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Sample records for normal cadaver ears

  1. Microbiomes of the normal middle ear and ears with chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Shujiro B; Mutai, Hideki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Horii, Arata; Oishi, Naoki; Wasano, Koichiro; Katsura, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Fujinobu; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Fujii, Masato; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to profile and compare the middle ear microbiomes of human subjects with and without chronic otitis media. Prospective multicenter cohort study. All consecutive patients undergoing tympanoplasty surgery for chronic otitis media or ear surgery for conditions other than otitis media were recruited. Sterile swab samples were collected from the middle ear mucosa during surgery. The variable region 4 of the 16S rRNA gene in each sample were amplified using region-specific primers adapted for the Illumina MiSeq sequencer (Illumina, CA, USA)). The sequences were subjected to local blast and classified using Metagenome@KIN (World Fusion, Tokyo, Japan). In total, 155 participants were recruited from seven medical centers. Of these, 88 and 67 had chronic otitis media and normal middle ears, respectively. The most abundant bacterial phyla on the mucosal surfaces of the normal middle ears were Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The children and adults with normal middle ears differed significantly in terms of middle ear microbiomes. Subjects with chronic otitis media without active inflammation (dry ear) had similar middle ear microbiomes as the normal middle ears group. Subjects with chronic otitis media with active inflammation (wet ear) had a lower prevalence of Proteobacteria and a higher prevalence of Firmicutes than the normal middle ears. The human middle ear is inhabited by more diverse microbial communities than was previously thought. Alteration of the middle ear microbiome may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with active inflammation. 2b. Laryngoscope, 127:E371-E377, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Treatment of middle ear ventilation disorders: sheep as animal model for stenting the human Eustachian tube--a cadaver study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicitas Miller

    Full Text Available Eustachian tube disorders can lead to chronic otitis media with consecutive conductive hearing loss. To improve treatment and to develop new types of implants such as stents, an adequate experimental animal model is required. As the middle ear of sheep is known to be comparable to the human middle ear, the dimensions of the Eustachian tube in two strains of sheep were investigated. The Eustachian tube and middle ear of half heads of heathland and blackface sheep were filled with silicone rubber, blended with barium sulfate to induce X-ray visibility. Images were taken by digital volume tomography. The tubes were segmented, and a three-dimensional model of every Eustachian tube was generated. The lengths, diameters and shapes were determined. Additionally, the feasibility of endoscopic stent implantation and fixation was tested in cadaver experiments. The length of the tube between ostium pharyngeum and the isthmus and the diameters were comparable to published values for the human tube. The tube was easily accessible through the nose, and then stents could be implanted and fixed at the isthmus. The sheep appears to be a promising model for testing new stent treatments for middle ear ventilation disorders.

  3. Sonographic Measurement of Fetal Ear Length in Turkish Women with a Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucize Eriç Özdemir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal fetal ear length is a feature of chromosomal disorders. Fetal ear length measurement is a simple measurement that can be obtained during ultrasonographic examinations. Aims: To develop a nomogram for fetal ear length measurements in our population and investigate the correlation between fetal ear length, gestational age, and other standard fetal biometric measurements. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Ear lengths of the fetuses were measured in normal singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age and fetal ear length in millimetres was analysed by simple linear regression. In addition, the correlation of fetal ear length measurements with biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length were evaluated.Ear length measurements were obtained from fetuses in 389 normal singleton pregnancies ranging between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results: A nomogram was developed by linear regression analysis of the parameters ear length and gestational age. Fetal ear length (mm = y = (1.348 X gestational age-12.265, where gestational ages is in weeks. A high correlation was found between fetal ear length and gestational age, and a significant correlation was also found between fetal ear length and the biparietal diameter (r=0.962; p<0.001. Similar correlations were found between fetal ear length and head circumference, and fetal ear length and femur length. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a nomogram for fetal ear length. The study also demonstrates the relationship between ear length and other biometric measurements.

  4. Normal mediastinal lymph node size and shape; CT and cadaver study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Chung Kie; Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    With the view point of size, shape and arrangement pattern, authors present normal mediastinal lymph node from the analysis of 61 cases of CT scan and multidirectional section of 2 cadavers. The result were as follows: 1. Transverse diameter of the lymph nodes, demonstrated in cadaver section, was 3 to 6mm in upper paratracheal area and 5 to 14mm in juxta-carinal and AP-window area. Arrangement of the lymph nodes showed tendency of longitudinal direction in lower paratracheal, and juxtacarinal area, while that of AP window showed tendency of AP direction as long axis. 2. Mean and the largest size of the lymph nodes demonstrated in CT scan were 3.7mm, 8mm in upper paratracheal area, and 6mm, 12mm in lower paratracheal area, and 7.1mm, 14mm in juxtacarinal area, and 6.3mm and 11mm in aorticopulmonary window area. 3. Size of the lymph nodes in CT scan showed linear increasing tendency according to increasing age (y=0.32, p<0.005). 4. Shape of the lymph nodes in CT scan were mostly round in upper paratracheal area while that of aorticopulmonary window showed higher incidence of oval and elongated shape. 5. Recommended size criterior of abnormal lymph node is 10mm in upper paratracheal area and 15mm in the other area

  5. Comparison of Microbiological Flora in the External Auditory Canal of Normal Ear and an Ear with Acute Otitis Externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanpur, Asheesh Dora; Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Chawla, Kiran; Shashidhar, V; Singh, Rohit

    2017-09-01

    Acute Otitis Externa (AOE) is also known as swimmer's ear. Investigations initiated during World War II firmly established the role of bacteria in the aetiology of Acute Otitis Externa. To culture the microbiological flora of the normal ear and compare it with the flora causing AOE and to know the role of normal ear canal flora and anaerobes in the aetiology. A prospective observational study was conducted on 64 patients clinically diagnosed with unilateral AOE. Ear swabs were taken from both the ears. Microbiological flora was studied considering diseased ear as test ear and the normal ear as the control. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures were done. Severity of the disease was assessed by subjective and objective scores. Effect of topical treatment with ichthammol glycerine pack was assessed after 48 hours and scores were calculated again. Patients with scores < 4 after pack removal were started on systemic antibiotics and were assessed after seven days of antibiotics course. Data was analysed using Paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Chi-square test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33%) was the most common bacteria cultured from the ear followed by Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (18%). Patients with anaerobic organism in the test ear had severe symptoms and needed systemic antibiotic therapy. Most of the cases may respond to empirical antibiotic therapy. In cases with severe symptoms and the ones refractory to empirical treatment, a culture from the ear canal will not be a tax on the patient. This helps in giving a better understanding about the disease, causative organisms and helps in avoiding the use of inappropriate antibiotics that usually result in developing resistant strains of bacteria.

  6. Visualization of normal and abnormal inner ear with volume rendering technique using multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hui; Han Ping; Liang Bo; Lei Ziqiao; Liu Fang; Tian Zhiliang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of the volume rendering technique to display the normal and abnormal inner ear structures. Methods: Forty normal earand 61 abnormal inner ears (40 congenital inner ear malformations, 7 labyrinthitis ossificans, and 14 inner ear erosion caused by cholesteatomas) were examined with a MSCT scanner. Axial imaging were performed using the following parameters: 120 kV, 100 mAs, 0.75 mm slice thickness, a pitch factor of 1. The axial images of interested ears were reconstructed with 0.1 mm reconstruction increment and a FOV of 50 mm. The 3D reconstructions were done with volume rendering technique on the workstation. Results: In the subjects without ear disorders a high quality 3D visualization of the inner ear could be achieved. In the patients with inner ear' disorders all inner ear malformations could be clearly displayed on 3D images as follows: (1) Michel deformity (one ear): There was complete absence of all cochlear and vestibular structures. (2) common cavity deformity (3 ears): The cochlea and vestibule were represented by a cystic cavity and couldn't be differentiated from each other. (3)incomplete partition type I (3 ears): The cochlea lacked the entire modiolus and cribriform area, resulting in a cystic appearance. (4) incomplete partition type II (Mondini deformity) (5 ears): The cochlea consisted of 1.5 turns, in which the middle and apical turns coalesced to form a cystic apex. (5) vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (14 ears): Cochlea was normal, vestibule dilated, semicircular canals were absent, hypoplastic or enlarged. (6) dilated vestibular aqueduct (14 ears): The vestibular aqueduct was bell-mouthed. In 7 patients with labyrinthifis ossificans, 3D images failed to clearly show the completeinner ears in 4 ears because of too high ossifications in the membranous labyrinth. In the other 3 ears volume rendering could display the thin cochlea basal turn and the intermittent semicircular canals. In the patients

  7. Reflectance Measures from Infant Ears With Normal Hearing and Transient Conductive Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Susan E; Herrmann, Barbara S; Horton, Nicholas J; Amadei, Elizabeth A; Kujawa, Sharon G

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to develop methods to utilize newborn reflectance measures for the identification of middle-ear transient conditions (e.g., middle-ear fluid) during the newborn period and ultimately during the first few months of life. Transient middle-ear conditions are a suspected source of failure to pass a newborn hearing screening. The ability to identify a conductive loss during the screening procedure could enable the referred ear to be either (1) cleared of a middle-ear condition and recommended for more extensive hearing assessment as soon as possible, or (2) suspected of a transient middle-ear condition, and if desired, be rescreened before more extensive hearing assessment. Reflectance measurements are reported from full-term, healthy, newborn babies in which one ear referred and one ear passed an initial auditory brainstem response newborn hearing screening and a subsequent distortion product otoacoustic emission screening on the same day. These same subjects returned for a detailed follow-up evaluation at age 1 month (range 14 to 35 days). In total, measurements were made on 30 subjects who had a unilateral refer near birth (during their first 2 days of life) and bilateral normal hearing at follow-up (about 1 month old). Three specific comparisons were made: (1) Association of ear's state with power reflectance near birth (referred versus passed ear), (2) Changes in power reflectance of normal ears between newborn and 1 month old (maturation effects), and (3) Association of ear's newborn state (referred versus passed) with ear's power reflectance at 1 month. In addition to these measurements, a set of preliminary data selection criteria were developed to ensure that analyzed data were not corrupted by acoustic leaks and other measurement problems. Within 2 days of birth, the power reflectance measured in newborn ears with transient middle-ear conditions (referred newborn hearing screening and passed hearing assessment at age 1 month) was significantly

  8. Tolerance of normal tissues to radiation therapy: Ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, B.; Lapeyre, M.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to describe, based on a literature survey, the radiation-induced toxicity of the ear and to try to establish the limiting dose. The limiting toxicity was the sensorineural hearing loss. A dose-effect relationship has been described by several authors. Thirty to 40% of patients who are irradiated for head and neck cancer are concerned, but the intensity of the hearing loss tends to depend on the exact localisation of the primary tumour: nasopharyngeal irradiations, paranasal sinusal and parotid irradiation are at greater risk of complication. High frequencies are more vulnerable than the lower ones. Age of patients, as well as baseline hearing abilities, deeply influence the issue. As far as possible, the dose to the inner ear (the cochlea more precisely) should be kept under 40 Gy. In case of association with other causes of toxicity (such as age, low baseline value, association to cisplatin), this dose should be as low as possible. Should carcinologic constraints lead to toxic doses, then patients should be properly informed. (authors)

  9. Normal echoanatomy of the red-eared slider terrapin (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, J; Espada, Y; Ruiz de Gopegui, R

    2004-10-02

    Thirty red-eared slider terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans) were examined by ultrasound to establish the normal ultrasonographic appearance of their coelomic structures. They were not sedated, and owing to their small size they were examined through the inguinal window of the carapace. High resolution transducers (7.5 and 11 MHz) enhanced the ultrasonographic imaging of the bowel, urinary bladder, liver, gall bladder, heart, kidney and gonads, but the pancreas, adrenal glands, thyroid glands and spleen could not be visualised.

  10. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  11. Evaluation of the canine tympanic membrane by positive contrast ear canalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trower, N.D.; Gregory, S.P.; Renfrew, H.; Lamb, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Positive contrast ear canalography was described briefly in 1973 as a method for detecting rupture of the tympanic membrane in dogs with otitis media. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and usefulness of the technique. The ears of 10 normal canine cadavers and 31 dogs with clinical signs of ear disease were examined using otoscopy, radiography and contrast radiography after infusing 2 to 5 ml of positive contrast medium into the ear canals. These examinations were repeated in the cadavers after the tympanic membrane had been punctured with a Spreull needle. In the cadavers 14 of 19 (74 per cent) of the tympanic membranes were visible otoscopically; contrast medium did not enter the tympanic bulla of any of the ears before the tympanic membrane was ruptured, but was visible in the bulla in every ear after rupture. In the clinical study, 40 of 61 (66 per cent) of the tympanic membranes were visible otoscopically, and 12 appeared to be ruptured. Radiographic signs of otitis media (increased opacity and/or thickening of the tympanic bulla) were identified in seven ears. Canalography was positive for rupture of the tympanic membrane in 13 ears, including four in which it appeared to be intact otoscopically. In normal canine ears, canalography was a more accurate method for detecting iatrogenic tympanic membrane rupture than otoscopy. In dogs with ear disease, canalography may be more sensitive for otitis media than either otoscopy or survey radiography

  12. Three dimensional and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear. Normal ears and anomaly scanned with 3D-CISS sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edamatsu, Hideo; Uechi, Yoko; Honjyo, Shiro; Yamashita, Koichi; Tonami, Hisao.

    1997-01-01

    The MRI system used in this study was a new scanning sequence, 3D-CISS (Three dimensional-constructive interference in steady state) with 1.5 Tesla. Ten normal ears and one ear with Mondini type anomaly were scanned and reconstructed. In imagings of normal inner ears, the cochlea has three spiral layers; basal, middle and apical turns. Each turn was separated into three parts; the scala vestibuli, osseous spiral lamina and scala tympani. Three semicircular ducts, utricle and saccule were also reconstructed in one frame. In the inner ear of Mondini anomaly, 3D MRI showed cochlear aplasia, hypoplasia of semicircular ducts and widely dilated vestibule. The imaging was identical with findings of ''common cavity''. The anomaly was easily recognized in 3D MRI more than in 2D imagings. The detailed and cubic imagings of the Mondini anomaly in 3D MRI could not be observed with conventional 2D MRI. 3D MRI is not invasive method and can scan a target very quickly. (author)

  13. On the frequency dependence of the otoacoustic emission latency in hypoacoustic and normal ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, R.; Moleti, A.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the otoacoustic emission (OAE) latency of adult subjects have been obtained, as a function of frequency, by means of wavelet time-frequency analysis based on the iterative application of filter banks. The results are in agreement with previous OAE latency measurements by Tognola et al. [Hear. Res. 106, 112-122 (1997)], as regards both the latency values and the frequency dependence, and seem to be incompatible with the steep 1/f law that is predicted by scale-invariant full cochlear models. The latency-frequency relationship has been best fitted to a linear function of the cochlear physical distance, using the Greenwood map, and to an exponential function of the cochlear distance, for comparison with derived band ABR latency measurements. Two sets of ears [94 audiometrically normal and 42 impaired with high-frequency (f>3 kHz) hearing loss] have been separately analyzed. Significantly larger average latencies were found in the impaired ears in the mid-frequency range. Theoretical implications of these findings on the transmission of the traveling wave are discussed.

  14. A Model for the representation of Speech Signals in Normal and Impaired Ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    hearing was modelled as a combination of outer- and inner hair cell loss. The percentage of dead inner hair cells was calculated based on a new computational method relating auditory nerve fibre thresholds to behavioural thresholds. Finally, a model of the entire auditory nerve fibre population......A model of human auditory periphery, ranging from the outer ear to the auditory nerve, was developed. The model consists of the following components: outer ear transfer function, middle ear transfer function, basilar membrane velocity, inner hair cell receptor potential, inner hair cell probability...... of neurotransmitter release and auditory nerve fibre refractoriness. The model builds on previously published models, however, parameters for basilar membrane velocity and inner hair cell probability of neurotransmitter release were successfully fitted to model data from psychophysical and physiological data...

  15. Right-Ear Advantage for Speech-in-Noise Recognition in Patients with Nonlateralized Tinnitus and Normal Hearing Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yihsin; Husain, Fatima T

    2018-04-01

    Despite having normal hearing sensitivity, patients with chronic tinnitus may experience more difficulty recognizing speech in adverse listening conditions as compared to controls. However, the association between the characteristics of tinnitus (severity and loudness) and speech recognition remains unclear. In this study, the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN) was conducted monaurally on 14 patients with bilateral tinnitus and 14 age- and hearing-matched adults to determine the relation between tinnitus characteristics and speech understanding. Further, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), tinnitus loudness magnitude estimation, and loudness matching were obtained to better characterize the perceptual and psychological aspects of tinnitus. The patients reported low THI scores, with most participants in the slight handicap category. Significant between-group differences in speech-in-noise performance were only found at the 5-dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) condition. The tinnitus group performed significantly worse in the left ear than in the right ear, even though bilateral tinnitus percept and symmetrical thresholds were reported in all patients. This between-ear difference is likely influenced by a right-ear advantage for speech sounds, as factors related to testing order and fatigue were ruled out. Additionally, significant correlations found between SNR loss in the left ear and tinnitus loudness matching suggest that perceptual factors related to tinnitus had an effect on speech-in-noise performance, pointing to a possible interaction between peripheral and cognitive factors in chronic tinnitus. Further studies, that take into account both hearing and cognitive abilities of patients, are needed to better parse out the effect of tinnitus in the absence of hearing impairment.

  16. In vivo areal modulus of elasticity estimation of the human tympanic membrane system: modelling of middle ear mechanical function in normal young and aged ears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaihede, Michael; Liao Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

    2007-01-01

    The quasi-static elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system can be described by the areal modulus of elasticity determined by a middle ear model. The response of the tympanic membrane to quasi-static pressure changes is determined by its elastic properties. Several clinical problems are related to these, but studies are few and mostly not comparable. The elastic properties of membranes can be described by the areal modulus, and these may also be susceptible to age-related changes reflected by changes in the areal modulus. The areal modulus is determined by the relationship between membrane tension and change of the surface area relative to the undeformed surface area. A middle ear model determined the tension-strain relationship in vivo based on data from experimental pressure-volume deformations of the human tympanic membrane system. The areal modulus was determined in both a younger (n = 10) and an older (n = 10) group of normal subjects. The areal modulus for lateral and medial displacement of the tympanic membrane system was smaller in the older group (mean = 0.686 and 0.828 kN m -1 , respectively) compared to the younger group (mean = 1.066 and 1.206 kN m -1 , respectively), though not significantly (2p = 0.10 and 0.11, respectively). Based on the model the areal modulus was established describing the summated elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system. Future model improvements include exact determination of the tympanic membrane area accounting for its shape via 3D finite element analyses. In vivo estimates of Young's modulus in this study were a factor 2-3 smaller than previously found in vitro. No significant age-related differences were found in the elastic properties as expressed by the areal modulus

  17. In vivo areal modulus of elasticity estimation of the human tympanic membrane system: modelling of middle ear mechanical function in normal young and aged ears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaihede, Michael [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Liao Donghua [Centre of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Gregersen, Hans [Centre of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2007-02-07

    The quasi-static elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system can be described by the areal modulus of elasticity determined by a middle ear model. The response of the tympanic membrane to quasi-static pressure changes is determined by its elastic properties. Several clinical problems are related to these, but studies are few and mostly not comparable. The elastic properties of membranes can be described by the areal modulus, and these may also be susceptible to age-related changes reflected by changes in the areal modulus. The areal modulus is determined by the relationship between membrane tension and change of the surface area relative to the undeformed surface area. A middle ear model determined the tension-strain relationship in vivo based on data from experimental pressure-volume deformations of the human tympanic membrane system. The areal modulus was determined in both a younger (n = 10) and an older (n = 10) group of normal subjects. The areal modulus for lateral and medial displacement of the tympanic membrane system was smaller in the older group (mean = 0.686 and 0.828 kN m{sup -1}, respectively) compared to the younger group (mean = 1.066 and 1.206 kN m{sup -1}, respectively), though not significantly (2p = 0.10 and 0.11, respectively). Based on the model the areal modulus was established describing the summated elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system. Future model improvements include exact determination of the tympanic membrane area accounting for its shape via 3D finite element analyses. In vivo estimates of Young's modulus in this study were a factor 2-3 smaller than previously found in vitro. No significant age-related differences were found in the elastic properties as expressed by the areal modulus.

  18. Adeno-associated virus-mediated gene delivery into the scala media of the normal and deafened adult mouse ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, L A; Li, Q; Yang, J; Goddard, J C; Fekete, D M; Lang, H

    2011-06-01

    Murine models are ideal for studying cochlear gene transfer, as many hearing loss-related mutations have been discovered and mapped within the mouse genome. However, because of the small size and delicate nature, the membranous labyrinth of the mouse is a challenging target for the delivery of viral vectors. To minimize injection trauma, we developed a procedure for the controlled release of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) into the scala media of adult mice. This procedure poses minimal risk of injury to structures of the cochlea and middle ear, and allows for near-complete preservation of low and middle frequency hearing. In this study, transduction efficiency and cellular specificity of AAV vectors (serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6 and 8) were investigated in normal and drug-deafened ears. Using the cytomegalovirus promoter to drive gene expression, a variety of cell types were transduced successfully, including sensory hair cells and supporting cells, as well as cells in the auditory nerve and spiral ligament. Among all five serotypes, inner hair cells were the most effectively transduced cochlear cell type. All five serotypes of AAV vectors transduced cells of the auditory nerve, though serotype 8 was the most efficient vector for transduction. Our findings indicate that efficient AAV inoculation (via the scala media) can be performed in adult mouse ears, with hearing preservation a realistic goal. The procedure we describe may also have applications for intra-endolymphatic drug delivery in many mouse models of human deafness.

  19. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... secretions from the middle ear Swelling, inflammation and mucus in the eustachian tubes from an upper respiratory ... your baby for at least six months. Breast milk contains antibodies that may offer protection from ear ...

  20. Volume and planar gated cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: a correlative study of normal anatomy with Thallium-201 SPECT and cadaver sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, R.T.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Yeung, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) gated cardiac imaging was performed in ten subjects using a prototype 0.15-T resistive magnet imaging system. Volume and planar imaging techniques utilizing saturation recovery, proton TI-weighted relaxation time pulse sequences produced images of the heart and great vessels with exquisite anatomic detail that showed excellent correlation with cadaver sections of the heart. The left ventricular myocardial segments also showed excellent correlation with cadaver sections of the heart. The left ventricular myocardial segments also showed excellent correlation with the thallium-201 cardiac single photon emission computed tomography images. Volume acquisition allowed postprocessing selection of tomographic sections in various orientations to optimize visualization of a particular structure of interest. The excellent spatial and contrast resolution afforded by MR volume imaging, which does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast material, should assure it a significant role in the diagnostic assessment of the cardiovascular system

  1. Validation of normalized pulse volume in the outer ear as a simple measure of sympathetic activity using warm and cold pressor tests: towards applications in ambulatory monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jihyoung; Matsumura, Kenta; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi; Rolfe, Peter; Kim, Kyungho

    2013-01-01

    Normalized pulse volume (NPV) derived from the ear has the potential to be a practical index for monitoring daily life stress. However, ear NPV has not yet been validated. Therefore, we compared NPV derived from an index finger using transmission photoplethysmography as a reference, with NPV derived from a middle finger and four sites of the ear using reflection photoplethysmography during baseline and while performing cold and warm water immersion in ten young and six middle-aged subjects. The results showed that logarithmically-transformed NPV (lnNPV) during cold water immersion as compared with baseline values was significantly lower, only at the index finger, the middle finger and the bottom of the ear-canal. Furthermore, lnNPV reactivities (ΔlnNPV; the difference between baseline and test values) from an index finger were significantly related to ΔlnNPV from the middle finger and the bottom of the ear-canal (young: r = 0.90 and 0.62, middle-aged: r = 0.80 and 0.58, respectively). In conclusion, these findings show that reflection and transmission photoplethysmography are comparable methods to derive NPV in accordance with our theoretical prediction. NPV derived from the bottom of the ear-canal is a valid approach, which could be useful for evaluating daily life stress. (paper)

  2. Ear Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of different injuries can affect the outer ear. Cauliflower ear (subperichondrial hematoma) A blunt blow to the ... to a deformed ear. This deformity, called a cauliflower ear, is common among wrestlers, boxers, and rugby ...

  3. In vivo areal modulus of elasticity estimation of the human tympanic membrane system: modelling of middle ear mechanical function in normal young and aged ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaihede, Michael Lyhne; Donghua, Liao; Gregersen, H.

    2007-01-01

    The quasi-static elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system can be described by the areal modulus of elasticity determined by a middle ear model. The response of the tympanic membrane to quasi-static pressure changes is determined by its elastic properties. Several clinical problems are r...... finite element analyses. In vivo estimates of Young's modulus in this study were a factor 2-3 smaller than previously found in vitro. No significant age-related differences were found in the elastic properties as expressed by the areal modulus....

  4. Limits on normal cochlear 'third' windows provided by previous investigations of additional sound paths into and out of the cat inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosowski, John J; Bowers, Peter; Nakajima, Hideko H

    2018-03-01

    While most models of cochlear function assume the presence of only two windows into the mammalian cochlea (the oval and round windows), a position that is generally supported by several lines of data, there is evidence for additional sound paths into and out of the inner ear in normal mammals. In this report we review the existing evidence for and against the 'two-window' hypothesis. We then determine how existing data and inner-ear anatomy restrict transmission of sound through these additional sound pathways in cat by utilizing a well-tested model of the cat inner ear, together with anatomical descriptions of the cat cochlear and vestibular aqueducts (potential additional windows to the cochlea). We conclude: (1) The existing data place limits on the size of the cochlear and vestibular aqueducts in cat and are consistent with small volume-velocities through these ducts during ossicular stimulation of the cochlea, (2) the predicted volume velocities produced by aqueducts with diameters half the size of the bony diameters match the functional data within ±10 dB, and (3) these additional volume velocity paths contribute to the inner ear's response to non-acoustic stimulation and conductive pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Swimmer's Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eardrum Taking Care of Your Ears Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Your Ears What's Earwax? How Do Pain Relievers Work? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  6. Ear wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    See your provider if your ears are blocked with wax and you are unable to remove the wax. Also call if you have an ear wax blockage and you develop new symptoms, such as: Drainage from the ear Ear pain Fever Hearing loss that continues after you clean the wax

  7. Ear Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  8. Comparison between the angle of Eustachian tube in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media and normal ears based on computed tomography scan of temporal bones in Haji Adam Malik general hospital Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masita, S.; Zahara, D.; Aboet, A.

    2018-03-01

    The function of the Eustachian tube plays a significant role in increased risk chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). The angle of the Eustachian tube is a predisposing factor for Eustachian tube dysfunction and clearance disorder of the middle ear. The aim of this study was to compare the mean angle of a Eustachian tube of CSOM ears and normal ears. This research was a cross-sectional study consisting of 19 patients of CSOM without cholesteatoma, 19 patients of CSOM with cholesteatoma and 19 patients with normal ears. All patients were examined using CT Temporal, and the angle of the eustachian tube was measured using multiplanar reconstruction technique. The mean angle of Eustachian tube in CSOM patients without cholesteatoma was 32.82° (SD=3.82), in CSOM with cholesteatoma was 27.74° (SD=4.44) and in normal ears was 33.61° (SD=3.83). Based on Kruskal-Wallis test, there was a significant difference in the angle of a Eustachian tube of these three groups (p<0.001). There was a significant difference between the mean angle of the Eustachian tube in CSOM ears and normal ears.

  9. A Study of Relationship between the Acoustic Sensitivity of Vestibular System and the Ability to Trigger Sound-Evoked Muscle Reflex of the Middle Ear in Adults with Normal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Emami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The vestibular system is sound sensitive and the sensitivity is related to the saccule. The vestibular afferents are projected to the middle ear muscles (such as the stapedius. The goal of this research was studying the relationship between the vestibular hearing and the sound-evoked muscle reflex of the middle ear to 500 HZ. Materials & Methods: This study was a cross sectional-comparison done in audiology department of Sheikholreis C‍‍linic (Hamadan, Iran. The study groups consisted of thirty healthy people and thirty patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Inclusion criteria of the present study were to have normal hearing on pure tone audiometry, acoustic reflex, and speech discrimination scores. Based on ipsilateral acoustic reflex test at 500HZ, they were divided to normal and abnormal groups. Then they were evaluated by cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs and finally classified in three groups (N Normal ear , (CVUA Contra lateral vertiginous ear with unaffected saccular sensitivity to sound,(IVA Ipsilateral vertiginous ear with affected saccular sensitivity to sound. Results: Thirty affected ears (IVA with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by ab-normal cVEMPs, revealed abnormal findings of acoustic reflex at 500HZ. Whereas, both un-affected (CVUA and normal ears (N had normal results. Multiple comparisons of mean values of cVEMPs (p13,n23 and acoustic reflex at500HZ among the three groups were sig-nificant. The correlation between acoustic reflex at 500HZ and p13 latencies was significant. The n23 latencies showed significant correlation with acoustic reflex at 500HZ. Conclusion: The vestibular sensitivity to sound retains the ability to trigger sound-evoked re-flex of the middle ear at 500 HZ. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:99-104

  10. Ear examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be present. The eardrum is a light-gray color or a shiny pearly-white. Light should ... discharge or bleeding Alternative Names Otoscopy Images Ear anatomy Medical findings based on ear anatomy Otoscopic exam ...

  11. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  12. Return of the cadaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähenbühl, Swenn Maxence; Čvančara, Paul; Stieglitz, Thomas; Bonvin, Raphaël; Michetti, Murielle; Flahaut, Marjorie; Durand, Sébastien; Deghayli, Lina; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Successful Plastic Surgery Residency training is subjected to evolving society pressure of lower hourly work weeks imposed by external committees, labor laws, and increased public awareness of patient care quality. Although innovative measures for simulation training of surgery are appearing, there is also the realization that basic anatomy training should be re-enforced and cadaver dissection is of utmost importance for surgical techniques. In the development of new technology for implantable neurostimulatory electrodes for the management of phantom limb pain in amputee patients, a design of a cadaveric model has been developed with detailed steps for innovative transfascicular insertion of electrodes. Overall design for electrode and cable implantation transcutaneous was established and an operating protocol devised. Microsurgery of the nerves of the upper extremities for interfascicular electrode implantation is described for the first time. Design of electrode implantation in cadaver specimens was adapted with a trocar delivery of cables and electrodes transcutaneous and stabilization of the electrode by suturing along the nerve. In addition, the overall operating arena environment with specific positions of the multidisciplinary team necessary for implantable electrodes was elaborated to assure optimal operating conditions and procedures during the organization of a first-in-man implantation study. Overall importance of plastic surgery training for new and highly technical procedures is of importance and particularly there is a real need to continue actual cadaveric training due to patient variability for nerve anatomic structures. PMID:28723767

  13. Formulated arthropod cadavers for pest suppression

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Pesticidal and/or antimicrobial biological agent-infected arthropod cadavers are formulated by applying a coating agent once on the surface of the cadaver which either (a) prevents the cadavers from sticking together and/or rupturing or (b) acts as an adhesive for a powder or granule applied to the cadaver to prevent sticking and rupturing. The formulated cadavers maintain or improve infectivity, reproducibility, and survivability. The formulated cadavers can be partially desiccated to improv...

  14. Your Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More on this topic for: Kids Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? Senses Experiment: Model Eardrum Going to the Audiologist What's Earwax? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  15. Ear infection - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the back of the throat. Normally, this tube drains fluid that is made in the middle ear. ... allows air to get in so fluids can drain more easily. Usually the tubes fall out by themselves. Those that don't ...

  16. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  17. Cosmetic ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  18. Middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Gangadhara Somayaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is becoming more common in the society living in cities with lot of background noise around, and frequent use of gadgets like mobile phones, MP3s, and IPods are adding to the problem. The loss may involve the conductive or perceptive pathway. Majority of the patients with conductive hearing loss will revert back to normal hearing levels with medical and/or surgical treatment. However, in sensorineural hearing loss, many factors are involved in the management. Though traditionally hearing aids in various forms are the most commonly used modality in managing these patients, there are some drawbacks associated with them. Implantable middle ear amplifiers represent the most recent breakthrough in the management of hearing loss. Middle ear implants are surgically implanted electronic devices that aim to correct hearing loss by stimulating the ossicular chain or middle ear. Of late, they are also being used in the management of congenital conductive hearing loss and certain cases of chronic otitis media with residual hearing loss. The article aims to provide general information about the technology, indications and contraindications, selection of candidates, available systems, and advantages of middle ear implants. (MEI

  19. Comparison of the Effect of Ondansetrone - Dexamethasone, Dexamethasone – Metoclopeamide and Ondansetron - Normal Saline in Decreasing Post Operative Nausa and Vomitting (PONV after Middle Ear Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddadi Soudabeh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of post-operative nausea and vomitting (PONV is increased after middle ear surgery and it may complicate and interact with reconstruction after surgery, so prevention and treatment of these complications are necessary.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of anti-emetic combinations in decreasing the PONV after middle ear surgery.Materials and methods: This double blind clinical trial was carried out during 2007-2008 on 111 patients of 15-45 years old with ASA I-II who were candidates for elective middle ear surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were divided into three groups. Patients in the ON group received Ondansetrone 0.1mg/kg + Nacl 0.9% 2cc, OD group received Ondansetrone 0.1mg/kg + Dexamethasone 0.15mg/kg and MD group received Dexamethasone 0.15mg/kg+ Metoclopramide 0.15mg/kg intravenously just before the end of surgery. The patients were evaluated for nausea, vomiting, need of anti-emetic drugs and drug dosage in recovery, 1-6, 6-12 and 12-24 hours after operation and then all data were statistically analyzed by SPSS software, Chi-square, ANOVA and t- Test. P<0.05 was significant.Results: There were no significant differences among three groups in age and sex. The incidence of PONV among 3 groups was not significantly different during 24 hours after operation. (P=0.271 but the incidence of PONV in the first six hours was different among 3 groups (P=0.007 (ON: 8.1%, OD: 0%, MD: 21.6%. Also Metoclopramide consumption was significant between three groups. Conclusion: This study showed that the need to anti-emetic drugs in first 6 hours was the least in OD group, but the difference in the incidence of PONV was not significant otherwise.

  20. Using ATP-driven bioluminescence assay to monitor microbial safety in a contemporary human cadaver laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion; Maier, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize a cost-effective method for assessing the levels of bacterial, yeast, and mold activity during a human dissection laboratory course. Nowadays, compliance with safety regulations is policed by institutions at higher standards than ever before. Fear of acquiring an unknown infection is one of the top concerns of professional healthcare students, and it provokes anti-laboratory anxiety. Human cadavers are not routinely tested for bacteria and viruses prior to embalming. Human anatomy dissecting rooms that house embalmed cadavers are normally cleaned after the dissected cadavers have been removed. There is no evidence that investigators have ever assessed bacterial and fungal activities using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-driven bioluminescence assays. A literature search was conducted on texts, journals, and websites regarding bacterial, yeast, and mold activities in an active cadaver laboratory. Midway into a clinical anatomy course, ATP bioluminescence assays were used to swab various sites within the dissection room, including entrance and exiting door handles, water taps, cadaver tables, counter tops, imaging material, X-ray box switches, and the cadaver surfaces. The results demonstrated very low activities on cadaver tables, washing up areas, and exiting door handles. There was low activity on counter tops and X-ray boxes. There was medium activity on the entrance door handles. These findings suggest an inexpensive and accurate method for monitoring safety compliance and microbial activity. Students can feel confident and safe in the environment in which they work. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Diagnostic value of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaowei; Ding, Yuanping; Zhang, Jianji; Chen, Ying; Xu, Anting; Dou, Fenfen; Zhang, Zihe

    2007-02-01

    To observe the inner ear structure with volume rendering (VR) reconstruction and to evaluate the role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in congenital inner ear malformations. HRCT scanning was performed in 10 patients (20 ears) without ear disease (control group) and 7 patients (11 ears) with inner ear malformations (IEM group) and the original data was processed with VR reconstruction. The inner ear osseous labyrinth structure in the images generated by these techniques was observed respectively in the normal ears and malformation ears. The inner ear osseous labyrinth structure and the relationship was displayed clearly in VR imaging in the control group,meanwhile, characters and degree of malformed structure were also displayed clearly in the IEA group. Of seven patients (11 ears) with congenital inner ear malformations, the axial, MPR and VR images can display the site and degree in 9 ears. VR images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 2 ears with the small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The malformations included Mondini deformity (7 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (3 ears), vestibular aqueduct dilate (7 ears, of which 6 ears accompanied by other malformations) , the internal auditory canal malformation (2 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). HRCT can display the normal structure of bone inner ear through high quality VR reconstructions. VR images can also display the site and degree of the malformations three-dimensionally and intuitively. HRCT is valuable in diagnosing the inner ear malformation.

  2. Insect cadaver applications: pros and cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) formulated as insect cadavers has become an alternative to aqueous application for the control of agricultural pests. In this approach, the infected insect host cadaver is applied directly to the target site and pest suppression is achieved by the inf...

  3. 9 CFR 381.90 - Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cadavers. 381.90 Section 381.90 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.90 Cadavers. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of having died from causes other than slaughter...

  4. Play it by Ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology.......The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology....

  5. Emotional response of undergraduates to cadaver dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisenden, Patricia A; Budke, Katherine J; Klemetson, Chelsea J; Kurtti, Tana R; Patel, Chandi M; Schwantz, Trenda L; Wisenden, Brian D

    2018-03-01

    The most effective way to learn human anatomy is through cadaver dissection. Historically, cadaver dissection has been the provenance of professional schools. Increasingly, cadaver-based courses in human anatomy are shifting to the undergraduate level, which creates both problems and opportunities because of differences between undergraduate and graduate student populations. Anxiety associated with dissecting cadavers can create a barrier to learning, and ultimately, entry into the health and medical sciences for some demographic subpopulations of undergraduates. We surveyed 76 students in 2007 and 51 students in 2009 at four times in the semester to investigate the timing and sociodemographic predictors of anxiety over cadaver dissection. We followed this with a second survey of 44 students in 2014 to test the effect of humanization of cadaver donors (providing information about donor occupation and cause of death) to reduce student anxiety. Students experienced anxiety upon first exposure to cadaver dissection. Female students experienced greater anxiety than male students upon first exposure to cadavers but this effect was short-lived. Self-identified non-white, non-Christian students experienced sustained anxiety throughout the semester, likely because cadaver stress compounded social and financial stressors unique to international students. Humanization was effective in reducing anxiety in non-white, non-Christian students but had the unexpected effect of increasing anxiety in female students. We recommend that humanizing information be offered to students who seek it out, but not forced upon students for whom the information would only add to their stress. Clin. Anat. 31:224-230, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  7. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... can lead to an infection. Dry skin or eczema , scratching the ear canal, vigorous ear cleaning with ...

  8. Taking Care of Your Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audiologist Perforated Eardrum What's Hearing Loss? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? Swimmer's Ear Your Ears What's Earwax? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  9. Transformation of a Cadaver Population: Analysis of a South African Cadaver Program, 1921-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Beverley; Hutchinson, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy has served as a cornerstone in the training of various allied and clinical disciplines and has traditionally been based on dissection of the human body. Thus, to pursue this method of teaching and learning, access to cadavers is of continuing importance. Over a significant period of time unclaimed cadavers have performed an essential role…

  10. Multislice spiral computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Han, Ping; Liang, Bo; Tian, Zhi-liang; Lei, Zi-qiao; Kong, Wei-jia; Feng, Gan-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of multislice spiral computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of congenital inner ear malformations. Forty-four patients with sensorineural hearing loss were examined on a Somatom Sensation 16 (Siemens) CT scanner. The 3-dimensional reconstructions and multiplanar reformation (MPR) were performed using the volume-rendering technique (VRT) on the workstation. Of the 44 patients examined for this study, 25 patients were found to be normal and 19 patients (36 ears) were diagnosed with congenital inner ear malformations. Of the malformations, the axial, MPR, and VRT images can all display the site and degree in 33 of the ears. Volume-rendering technique images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 3 ears with small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The common malformations were Michel deformity (1 ear), common cavity deformity (3 ears), incomplete partition I (3 ears), incomplete partition II (Mondini deformity) (5 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (14 ears), enlarged vestibular aqueduct (16 ears, 6 of which had other malformations), and internal auditory canal malformation (8 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). Multislice spiral CT allows a comprehensively assessment of various congenital inner ear malformations through high-quality MPR and VRT reconstructions. Volume-rendering technique images can display the site and degree of the malformation 3-dimensionally and intuitionisticly. This is very useful to the cochlear implantation.

  11. Imaging of the postoperative middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Marc T. [Department of Medical Imaging, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25 rue Manin, 75940, Paris (France); Ayache, Denis [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Paris (France)

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to present the principles and the indications of surgical treatment of middle ear pathologies; and (b) to review the imaging findings after middle ear surgery, including the normal postoperative aspects and imaging findings in patients presenting with unsatisfactory surgical results or with suspicion of postoperative complications. This review is intentionally restricted to the most common diseases involving the middle ear: chronic otitis media and otosclerosis. In these specific fields of interest, CT and MR imaging play a very important role in the postoperative follow-up and in the work-up of surgical failures and complications. (orig.)

  12. Cadavers Can Be Useful in Teaching Anatomy in College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stencel, John; Moore, John

    1989-01-01

    Presents information on student interest, teaching problems, and learning outcomes regarding the use of cadavers as a teaching tool. Provides a list of Illinois Community Colleges using cadavers and a student questionnaire. (RT)

  13. Hairy ears; Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daifullah Al Aboud

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair can grow in areas which are not usually hairy in human skin. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM (http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omimhave some entries in this regards. These include ( %139600 – HAIRY ELBOWS, #605130 – HAIRY ELBOWS, SHORT STATURE, FACIAL DYSMORPHISM, AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY, 139630 – HAIRY NOSE TIP, 139500 – HAIRY EARS, and 425500 – HAIRY EARS, Y-LINKED. Hairy ears, (Fig. 1, are uncommon trait and it is rare to see a person with very long hair on the ears.

  14. Medical Students' Attitudinal Changes towards Cadaver Dissection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recently, not only the medical school curriculum but also medical students' attitude towards cadaver-based learning of anatomy has changed. This investigation is therefore designed to analyse students' attitudes towards human cadaveric dissection before and after exposure to dissection. Methods: A ...

  15. Microbial Signatures of Cadaver Gravesoil During Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Sheree J; Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Robertson, B K; Javan, Gulnaz T

    2016-04-01

    Genomic studies have estimated there are approximately 10(3)-10(6) bacterial species per gram of soil. The microbial species found in soil associated with decomposing human remains (gravesoil) have been investigated and recognized as potential molecular determinants for estimates of time since death. The nascent era of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the conserved 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene region of gravesoil microbes is allowing research to expand beyond more subjective empirical methods used in forensic microbiology. The goal of the present study was to evaluate microbial communities and identify taxonomic signatures associated with the gravesoil human cadavers. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based sequencing, soil microbial communities were surveyed from 18 cadavers placed on the surface or buried that were allowed to decompose over a range of decomposition time periods (3-303 days). Surface soil microbial communities showed a decreasing trend in taxon richness, diversity, and evenness over decomposition, while buried cadaver-soil microbial communities demonstrated increasing taxon richness, consistent diversity, and decreasing evenness. The results show that ubiquitous Proteobacteria was confirmed as the most abundant phylum in all gravesoil samples. Surface cadaver-soil communities demonstrated a decrease in Acidobacteria and an increase in Firmicutes relative abundance over decomposition, while buried soil communities were consistent in their community composition throughout decomposition. Better understanding of microbial community structure and its shifts over time may be important for advancing general knowledge of decomposition soil ecology and its potential use during forensic investigations.

  16. Human Cadaver Material in Preclinical Oral Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, H. Dexter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A University of Michigan dental school curriculum for oral surgery that uses human cadaver heads is described. Selection, preparation, and laboratory use of the materials are outlined. Faculty and students have received the sequence well and found it prepared them for clinical rotation. (MSE)

  17. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    In even the most experienced hands, an adequate physical examination of the ears can be difficult to perform because of common problems such as cerumen blockage of the auditory canal, an unco- operative toddler or an exasperated parent. The most common cause for a running ear in a child is acute purulent otitis.

  18. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections, swimmer’s ear, and healthy swimming. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) What are the symptoms of swimmer's ear? ... Healthy page. Reference CDC. Estimated burden of acute otitis externa —United States, 2003–2007 . MMWR Morb Mortal ...

  19. Anatomical study of prefixed versus postfixed brachial plexuses in adult human cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guday, Edengenet; Bekele, Asegedech; Muche, Abebe

    2017-05-01

    The brachial plexus is usually formed by the fusion of anterior primary rami of the fifth to eighth cervical and the first thoracic spinal nerves. Variations in the formation of the brachial plexus may occur. Variations in brachial plexus anatomy are important to radiologists, surgeons and anaesthesiologists performing surgical procedures in the neck, axilla and upper limb regions. These variations may lead to deviation from the expected dermatome distribution as well as differences in the motor innervation of muscles of the upper limb. This study is aimed to describe the anatomical variations of brachial plexus in its formation among 20 Ethiopian cadavers. Observational based study was conducted by using 20 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy at University of Gondar, Bahir Dar, Addis Ababa, Hawasa, Hayat Medical College and St Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College. Data analysis was conducted using thematic approaches. A total of 20 cadavers examined bilaterally for the formation of brachial plexus. Of the 40 sides, 30 sides (75%) were found normal, seven sides (17.5%) prefixed, three sides (7.5%) postfixed and one side of the cadaver lacks cord formation. The brachial plexus formation in most subjects is found to be normal. Among the variants, the numbers of the prefixed brachial plexuses are greater than the postfixed brachial plexuses. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. [Cadavers and mummies as therapeutic means].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, D; Sohawon, S; Noordally, O

    2010-01-01

    Sickness befallen onto him, man found that plant and animal derivatives invigorated him. Thereafter, he found a therapeutic benefit in using man as a means of self cure and especially, dead man from violent death. The foam of the skull of cadaver was an excellent antiepileptic as well as blood coming out from a freshly decapitated man. By applying on diseased parts of his body, so as to get rid of inflammation or infection, cadaver's hands were used against tumors of all kinds. Dead human skin were processed into belts and used therein for helping delivery of parturition women. The mummy must be blackish, foul smelling and hard. Those who were whitish, odorless and powder-like, were unfit for use. Mummy powder applied to the nose would stop nose bleeding. Ambroise Paré (1510-1590) was an adversary of those practices.

  1. Ear Problems in Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear, otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  2. Autopsy experience with a radioactive cadaver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.S.; Minarcik, J.; Rossi, R.; Pinsky, S.

    1979-01-01

    A patient who received a 200-mCi dose of 131 I for widespread carcinoma died 10 days after treatment with 50 mCi remaining in the cadaver. An autopsy was required. The radiation levels were sufficiently high that personnel radiation protection was needed. An autopsy procedure was designed that prevented ingestion of radioactivity by the pathologist and his assistants, prevented excessive exposure of any involved personnel, and prevented contamination of the autopsy room or other hospital space. (author)

  3. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... in the ear. Fungal external otitis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...

  4. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ear infections may get better without antibiotics. Using antibiotics cautiously and with good reason helps prevent the development of bacteria that become resistant to antibiotics. If your doctor prescribes an antibiotic, it’s important ...

  5. Congenital inner ear malformations without sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Kumiko; Horiguchi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2008-03-01

    It has been reported that normal hearing is rare in patients with severe inner ear vestibular malformations [Kokai H, Oohashi M, Ishikawa K, Harada K, Hiratsuka H, Ogasawara M et al. Clinical review of inner ear malformation. J Otolaryngol Jpn 2003;106(10):1038-44; Schuknecht HF. Mondini dysplasia. A clinical pathological study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1980;89(Suppl. 65):1-23; Jackler RK, Luxford WM, House WF. Congenital malformations of the inner ear: a classification based on embryogenesis. Laryngoscope 1987;97:2-14; Phelps PD. Congenital lesions of the inner ear, demonstrated by tomography. Arch Otolaryngol 1974;100:11-8]. A 37-year-old woman had combined dysplasia of the posterior and lateral semicircular canals (PSCC, LSCC) with normal cochlear development and normal hearing in both ears. She had complained of dizziness for 8 months. High resolution computed tomography (CT) showed hypogenesis of the bony labyrinth in both ears. Bilateral PSCC and LSCC dysplasia and dilatation of the vestibule were detected. Magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) revealed that the deformity of the PSCC was more severe than the LSCC. Although the caloric test of the left ear elicited no nystagmus and there was reduced response in the right ear, the horizontal vestibulo-occular reflex (VOR) was present. Her dizzy sensation disappeared within 3 months without special treatment. The dizziness attack might have been caused by a temporary breakdown of her peripheral vestibular system.

  6. The "pixie" ear deformity following face lift surgery revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlavi, Arian; Meldrum, D Garth; Wilhelmi, Bradon J; Russell, Robert C; Zook, Elvin G

    2005-04-01

    The "pixie" ear deformity can be recognized by its "stuck on" or "pulled" appearance, which is caused by the extrinsic pull of the medial cheek and jawline skin flaps at the earlobe attachment point, the otobasion inferius. The tension results in migration of the otobasion inferius from a posterior cephalad position to an anterior caudal position. Although this deformity has been described clinically, it has yet to be objectively defined. Recently, the two components of the earlobe, the attached cephalic segment (intertragal to otobasion inferius distance) and the free caudal segment (otobasion inferius to subaurale distance), were shown to be essential in evaluating for earlobe ptosis and pseudoptosis. These two components can be used to designate an objective criterion for the pixie ear deformity. The deformity, as defined by the authors' parameters, was assessed in 44 patients who had undergone rhytidectomy. A simple and accurate surgical treatment is demonstrated by a cadaver dissection and a clinical case. The deformity can be defined as an increase in the attached cephalic segment (intertragal to otobasion inferius distance) and a decrease in the free caudal segment (otobasion inferius to subaurale distance) to 0 mm following rhytidectomy. The incidence of pixie ear deformity was 5.7 percent in the authors' series of patients. A medially based triangular excision over the attached cephalic segment is presented as a simple and accurate surgical treatment of pixie ear deformity. A more accurate and objective designation may allow for improved detection, avoidance, and treatment of this deformity.

  7. Progression of thanatophagy in cadaver brain and heart tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz T. Javan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process for maintaining cellular homeostasis during both normal and stress conditions. Metabolic reprogramming in tissues of dead bodies is inevitable due to chronic ischemia and nutrient deprivation, which are well-known features that stimulate autophagy. Currently, it is not fully elucidated whether postmortem autophagy, also known as thanatophagy, occurs in dead bodies is a function of the time of death. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that thanatophagy would increase in proportion to time elapsed since death for tissues collected from cadavers. Brain and heart tissue from corpses at different time intervals after death were analyzed by Western blot. Densitometry analysis demonstrated that thanatophagy occurred in a manner that was dependent on the time of death. The autophagy-associated proteins, LC3 II, p62, Beclin-1 and Atg7, increased in a time-dependent manner in heart tissues. A potent inducer of autophagy, BNIP3, decreased in the heart tissues as time of death increased, whereas the protein levels increased in brain tissues. However, there was no expression of BNIP3 at extended postmortem intervals in both brain and heart samples. Collectively, the present study demonstrates for the first time that thanatophagy occurs in brain and heart tissues of cadavers in a time-dependent manner. Further, our data suggest that cerebral thanatophagy may occur in a Beclin-1- independent manner. This unprecedented study provides potential insight into thanatophagy as a novel method for the estimation of the time of death in criminal investigationsAbstract: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process for maintaining cellular homeostasis during both normal and stress conditions. Metabolic reprogramming in tissues of dead bodies is inevitable due to chronic ischemia and nutrient deprivation, which are well-known features that stimulate autophagy. Currently, it is not fully

  8. Right Hepatic Artery: A Cadaver Investigation and Its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Dandekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The right hepatic artery is an end artery and contributes sole arterial supply to right lobe of the liver. Misinterpretation of normal anatomy and anatomical variations of the right hepatic artery contribute to the major intraoperative mishaps and complications in hepatobiliary surgery. The frequency of inadvertent or iatrogenic hepatobiliary vascular injury rises with the event of an aberrant anatomy. This descriptive study was carried out to document the normal anatomy and different variations of right hepatic artery to contribute to existing knowledge of right hepatic artery to improve surgical safety. This study conducted on 60 cadavers revealed aberrant replaced right hepatic artery in 18.3% and aberrant accessory right hepatic artery in 3.4%. Considering the course, the right hepatic artery ran outside Calot’s triangle in 5% of cases and caterpillar hump right hepatic artery was seen in 13.3% of cases. The right hepatic artery (normal and aberrant crossed anteriorly to the common hepatic duct in 8.3% and posteriorly to it in 71.6%. It has posterior relations with the common bile duct in 16.7% while in 3.4% it did not cross the common hepatic duct or common bile duct. The knowledge of such anomalies is important since their awareness will decrease morbidity and help to keep away from a number of surgical complications.

  9. Ear Acupuncture in European Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction through stimulation of definite points on the ear. Rudimentary forms of acupuncture which probably arose during the Stone Age have survived in many parts of the world right down to present day. It was used in the ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and all the Mediterranean area. It is a microacupuncture technique similar to reflexology, and was first described in France in 1950 by Paul Nogier who is considered the Father of modern ear acupuncture. It was speculated that the technique works because groups of pluripotent cells contain information from the whole organism and create regional organization centers representing different parts of the body. Nevertheless stimulation of a reflex point in the ear seems relieve symptoms of distant pathologies. Modern research is confirming the efficacy of ear acupuncture for analgesia and anxiety related disease, while tobacco dependence and other substance abuse still need confirmation. Actually main methodological problems with auricular acupuncture are that exist too many maps with little agreement regarding point location in the ear, and that the correspondence or reflex systems does not correlated with modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology.

  10. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  11. Listening to the ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  12. Ear, Hearing and Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)......An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)...

  13. The ethics of human cadaver organ transplantation: a biologist's viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emson, H E

    1987-01-01

    The rights of the various individuals involved in decision-making in cadaver organ donation are considered, and there is discussion of the relation of human cadavers to the planetary biomass. I conclude that the rights of the potential recipient should outweigh those of the other parties concerned and that education and legislation should recognise and promote this. PMID:3669037

  14. Portal placement in elbow arthroscopy by novice surgeons: cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Femke M A P; Kachooei, Amir R; Kolovich, Gregory P; Buijze, Geert A; Oh, Luke S; van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Doornberg, Job N

    2017-07-01

    In this anatomical cadaver study, the distance between major nerves and ligaments at risk for injury and portal sites created by trainees was measured. Trainees, inexperienced in elbow arthroscopy, have received a didactic lecture and cadaver instruction prior to portal placement. The incidence of iatrogenic injury from novice portal placement was also determined. Anterolateral, direct lateral, and anteromedial arthroscopic portals were created in ten cadavers by ten inexperienced trainees in elbow arthroscopy. After creating each portal, the trajectory of the portal was marked with a guide pin. Subsequently, the cadavers were dissected and the distances between the guide pin in the anterolateral, direct lateral, and anteromedial portals and important ligaments and nerves were measured. The difference between the distance of the direct lateral portal and the posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve (PABCN) (22 mm, p cadaver instruction session alone. Level of evidence V.

  15. From Ear to Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  16. Seeing With the Ears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In recent talks, I mentioned how my artist friends often complain that their clients see with their ears. It recently dawned on me that nobody understood what I said, or—worse—got the wrong idea. The audience thinks of bionic devices (Proulx, Stoerig, Ludowig, & Knoll, 2008) or bat echo location

  17. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna ... conditions: Abnormal folds or location of the pinna Low-set ears No opening to the ear canal ...

  18. Optical clearing of vaginal tissues in cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Hardy, Luke A.; Peters, Michael G.; Bastawros, Dina A.; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2018-02-01

    A nonsurgical laser procedure is being developed for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Previous studies in porcine vaginal tissues, ex vivo, as well as computer simulations, showed the feasibility of using near-infrared laser energy delivered through a transvaginal contact cooling probe to thermally remodel endopelvic fascia, while preserving the vaginal wall from thermal damage. This study explores optical properties of vaginal tissue in cadavers as an intermediate step towards future pre-clinical and clinical studies. Optical clearing of tissue using glycerol resulted in a 15-17% increase in optical transmission after 11 min at room temperature (and a calculated 32.5% increase at body temperature). Subsurface thermal lesions were created using power of 4.6 - 6.4 W, 5.2-mm spot, and 30 s irradiation time, resulting in partial preservation of vaginal wall to 0.8 - 1.1 mm depth.

  19. Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.; Shea, D.; Schachern, P.; Paparella, M.M.; Carpenter, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middle ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops

  20. Coordinated Multiple Cadaver Use for Minimally Invasive Surgical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; Brooks, H. Mark; Dhuy, S. Michael; Charest-Shell, Cynthia; Clayman, Ralph V.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The human cadaver remains the gold standard for anatomic training and is highly useful when incorporated into minimally invasive surgical training programs. However, this valuable resource is often not used to its full potential due to a lack of multidisciplinary cooperation. Herein, we propose the coordinated multiple use of individual cadavers to better utilize anatomical resources and potentiate the availability of cadaver training. Methods: Twenty-two postgraduate surgeons participated in a robot-assisted surgical training course that utilized shared cadavers. All participants completed a Likert 4-scale satisfaction questionnaire after their training session. Cadaveric tissue quality and the quality of the training session related to this material were assessed. Results: Nine participants rated the quality of the cadaveric tissue as excellent, 7 as good, 5 as unsatisfactory, and 1 as poor. Overall, 72% of participants who operated on a previously used cadaver were satisfied with their training experience and did not perceive the previous use deleterious to their training. Conclusion: The coordinated use of cadavers, which allows for multiple cadaver use for different teaching sessions, is an excellent training method that increases availability of human anatomical material for minimally invasive surgical training. PMID:18237501

  1. Laser vibrometer measurements and middle ear prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, Stephen T.; Dornhoffer, John; Ferguson, Scott

    1997-05-01

    One of us has developed an improved partial ossicular replacement prosthesis that is easier to implant and, based on pilot clinical measurements, results in better high-frequency hearing as compared to patients receiving one of the alternative prostheses. It is hypothesized that the primary reason for this is because of the relatively light weight (about 25 mg) and low compliance of the prosthesis, which could conceivably result in better high frequency vibrational characteristics. The purpose of our initial work was to develop an instrument suitable for objectively testing the vibrational characteristics of prostheses. We have developed a laser based device suitable for measuring the vibrational characteristics of the oval window or other structures of the middle ear. We have tested this device using a piezoelectric transducer excited at audio frequencies, as well as on the oval window in human temporal bones harvested from cadavers. The results illustrate that it is possible to non-invasively monitor the vibrational characteristics of anatomic structures with a very inexpensive photonic device.

  2. The middle ear immune defense changes with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    of this study was to analyze the relationship between age and the mucosal immune system in the middle ear. It is hypothesized that genes involved in the middle ear immune system will change with age. A comprehensive assessment of these genetic differences using the techniques of complementary DNA has not been...... performed. Complementary DNA microarray technology was used to identify immune-related genes differentially expressed between the normal middle ear mucosa of young (10 days old) and adult rats (80 days old). Data were analyzed using tools of bioinformatics. A total of 260 age-related genes were identified...

  3. Computed tomography of middle ear cholesteatomas without tympanic membrane perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettorre, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    The growth of a middle ear cholesteatoma behind a normal tympanic membrane is a rate though possible event. In such cases, CT may provide useful information for diagnosis. The results are presented of a CT study carried out on 14 patients affected with unilateral conductive hearing loss and with normal tympanic membrane. CT allowed the diagnosis of meddle ear cholesteatoma to be made in all cases. All patients were treated with surgery: 8 of them underwent tympanoplasty and 6 explorative tympanotomy. While the diagnosis of cholesteatoma was confirmed in 13 patients, in 1 case tympanosclerosis was diagnosed. CT diagnosis of middle ear cholesteatoma is based on the demonstration of a low-density soft-tissue mass, in association with bone erosion or ossicular dislocation. The author emphasizes the difficulty of a CT diagnosis of cholesteatoma in the patients with middle ear soft-tissue masses in the absence of bone alterations

  4. Effect of laryngoscopy on middle ear pressure during anaesthesia induction

    OpenAIRE

    Degerli, Semih; Acar, Baran; Sahap, Mehmet; Horasanlı, Eyup

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The procedure of laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation (LOTI) has many impacts on several parts of the body. But its effect on middle ear pressure (MEP) is not known well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MEP changes subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube with laryngoscope. Subjects and methods: 44 patients were included in this study with a normal physical examination of ear, nose and throat. A standard general anaesthesia induction without any inhaler agent was perfor...

  5. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng Weili; Mark Haacke, E.; Webb, Sam; Nichol, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  6. Evoked acoustic emissions from the human ear. III. Findings in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, N J; Bagi, P; Elberling, C

    1983-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in a consecutive series of 20 full-term and otherwise normal neonates with the equipment and method previously used in adults. One ear randomly chosen was tested in each baby, and otoscopy and tympanometry were normal in all ears. A 2 kHz click stimulus...

  7. Electric cadavers, 'metiphor,' and other medical software marvels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M

    1991-04-01

    "Grateful Med," "Fluids," "Metiphor," virtual reality, and electric cadavers are just some of the programs and buzzwords in the futuristic world of medical software affecting many areas of health care.

  8. Perception to Cadaver Dissection and Views on Anatomy as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, literature on medical students' perceptions on cadaver dissection and their ... Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery at the new school of Medicine, Kenya ... training and counseling to make the experience better for students.

  9. Cadaver embalming fluid for surgical training courses: modified Larssen solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Okan; Celik, Servet

    2017-11-01

    10% Formalin (F10)-fixed cadavers have disadvantages such as disturbing smell, mucosal irritation, discoloration and rigidity. We aimed to determine a suitable, simple and cost-effective embalming method that preserves color, texture, pliability and flexibility of the tissues for a long time without a disturbing smell and mucosal irritation. The embalmed cadavers were expected to be durable against environmental effects, utilizable for multiple and repetitive surgical trainings and instrumentations. Eight male (six intact, two autopsied bodies) and four female (three intact and one imported trunk) human cadavers were preserved with modified Larssen solution (MLS). Preserved bodies were kept in the deep freezers at -18/-20 °C. Bodies were allowed to thaw at room temperature 3 days prior to use. They were used in postgraduate hands-on courses for several medical disciplines. Each course lasted at least 1 day and during this period the bodies were stayed at room temperature. Assessments of 30 trainers and 252 trainees were collected during the courses. Additionally, the organoleptic characteristics of the fresh frozen (FF), preserved with MLS and F10-fixed cadavers were compared. The colors of muscles, fasciae, fatty tissue, nerves and vessels were evaluated and life-like tissues of MLS cadavers were impressive. There were no obvious or disturbing smell and sign of putrefaction of the MLS cadavers. MLS is a sustainable and relatively affordable soft cadaver embalming method. Its application is same as in other conventional methods and does not need new equipment. This article indicates the success of the MLS method in human cadavers.

  10. Sheep as a large animal ear model: Middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péus, Dominik; Dobrev, Ivo; Prochazka, Lukas; Thoele, Konrad; Dalbert, Adrian; Boss, Andreas; Newcomb, Nicolas; Probst, Rudolf; Röösli, Christof; Sim, Jae Hoon; Huber, Alexander; Pfiffner, Flurin

    2017-08-01

    Animals are frequently used for the development and testing of new hearing devices. Dimensions of the middle ear and cochlea differ significantly between humans and commonly used animals, such as rodents or cats. The sheep cochlea is anatomically more like the human cochlea in size and number of turns. This study investigated the middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure (ICSP) in sheep temporal bones, with the aim of characterizing the sheep as an experimental model for implantable hearing devices. Measurements were made on fresh sheep temporal bones. Velocity responses of the middle ear ossicles at the umbo, long process of the incus and stapes footplate were measured in the frequency range of 0.25-8 kHz using a laser Doppler vibrometer system. Results were normalized by the corresponding sound pressure level in the external ear canal (P EC ). Sequentially, ICSPs at the scala vestibuli and tympani were then recorded with custom MEMS-based hydrophones, while presenting identical acoustic stimuli. The sheep middle ear transmitted most effectively around 4.8 kHz, with a maximum stapes velocity of 0.2 mm/s/Pa. At the same frequency, the ICSP measurements in the scala vestibuli and tympani showed the maximum gain relative to the P EC (24 dB and 5 dB, respectively). The greatest pressure difference across the cochlear partition occurred between 4 and 6 kHz. A comparison between the results of this study and human reference data showed middle-ear resonance and best cochlear sensitivity at higher frequencies in sheep. In summary, sheep can be an appropriate large animal model for research and development of implantable hearing devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Diagnostic significance of multi-slice computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Han, Ping; Liang, Bo; Liu, Fang; Tian, Zhi-Liang; Lei, Zi-Qiao; Li, You-Lin; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and usability of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) in congenital inner ear malformations. Fourty-four patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) were examined by a Somatom Sensation 16 (siemens, Germany) CT scanner with following parameters: 120 kV, 100 mAs, 0.75 mm collimation, 1 mm reconstruction increment, a pitch factor of 1 and a field of view of 100 mm. The axial images of interested ears were reconstructed with 0.1 mm reconstruction increment, and a field of view of 50 mm. The 3D reconstructions were done with volume rendering technique (VRT) on the workstation (3D Virtuoso and Wizard,siemens). Twenty-five patients were normal and 19 patients (36 ears) were congenital inner ear malformations among 44 patients scanned with MSCT. Of the malformations, all the axial, MPR and VRT images can display the site and degree in 33 ears. VRT images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 3 ears with the small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The malformations were Michel deformity (1 ear), common cavity deformity (3 ears), incomplete partition I (3 ears), incomplete partition II (Mondini deformity, 5 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations( 14 ears), vestibular aqueduct dilate( 16 ears, of which 6 ears accompanied by other malformations), the internal auditory canal malformation(8 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). MSCT allows a comprehensively assessing various congenital ear malformations through high quality MPR and VRT reconstructions. VRT images can display the site and degree of the malformations three-dimensionally and intuitionisticly. It is very useful to the cochlear implantation.

  12. Anatomic study of celiac ganglia using CT in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qionghui; Zhang Xiaoming; Zeng Nanlin; Cai Changping; Xie Xingguo; Li Chengjun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the celiac ganglia in cadavers by using current CT techniques, and to facilitate its identification in vivo by CT. Methods: Fifty cadavers were dissected, moving peritoneal organs such as liver and stomach to expose the celiac ganglia. The location, morphology, and dimensions of celiac ganglia, and their relationship to abutting structures, were noted. The celiac ganglia in 6 of the 50 cadavers without peripancreatic diseases and with clear anatomy were isolated and marked with yellow dye and Iohexol injection. In these 6 cadavers, the moved organs were relocated, the abdomen was closed, and CT was performed. CT derived measurements of celiac ganglia were compared with those from cadavers study. Results: The celiac ganglia of 47 of 50 cadavers (94%) were located between T12-L1, and those of 3 cadavers (6%) were located between T11-12. The superior-inferior diameter of the right ganglia was (25.01 ±6.09) mm, long (left-right) diameter was (13.18 ± 3.62) mm, and short (thickness) diameter was (1.40 ± 0.55) mm. In the left ganglia, these three diameters were (22.74 ± 5.70) mm, (15.07 ± 4.35) mm, and (2.00 ± 0.71 ) mm, respectively. On the CT images of 6 cadavers, the right and left ganglia were all identified and were hyperdense relative to viscus, such as liver and spleen. The long and short diameters on CT images were (15.20 ± 1.64) mm and (1.53 ± 0.52) mm for the right ganglia and (16.25 ± 1.73 ) mm and (2.20 ± 0.73) mm for the left ganglia. There was no significant difference between the diameters of the ganglia measured on CT images and by dissection (P>0.05). Conclusion: Current CT techniques can demonstrate accurately the celiac ganglia in cadavers. This can be a reference for identifying the celiac plexus in vivo. (authors)

  13. Bone Signaling in Middle Ear Development: A Genome‐Wide Differential Expression Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Bertelsen, Tomas Martin; Friis, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Common middle ear diseases may affect bone behavior in the middle ear air cell system. To understand this pathologic pneumatization, the normal development of bone in the middle ear should be investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze gene expression of bone‐related signaling factor...... of the bulla wall. Anat Rec, 297:2349–2355, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  14. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression in the guinea pig inner ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Wagner, Niels; Lidegaard Frederiksen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    , this study determines expression of EPO and EPOR in the inner ear of the guinea pig. Normal guinea pig inner ears were processed for immunohistochemistry, using poly-clonal antibodies against EPO and the EPO receptor. EPO expression was exclusively found in most, but not all spiral ganglion neurons...... expressed by several cell types within the guinea pig cochlea. We hypothesize on the existence of a local paracrine system and that EPO treatment may be feasible following inner ear damage....

  15. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics...... of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase...... of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources...

  16. Morphometric Study of Vocal Folds in Indian Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawal J.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: -The larynx is an air passage and a sphincteric device used in respiration and phonation. The larynx, from inside outwards has a framework of mucosa surrounded by fibro-elastic membrane which in turn is surrounded by cartilages and then a layer of muscles. Vocal folds are intrinsic ligament of larynx covered by mucosal folds. Larynx generates sound through rhythmic opening and closing of the vocal folds. The perceived pitch of human voice mainly depends upon fundamental frequency of sound generated by larynx. Aim: - The aim of present study is to measure various dimensions of vocal folds in Indian cadavers. Material & Methods: - 50 larynx were obtained from embalmed cadavers, of which 10 larynx were of females. Vocal cords were dissected from the larynx and morphometric analysis was done. Results and Conclusions: - The average total length of the vocal folds was found to be 16.11 mm. ± 2.62 mm. in male and 14.10 mm. ± 1.54 mm. in female cadavers. The average width of the vocal folds was found to be 4.38 mm. ± 0.74 mm. in male and 3.60 mm. ± 0.64 mm. in female cadavers. The average total length of the membranous part of the vocal folds was found to be 11.90 mm. ± 1.86 mm. in male and 10.45 mm. ± 1.81 mm. in female cadavers. The average ratio of the length of the membranous and the cartilaginous parts of the vocal folds was calculated to be 3.10 ± 0.96in male and 2.85 ± 0.73in female cadavers.

  17. The role of MRI in suspected inner ear malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesling, S.; Juettemann, S.; Amaya, B.; Rasinski, C.; Bloching, M.; Koenig, E.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This is a prospective analysis of the value of MRI in suspected inner ear malformations. Materials and Methods: In 50 patients (43 children and young adults, 7 adults) with suspected inner ear malformation MRI (1.5 T) was performed. In addition, 42 of these patients underwent CT. For the analysis of the inner ear structures, the constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence with 0.7 mm slice thickness was used. Functional tests revealed a sensorineural hearing loss or deafness in 82 temporal bones (TB) and a combined hearing loss in 4 TB. The hearing loss was unilateral in 14 patients. MRI and CT findings were compared. Results: Imaging findings were normal in 58 TB. The pathological findings included inner ear malformations (35 TB), inflammatory changes (4 TB), partial obliteration of labyrinth (2 TB) and congenital aural atresia (1 TB). An isolated absence of the cochlear nerve (1 TB) could only be found by MRI. In the remaining cases, an inner ear malformation was diagnosed by MRI and CT with the same confidence but MRI was superior in displaying the fine details. Conclusions: MRI will become the method of choice in the diagnosis of inner ear malformations. (orig.) [de

  18. Human ear recognition by computer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanu, Bir; Chen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics deals with recognition of individuals based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. Unlike the fingerprint and iris, it can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject, although sometimes it may be hidden with hair, scarf and jewellery. Also, unlike a face, the ear is a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. ""Human Ear Recognition by Computer"" is the first book o

  19. Porcine cadaver organ or virtual-reality simulation training for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P.; Napolitano, Daniel; de Win, Gunter; Miserez, Marc

    2015-01-01

    As conventional laparoscopic procedural training requires live animals or cadaver organs, virtual simulation seems an attractive alternative. Therefore, we compared the transfer of training for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy from porcine cadaver organs vs virtual simulation to surgery in a live

  20. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  1. Radiographic appearance of the middle ear after ventral bulla osteotomy in five dogs with otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, D.E.; Walker, L.

    1997-01-01

    Radiographs of the middle ear were made in five dogs 60 to 78 months after ventral bulla osteotomy was performed to treat otitis media. The clinical results of surgery were considered satisfactory in four dogs and unsatisfactory in one. In 4 dogs with satisfactory results, radiographs demonstrated complete reformation of the bulla in 3 operated middle ears (3 dogs), with partial bulla reformation in the three middle ears (3 dogs). Radiographs in one dog with unsatisfactory results showed complete bulla reformation with no increase in lumen opacity. The proliferative bony response obliterating the middle ear previously reported in normal dogs after ventral bulla osteotomy was not seen in any of these patients

  2. Inner ear anatomy in Waardenburg syndrome: radiological assessment and comparison with normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontorinis, Georgios; Goetz, Friedrich; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Luytenski, Stefan; Giesemann, Anja M

    2014-08-01

    As patients with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) represent potential candidates for cochlear implantation, their inner ear anatomy is of high significance. There is an ongoing debate whether WS is related to any inner ear dysplasias. Our objective was to evaluate radiologically the inner ear anatomy in patients with WS and identify any temporal bone malformations. A retrospective case review was carried out in a tertiary, referral center. The high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans of the temporal bone from 20 patients (40 ears) with WS who were managed for deafness in a tertiary referral center from 1995 to 2012 were retrospectively examined. Measurements of 15 different inner ear dimensions, involving the cochlea, the vestibule, the semicircular canals and the internal auditory meatus, as well as measurements of the vestibular aqueduct, were performed independently by two neuroradiologists. Finally, we compared the results from the WS group with a control group consisting of 50 normal hearing subjects (100 ears) and with previously reported normative values. Inner ear malformations were not found in any of the patients with WS. All measured inner ear dimensions were within the normative values compiled by our study group as well as by others. Inner ear malformations are not characteristic for all types of WS; however, certain rare subtypes might be related to inner ear deformities. Normative cochleovestibular dimensions that can help in assessing the temporal bone anatomy are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Global Ear. Werke 2001 - 2006

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Dresdenis muusikafestivalil "Global Ear" 23.3.03 esitusel Eesti heliloojate muusika: Helena Tulve "lumineux/opaque", Jaan Rääts "Meditation", Mirjam Tally "Aura", Mati Kuulberg "Sonate Nr.4", Mari Vihmand "Seitsmele"

  4. COMMON INFECTIONS OF THE EAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    tion of the skin covering the tympanic membrane and deep exter- nal canal, and the production of ... of combination steroid/antifungal/antibiotic ointment (e.g.. Kenacomb) with a cotton bud ..... protection to the delicate middle ear structures.

  5. A Cross-sectional Morphometric Study of Thyroid Glands in Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrish Patil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid gland is an organ with a highly variable morphology. Despite several studies having been done to assess its measurements, a consensus has not been arrived at as to what constitutes a ‘normal’ thyroid. Aim: To determine the dimensions of the normal thyroid gland obtained from cadavers of South Indian region and to derive the mean and standard deviations of the measurements of the gland in the given population, thus contributing to the existing data. We also aimed to study three common but not constant components of the thyroid gland, namely Pyramidal Lobe (PL, Tubercle of Zukerkandl (TZ and Levator Glandulae Thyroideae (LGT. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on thyroid glands obtained from cadavers of South Indian region. Institutional ethics committee approval was obtained. Sixty thyroid glands were obtained from cadavers received for either routine dissection or autopsies. The thyroid glands were studied after adequate exposure and fixing in formalin. Dimensions were measured using Vernier calipers. Specimens with anomalies like absent isthmus etc were excluded from the study. Statistical analysis was done using the MedCalc Version 17.0 software. Results: The average dimensions of the lobes were: height 3.83 cm, width 2.62 cm, and thickness 2.69 cm. The average dimensions of the isthmus were: height 1.38 cm, width 1.36 cm and thickness 1.29 cm. The average dimensions of the pyramidal lobe were: height 2.03 cm, width at the base 1.91 cm and thickness 1.16 cm. Pyramidal lobe was present in 60% of cases. Levator glandulae thyroideae was observable in three cases (5%. Significant correlation was found between the dimensions of right and left lobes and regression equations were calculated. Conclusion: The dimensions of the thyroid gland are very variable. Knowledge of the wide ranging variations and measurements will be of help to surgeons and radiologists in correct interpretation, diagnosis and treatment of

  6. A human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Frank C; Cooper, Dylan; Huffman, Gretchen; Bartkus, Edward; Wilbur, Lee

    2013-10-01

    Fresh human cadavers provide an effective model for procedural training. Currently, there are no realistic models to teach fascial compartment pressure measurement. We created a human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model and studied its feasibility with a pre-post design. Three faculty members, following instructions from a common procedure textbook, used a standard handheld intra-compartment pressure monitor (Stryker(®), Kalamazoo, MI) to measure baseline pressures ("unembalmed") in the anterior, lateral, deep posterior, and superficial posterior compartments of the lower legs of a fresh human cadaver. The right femoral artery was then identified by superficial dissection, cannulated distally towards the lower leg, and connected to a standard embalming machine. After a 5-min infusion, the same three faculty members re-measured pressures ("embalmed") of the same compartments on the cannulated right leg. Unembalmed and embalmed readings for each compartment, and baseline readings for each leg, were compared using a two-sided paired t-test. The mean baseline compartment pressures did not differ between the right and left legs. Using the embalming machine, compartment pressure readings increased significantly over baseline for three of four fascial compartments; all in mm Hg (±SD): anterior from 40 (±9) to 143 (±44) (p = 0.08); lateral from 22 (±2.5) to 160 (±4.3) (p cadaver using a standard embalming machine. Set-up is minimal and the model can be incorporated into teaching curricula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: A New Embalming Fluid for Preserving Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Natekar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissection laboratory is the only place where the three dimensional structure of the human body is reinforced by visual, auditory and tactile pathways. Cadavers are main teaching tools in Anatomy and are handled by the staff and students routinely. Very often the cadavers enbalmed by various chemicals are not effective in inhibiting growth of fungi, bacteria, maggots etc. To date limited studies have been carried out to overcome this problem hence this study was undertaken to find out safe and effective enbalming fluid. Aims and Objectives: The main object of the present study is to provide a composition of body-preservation fluid which is effective in preventing decomposition of cadavers, maintaining a desired life-like appearance of the body which is non hazardous for dissection and environmentally safe. It was observed that chemical composition of the embalming fluid was very effective in prevention of growth of bacteria, fungus and also decay and discoloration. Results: This study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Goa Medical College, Bambolim Goa (India from the year 2006 to 2011. Total 100 cadavers were embalmed with the following composition of the embalming fluid. It was observed that the solution in tanks where intact bodies were preserved was clear without any fungus form a period of 5 years whereas the dissected cadavers were kept separately also containing 10 percent formalin showed minimal growth of fungus after 12 months and the solution was replaced after 12 months. Conclusions: In our present study the tank containing undissected cadavers has not shown any growth of fungus for a period of 5 years. Routine dissected parts showed fungal growth only after 12 months, whereupon the scum was removed and the tank solution replaced. The arterial fluid was red in colour and could be differentiated from cavity fluid. The cadavers were free from growth of fungus and maggots during their entire first MBBS course. Not

  8. Mozart Ear Deformity: a Rare Diagnosis in the Ear Reconstruction Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telich-Tarriba, Jose E; Victor-Baldin, Andre; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando

    2017-07-01

    Mozart ear is a rare auricular deformity; clinically the auricle is characterized by the bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle due to fusion of the crura of the antihelix, an inversion in the normal form of the cavum conchae resulting in its convexity and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus.A retrospective review of clinical and photographic records of patients attended at the ear reconstruction clinic of our hospital between June of 2010 and May 2016 was performed; out of 576 consecutive patients only 3 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with a prevalence of 0.5%. The authors present these patients.Surgical interventions mainly focus on the correction of the convex concha; however, the procedure should be tailored to the severity of the deformity and the wishes of the patient.

  9. [Identification and preservation of parathyroid glands in cadaver parts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Catarina; Bernardes, António; Carvalho, Lina

    2013-01-01

    It is essential to know the thyroid gland morphology and its anatomical relations in the anterior compartment of the neck in order to minimize the rate of thyroid surgery morbidity, especially the lesion of parathyroid glands and laryngeal nerves. The aim of this study was the identification of parathyroid glands in cadaver parts and their histological confirmation. Twenty cadaver parts were used to simulate thyroidectomies. During dissection, the thyroid glands and eventual parathyroid glands were isolated and then submitted to histological study. Twenty cadaver parts (anterior cervical organs) were used for macroscopic dissection during which 48 fragments that corresponded to eