods: All in-house prostate biopsies in a 6-year period at two large teaching hospitals were extracted and then diagnostically categorized using string matching, fuzzy string matching, and hierarchical pruning. DRs were then stratified by the submitting physicians and pathologists. Funnel plots were created to assess for diagnostic bias. Results: 3,854 prostate biopsies were found and all could be diagnostically classified. Two audits involving the review of 700 reports and a comparison of the synoptic elements with the free text interpretations suggest a categorization error rate of 40 cases and together assessed 3,690 biopsies. There was considerable inter-rater variability and a trend toward more World Health Organization/International Society of Urologic Pathology Grade 1 cancers in older pathologists. Normalized deviations plots, constructed using the median DR, and standard error can elucidate associated over- and under-calls for an individual pathologist in relation to their practice group. Clinical history completeness by submitting medical doctor varied significantly (100% to 22%. Conclusion: Free text data analyses have some limitations; however, they could be used for data-driven CQI in anatomical pathology, and could lead to the next generation in quality of care.

  1. Synergy of amlodipine and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in regulating myocardial oxygen consumption in normal canine and failing human hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, S; Loke, K E; Slater, J P; Addonizio, L; Gersony, W M; Hintze, T H

    1999-06-17

    The production of endogenous nitric oxide, which regulates myocardial oxygen consumption, is decreased in heart failure. As with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, amlodipine, a calcium antagonist, increases kinin-mediated nitric oxide production in coronary microvessels. We investigated the possibility of synergy between ACE inhibitors and amlodipine in regulating myocardial oxygen consumption. Left ventricular myocardium was isolated from 6 healthy dog hearts and 5 human hearts with end-stage heart failure at the time of orthotopic heart transplantation. Myocardial oxygen consumption was measured before and after administration of bradykinin, S-nitroso N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP, a nitric oxide donor), ramiprilat (an ACE inhibitor), amlodipine, and the combination of a sub-threshold dose of ramiprilat (10(-8) md/L) + amlodipine. These experiments were repeated with L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis), dichloroisocoumarin (an inhibitor of kinin synthesis), and HOE 140 (a B2 kinin-receptor antagonist). Baseline myocardial oxygen consumption in canine hearts was 182 +/- 21 nmol/g/min. Bradykinin and SNAP caused dose-dependent reductions in myocardial oxygen consumption (p <0.05). Ramiprilat and amlodipine caused a 10 +/- 3.2% and 11 +/- 0.8% reduction in myocardial oxygen consumption, respectively, when used alone (p <0.05). In the presence of a subthreshold dose of ramiprilat, amlodipine caused a larger (15 +/- 1.7%) reduction in myocardial oxygen consumption compared with either drug used alone (p <0.05). In human hearts, baseline myocardial oxygen consumption was 248 +/- 57 nmol/g/min. Amlodipine caused a larger reduction in myocardial oxygen consumption when used with ramiprilat (22 +/- 3.2%) as compared with amlodipine alone (15 +/- 2.6%). The effect of both drugs was attenuated by L-NAME, dichloroisocoumarin, and HOE 140 (p <0.05). In conclusion, ACE inhibitors and amlodipine act synergistically to

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as detailed as with the transrectal probe. An MRI of the pelvis may be obtained as an ... Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound or with a rectal examination, an ultrasound-guided biopsy can be performed. This procedure involves advancing ... of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored ...

  4. The effect of treatment positioning on normal tissue dose in patients with prostate cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelefsky, Michael J.; Happersett, Laura; Leibel, Steven A.; Burman, Chandra M.; Schwartz, Lawrence; Dicker, Adam P.; Kutcher, Gerald J.; Fuks, Zvi

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the effect of supine vs. prone treatment position on the dose to normal tissues in prostate cancer patients with the three-dimensional conformal technique. Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients underwent three-dimensional treatment planning in both the supine and prone treatment positions. The planning target volume and normal tissue structures were outlined on each CAT scan slice, and treatment plans were compared to assess the effect of treatment position on the volume of rectum, bladder, and bowel exposed to the high doses of irradiation. Results: The average dose to the rectal wall and the V95 (volume of rectal wall receiving at least 95% of the prescription dose) for the prone position were 64 and 24% of the prescription dose, respectively, compared to 72 and 29%, respectively, for the supine position (p < 0.05). When the average rectal wall dose was used as an endpoint, 14 of the 26 patients (54%) had an advantage for the prone position compared to 1 (4%) who demonstrated an advantage for the supine position (p < 0.0002). Similarly, when V95 of the rectal wall was used as a measure of comparison, 15 patients (58%) had an advantage for the prone position compared to 1 (4%) who demonstrated an advantage for the supine position (p < 0.0002). In 13 patients (50%), a change from supine to the prone position was associated with reduction of the V95 to levels < 30% of the prescription dose compared to 3 patients (11%) in whom such an advantage resulted from change of the prone to the supine position (p < 0.005). The effect of treatment position on the rectal wall dose was most pronounced in the region of the seminal vesicles. An increased volume of bowel was also noted in the supine position. The treatment position, however, had no significant impact on the dose to the bladder wall. Conclusions: Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer in the prone position is associated with significant reduction of the dose

  5. HDR monotherapy for prostate cancer: A simulation study to determine the effect of catheter displacement on target coverage and normal tissue irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K.; Roos, Martin A.; Aluwini, Shafak

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to systematically analyse the effect of catheter displacements both on target coverage and normal tissue irradiation in fractionated high dose rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy, using a simulation study, and to define tolerances for catheter displacement ensuring that both target coverage and normal tissue doses remain clinically acceptable. Besides the effect of total implant displacement, also displacements of catheters belonging to selected template rows only were evaluated in terms of target coverage and normal tissue dose, in order to analyse the change in dose distribution as a function of catheter dwell weight and catheter location. Material and methods: Five representative implant geometries, with 17 catheters each, were selected. The clinical treatment plan was compared to treatment plans in which an entire implant displacement in caudal direction over 3, 5, 7 and 10 mm was simulated. Besides, treatment plans were simulated considering a displacement of either the central, most ventral or most dorsal catheter rows only, over 5 mm caudally. Results: Due to displacement of the entire implant the target coverage drops below the tolerance of 93% for all displacements studied. The effect of displacement of the entire implant on organs at risk strongly depended on the patient anatomy; e.g., for 80% of the implant geometries the V 80 of the rectum exceeded its tolerance for all displacements. The effect of displacement of catheters belonging to selected template rows depended strongly on the relative weight of each catheter row when considering the target coverage and on its location when considering the dose in the organs at risk. Conclusion: This study supports the need for a check of the catheter locations before each fraction and correction of deviations of the catheter position exceeding 3 mm.

  6. Canine thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsohn, M.

    1985-01-01

    Thymoma is an uncommon canine neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. It is seen in various breeds but may occur more frequently in German Shepherd Dogs. Middle-aged or older dogs can be affected and no sex predilection exists. A paraneoplastic syndrome of myasthenia gravis, nonthymic malignant tumors, and/or polymyositis occurs in a significant number of dogs with thymoma. Clinical signs are variable and are related to a space-occupying cranial mediastinal mass and/or manifestations of the paraneo-plastic syndrome. Dyspnea is the most common presenting clinical sign. Thoracic radiographs usually show a cranial mediastinal mass. Lymphoma is the main differential diagnosis. A definitive diagnosis may be made by closed biopsy but is more likely to be confirmed by thoracotomy. Thymomas may be completely contained within the thymic capsule or may spread by local invasion or metastasis. A staging system allows for an accurate prognosis and a therapeutic plan. Surgical removal of encapsulated thymomas may result in long-term survival or cure. Invasive or metastatic thymomas carry a guarded prognosis. Manifestations of the paraneoplastic syndrome complicate treatment. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy may be of value for advanced cases; however, adequate clinical trials have not been done in the dog

  7. Presence of PSA auto-antibodies in men with prostate abnormalities (prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokant, M T; Naz, R K

    2015-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, liquefies post-ejaculate semen. PSA is detected in semen and blood. Increased circulating PSA levels indicate prostate abnormality [prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (PTIS)], with variance among individuals. As the prostate has been proposed as an immune organ, we hypothesise that variation in PSA levels among men may be due to presence of auto-antibodies against PSA. Sera from healthy men (n = 28) and men having prostatitis (n = 25), BPH (n = 30) or PC (n = 29) were tested for PSA antibody presence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) values converted to standard deviation (SD) units, and Western blotting. Taking ≥2 SD units as cut-off for positive immunoreactivity, 0% of normal men, 0% with prostatitis, 33% with BPH and 3.45% with PC demonstrated PSA antibodies. One-way analysis of variance (anova) performed on the mean absorbance values and SD units of each group showed BPH as significantly different (P prostatitis. All others were nonsignificant (P prostate abnormalities, especially differentiating BPH from prostate cancer and prostatitis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  9. Diode laser prostatectomy (VLAP): initial canine evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopchok, George E.; Verbin, Chris; Ayres, Bruce; Peng, Shi-Kaung; White, Rodney A.

    1995-05-01

    This study evaluated the acute and chronic effects of diode laser (960 nm) prostatectomy using a Prolase II fiber in a canine model (n equals 5). The laser fiber consists of a 1000 um quartz fiber which reflects a cone of laser energy, at 45 degree(s) to the axis of the fiber, into the prostatic urethra (Visual Laser Ablation of Prostate). Perineal access was used to guide a 15.5 Fr cystoscope to the level of the prostate. Under visual guidance and continual saline irrigation, 60 watts of laser power was delivered for 60 seconds at 3, 9, and 12 o'clock and 30 seconds at the 6 o'clock (posterior) positions for a total energy fluence of 12,600 J. One prostate received an additional 60 second exposure at 3 and 9 o'clock for a total fluence of 19,800 J. The prostates were evaluated at one day (n equals 1) and 8 weeks (n equals 4). The histopathology of laser effects at one day show areas of necrosis with loss of glandular structures and stromal edema. Surrounding this area was a zone of degenerative glandular structures extending up to 17.5 mm (cross sectional diameter). The histopathology of the 8 week laser treated animals demonstrated dilated prostatic urethras with maximum cross- sectional diameter of 23.4 mm (mean equals 18.5 +/- 3.9 mm). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of diode laser energy for prostatic tissue coagulation and eventual sloughing. The results also demonstrate the safety of diode laser energy, with similar tissue response as seen with Nd:YAG laser, for laser prostatectomy.

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland ...

  12. Cloning and characterization of canine SHARP1 and its evaluation as a positional candidate for canine early retinal degeneration (erd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukekova, Anna V; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2003-07-17

    Canine early retinal degeneration (erd) is an early onset form of canine progressive retinal atrophy phenotypically similar to human retinitis pigmentosa. In a previous study, the locus responsible for erd was mapped to canine chromosome 27 in the region corresponding to HSA12p, a region where no human retinal degeneration loci have been mapped. Canine SHARP1 gene has been localized on CFA27 in the erd interval by RH mapping, and considered as a positional candidate gene for erd. SHARP1 was cloned and sequenced from normal and erd affected dogs, and no disease-causing mutations were identified. Genotyping of 117 dogs from informative pedigrees did not reveal any recombinants between SHARP1 and erd. To date SHARP1 gene is the closest gene-specific marker to erd; genotyping additional informative pedigrees, and sequencing SHARP1 upstream regions from normal and affected dogs will be necessary to establish if SHARP1 is involved in this canine retinal disease.

  13. Canine adenoviruses and herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-07-01

    Canine adenoviruses (CAVs) and canine herpesvirus (CHV) are pathogens of dogs that have been known for several decades. The two distinct types of CAVs, type 1 and type 2, are responsible for infectious canine hepatitis and infectious tracheobronchitis, respectively. In the present article, the currently available literature on CAVs and CHV is reviewed, providing a meaningful update on the epidemiologic, pathogenetic, clinical, diagnostic, and prophylactic aspects of the infections caused by these important pathogens.

  14. Canine respiratory viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Buonavoglia , Canio; Martella , Vito

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Acute contagious respiratory disease (kennel cough) is commonly described in dogs worldwide. The disease appears to be multifactorial and a number of viral and bacterial pathogens have been reported as potential aetiological agents, including canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus and Bordetella bronchiseptica, as well as mycoplasmas, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, canine herpesvirus and reovirus-1,-2 and -3. Enhancement of pathogenicity by multiple in...

  15. The prostate health index selectively identifies clinically significant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Sanda, Martin G; Broyles, Dennis L; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Bangma, Chris H; Wei, John T; Partin, Alan W; Klee, George G; Slawin, Kevin M; Marks, Leonard S; van Schaik, Ron H N; Chan, Daniel W; Sokoll, Lori J; Cruz, Amabelle B; Mizrahi, Isaac A; Catalona, William J

    2015-04-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) is a new test combining total, free and [-2]proPSA into a single score. It was recently approved by the FDA and is now commercially available in the U.S., Europe and Australia. We investigate whether phi improves specificity for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer and can help reduce prostate cancer over diagnosis. From a multicenter prospective trial we identified 658 men age 50 years or older with prostate specific antigen 4 to 10 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination who underwent prostate biopsy. In this population we compared the performance of prostate specific antigen, % free prostate specific antigen, [-2]proPSA and phi to predict biopsy results and, specifically, the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer using multiple criteria. The Prostate Health Index was significantly higher in men with Gleason 7 or greater and "Epstein significant" cancer. On receiver operating characteristic analysis phi had the highest AUC for overall prostate cancer (AUCs phi 0.708, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.648, [-2]proPSA 0.550 and prostate specific antigen 0.516), Gleason 7 or greater (AUCs phi 0.707, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.661, [-2]proPSA 0.558, prostate specific antigen 0.551) and significant prostate cancer (AUCs phi 0.698, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.654, [-2]proPSA 0.550, prostate specific antigen 0.549). At the 90% sensitivity cut point for phi (a score less than 28.6) 30.1% of patients could have been spared an unnecessary biopsy for benign disease or insignificant prostate cancer compared to 21.7% using percent free prostate specific antigen. The new phi test outperforms its individual components of total, free and [-2]proPSA for the identification of clinically significant prostate cancer. Phi may be useful as part of a multivariable approach to reduce prostate biopsies and over diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research

  16. Optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitchian, Shahab

    Preservation of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery is critical in preserving a man's ability to have spontaneous erections following surgery. These microscopic nerves course along the surface of the prostate within a few millimeters of the prostate capsule, and they vary in size and location from one patient to another, making preservation of the nerves difficult during dissection and removal of a cancerous prostate gland. These observations may explain in part the wide variability in reported sexual potency rates (9--86%) following prostate cancer surgery. Any technology capable of providing improved identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery would be of great assistance in improving sexual function after surgery, and result in direct patient benefit. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique capable of performing high-resolution cross-sectional in vivo and in situ imaging of microstructures in biological tissues. OCT imaging of the cavernous nerves in the rat and human prostate has recently been demonstrated. However, improvements in the OCT system and the quality of the images for identification of the cavernous nerves is necessary before clinical use. The following chapters describe complementary approaches to improving identification and imaging of the cavernous nerves during OCT of the prostate gland. After the introduction to OCT imaging of the prostate gland, the optimal wavelength for deep imaging of the prostate is studied in Chapter 2. An oblique-incidence single point measurement technique using a normal-detector scanning system was implemented to determine the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients, mua and m's , of fresh canine prostate tissue, ex vivo, from the diffuse reflectance profile of near-IR light as a function of source-detector distance. The effective attenuation coefficient, mueff, and the Optical Penetration Depth (OPD) were

  17. How far is the root apex of a unilateral impacted canine from the root apices' arch form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hun; Kim, You-Min; Oh, Sewoong; Kim, Seong-Sik; Park, Soo-Byung; Son, Woo-Sung; Kim, Yong-Il

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the arch form of the root apices of normally erupting teeth and then determine the differences in the location of the apex of impacted canines relative to normally erupting canines. In addition, we sought to determine whether the labiopalatal position of the impacted canines influences the position of the apices. The study included 21 patients with unerupted canines that subsequently had a normal eruption, 21 patients with palatally impacted canines, 27 patients with labially impacted canines, and 17 patients with midalveolus impacted canines. Images were obtained using cone beam computed tomography, and the x, y, and z coordinates of the root apices were determined using Ondemand3D software (Cybermed Co., Seoul, Korea). Two-dimensional coordinates were converted from acquired 3-dimensional coordinates via projection on a palatal plane, and the Procrustes method was used to process the converted 2-dimensional coordinates and to draw the arch forms of the root apices. Finally, we measured the extent of root apex deviation from the arch forms of the root apices. Normally erupting canines showed that even though calcifications may be immature, their positions were aligned with a normal arch form. The root apices of the impacted canines were an average of 6.572 mm away from the root apices' arch form, whereas those of the contralateral nonimpacted canines were an average distance of 2.221 mm away, a statistically significant difference. The palatally impacted canines' root apices distribution tended toward the first premolar root apices. Incompletely calcified, unerupted teeth with a subsequent normal eruption showed a normal arch form of the root apices. The root apices of impacted canines were farther from the arch forms than were the nonimpacted canines. Also, the root apices of impacted canines in the palatal area showed distributions different from those of the other impacted canine groups. Copyright © 2017 American

  18. Management of impacted all canines with surgical exposure and alignment by orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine impaction is a dental problem very often encountered in orthodontic practice. After the third molar, the canine is the most frequently impacted tooth. Bringing the impacted canine into a normal position is important for functional occlusion and the final esthetics of the orthodontic treatment. This article illustrates a peculiar case, in which all four permanent canines maintained their unerupted status at age of 16 years. All four impacted canines were surgically exposed, attachment bonded, traction given with K-9 spring and ideally positioned with fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy.

  19. A diagnostic proposal to support early treatment of ectopically erupting maxillary canines

    OpenAIRE

    Taguchi, Yo; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Noda, Tadashi; 田口, 洋; 小林, 博昭; 野田, 忠

    2005-01-01

    Although early diagnosis is essential for the correction of ectopically erupting canines, it is difficult to determine whether the condition of a canine is within acceptable normal limits, particularly in children aged 10 years or younger. The purpose of the present study was to ascertain the appropriate time for a preventive procedures, such as extraction of the predecessor, in order to avert impaction ot maxillary canines. Orthopantomograms of 225 normal children without dental anomalies we...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Please help us improve RadiologyInfo.org by taking our brief survey: Survey Do ... Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate ...

  1. Health technology assessment and screening in The Netherlands: case studies of mammography in breast cancer, PSA screening in prostate cancer, and ultrasound in normal pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.; Oortwijn, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the assessment and implementation of three screening methods: mammography for breast cancer, screening for prostate cancer, and routine use of ultrasound in pregnancy. METHODS: To review policy documents and published papers dealing with prevention and screening in the

  2. [Cervical skeletal abnormalities in patients with palatally displaced canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan-Yue; Niu, Lei; Chen, Yan-Na; Zheng, Bo-Wen; Liu, Yi

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the association between palatally displaced canines and cervical skeletal abnormalities by lateral cephalometric, panoramic radiographs and cone-beam CT. One hundred and three patients with palatally displaced canines were chosen as the experimental group, and 103 patients with Class I and normal canines eruption were as the control group.The data of the first four cervical fusions and posterior arch defects were measured on the lateral cephalometrics. The relationship of the cervical skeletal abnormalities and palatally displaced canines was analyzed with SPSS 21.0 software package for Chi-square test. The incidence of cervical fusion in the experimental group was 71.84%(74 cases), while 15.53% (16 cases) in the control group; the difference between the experimental group and the control group was significant (Pcanines, and cervical vertebra bone abnormalities can be combined with other diagnostic parameters to confirm the situation of impacted canines.

  3. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R.; Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results

  4. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  5. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in the canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D T; Chari, R S; Neighbors, J D; Eubanks, S; Schuessler, W W; Preminger, G M

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of performing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in a canine model. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy was performed on six adult male canines. A new endoscopic needle driver was used to construct a secure vesicourethral anastomosis. Average operative time required to complete the procedure was 304 min (range 270-345 min). Dissection of the prostate gland took an average of 67 min (range 35-90 min), and construction of the vesicourethral anastomosis took 154 min (rage 80-240 min). There were no intraoperative complications and only one postoperative complication (anastomotic leak). Five of the six animals recovered uneventfully from the procedure, and their foley catheters were removed 10-14 days postoperatively after a retrograde cystourethrogram demonstrated an intact vesicourethral anastomosis. Four (80%) of the surviving animals were clinically continent within 10 days after catheter removal. Post mortem examination confirmed that the vesicourethral anastomosis was intact with no evidence of urine extravasation. These data demonstrate the feasibility of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in a canine model, and suggest that additional work with this technique should be continued to develop its potential clinical application.

  6. Imaging and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1996-01-01

    The use of imaging in evaluating patients with prostate cancer is highly dependent upon the purpose of the evaluation. Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, TC-99m Bone Scanning, and Positron Emission Tomography may all be utilized for imaging in prostate cancer. The utility of each of these modalities depends upon the intended purpose: for instance, screening, staging, or evaluating for progression of disease in patients with prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound is performed by placing a 5MHz to 7.5 MHz transducer in the rectum and imaging the prostate in the coronal and sagittal planes. Prostate cancer generally appears as an area of diminished echogenocity in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland. However, up to 24% of prostate cancers are isoechoic and cannot be well distinguished from the remainder of the peripheral zone. In addition, the incidence of malignancy in a lesion judged to be suspicious on ultrasound is between 20% and 25%. Therefore, while ultrasound is the least expensive of the three cross sectional imaging modalities, its relatively low specificity precludes it from being used as a screening examination. Investigators have also looked at the ability of ultrasound to evaluate the presence and extent of extracapsular spread of prostate cancer. The RDOG (Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group) multi-institutional cooperative trial reported a disappointing overall accuracy of ultrasound of 58% for staging prostate cancer. The accuracy was somewhat higher 63%, for patients with advanced disease. The other cross-sectional imaging modalities available for imaging the prostate include Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Computed Tomography is useful as an 'anatomic' imaging technique to detect lymph node enlargement. It is not sensitive in detecting microscopic nodal involvement with tumor, or tumor in non-enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. The primary prostate neoplasm is generally the same attenuation as the normal

  7. Feasibility of CBCT-based target and normal structure delineation in prostate cancer radiotherapy: Multi-observer and image multi-modality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetgendorf-Caucig, Carola; Fotina, Irina; Stock, Markus; Poetter, Richard; Goldner, Gregor; Georg, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: In-room cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging and adaptive treatment strategies are promising methods to decrease target volumes and to spare organs at risk. The aim of this work was to analyze the inter-observer contouring uncertainties of target volumes and organs at risks (oars) in localized prostate cancer radiotherapy using CBCT images. Furthermore, CBCT contouring was benchmarked against other image modalities (CT, MR) and the influence of subjective image quality perception on inter-observer variability was assessed. Methods and materials: Eight prostate cancer patients were selected. Seven radiation oncologists contoured target volumes and oars on CT, MRI and CBCT. Volumes, coefficient of variation (COV), conformity index (cigen), and coordinates of center-of-mass (COM) were calculated for each patient and image modality. Reliability analysis was performed for the support of the reported findings. Subjective perception of image quality was assessed via a ten-scored visual analog scale (VAS). Results: The median volume for prostate was larger on CT compared to MRI and CBCT images. The inter-observer variation for prostate was larger on CBCT (CIgen = 0.57 ± 0.09, 0.61 reliability) compared to CT (CIgen = 0.72 ± 0.07, 0.83 reliability) and MRI (CIgen = 0.66 ± 0.12, 0.87 reliability). On all image modalities values of the intra-observer reliability coefficient (0.97 for CT, 0.99 for MR and 0.94 for CBCT) indicated high reproducibility of results. For all patients the root mean square (RMS) of the inter-observer standard deviation (σ) of the COM was largest on CBCT with σ(x) = 0.4 mm, σ(y) = 1.1 mm, and σ(z) = 1.7 mm. The concordance in delineating OARs was much stronger than for target volumes, with average CIgen > 0.70 for rectum and CIgen > 0.80 for bladder. Positive correlations between CIgen and VAS score of the image quality were observed for the prostate, seminal vesicles and rectum. Conclusions: Inter-observer variability for target

  8. Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Jørgen; Willesen, Jakob Lundgren

    2009-01-01

    Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis is an emerging snail-borne disease causing verminous pnemonia and coagulopathy in dogs. The parasite is fund in Europe, North and South America and Africa, covering tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. Its distribution has been characterised by isolated...... larvae may not reflect what happens under field conditions. There is insufficient understanding of the spread of infection and the dynamic consequences of this parasite in the canine population. This review discusses the biology, epidemiology, clinical aspects and management of canine pulmonary...

  9. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao; Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-01-01

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  10. Radioimmunoassay of canine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigenmann, J.E.; Eigenmann, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for canine growth hormone (GH) was developed. Antibodies were elicited in rhesus monkeys. One antiserum exhibited a working titer at a dilution of 1:500 000. Radioiodination was performed enzymatically employing lactoperoxidase. Logit-log transformation and least squares fitting resulted in straight line fitting of the standard curve between 0.39 and 50 ng/ml. Formation of large-molecular [ 125 I]GH during storage caused diminished assay sensitivity. Therefore [ 125 I]GH was re-purified by gel chromatography. Using this procedure, high and reproducible assay sensitivity was obtained. Tracer preparations were used for as long as 3 months after iodination. Diluted plasma from normal and acromegalic dogs resulted in a dose-response curve parallel to the standard curve. Canine prolactin exhibited a cross-reactivity of 2%. The within-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.8 and the between-assay CV was 7.2%. Mean plasma GH concentration in normal dogs was 1.92 +- 0.14 ng/ml (mean +- SEM.) GH levels in acromegalic dogs were appreciably higher. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, arginine and ornithine administration resulted in inconsistent and sluggish GH increment. A better response was obtained by injecting a low dose of clonidine. Clonidine administration to hypopituitary dogs resulted in absent or poor GH increment. (author)

  11. Dutasteride reduces prostate size and prostate specific antigen in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia undergoing testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephanie T; Hirano, Lianne; Gilchriest, Janet; Dighe, Manjiri; Amory, John K; Marck, Brett T; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2011-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and hypogonadism are common disorders in aging men. There is concern that androgen replacement in older men may increase prostate size and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We examined whether combining dutasteride, which inhibits testosterone to dihydrotestosterone conversion, with testosterone treatment in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia reduces androgenic stimulation of the prostate compared to testosterone alone. We conducted a double-blind, placebo controlled trial of 53 men 51 to 82 years old with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate volume 30 cc or greater and serum total testosterone less than 280 ng/dl (less than 9.7 nmol/l). Subjects were randomized to daily transdermal 1% T gel plus oral placebo or dutasteride for 6 months. Testosterone dosing was adjusted to a serum testosterone of 500 to 1,000 ng/dl. The primary outcomes were prostate volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging, serum prostate specific antigen and androgen levels. A total of 46 subjects completed all procedures. Serum testosterone increased similarly into the mid-normal range in both groups. Serum dihydrotestosterone increased in the testosterone only but decreased in the testosterone plus dutasteride group. In the testosterone plus dutasteride group prostate volume and prostate specific antigen (mean ± SEM) decreased 12% ± 2.5% and 35% ± 5%, respectively, compared to the testosterone only group in which prostate volume and prostate specific antigen increased 7.5% ± 3.3% and 19% ± 7% (p = 0.03 and p = 0.008), respectively, after 6 months of treatment. Prostate symptom scores improved in both groups. Combined treatment with testosterone plus dutasteride reduces prostate volume and prostate specific antigen compared to testosterone only. Coadministration of a 5α-reductase inhibitor with testosterone appears to spare the prostate from androgenic stimulation during testosterone replacement in older

  12. Morphology and neurochemistry of canine corneal innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfurt, C F; Murphy, C J; Florczak, J L

    2001-09-01

    To determine the architectural pattern and neuropeptide content of canine corneal innervation. Corneal nerve fibers in normal dog eyes were labeled immunohistochemically with antibodies against protein gene product (PGP)-9.5, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Relative innervation densities and distribution patterns for each fiber population were assessed qualitatively by serial line-drawing reconstructions and quantitatively by computer-assisted analyses. More than 99% of all corneal PGP-9.5-immunoreactive (IR) nerves contained both CGRP and SP, approximately 30% contained TH, and none contained VIP. Distribution patterns of corneal PGP-9.5-, CGRP-, SP-, and TH-IR nerves were indistinguishable, except that TH-IR fibers were absent from the corneal epithelium. Morphologically, canine corneal innervation consisted of a rich anterior stromal plexus, divided on the basis of morphologic criteria into anterior and posterior levels, and a rich epithelial innervation, characterized by large numbers of horizontally oriented, basal epithelial "leash" formations. Leash axons in all quadrants of the corneal epithelium oriented preferentially toward a common locus in the perilimbal cornea. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time the detailed architectural features, distinctive basal epithelial leash orientations, and peptidergic content of canine corneal innervation. The normal innervation pattern described in this study will provide other investigators with essential baseline data for assessing corneal nerve alterations in canine patients with spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects (SCCED) and other ocular diseases or injuries.

  13. Prostatic adenocarcinoma with osseous metastases in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee-Parritz, D.E.; Lamb, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy was used to diagnose osseous metastasis of prostatic adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old dog with neck pain and ataxia and a large, sensitive prostate gland. Although radiography revealed a normal spine, prostatic fluid cytologic and ultrasonographic findings were compatible with prostatitis or neoplasia. Scintigraphic hot spots were seen in the axial skeleton, ribs, pelvis, humerus, and femur and corresponded to sites of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such ... also called transrectal ultrasound, provides images of a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) ... or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is ... in front of the rectum. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) ...

  20. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is used to guide the biopsy to specific regions of the prostate gland. When the examination is ... is relatively insensitive to the pain in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time ...

  2. Molecular cloning of canine Wilms? tumor 1 for immunohistochemical analysis in canine tissues

    OpenAIRE

    SAKAI, Osamu; SAKURAI, Masashi; SAKAI, Hiroki; KUBO, Masahito; HIRAOKA, Hiroko; BABA, Kenji; OKUDA, Masaru; MIZUNO, Takuya

    2017-01-01

    Wilms? tumor 1 (WT1) expression has been investigated in various human cancers as a target molecule for cancer immunotherapy. However, few studies have focused on WT1 expression in dogs. Firstly, cDNA of canine WT1 (cWT1) was molecularly cloned from normal canine kidney. The cross-reactivity of the anti-human WT1 monoclonal antibody (6F-H2) with cWT1 was confirmed via Western blotting using cells overexpressing cWT1. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that cWT1 expression was detected in a...

  3. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva Santos, Ludmilla Mota [Dept. of Endodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Paulista State University, Aracatuba(Brazil); Bastos, Luana Costa; Da Silva, Silvio Jose Albergaria; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores [School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil); Oliveira Santos, Christiano [Dept. of Stomatology, Oral Public Health, and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Neves, Frederico Sampaio [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  4. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva Santos, Ludmilla Mota; Bastos, Luana Costa; Da Silva, Silvio Jose Albergaria; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores; Oliveira Santos, Christiano; Neves, Frederico Sampaio

    2014-01-01

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  5. The prognostic value of transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy in patients over 70 years old with a prostate specific Antigen (PSA) level ≤ 15 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination: a 10-year prospective follow-up study of 427 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Zakir K; Dominguez-Escrig, Jose; Vasdev, Nikhil; Bharathan, Balamurali; Greene, Damian

    2013-11-01

    As a urologist, it is common to review a patient above the age of 70 being referred to a prostate assessments clinic with an elevated PSA. We evaluate the prognosis of these patients clinically as there is no international consensus on the exact PSA cutoff level or a single international guideline as to when these patients should be offered a prostate biopsy. On receiving ethic committee approval, we recruited 427 consecutive patients aged 70 years and above referred with a PSA of ≥ 4 ng/ml, from January 1996 to December 2000, into our study. All patients were assessed, examined with a digital rectal examination (DRE) of the prostate, and a subsequent prostate biopsy. We followed up on their histologic diagnosis for up to 10 years and analyzed their outcome. The main outcome measures were disease-free survival and overall survival, stratified according to the PSA level (≤ 15 vs. >15 ng/ml) and DRE findings (normal vs. sbnormal). There was a statistically significant difference in the overall survival (P value PSA was >15 ng/ml and an abnormal DRE. However, in patients with a PSA ≤ 15 ng/ml and normal DRE, the incidence of cancer was low and they had no disease-specific or overall survival benefit. A policy of deferring prostate biopsy in patients with a PSA ≤ 15 ng/ml and normal DRE (Group A) would significantly decrease the need of unnecessary prostate biopsies. Within this group, patients did not have any survival advantage compared with those without cancer. We conclude that up to 20% of the prostate biopsies performed in this age group could have been avoided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In vivo optoacoustic temperature imaging for image-guided cryotherapy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, E. V.; Brecht, H. P.; Motamedi, M.; Oraevsky, A. A.; Ermilov, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate in vivo the feasibility of optoacoustic temperature imaging during cryotherapy of prostate cancer. We developed a preclinical prototype optoacoustic temperature imager that included pulsed optical excitation at a wavelength of 805 nm, a modified clinical transrectal ultrasound probe, a parallel data acquisition system, image processing and visualization software. Cryotherapy of a canine prostate was performed in vivo using a commercial clinical system, Cryocare® CS, with an integrated ultrasound imaging. The universal temperature-dependent optoacoustic response of blood was employed to convert reconstructed optoacoustic images to temperature maps. Optoacoustic imaging of temperature during prostate cryotherapy was performed in the longitudinal view over a region of 30 mm (long)  ×  10 mm (deep) that covered the rectum, the Denonvilliers fascia, and the posterior portion of the treated gland. The transrectal optoacoustic images showed high-contrast vascularized regions, which were used for quantitative estimation of local temperature profiles. The constructed temperature maps and their temporal dynamics were consistent with the arrangement of the cryoprobe and readouts of the thermal needle sensors. The temporal profiles of the readouts from the thermal needle sensors and the temporal profile estimated from the normalized optoacoustic intensity of the selected vascularized region showed significant resemblance, except for the initial overshoot, that may be explained as a result of the physiological thermoregulatory compensation. The temperature was mapped with errors not exceeding  ±2 °C (standard deviation) consistent with the clinical requirements for monitoring cryotherapy of the prostate. In vivo results showed that the optoacoustic temperature imaging is a promising non-invasive technique for real-time imaging of tissue temperature during cryotherapy of prostate cancer, which can be combined

  7. Age-related ultrasonography, cytology, and microbiologic exam of canine prostate Ultrassonografia, citologia e exame microbiológico da próstata de cães em diferentes idades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R.F. Gadelha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiological parameters that could be reference for trustful diagnosis and prognosis of prostate disorders in dogs were obtained. Thirty six intact male dogs without clinical signs of neither prostatic nor reproductive disorders were allocated according the age in three groups. These animals were submitted to semen manual collection for microbiological exams; transabdominal ultrasonography to evaluate dimensions, ecogenicity, and texture of prostatic parenchyma and aspirative puncture with fine needle for cytological and microbiological analyses. Ultrasonography revealed that the predominant prostatic shape was round with regular surface. Dimensions varied according to age, being small in young animals and large in old ones. There was a positive correlation between prostatic dimensions and body weight. Microbiological exams detected microorganisms on seminal plasma from 11 dogs and prostate tissue aspirated from 10 animals, although they were healthy. Cytology did not reveal any inflammatory, proliferative, or neoplasic alteration in young and middle age dogs, but in three older dogs signs of hyperplasia/hypertrophy was found. It was observed positive correlation between age and cellular area but a negative correlation was observed between nucleus:cytoplasm ratio and craniocaudal dimension.Obtiveram-se parâmetros fisiológicos que pudessem ser utilizados como referência para diagnóstico e prognóstico confiáveis de doença prostática em cães. Trinta e seis cães, sem sinais clínicos de doença prostática ou distúrbios reprodutivos, foram distribuídos em três grupos de acordo com a idade.Os animais foram submetidos à colheita manual de sêmen para exames microbiológicos, à ultrassonografia transabdominal, para avaliar as dimensões, a ecogenicidade e a ecotextura prostática, e à punção aspirativa com agulha fina, para análise citológica e microbiológica. A ultrassonografia revelou que a forma predominante da pr

  8. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the canine shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C D; Nyland, T G

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the normal ultrasonographic anatomy of the canine shoulder. Fourteen shoulders from 7 clinically normal mid-sized dogs were radiographed and imaged using high frequency ultrasound. Each shoulder was isolated postmortem, and the ultrasonographic and gross anatomy was studied during dissection. The ultrasonographic appearance of the shoulder specimens was similar to that found in the live dogs. Twenty-four shoulders isolated postmortem from 12 variably sized dogs were also used to characterize the normal ultrasound anatomy over a range of sizes. Important anatomic structures that could be consistently evaluated were the biceps tendon and bursa, the bicipital groove surface, the supraspinatous tendon, the infraspinatous tendon, the teres minor tendon, and the caudal aspect of the humeral head. Results of ultrasonographic examination of 4 dogs with shoulder lameness are described to illustrate some applications of canine shoulder ultrasonography in the evaluation of the canine shoulder. In these dogs, ultrasound was a valuable tool to evaluate effusion and synovial proliferation within the bicipital bursa, supraspinatous and biceps tendinitis, biceps tendon strain, and dystrophic calcification.

  9. Percentiles relative to maxillary permanent canine inclination by age: a radiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio; Zanarini, Matteo; Danesi, Margherita; Parenti, Serena Incerti; Gatto, Maria Rosaria

    2009-10-01

    Few studies have investigated developmental norms for maxillary permanent canine eruption. In this observational cross-sectional study, we aimed to provide an age-related description of the percentiles relative to canine inclination in a large sample of nonorthodontic patients. Associations between inclination and sector were also analyzed. Canine inclination and sector location were measured on 1020 panoramic radiographs obtained from subjects of white ancestry aged between 8 and 11 years not seeking orthodontic treatment. The total sample comprised 2037 canines. Canine inclination increases between 8 and 9 years and decreases between 9 and 11 years. The greatest value for each percentile is at 9 years. A linear model should be hypothesized for differences in canine inclination between 2 successive ages in correspondence to each percentile. The proportion of sector 2 canines decreases and that of sector 1 increases with age. In the same age group, the inclination generally decreases as the sector decreases. Percentiles by age show the average canine inclination in a certain population. Further studies are required to verify whether percentiles can be a diagnostic aid for determining normal canine inclination at a given age and for quantifying the risk of canine impaction or adjacent root resorption.

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of interleukin-2 receptor and interleukin-6 in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia: association with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis NIH category IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul Friedrich; Seklehner, Stephan; Brustmann, Hermann; Lusuardi, Lukas; Riedl, Claus R

    2015-04-01

    This study prospectively investigated the immunohistochemical expression of interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and a possible association of these conditions with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis National Institutes of Health (NIH) category IV. The study included 139 consecutive patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate and transvesical enucleation of the prostate (n = 82) or radical prostatectomy (n = 57). To characterize inflammatory changes the criteria proposed by Irani et al. [J Urol 1997;157:1301-3] were used. IL-2R and IL-6 expression was studied by a standard immunohistochemical method. Results were correlated with tumour, node, metastasis stage, Gleason scores, total prostate-specific antigen, International Prostate Symptom Score and body mass index. IL-2R and IL-6 expression was significantly higher in neoplastic prostate cancer tissue than in normal tissue of prostate cancer patients (p Prostate cancer patients with prostatitis showed significantly higher IL-2R expression than those without inflammation (p prostatitis than in those without (p prostate cancer tissue than in normal tissue. Patients with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis NIH category IV showed significantly greater activity.

  11. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  12. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bey, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Stines, J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with a curative intent implies to treat the whole prostate at high dose (at least 66 Gy). According to clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason's score, the clinical target volume may include seminal vesicles and less often pelvic lymph nodes. Microscopic extra-capsular extension is found in 15 to 60% of T1-T2 operated on, specially in apex tumors. On contrary, cancers developing from the transitional zone may stay limited to the prostate even with a big volume and with a high PSA level. Zonal anatomy of the prostate identifies internal prostate, including the transitional zone (5% of the prostate in young people). External prostate includes central and peripheral zones. The inferior limit of the prostate is not lower than the inferior border of the pubic symphysis. Clinical and radiological examination: ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), CT-scan identify prognostic factors as tumor volume, capsule effraction, seminal vesicles invasion and lymph node extension. The identification of the clinical target volume is now done mainly by CT-Scan which identifies prostate and seminal vesicles. NMR could be helpful to identify more precisely prostate apex. The definition of margins around the clinical target volume has to take in account daily reproducibility and organ motion and of course the maximum tolerable dose for organs at risk. (authors)

  13. Efeito da centrifugação e do líquido prostático homólogo na criopreservação de espermatozoides epididimários caninos Effect of centrifugation and homologous prostatic fluid on canine epydidimal spermatozoa cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I.V. Melo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se dois experimentos de criopreservação de espermatozoides epididimários caninos, investigando-se o efeito da centrifugação e da adição do líquido prostático sobre as características físicas do espermatozoide pós-descongelação. No experimento I, foi testado o efeito da centrifugação. As amostras congeladas sem centrifugação apresentaram pós-descongelação: motilidade total (MT de 26,7±21,2%, motilidade progressiva (MP de 21,2±20,1% e vigor espermático (V de 2,2±1,3, e as congeladas após a centrifugação: MT de 23,9±17,9%, MP de 20,6±17,4% e V de 2,2±1,0. No teste de termorresistência, o período médio de duração com MT mínima de 10% foi de 165±21,2 minutos sem centrifugação e de 77,5±63,6 minutos para as centrifugadas, indicando maior longevidade espermática das amostras não centrifugadas. No experimento II, foi avaliado o efeito da adição de líquido prostático homólogo no meio diluidor. As amostras congeladas sem líquido prostático no meio diluidor apresentaram MT de 13,3±13,1%, MP de 10,9±11,4% e V de 2,1±1,2, e as congeladas com líquido prostático MT de 14,1±12,6%, MP de 12,2±11,6% e V de 2,2±1,3. Os resultados sugerem que a centrifugação e a adição de 10% de líquido prostático ao diluidor não tiveram efeito sobre as características físicas do espermatozoide epididimário canino pós-descongelamento.The effect of centrifugation and the prostatic fluid addition were evaluated on the physical characteristics of the cryopreserved canine epydidimal spermatozoa. In the first experiment, the effect of centrifugation was analysed. The samples without centrifugation showed 26.7±21.2% of total motility (TM, 21.2±20.1% of progressive motility (PM, and 2.2±1.3 of intensity of movement (I. In addition, the samples after centrifugation showed 23.9±17.9% of TM, 20.6±17.4% of PM, and 2.2±1 of I. The mean time of samples duration, at least with 10% of total motility, was 165±21

  14. Morphology of palatally impacted canines: A case-controlled cone-beam volumetric tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Pilana Vithanage Kalani Shihanika; Olive, Richard John; Monsour, Paul

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between an apical curvature or a hook and the crown/root ratio in subjects with and without palatally impacted maxillary canines. An experimental group of 44 patients (17 boys, 27 girls; mean age, 13.6 years) with 59 palatally impacted maxillary canines was selected from the records of patients referred to a radiology practice for cone-beam imaging. If a patient had bilateral palatally impacted canines, 1 canine was randomly selected for analysis. The palatally impacted canine group was matched for age and sex with 49 normal subjects (25 boys, 24 girls; mean age, 13.2 years) with 98 canines. Cone-beam DICOM files were imported into In Vivo imaging software (version 5.3; Anatomage, San Jose, Calif) for analysis. The angulations and linear variables of the maxillary canines were measured by using the software measurement tools. Chi-square and independent t tests were used to test for differences between the groups. The presence of a hook at the apical third and other root curvature were significantly different between the 2 groups (P <0.001 and P <0.05, respectively). Of the 44 palatally impacted canines, 16 (36.4%) had an apical hook and only 1 canine in the control group had an apical hook (1.0%). The mean root length of the palatally impacted canines was 2.66 mm shorter (P <0.001), and the mean crown/root ratio was significantly greater for the palatally impacted canines compared with the nonimpacted group (P <0.001). Palatally impacted canines have a greater tendency to develop apical hooks and are less likely to develop other root curvatures than are nonimpacted canines. Also, they have shorter roots resulting in larger crown/root ratios compared with the control group. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sasani, F.; Javanbakht, J.; Samani, R.; Shirani, D.

    2014-01-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammato...

  16. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spera, G.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, also called transrectal ultrasound, provides ...

  18. Comparison of telomerase activity in prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA on chromosome ends. The enzyme is important for the immortalization of cancer cells because it maintains the telomeres. METHODS: Telomerase activity (TA was measured by fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (FTRAP assay in prostate carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. RESULTS: TA was present in 91.4% of 70 prostate cancers, 68.8% of 16 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, 43.3% of 30 BPH*, 21.4% of 14 atrophy and 20% of 15 normal samples adjacent to tumor. There was not any significant correlation between TA, histopathological tumor stage or gleason score. In contrast to high TA in the BPH* tissue from the cancer-bearing gland, only 6.3% of 32 BPH specimens from patients only diagnosed with BPH were telomerase activity-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TA is present in most prostate cancers. The high rate of TA in tissue adjacent to tumor may be attributed either to early molecular alteration of cancer that was histologically unapparent, or to the presence of occult cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the re-expression of telomerase activity could be one step in the transformation of BPH to PIN. KEY WORDS: Telomerase activity, prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  19. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  20. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL.

  1. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  2. Incidence of late rectal bleeding in high-dose conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer using equivalent uniform dose-based and dose-volume-based normal tissue complication probability models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soehn, Matthias; Yan Di; Liang Jian; Meldolesi, Elisa; Vargas, Carlos; Alber, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of rectal complications based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) data are necessary to allow safe dose escalation in radiotherapy of prostate cancer. We applied different equivalent uniform dose (EUD)-based and dose-volume-based normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models to rectal wall DVHs and follow-up data for 319 prostate cancer patients to identify the dosimetric factors most predictive for Grade ≥ 2 rectal bleeding. Methods and Materials: Data for 319 patients treated at the William Beaumont Hospital with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) under an adaptive radiotherapy protocol were used for this study. The following models were considered: (1) Lyman model and (2) logit-formula with DVH reduced to generalized EUD (3) serial reconstruction unit (RU) model (4) Poisson-EUD model, and (5) mean dose- and (6) cutoff dose-logistic regression model. The parameters and their confidence intervals were determined using maximum likelihood estimation. Results: Of the patients, 51 (16.0%) showed Grade 2 or higher bleeding. As assessed qualitatively and quantitatively, the Lyman- and Logit-EUD, serial RU, and Poisson-EUD model fitted the data very well. Rectal wall mean dose did not correlate to Grade 2 or higher bleeding. For the cutoff dose model, the volume receiving > 73.7 Gy showed most significant correlation to bleeding. However, this model fitted the data more poorly than the EUD-based models. Conclusions: Our study clearly confirms a volume effect for late rectal bleeding. This can be described very well by the EUD-like models, of which the serial RU- and Poisson-EUD model can describe the data with only two parameters. Dose-volume-based cutoff-dose models performed worse

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of a potential molecular therapeutic target for canine hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-05-03

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm of dogs for which there is currently no effective treatment. A recent study suggested that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MAPK pathways are all activated in canine and human HSA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the overexpression of these proteins by immunohistochemistry in canine splenic HSA to identify potential molecular therapeutic targets. A total of 10 splenic HSAs and two normal splenic samples surgically resected from dogs were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological diagnosis or analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The expression of RTKs, c-kit, VEGFR-2 and PDGFR-2, as well as PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MEK was higher in canine splenic HSAs compared to normal spleens. These proteins may therefore be potential therapeutic targets in canine splenic HSA.

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is typically used to help diagnose symptoms such as: a nodule felt by a physician ...

  5. Actionable mutations in canine hemangiosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guannan Wang

    Full Text Available Angiosarcomas (AS are rare in humans, but they are a deadly subtype of soft tissue sarcoma. Discovery sequencing in AS, especially the visceral form, is hampered by the rarity of cases. Most diagnostic material exists as archival formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue which serves as a poor source of high quality DNA for genome-wide sequencing. We approached this problem through comparative genomics. We hypothesized that exome sequencing a histologically similar tumor, hemangiosarcoma (HSA, that occurs in approximately 50,000 dogs per year, may lead to the identification of potential oncogenic drivers and druggable targets that could also occur in angiosarcoma.Splenic hemangiosarcomas are common in dogs, which allowed us to collect a cohort of archived matched tumor and normal tissue samples suitable for whole exome sequencing. Mapping of the reads to the latest canine reference genome (Canfam3 demonstrated that >99% of the targeted exomal regions were covered, with >80% at 20X coverage and >90% at 10X coverage.Sequence analysis of 20 samples identified somatic mutations in PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, and PLCG1, all of which correspond to well-known tumor drivers in human cancer, in more than half of the cases. In one case, we identified a mutation in PLCG1 identical to a mutation observed previously in this gene in human visceral AS. Activating PIK3CA mutations present novel therapeutic targets, and clinical trials of targeted inhibitors are underway in human cancers. Our results lay a foundation for similar clinical trials in canine HSA, enabling a precision medicine approach to this disease.

  6. Actionable mutations in canine hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guannan; Wu, Ming; Maloneyhuss, Martha A; Wojcik, John; Durham, Amy C; Mason, Nicola J; Roth, David B

    2017-01-01

    Angiosarcomas (AS) are rare in humans, but they are a deadly subtype of soft tissue sarcoma. Discovery sequencing in AS, especially the visceral form, is hampered by the rarity of cases. Most diagnostic material exists as archival formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue which serves as a poor source of high quality DNA for genome-wide sequencing. We approached this problem through comparative genomics. We hypothesized that exome sequencing a histologically similar tumor, hemangiosarcoma (HSA), that occurs in approximately 50,000 dogs per year, may lead to the identification of potential oncogenic drivers and druggable targets that could also occur in angiosarcoma. Splenic hemangiosarcomas are common in dogs, which allowed us to collect a cohort of archived matched tumor and normal tissue samples suitable for whole exome sequencing. Mapping of the reads to the latest canine reference genome (Canfam3) demonstrated that >99% of the targeted exomal regions were covered, with >80% at 20X coverage and >90% at 10X coverage. Sequence analysis of 20 samples identified somatic mutations in PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, and PLCG1, all of which correspond to well-known tumor drivers in human cancer, in more than half of the cases. In one case, we identified a mutation in PLCG1 identical to a mutation observed previously in this gene in human visceral AS. Activating PIK3CA mutations present novel therapeutic targets, and clinical trials of targeted inhibitors are underway in human cancers. Our results lay a foundation for similar clinical trials in canine HSA, enabling a precision medicine approach to this disease.

  7. Increased cancer cell proliferation in prostate cancer patients with high levels of serum folate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: A recent clinical trial revealed that folic acid supplementation is associated with an increased incidence of prostate cancer (1). The present study evaluates serum and prostate tissue folate levels in men with prostate cancer, compared to histologically normal prostate glands from can...

  8. Interaction of REPS2 with NF-kappaB in Prostate Cancer Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.F.E. Penninkhof

    2005-01-01

    textabstractLike normal prostate cells, prostate cancer cells are dependent on androgens for growth and survival, and prostate cancer can be treated by androgen ablation therapy. However, after a period of time some of the prostate cancer cells no longer respond to androgen ablation and survive the

  9. A prospective three-dimensional analysis about the impact of differences in the clinical target volume in prostate cancer irradiation on normal-tissue exposure. A potential for increasing the benefit/risk ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, A.; Toews, N.; Schmidberger, H.; Hess, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: rectal toxicity following external-beam irradiation of prostate cancer correlates with the exposed percentage of rectal volume. Recently, it has been recommended to reduce the volume of the seminal vesicles that should be included in the clinical target volume (CTV). The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess the impact of this CTV reduction on the expected rectal and bladder dose sparing. Patients and methods: 14 patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing external-beam radiotherapy were investigated. The prostate, the prostate + entire seminal vesicles, or the prostate + proximal seminal vesicles were delineated as CTV. Treatment plans were generated and compared concerning rectum and bladder dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Results: the exposure of rectum and bladder volume was significantly lower in case of irradiation of the prostate only compared to inclusion of the proximal or entire seminal vesicles into the CTV. The reduction of the CTV from prostate + entire seminal vesicles to prostate + proximal seminal vesicles led to a significant reduction of the rectal and bladder dose exposure. Conclusion: reduction of the CTV to the prostate only, or to the prostate + proximal seminal vesicles led to significant rectal and bladder dose sparing compared to irradiation of the prostate + entire seminal vesicles. In patients with a higher risk for seminal vesicles involvement, irradiation of the prostate + proximal seminal vesicles should be preferred. In case of a need for irradiation of the entire seminal vesicles, patients should be informed about a higher risk for chronic rectal toxicity and, possibly, for bladder complications. (orig.)

  10. Androgen Receptor Mutations and Polymorphisms in African American Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Koochekpour, Shahriar; Buckles, Erick; Shourideh, Mojgan; Hu, SiYi; Chandra, Dhyan; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Attwood, Kristopher

    2014-01-01

    The Androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the normal development of the prostate gland, in prostate carcinogenesis, and in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to advanced metastatic disease. African American (AA) men with PCa present with higher tumor volume, more advanced tumor stage, and higher Gleason score. This could be in part related to the AR expression or activity in the prostate tissue of AA men, or to unique mutations or polymorphisms of the AR. In Caucasian Americans...

  11. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate cancer A man whose father, brother, or son has had prostate cancer has a higher-than- ... known if these drugs lower the risk of death from prostate cancer. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial ( ...

  12. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force reviewed research studies on the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening test for prostate cancer. It concluded that ... used to screen for prostate cancer: • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test: This test looks for PSA, a ...

  13. SU-F-BRB-10: A Statistical Voxel Based Normal Organ Dose Prediction Model for Coplanar and Non-Coplanar Prostate Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, A; Yu, V; Nguyen, D; Woods, K; Low, D; Sheng, K [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Knowledge learned from previous plans can be used to guide future treatment planning. Existing knowledge-based treatment planning methods study the correlation between organ geometry and dose volume histogram (DVH), which is a lossy representation of the complete dose distribution. A statistical voxel dose learning (SVDL) model was developed that includes the complete dose volume information. Its accuracy of predicting volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and non-coplanar 4π radiotherapy was quantified. SVDL provided more isotropic dose gradients and may improve knowledge-based planning. Methods: 12 prostate SBRT patients originally treated using two full-arc VMAT techniques were re-planned with 4π using 20 intensity-modulated non-coplanar fields to a prescription dose of 40 Gy. The bladder and rectum voxels were binned based on their distances to the PTV. The dose distribution in each bin was resampled by convolving to a Gaussian kernel, resulting in 1000 data points in each bin that predicted the statistical dose information of a voxel with unknown dose in a new patient without triaging information that may be collectively important to a particular patient. We used this method to predict the DVHs, mean and max doses in a leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) test and compared its performance against lossy estimators including mean, median, mode, Poisson and Rayleigh of the voxelized dose distributions. Results: SVDL predicted the bladder and rectum doses more accurately than other estimators, giving mean percentile errors ranging from 13.35–19.46%, 4.81–19.47%, 22.49–28.69%, 23.35–30.5%, 21.05–53.93% for predicting mean, max dose, V20, V35, and V40 respectively, to OARs in both planning techniques. The prediction errors were generally lower for 4π than VMAT. Conclusion: By employing all dose volume information in the SVDL model, the OAR doses were more accurately predicted. 4π plans are better suited for knowledge-based planning than

  14. In vivo cryoablation of prostate tissue with temperature monitoring by optoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Ermilov, Sergey A.

    2016-03-01

    Cryoablation of prostate cancer is an FDA approved clinical procedure, which involves repetitive rapid cooling of a lesion to lethal temperatures of -40°C and below. The major drawback of the technique is the insufficient control over the fast thermal processes that may result in severe complications (impotence, incontinence, perforation of the rectal wall) and morbidity. The developed optoacoustic imaging technique provides non-invasive real-time temperature mapping of tissue adjacent to prostate and enables more efficient control over the procedure, which is necessary to reduce side effects and accelerate the physician's learning curve. In these studies we successfully demonstrated real-time transrectal optoacoustic imaging during prostate cryoablation in live canine model focused on optoacoustic thermography of the rectal wall within the depth of 1cm. Our method utilized previously discovered universal thermal dependence of the normalized optoacoustic response of blood. Nanosecond-pulse radiation of Ti-Sapphire laser tuned to the isosbestic point of hemoglobin (802+/-3 nm) was delivered via fiberoptic illuminators assembled on both sides of the linear array of the 128-channel transrectal ultrasound probe. Temperature readouts at discrete locations inside and nearby prostate were also performed using standard transperineal needle sensors. The effect of homeostasis on optoacoustic imaging in live tissue was examined during cooling and shown to be significant only within the range of +/-1.5°C in respect to the body temperature. Accuracy of in vivo optoacoustic temperature measurements was determined as +/-2°C for the range of temperature from +35 to -15°C, which is more than sufficient for tracking the essential isotherms in the course of clinical procedures.

  15. Understanding Prostate Cancer: Newly Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vs Cancer Contact Us Newly Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Basics About the Prostate Risk Factors Prostate ... when my.. Donors Patient Stories About the Prostate Cancer Foundation The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) is the world’s leading philanthropic ...

  16. American canine hepatozoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, R J; Ewing, S A

    2003-06-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted infection of domestic dogs caused by a recently recognized species of apicomplexan parasite, Hepatozoon americanum. The known definitive host of the protozoan is the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Presently recognized intermediate hosts include the domestic dog and the coyote, Canis latrans. Laboratory-reared larval or nymphal A. maculatum can be infected readily by feeding to repletion on a parasitemic intermediate host; sporogony requires 35-40 days. Transmission of infection to the dog has been produced experimentally by oral administration of mature oocysts or oocyst-containing ticks. Canine disease follows experimental exposure in 4-6 weeks and is characterized by systemic illness, extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis, muscle and bone pain, and proliferation of periosteal bone. Histopathological findings include multifocal skeletal and cardiac myositis associated with escape of mature merozoites from within the host-cell environment. There is also rapid onset of periosteal activation and osteogenesis and, less frequently, glomerulopathy and amyloidosis. Sequential stages of development of H. americanum in both the dog and the tick have been elucidated. Gamonts potentially infectious to ticks have been observed in peripheral blood leukocytes of the dog in as few as 28 days after exposure to oocysts. Young coyotes experimentally exposed to a canine strain of H. americanum acquired disease indistinguishable from that of similarly exposed young dogs.

  17. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... The following organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ... Urology Care Foundation -- www. ...

  18. Diagnostic performance of the urinary canine calgranulins in dogs with lower urinary or urogenital tract carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Romy M; McNiel, Elizabeth A; Grützner, Niels; Lanerie, David J; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2017-04-21

    Onset of canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and prostatic carcinoma (PCA) is usually insidious with dogs presenting at an advanced stage of the disease. A biomarker that can facilitate early detection of TCC/PCA and improve patient survival would be useful. S100A8/A9 (calgranulin A/B or calprotectin) and S100A12 (calgranulin C) are expressed by cells of the innate immune system and are associated with several inflammatory disorders. S100A8/A9 is also expressed by epithelial cells after malignant transformation and is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and metastasis. S100A8/A9 is up-regulated in human PCA and TCC, whereas the results for S100A12 have been ambiguous. Also, the urine S100A8/A9-to-S100A12 ratio (uCalR) may have potential as a marker for canine TCC/PCA. Aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the urinary S100/calgranulins to detect TCC/PCA in dogs by using data and urine samples from 164 dogs with TCC/PCA, non-neoplastic urinary tract disease, other neoplasms, or urinary tract infections, and 75 healthy controls (nested case-control study). Urine S100A8/A9 and S100A12 (measured by species-specific radioimmunoassays and normalized against urine specific gravity [S100A8/A9 USG ; S100A12 USG ], urine creatinine concentration, and urine protein concentration and the uCalR were compared among the groups of dogs. S100A8/A9 USG had the highest sensitivity (96%) and specificity (66%) to detect TCC/PCA, with specificity reaching 75% after excluding dogs with a urinary tract infection. The uCalR best distinguished dogs with TCC/PCA from dogs with a urinary tract infection (sensitivity: 91%, specificity: 60%). Using a S100A8/A9 USG  ≥ 109.9 to screen dogs ≥6 years of age for TCC/PCA yielded a negative predictive value of 100%. S100A8/A9 USG and uCalR may have utility for diagnosing TCC/PCA in dogs, and S100A8/A9 USG may be a good screening test for canine TCC/PCA.

  19. Canine transurethral laser prostatectomy using a rotational technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromeens, Douglas M.; Johnson, Douglas E.

    1995-05-01

    Conventional radical prostatectomy in the dog has historically been attended by unacceptably high incidence of urinary incontinence (80 - 100%). Ablation of the prostate can be accomplished in the dog by transurethral irradiation of the prostate with the Nd:YAG laser and a laterally deflecting fiber. Exposure has ranged between 40 and 60 watts for 60 seconds at 4 fixed locations. Although prostatectomies performed with the above described technique offers significant advantage over conventional prostatectomies, the high power density at each location can result in small submucosal explosions (`popcorn effect') that increase the potential for bleeding and rupture of the prostatic capsule. We describe a new technique in which the energy is applied continuously by a laser fiber rotating around a central point. Delivering 40 watts of Nd:YAG energy for 4 minutes using a new angle-delivery device (UrotekTM), we produced results comparable to those of other previously reported techniques in the canine model with two added advantages: (1) a more even application of heat resulting in no `popcorn' effect and (2) a more reliably predictable area of coagulative necrosis within a given axial plane. This technique should provide additional safety for the veterinary surgeon performing visual laser ablation of the prostate in the dog.

  20. Measurement of urinary canine S100A8/A9 and S100A12 concentrations as candidate biomarkers of lower urinary tract neoplasia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Romy M; Wright, Zachary M; Lanerie, David J; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2014-01-01

    Members of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins (S100A8, A9, and A12; calgranulins) have been associated with inflammation and cancer in human beings. Proteins S100A8 and A9 were overexpressed in human patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and prostate carcinoma (PCA), suggesting their potential as biomarkers for diagnosing and/or predicting the progression of such neoplasms. Calgranulins have not been studied in dogs with TCC or PCA. Established in-house immunoassays were validated and found suitable for measuring S100A8/A9 and S100A12 in canine urine samples to allow the study of the role of these biomarkers in dogs with TCC or PCA. Urinary calgranulin concentrations were not affected by blood contamination (e.g., due to cystocentesis), and should be normalized against urine specific gravity or urinary creatinine concentration. Urinary calgranulin concentrations were significantly increased in 11 dogs with TCC or PCA (untreated) compared to 42 healthy dogs, and the ratio between S100A8/A9 and S100A12 was significantly higher in 11 dogs with TCC or PCA than in 10 dogs diagnosed with a urinary tract infection, suggesting that calgranulins are potential biomarkers for TCC or PCA in canine patients. The clinical utility of measuring urinary calgranulins in dogs with suspected TCC or PCA warrants further investigation.

  1. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Noyola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ... bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the prostate gland because ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ... To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR- ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  5. Prostate Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include "prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia" and "atypical small acinar proliferation." Cancer grading. If the pathologist finds cancer, it's ... does not endorse any of the third party products and services advertised. Advertising and sponsorship policy Advertising ...

  6. Prostate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the prostate. The doctor may use a computerized robot to do this. The radioactive material is removed ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  7. Prostatitis - bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or tender scrotum The provider may perform a digital rectal exam to examine your prostate. During this ... Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rectum into the prostate gland which is situated right in front of the rectum. top of page ... bats, ships and fishermen. When a sound wave strikes an object, it bounces back, or echoes. By ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... phased array) receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to investigate a nodule found during a rectal exam, detect abnormalities, and determine whether the gland is ... a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically requires insertion of an ultrasound probe into ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of ... facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... vessels or to detect abnormal masses, such as tumors. In an ultrasound examination, a transducer both sends ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the region of the prostate. A biopsy ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... if a patient is at high risk for cancer. In this case, a biopsy is performed and ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal growth within the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of ... show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This procedure requires little to no special preparation. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. ... BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... probe). A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, which measures the amount of PSA in the blood, may ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...

  20. Prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who eat a diet high in fat, especially animal fat Obese men Tire plant workers Painters Men ... your doctor Radical prostatectomy - discharge Images Male reproductive anatomy Male urinary tract BPH Prostate cancer PSA blood ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. top of page How should I prepare? ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  2. Gallium-68 DOTATOC PET/CT in vivo characterization of somatostatin receptor expression in the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović-Tirnanić, Mila V; Gajić, Milan M; Obradović, Vladimir B; Baum, Richard P

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to investigate somatostatin receptor (sstr) expression in normal prostate by determining the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of (68)Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT in neuroendocrine tumor (NET) patients, without NET involvement of the prostate gland, for establishing the reference standard. Sixty-four NET patients underwent (68)Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT. SUVmax of the prostate gland, normal liver, testes, and gluteus muscles were evaluated. The prostate gland size was measured. Statistical analysis was performed using dedicated software (SPSS13). Mean/median (68)Ga-DOTATOC SUVmax values were as follows: normal prostate 2.6 ± 0.0, slightly enlarged prostate 4.2 ± 1.6, prostatic hypertrophy 4.9 ± 1.6, prostatic hyperplasia 5.0 ± 1.5, prostate cancer 9.5 ± 2.1, normal liver 7.3 ± 1.8, testes 1.8 ± 0.5, and gluteus 1.0 ± 0.2. The normal prostate gland had three times less sstr expression than normal liver tissue. Strong correlation was found between patient age and sstr expression in prostate/prostate size. No significant difference existed in sstr expression between prostatic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Much higher sstr expression was found in prostatic cancer compared with normal prostate. (68)Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT defines the baseline sstr uptake in prostate not affected by NET (significantly lower than in the liver). Higher values were established in prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Only concomitant prostate cancer was associated with higher SUVmax in comparison with non-neoplastic liver.

  3. Dental and craniofacial findings in 91 individuals with agenesis of permanent maxillary canines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedsen, K P; Kjær, I

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is a rare form of agenesis (prevalence 0.07-0.13%). The aetiology is still unknown. The purpose was to focus on dentitions and craniofacial profiles in individuals with maxillary canine agenesis. METHOD: From 91 individuals (10-18 years of age) 91...... Orthopantomograms and 77 profile radiographs were divided accordingly: Group I: agenesis of 1 or 2 maxillary canines. Group II: several ageneses including the maxillary canines. Dentition analysis included crown/root shape, invaginations, eruption disturbances and resorption patterns. Cephalometric angular...... measurements and mutual comparisons between the groups were performed. Agenesis pattern in Group II was compared to agenesis pattern in a population of children and young adults not characterized by maxillary canine agenesis. Cephalometric values from both groups were compared to normal values from individuals...

  4. Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jett, Marti

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that there is a distinct pattern of fatty acid binding protein (FAEP) expression in prostate cancer vs normal cells and that finding has be confirmed in patient samples of biopsy specimens...

  5. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  6. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center of excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and

  7. Primary cilia are lost in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia B Hassounah

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Little is known about the role of primary cilia in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. However, reduced cilia expression has been observed in human cancers including pancreatic cancer, renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and melanoma. The aim of this study was to characterize primary cilia expression in preinvasive and invasive human prostate cancer, and to investigate the correlation between primary cilia and the Wnt signaling pathway. Human prostate tissues representative of stages of prostate cancer formation (normal prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, and invasive prostate cancer (including perineural invasion were stained for ciliary proteins. The frequency of primary cilia was determined. A decrease in the percentage of ciliated cells in PIN, invasive cancer and perineural invasion lesions was observed when compared to normal. Cilia lengths were also measured to indirectly test functionality. Cilia were shorter in PIN, cancer, and perineural invasion lesions, suggesting dysfunction. Primary cilia have been shown to suppress the Wnt pathway. Increased Wnt signaling has been implicated in prostate cancer. Therefore, we investigated a correlation between loss of primary cilia and increased Wnt signaling in normal prostate and in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. To investigate Wnt signaling in our cohort, serial tissue sections were stained for β-catenin as a measure of Wnt signaling. Nuclear β-catenin was analyzed and Wnt signaling was found to be higher in un-ciliated cells in the normal prostate, PIN, a subset of invasive cancers, and perineural invasion. Our results suggest that cilia normally function to suppress the Wnt signaling pathway in epithelial cells and that cilia loss may play a role in increased Wnt signaling in some prostate cancers. These results suggest that cilia are dysfunctional in human

  8. Review of Animal Models of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Simmons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer bone metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and are considered incurable. Insight into the formation and growth of prostate cancer bone metastasis is required for development of new imaging and therapeutic strategies to combat this devastating disease. Animal models are indispensable in investigating cancer pathogenesis and evaluating therapeutics. Multiple animal models of prostate cancer bone metastasis have been developed, but few effectively model prostatic neoplasms and osteoblastic bone metastases as they occur in men. This review discusses the animal models that have been developed to investigate prostate cancer bone metastasis, with a focus on canine models and also includes human xenograft and rodent models. Adult dogs spontaneously develop benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer with osteoblastic bone metastases. Large animal models, such as dogs, are needed to develop new molecular imaging tools and effective focal intraprostatic therapy. None of the available models fully reflect the metastatic disease seen in men, although the various models have provided important insight into the metastatic process. As additional models are developed and knowledge from the different models is combined, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer bone metastasis can be deciphered and targeted for development of novel therapies and molecular diagnostic imaging.

  9. Long-term survival of participants in the prostate cancer prevention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Sartor, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) is a seminal study in the field of urology. More than 10 years after its initial publication, updated data from this trial continue to shape our understanding of prostate cancer. Among the major findings from the PCPT has been the demonstration that prostate cancer is common in men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) once thought to be in the normal range, [1] finasteride prevents the development of benign prostatic hypertrophy, [2] it increases th...

  10. Orthodontic-surgical treatment of bilateral maxillary canine impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old female patient reported with the chief complaint of irregular front teeth. She had a skeletal Class III and Angle′s Class I malocclusion with hyperdivergent growth pattern and bilateral impaction of maxillary canines. Surgical exposure of the impacted teeth and orthodontic alignment was planned. The surgical exposure was done by a minimally invasive modified window technique. Orthodontic treatment of impacted canines without causing significant morbidity to the adjacent teeth and periodontium is a challenge. The bilaterally impacted maxillary canines were successfully aligned and leveled. The depth of the gingival sulcus and clinical crown heights of disimpacted teeth were normal post-treatment and after 1 year of retention.

  11. Cloning of the canine ABCA4 gene and evaluation in canine cone-rod dystrophies and progressive retinal atrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijas, James W; Zangerl, Barbara; Miller, Brian; Nelson, Jacque; Kirkness, Ewen F; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2004-03-29

    To characterize a novel early onset canine retinal disease, and evaluate the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCA4 as a potential candidate gene in this and other canine retinal degenerations. Retinal disease was characterized ophthalmoscopically and electroretinographically in two pit bull terrier dogs and their purpose-bred descendants. All 50 exons of the canine ABCA4 gene were amplified, cloned and sequenced from retinal mRNA of a normal, a carrier and an affected animal, and polymorphisms identified. The latter were used to search for association between ABCA4 and retinal disease both within the study pedigrees and in additional canine breeds segregating retinal degenerations. The disease derived from either founder is distinguished by early, severe, and rapidly progressive loss of cone function accompanied by progressive rod loss that is only relatively slower. Cloning and comparative sequencing of ABCA4 identified six point mutations, none of which were obviously pathogenic. Crossbreeding studies revealed that the diseases in the two founders, although similar, are nonallelic. Pedigree analysis of segregating polymorphisms revealed dissociation between ABCA4 and both retinal phenotypes. The early, severe cone dysfunction in these diseases distinguish them from other forms of canine Progressive Retinal Atrophy. The development of a research population segregating these diseases presents two large animal models for the heterogenous human diseases termed cone-rod dystrophies. Analysis of the canine ABCA4 homolog gene documented its sequence and identified a set of point mutations that were used to exclude this gene as causal to these canine cone-rod dystrophies.

  12. Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy: Current Status and Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Il; Lee, Hak Jong; Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Sang Eun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup; Cho, Jeong Yeon [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    In Korea, the incidence of prostate cancer in 2002 was sixth among the malignancies diagnosed in men, but it was the most rapidly increasing cancer. As many prostate cancers are indistinguishable from normal prostate tissue as determined on an ultrasound examination, the randomized systematic transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy is the gold standard for the detection of prostate cancer. Indications for a TRUS guided prostate biopsy including an elevated level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and an abnormal digital rectal exam, as well as patient preparation and procedure techniques including anesthesia are reviewed in this report. This report also considers controversies about a prostate biopsy such as the ideal number of biopsy cores, usefulness of PSA derivatives, effective methods for local anesthesia, and the use of patient preparation questionnaires covering topics such as the paucity of anticoagulants and the use of antibiotics and enemas

  13. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011: 805–810. [3] Murphy AB, Macejko A, Taylor A, Nadler RB. Chronic prostatitis: management strategies. Drugs. ... would like to thank: Mark Litwin, M.D., University of California at Los Angeles; Anthony Schaeffer, M. ...

  14. Frequency of carcinoma of prostate in clinically benign prostatic hyperplasia and role of different screening tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, M.; Saeed, M.; Ali, S.; Saleem, M.S.; Saleem, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the frequency of carcinoma in clinically benign prostatic hyperplasia and role. of digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) in assessment of these patients. Data source: Patients admitted to the Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to enlarged prostate. Design of study: Descriptive Study Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Quaid-e-Azam Medical College Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, from January 2007 to December 2010. Patients and Methods: Patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms over the age of 50 years were evaluated on International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), clinically examined and post-voiding residual urine determined on abdominal ultrasonography. The selection criteria were; Refractory retention of urine, Severe IPSS, absence of signs of malignancy on Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) and post-voiding residual urine more than 100 mI. Thus a total 300 patients were selected. Patient's blood sample was sent to laboratory to assess Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) level pre-operatively. All these patients underwent either transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) or transvesical prostatectomy (TVP) and prostatic tissue was sent for histopathology. Results: In this study, 13.33% patients were found to have carcinoma of prostate in spite of being clinically benign prostates in all patients, irrespective of PSA range. The PSA value was found 4ngjml. In this study, 9.95% patients had carcinoma prostate in spite having normal PSA and benign prostate on DRE while with rising PSA levels and normal DRE, chances of malignancy detection increases (66.67% ). Conclusion: We conclude that although frequency is low the possibility of malignancy in clinically benign enlarged prostate should be borne in mind whenever subjecting the patient for screening, assessment and treatment. DRE alone is insufficient

  15. Ultrasonographic description of canine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasch, Katja; Wehrend, Axel; Bostedt, Hartwig

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasonographic images were acquired of the mammary glands of 40 bitches with physiologically lactating (n = 20) or inflamed glands (n = 20). Echogenicity, structure, homogeneity, thickness, and distinguishability of each tissue layer were assessed. Additionally, overall echogenicity was noted. In the normal lactating gland, different tissues could be differentiated easily. The parenchyma was, without exception, separated from adjacent tissues and was visible as medium echogenic tissue with a coarse-grained structure. The tissue always had some echogenic lines and anechoic areas and was slightly heterogeneous. The loss of distinct layering of the tissue was characteristic of an inflamed mammary gland and inflamed regions had reduced echogenicity. Additionally in five bitches with mastitis, the ultrasound examination was repeated five times for documentation of the progress of the illness and associated changes, supplemented with a color Doppler sonogram to assess changes in blood vessel density. Information from the examinations carried out via B-mode did not allow treatment success to be predicted. Two bitches with reduced blood vessel density centrally had a poor outcome whereas three bitches with increased blood vessel density had a good outcome. Thus, Doppler sonography might be a useful tool to obtain information of the prognosis in acute canine mastitis.

  16. MicroRNAs as tumour suppressors in canine and human melanoma cells and as a prognostic factor in canine melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, S; Mori, T; Hoshino, Y; Yamada, N; Maruo, K; Akao, Y

    2013-06-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is one of the most aggressive cancers in dogs and in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of its development and progression remain unclear. Presently, we examined the expression profile of microRNAs (miRs) in canine oral MM tissues and paired normal oral mucosa tissues by using the microRNA-microarray assay and quantitative RT-PCR. Importantly, a decreased expression of miR-203 was significantly associated with a shorter survival time. Also, miR-203 and -205 were markedly down-regulated in canine and human MM cell lines tested. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of miR-205 had a significant inhibitory effect on the cell growth of canine and human melanoma cells tested by targeting erbb3. Our data suggest that miR-203 is a new prognostic factor in canine oral MMs and that miR-205 functions as a tumour suppressor by targeting erbb3 in both canine and human MM cells. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis: differential diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lima Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a very rare condition; however, it may express as a typical benign prostatic hyperplasia or a simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma. This case report presents PCM mimicking prostatic adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this paper is to call the general physician's attention to this important differential diagnosis.

  18. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF PROSTATIC SECRETION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Charles; Masina, M. H.; Eichelberger, Lillian; Wharton, James D.

    1939-01-01

    A simple isolation of the prostate enabled quantitative collection of prostatic secretion in dogs over periods of months. The secretory stimulant was pilocarpine and 2 similar amounts injected with a 6 hour interval gave smaller amounts at the second testing, suggesting a fatigue effect. The prostate was not absolutely refractory since doubling the amount of alkaloid injected at the second test increased the volume to equal or exceed the preliminary secretion. The depression effect had disappeared at 24 hours. In normal dogs the secretory curves were essentially regular, with occasional prolonged rises or depressions. The amount of secretion did not bear a direct relationship to the weight of the gland in adult dogs. The germinal epithelium of the testis underwent atrophy during the first few weeks of cage life while the prostatic secretion was maintained, showing that the atrophy was differential and did not involve the cells producing the androgenic hormone. The atrophy was reversible and all dogs kept for more than 4 months showed restoration of the germ cells. A few dogs developed atrophy of the germinal cells with cessation of prostatic secretion for many weeks but with final recovery. Removal of the suprarenal glands with suprarenal insufficiency did not produce sterility. The distribution of electrolytes in the prostatic secretion differed from that in the serum-transudate system, although the concentration of osmotically active substances was the same, being made up almost entirely of sodium and chloride. The distribution was not affected by the different physiological procedures used in this study. Protein concentrations were less than 1 per cent. The rate of prostatic atrophy following castration was determined, and cessation of secretion occurred in 7 to 23 days. The restoration of prostatic fluid in castrate dogs following daily injections of testosterone propionate followed a smooth curve to form a plateau which was interrupted occasionally by

  19. APPROACHES IN CONDUCTING PRIMARY PREVENTION OF TENDENCY OF MAXILLARY CANINE IMPACTION IN THE LATE MIXED DENTITION.

    OpenAIRE

    Hristina Arnautska

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and prediction of potential maxillary canine impaction are of essential importance for the normal formation of dentition. The aim of this article is to present a protocol for primary prevention of potential maxillary canine impaction in the late mixed dentition. The diagnostic protocols include three methods of examination - anamnestic, clinical and radiological, and depending on the obtained results, the protocol for phase 1 of the late mixed dentition directs to three clinic...

  20. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasani, F; Javanbakht, J; Samani, R; Shirani, D

    2016-03-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammatory cells, which were present in the biopsies of the Leishmania-infected dog, were lymphocytes and plasma cells. The histopathology results emphasized the role of dog, particularly asymptomatic dog, as reservoirs for CCL because of the high cutaneous parasite loads. These results may help to explain the maintenance of high transmission rates and numbers of CCL cases in endemic urban regions.

  1. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics About the ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...

  2. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer FAQs Top 10 Things You Should Know About ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  3. Characteristics of prostate cancers detected at prostate specific antigen levels less than 2.5 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Joshua J; Loeb, Stacy; Helfand, Brian T; Kan, Donghui; Smith, Norm D; Catalona, William J

    2009-06-01

    The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial reported that 15% of men with a prostate specific antigen less than 4 ng/ml and a normal digital rectal examination have biopsy detectable prostate cancer. However, limited published data describe the tumor features of prostate cancer detected at low prostate specific antigen levels (less than 2.5 ng/ml). A total of 1,278 men underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy by 1 surgeon between 2003 and 2008. We describe the clinicopathological features of 77 patients with a preoperative prostate specific antigen of less than 2.5 ng/ml. Of the men with a low prostate specific antigen (less than 2.5 ng/ml) tumor 51 (66%) had findings suspicious for prostate cancer on digital rectal examination. Indications for prostate biopsy in the remainder of men included an increased prostate specific antigen velocity, hematospermia and abnormal transrectal ultrasound findings. Prostate cancer was detected at transurethral resection of the prostate in the remaining 8% of men. Despite having a low prostate specific antigen at diagnosis 8 (10.4%) and 20 (26%) men, respectively, had biopsy and radical retropubic prostatectomy Gleason grade 7 disease or greater, while 7 (9%) and 6 (7.8%), respectively, had extracapsular tumor extension or positive surgical margins. Compared to men with a normal digital rectal examination mean tumor volume was significantly higher in those with a suspicious digital rectal examination (3.3 vs 1.7 cc, p = 0.018). Despite having a prostate specific antigen of less than 2.5 ng/ml at diagnosis, a considerable proportion of men had aggressive pathological features at radical retropubic prostatectomy. Digital rectal examination remains an important component of early prostate cancer detection.

  4. Radiologic study of the canine urethra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poogird, W.; Wood, A.K.W.

    1986-01-01

    The structure and function of the canine urethra were studied during retrograde and voiding urethrography in 9 male and 8 female dogs. The lumen of the prostatic portion of the urethra was variable in diameter. During retrograde urethrography, the lumen was narrow with streaks of contrast medium outlining mucosal folds, but during voiding, it was dilated and a spindle-shaped seminal hillock was detected. Retrograde urethrography revealed other regions of the urethra of males and females had a smooth radiographic outline. During voiding urethrography, characteristic identical urethral contractions were observed in the caudal portion of the pelvic urethra (male) and in the caudal half of the urethra (female). Contractions were progressive, occurred where striated muscle was present in the urethral wall, and resulted in an intermittent flow of urine from the urethra. In the male, contractions had a rate of 2.02 +/- 0.23 contraction/s and 1.65 +/- 0.53 in the females. Contractions may have a role in the controlled voiding of small volumes of urine necessary for the repeated marking of territory, in the passage of the ejaculate along the male urethra during copulation, and in the clearance of any residual urine from the urethra at the completion of micturition

  5. Anatomy and Histology of the Human and Murine Prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittmann, Michael

    2017-10-16

    The human and murine prostate glands have similar functional roles in the generation of seminal fluid to assist in reproduction. There are significant differences in the anatomy and histology of murine and human prostate and knowledge of the normal anatomy and histology of the murine prostate is essential to interpreting changes in genetically engineered mouse models. In this review, the normal anatomy and histology of both human and mouse prostate will be described. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  6. Preneoplastic prostate lesions: an opportunity for prostate cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W G; De Marzo, A M; Deweese, T L; Lin, X; Brooks, J D; Putzi, M J; Nelson, C P; Groopman, J D; Kensler, T W

    2001-12-01

    Environmental factors, especially the diet, play a prominent role in the epidemic of prostate cancer (PCA), in the United States. Many candidate dietary components have been proposed to influence human prostatic carcinogenesis, including fat, calories, fruits and vegetables, anti-oxidants, and various micronutrients, but the specific roles dietary agents play in promoting or preventing PCA remain controversial. We have collected evidence to suggest that GSTP1, the gene encoding the pi-class glutathione S-transferase (GST), may serve a "caretaker" function for prostatic cells. Although GSTP1 can be detected in normal prostatic epithelium, in almost all PCA cases, PCA cells fail to express GSTP1 polypeptides, and lack of GSTP1 expression most often appears to be the result of somatic "CpG island" DNA methylation changes. Loss of GSTP1 function also appears to be characteristic of prostatic epithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions, thought to represent PCA precursors. We have recently learned that a new candidate early PCA precursor lesion, proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA), characterized by proliferating prostatic cells juxtaposed to inflammatory cells, contains epithelial cells that express high levels of GSTP1. These findings have formed the basis for a new model of prostatic carcinogenesis, in which prostatic cells in PIA lesions, subjected to a barrage of inflammatory oxidants, induce GSTP1 expression as a defense against oxidative genome damage. When cells with defective GSTP1 genes appear amongst the PIA cells, such cells become vulnerable to oxidants and electrophiles that inflict genome damage that tends to promote neoplastic transformation to PIN and PCA cells. Subsequently, PIN and PCA cells with defective GSTPI genes remain vulnerable to similar stresses tending to promote malignant progression. This new model for prostatic carcinogenesis has implications for the design of new prostate cancer prevention strategies. Rational prevention approaches might

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of ...

  8. Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you have BPH, you may need to wake up often to urinate when you sleep. If you can’t urinate at all, you should get medical help right away. Your doctor will know if you have a prostate problem based on ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? Men who have ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on March 17, 2016 Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the pelvis may be obtained as an alternative imaging test, because it may be obtained with an external (phased array) receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate a nodule ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide procedures such as needle biopsies , in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the ...

  15. Prostate Stem Cells in the Development of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer: Emerging Role and Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Prajapati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign Prostate hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PCa are the most common prostatic disorders affecting elderly men. Multiple factors including hormonal imbalance, disruption of cell proliferation, apoptosis, chronic inflammation, and aging are thought to be responsible for the pathophysiology of these diseases. Both BPH and PCa are considered to be arisen from aberrant proliferation of prostate stem cells. Recent studies on BPH and PCa have provided significant evidence for the origin of these diseases from stem cells that share characteristics with normal prostate stem cells. Aberrant changes in prostate stem cell regulatory factors may contribute to the development of BPH or PCa. Understanding these regulatory factors may provide insight into the mechanisms that convert quiescent adult prostate cells into proliferating compartments and lead to BPH or carcinoma. Ultimately, the knowledge of the unique prostate stem or stem-like cells in the pathogenesis and development of hyperplasia will facilitate the development of new therapeutic targets for BPH and PCa. In this review, we address recent progress towards understanding the putative role and complexities of stem cells in the development of BPH and PCa.

  16. Prostate Stem Cells in the Development of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer: Emerging Role and Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Akhilesh; Gupta, Sharad; Mistry, Bhavesh; Gupta, Sarita

    2013-01-01

    Benign Prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) are the most common prostatic disorders affecting elderly men. Multiple factors including hormonal imbalance, disruption of cell proliferation, apoptosis, chronic inflammation, and aging are thought to be responsible for the pathophysiology of these diseases. Both BPH and PCa are considered to be arisen from aberrant proliferation of prostate stem cells. Recent studies on BPH and PCa have provided significant evidence for the origin of these diseases from stem cells that share characteristics with normal prostate stem cells. Aberrant changes in prostate stem cell regulatory factors may contribute to the development of BPH or PCa. Understanding these regulatory factors may provide insight into the mechanisms that convert quiescent adult prostate cells into proliferating compartments and lead to BPH or carcinoma. Ultimately, the knowledge of the unique prostate stem or stem-like cells in the pathogenesis and development of hyperplasia will facilitate the development of new therapeutic targets for BPH and PCa. In this review, we address recent progress towards understanding the putative role and complexities of stem cells in the development of BPH and PCa. PMID:23936768

  17. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, A.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  18. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne-Marie; Renkema, Alianne; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    Introduction: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  19. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  20. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mostfa Shahabi; Maryam Omidkhoda; Seyedeh Haniyeh Omidi; Seyed Hosein Hoseini Zarch

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planme...

  1. [Calculus formation in the prostatic cavity after transurethral resection of the prostate: causes, treatment and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhi-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Cheng, Wen; Zhou, Wen-Quan; Ge, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Zheng-Yu; Gao, Jian-Ping

    2012-05-01

    To study the causes, clinical manifestations, treatment and prevention of calculus that develops in the prostatic cavity after transurethral resection of the prostate. We reported 11 cases of calculus that developed in the prostatic cavity after transurethral resection or transurethral plasmakinetic resection of prostate. The patients complained of repeated symptoms of frequent micturition, urgent micturition and urodynia after operation, accompanied with urinary tract infection and some with urinary obstruction, which failed to respond to anti-infective therapies. Cystoscopy revealed calculi in the prostatic cavity, with eschar, sphacelus, uneven wound surface and small diverticula in some cases. After diagnosis, 1 case was treated by holmium laser lithotripsy and a second transurethral resection of the prostate, while the other 10 had the calculi removed under the cystoscope, followed by 1 -2 weeks of anti-infective therapy. After treatment, all the 11 cases showed normal results of routine urinalysis, and no more symptoms of frequent micturition, urgent micturition and urodynia. Three- to six-month follow-up found no bladder irritation symptoms and urinary tract infection. Repeated symptoms of frequent micturition, urgent micturition, urodynia and urinary tract infection after transurethral resection of the prostate should be considered as the indicators of calculus in the prostatic cavity, which can be confirmed by cystoscopy. It can be treated by lithotripsy or removal of the calculus under the cystoscope, or even a second transurethral resection of the prostate. For its prevention, excessive electric coagulation and uneven wound surface should be avoided and anti-infection treatment is needed.

  2. Mensuração de hormônios andrógenos, estrógeno, fosfatase ácida prostática (PAP e antígeno prostático específico (PSA em cães adultos com próstata normal e hiperplásica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Maria Brianezi Dignani de Moura

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic diseases have been a common problem in middle age and older intact male dogs. Among these, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP is the most frequent, age-related and hormonal-dependent condition of human and canine prostate. Blood samples were collected from 37 male intact dogs, tree years old dogs or more to determine androgens, estrogen, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP and prostatic specific antigen (PSA according to histopathological aspects. Low levels of estrogen and high levels of prostatic specific antigen (PSA were founded in dogs with BHP, respectively. Seric and urinary PAP levels were high in dogs with hyperplasia.

  3. Canine hip dysplasia: significance of early bony spurring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to call attention to new bone production that often occurs early in the sequence of pathological changes associated with canine hip dysplasia. New bone production extending to bony remodeling, as well as femoral head subluxation, both occur in the sequence of pathologic changes associated with canine hip dysplasia. Subluxation is considered primary, while osteoarthrosis is a secondary feature, and both are used in the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia. This report concerns the significance of the presence of a solitary bony osteophyte, or spur, that is frequently evident on the caudal aspect of the femoral neck as viewed on the conventional ventrodorsal projection. This report utilizes findings from pelvic radiographs of 605 dogs (five breeds). There was a greater frequency (54%)of this bony change in cases diagnosed radiographically as dysplastic than in cases diagnosed as normal(15%).Thus, it is suggested that this minimal radiographic change can be used as an indicator of early canine hip dysplasia, especially in the absence of subluxation of the femoral head

  4. The anti-canine distemper virus activities of ex vivo-expanded canine natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yun; Shin, Dong-Jun; Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Je-Jung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Cho, Duck; Kim, Sang-Ki

    2015-04-17

    Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in induction of antiviral effects against various viruses of humans and animals. However, few data on NK cell activities during canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are available. Recently, we established a culture system allowing activation and expansion of canine non-B, non-T, large granular NK lymphocytes from PBMCs of normal dogs. In the present study, we explored the ability of such expanded NK cells to inhibit CDV infection in vitro. Cultured CD3-CD5-CD21- NK cells produced large amounts of IFN-γ, exhibited highly upregulated expression of mRNAs encoding NK-cell-associated receptors, and demonstrated strong natural killing activity against canine tumor cells. Although the expanded NK cells were dose-dependently cytotoxic to both normal and CDV-infected Vero cells, CDV infection rendered Vero cells more susceptible to NK cells. Pretreatment with anti-CDV serum from hyperimmunized dogs enhanced the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells against CDV-infected Vero cells. The culture supernatants of NK cells, added before or after infection, dose-dependently inhibited both CDV replication and development of CDV-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in Vero cells. Anti-IFN-γ antibody neutralized the inhibitory effects of NK cell culture supernatants on CDV replication and CPE induction in Vero cells. Such results emphasize the potential significance of NK cells in controlling CDV infection, and indicate that NK cells may play roles both during CDV infection and in combating such infections, under certain conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Canine oral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2007-05-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral malignancy in the dog. Oral and/or mucosal melanoma has been routinely considered an extremely malignant tumor with a high degree of local invasiveness and high metastatic propensity. Primary tumor size has been found to be extremely prognostic. The World Health Organization staging scheme for dogs with oral melanoma is based on size, with stage I = or = 4cm tumor and/or lymph node metastasis, and stage IV = distant metastasis. Median survival times for dogs with oral melanoma treated with surgery are approximately 17 to 18, 5 to 6, and 3 months with stage I, II, and III disease, respectively. Significant negative prognostic factors include stage, size, evidence of metastasis, and a variety of histologic criteria. Standardized treatments such as surgery, coarse-fractionation radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have afforded minimal to modest stage-dependent clinical benefits and death is usually due to systemic metastasis. Numerous immunotherapeutic strategies have been employed to date with limited clinical efficacy; however, the use of xenogeneic DNA vaccines may represent a leap forward in clinical efficacy. Oral melanoma is a spontaneous syngeneic cancer occurring in outbred, immunocompetent dogs and appears to be a more clinically faithful therapeutic model for human melanoma; further use of canine melanoma as a therapeutic model for human melanoma is strongly encouraged. In addition, the development of an expanded but clinically relevant staging system incorporating the aforementioned prognostic factors is also strongly encouraged.

  6. Comparison of the canine and human acid {beta}-galactosidase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahern-Rindell, A.J. [Weber State Univ., Ogden, UT (United States); Kretz, K.A. [Recombinant BioCatalysis, Inc., La Jolla, CA (United States); O`Brien, J.S. [Univ. of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1996-05-17

    Several canine cDNA libraries were screened with human {beta}-galactosidase cDNA as probe. Seven positive clones were isolated and sequenced yielding a partial (2060 bp) canine {beta}-galactosidase cDNA with 86% identity to the human {beta}-galactosidase cDNA. Preliminary analysis of a canine genomic library indicated conservation of exon number and size. Analysis by Northern blotting disclosed a single mRNA of 2.4 kb in fibroblasts and liver from normal dogs and dogs affected with GM1 gangliosidosis. Although incomplete, these results indicate canine GM1 gangliosidosis is a suitable animal model of the human disease and should further efforts to devise a gene therapy strategy for its treatment. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The expression of calretinin and cytokeratins in canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, A; Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Naydan, D K; Verstraete, F J M

    2014-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma (CAA) represent two epithelium-derived neoplasms that affect the oral cavity of dogs. The expression of cytokeratins (CKs) and calretinin has been previously established in the canine tooth bud and odontogenic tumours. The aim of this study was to characterize the CK and calretinin expression profile of OSCC in comparison to CAA and canine tooth bud tissues. Samples from 15 OSCC and 15 CAA cases, as well as 6 tooth buds and 2 normal gingival tissues were examined. OSCC CK expression was consistent with the CK expression profile of CAA and canine tooth bud tissue. Calretinin was positively expressed in 10 of 15 OSCC cases, with 5 cases demonstrating high staining intensity. Only 2 of 15 CAA cases demonstrated mild-moderate staining intensity. The statistically significant difference in staining pattern and intensity of calretinin in OSCC and CAA can help distinguish between these two tumour types. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on March 17, 2016 Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? ... or for a referral to a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search ...

  9. Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging of Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Ex-vivo Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Vikram S; Chinni, Bhargava K; Valluru, Keerthi S; Joseph, Jean V; Ghazi, Ahmed; Yao, Jorge L; Evans, Katie; Messing, Edward M; Rao, Navalgund A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to validate if ex-vivo multispectral photoacoustic (PA) imaging can differentiate between malignant prostate tissue, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and normal human prostate tissue. Institutional Review Board's approval was obtained for this study. A total of 30 patients undergoing prostatectomy for biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer were included in this study with informed consent. Multispectral PA imaging was performed on surgically excised prostate tissue and chromophore images that represent optical absorption of deoxyhemoglobin (dHb), oxyhemoglobin (HbO2), lipid, and water were reconstructed. After the imaging procedure is completed, malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate regions were marked by the genitourinary pathologist on histopathology slides and digital images of marked histopathology slides were obtained. The histopathology images were co-registered with chromophore images. Region of interest (ROI) corresponding to malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate were defined on the chromophore images. Pixel values within each ROI were then averaged to determine mean intensities of dHb, HbO2, lipid, and water. Our preliminary results show that there is statistically significant difference in mean intensity of dHb (P imaging system were found to be 81.3%, 96.2%, 92.9% and 89.3% respectively. Our preliminary results of ex-vivo human prostate study suggest that multispectral PA imaging can differentiate between malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate tissue.

  10. Prostate tissue ablation with MRI guided transurethral therapeutic ultrasound and intraoperative assessment of the integrity of the neurovascular bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammet, Steffen; Partanen, Ari; Yousuf, Ambereen; Wardrip, Craig; Niekrasz, Marek; Antic, Tatjana; Razmaria, Aria; Sokka, Sham; Karczmar, Gregory; Oto, Aytekin

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the precision of prostate tissue ablation with MRI guided therapeuticultrasound by intraoperative objective assessment of the neurovascular bundle in canines in-vivo. METHODS: In this ongoing IACUC approved study, eight male canines were scanned in a clinical 3T Achieva MRI scanner (Philips) before, during, and after ultrasound therapy with a prototype MR-guided ultrasound therapy system (Philips). The system includes a therapy console to plan treatment, to calculate real-time temperature maps, and to control ultrasound exposures with temperature feedback. Atransurethral ultrasound applicator with eight transducer elements was used to ablate canine prostate tissue in-vivo. Ablated prostate tissue volumes were compared to the prescribed target volumes to evaluate technical effectiveness. The ablated volumes determined by MRI (T1, T2, diffusion, dynamic contrast enhanced and 240 CEM43 thermal dose maps) were compared to H&E stained histological slides afterprostatectomy. Potential nerve damage of the neurovascular bundle was objectively assessed intraoperativelyduring prostatectomy with a CaverMap Surgical Aid nerve stimulator (Blue Torch Medical Technologies). RESULTS: Transurethral MRI -guided ultrasound therapy can effectively ablate canine prostate tissue invivo. Coronal MR-imaging confirmed the correct placement of the HIFU transducer. MRI temperature maps were acquired during HIFU treatment, and subsequently used for calculating thermal dose. Prescribed target volumes corresponded to the 240 CEM43 thermal dose maps during HIFU treatment in all canines. Ablated volumes on high resolution anatomical, diffusion weighted, and contrast enhanced MR images matched corresponding histological slides after prostatectomy. MRI guidance with realtime temperature monitoring showed no damage to surrounding tissues, especially to the neurovascular bundle (assessed intra-operatively with a nerve stimulator) or to the rectum wall. CONCLUSIONS: Our study

  11. Approaches to canine health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2014-01-01

    Effective canine health surveillance systems can be used to monitor disease in the general population, prioritise disorders for strategic control and focus clinical research, and to evaluate the success of these measures. The key attributes for optimal data collection systems that support canine disease surveillance are representativeness of the general population, validity of disorder data and sustainability. Limitations in these areas present as selection bias, misclassification bias and discontinuation of the system respectively. Canine health data sources are reviewed to identify their strengths and weaknesses for supporting effective canine health surveillance. Insurance data benefit from large and well-defined denominator populations but are limited by selection bias relating to the clinical events claimed and animals covered. Veterinary referral clinical data offer good reliability for diagnoses but are limited by referral bias for the disorders and animals included. Primary-care practice data have the advantage of excellent representation of the general dog population and recording at the point of care by veterinary professionals but may encounter misclassification problems and technical difficulties related to management and analysis of large datasets. Questionnaire surveys offer speed and low cost but may suffer from low response rates, poor data validation, recall bias and ill-defined denominator population information. Canine health scheme data benefit from well-characterised disorder and animal data but reflect selection bias during the voluntary submissions process. Formal UK passive surveillance systems are limited by chronic under-reporting and selection bias. It is concluded that active collection systems using secondary health data provide the optimal resource for canine health surveillance.

  12. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Song, Hui-Qun; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-07-28

    Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  13. Proton Therapy Coverage for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Carlos; Wagner, Marcus; Mahajan, Chaitali; Indelicato, Daniel; Fryer, Amber; Falchook, Aaron; Horne, David C.; Chellini, Angela; McKenzie, Craig C.; Lawlor, Paula C.; Li Zuofeng; Lin Liyong; Keole, Sameer

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of prostate motion on dose coverage in proton therapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 prostate positions were analyzed on 10 treatment plans for 10 prostate patients treated using our low-risk proton therapy prostate protocol (University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute 001). Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging T 2 -weighted turbo spin-echo scans were registered for all cases. The planning target volume included the prostate with a 5-mm axial and 8-mm superoinferior expansion. The prostate was repositioned using 5- and 10-mm one-dimensional vectors and 10-mm multidimensional vectors (Points A-D). The beam was realigned for the 5- and 10-mm displacements. The prescription dose was 78 Gy equivalent (GE). Results: The mean percentage of rectum receiving 70 Gy (V 70 ) was 7.9%, the bladder V 70 was 14.0%, and the femoral head/neck V 50 was 0.1%, and the mean pelvic dose was 4.6 GE. The percentage of prostate receiving 78 Gy (V 78 ) with the 5-mm movements changed by -0.2% (range, 0.006-0.5%, p > 0.7). However, the prostate V 78 after a 10-mm displacement changed significantly (p 78 coverage had a large and significant reduction of 17.4% (range, 13.5-17.4%, p 78 coverage of the clinical target volume. The minimal prostate dose was reduced 33% (25.8 GE), on average, for Points A-D. The prostate minimal dose improved from 69.3 GE to 78.2 GE (p < 0.001) with realignment for 10-mm movements. Conclusion: The good dose coverage and low normal doses achieved for the initial plan was maintained with movements of ≤5 mm. Beam realignment improved coverage for 10-mm displacements

  14. Canine and feline colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Aggouni, C; Albaret, A; Fournier, A; Mila, H

    2017-04-01

    Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs <1 g/L in milk. IgG concentration rapidly drops after parturition (-50% in 24 hr). Immune quality of colostrum is highly variable between bitches, with no relationship with maternal blood IgG level, dam's age, breed size or litter size. In addition to systemic immune protection, colostrum also plays a major role for local digestive protection, due to IgA, lysozyme, lactoferrin, white blood cells and various cytokines. Energetic concentration of canine and feline colostrum is not superior to that of mature milk. It depends on colostrum fat concentration and is affected by breed size (higher in breeds <10 kg adult body weight). As puppies and kittens are almost agammaglobulinemic at birth, transfer of IgG from their digestive tract into their bloodstream is crucial for their survival, IgG absorption ending at 12-16 hr after birth. Energetic supply over the two first days of life, as evidenced by growth rate over the two first days of life, also affects risk of neonatal mortality. Early and sufficient suckling of colostrum is thus the very first care to be provided to newborns for their later health and survival. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Distinct Function of Estrogen Receptor α in Smooth Muscle and Fibroblast Cells in Prostate Development

    OpenAIRE

    Vitkus, Spencer; Yeh, Chiuan-Ren; Lin, Hsiu-Hsia; Hsu, Iawen; Yu, Jiangzhou; Chen, Ming; Yeh, Shuyuan

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen signaling, through estrogen receptor (ER)α, has been shown to cause hypertrophy in the prostate. Our recent report has shown that epithelial ERα knockout (KO) will not affect the normal prostate development or homeostasis. However, it remains unclear whether ERα in different types of stromal cells has distinct roles in prostate development. This study proposed to elucidate how KO of ERα in the stromal smooth muscle or fibroblast cells may interrupt cross talk between prostate stromal...

  16. Frequent Loss of Cystatin E/M Expression Implicated in the Progression of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pulukuri, Sai Murali Krishna; Gorantla, Bharathi; Knost, James A.; Rao, Jasti S.

    2009-01-01

    Cystatin E/M (CST6) is a natural inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteases. Recent studies have shown that experimental manipulation of CST6 expression alters the metastatic behavior of human breast cancer cells. However, the association of CST6 with prostate cancer invasion and progression is remains unclear. Here, we show that CST6 is robustly expressed in normal human prostate epithelium while its expression is downregulated in metastatic prostate cell lines and prostate tumor tissues. Tre...

  17. Is gamma glutamyl transferase a diagnostic marker of prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... condition is serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level. Since. PSA is synthesized by other tissues besides the normal and tumor prostate cells, the specificity of PSA as a biomarker for. BPH and PCA has been called into question and may be improved. Therefore, other markers of this disease condition are.

  18. Radiobiological Impact of Planning Techniques for Prostate Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of RapidArc planning techniques for prostate cancer in terms of TCP and normal NTCP. Subjects and Methods: A computed tomography data set of ten cases involving low.risk prostate cancer was selected for this retrospective study. For each case, two RapidArc plans were created in Eclipse treatment planning system.

  19. Prostate specific antigen: a useful but limited marker for prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the liver (cPSA and fPSA) and the kidney. (fPSA). The half-life of PSA in serum is ±2-3 days.7. Prostate cancer and PSA. PSA is widely used as a tumour marker in. Pca. Typically, PSA levels are elevated in. Pca mainly due to disruption of the normal glandular architecture, resulting in more. PSA being released into the ...

  20. Canine distemper virus detection in asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Del Puerto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR revealed canine distemper virus presence in peripheral blood samples from asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs. Samples from eleven domestic dogs with no signs of canine distemper and not vaccinated at the month of collection were used. Canine distemper virus vaccine samples in VERO cells were used as positive controls. RNA was isolated with Trizol®, and treated with a TURBO DNA-free kit. Primers were designed for canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein coding region fragment amplification (84 bp. Canine b-actin (93 bp was utilized as the endogenous control for normalization. Quantitative results of real time PCR generated by ABI Prism 7000 SDS Software showed that 54.5% of dogs with asymptomatic canine distemper were positive for canine distemper virus. Dissociation curves confirmed the specificity of the real time PCR fragments. This technique could detect even a few copies of viral RNA and identificate subclinically infected dogs providing accurate diagnosis of this disease at an early stage.A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR em tempo real revelou a presença do vírus da cinomose canina em amostra de sangue de cães assintomáticos e não vacinados. Amostra de onze cães domésticos sem nenhum sinal clínico de cinomose e que não foram vacinados no mês da coleta de sangue foram utilizados para análise. Amostra vacinal do vírus da cinomose canina em células VERO foi utilizada como controle positivo. O RNA total foi isolado utilizando-se Trizol®, e tratadas com o Kit TURBO DNA-free. Os iniciadores foram desenhados para amplificar a região do nucleocapsídeo viral com 319pb e 84pb para a PCR convencional e PCR em tempo real, respectivamente. O fragmento alvo da b-actina canina com 93pb foi utilizado como controle endógeno e normalizador. Resultados quantitativos da PCR em tempo real gerados pelo programa ABI Prism 7000 SDS demonstraram que 54,5% dos cães assintom

  1. Immunohistochemical Expression of MCAM/CD146 in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Asa, S

    2017-07-01

    MCAM/CD146 (melanoma cell adhesion molecule/CD146) is a transmembrane immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule involved in transendothelial migration and signal transduction. It is expressed in melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, prostatic, ovarian, cervical and endometrial cancers and promotes tumour growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Melanoma is the most common malignant oral tumour of dogs and also arises in the skin, nail bed and footpad. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of MCAM/CD146 in 51 canine melanomas, including oral, cutaneous and ocular tumours. Seventeen of the 51 (33.3%) cases were negative, eight (15.7%) were weakly positive, seven (13.7%) were moderately positive and 19 (37.3%) were strongly positive. MCAM/CD146 was expressed by both oral and cutaneous melanomas; however, the intensity and the extent of the immunoreactivity was higher in oral (P = 0.009) than in cutaneous tumours (P = 0.058). Most ocular melanomas did not express MCAM/CD146 (P = 0.256). Expression of MCAM/CD146 by canine melanomas may suggest the molecule as a target for treatment, especially in oral melanomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CXCL5 Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesa A Begley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available CXCL5 is a proangiogenic CXC-type chemokine that is an inflammatory mediator and a powerful attractant for granulocytic immune cells. Unlike many other chemokines, CXCL5 is secreted by both immune (neutrophil, monocyte, and macrophage and nonimmune (epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cell types. The current study was intended to determine which of these cell types express CXCL5 in normal and malignant human prostatic tissues, whether expression levels correlated with malignancy and whether CXCL5 stimulated biologic effects consistent with a benign or malignant prostate epithelial phenotype. The results of these studies show that CXCL5 protein expression levels are concordant with prostate tumor progression, are highly associated with inflammatory infiltrate, and are frequently detected in the lumens of both benign and malignant prostate glands. Exogenous administration of CXCL5 stimulates cellular proliferation and gene transcription in both nontransformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells and induces highly aggressive prostate cancer cells to invade through synthetic basement membrane in vitro. These findings suggest that the inflammatory mediator, CXCL5, may play multiple roles in the etiology of both benign and malignant proliferative diseases in the prostate.

  3. Regulation of Prostate Development and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Autocrine Cholinergic Signaling via Maintaining the Epithelial Progenitor Cells in Proliferating Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naitao Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of prostate epithelial progenitor cells is important in prostate development and prostate diseases. Our previous study demonstrated a function of autocrine cholinergic signaling (ACS in promoting prostate cancer growth and castration resistance. However, whether or not such ACS also plays a role in prostate development is unknown. Here, we report that ACS promoted the proliferation and inhibited the differentiation of prostate epithelial progenitor cells in organotypic cultures. These results were confirmed by ex vivo lineage tracing assays and in vivo renal capsule recombination assays. Moreover, we found that M3 cholinergic receptor (CHRM3 was upregulated in a large subset of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH tissues compared with normal tissues. Activation of CHRM3 also promoted the proliferation of BPH cells. Together, our findings identify a role of ACS in maintaining prostate epithelial progenitor cells in the proliferating state, and blockade of ACS may have clinical implications for the management of BPH.

  4. Sciatic neuropathy as first sign of metastasising prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Rastiemadabadi, Zoreh; Smith, Torben Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    idiopathic neuropathy. Here we describe a patient who was initially diagnosed with idiopathic sciatic neuropathy but who was eventually diagnosed with prostate cancer. This is an uncommon manifestation of prostate cancer, and the diagnostic was difficult because prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was normal...... and the positron emission tomography scan negative. Changes in PSA should always raise the suspicion of prostate cancer, just as idiopathic progressive neuropathy should always raise the suspicion of an underlying malignancy, even when standard diagnostics fail to explain the patient's symptoms....

  5. Combination of Autoantibody Signature with PSA Level Enables a Highly Accurate Blood-Based Differentiation of Prostate Cancer Patients from Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, Petra; Keller, Andreas; Milchram, Lisa; Harz, Christian; Hart, Martin; Werth, Angelika; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Weinhäusel, Andreas; Keck, Bastian; Wullich, Bernd; Ludwig, Nicole; Meese, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    Although an increased level of the prostate-specific antigen can be an indication for prostate cancer, other reasons often lead to a high rate of false positive results. Therefore, an additional serological screening of autoantibodies in patients' sera could improve the detection of prostate cancer. We performed protein macroarray screening with sera from 49 prostate cancer patients, 70 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 28 healthy controls and compared the autoimmune response in those groups. We were able to distinguish prostate cancer patients from normal controls with an accuracy of 83.2%, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia from normal controls with an accuracy of 86.0% and prostate cancer patients from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with an accuracy of 70.3%. Combining seroreactivity pattern with a PSA level of higher than 4.0 ng/ml this classification could be improved to an accuracy of 84.1%. For selected proteins we were able to confirm the differential expression by using luminex on 84 samples. We provide a minimally invasive serological method to reduce false positive results in detection of prostate cancer and according to PSA screening to distinguish men with prostate cancer from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  6. Pharmacological and nutritive support of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic prostatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Bat'ko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The articles presents a view of the pharmacological and nutritive therapy of the most frequent diseases of males, which are benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic prostatitis. A modern man is in constant deficiency of various biologically active substances, with the lack of them in food and without generating of sufficient quantity of coenzymes and enzymes. In the author,s opinion, complex drugs that contain highquality biological extracts may provide the substances required for prevention and slowing down the progress of benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic prostatitis to the male organism. Study of biological activity of food supplement Andro-PRO (Russia that contain the elements required for normalization of the functional state of the prostate was performed. Application of the drug favors positive dynamics of clinical symptoms of the studied nosological entities and has restorative effect on the function of the glandular tissue of the prostate. Analysis of modern references, primary results of clinical studies show the necessity of pharmacological and nutritive support of patients with asymptomatic progress of benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic prostatitis with the drug. Application of drug studied is efficient and safe, which is confirmed with improvement of indicators and life quality assessment, positive clinical dynamics, and absence of side effects. 

  7. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated

  8. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; L.G.P. Giordano; K.K.M.C. Flaiban; E.E. Muller; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  9. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Canine Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana CORA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomas occur by clonal expansion of lymphoid cells and have distinctive morphological and immunophenotypic features. Determination of canine lymphoma immunophenotype is useful for accurate prognosis and further therapy. In the suggested study, we performed an immunohistochemical evaluation of some cases with canine lymphoma diagnosed in the Department of Pathology (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in order to characterize them. The investigation included 39 dogs diagnosed with different anatomical forms of lymphoma, following necropsy analysis or assessment of biopsies. The diagnosis of lymphoma was confirmed by necropsy and histopathology (Hematoxylin-eosin stain examinations. The collected specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry technique (automatic method using the following antibodies: CD3, CD20, CD21 and CD79a. The analyzed neoplasms were characterized as follows: about 64.10% of cases were diagnosed as B-cell lymphomas, 33.34% of cases as T-cell lymphomas, whereas 2.56% of cases were null cell type lymphomas (neither B nor T. Most of multicentric (80%, mediastinal (60% and primary central nervous system lymphomas (100% had B immunophenotype, while the majority of cutaneous (80% and digestive (100% lymphomas had T immunophenotype. Immunohistochemical description of canine lymphomas can deliver some major details concerning their behavior and malignancy. Additionally, vital prognosis and efficacy of some therapeutic protocols are relying on the immunohistochemical features of canine lymphoma.

  10. Clinical and MRI features of prostate sarcoma: comparison with prostate adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jianping; Wang Xiaoying; Wang Zhenzhong; Zhou Liangping; Jiang Xuexiang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the clinical and imaging features of prostate sarcoma, and to compare the features with those of prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa). Method: Six cases of prostate sarcoma proved pathologically were enrolled in this study. The clinical material and imaging features were compared with those of the PCa. Results: (1) Pathological result: Among the 6 prostate sarcomas, 3 were rhabdomyosarcoma, 1 was leiomyosarcoma, and 2 were sarcoma originated from interstitial tissue that could not be classified. (2) Clinical result: The 6 patients of sarcoma were younger (median age 36.5, 15-71 years) than the patients of PCa (median age 72, 50-78 years) (P -3 ng/L] was normal and lower than that of the PCa patients [median 27.80, (1.55-352.00) x 10 -3 ng/ L] (P 3 ) was larger than that of PCa (median 41.57, 17.16-179.44 cm 3 ) (P 2 -weighted images, with grossly normal structure of the prostate. Excapsular extension was more common in the sarcomas than in the PCa (83.3% vs 66.7%). Conclusion: The clinical and imaging features of prostate sarcoma are different from those of prostate adenocarcinoma

  11. Use of nomograms for early detection in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Devon C; Klein, Eric A

    2010-02-01

    Since the first introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a screening tool in the 1980s, the accurate diagnoses of clinically significant prostate cancer remains a challenge. Analysis of a correlation between PSA levels and prostate biopsies of men with PSA 3 ng/mL or less in the placebo group of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial suggested that no "normal" PSA level exists. With the acknowledgement that PSA level is considered a continuum rather than a dichotomous marker, accurately diagnosing clinically significant prostate cancer is even more challenging. Nomograms are increasingly being used as tools in the clinical setting to address this challenge. Through incorporating multiple clinical factors, such as PSA, digital rectal examination, age, race, prostate volume, family history, and previous negative biopsy, risk calculators can improve sensitivity of diagnosis over using a PSA cutoff alone. This article discusses the rational for the use of nomograms and the advantages and limitations for the most commonly used nomograms.

  12. Ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, G T; Dean, C

    2001-07-01

    Many behavioral and ecological factors influence the degree of expression of canine dimorphism for different reasons. Regardless of its socioecological importance, we know virtually nothing about the processes responsible for the development of canine dimorphism. Our aim here is to describe the developmental process(es) regulating canine dimorphism in extant hominoids, using histological markers of tooth growth. Teeth preserve a permanent record of their ontogeny in the form of short- and long-period incremental markings in both enamel and dentine. We selected 52 histological sections of sexed hominoid canine teeth from a total sample of 115, from which we calculated the time and rate of cuspal enamel formation and the rate at which ameloblasts differentiate along the future enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to the end of crown formation. Thus, we were able to reconstruct longitudinal growth curves for height attainment in male and female hominoid canines. Male hominoids consistently take longer to form canine crowns than do females (although not significantly so for our sample of Homo). Male orangutans and gorillas occasionally take up to twice as long as females to complete enamel formation. The mean ranges of female canine crown formation times are similar in Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo. Interspecific differences between female Pan canine crown heights and those of Gorilla and Pongo, which are taller, result from differences in rates of growth. Differences in canine crown heights between male Pan and the taller, more dimorphic male Gorilla and Pongo canines result both from differences in total time taken to form enamel and from faster rates of growth in Gorilla and Pongo. Although modern human canines do not emerge as significantly dimorphic in this study, it is well-known that sexual dimorphism in canine crown height exists. Larger samples of sexed modern human canines are therefore needed to identify clearly what underlies this. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Measurement of plasma canine C peptide by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besch, W.; Woltanski, K.P.; Fischer, U.; Kohnert, K.D.; Ziegler, M.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for canine C peptide (CCP) was established using synthetic CCP, a specific antiserum, and rabbit anti-guinea pig serum. Radioiodination was performed according to a modified chloramine T method. Tracer preparations have been used for 6 weeks after iodination. The standard curve ranges from 0.028 to 3.0 nmol/l. The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3-5% and the inter-assay CV was 6-9% in the optimal range between 0.3 and 0.8 nmol/l. The average recovery of CCP added to plasma samples was 100.6% (n = 9). Canine insulin, porcine proinsulin, bovine proinsulin, and human C peptide exhibited no cross-reactivity. The mean fasting plasma CCP concentration was 0.089 +- 0.021 nmol/l in normal dogs and -0.005 +- 0.007 nmol/l (mean +- SEM) in diabetic dogs, respectively. (author)

  14. Orthodontic tooth movement after extraction of previously autotransplanted maxillary canines and ridge augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, A R; Fletcher, B

    2000-12-01

    A case report is detailed in which autotransplanted maxillary canines were removed and the spaces closed. Substantial surrounding bone loss was associated with the upper right canine, and a bone graft was needed to reestablish normal dentoalveolar ridge morphology. Bone was taken from the maxillary tuberosity and placed in the canine extraction site, fixed with a bone screw, and covered with GoreTex. Seven months after placement of the bone graft, the GoreTex and stabilizing screw were removed to allow for consolidation of the bone. The upper left canine and lower second premolars were extracted, and fixed appliances were placed in both arches to align the teeth and close the spaces. Protraction of the upper right first premolar and retraction of the lateral incisor into the graft site were kept slow and constant with continued periodontal assessment. During the space closure, there was some concern that the bone in the graft site might resorb, leaving the teeth with compromised periodontal support. However, no significant periodontal attachment loss occurred despite ongoing concern about the amount of keratinized tissue. Perhaps the relatively slow rate of tooth movement provided for bone to be maintained and recreated ahead of the tooth. Almost complete closure of the upper canine extraction spaces was achieved. The upper premolars were substituted for the maxillary canines, and unfavorable prosthetic options were thus avoided. The lower arch was aligned, and the extraction spaces completely closed.

  15. [Chronic prostatitis and Bechterew's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlicek, J; Svec, V

    1977-11-01

    A group of patients between 35 and 65 years old with chronic prostatitis were examined for the presence of Becherew's disease. In this connection the New York and Roman criterions for morbus Bechterew were applied. There were found one ankyosing spondylarthritis, one ankylosis of the sacroiliac joint, and 11 times a tentative sacroileitis were stated. Altogether the proved and tentative findings were only 3.68 per cent of all examinations. In our countries the morbus Bechterew is found in 0,21 per cent of the normal population. So the protion of the Bechterew's disease in patients with chronic prostatitis is indeed a little higher than average, but not so frequent as often pretended in recent times. After a second series 58 patients being treated because of Bechterew's disease of different stages and different terms were examined for the possibility of a simultaneously elapsing chronic prostatitis. A chronic prostatitis was found in 38 per cent of these patients which correspondents to the incidence published in literature for the medium-age manhood. Nobody of the test persons had complaints on the part of the urologenital tract.

  16. Therapeutic potential of endothelin inhibitors in canine hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Shinya; Saida, Kaname; Sakai, Hiroki; Ueno, Hiroshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Uchide, Tsuyoshi

    2016-08-15

    Hemangiosarcoma (HSA) that originates from vascular endothelial cells is the most common splenic malignant neoplasm in dogs, as it accounts for approximately 20% of all canine soft tissue sarcomas. In this study, inhibitory effects of endothelin receptor antagonists on the growth of HSA cells were examined using cell lines established from canine HSA. The preproendothelin-1 (PPET-1), endothelin type A receptor (ETA) and endothelin type B receptor (ETB) mRNA expression levels in HSA cell lines (n=5) were analyzed quantitatively by real-time RT-PCR. These levels were compared with those in HSA tissues (n=11) and those in normal splenic tissues (n=6). ETA and ETB protein expression was examined by western blot. The production and secretion of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and big ET-1 by cell lines were analyzed by measuring the levels in the culture medium by ELISA. The inhibitory effects of endothelin receptor antagonists (ambrisentan, BQ788 and bosentan) on cell growth were evaluated by WST-8 assay. The PPET1 and ETA mRNA expression levels were elevated in HSA tissues and HSA cell lines compared with normal tissues. In cell lines, the production of ET-1 and big ET-1 peptide as well as the expression of ETA protein were detected, but the levels of ETB were not measured. Ambrisentan and bosentan inhibited growth activity in cell lines. Ambrisentan was more effective than bosentan. These findings demonstrate the importance of the ETA axis in canine HSA as well as the potential of ETA inhibitors in the treatment of canine HSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. One-step triplex PCR/RT-PCR to detect canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, and canine kobuvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dafei; Liu, Fei; Guo, Dongchun; Hu, Xiaoliang; Li, Zhijie; Li, Zhigang; Ma, Jianzhang; Liu, Chunguo

    2018-01-23

    To rapidly distinguish Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) in practice, a one-step multiplex PCR/RT-PCR assay was developed, with detection limits of 10 2.1 TCID 50 for CDV, 10 1.9 TCID 50 for CPV and 10 3 copies for CaKoV. This method did not amplify nonspecific DNA or RNA from other canine viruses. Therefore, the assay provides a sensitive tool for the rapid clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance of CDV, CPV and CaKoV in dogs.

  18. [Canine teeth impacted in the palate--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovcencu, Loredana; Costan, V V

    2011-01-01

    Maxillary canines have the longest period of development, the deepest area of formation and the most difficult path of all teeth. The maxillary canines are the most likely to remain unerupted or impacted. The maxillary permanent canine is considered important by virtue of its place in the scheme of functional occlusion and its contribution to facial appearance. We successfully orthodontically treated two cases with palatally impacted canines. Although both cases had palatally impacted canines, they were different due to canine position and angulation.

  19. Nuclear Glycogen Inclusions in Canine Parietal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, S; Lepri, E; Dall'Aglio, C; Marchesi, M C; Vitellozzi, G

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear glycogen inclusions occur infrequently in pathologic conditions but also in normal human and animal tissues. Their function or significance is unclear. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no reports of nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells exist. After initial observations of nuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions during routine histopathology, the authors retrospectively examined samples of gastric mucosa from dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs for the presence of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions and determined their composition using histologic and electron-microscopic methods. In 24 of 108 cases (22%), the authors observed various numbers of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions within scattered parietal cells. Nuclei were characterized by marked karyomegaly and chromatin margination around a central optically empty or slightly eosinophilic area. The intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions stained positive with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and were diastase sensitive, consistent with glycogen. Several PAS-positive/diastase-sensitive sections were further examined by transmission electron microscopy, also using periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (PA-TCH-SP) staining to identify polysaccharides. Ultrastructurally, the nuclear inclusions were composed of electron-dense particles that were not membrane bound, without evidence of nuclear membrane invaginations or cytoplasmic organelles in the nuclei, and positive staining with PA-TCH-SP, confirming a glycogen composition. No cytoplasmic glycogen deposits were observed, suggesting that the intranuclear glycogen inclusions were probably synthesized in loco. Nuclear glycogen inclusions were not associated with gastritis or colonization by Helicobacter-like organisms ( P > .05). Our findings suggest that nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells could be an incidental finding. Nevertheless, since nuclear glycogen is present in several pathologic

  20. A reproducible canine model of esophageal varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, D M; Machicado, G A; Tapia, J I; Kauffman, G; Franco, P; Beilin, D

    1983-03-01

    One of the most promising nonoperative techniques for control of variceal hemorrhage is sclerosis via the fiberoptic endoscope. Many questions remain, however, about sclerosing agents, guidelines for effective use, and limitations of endoscopic techniques. A reproducible large animal model of esophageal varices would facilitate the critical evaluation of techniques for variceal hemostasis or sclerosis. Our purpose was to develop a large animal model of esophageal varices. Studies in pigs and dogs are described which led to the development of a reproducible canine model of esophageal varices. For the final model, mongrel dogs had laparotomy, side-to-side portacaval shunt, inferior vena cava ligation, placement of an ameroid constrictor around the portal vein, and liver biopsy. The mean (+/- SE) pre- and postshunt portal pressure increased significantly from 12 +/- 0.4 to 23 +/- 1 cm saline. Weekly endoscopies were performed to grade the varix size. Two-thirds of animals developed medium or large sized esophageal varices after the first operation. Three to six weeks later, a second laparotomy with complete ligation of the portal vein and liver biopsy were performed in animals with varices (one-third of the animals). All dogs developed esophageal varices and abdominal wall collateral veins of variable size 3-6 wk after the first operation. After the second operation, the varices became larger. Shunting of blood through esophageal varices via splenic and gastric veins was demonstrated by angiography. Sequential liver biopsies were normal. There was no morbidity or mortality. Ascites, encephalopathy, or spontaneous variceal bleeding did not occur. We have documented the lack of size change and the persistence of medium to large esophageal varices and abdominal collateral veins in all animals followed for more than 6 mo. Variceal bleeding could be induced by venipuncture for testing endoscopic hemostatic and sclerosis methods. We suggest other potential uses of this

  1. [Benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourey, Loïc; Doumerc, Nicolas; Gaudin, Clément; Gérard, Stéphane; Balardy, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Prostatic diseases are extremely common, especially in older men. Amongst them, benign prostatic hypertrophy may affect significantly the quality of life of patients by the symptoms it causes. It requires appropriate care. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men after lung cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It affects preferentially older men. An oncogeriatric approach is required for personalised care.

  2. Studies of vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad for the photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Blanc, Dominique; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2005-01-01

    In this pre-clinical study, photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad (palladium-bacteriopheophorbide) is investigated as an alternative treatment modality for the ablation of prostate cancer. Canine prostate was used as the animal model. PDT was performed by interstitially irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm) to activate the IV infused photosensitizer. The effects of drug dose, drug-light interval, and light fluence rate on PDT efficacy were evaluated. The prostates and adjacent tissues were harvested at one-week post PDT and subjected to histopathological examination. The dogs recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Urinalysis showed trace blood. Histological examination showed minimal damage to the prostatic urethra. These indicated that the urethra was well preserved. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis with a clear demarcation. Maximum lesion volume of ~3 cm3 could be achieved with a single 1-cm diffuser fiber at a dose level of 1 mg/kg and 200 J/cm, suggesting the therapy is very effective in ablating prostatic tissue. PDT induced lesion could reach the capsule layers but adjacent tissues were well preserved. The novel photosensitizer is a vascular drug and cleared rapidly from the circulation. Light irradiation can be performed during drug infusion thereby eliminating waiting time. The novel vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad-mediated PDT could provide an effective alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  3. Tear ferning in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tear ferning in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. David Williams, Heather Hewitt. Abstract. This study evaluates tear ferning as an ancillary technique for the evaluation of the canine tear film in normal eyes and eyes affected by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Thirty dogs with KCS and 50 control dogs ...

  4. A comparison of ventilatory prostate movement in four treatment positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Laura A.; Litzenberg, Dale W.; Brock, Kristy K.; Sanda, Martin; Sullivan, Molly; Sandler, Howard M.; Balter, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure target coverage during radiotherapy, all sources of geometric uncertainty in target position must be considered. Movement of the prostate due to breathing has not traditionally been considered in prostate radiotherapy. The purpose of this study is to report the influence of patient orientation and immobilization on prostate movement due to breathing. Methods and Materials: Four patients had radiopaque markers implanted in the prostate. Fluoroscopy was performed in four different positions: prone in alpha cradle, prone with an aquaplast mold, supine on a flat table, and supine with a false table under the buttocks. Fluoroscopic movies were videotaped and digitized. Frames were analyzed using 2D-alignment software to determine the extent of movement of the prostate markers and the skeleton for each position during normal and deep breathing. Results: During normal breathing, maximal movement of the prostate markers was seen in the prone position (cranial-caudal [CC] range: 0.9-5.1 mm; anterior-posterior [AP] range: up to 3.5 mm). In the supine position, prostate movement during normal breathing was less than 1 mm in all directions. Deep breathing resulted in CC movements of 3.8-10.5 mm in the prone position (with and without an aquaplast mold). This range was reduced to 2.0-7.3 mm in the supine position and 0.5-2.1 mm with the use of the false table top. Deep breathing resulted in AP skeletal movements of 2.7-13.1 mm in the prone position, whereas AP skeletal movements in the supine position were negligible. Conclusion: Ventilatory movement of the prostate is substantial in the prone position and is reduced in the supine position. The potential for breathing to influence prostate movement, and thus the dose delivered to the prostate and normal tissues, should be considered when positioning and planning patients for conformal irradiation

  5. Agenesis of permanent canines: Rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis of permanent canines is a rare condition, and that of both maxillary and mandibular permanent canines is extremely rare. It may occur either isolated or in association with other dental anomalies. Reports of such cases are very scarce in the literature. Need for early diagnosis of such conditions should be emphasized because of functional, esthetic, and psychological problems which should be evaluated and treated appropriately. The present paper presents a report of bilaterally missing permanent maxillary and mandibular canines. This case might contribute in the future studies of incidence of agenesis of permanent canines.

  6. Agenesis of permanent canines: Rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sumit Kumar; Yadav, Achla Bharti; Kedia, Neal Bharat; Singh, Abhinav Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Agenesis of permanent canines is a rare condition, and that of both maxillary and mandibular permanent canines is extremely rare. It may occur either isolated or in association with other dental anomalies. Reports of such cases are very scarce in the literature. Need for early diagnosis of such conditions should be emphasized because of functional, esthetic, and psychological problems which should be evaluated and treated appropriately. The present paper presents a report of bilaterally missing permanent maxillary and mandibular canines. This case might contribute in the future studies of incidence of agenesis of permanent canines.

  7. Enlarged prostate - after care

    Science.gov (United States)

    BPH - self-care; Benign prostatic hypertrophy - self-care; Benign prostatic hyperplasia - self-care ... exercises ( Kegel exercises ) that strengthen the pelvic floor muscles. Doing these exercise may help with leaking or ...

  8. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000907.htm Cryotherapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features ... first treatment for prostate cancer. What Happens During Cryotherapy Before the procedure, you will be given medicine ...

  9. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  10. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  11. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treatment for your prostate cancer is chosen after a thorough evaluation. Your doctor ...

  12. The Thoc1 Ribonucleoprotein as a Novel Biomarker for Prostate Cancer Treatment Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    determining the effect of glutamate receptor antagonist on tumor growth and metastatic ability, fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression and apoptotic markers in...Patients  RPCI_PrCa30_  Prostatic adenocarcinoma cases that qualified to TCGA. Tumor and normal cores. Cases from 2007-2009.  20  RPCI_PrCa31_...Prostatic adenocarcinomacases that qualified to TCGA. Tumor and normal cores. Cases from 2009-2013.  22  RPCI_PrCa32_  African American prostatic

  13. Expression of the IGF Axis Is Decreased in Local Prostate Cancer but Enhanced after Benign Prostate Epithelial Differentiation and TGF-β Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoner, Petra; Ladurner Rennau, Michael; Heidegger, Isabel; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Summerer, Monika; Reichhart, Eva; Schäfer, Georg; Klocker, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis is a molecular pathway intensively investigated in cancer research. Clinical trials targeting the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) in different tumors, including prostate cancer, are under way. Although studies on the IGF axis in prostate cancer have already entered into clinical trials, the expression and functional role of the IGF axis in benign prostate and in prostate cancer needs to be better defined. We determined mRNA expression levels of the IGF axis in microdissected tissue specimens of local prostate cancer using quantitative PCR. All members of the IGF axis, including IGF1, IGF2, IGF binding proteins 1 through 6, and insulin receptor, were measured in both the stromal and epithelial compartments of the prostate. IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, and insulin receptor were down-regulated in local prostate cancer tissue compared with matched benign tissue, suggesting that the IGF axis is not induced during prostate cancer development. Using a new prostate epithelial differentiation model, we demonstrate that the expression of the IGF axis is enhanced during normal prostate epithelial differentiation and regulated by tumor growth factor (TGF)-β. Our data reveal a functional role of the IGF axis in prostate differentiation, underscoring the importance of the IGF axis in normal development and emphasizing the importance of accurate target validation before moving to advanced clinical trials. PMID:21983635

  14. APPROACHES IN CONDUCTING PRIMARY PREVENTION OF TENDENCY OF MAXILLARY CANINE IMPACTION IN THE LATE MIXED DENTITION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Arnautska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis and prediction of potential maxillary canine impaction are of essential importance for the normal formation of dentition. The aim of this article is to present a protocol for primary prevention of potential maxillary canine impaction in the late mixed dentition. The diagnostic protocols include three methods of examination - anamnestic, clinical and radiological, and depending on the obtained results, the protocol for phase 1 of the late mixed dentition directs to three clinical preventive approaches of action. In phase 2 of the late mixed dentition, the clinical approaches are two, due to the approaching time of eruption of the canine and the need for immediate treatment measures. We believe that the most useful preventive interventions should take place during the early mixed dentition and phase 1 of the late mixed dentition. Early extraction of the temporary canine will lead to a change in the eruption path of the permanent canine – up righting and eruption in the normal position in the dental arch – if there is enough space.

  15. Homologous radioimmunoassay for canine prolactin and its application in various physiological states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graef, K.-J.; Friedreich, E.; Matthes, S.; Hasan, S.H.

    1977-01-01

    The purification of canine prolactin and the development of an homologous radioimmunoassay including several physiological studies in the Beagle dog are described. The assay measured immunoreactive canine prolactin with a sensitivity limit of 0.6 ng/ml. Purified canine luteinizing hormone gave no significant inhibition in the assay whereas purified canine growth hormone inhibited the binding of 125 I-labelled canine prolactin to antiserum only at very high dose levels. In Beagle dogs, basal serum prolactin concentrations were in the range 1 to 2 ng/ml in normal male, normal female (metoestrus and anoestrus) and oophorectomized-hysterectomized female dogs. The prolactin concentration in one sample of amniotic fluid was in the same range, while in hypophysectomized make dogs no serum prolactin could be detected by the assay system. Serum prolactin concentrations tended to increase during late pregnancy and parturition, remaining high during the first 9 days of lactation. In consequence, a negative correlation was suggested between serum prolactin and serum progesterone concentrations. (author)

  16. Cryopreservation of microencapsulated canine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shambhu; Otsuki, Tsubasa; Fujimura, Chika; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Higaki, Shogo; Hishinuma, Mitsugu

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to develop a method for cryopreserving microencapsulated canine sperm. Pooled ejaculates from three beagle dogs were extended in egg yolk tris extender and encapsulated using alginate and poly-L-lysine at room temperature. The microcapsules were cooled at 4 °C, immersed in pre-cooled extender (equivalent in volume to the microcapsules) to reach final concentration of 7% (v/v) glycerol and 0.75% (v/v) Equex STM paste, and equilibrated for 5, 30 and 60 min at 4 °C. Thereafter, microcapsules were loaded into 0.5 mL plastic straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 1, characteristics of microencapsulated canine sperm were evaluated after glycerol addition at 4 °C. Glycerol exposure for 5, 30 and 60 min did not significantly affect progressive motility, viability, or acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm compared with pre-cooled unencapsulated sperm (control). In Experiment 2, characteristics of frozen-thawed canine microencapsulated sperm were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h of culture at 38.5 °C. Pre-freeze glycerol exposure for 5, 30, and 60 min at 4 °C did not influence post-thaw quality in unencapsulated sperm. Post-thaw motility and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm decreased more than those of unencapsulated sperm (P < 0.05) following glycerol exposure for 5 min. However, motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm after 30 and 60 min glycerol exposure were higher than unencapsulated sperm cultured for 6 or 9 h (P < 0.05). In conclusion, since microencapsulated canine sperm were successfully cryopreserved, this could be a viable alternative to convention sperm cryopreservation in this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fractal pattern of canine trichoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vico, Gionata; Cataldi, Marielda; Maiolino, Paola; Carella, Francesca; Beltraminelli, Stefano; Losa, Gabriele A

    2011-06-01

    To assess by fractal analysis the specific architecture, growth pattern, and tissue distribution that characterize subtypes of canine trichoblastoma, a benign tumor derived from or reduplicating the primitive hair germ of embryonic follicular development. Tumor masks and outlines obtained from immunohistologic images by gray threshold segmentation of epithelial components were analyzed by fractal and conventional morphometry. The fractal dimension [FD] of each investigated case was determined from the slope of the regression line describing the fractal region within a bi-asymptotic curve experimentally established. All tumor masks and outlines obtained by gray threshold segmentation of epithelial components showed fractal self-similar properties that were evaluated by peculiar FDs. However, only masks revealed significantly different FD values, ranging from 1.75 to 1.85, enabling the discrimination of canine trichoblastoma subtypes. The FD data suggest that an iterative morphogenetic process, involving both the air germ and associated dermal papilla, may be responsible of the peculiar tissue architecture of trichoblastoma. The present study emphasized the reliability of fractal analysis in achieving the objective characterization of canine trichoblastoma.

  18. Comprehensive overview of prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan Ullah; Ihsan, Awais Ullah; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Jana, Ruby; Wazir, Junaid; Khongorzul, Puregmaa; Waqar, Muhammad; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    Prostatitis is a common urinary tract syndrome that many doctors find problematic to treat effectively. It is the third most commonly found urinary tract disease in men after prostate cancer and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH). Prostatitis may account for 25% of all office visits made to the urological clinics complaining about the genital and urinary systems all over the world. In the present study, we classified prostatitis and comprehensively elaborated the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of acute bacterial prostatitis (category I), chronic bacterial prostatitis (category II), chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) (category III), and asymptomatic prostatitis (category IV). In addition, we also tried to get some insights about other types of prostatitis-like fungal, viral and gonococcal prostatitis. The aim of this review is to present the detail current perspective of prostatitis in a single review. To the best of our knowledge currently, there is not a single comprehensive review, which can completely elaborate this important topic in an effective way. Furthermore, this review will provide a solid platform to conduct future studies on different aspects such as risk factors, mechanism of pathogenesis, proper diagnosis, and rational treatment plans for fungal, viral, and gonococcal prostatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Deconstructing canine demodicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ravera, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Los ácaros Demodex son habitantes normales de la piel de los mamíferos. Los mismos se han adaptado a vivir dentro de los folículos pilosos y las glándulas sebáceas de la piel de sus huéspedes mamíferos. La demodicosis puede ser definida como una enfermedad inflamatoria cutánea caracterizada por la presencia de una sobrepoblación de ácaros Demodex. Se considera que la respuesta inmunitaria celular es la responsable del control de la población de ácaros, mientras que los roles de las respuestas...

  20. A basal stem cell signature identifies aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan A.; Sokolov, Artem; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Baertsch, Robert; Newton, Yulia; Graim, Kiley; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M.; Witte, Owen N.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from numerous cancers suggests that increased aggressiveness is accompanied by up-regulation of signaling pathways and acquisition of properties common to stem cells. It is unclear if different subtypes of late-stage cancer vary in stemness properties and whether or not these subtypes are transcriptionally similar to normal tissue stem cells. We report a gene signature specific for human prostate basal cells that is differentially enriched in various phenotypes of late-stage metastatic prostate cancer. We FACS-purified and transcriptionally profiled basal and luminal epithelial populations from the benign and cancerous regions of primary human prostates. High-throughput RNA sequencing showed the basal population to be defined by genes associated with stem cell signaling programs and invasiveness. Application of a 91-gene basal signature to gene expression datasets from patients with organ-confined or hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer revealed that metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was molecularly more stem-like than either metastatic adenocarcinoma or organ-confined adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatic analysis of the basal cell and two human small cell gene signatures identified a set of E2F target genes common between prostate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and primary prostate basal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that aggressive prostate cancer shares a conserved transcriptional program with normal adult prostate basal stem cells. PMID:26460041

  1. Oxidative stress promotes benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Paz; Castro, Patricia; Ittmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by increased tissue mass in the transition zone of the prostate, which leads to obstruction of urine outflow and significant morbidity in the majority of older men. Plasma markers of oxidative stress are increased in men with BPH but it is unclear whether oxidative stress and/or oxidative DNA damage are causal in the pathogenesis of BPH. Levels of 8-OH deoxyguanosine (8-OH dG), a marker of oxidative stress, were measured in prostate tissues from normal transition zone and BPH by ELISA. 8-OH dG was also detected in tissues by immunohistochemistry and staining quantitated by image analysis. Nox4 promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species. We therefore created and characterized transgenic mice with prostate specific expression of Nox4 under the control of the prostate specific ARR2PB promoter. Human BPH tissues contained significantly higher levels of 8-OH dG than control transition zone tissues and the levels of 8-OH dG were correlated with prostate weight. Cells with 8-OH dG staining were predominantly in the epithelium and were present in a patchy distribution. The total fraction of epithelial staining with 8-OH dG was significantly increased in BPH tissues by image analysis. The ARR2PB-Nox4 mice had increased oxidative DNA damage in the prostate, increased prostate weight, increased epithelial proliferation, and histological changes including epithelial proliferation, stromal thickening, and fibrosis when compared to wild type controls. Oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage are important in the pathogenesis of BPH. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Differential expression of 5-alpha reductase isozymes in the prostate and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of human benign or malignant prostatic diseases is closely associated with androgens, primarily testosterone (T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT. T is converted to DHT by 5-alpha reductase (5-AR isozymes. Differential expression of 5-AR isozymes is observed in both human benign and malignant prostatic tissues. 5-AR inhibitors (5-ARI are commonly used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and were once promoted as chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer (PCa. This review discusses the role of the differential expression of 5-AR in the normal development of the human prostate and in the pathogenesis and progression of BPH and PCa.

  3. Selection of reference genes in canine uterine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Wang, X; Yue, Y W; Zhou, P Y; Yao, W; Li, X; Ding, X B; Liu, X F; Guo, H; Ma, W Z

    2016-06-17

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is usually employed in gene expression studies in veterinary research, including in studies on canine pyometra. Canine pyometra is a common clinical disease in bitches. When using RT-qPCR, internal standards, such as reference genes, are necessary to investigate relative gene expression by quantitative measurements of mRNA levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of reference genes and select reference genes suitable for canine pyometra studies. We collected 24 bitch uterine tissue samples, including five healthy and 19 pyometra infected samples. These were used to screen the best reference genes of seven candidate genes (18SrRNA, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT, RPL13A, and YWHAZ). The method of KH Sadek and the GeNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder software were used to evaluate the stability of gene expression in both pyometra and healthy uterine samples. The results showed that the expression stability of the candidate gene in pyometra and healthy tissues differed. We showed that YWHAZ was the best reference gene, which could be used as an accurate internal control gene in canine pyometra studies. To further validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor gene (IGF1R) was investigated. We found that the expression of IGF1R was significantly altered when different reference genes were used. All reference genes identified in the present study will enable more accurate normalization of gene expression data in both pyometra infected and healthy uterine tissues.

  4. Piezoelectricity and prostate cancer: proposed interaction between electromagnetic field and prostatic crystalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Agutter, Paul S

    2008-06-01

    There is evidence that electromagnetic fields (EMF) play some part in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, but the pathogenic mechanism remains unknown. The normal prostate gland and both benign and malignant prostate lesions contain abundant calcium/phosphorus crystalloids with various morphologies, which seem to be heterogeneously and diffusely distributed within the gland. We hypothesize that an environmental EMF may result in simultaneous, multidirectional and diffuse compression or expansion of these crystalloids (a piezoelectric effect). This would result in a slight mechanical distortion of the prostate, potentially altering cell behavior and enhancing the expression of specific genes, particularly those involved in suppressing apoptosis. A mathematical model of the cell mechanical effect is presented, and the hypothesis is related to current clinical evidence and to potential validation by critical laboratory tests.

  5. Prostate-specific antigen density: correlation with histological diagnosis of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, M. P.; Witjes, W. P.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Oosterhof, G. O.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the additional value of prostate-specific antigen density in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients who undergo prostate biopsies. The study comprised 376 patients with symptoms of prostatism who were undergoing prostate biopsy. Digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal

  6. The Stromal Contribution to the Development of Resistance to New Generation Drugs by Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    SUMMARY: 3a. Brief Overview of the Clinical Problem Addressed by the Project: In adult males , the normal functioning of the prostate is dependent on...significant role in acquired resistance of a prostate tumor to hormone therapies. Based upon our preliminary data showing that primary prostate stromal cells...pathway. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Cancer, Hedgehog signaling, Hormone Therapy, Intratumoral, Steroidogenesis, Androgens, Smoothened Agonists

  7. MiR-34a regulates the invasive capacity of canine osteosarcoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Cecilia M; Yu, Peter Y; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yilmaz, Ayse Selen; London, Cheryl A; Fenger, Joelle M

    2018-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common bone tumor in children and dogs; however, no substantial improvement in clinical outcome has occurred in either species over the past 30 years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and play a fundamental role in cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of miR-34a loss to the biology of canine OSA, a well-established spontaneous model of the human disease. RT-qPCR demonstrated that miR-34a expression levels were significantly reduced in primary canine OSA tumors and canine OSA cell lines as compared to normal canine osteoblasts. In canine OSA cell lines stably transduced with empty vector or pre-miR-34a lentiviral constructs, overexpression of miR-34a inhibited cellular invasion and migration but had no effect on cell proliferation or cell cycle distribution. Transcriptional profiling of canine OSA8 cells possessing enforced miR-34a expression demonstrated dysregulation of numerous genes, including significant down-regulation of multiple putative targets of miR-34a. Moreover, gene ontology analysis of down-regulated miR-34a target genes showed enrichment of several biological processes related to cell invasion and motility. Lastly, we validated changes in miR-34a putative target gene expression, including decreased expression of KLF4, SEM3A, and VEGFA transcripts in canine OSA cells overexpressing miR-34a and identified KLF4 and VEGFA as direct target genes of miR-34a. Concordant with these data, primary canine OSA tumor tissues demonstrated increased expression levels of putative miR-34a target genes. These data demonstrate that miR-34a contributes to invasion and migration in canine OSA cells and suggest that loss of miR-34a may promote a pattern of gene expression contributing to the metastatic phenotype in canine OSA.

  8. MiR-34a regulates the invasive capacity of canine osteosarcoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia M Lopez

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OSA is the most common bone tumor in children and dogs; however, no substantial improvement in clinical outcome has occurred in either species over the past 30 years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and play a fundamental role in cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of miR-34a loss to the biology of canine OSA, a well-established spontaneous model of the human disease.RT-qPCR demonstrated that miR-34a expression levels were significantly reduced in primary canine OSA tumors and canine OSA cell lines as compared to normal canine osteoblasts. In canine OSA cell lines stably transduced with empty vector or pre-miR-34a lentiviral constructs, overexpression of miR-34a inhibited cellular invasion and migration but had no effect on cell proliferation or cell cycle distribution. Transcriptional profiling of canine OSA8 cells possessing enforced miR-34a expression demonstrated dysregulation of numerous genes, including significant down-regulation of multiple putative targets of miR-34a. Moreover, gene ontology analysis of down-regulated miR-34a target genes showed enrichment of several biological processes related to cell invasion and motility. Lastly, we validated changes in miR-34a putative target gene expression, including decreased expression of KLF4, SEM3A, and VEGFA transcripts in canine OSA cells overexpressing miR-34a and identified KLF4 and VEGFA as direct target genes of miR-34a. Concordant with these data, primary canine OSA tumor tissues demonstrated increased expression levels of putative miR-34a target genes.These data demonstrate that miR-34a contributes to invasion and migration in canine OSA cells and suggest that loss of miR-34a may promote a pattern of gene expression contributing to the metastatic phenotype in canine OSA.

  9. Canine scent detection of canine cancer: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorman DC

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available David C Dorman,1 Melanie L Foster,2 Katherine E Fernhoff,1 Paul R Hess2 1Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Abstract: The scent detection prowess of dogs has prompted interest in their ability to detect cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dogs could use olfactory cues to discriminate urine samples collected from dogs that did or did not have urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, at a rate greater than chance. Dogs with previous scent training (n=4 were initially trained to distinguish between a single control and a single TCC-positive urine sample. All dogs acquired this task (mean =15±7.9 sessions; 20 trials/session. The next training phase used four additional control urine samples (n=5 while maintaining the one original TCC-positive urine sample. All dogs quickly acquired this task (mean =5.3±1.5 sessions. The last training phase used multiple control (n=4 and TCC-positive (n=6 urine samples to promote categorical training by the dogs. Only one dog was able to correctly distinguish multiple combinations of TCC-positive and control urine samples suggesting that it mastered categorical learning. The final study phase evaluated whether this dog would generalize this behavior to novel urine samples. However, during double-blind tests using two novel TCC-positive and six novel TCC-negative urine samples, this dog did not indicate canine TCC-positive cancer samples more frequently than expected by chance. Our study illustrates the need to consider canine olfactory memory and the use of double-blind methods to avoid erroneous conclusions regarding the ability of dogs to alert on specimens from canine cancer patients. Our results also suggest that sample storage, confounding odors, and other factors need to be considered in the design of future studies that evaluate the detection of

  10. Oxidative Stress and Protein Quality Control Systems in the Aged Canine Brain as a Model for Human Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarita Romanucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aged dogs are considered the most suitable spontaneous animal model for studying normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Elderly canines naturally develop cognitive dysfunction and neuropathological hallmarks similar to those seen in humans, especially Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology. Pet dogs also share similar living conditions and diets to humans. Oxidative damage accumulates in the canine brain during aging, making dogs a valid model for translational antioxidant treatment/prevention studies. Evidence suggests the presence of detective protein quality control systems, involving ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs, in the aged canine brain. Further studies on the canine model are needed to clarify the role of age-related changes in UPS activity and HSP expression in neurodegeneration in order to design novel treatment strategies, such as HSP-based therapies, aimed at improving chaperone defences against proteotoxic stress affecting brain during aging.

  11. Oxidative Stress and Protein Quality Control Systems in the Aged Canine Brain as a Model for Human Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanucci, Mariarita; Della Salda, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Aged dogs are considered the most suitable spontaneous animal model for studying normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Elderly canines naturally develop cognitive dysfunction and neuropathological hallmarks similar to those seen in humans, especially Alzheimer's disease-like pathology. Pet dogs also share similar living conditions and diets to humans. Oxidative damage accumulates in the canine brain during aging, making dogs a valid model for translational antioxidant treatment/prevention studies. Evidence suggests the presence of detective protein quality control systems, involving ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs), in the aged canine brain. Further studies on the canine model are needed to clarify the role of age-related changes in UPS activity and HSP expression in neurodegeneration in order to design novel treatment strategies, such as HSP-based therapies, aimed at improving chaperone defences against proteotoxic stress affecting brain during aging.

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resume your normal activities immediately. top of page Who interprets the results and how do I get ... or to the physician or other healthcare provider who requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or ...

  13. Bestrophin gene mutations cause canine multifocal retinopathy: a novel animal model for best disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziewicz, Karina E; Zangerl, Barbara; Lindauer, Sarah J; Mullins, Robert F; Sandmeyer, Lynne S; Grahn, Bruce H; Stone, Edwin M; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2007-05-01

    Canine multifocal retinopathy (cmr) is an autosomal recessive disorder of multiple dog breeds. The disease shares a number of clinical and pathologic similarities with Best macular dystrophy (BMD), and cmr is proposed as a new large animal model for Best disease. cmr was characterized by ophthalmoscopy and histopathology and compared with BMD-affected patients. BEST1 (alias VMD2), the bestrophin gene causally associated with BMD, was evaluated in the dog. Canine ortholog cDNA sequence was cloned and verified using RPE/choroid 5'- and 3'-RACE. Expression of the canine gene transcripts and protein was analyzed by Northern and Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. All exons and the flanking splice junctions were screened by direct sequencing. The clinical phenotype and pathology of cmr closely resemble lesions of BMD. Canine VMD2 spans 13.7 kb of genomic DNA on CFA18 and shows a high level of conservation among eukaryotes. The transcript is predominantly expressed in RPE/choroid and encodes bestrophin, a 580-amino acid protein of 66 kDa. Immunocytochemistry of normal canine retina demonstrated specific localization of protein to the RPE basolateral plasma membranes. Two disease-specific sequence alterations were identified in the canine VMD2 gene: a C(73)T stop mutation in cmr1 and a G(482)A missense mutation in cmr2. The authors propose these two spontaneous mutations in the canine VMD2 gene, which cause cmr, as the first naturally occurring animal model of BMD. Further development of the cmr models will permit elucidation of the complex molecular mechanism of these retinopathies and the development of potential therapies.

  14. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria Carlsen; Andersen, Morten Heebøll; Høyer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical...... lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22......% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able...

  15. Transverse mode analysis of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy of canine hemangiosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weina; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kisker, David W.; Lear, Kevin L.

    2010-02-01

    The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) uses the optical transmission spectrum of a cell in a microfluidic optical resonator to distinguish cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Based on their distinctive characteristic transmission spectra, canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been differentiated using the OFIS technique with high statistical significance (p<10- 6). 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity were achieved simultaneously. A cell lens model explains trends in the transverse mode pattern in the transmission spectra of HSA cells and allows extraction of cell focal length.

  16. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Chadha, Manpreet K; Sunga, Annette Y; Fakih, Marwan G; Ashraf, Umeer; Silliman, Carrie G; Hollis, Bruce W; Nesline, Mary K; Tian, Lili; Tan, Wei; Johnson, Candace S

    2009-10-01

    To assess the frequency of vitamin D deficiency among men with prostate cancer, as considerable epidemiological, in vitro, in vivo and clinical data support an association between vitamin D deficiency and prostate cancer outcome. The study included 120 ambulatory men with recurrent prostate cancer and 50 with clinically localized prostate cancer who were evaluated and serum samples assayed for 25-OH vitamin D levels. Then 100 controls (both sexes), matched for age and season of serum sample, were chosen from a prospective serum banking protocol. The relationship between age, body mass index, disease stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, season and previous therapy on vitamin D status were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. The mean 25-OH vitamin D level was 25.9 ng/mL in those with recurrent disease, 27.5 ng/mL in men with clinically localized prostate cancer and 24.5 ng/mL in controls. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20-31 ng/mL) was 40% and 32% in men with recurrent prostate; 28% had vitamin D levels that were normal (32-100 ng/mL). Among men with localized prostate cancer, 18% were deficient, 50% were insufficient and 32% were normal. Among controls, 31% were deficient, 40% were insufficient and 29% were normal. Metastatic disease (P = 0.005) and season of blood sampling (winter/spring; P = 0.01) were associated with vitamin D deficiency in patients with prostate cancer, while age, race, performance status and body mass index were not. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were common among men with prostate cancer and apparently normal controls in the western New York region.

  17. BNCT of canine osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitin, V.N.; Kulakov, V.N.; Khokhlov, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    A dog was diagnosed with osteosarcoma (8x6x5cm) in the right wing of ilium by radiography, radionuclide scintigraphy and histological study of biopsy material. The treatment plan was as follows: γ-therapy in combination with chemotherapy; prevention of hematogenous pulmonary metastases by the transfusion of 130 ml of allogenic marrow from a healthy donor; administration of 11.4g 10 B-boronphenylalanine into the right iliac artery; resection of the right iliac wing with the osteosarcoma lesion; neutron irradiation (MEPhI Reactor) of the bone fragment (dose on healthy osteocytes - 15±4 Gy (W), on tumor - 50±9 Gy (W); reimplantation and fixation of the fragment; three courses of adjuvant chemotherapy. The doses were determined in full-scale calculations of the reactor radiation fields with a model of the bone under the code RADUGA. The 10 B concentration (μg/g) in the bone was: normal tissue - 9±3, tumor - 28±5. In 24 hours post operation the dog was able to walk using the treated limb, and 6 months later it moved freely. The patient has been under observation for 30 months. The results of the research demonstrate complete cure. The use of similar treatment plans improves the therapeutic efficiency of BNCT. (author)

  18. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.

  19. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its ligand, amphoterin are overexpressed and associated with prostate cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Nakaigawa, Noboru; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Fujinami, Kiyoshi; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Uemura, Hiroji

    2005-06-15

    Advanced glycation end products (AGE) are produced with normal aging. Recently, some reports indicated that the interaction between AGE and the cognate receptor (RAGE) has a role in cancer dependent. We investigated RAGE and amphoterin mRNA expression in prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC-3, and LNCaP cells), hormone-refractory prostate cancer tissues, and paired untreated primary prostate cancer and normal prostate (including benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)) tissues using real-time quantitative PCR. Moreover, to confirm the AGE-RAGE interaction in prostate cancer, DU145 cells stimulated with AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) were examined by in vitro matrigel assay, cell viability assay, MTT assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blot. DU145 cells, a hormone-independent prostate cancer cell line, showed the highest RAGE mRNA expression. Amphoterin mRNA was expressed in all three cell lines. In prostate tissues, untreated prostate cancer tissue and hormone-refractory prostate cancer tissue showed higher RAGE and amphoterin mRNA expression than normal prostate tissue. The AGE-RAGE interaction induced the invasion and growth in DU145 cells stimulated with AGE-BSA. The AGE-RAGE interaction is important in prostate cancer development, and inhibition of this interaction has potential as a new molecular target for cancer therapy or prevention.

  20. WSTO9 (TOOKAD) mediated photodynamic therapy as an alternative modality in the treatment of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Huang, Zheng; Luck, David L.; Beckers, Jill; Brun, Pierre-Herve; Wilson, Brian C.; Scherz, Avigdor; Salomon, Yoram; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2002-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizes optical energy to activate a pre-administered photosensitizer drug to achieve a localized tumor control. In the presented study, PDT mediated with a second-generation photosensitizer, WST09 (TOOKAD, Steba Biotech, The Netherlands), is investigated as an alternative therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. In vivo canine prostate is used as the animal model. PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates both superficially and interstitially with a diode laser (763 nm) to activate the intra-operatively i.v. infused photosensitizer. During light irradiation, tissue optical properties, and temperature were monitored. During the one-week to 3-month period post PDT treatment, the dogs recovered well with little or no complications. The prostates were harvested and subjected to histopathological evaluations. Maximum lesion size of over 3 cm in dimension could be achieved with a single treatment, suggesting the therapy is extremely effective in destroying prostatic tissue. Although we found there was loss of epithelial lining in prostatic urethra, there was no evidence it had caused urinary tract side effects as reported in those studies utilizing transurethral irradiation. In conclusion, we found second generation photosensitizer WST09 mediated PDT may provide an excellent alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  1. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  2. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  3. Alpha-1-antitrypsin studies: canine serum and canine surfactant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, W.C.; Slauson, D.O.; Dahlstrom, M.; Gorman, C.

    1974-01-01

    Canine serum alpha-1-antitrypsin was isolated by gel filtration and affinity chromatography and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. Measurement of the trypsin inhibitory capacity of the separated protein indicated a ninefold concentration of functional trypsin inhibitor during the isolation procedure. Electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of a single protein with alpha-globulin mobility and a molecular weight near that of human alpha-1-antitrypsin. The trypsin inhibitory capacity of pulmonary surfactant protein from five Beagle dogs was measured, related to total surfactant protein concentration, and compared with similar measurements on whole serum from the same animals. Results indicated a variable concentration of trypsin inhibitor in the canine pulmonary surfactant protein. However, the concentration in the surfactant protein was always significantly higher than that in the corresponding serum sample. Preliminary experiments designed to separate the trypsin inhibitory fraction(s) from the other surfactant proteins by gel filtration chromatography indicated that the trypsin inhibitor was probably a single protein with a molecular weight near that of alpha-1-antitrypsin. (U.S.)

  4. Early eruption of permanent canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local factors can modify the eruption time of teeth. Generalized eruption time changes could be due to some systemic diseases like hyperthyroidism, hypophosphatasia, precocious puberty, Proteus syndrome, etc. Localized early eruption of permanent teeth could be due to early extraction of deciduous teeth. Presented here is an extremely rare case of early eruption of permanent canines in a 7-year old female child. Though the number of such cases is very limited, the clinician should poses adequate knowledge and keeps an open eye to identify such cases.

  5. Expression of the Y-Encoded TSPY is Associated with Progression of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Kido

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available TSPY is a Y-encoded gene that is expressed in normal testicular germ cells and various cancer types including germ cell tumor, melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and prostate cancer. Currently, the correlation between TSPY expression and oncogenic development has not been established, particularly in somatic cancers. To establish such correlation, we analyzed the expression of TSPY, in reference to its interactive oncoprotein, EEF1A, tumor biomarker, AMACR, and normal basal cell biomarker, p63, in 41 cases of clinical prostate cancers (CPCa, 17 cases of latent prostate cancers (LPCa, and 19 cases of non-cancerous prostate (control by immunohistochemistry. Our results show that TSPY was detected more frequently (78% in the clinical prostate cancer specimens than those of latent prostate cancer (47% and control (50%. In the latent cancer group, the levels of TSPY expression could be correlated with increasing Gleason grades. TSPY expression was detected in seven out of nine high-grade latent cancer samples (Gleason 7 and more. The expression of the TSPY binding partner EEF1A was detectable in all prostate specimens, but the levels were higher in cancer cells in clinical and latent prostate cancer specimens than normal prostatic cells. These observations suggest that expressions of TSPY and its binding partner EEF1A are associated with the development and progression of prostate cancer.

  6. CD117 immunoexpression in canine mast cell tumours: correlations with pathological variables and proliferation markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires Maria A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous mast cell tumours are one of the most common neoplasms in dogs and show a highly variable biologic behaviour. Several prognosis tools have been proposed for canine mast cell tumours, including histological grading and cell proliferation markers. CD117 is a receptor tyrosine kinase thought to play a key role in human and canine mast cell neoplasms. Normal (membrane-associated and aberrant (cytoplasmic, focal or diffuse CD117 immunoexpression patterns have been identified in canine mast cell tumours. Cytoplasmic CD117 expression has been found to correlate with higher histological grade and with a worsened post-surgical prognosis. This study addresses the role of CD117 in canine mast cell tumours by studying the correlations between CD117 immunoexpression patterns, two proliferation markers (Ki67 and AgNORs histological grade, and several other pathological variables. Results Highly significant (p Conclusion These findings highlight the key role of CD117 in the biopathology of canine MCTs and confirm the relationship between aberrant CD117 expression and increased cell proliferation and higher histological grade. Further studies are needed to unravel the cellular mechanisms underlying focal and diffuse cytoplasmic CD117 staining patterns, and their respective biopathologic relevance.

  7. Vulnerability of cultured canine lung tumor cells to NK cell-mediated cytolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, P.J.; Kohr, J.M.; Kelly, G.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Five cell lines, designated as canine lung epithelial cell (CLEP), derived from radiation induced canine lung tumors and canine thyroid adeno-carcinoma (CTAC) cells were compared for their susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytolysis using peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal, healthy Beagle dogs as effector cells. Effector cells and chromium 51 radiolabeled target cells were incubated for 16 h at ratios of 12.5:1, 25:1, 50:1, and 100:1. Increasing cytolysis was observed for all cell lines as the effector-to-target-cell ratios increased from 12.5:1 to 100:1. The percent cytotoxicity was significantly less for all lung tumor cell lines as compared to CTAC at the 100:1 ratio. One lung tumor cell line, CLEP-9, had 85% of the lytic vulnerability of the CTAC cell line and significantly greater susceptibility to NK cell-mediated lysis than all of the other lung tumor cell lines. Susceptibility to NK cell cytolysis did not correlate with in vivo malignant behavior of the original tumor. These data suggest that cultured canine lung tumor cells are susceptible to NK cell cytolytic activity in vitro and that at least one of these cell lines (CLEP-9) is a candidate for substitution of the standard canine NK cell target, CTAC, in NK cell assays. The use of lung tumor cells in NK cell assays may provide greater insight into the control of lung tumors by immune mechanisms. (author)

  8. Developing new age-specific prostate-specific antigen thresholds for testing for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rebecca; Tilling, Kate; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene; Davis, Michael; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Donovan, Jenny L; Metcalfe, Chris

    2018-03-01

    To examine whether age-related reference ranges for "normal" prostate-specific antigen (PSA) change (determined in men without prostate cancer) can be used to identify men at high risk of having prostate cancer. Subjects were men aged 50-69 years with PSA age-related PSA change were used to calculate an age-specific PSA threshold. We compared the ability of our age-specific PSA threshold to discriminate between high- and no/low-risk prostate cancer with that of two existing thresholds: (i) threshold of PSA = 3 ng/ml for all ages; (ii) National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines dependent on age-group thresholds (age 50-59: PSA = 3 ng/mL; age 60-70: PSA = 4 ng/mL; age ≥ 70: PSA = 5 ng/mL). We included 823 men with high-risk prostate cancer and 80,721 men with no/low-risk prostate cancer. A threshold of PSA = 3 ng/ml for all ages identified more high-risk prostate cancers, recommending biopsy in 9.8% of men, of which 10.3% (n = 823) had high-risk prostate cancer. Using the NICE guidelines as the threshold for biopsy, 6.9% men were recommended for biopsy, of which 11.9% (n = 668) had high-risk prostate cancer. Using the new age-specific threshold for biopsy, 2.3% men were recommended for biopsy, of which 15.2% (n = 290) had high-risk prostate cancer. The age-specific threshold identified fewer high-risk prostate cancers, but fewer men received unnecessary biopsy. There is no benefit to using reference ranges for "normal" PSA that change with age nor the age-specific thresholds suggested by the NICE guidelines. While the age-varying thresholds are more discriminatory, too many high-risk cancers are missed.

  9. [Etiology and diagnostics of upper canine tooth retention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulai-Gaál, Szabolcs; Mihályi, Szilvia; Martonffy, Katalin; Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2010-06-01

    Upper canines have significant esthetical and functional roles in the dental arch. Upper canine retention is a frequent anomaly as the germ develops rather far from its final place. Moreover, the neighboring teeth may narrow the place of the canine because of its late eruption. Impacted canines without treatment may cause severe complications. Impaction of canines can be diagnosed early by clinical and radiological findings, which enables the clinician to perform a complete rehabilitation by successful surgical and orthodontic treatment.

  10. Inhibition effects of chlorogenic acid on benign prostatic hyperplasia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya; Chen, Huaguo; Zhou, Xin; Wu, Xingdong; Hu, Enming; Jiang, Zhengmeng

    2017-08-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects and explore mechanisms of chlorogenic acid against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in mice. Benign prostatic hyperplasia model was induced in experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (7.5mg/kg/d) consecutively for 14 d. A total of 60 mice were randomly divided into six groups: (Group 1) normal control group, (Group 2) benign prostatic hyperplasia model control group, (Group 3) benign prostatic hyperplasia mice treated with finasteride at a dose of 1mg/kg, (Group 4) benign prostatic hyperplasia mice treated with chlorogenic acid at dose levels of 0.8mg/kg (low dose group), (Group 5) benign prostatic hyperplasia mice treated with chlorogenic acid at dose levels of 1.6mg/kg (medium dose group) and (Group 6) benign prostatic hyperplasia mice treated with chlorogenic acid at dose levels of 3.2mg/kg (high dose group). Animals were sacrificed on the scheduled termination, pick out the eyeball to get blood, then prostates were weighed and prostatic index were determined. Then the serum acid phosphatase (ACP), prostatic acid phosphatase (PACP) and typeⅡ5-alpha-reductase (SRD5A2) levels were measured and observed morphological changes of the prostate. Comparing with benign prostatic hyperplasia model group, the high and medium dose of chlorogenic acid could significantly reduce prostate index and levels of acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase and typeⅡ5-alpha-reductase (Pchlorogenic acid treatment at the high and medium doses inhibited testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. The results indicated that chlorogenic acid exhibited restraining effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia model animals, and its mechanism might be related to inhibit typeⅡ5-alpha reductase activity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Dental and craniofacial findings in 91 individuals with agenesis of permanent maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvedsen, K P; Kjær, I

    2017-08-01

    Agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is a rare form of agenesis (prevalence 0.07-0.13%). The aetiology is still unknown. The purpose was to focus on dentitions and craniofacial profiles in individuals with maxillary canine agenesis. From 91 individuals (10-18 years of age) 91 Orthopantomograms and 77 profile radiographs were divided accordingly: Group I: agenesis of 1 or 2 maxillary canines. Group II: several ageneses including the maxillary canines. Dentition analysis included crown/root shape, invaginations, eruption disturbances and resorption patterns. Cephalometric angular measurements and mutual comparisons between the groups were performed. Agenesis pattern in Group II was compared to agenesis pattern in a population of children and young adults not characterized by maxillary canine agenesis. Cephalometric values from both groups were compared to normal values from individuals without agenesis. Findings were statistically evaluated. Dentition: Group I: only the missing maxillary canines were deemed to be in an abnormal dental deviation. Group II: abnormal dental development regarding morphology, resorption of primary teeth and also agenesis of the first maxillary premolar. Comparison of the groups showed a difference in the pattern of malformation. Profile: Group I: anterior inclination of the maxilla and increased cranial base angle were significant findings. Group II: diminished incisor slope in the maxilla and enlarged cranial base angle were significant findings. A comparison showed a difference in maxillary inclinations of the teeth. Group I dentitions are normally developed with only minor dental malformations. Group II dentitions had several dental malformations and often agenesis of the first maxillary premolar. Significant findings: first maxillary premolar agenesis in Group II and enlarged cranial base angle in both groups.

  12. Prostatic Lymphoma Masquerading as Urinary Retention and Hematuria With Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Tsering Gyalpo Lama; Singh, Prabhsimranjot; Garellek, Jonathan; Malhotra, Sonali; Chandra, Abhinav Binod; Solomon, William

    2017-01-01

    Lymphomas of prostate are very rare tumors. They are not commonly considered in the clinical and histological differential diagnosis of prostatic enlargement. We report a case of a 49-year-old man who presented to emergency department with several weeks of difficulty in urination, for which he was being treated for benign prostate hyperplasia with no improvement. Computerized tomography scan showed lobulated mass originating from the superior aspect of the prostate with right inguinal lymph node involvement and no distant organ metastatic disease. Prostatic biopsy revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient achieved complete remission after six cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy regimen. Lymphomas of the prostate should be considered in differential diagnosis of the patient presenting with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms especially in patients with normal prostatic-specific antigen level and previous history of lymphoma in other sites. PMID:29147449

  13. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  14. Prostate carcinomas; Cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G

    2005-11-15

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  15. Validation of anti-FXR1 antibodies in the canine species and application to an immunohistochemical study of canine oral melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Nordio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available FXR1 (Fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 is a cytoplasmic RNA binding protein, which genetic expression has been related to metastatic potential in human melanoma. The aims of the present study were: the validation of two commercially available clones of polyclonal anti-human FXR1 antibody in dogs; their application to investigate FXR1 expression in a group of canine oral melanomas. Anti-FXR1 antibody was not previously validated in the canine species. Two different commercially available polyclonal anti-FXR1 antibodies (respectively made in goat and in rabbit were used. FXR1 protein in canine serum was identified by western blot after SDS-PAGE, using human serum as control. FXR1 immunohistochemical expression was tested in a series of normal tissues, that are expected to express FXR1, and in 31 cases of oral melanomas. The final immunohistochemical protocol used heat-induced unmasking and overnight incubation. FXR1 protein bands in canine serum were detected by tested antibodies, in a more specific way by the rabbit antibody. FXR1 immunohistochemical staining was positive in all tested organs, with different levels of expression. FXR1 was also expressed in 31/31 tested melanomas, with variable intensity and percentage of positive cells (Figure 1. Equal results were achieved with the two antibodies in 8 cases of melanoma, whereas there were variable differences in 22, and one case stained only with goat antibody. The rabbit antibody gave less background staining. This study validated anti-FXR1 antibodies for use in the canine species. This protein was expressed in various normal tissues, as well as in the tested neoplasms. Significance of different level of expression is undergoing evaluation with further studies.

  16. On cribriform prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kweldam, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThis general aim of the thesis is to study the clinical relevance, interobserver reproducibility, and genetics of cribriform growth in prostate cancer. More specifically, the aims and outline of this thesis are • To study the metastatic potential of modified Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer in radical prostatectomies. (Chapter 2) • To examine the prognostic value of individual Gleason grade 4 patterns in prostate cancer in radical prostatectomy and diagnostic biopsy specimens...

  17. MiR-203 controls proliferation, migration and invasive potential of prostate cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viticchiè, Giuditta; Lena, Anna Maria; Latina, Alessia

    2011-01-01

    transition and invasion of healthy tissues (usually bones). MicroRNA-203 (miR-203) is a tumor suppressor microRNA often silenced in different malignancies. Here, we show that miR-203 is downregulated in clinical primary prostatic tumors compared to normal prostate tissue, and in metastatic prostate cancer...... cell lines compared to normal epithelial prostatic cells. Overexpression of miR-203 in brain or bone metastatic prostate cell lines (DU145 and PC3) is sufficient to induce a mesenchymal to epithelial transition with inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasiveness. We have identified CKAP2......, LASP1, BIRC5, WASF1, ASAP1 and RUNX2 as new miR-203 direct target mRNAs involved in these events. Therefore, miR-203 could be a potentially new prognostic marker and therapeutic target in metastatic prostate cancer....

  18. Prostate imaging. An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franiel, T.; Teichgraeber, U.; Asbach, P.; Hamm, B.; Foller, S.

    2015-01-01

    New technical and clinical developments of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging include improved detection, localization and staging as well as active surveillance of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI can best answer these typical clinical questions. However, ultrasound elastography seems to be suitable for the detection of significant prostate cancer as well. The structured reporting system for multiparametric MRI of the prostate according to PI-RADS Version 1 led to improved and reproducible diagnosis of prostate cancer. The new PI-RADS Version 2 aims to minimize the limitations of Version 1 and make PI-RADS standardization more globally acceptable.

  19. Screening for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirich, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both the survival and cure rates for many forms of cancer, unfortunately the same has not been true for prostate cancer. In fact, the age-adjusted death rate from prostate cancer has not significantly improved since 1949, and prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in American men, causing the second highest cancer mortality rate. Topics discussed include the following: serum testosterone levels; diagnosis; mortality statistics; prostate-sppecific antigen (PSA) tests; and the Occupational Medicine Services policy at LeRC.

  20. Interleukin-18 may lead to benign prostatic hyperplasia via thrombospondin-1 production in prostatic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamakawa, Takashi; Sasaki, Shoichi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Imura, Makoto; Kubota, Yasue; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-05-01

    Although inflammation plays an important role in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), little is known about the exact mechanism underlying this pathogenesis. Here, we investigated the relationship between the inflammatory reaction and BPH. cDNA microarray analysis was used to identify changes in inflammation-related gene expression in a recently established rat model that mimics human BPH. To investigate the genes identified in the analysis, quantitative (q)RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunostaining, and a cell proliferation assay were conducted using BPH model tissues, human prostate tissues, and normal human prostate cultured cells. Of the 31,100 genes identified in the cDNA analysis, seven inflammatory-response-related genes were expressed at a >2-fold higher level in rat BPH tissues than in normal rat prostate tissues. The levels of the most commonly expressed pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-18, significantly increased in rat BPH tissues. In humans, IL-18 was localized in the epithelial and stromal components, while its receptor was strongly localized in smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, in human prostate smooth muscle cell line (PrSMC), IL-18 effected dose-dependent increases in the phosphorylated Akt and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) levels. TSP-1 promoted proliferation of the human prostate stromal cells (PrSC). IL-18 may act directly in BPH pathogenesis by inducing TSP-1 production in prostatic smooth muscle cells via Akt phosphorylation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Collaborative Undergraduate HBCU Student Summer Prostate Cancer Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    tics evaluated included patient’s age, previous surgeries, neurologic diagnosis, length of retention, i nvasive and noninvasive urodynamic data...Contaminants of Emerging Concern (9:30-10:30am ) July 14 (N) ADD/ ADHD Dr. Tomas Tampa, PhD July 14 (M) Marine Natural Pharmaceutical...present in small quantities in the serum of normal men, and is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer and in other prostate disorders . A

  2. Immunohistochemical Detection and Localization of Somatostatin Receptor Subtypes in Prostate Tissue from Patients with Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Montironi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim of the Study: Scant information on the cellular distribution of the five somatostatin receptor (SSTR subtypes in the normal prostate and in neoplasms of the prostate has been reported in very few studies in which techniques, such as in situ hybridization histochemistry, autoradiography, and more recently immunohistochemistry, have been applied. The aim of the study was to examine immunohistochemically the distribution and localization of these 5 subtypes in the various tissue components in normal prostate.

  3. Review article: Prostate cancer screening using prostate specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than ...

  4. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying.

    Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the

  5. Triple bone labeling of canine mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy was used for evaluation of new bone formation in 16 canine mandibles augmented with hydroxylapatite (HA) granules. Three fluorochromes were injected at different time intervals during therapeutic radiation treatment. Oxytetracycline, DCAF, and alizarin-complexone were give...

  6. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and

  7. Elevated insulin and reduced insulin like growth factor binding protein-3/prostate specific antigen ratio with increase in prostate size in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Karli; Nandeesha, Hanumanthappa; Dorairajan, Lalgudi Narayanan; Rajappa, Medha; Vinayagam, Vickneshwaran

    2017-06-01

    Insulin and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have growth promoting effects, while insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) has growth inhibitory effects. The present study was designed to assess the concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and their association with prostate size in patients with BPH. Ninety 90 BPH cases and 90 controls were enrolled in the study. Insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, PSA, testosterone and estradiol were estimated in both the groups. Insulin, IGF-1 and estradiol were increased and IGFBP-3/PSA was decreased in BPH cases when compared with controls. Insulin (r=0.64, p=0.001) and IGF-1 (r=0.22, p=0.03) were positively correlated and IGFBP-3/PSA (r=-0.316, p=0.002) were negatively correlated with prostate size in BPH. Multivariate analysis showed that insulin (p=0.001) and IGFBP-3/PSA (p=0.004) predicts the prostate size in patients with BPH. Insulin was increased and IGFBP-3/PSA was reduced in BPH patients with increased prostate size. At a cutoff concentration of 527.52, IGFBP-3/PSA ratio was found to differentiate benign growth of prostate from normal prostate with 96% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Insulin is elevated and IGFBP-3/PSA is reduced with increase prostate size in BPH cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Systemic inflammarory response in canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Boel

    2003-01-01

    Research efforts have focused mainly on the hormonal aspects of canine pyometra for more than 6 decades. However, this disease is often manifested as systemic illness in response to the bacterial uterine infection. Studies I-II were undertaken to clarify bacteriological aspects of canine pyometra; i.e. the origin of the infecting bacteria, the infecting bacteria’s impact on severity of the systemic illness and the presence of bacterial endotoxin in the systemic circulation. Study I, a bacteri...

  9. Dietary effects on canine and feline behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, Katherine A; Zicker, Steven

    2003-03-01

    The effects of dietary deficiency, including both malnutrition and deficiency of specific vitamins, on behavior is discussed with special emphasis on the growing kitten and puppy. The effect of caloric restriction on behavior is reviewed so that owners can be advised what to expect when their dog is placed on a reducing diet. The evidence for influence of dietary protein and tryptophan on canine aggression is presented. The effect of special diets on canine cognitive dysfunction is reviewed.

  10. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  11. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  12. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-02-13

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings.

  13. Varied clinico-radiological presentations of transmigrated canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine is one of the most commonly impacted teeth in the dental arch. An unerupted permanent canine crossing the midline is called transmigration and is an unusual event. We report nine cases of impacted canine transmigration. Maxillary canine transmigration, bilateral transmigration, and transmigration associated with odontoma are rare presentations. This article discusses the varied clinico-radiologic presentations, etiology, and treatment options of transmigration. It also emphasizes the importance of panoramic radiographs for evaluation of over-retained deciduous canines or missing permanent canines.

  14. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  15. Clinical and Statistical Study on Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Simona Coșarcă

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a clinical and statistical research on permanent impacted canine patients among those with dental impaction referred to and treated at the Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Clinic of Tîrgu Mureș, over a four years period (2009-2012. Materials and methods: The study included 858 patients having dental impaction, and upon clinical records, different parameters, like frequency, gender, age, quadrant involvement, patient residence, associated complications, referring specialist and type of treatment, related to canine impaction, were assessed. Results: The study revealed: about 10% frequency of canine impaction among dental impactions; more frequent in women, in the first quadrant (tooth 13; most cases diagnosed between the age of 10-19 years; patients under 20 were referred by an orthodontist, those over 20 by a dentist; surgical exposure was more often performed than odontectomy. Conclusions: Canine impaction is the second-most frequent dental impaction in dental arch after third molars; it occurs especially in women. Due to its important role, canine recovery within dental arch is a goal to be achieved, whenever possible. Therefore, diagnose and treatment of canine impaction requires an interdisciplinary approach (surgical and orthodontic

  16. Estrogen receptors in the human male prostatic urethra and prostate in prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E

    1999-01-01

    demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...

  17. [Identification of low-molecular weight prostate-specific antigen(PSA) and lactoferrin in the prostatic secretion of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke-xin; Wang, Xiao-feng

    2006-12-18

    To investigate the expression of low-molecular-weight PSA(lw-PSA) and lactoferrin in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) from both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and normal prostate. Forty human EPS samples obtained from 20 BPH patients and 20 normal males were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Mass spectrometry was performed to confirm the nature of the secreted proteins in EPS. One uniquely expressed protein in BPH was detected and mass spectrometry determined its nature as lw-PSA (molecular weight 10x10(3), pI 8.5-9.3). More importantly, Western blotting analysis also revealed that lw-PSA detected in BPH-EPS, but was undetectable in BPH-free EPS. In addition, up-regulation of Lactoferrin (molecular weight 35x10(3), pI 7-7.5) in BPH-EPS, as compared with BPH-free EPS, was also observed. More interestingly, lactoferrin was absent in prostate cancer tissues. Our results indicate lw-PSA may be produced specifically by BPH epithelium and it has a potential to be used as a specific biological marker for the diagnosis of BPH. In addition, benign prostatic epithelium can produce more lactoferrin while prostate cancer tissues go without its lactoferrin secretion.

  18. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... completely empty the bladder Less common signs and symptoms include: Urinary tract infection Inability to urinate Blood in the urine The size of your prostate doesn't necessarily determine the severity of your symptoms. Some men with only slightly enlarged prostates can ...

  19. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nausea or vomiting Any new or unusual symptoms Alternative Names Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge References D'Amico AV, Nguyen PL, Crook JM, et al. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, ...

  20. Virotherapy of canine tumors with oncolytic vaccinia virus GLV-1h109 expressing an anti-VEGF single-chain antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S Patil

    Full Text Available Virotherapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV strains is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. We have previously reported that oncolytic vaccinia virus strains expressing an anti-VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor single-chain antibody (scAb GLAF-1 exhibited significant therapeutic efficacy for treatment of human tumor xenografts. Here, we describe the use of oncolytic vaccinia virus GLV-1h109 encoding GLAF-1 for canine cancer therapy. In this study we analyzed the virus-mediated delivery and production of scAb GLAF-1 and the oncolytic and immunological effects of the GLV-1h109 vaccinia virus strain against canine soft tissue sarcoma and canine prostate carcinoma in xenograft models. Cell culture data demonstrated that the GLV-1h109 virus efficiently infect, replicate in and destroy both tested canine cancer cell lines. In addition, successful expression of GLAF-1 was demonstrated in virus-infected canine cancer cells and the antibody specifically recognized canine VEGF. In two different xenograft models, the systemic administration of the GLV-1h109 virus was found to be safe and led to anti-tumor and immunological effects resulting in the significant reduction of tumor growth in comparison to untreated control mice. Furthermore, tumor-specific virus infection led to a continued production of functional scAb GLAF-1, resulting in inhibition of angiogenesis. Overall, the GLV-1h109-mediated cancer therapy and production of immunotherapeutic anti-VEGF scAb may open the way for combination therapy concept i.e. vaccinia virus mediated oncolysis and intratumoral production of therapeutic drugs in canine cancer patients.

  1. Effects of Carbenoxolone on the Canine Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Teshima

    Full Text Available Cushing's disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A characteristic biochemical feature of corticotroph adenomas is their relative resistance to suppressive negative feedback by glucocorticoids. The abnormal expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD, which is a cortisol metabolic enzyme, is found in human and murine corticotroph adenomas. Our recent studies demonstrated that canine corticotroph adenomas also have abnormal expression of 11HSD. 11HSD has two isoforms in dogs, 11HSD type1 (HSD11B1, which converts cortisone into active cortisol, and 11HSD type2 (HSD11B2, which converts cortisol into inactive cortisone. It has been suggested that glucocorticoid resistance in corticotroph tumors is related to the overexpression of HSD11B2. Therefore it was our aim to investigate the effects of carbenoxolone (CBX, an 11HSD inhibitor, on the healthy dog's pituitary-adrenal axis. Dogs were administered 50 mg/kg of CBX twice each day for 15 days. During CBX administration, no adverse effects were observed in any dogs. The plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, and serum cortisol and cortisone concentrations were significantly lower at day 7 and 15 following corticotropin releasing hormone stimulation. After completion of CBX administration, the HSD11B1 mRNA expression was higher, and HSD11B2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the pituitaries. Moreover, proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression was lower, and the ratio of ACTH-positive cells in the anterior pituitary was also significantly lower after CBX treatment. In adrenal glands treated with CBX, HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 mRNA expression were both lower compared to normal canine adrenal glands. The results of this study suggested that CBX inhibits ACTH secretion from pituitary due to altered 11HSD expressions, and is potentially useful for the treatment of canine Cushing's disease.

  2. Cloning of the canine glucose-6-phosphatase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishnani, P.; Bao, Y. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Brix, A.E. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Two Maltese puppies with massive hepatomegaly and failure to thrive were found to have a markedly reduced Glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity in the liver and kidney. Deficiency of G-6-Pase activity causes type 1a glycogen storage disease in humans. To further study the mutation responsible for the disease in dog, we cloned G-6-Pase canine cDNA from normal mixed breed dog liver RNA using reverse transcriptase and PCR amplification using primers derived from the published murine G-6-Pase gene sequence. Sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 1071 nucleotides that encodes a predicted 357 amino acid polypeptide in the canine G-6-Pase gene, same as mouse and human. We found more than 90% sequence homology between dog and human G-6-Pase sequence. Hydropathy analysis of the deduced canine G-6-Pase polypeptide shows six transmembrane-spanning segments similar to those seen in human and mouse. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization is similarly predicted by the presence of the ER protein retention signal KK positioned 3 and 4 amino acids from the carboxy terminal. Potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites are identified at positions 96, 203, and 276. Northern blot analysis revealed increased G-6-Pase mRNA in the deficient dog liver compared to control. This could possibly reflect upregulation of transcription due to the persistent hypoglycemic state. Further studies are directed at the identification of the mutation involved in this deficient dog strain. Characterization of the G-6-Pase gene and protein in the deficient dog model can pave the way for new understanding in the pathophysiology of this disease and for the trials of novel therapeutic approaches including gene therapy.

  3. Resident Macrophages and Lymphocytes in the Canine Endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, M A; Payan-Carreira, R

    2015-10-01

    Resident immune cells play a major role in endometrial immunity and in tissue homoeostasis. This study aimed to analyse the distribution of macrophages, B and T lymphocytes (respectively, Mø, B-Lym and T-Lym) in the canine endometrium throughout the oestrous cycle and in late involution (at the proestrus stage post-parturition). An immunohistochemistry technique was used on samples from 50 post-pubertal healthy female dogs, of which five in late post-partum. The distribution of resident immune cells was analysed in three endometrial layers (superficial, intermediate and basal areas). Mø, B-Lym and T-Lym were demonstrated to reside in the endometrium in all the stages of the canine cycle; their numbers being considerably higher during late involution. T-Lym were scattered in the stroma or amidst the glandular epithelium, constituting the predominant immune cell population in anestrus and proestrus, but decreased in number at all other stages. Endometrial B-Lym remained fairly constant during the canine cycle, although its numbers were higher in late involution. Mø counts were higher during anestrus compared to the other stages, the cells being displaced into the superficial endometrial layer. Mø demonstrated the highest level in late involution samples, forming small aggregates below the surface epithelium. The number of immune cells was not normally distributed, suggesting the influence of individual factors, such as age or parity, not explored herein due to limited sample availability. Still, this study provides important information for the interpretation of endometrial biopsies in dogs and for the understanding of the increased susceptibility to uterine infection during dioestrus found in the bitch. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-06-03

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection. British Veterinary Association.

  5. SU-E-J-95: Predicting Treatment Outcomes for Prostate Cancer: Irradiation Responses of Prostate Cancer Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Most prostate cancers are slow-growing diseases but normally require much higher doses (80Gy) with conventional fractionation radiotherapy, comparing to other more aggressive cancers. This study is to disclose the radiobiological basis of this discrepancy by proposing the concept of prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs) and examining their specific irradiation responses. Methods: There are overwhelming evidences that CSC may keep their stemness, e.g. the competency of cell differentiation, in hypoxic microenvironments and hence become radiation resistive, though the probability is tiny for aggressiveness cancers. Tumor hypoxia used to be considered as an independent reason for poor treatment outcomes, and recent evidences showed that even prostate cancers were also hypoxic though they are very slow-growing. In addition, to achieve comparable outcomes to other much more aggressive cancers, much higher doses (rather than lower doses) are always needed for prostate cancers, regardless of its non-aggressiveness. All these abnormal facts can only be possibly interpreted by the irradiation responses characteristics of prostate CSCs. Results: Both normal cancer cells (NCCs) and CSCs exiting in tumors, in which NCCs are mainly for symptoms whereas killing all CSCs achieves disease-free. Since prostate cancers are slow-growing, the hypoxia in prostate cancers cannot possibly from NCCs, thus it is caused by hypoxic CSCs. However, single hypoxic cell cannot be imaged due to limitation of imaging techniques, unless a large group of hypoxic cells exist together, thus most of CSCs in prostate cancers are virtually hypoxic, i.e. not in working mode because CSCs in proliferating mode have to be normoxic, and this explains why prostate cancers are unaggressive. Conclusion: The fractional dose in conventional radiotherapy (∼2Gy) could only kill NCCs and CSCs in proliferating modes, whereas most CSCs survived fractional treatments since they were hypoxic, thus to eliminate all

  6. Gene expression profiling of prostate tissue identifies chromatin regulation as a potential link between obesity and lethal prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebot, Ericka M; Gerke, Travis; Labbé, David P; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Zadra, Giorgia; Rider, Jennifer R; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Wilson, Kathryn M; Kelly, Rachel S; Shui, Irene M; Loda, Massimo; Kantoff, Philip W; Finn, Stephen; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Brown, Myles; Giovannucci, Edward L; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2017-11-01

    Obese men are at higher risk of advanced prostate cancer and cancer-specific mortality; however, the biology underlying this association remains unclear. This study examined gene expression profiles of prostate tissue to identify biological processes differentially expressed by obesity status and lethal prostate cancer. Gene expression profiling was performed on tumor (n = 402) and adjacent normal (n = 200) prostate tissue from participants in 2 prospective cohorts who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1982 to 2005. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the questionnaire immediately preceding cancer diagnosis. Men were followed for metastases or prostate cancer-specific death (lethal disease) through 2011. Gene Ontology biological processes differentially expressed by BMI were identified using gene set enrichment analysis. Pathway scores were computed by averaging the signal intensities of member genes. Odds ratios (ORs) for lethal prostate cancer were estimated with logistic regression. Among 402 men, 48% were healthy weight, 31% were overweight, and 21% were very overweight/obese. Fifteen gene sets were enriched in tumor tissue, but not normal tissue, of very overweight/obese men versus healthy-weight men; 5 of these were related to chromatin modification and remodeling (false-discovery rate 7, 41% vs 17%; P = 2 × 10 -4 ) and an increased risk of lethal disease that was independent of grade and stage (OR, 5.26; 95% confidence interval, 2.37-12.25). This study improves our understanding of the biology of aggressive prostate cancer and identifies a potential mechanistic link between obesity and prostate cancer death that warrants further study. Cancer 2017;123:4130-4138. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and its two receptors (VEGFR1/FLT1 and VEGFR2/FLK1/KDR) in the canine corpus luteum and utero-placental compartments during pregnancy and at normal and induced parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Aykut; Hoffmann, Bernd; Boos, Alois; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2015-11-01

    VEGFA is one of the most potent known inducers of angiogenesis. However, the function of angiogenic factors in the canine corpus luteum (CL) of pregnancy and in the pregnant uterus and placenta has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, here we investigated the expression and localization of VEGFA and its receptors (VEGFR1/FLT1 and VEGFR2/FLK1/KDR) in the canine CL and utero-placental compartments (ut-pl) throughout pregnancy until prepartum luteolysis. Antigestagen-mediated effects on expression of VEGF system in ut-pl were elucidated in mid-pregnant dogs. While displaying high individual variation, the luteal VEGFA was elevated during pre-implantation and post-implantation, followed by a decrease during mid-gestation, which was more pronounced at the mRNA level, and showed constant expression afterwards. Within the uterus, it increased following implantation and during mid-gestation in ut-pl compartments, but was downregulated at prepartum luteolysis. Luteal VEGFR1 expression resembled that of VEGFA; VEGFR2 remained unaffected throughout pregnancy. In ut-pl compartments, both receptors increased gradually towards mid-gestation; a prepartum decrease was observed for VEGFR1. Antigestagen-treatment resulted in decreased expression of ut-pl VEGFR1. In the CL, VEGFA stained in luteal cells. Uterine signals of VEGFA and its two receptors were observed in epithelial and vascular compartments, and in myometrium. In placental labyrinth, additionally, trophoblast stained positively. Luteal VEGFR1 was localized to the luteal cells and tunica media of blood vessels, whereas VEGFR2 stained only in capillary endothelial cells. The upregulation of luteal and the ut-pl VEGF system during early gestational stages supports the increased vascularization rate during this time. The diminishing effects of the prepartum endocrine milieu on VEGFA function seem to be more pronounced in the ut-pl units. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Interphase in situ hybridization to disaggregated and intact tissue specimens of prostatic adenocarcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alers, J. C.; Krijtenburg, P. J.; Vissers, K. J.; Krishnadath, S. K.; Bosman, F. T.; van Dekken, H.

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study was performed of interphase in situ hybridization (ISH) to deparaffinized 4-microns tissue sections and nuclear suspensions from eight prostatic adenocarcinomas, as well as one normal prostatic control. Whole nuclear suspensions were derived from the same tumor areas to evaluate

  9. Calcium regulation of androgen receptor expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Blok (Leen); J.E. Perry; J.K. Lindzey; D.J. Tindall; Y. Gong (Yuewen)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractElevation of intracellular calcium levels in the presence of normal androgen levels has been implicated in apoptotic prostate cell death. Since the androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in the regulation of growth and differentiation of the prostate, it was of

  10. Delineation of Methyl-DNA Binding Protein Interactions in the Prostate Cancer Genome (PC110091)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    from three matched sets of malignant prostate cancer and normal/benign prostate tissue were sequenced using the Ion Torrent (Life Technologies...alignments produced by the software of the Ion Torrent sequencer were used. These results were then processed (in collaboration with H. Chen) in a

  11. Pattern of decrease of prostate specific antigen after radical radiotherapy for the prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Kyoung; Park, Suk Won; Ha, Sung Whan

    1999-01-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a useful tumor marker, which is widely used as a diagnostic index and predictor of both treatment and follow-up result in prostate cancer. A prospective analysis was carried out to obtain the period of PSA normalization and the half life of PSA and to analyze the factors influencing the period of PSA normalization. The PSA level was checked before and serially after radical radiotherapy. Twenty patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent radical external beam radiotherapy were enrolled in this study. Accrual period was from April 1993 to May 1998. Median follow-up period was 26 months. Radiotherapy was given to whole pelvis followed by a boost to prostate. Dose range for the whole pelvis was from 45 Gy to 50 Gy and boost dose to prostate, from 14 Gy to 20 Gy. The post-irradiation PSA normal value was under 3.0 ng/ml. The physical examination and serum PSA level evaluation were performed at 3 month interval in the first on year, and then at every 4 to 6 months. PSA value was normalized in nineteen patients (95%) within 12 months. The mean period of PSA normalization was 5.3 (±2.7) months. The half life of PSA ofd the nonfailing patients was 2.1 (±0.9) month. The nadir PSA level of the nonfailing patients was 0.8 (±0.5) ng/ml. The period of PSA normalization had the positive correlation with pretreatment PSA level (R 2 =0.468). The nadir PSA level had no definite positive correlation with the pretreatment PSA level (R 2 =0.175). The half life of serum PSA level also had no definite correlation with pretreatment PSA level (R 2 =0.029). The PSA level was mostly normalized within 8 months (85%). If it has not normalized within 12 months, we should consider the residual disease in prostate or distant metastasis. In 2 patients, the PSA level increased 6 months or 20 months before clinical disease was detected. So the serum PSA level can be used as early diagnostic indicator of treatment failure

  12. Inhibitory effects of Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside on benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hai-Nan; Xu, Yuan; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Wang, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside (GTW) against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into five groups: Group I, vehicle control group (sham-operated and treated with vehicle); Group II, BPH group; Group III, BPH rats treated with finasteride at a dose of 5 mg·kg(-1); and Groups IV and V, BPH rats treated with GTW at dose levels of 10 and 20 mg·kg(-1), respectively. The drugs were administered orally once a day for 14 days. Prostate weight, prostatic index, and the testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in serum and prostate, and the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were measured; prostate tissues were taken for histopathological examination; and serum biochemical analysis was also performed. The BPH rats displayed an increase in prostate weight, prostatic index with increased testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate, and increased serum PSA levels. GTW treatment at both doses resulted in significant reductions in prostate weight, prostatic index, testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate, and serum PSA levels, compared with BPH group. Histopathological examination also indicated that GTW treatment at both doses inhibited testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Serum biochemical analysis showed that the liver and renal functions were normal. In conclusion, GTW inhibited testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats, without host toxicity, providing a basis for the development of GTW as a novel therapy for BPH. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mandibular canine: A tool for sex identification in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Ramniwas M; Dindgire, Sarika L; Gadhari, Mangesh; Khobragade, Pratima G; Kadoo, Priyanka S; Yadav, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of mandibular canine index (MCI) and mandibular mesiodistal odontometrics in sex identification in the age group of 17-25 years in central Indian population. The study sample comprised total 300 individuals (150 males and 150 females) of an age group ranging from 17 to 25 years of central Indian population. The maximum mesiodistal diameter of mandibular canines, the linear distance between the tips of mandibular canines, was measured using digital vernier caliper on the study models. Overall sex could be predicted accurately in 79.66% (81.33% males and 78% females) of the population by MCI. Whereas, considering the mandibular canine width for sex identification, the overall accuracy was 75% for the right mandibular canine and 73% for the left mandibular canine observed. Sexual dimorphism of canine is population specific, and among the Indian population, MCI and mesiodistal dimension of mandibular canine can aid in sex determination.

  14. Prostate inflammation. Association with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Meguid, Taha A; Mosli, Hisham A; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah A

    2009-12-01

    To study the association and possible relationship of prostate inflammation with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. The medical records and pathological findings of all Saudi patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostatic needle biopsies in King Abdulaziz University Medical City, Jeddah,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from June 2003 to June 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. The indications for biopsy were elevated levels of serum prostate specific antigen, abnormal findings on digital rectal examination, or both. The specimens harboring inflammation, adenocarcinoma, BPH, or their combinations, were selected and included in the study. A total of 214 patients were selected with an age ranging from 37-100 years (median=68). Inflammation was histologically evident in 88 patients. Of them, only one demonstrated acute inflammation, while 87/88 demonstrated chronic inflammation with, or without acute inflammation. Histopathologic features were categorized into 3 main categories: inflammation alone (12/214, 5.6%), BPH category (126/214, 58.9%), and cancer category (76/214, 35.5%) patients. The last 2 categories also included cases associated with inflammation. In the overall analysis of 214 specimens, BPH with inflammation was more prevalent than cancer with inflammation (43/214 [20.1%] versus 33/214 [15.4%]). In a subgroup analysis within each category, inflammation was less prevalent in the BPH category compared to the cancer category (43/126 [34.1%] versus 33/76 [43.4%]). The association between chronic inflammation and both BPH and cancer is obvious in our study. Further studies are needed to substantiate this observation, and to clarify the magnitude of association of inflammation with BPH compared to cancer.

  15. Influence of the neural microenvironment on prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coarfa, Christian; Florentin, Diego; Putluri, NagiReddy; Ding, Yi; Au, Jason; He, Dandan; Ragheb, Ahmed; Frolov, Anna; Michailidis, George; Lee, MinJae; Kadmon, Dov; Miles, Brian; Smith, Christopher; Ittmann, Michael; Rowley, David; Sreekumar, Arun; Creighton, Chad J; Ayala, Gustavo

    2018-02-01

    Nerves are key factors in prostate cancer (PCa), but the functional role of innervation in prostate cancer is poorly understood. PCa induced neurogenesis and perineural invasion (PNI), are associated with aggressive disease. We denervated rodent prostates chemically and physically, before orthotopically implanting cancer cells. We also performed a human neoadjuvant clinical trial using botulinum toxin type A (Botox) and saline in the same patient, before prostatectomy. Bilateral denervation resulted in reduced tumor incidence and size in mice. Botox treatment in humans resulted in increased apoptosis of cancer cells in the Botox treated side. A similar denervation gene array profile was identified in tumors arising in denervated rodent prostates, in spinal cord injury patients and in the Botox treated side of patients. Denervation induced exhibited a signature gene profile, indicating translation and bioenergetic shutdown. Nerves also regulate basic cellular functions of non-neoplastic epithelial cells. Nerves play a role in the homeostasis of normal epithelial tissues and are involved in prostate cancer tumor survival. This study confirms that interactions between human cancer and nerves are essential to disease progression. This work may make a major impact in general cancer treatment strategies, as nerve/cancer interactions are likely important in other cancers as well. Targeting the neural microenvironment may represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of human prostate cancer. © 2017 The Authors. The Prostate Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  17. Production of transgenic canine embryos using interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, So Gun; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Geon A; Koo, Ok Jae; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2012-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has emerged as an important tool for producing transgenic animals and deriving transgenic embryonic stem cells. The process of SCNT involves fusion of in vitro matured oocytes with somatic cells to make embryos that are transgenic when the nuclear donor somatic cells carry 'foreign' DNA and are clones when all the donor cells are genetically identical. However, in canines, it is difficult to obtain enough mature oocytes for successful SCNT due to the very low efficiency of in vitro oocyte maturation in this species that hinders canine transgenic cloning. One solution is to use oocytes from a different species or even a different genus, such as bovine oocytes, that can be matured easily in vitro. Accordingly, the aim of this study was: (1) to establish a canine fetal fibroblast line transfected with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene; and (2) to investigate in vitro embryonic development of canine cloned embryos derived from transgenic and non-transgenic cell lines using bovine in vitro matured oocytes. Canine fetal fibroblasts were transfected with constructs containing the GFP and puromycin resistance genes using FuGENE 6®. Viability levels of these cells were determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. Interspecies SCNT (iSCNT) embryos from normal or transfected cells were produced and cultured in vitro. The MTT measurement of GFP-transfected fetal fibroblasts (mean OD = 0.25) was not significantly different from non-transfected fetal fibroblasts (mean OD = 0.35). There was no difference between transgenic iSCNT versus non-transgenic iSCNT embryos in terms of fusion rates (73.1% and 75.7%, respectively), cleavage rates (69.7% vs. 73.8%) and development to the 8-16-cell stage (40.1% vs. 42.7%). Embryos derived from the transfected cells completely expressed GFP at the 2-cell, 4-cell, and 8-16-cell stages without mosaicism. In summary, our results demonstrated that

  18. Radioimmunodetection of prostate cancer by 111In-labeled monoclonal antibody against prostatic acid phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, A.; Karnani, P.; Heikkilae, J.; Nurmi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Purified human prostate acid phosphatase (PAP) was used to generate a specific monoclonal antibody (FC 3001) for detection of PAP expressed by some prostatic carcinomas. DTPA derivatives of MoAb-F(ab')2-fragments were labeled with indium-111 chloride. This labeled antibody was tested in 15 prostate cancer patients who underwent staging pelvic lymphadenectomy; 9 of them received labeled antibody alone whereas 6 received simultaneous injections of labeled and unlabeled antibody with two dose levels (40 or 80 mg). Biodistribution data obtained by direct blood measurements and imaging procedures indicated that simultaneous injection of unlabeled antibody reduced both the blood elimination rate and the accumulation in the liver. Accumulation of the radionuclide in pelvic lymph node metastases was observed in some patients but in a couple of patients accumulation was noted also in normal lymph nodes. The method cannot in its present design replace staging pelvic lymphadenectomy and further studies are needed for elaboration of clinically useful radioimmunodetection methods. (orig.)

  19. Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.A.; Ravinal, R.C.; Costa, R.S.; Lima, M.S.; Tucci, S.; Muglia, V.F.; Reis, R.B. Dos; Silva, G.E.B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness

  20. Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R.A.; Ravinal, R.C.; Costa, R.S.; Lima, M.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Patologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Tucci, S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Divisão de Urologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Urologia, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Muglia, V.F. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Medicina Interna (Centro de Ciência da Imagem), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina Interna (Centro de Ciência da Imagem), Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Reis, R.B. Dos [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Divisão de Urologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Urologia, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, G.E.B. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Patologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness.

  1. Intraprostatic injection of botulinum toxin type- A relieves bladder outlet obstruction in human and induces prostate apoptosis in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimura Naoki

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing interest with botulinum toxin – A (BTX-A application in the lower urinary tract, we investigated the BTX-A effects on the canine prostate and also in men with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Methods Transperineal injection into the prostate using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS was performed throughout the study. Saline with or without 100 U of BTX-A was injected into mongrel dogs prostate. One or 3 months later, the prostate was harvested for morphologic and apoptotic study. In addition, eight BPH patients refractory to α-blockers were treated with ultrasound guided intraprostatic injection of 200 U of BTX-A. Results In the BTX-A treated dogs, atrophy and diffuse apoptosis was observed with H&E stain and TUNEL stain at 1 and 3 months. Clinically, the mean prostate volume, symptom score, and quality of life index were significantly reduced by 18.8%, 73.1%, and 61.5% respectively. Maximal flow rate significantly increased by 72.0%. Conclusion Intraprostatic BTX-A injection induces prostate apotosis in dogs and relieves BOO in humans. It is therefore a promising alternative treatment for refractory BOO due to BPH.

  2. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Canine). 113.214 Section 113.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... antibody against canine parvovirus to determine susceptibility. A constant virus-varying serum...

  3. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. 113.316... Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared... immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared...

  4. Pilot Study to Assess Safety and Clinical Outcomes of Irreversible Electroporation for Partial Gland Ablation in Men with Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Katie S.; Ehdaie, Behfar; Musser, John; Mashni, Joseph; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Durack, Jeremy C.; Solomon, Stephen B.; Coleman, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Partial prostate gland ablation is a strategy to manage localized prostate cancer. Irreversible electroporation can ablate localized soft tissues. We sought to describe 30- and 90-day complications and intermediate-term functional outcomes in men undergoing prostate gland ablation using irreversible electroporation. Materials and Methods We reviewed the charts of 25 patients with prostate cancer who underwent prostate gland ablation using irreversible electroporation as a primary procedure and who were followed for at least 6 months. Results Median follow-up was 10.9 months. Grade 3 complications occurred in 2 patients including epididymitis (1) and urinary tract infection (1). Fourteen patients experienced grade ≤ 2 complications, mainly transient urinary symptoms, hematuria, and urinary tract infections. Of 25 patients, 4 (16%) had cancer in the zone of ablation on routine follow-up biopsy at 6 months. Of those with normal urinary function at baseline, 88% and 94% reported normal urinary function at 6 and 12 months after prostate gland ablation, respectively. By 12 months, only 1 patient with normal erectile function at baseline reported new difficulty with potency and only 2 patients (8%) required a pad for urinary incontinence. Conclusions Prostate gland ablation with irreversible electroporation is feasible and safe in selected men with localized prostate cancer. Intermediate-term urinary and erectile function outcomes appear reasonable. Irreversible electroporation is effective in ablation of tumor-bearing prostate tissue, as a majority of men had no evidence of residual cancer on biopsy 6 months after prostate gland ablation. PMID:27113966

  5. [Consensus of prostate cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer is increasing rapidly in China, the clinical stage of prostate cancer patients is comparatively late and the overall survival rate is inferior to that reported in the developed countries. Prostate cancer screening is an effective measure to reduce the risk of death through early detection. In order to identify the best way of prostate cancer screening in China, the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association Genitourinary Cancer Committee Prostate Cancer Working Group reviewed all published data concerning the benefits and harms of screening for prostate caner and created the consensus. The consensus include the following points: screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer by prostate specific antigen(PSA)testing in the general population is the potential measure to reduce mortality rates through early detection, PSA testing should be offered earlier in men with life expectancy over 10 years and men at high risk of prostate cancer.

  6. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  7. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  8. Empowering international canine inherited disorder management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bethany J; Wade, Claire M

    2012-02-01

    The mapping of the canine genome and the study of canine breed genomic architecture has revolutionized the discovery of genetic tests for inherited disorders in dogs. As the genetics underlying complex disorders are revealed, canine breeders and their registering organisations will be required to understand genetics in a much more sophisticated way. To facilitate the management of genetic disorders in the era of new complex information, we consider how best to apply the results of new research and analytical techniques to benefit the wider canine breeding community with the aims of improving canine health and maintaining benevolent genetic diversity. If this is not done, there is a serious risk that expensive and valuable genetic research will remain unused or be misused to the detriment of breeds. In this review, we make a case for the formation of an international organisation that will exist as a central repository for breed-based genetic analysis and information sharing. This organisation ("Inter-Dog") could be modelled on a similar organisation that is monitoring genetic improvement of dairy cattle. The formation of such an organisation will require the collaboration of international kennel management organisations, researchers, and agencies offering genetic testing services.

  9. Impacted maxillary canines--a perennial problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Mohit; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    Ectopic eruption with impaction of maxillary permanent canine teeth is a frequently encountered clinical problem. Surgical exposure and attachment of a gold chain to impacted maxillary canines is often required in order to bring them into the dental arch and to allow good alignment. The principle of radiographic parallax is employed to determine whether the impacted canine is placed buccal or palatal to adjacent teeth. Good flap design allows adequate access to the impacted tooth. Bone removal should be adequate to free the impacted crown to its greatest circumference. An orthodontic eyelet with a gold chain is then bonded to the crown of the impacted tooth. Use of a good bonding technique will minimize chances of bond failure necessitating a second surgical procedure. A traumatic surgical procedure will allow minimal postoperative complications and a rapid recovery. This article describes a surgical technique to expose impacted maxillary canines and attach gold chains, to facilitate orthodontic alignment into the dental arch. The principle of radiographic parallax to determine the bucco-palatal position of impacted canines is also discussed.

  10. Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruszka, Katarzyna; Różyło, T. Katarzyna; Różyło-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Denkiewicz, Katarzyna; Masłowska, Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation

  11. Cloning of canine Toll-like receptor 7 gene and its expression in dog tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, Yasuhumi; Kano, Rui; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2008-01-15

    Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is activated by single strand RNA and imidazoquinoline compounds, and induces interferon production. In this study, canine TLR7 cDNA was cloned and sequenced. The full-length cDNA of canine TLR7 gene was 3419bp, encoding 1032 amino acids. The similarities of canine TLR7 with human and mouse TLR7 were 84 and 80% at the nucleotide sequence level, and 86 and 79% at amino acid sequence level, respectively. Further, the expression of TLR7 mRNA was investigated in canine normal tissues by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis. The common expression level of TLR7 mRNA in tissues from three dogs examined was in large intestine, lung, pancreas, small intestine and skin, though the expression level in each tissue was varied among these healthy dogs. In other tissues (kidney, liver, lymph node, spleen, adrenal gland, and PBMCs), the level of TLR7 mRNA expression was different in individuals.

  12. Altered anatomy in a case with a buccally impacted maxillary canine tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, M C; Comes, C A; Stanciu, D; Ciuluvică, R C; Motoc, A; Niculescu, M C; Jianu, Adelina Maria

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral dissections of maxilla were performed in a human adult cadaver head, male, aged 53 years. After the en block removal of the soft tissues in the oral and infraorbital regions, the antero-lateral surface of maxilla was exposed and also the vestibular aspect of the upper alveolar process. An oblique labially impacted right upper canine was evidenced, completely submucosal: its apex was tangent to the maxillary sinus floor, while the superior side of the apical part of the root was in close relation with the floor of the laterally expanded inferior nasal meatus. Superior and adjacent to the neck of that impacted canine a follicular cyst was evidenced and the antral wall presented distally to the apex of the impacted canine a dehiscent area, where the antral mucosa was only covered by an incomplete thin bony lamella. The incisors on that side were present but no resorption was identified at their level. Within the anterior border of the wall separating the maxillary sinus, small, and the inferior nasal meatus, the nerve for that impacted canine was coursing; the nerves for the upper incisors were initially located within the antero-lateral wall of the inferior nasal meatus. Although small, the maxillary sinus presented a supero-medial recess above the enlarged inferior nasal meatus and lateral to the normally-sized middle nasal meatus.

  13. Long-term survival of participants in the prostate cancer prevention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Silberstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT is a seminal study in the field of urology. More than 10 years after its initial publication, updated data from this trial continue to shape our understanding of prostate cancer. Among the major findings from the PCPT has been the demonstration that prostate cancer is common in men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA once thought to be in the normal range, [1] finasteride prevents the development of benign prostatic hypertrophy, [2] it increases the sensitivity of PSA [3] and digital rectal examination. [4] Furthermore the PCPT helped to establish the link between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease, [5] and perhaps most importantly finasteride demonstrated a 25% relative risk reduction in the diagnosis of prostate cancer compared with placebo. [6

  14. Integration of Metabolomics and Transcriptomics Reveals Major Metabolic Pathways and Potential Biomarker Involved in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shancheng; Shao, Yaping; Zhao, Xinjie; Hong, Christopher S; Wang, Fubo; Lu, Xin; Li, Jia; Ye, Guozhu; Yan, Min; Zhuang, Zhengping; Xu, Chuanliang; Xu, Guowang; Sun, Yinghao

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a highly prevalent tumor affecting millions of men worldwide, but poor understanding of its pathogenesis has limited effective clinical management of patients. In addition to transcriptional profiling or transcriptomics, metabolomics is being increasingly utilized to discover key molecular changes underlying tumorigenesis. In this study, we integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics to analyze 25 paired human prostate cancer tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues, followed by further validation of our findings in an additional cohort of 51 prostate cancer patients and 16 benign prostatic hyperplasia patients. We found several altered pathways aberrantly expressed at both metabolic and transcriptional levels, including cysteine and methionine metabolism, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism, and hexosamine biosynthesis. Additionally, the metabolite sphingosine demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity for distinguishing prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia, particularly for patients with low prostate specific antigen level (0-10 ng/ml). We also found impaired sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 signaling, downstream of sphingosine, representing a loss of tumor suppressor gene and a potential key oncogenic pathway for therapeutic targeting. By integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics, we have provided both a broad picture of the molecular perturbations underlying prostate cancer and a preliminary study of a novel metabolic signature, which may help to discriminate prostate cancer from normal tissue and benign prostatic hyperplasia. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Changes in canine electrocardiogram values from three thermal floors in Cundinamarca, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Elena Sánchez Klinge; Carlos Alberto Venegas Cortés

    2008-01-01

    The electrocardiogram is a written register of electric changes that take place in the heart during a heart cycle. The voltage changes are the result of depolarization and repolarization of heart muscle fibers that produce electric changes able to reach body surface and that are detected by electrodes connected to a galvanometer called electrocardiograph. Heart problems are detected with the electrocardiogram, but it is necessary to know the normal values of canine electrocardiogram in a trop...

  16. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Wild Canines (Fox, Jackal, and Wolf) in Northeastern Iran Using Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mohebali, Mehdi; Arzamani, Kourosh; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Raeghi, Saber; Heidari, Zahra; Motavalli-Haghi, Seyed Mousa; Elikaee, Samira; Mousazadeh-Mojarrad, Ahmad; Kakoei, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serol...

  17. Canine pyometra: What is new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, R

    2017-04-01

    Pyometra is a common disease in countries where elective spaying is not routinely performed. Hormonal and bacterial factors are fundamental in the pathogenesis of the disease, which manifests itself as a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection of the uterus. Surgical ovariohysterectomy is the safest and most effective treatment for pyometra, and it has recently been shown that laparoscopically assisted methods for surgical treatment are feasible to use in selected cases. New protocols for improved medical treatment alternatives have also been tested with promising results. To be able to predict outcome and presence of complications early would be valuable in clinical practice for optimizing therapy and increasing survival. Results of commonly investigated clinical and laboratory investigations have been shown to be useful as predictive markers, with leucopenia being associated with increased risk of peritonitis as well as prolonged post-operative hospitalization after surgical treatment. A cage-side rapid and cost-effective diagnostic test would be highly valuable in clinical practice, and detection of pyometra-specific upregulated genes in the uterus and the corresponding products is a potential start in identifying novel markers suitable for such as test. The focus of the present review is to highlight recent findings on pathogenesis, prediction of outcome, diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, central research questions and suggestions for future investigations about several aspects of canine pyometra will be addressed. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Canine Intracranial Meningioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gomes de Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Carvalho J.R.G., Vasconcellos C.H.C., Bastos I. P.B., Trajano F.L.C., Costa T.S. & Fernandes J.I [Canine Intracranial Meningioma: Case report.] Meningioma intracraniano canino: Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:1- 7, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23.897-000, Brasil, E-mail: vetjulio@yahoo.com.br Intracranial neoplasms usually show their signals in a moderate way, revealing a long background of nonspecific signs, making the diagnosis more difficult. The meningioma is the most common intracranial neoplasm in dogs and cats. Along the years, the Veterinary Medicine has experienced important technological improvements, making it possible the diagnosis of a lot of diseases. Therefore, diseases considered not common in the past, started being diagnosed more frequently, for instance, brain lesions. The objective of this research is to report a case of intracranial meningioma in a Boxer dog that arrived at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, highlighting its clinical improvement, diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?; Die canine Hypothyreose. Eine diagnostische Herausforderung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretti, Felicitos; Reusch, C.E. [Klinik fuer Kleintiermedizin, Vetsuisse Fakultaet Zuerich, Univ. Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen {sup registered}) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high

  20. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii) reduced prostate size in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Miranda, Sara; Nieto, Jessica; Fernández, Gilma; Yucra, Sandra; Rubio, Julio; Yi, Pedro; Gasco, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Red Maca, a cruciferous plant from the highland of Peru, reduced ventral prostate size in normal and TE treated rats. PMID:15661081

  1. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii reduced prostate size in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Julio

    2005-01-01

    glucosinolate. Conclusions Red Maca, a cruciferous plant from the highland of Peru, reduced ventral prostate size in normal and TE treated rats.

  2. Obesity and prostate enlargement in men with localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Ryan P; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Freedland, Stephen J; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Obesity is associated with prostate enlargement in men without prostate cancer. This study demonstrates an association between obesity and prostate enlargement in men with prostate cancer, and leads to possible implications for prostate cancer screening and diagnosis. • To determine if obesity is associated with prostate size in men with prostate cancer. • We examined preoperative body mass index (BMI) and whole prostate weight in a cohort of 16,325 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer from 1975 to 2008 at a single institution. • We used multivariable regression modelling adjusting for age, year of surgery, preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), pathological stage and Gleason grade. • Of the entire cohort, 13,343 (82%) patients had a prostate weight of at least 40 g. These men were older (P men with BMI men with a BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) had a 40% (odds ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.01-1.95) increased risk of prostate weight of at least 40 g and a 70% (odds ratio 1.70, 95% CI 1.32-2.20) increased risk of prostate weight of at least 50 g. • In men with localized prostate cancer, obesity is associated with an increased risk of prostate enlargement. • These data validate other observations linking obesity with prostate enlargement and may have important ramifications for prostate cancer diagnosis in obese men. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  3. Rad9 Has a Functional Role in Human Prostate Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Aiping; Zhang, Charles Xia; Lieberman, Howard B.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is currently the most common type of neoplasm found in American men, other than skin cancer, and is the second leading cause of cancer death in males. Because cell cycle checkpoint proteins stabilize the genome, the relationship of one such protein, Rad9, to prostate cancer was investigated. We found that four prostate cancer cell lines (CWR22, DU145, LNCaP, and PC-3), relative to PrEC normal prostate cells, have aberrantly high levels of Rad9 protein. The 3′-end region of intron 2 of Rad9 in DU145 cells is hypermethylated at CpG islands, and treatment with 5′-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restores near-normal levels of methylation and reduces Rad9 protein abundance. Southern blot analyses indicate that PC-3 cells contain an amplified Rad9 copy number. Therefore, we provide evidence that Rad9 levels are high in prostate cancer cells due at least in part to aberrant methylation or gene amplification. The effectiveness of small interfering RNA to lower Rad9 protein levels in CWR22, DU145, and PC-3 cells correlated with reduction of tumorigenicity in nude mice, indicating that Rad9 actively contributes to the disease. Rad9 protein levels were high in 153 of 339 human prostate tumor biopsy samples examined and detectable in only 2 of 52 noncancerous prostate tissues. There was a strong correlation between Rad9 protein abundance and cancer stage. Rad9 protein level can thus provide a biomarker for advanced prostate cancer and is causally related to the disease, suggesting the potential for developing novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic tools based on detection or manipulation of Rad9 protein abundance. PMID:18316588

  4. Prostate cancer detection upon transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy in relation to digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen level: what to expect in the Chinese population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy YC Teoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prostate cancer detection rates upon transrectal ultrasound (TRUS-guided biopsy in relation to digital rectal examination (DRE and prostate-specific antigen (PSA, and risk factors of prostate cancer detection in the Chinese population. Data from all consecutive Chinese men who underwent first TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from year 2000 to 2013 was retrieved from our database. The prostate cancer detection rates with reference to DRE finding and PSA level of 50 ng ml−1 were investigated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate for potential risk factors of prostate cancer detection. A total of 2606 Chinese men were included. In patients with normal DRE, the cancer detection rates were 8.6%, 13.4%, 21.8%, 41.7% and 85.2% in patients with PSA 50 ng ml−1 respectively. In patients with abnormal DRE, the cancer detection rates were 12.4%, 30.2%, 52.7%, 80.6% and 96.4% in patients with PSA 50 ng ml−1 respectively. Older age, smaller prostate volume, larger number of biopsy cores, presence of abnormal DRE finding and higher PSA level were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer detection upon multivariate logistic regression analyses (P < 0.001. Chinese men appeared to have lower prostate cancer detection rates when compared to the Western population. Taking the different risk factors into account, an individualized approach to the decision of TRUS-guided biopsy can be adopted.

  5. Testosterone effect on the expression of genes that mediate testosterone metabolism and genes that mediate the effect of those metabolites on the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidaifat, Falah; Lin, Young C

    2012-09-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone treatment on the proliferation index and the mRNA expression levels of 5α-reductase, CYP7B1, androgen receptor (AR), and estrogen receptor β (ΕRβ) in the canine prostate. Immature dogs were treated with testosterone for one month, after which prostate gland growth was assessed by comparing the proliferation index in prostates from testosterone-treated dogs with that of untreated control dogs. The relative mRNA expression levels of the aforementioned genes in the prostate glands of testosterone-treated and untreated dogs were determined by real time PCR. Testosterone treatment induced a highly significant reduction in proliferation index in prostate gland. This inhibition of prostate gland growth was associated with differential mRNA expression of 5α-reductase, CYP7B1, AR, and ΕRβ by the prostate gland of testosterone-treated dogs, as compared to that of untreated dogs. While the expression levels of 5α-reductase and CYP7B1 mRNA were significantly down-regulated by testosterone treatment, the expression level of ER-β mRNA was highly up-regulated. In contrast, AR mRNA expression was not significantly altered. Prostate gland proliferation appeared to be associated with the expression levels of genes that encode proteins that control intra-prostatic levels of testosterone metabolites and their respective receptors. Testosterone treatment may regulate gene expression in the prostate to generate a phenotype that suppresses growth-promoting signaling through AR and enhances anti-proliferative signaling through ERβ. Therefore, targeting disturbances of this genetic machinery in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer is of a therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between prostate volume and prostate-specific antigen variability: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging and the Johns Hopkins Active Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John H; Loeb, Stacy; Metter, E Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi; Carter, H Ballentine

    2012-05-01

    Study Type--Prognostic (cohort). Level of Evidence 2b. What's known on the subject? And what does the study add? Previous studies have attempted to characterize the normal biological variability in PSA among men without prostate cancer. These reports suggest that PSA variability is unrelated to age, but there are conflicting data on its association with the baseline PSA level. There are limited published data regarding the effects of prostate volume on PSA variability. A prior study assessing whether prostate volume changes would confound the use of PSA velocity in clinical practice reported that prostate volume changes were not significantly related to PSA changes. This study did not directly address the effect of baseline prostate volume on serial PSA variability. The objective of the current study was to further examine the relationship between prostate volume and PSA variability. Our hypothesis was that larger baseline prostate volume would be associated with increased PSA variability in men without known prostate cancer and in those with suspected small-volume disease. The results of the study suggest that baseline PSA, not prostate volume, is the primary driver of PSA variability in these populations. • To clarify the relationship between serial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) variability and prostate volume in both cancer-free participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) and patients with low-risk prostate cancer from the Johns Hopkins Active Surveillance Program (AS). • In all, 287 men from the BLSA and 131 patients from the AS were included in the analysis, all with at least two PSA measurements and concurrent prostate volume measurements. • PSA variability was calculated in ng/mL per year, and a linear mixed-effects model was used to determine the relative effects of prostate volume, baseline PSA and age on PSA change over time. • In a model with prostate volume, age and baseline PSA, there was no significant relationship

  7. The clinical study of serum PSA and fPSA assayed by CLIA in diagnosing prostate disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jiang; Qian Xiaoyu; Ji Hong; Yang Su; Ding Ying; Zhu Ruisen; Chen Zhong

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical value of PSA (prostate specific antigen) and fPSA(free prostate specific antigen) in differentiating prostate disease. CLIA was used to quantitatively assay PSA, fPSA and fPSA/PSA in 30 cases of normal controls, 32 cases of prostate cancer patients and 76 cases of BPH patients. The result showed that if liminal value of PSA was set at 4 ng/mL, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of prostate cancer were 100% and 50.6% respectively. Meanwhile, if liminal value of fPSA/PSA set at 16% was added, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of prostate cancer were 100% and 85.3% respectively. It was concluded that the combining assay of PSA and fPSA could increase the diagnostic specificity of prostate cancer in a certain degree

  8. Treating Localized Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the future can talk with their doctor about "banking" their sperm before surgery to remove the prostate ... 1-800-358-9295 or place your order online on the AHRQ Publications Clearinghouse Web page. When ...

  9. Learning about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov] There are companies that will soon be marketing and selling genetic tests that will predict a ... enzyme made by the prostate gland, and a digital rectal examination (DRE) are two tests that are ...

  10. Prostate Cancer Foundation News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and getting big traps, six-pack abs and “gun show” biceps, your prostate would like to disagree. ... Guides Receive PCF news in your inbox Spam Control Text: Please leave this field empty EIN #95- ...

  11. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantine Albany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a “normal” epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  12. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bisphosphonate drugs to prevent or slow the growth of bone metastases is being studied in clinical trials. There are treatments for bone pain caused by bone metastases or hormone therapy. Prostate cancer that has spread to the ...

  13. A subset of high Gleason grade prostate carcinomas contain a large burden of prostate cancer syndecan-1 positive stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Benjamin; Alghezi, Dhafer A; Cattermole, Claire; Beresford, Mark; Bowen, Rebecca; Mitchard, John; Chalmers, Andrew D

    2017-05-01

    There is a pressing need to identify prognostic and predictive biomarkers for prostate cancer to aid treatment decisions in both early and advanced disease settings. Syndecan-1, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, has been previously identified as a potential prognostic biomarker by multiple studies at the tissue and serum level. However, other studies have questioned its utility. Anti-Syndecan-1 immunohistochemistry was carried out on 157 prostate tissue samples (including cancerous, adjacent normal tissue, and non-diseased prostate) from three independent cohorts of patients. A population of Syndecan-1 positive stromal cells was identified and the number and morphological parameters of these cells quantified. The identity of the Syndecan-1-positive stromal cells was assessed by multiplex immunofluorescence using a range of common cell lineage markers. Finally, the burden of Syndecan-1 positive stromal cells was tested for association with clinical parameters. We identified a previously unreported cell type which is marked by Syndecan-1 expression and is found in the stroma of prostate tumors and adjacent normal tissue but not in non-diseased prostate. We call these cells Prostate Cancer Syndecan-1 Positive (PCSP) cells. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the PCSP cell population did not co-stain with markers of common prostate epithelial, stromal, or immune cell populations. However, morphological analysis revealed that PCSP cells are often elongated and displayed prominent lamellipodia, suggesting they are an unidentified migratory cell population. Analysis of clinical parameters showed that PCSP cells were found with a frequency of 20-35% of all tumors evaluated, but were not present in non-diseased normal tissue. Interestingly, a subset of primary Gleason 5 prostate tumors had a high burden of PCSP cells. The current study identifies PCSP cells as a novel, potentially migratory cell type, which is marked by Syndecan-1 expression and is found in the stroma

  14. In vivo MRI volumetric measurement of prostate regression and growth in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalcioglu Orhan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse models for treatment of late-stage prostate cancer are valuable tools, but assessing the extent of growth of the prostate and particularly its regression due to therapeutic intervention or castration is difficult due to the location, small size and interdigitated anatomy of the prostate gland in situ. Temporal monitoring of mouse prostate regression requires multiple animals and examination of histological sections. Methods Initially, T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed on normal year-old C57/BL6 mice. Individual mice were repeatedly imaged using inhalation anesthesia to establish the reproducibility of the method and to follow hormone manipulation of the prostate volume. Subsequently, MRI fat signal was suppressed using a chemical shift-selective (CHESS pulse to avoid signal contamination and enhance discrimination of the prostate. Results High field (7T MRI provides high resolution (117 × 117 μm in plane, highly reproducible images of the normal mouse prostate. Despite long imaging times, animals can be imaged repeatedly to establish reliability of volume measurements. Prostate volume declines following castration and subsequently returns to normal with androgen administration in the same animal. CHESS imaging allowed discrimination of both the margins of the prostate and the dorsal-lateral lobes of the prostate (DLP from the ventral lobes (VP. Castration results in a 40% reduction in the volume of the DLP and a 75% reduction in the volume of the VP. Conclusion MRI assessment of the volume of the mouse prostate is precise and reproducible. MRI improves volumetric determination of the extent of regression and monitoring of the same mouse over time during the course of treatment is possible. Since assessing groups of animals at each time point is avoided, this improves the accuracy of the measurement of any manipulation effect and reduces the number of animals required.

  15. Inflammatory Cytokines Induce Ubiquitination and Loss of the Prostate Suppressor Protein NKX3.1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhlbradt, Erin E

    2007-01-01

    During the normal aging process in the prostate a variety of histologic changes are seen including regions termed inflammatory atrophy where mononuclear infiltrating cells are seen adjacent to atrophic glands...

  16. Plumbagin Nanoparticles Induce Dose and pH Dependent Toxicity on Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Harikrishnan A; Snima, K S; Kamath, Ravindranath C; Nair, Shantikumar V; Lakshmanan, Vinoth-Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Stable nano-formulation of Plumbagin nanoparticles from Plumbago zeylanica root extract was explored as a potential natural drug against prostate cancer. Size and morphology analysis by DLS, SEM and AFM revealed the average size of nanoparticles prepared was 100±50nm. In vitro cytotoxicity showed concentration and time dependent toxicity on prostate cancer cells. However, plumbagin crude extract found to be highly toxic to normal cells when compared to plumbagin nanoformulation, thus confirming nano plumbagin cytocompatibility with normal cells and dose dependent toxicity to prostate cells. In vitro hemolysis assay confirmed the blood biocompatibility of the plumbagin nanoparticles. In wound healing assay, plumbagin nanoparticles provided clues that it might play an important role in the anti-migration of prostate cancer cells. DNA fragmentation revealed that partial apoptosis induction by plumbagin nanoparticles could be expected as a potent anti-cancer effect towards prostate cancer.

  17. Tooth fractures in canine clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capik, I.; Ledecky, V.; Sevcik, A.

    2001-01-01

    Tooth fractures constitute a considerable fraction of all tooth diseases. Out of the 5,370 dogs treated during four years, 492 were presented with dental problems and 28.3 % of the latter were treated for tooth fractures. Canines were the most frequently affected teeth (38.8 %), followed by premolars (33.1 %), incisors (25.9 %), and molars (2.2 %), 55.4 % of the patients with canine and incisor fractures being large breed dogs. Fractures of premolars (mostly of 108, 208) were divided evenly irrespective of breed or body size. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment yielded good therapeutic results in most cases, but repeated treatment was necessary in some patients

  18. Dens invaginatus (dilated odontome) in mandibular canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawar, Sangamesh S; Satyakiran, Gvv; Krishnanand, Ps; Prashanth, R

    2014-09-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth related to shape of the teeth. Affected teeth show a deep infolding of enamel and dentin starting from the tip of the cusps and may extend deep into the root. It results from the invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla before calcification has occurred. Teeth most affected are maxillary lateral incisors. The presence of dens invaginatus in mandibular canine is extremely rare. The tooth was symptomatic in that it was mobile and was oriented horizontally. This article presents a case of symptomatic dens invaginatus in mandibular canine.

  19. Echocardiography as an approach for canine cardiac disease diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Singh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to establish the methods for diagnosis various canine cardiac ailments using echocardiography. Materials and Methods: M-mode, two-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler studies were performed on 10 cases. Dogs showing signs of cardiac ailment either clinically, radiographic or via electrocardiographic examination were selected for study. Right parasternal short axis view was used for echocardiographic measurements. Right parasternal long axis and left parasternal apical views were used for Doppler studies. Doppler studies were performed at the level of aortic valve and atrioventricular valves for semi quantitative diagnosis of regurgitation. Results: Dogs were found affected with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM (n=5, pericardial effusion (PE (n=1, combined PE and DCM (n=2 and remaining two showed abnormality on radiographic or electrographically evaluation but were found out to be normal echocardiographically (n=2. Conclusion: Echocardiography is an effective tool for diagnosis of various heart ailments.

  20. Vertebral scale system to measure canine heart size in radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.W.; Bucheler, J.

    1995-01-01

    A method for measuring canine heart size in radiographs was developed on the basis that there is a good correlation between heart size and body length regardless of the conformation of the thorax. The lengths of the long and short axes of the heart of 100 clinically normal dogs were determined with calipers, and the dimensions were scaled against the length of vertebrae dorsal to the heart beginning with T4. The sum of the long and short axes of the heart expressed as vertebral heart size was 9.7 +/- 0.5 vertebrae. The differences between dogs with a wide or deep thorax, males and females, and right or left lateral recumbency were not significant. The caudal vena cava was 0.75 vertebrae +/- 0.13 in comparison to the length of the vertebra over the tracheal bifurcation

  1. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0168 TITLE: Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jackilen...Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0168 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...overexpression, lipid accumulation, lipid oxidation, and tumor aggressiveness will be explored using metabolomics. Plan: Employing a cross-sectional

  2. Localization of impacted maxillary canines using panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Archna; Pai, Keerthilatha M; Setty, Suhas; Sharma, Gaurav

    2009-03-01

    We aimed to establish a reliable method of localizing an impacted maxillary canine on the sole basis of assessment of a single panoramic radiograph, and to determine the validity and reproducibility of the method. Panoramic radiographs of 50 subjects with a total of 68 impacted canines were analysed. The Canine Incisor Index (CII), Canine Canine Index (CCI), control Canine Incisor Index (c-CII), Zone (apical, middle, coronal) and Sector (I, II, III, IV) were determined on digitized panoramic radiographs. Comparison of the CII and CCI values of labially or palatally impacted canines revealed a statistically significant difference (P 0.05). There was a significant difference between palatal and central canine impactions in relation to CII (P 0.05). Correct prediction of palatal canine impactions by differential magnification on a panoramic radiograph is possible in 77% of cases. Vertical and horizontal restrictions have no value in recognition of labiolingual position of impacted maxillary canines. The panoramic radiograph cannot be used as a sole radiograph for reliable localization of impacted maxillary canines.

  3. Blocking signaling at the level of GLI regulates downstream gene expression and inhibits proliferation of canine osteosarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hayat Shahi

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog-GLI signaling pathway is active in a variety of human malignancies and is known to contribute to the growth and survival of human osteosarcoma cells. In this study, we examined the expression and regulation of GLI transcription factors in multiple canine osteosarcoma cell lines and analyzed the effects of inhibiting GLI with GANT61, a GLI-specific inhibitor. Compared with normal canine osteoblasts, real-time PCR showed that GLI1 and GLI2 were highly expressed in two out of three cell lines and correlated with downstream target gene expression of PTCH1and PAX6. Treatment of canine osteosarcoma cells with GANT61 resulted in decreased expression of GLI1, GLI2, PTCH1, and PAX6. Furthermore, GANT61 inhibited proliferation and colony formation in all three canine osteosarcoma cell lines. The finding that GLI signaling activity is present and active in canine osteosarcoma cells suggests that spontaneously arising osteosarcoma in dogs might serve as a good model for future preclinical testing of GLI inhibitors.

  4. Activation of the Canonical Wnt/β-Catenin Signalling Pathway is Rare in Canine Malignant Melanoma Tissue and Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, E.; Thompson, V.; Schmid, S.; Stein, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Canine malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive tumour associated with a poor overall survival rate due to both local disease recurrence and its highly metastatic nature. Similar to advanced melanoma in man, canine oral melanoma is poorly responsive to conventional anti-cancer therapies. The lack of sustainable disease control warrants investigation of novel therapies, preferably targeting features specific to the tumour and different from normal cells. The Wnt signalling pathway is known to contribute to melanocytic lineage development in vertebrates and perturbation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been implicated in numerous cancer types. Alterations of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway are suggested to occur in a subset of human melanomas, although the precise role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in melanoma is yet to be defined. This study investigates the activation status of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway in canine malignant melanoma and its potential as a therapeutic target for treating this disease. The data indicate canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is a rare event in canine oral malignant melanoma tissue and canine malignant melanoma cell lines. PMID:22901430

  5. Immunohistochemical investigation of canine episcleritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Carrie B; Sandmeyer, Lynne S; Grahn, Bruce H

    2007-01-01

    To identify macrophages, B cells and T cells in archived canine episcleral biopsies and to correlate these findings with the clinical presentation and therapeutic outcome. Archived formalin-fixed biopsies were immunohistochemically labeled for CD18, CD79a, and CD3 to identify macrophages, B cells and T cells, respectively. Slides were digitally photographed and positive cells were manually counted. Signalment, duration of illness, affected eye(s), treatment, and therapeutic outcome were reviewed for each dog. Dogs were divided into groups based on clinical presentation (unilateral episcleritis, bilateral episcleritis or nodular granulomatous episclerokeratitis (NGE). Twenty-four cases were evaluated. There were 19 episcleritis (13 unilateral, six bilateral) and five NGE cases. The mean age for clinical manifestations of unilateral episcleritis was 6.8 years, bilateral episcleritis was 8.7 years, and NGE was 3.8 years. The Cocker Spaniel was over-represented in the episcleritis groups. All NGE cases were Collies. Approximately 50% of the unilateral episcleritis cases resolved and did not require long-term therapy. Almost all cases of bilateral episcleritis and NGE required continuous medical therapy to maintain remission. There was a significantly higher percentage of B lymphocytes in biopsies from lesions that required ongoing medical therapy to maintain lesion remission than in the lesions that resolved, and for which medications were discontinued (P = 0.0471). The prognosis for resolution of NGE and bilateral episcleritis without long-term medical therapy is poor. There is a significant difference in the inflammatory cell population in episcleritis that resolved with medical therapy vs. episcleritis that required ongoing medical therapy.

  6. A serological survey of canine respiratory coronavirus and canine influenza virus in Korean dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Jeong, Wooseog; Chae, Sungwon; Song, Dae-Sub; Oh, Jin-Sik; Park, Bong-Kyun

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) and canine influenza virus (CIV) seropositivity in dogs in Korea was examined. Sixty-two of the 483 samples (12.8%) were seropositive for CRCoV by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) analysis. Nineteen animals were seropositive for CIV by ELISA out of the 385 samples tested. Serum antibodies for both viruses were detected in 6 of the 483 dogs sampled, suggesting that these viruses are present in dogs in Korea. Although the role of CRCoV in canine infectious tracheobronchitis has not been fully elucidated, co-infection with CIV may synergistically worsen respiratory clinical signs and result in more severe canine tracheobronchitis.

  7. New Visual Prostate Symptom Score versus International Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Urology 2011;78:17-20. 10. Cam K, Akman Y, Cicekci B, Senel F, Erol A. Mode of administration of international prostate symptom score in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: Physician vs self. Prostate. Cancer Prostatic Dis 2004;7:41-4. 11. Johnson TV, Abbasi A, Ehrlich SS, ...

  8. Prevalence of histological prostatitis in men with benign prostatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rectal examination, prostate volume, haemoglobin concentration, serum creatinine and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, and histological findings. Results. Prostatic tissue of 385 men without urinary retention at presentation was obtained via biopsy (48.3% of cases), transurethral prostatectomy (62.9%), retropubic ...

  9. Comparative expression pathway analysis of human and canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconato Laura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous tumors in dog have been demonstrated to share many features with their human counterparts, including relevant molecular targets, histological appearance, genetics, biological behavior and response to conventional treatments. Mammary tumors in dog therefore provide an attractive alternative to more classical mouse models, such as transgenics or xenografts, where the tumour is artificially induced. To assess the extent to which dog tumors represent clinically significant human phenotypes, we performed the first genome-wide comparative analysis of transcriptional changes occurring in mammary tumors of the two species, with particular focus on the molecular pathways involved. Results We analyzed human and dog gene expression data derived from both tumor and normal mammary samples. By analyzing the expression levels of about ten thousand dog/human orthologous genes we observed a significant overlap of genes deregulated in the mammary tumor samples, as compared to their normal counterparts. Pathway analysis of gene expression data revealed a great degree of similarity in the perturbation of many cancer-related pathways, including the 'PI3K/AKT', 'KRAS', 'PTEN', 'WNT-beta catenin' and 'MAPK cascade'. Moreover, we show that the transcriptional relationships between different gene signatures observed in human breast cancer are largely maintained in the canine model, suggesting a close interspecies similarity in the network of cancer signalling circuitries. Conclusion Our data confirm and further strengthen the value of the canine mammary cancer model and open up new perspectives for the evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics and the development of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers to be used in clinical studies.

  10. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  11. Understanding your prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older. Family history. Having a father, brother, or son with prostate cancer increases your risk. Having one immediate family member with prostate cancer doubles a man's own risk. A man who has 2 or ...

  12. Hyaluronan Biosynthesis in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, James B

    2006-01-01

    Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the last several years metastasis represents the major cause of frustration and failure in the successful treatment of prostate cancer patients. Hyaluronan (HA...

  13. Hyaluronan Biosynthesis in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, James B

    2005-01-01

    Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the last several years, metastasis represents the major cause of frustration and failure in the successful treatment of prostate cancer patients. Hyaluronan (HA...

  14. MR imaging of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbach, P.; Haas, M.; Hamm, B.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in men in Germany; however, there is a distinct difference between incidence and mortality. The detection of prostate cancer is based on clinical and laboratory testing using serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and transrectal ultrasound with randomized biopsy. Multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate can provide valuable diagnostic information for detection of prostate cancer, especially after negative results of a biopsy prior to repeat biopsy. In addition the use of MR ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy has gained in diagnostic importance and has increased the prostate cancer detection rate. The prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) classification has standardized the reporting of prostate MRI which has positively influenced the acceptance by urologists. (orig.) [de

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trock, Bruce J

    2005-01-01

    .... The objective of this case-control study is to determine whether oxidative damage is a risk factor for prostate cancer, and whether this mechanism mediates the association between dietary fat and prostate cancer risk...

  16. Center for Prostate Disease Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Prostate Disease Research is the only free-standing prostate cancer research center in the U.S. This 20,000 square foot state-of-the-art basic science...

  17. Angiogenesis Regulates Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pettaway, Curtis

    1999-01-01

    .... We are evaluating the relationship of the expression of the angiogenesis factors bFGF, VEGF, and IL-8 with prostate cancer growth and metastasis, using our orthotopic model of metastatic prostate cancer in nude mice...

  18. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  19. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease...

  20. Investigation of a Putative Estrogen-Imprinting Gene, Phosphodiesterase Type IV Variant (PDE4D4), in Determining Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    treatment for prostate disease/ cancer . - Specific antibody against PDE4D4 was custom-made and it will be used for IHC studies for rat normal and...Currently, prostate can- er is the most common non- skin cancer in males and is the econd leading cause of cancer deaths in American men [1]. ccording...bone morphogenic protein 4 Bmp4), sonic hedgehog (Shh) and fibroblast growth factor- 0 (Fgf10) in the normal developing rat prostate lobes and hose

  1. Microwave prostatic hyperthermia: Interest of urethral and rectal applicators combination -- Theoretical study and animal experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despretz, D.; Camart, J.C.; Michel, C.; Fabre, J.J. [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve D`Ascq (France); Prevost, B. [Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Sozanski, J.P. [INSERM, Lille (France); Chive, M. [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve D`Ascq (France)]|[INSERM, Lille (France)

    1996-10-01

    Microwave thermotherapy systems used for benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment generally operate with urethral or rectal applicator to deliver the microwave energy in the prostate. This technique does not allow an efficient heating of all the gland particularly in the case of large adenoma or when the treatment is limited to only one heating session. A solution to this problem is given by using simultaneously the rectal and urethral applicators. A complete 915-MHz microwave thermotherapy system is presented with two applicators which can operate independently or simultaneously to deliver the microwave energy in the prostate. Electromagnetic and thermal modeling have been developed for the applicator antenna optimization, to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the thermal pattern in the prostate for each applicator alone and when they operate together in phase. Different canine experiments have been performed to prove the interest of using the two applicators simultaneously as compared when they operate alone. Histological examination cuts of the prostate gland after heating have been carried out.

  2. Nosocomial Outbreak of Serious Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis (Kennel Cough) Caused by Canine Herpesvirus Infection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kawakami, Kazuo; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Ken; Imai, Ayako; Ohashi, Emi; Matsunaga, Satoru; Tohya, Yukinobu; Ohshima, Takahisa; Mochizuki, Masami

    2010-01-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV; Canid herpesvirus 1) is principally a perinatal pathogen of pregnant bitches and newborn pups and secondarily a respiratory tract pathogen of older pups and dogs. Infectious disease of the canine respiratory tract frequently occurs among dogs in groups, in which it is called “ infectious tracheobronchitis” (ITB). Mortality from ITB is generally negligible, and the clinical importance of CHV as an ITB pathogen is considered to be low. The present report describes a nov...

  3. Does an asymmetric lobe in digital rectal examination include any risk for prostate cancer? results of 1495 biopsies

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Ömer; Kurul, Özgür; Ates, Ferhat; Soydan, Hasan; Aktas, Zeki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Despite the well-known findings related to malignity in DRE such as nodule and induration, asymmetry of prostatic lobes, seen relatively, were investigated in a few studies as a predictor of prostate cancer so that there is no universally expected conclusion about asymmetry. We aimed to compare cancer detection rate of normal, asymmetric or suspicious findings in DRE by using biopsy results. Materials and Methods: Data of 1495 patients underwent prostate biopsy betwee...

  4. Unique expression pattern of the alpha6beta4 integrin and laminin-5 in human prostate carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T L; Cress, A E; Dalkin, B L; Nagle, R B

    2001-02-15

    The alpha6beta4 integrin and its ligand, laminin-5, are essential gene products for the maintenance and remodeling of a stratified epithelium. Apparent loss of polarized alpha6beta4 integrin and laminin-5 protein expression in invasive prostate cancer as compared to normal prostate glands is known to occur. It is unknown whether these alterations occur in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions and whether this combined defect occurs in other epithelial cancers. Human prostate tissues containing both normal, PIN, and cancerous regions and normal and cancer tissue from breast and colon were obtained at surgery and examined for beta4 integrin and laminin-5 using standard immunofluorescence staining methods. Both normal prostate glands and PIN lesions contain beta4 integrin and laminin-5. Prostate carcinoma was unique in that both beta4 integrin and laminin-5 expression was uniformly absent. In contrast, the beta4 integrin and its ligand, laminin-5 were detected in all of the colon carcinoma cases and in 60% of the breast carcinomas. The beta4 integrin and its ligand, laminin-5 are altered during the transition of PIN lesions to invasive prostate carcinoma. These data suggest the loss of these proteins during cancer progression. In both prostate and breast carcinoma, the normal expression pattern of the beta4 integrin and laminin-5 is interrupted, in contrast to the persistent beta4 integrin and laminin-5 expression detected in colon carcinoma. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Characterization of STAT3 activation and expression in canine and human osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossey, Stacey L; Liao, Albert T; McCleese, Jennifer K; Bear, Misty D; Lin, Jiayuh; Li, Pui-Kai; Kisseberth, William C; London, Cheryl A

    2009-01-01

    Dysregulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been implicated as a key participant in tumor cell survival, proliferation, and metastasis and is often correlated with a more malignant tumor phenotype. STAT3 phosphorylation has been demonstrated in a subset of human osteosarcoma (OSA) tissues and cell lines. OSA in the canine population is known to exhibit a similar clinical behavior and molecular biology when compared to its human counterpart, and is often used as a model for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential role of STAT3 in canine and human OSA, and to evaluate the biologic activity of a novel small molecule STAT3 inhibitor. To examine STAT3 and Src expression in OSA, we performed Western blotting and RT-PCR. OSA cells were treated with either STAT3 siRNA or small molecule Src (SU6656) or STAT3 (LLL3) inhibitors and cell proliferation (CyQUANT), caspase 3/7 activity (ELISA), apoptosis (Western blotting for PARP cleavage) and/or viability (Wst-1) were determined. Additionally, STAT3 DNA binding after treatment was determined using EMSA. Expression of STAT3 targets after treatment was demonstrated with Western blotting, RT-PCR, or gel zymography. Our data demonstrate that constitutive activation of STAT3 is present in a subset of canine OSA tumors and human and canine cell lines, but not normal canine osteoblasts. In both canine and human OSA cell lines, downregulation of STAT3 activity through inhibition of upstream Src family kinases using SU6656, inhibition of STAT3 DNA binding and transcriptional activities using LLL3, or modulation of STAT3 expression using siRNA, all resulted in decreased cell proliferation and viability, ultimately inducing caspase-3/7 mediated apoptosis in treated cells. Furthermore, inhibition of either Src or STAT3 activity downregulated the expression of survivin, VEGF, and MMP2, all known transcriptional targets of STAT3. These data

  6. The benefits of liposomes for chilling canine sperm for 4 days at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belala, Redha; Delay, Juliette; Amirat, Lamia; Ropers, Marie-Hélène; Le Guillou, Jocya; Anton, Marc; Schmitt, Eric; Thorin, Chantal; Michaud, Sandrine; Kaidi, Rachid; Tainturier, Daniel; Bencharif, Djemil

    2016-05-01

    This study comprises 3 experiments exploring the possible benefits and mechanism of action of liposomes for chilling (4°C) canine sperm over a period of 4 days. In the first experiment, 20 ejaculates collected from 5 Beagle dogs were chilled in an extender containing 6% low density lipoproteins (LDL) (Control), or one of 7 extenders containing different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20%) of liposomes (LIPO). These ejaculates were chilled over 4 days and motility was assessed daily using a Hamilton Thorne analyzer (HTM-IVOS, 14.0). The 2% LIPO obtained the best results (p=0.038) after four days (72.55% motile spermatozoa and 31.4% progressive spermatozoa). In experiment 2, 10 ejaculates were collected from same 5 dogs and chilled in 6% LDL or 2% LIPO-based extenders. Sperm integrity characteristics were assessed prior to refrigeration and every 48h for four days (D0, D2, and D4). Acrosome integrity was assessed using the FITC-PSA test (Fluorescein IsoThiocyanate-Pisum Sativum Agglutinin), plasma membrane (PM) integrity using both the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOSt) and SYBR14/Propidium Iodide test (SYBR14/PI), and DNA integrity using the Acridine-Orange test (AO). The 2% LIPO extender provided equivalent preservation of sperm integrity parameters to the reference extender (6% LDL). In experiment 3, a Langmuir-Blodgett trough was used to evaluate the mechanistic interactions between LDL, LIPO, prostatic fluid, and the canine spermatozoal membrane during chilling. Results indicate that LDL and LIPO interact differently with the biomimetic membrane. The most likely conclusion of these findings is that LDL and liposomes employ different protective mechanisms during the chilling (4°C) of canine spermatozoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  8. Diagnosis of prostate cancer: comparison of serum prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, K H; Chang, P L; Wang, T M; Hsieh, M L

    1997-03-01

    While prostate specific antigen (PSA) is useful as a tumor marker for monitoring patients with prostate cancer after definitive therapy, limitations have been noted when it is used for early detection of prostate cancer. We reviewed the charts of 121 patients who had undergone prostate needle biopsies, documented digital rectal examination (DRE) and serum PSA determination before biopsy from January 1993 to October 1994. Indications for biopsy included abnormal DRE. PSA level greater than 4.0 ng/ml or abnormal lesions on transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS). Seventeen patients (14%) had stage A carcinoma with normal DRE and PSA levels from 0.1 to 34.9 ng/ml (mean 9.0 ng/ml). Four patients (3%) had stage B carcinoma with an average PSA level of 32.3 ng/ml and less than one lobe indurated on DRE. Six patients (5%) had stage C carcinoma and had an average PSA level of 48.5 ng/ml and less than one lobe indurated on DRE. Ninety-four (78%) patients had stage D carcinoma with an average PSA level of 120 ng/ml and more than one lobe indurated on DRE. While hypoechoic sectors were more than twice as likely as isoechoic sectors of the prostate to contain malignancy on biopsy, nearly 20% of cancers were found in isoechoic sectors. Serum PSA is the most accurate of the three diagnostic tests evaluated. The addition of DRE or TRUS improves the detection rate of prostate cancer over PSA alone.

  9. Unusual Giant Prostatic Urethral Calculus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-29

    Jun 29, 2010 ... They are typically asymptomatic and may be associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostatic cancer.[1] Primary prostatic urethral calculi are usually associated with urethral strictures, posterior urethral valve or diverticula. Acute urinary retention might result secondary to a large urethral calculus.

  10. Prostate biopsy: indications and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlaga, Brian R; Eskew, L Andrew; McCullough, David L

    2003-01-01

    The last decade has seen numerous modifications in the way prostate cancer is diagnosed. We review the current indications for and methods of prostate biopsy. The English language literature was reviewed regarding major indications for and methods of prostate biopsy. Pertinent peer reviewed articles were collated and analyzed. The most widely accepted indication for prostate biopsy is a prostate specific antigen (PSA) value of greater than 4.0 ng./ml. However, some investigators advocate prostate biopsy for men with a PSA value in the 2.5 to 4.0 ng./ml. range, believing that use of this parameter results in detection of a greater number of cases of curable disease. Age specific PSA range, percent free PSA and presence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or atypia are all considered to be relative indications for prostate biopsy. The current literature describes a trend toward increasing the number of cores obtained and the sites biopsied beyond those of the standard sextant technique. The additional cores in many series are obtained from more lateral regions of the gland. Although several criteria are used as indications for initial prostate biopsy, all are based on PSA level and/or abnormal digital rectal examination. Future improvements in currently used prostate cancer markers may result in better selection of cases to biopsy. There is no universally accepted technique of prostate gland biopsy. The current literature supports use of more extensive biopsy techniques to increase the likelihood of prostate cancer detection.

  11. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...

  12. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain. PMID:21801646

  13. Cardiac involvement in canine babesiosis : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Lobetti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac dysfunction in canine babesiosis has traditionally been regarded as a rare complication, with the majority of lesions reported as incidental findings at post-mortem examination. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated cardiac lesions in canine babesiosis. Cardiac troponins, especially troponin I, are sensitive markers of myocardial injury in canine babesiosis, and the magnitude of elevation of plasma troponin I concentrations appears to be proportional to the severity of the disease. ECG changes in babesiosis are similar to the pattern described for myocarditis and myocardial ischaemia and together with histopathological findings indicate that the heart suffers from the same pathological processes described in other organs in canine babesiosis, namely inflammation and hypoxia. The clinical application of the ECG appears to be limited and thus cardiovascular assessment should be based on functional monitoring rather than an ECG tracing. On cardiac histopathology from dogs that succumbed to babesiosis, haemorrhage, necrosis, inflammation and fibrin microthrombi in the myocardium were documented, all of which would have resulted in ECG changes and elevations in cardiac troponin. Myocardial damage causes left ventricular failure, which will result in hypotension and an expansion of the plasma volume due to homeostatic mechanisms.

  14. Incidence of Impacted Mandibular Canine and Associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mandibular canine impaction is less frequent in our environment with various factors implicated in the aetiology and with several associated pathologies. the advent of the technique of panoramic radiography has helped with the diagnosis of this condition. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the ...

  15. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of prostate tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yue; Huang, Lixiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ji, Qian; Shen, Wen [Dept. of Radiology, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2015-08-15

    To describe the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of prostate tuberculosis. Six patients with prostate tuberculosis were analyzed retrospectively. The mean age of the patients was 60.5 years (range, 48-67 years). The mean prostate specific antigen concentration was 6.62 ng/mL (range, 0.54-14.57 ng/mL). All patients underwent a multiparametric MRI examination. The histopathological results were obtained from biopsies in four men and from transurethral resection of the prostate in two men after the MRI examination. Nodular (33%, 2/6 patients) and diffuse lesions (67%, 4/6 patients) were seen on MRI. The nodular lesions were featured by extremely low signal intensity (similar to that of muscle) on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). The T2WI signal intensity of the diffuse lesions was low but higher than that of muscle, which showed high signal intensity on diffusion weighted imaging and low signal intensity on an apparent diffusion coefficient map. MR spectroscopic imaging of this type showed a normal-like spectrum. Abscesses were found in one patient with the nodular type and in one with the diffuse type. The appearance of prostate tuberculosis on MRI can be separated into multiple nodular and diffuse types. Multiparametric MRI may offer useful information for diagnosing prostate tuberculosis.

  16. Free Base Lysine Increases Survival and Reduces Metastasis in Prostate Cancer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; de Lourdes Coelho Ribeiro, Maria; Estrella, Veronica; Bailey, Kate M; Cornnell, Heather H; Gatenby, Robert A; Gillies, Robert J

    2011-11-19

    Malignant tumor cells typically metabolize glucose anaerobically to lactic acid even under normal oxygen tension, a phenomenon called aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect. This results in increased acid production and the acidification of the extracellular microenvironment in solid tumors. H + ions tend to flow along concentration gradients into peritumoral normal tissue causing extracellular matrix degradation and increased tumor cell motility thus promoting invasion and metastasis. We have shown that reducing this acidity with sodium bicarbonate buffer decreases the metastatic fitness of circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer and other cancer models. Mathematical models of the tumor-host dynamics predicted that buffers with a pka around 7 will be more effective in reducing intra- and peri-tumoral acidosis and, thus, and possibly more effective in inhibiting tumor metastasis than sodium bicarbonate which has a pKa around 6. Here we test this prediction the efficacy of free base lysine; a non-bicarbonate/non-volatile buffer with a higher pKa (~10), on prostate tumor metastases model. Oxygen consumption and acid production rate of PC3M prostate cancer cells and normal prostate cells were determined using the Seahorse Extracellular Flux (XF-96) analyzer. In vivo effect of 200 mM lysine started four days prior to inoculation on inhibition of metastasis was examined in PC3M-LUC-C6 prostate cancer model using SCID mice. Metastases were followed by bioluminescence imaging. PC3M prostate cancer cells are highly acidic in comparison to a normal prostate cell line indicating that reduction of intra- and perit-tumoral acidosis should inhibit metastases formation. In vivo administration of 200 mM free base lysine increased survival and reduced metastasis. PC3M prostate cancer cells are highly glycolytic and produce large amounts of acid when compared to normal prostate cells. Administration of non-volatile buffer decreased growth of metastases and improved survival

  17. Comparative analysis of peptidylarginine deiminase-2 expression in canine, feline and human mammary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrington, B D; Mohanan, S; Diep, A N; Fleiss, R; Sudilovsky, D; Anguish, L J; Coonrod, S A; Wakshlag, J J

    2012-01-01

    The peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzyme family converts arginine residues in proteins to citrulline. In the canine mammary gland, PAD2 expression is first detected in epithelial cells in oestrus and becomes more widely expressed during dioestrus. PAD2 appears to modify nuclear histones, suggesting a role for the enzyme in chromatin remodelling and gene regulation. Recent evidence suggests that PAD2 plays a role in gene regulation in primary human breast epithelial cells. PAD2 may therefore be involved in gene regulation as it relates to mammary development, the oestrus cycle and potentially to neoplasia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether PAD2 expression was increased or decreased in mammary carcinoma compared with normal mammary tissue. A human mammary tissue microarray and archival surgical biopsy tissues from canine and feline mammary tumours were used to demonstrate differential expression of PAD2 in mammary carcinoma that appeared to be consistent across species. Normal human and canine mammary epithelium showed strong cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of PAD2, but there was reduced PAD2 expression in mammary carcinomas from both species. Feline mammary carcinomas had complete loss of nuclear PAD2 expression. Loss of nuclear PAD2 expression may therefore represent a marker of progression towards more aggressive neoplasia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety and efficacy of targeted hyperthermia treatment utilizing gold nanorod therapy in spontaneous canine neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Elizabeth M; Portela, Roberta; Gardner, Heather L; Schoen, Christian; London, Cheryl A

    2017-10-02

    Hyperthermia is an established anti-cancer treatment but is limited by tolerance of adjacent normal tissues. Parenteral administration of gold nanorods (NRs) as a photosensitizer amplifies the effects of hyperthermia treatment while sparing normal tissues. This therapy is well tolerated and has demonstrated anti-tumor effects in mouse models. The purpose of this phase 1 study was to establish the safety and observe the anti-tumor impact of gold NR enhanced (plasmonic) photothermal therapy (PPTT) in client owned canine patients diagnosed with spontaneous neoplasia. Seven dogs underwent gold NR administration and subsequent NIR PPTT. Side effects were mild and limited to local reactions to NIR laser. All of the dogs enrolled in the study experienced stable disease, partial remission or complete remission. The overall response rate (ORR) was 28.6% with partial or complete remission of tumors at study end. PPTT utilizing gold nanorod therapy can be safely administered to canine patients. Further studies are needed to determine the true efficacy in a larger population of canine cancer patients and to and identify those patients most likely to benefit from this therapy.

  19. Morphological characterisation of vesicular structures in the canine ejaculate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goericke-Pesch, S; Hauck, S; Bergmann, M; Wehrend, A

    2015-10-01

    double-, rarely multiple-membrane surrounded, one longish primary MV type (L) was identified. In general, small primary vesicles were most common independent of semen quality, but distribution frequency of vesicle types differed between normospermic, pathospermic dogs and the castrated male. Mean weighted diameter of MV was 195.14 nm (range: 24.62-3289.34 nm) in normospermic males with the maximum diameter being smaller in the other dogs (h: 2096.78 nm; a: 1314.06 nm). Our results provide new information about ultrastructure and distribution frequency of canine MV in normospermic males and point to possible differences in MVs depending on semen quality. They provide the basis for further detailed functional analysis of MV subpopulations. Furthermore, the presence of MV in the castrated azoospermic male confirms an at least partly prostatic origin of canine MV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasonography and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Shcherbyina, O.V.; Yatsik, V.Yi.; Gladka, L.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the work is analysis of diagnostic possibilities of transrectal ultrasonography and PSA in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 142 patients have been investigated by transrectal ultrasonography. he transrectal ultrasonography and PSA are sensible tests in diagnosis of prostate cancer and in differential diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer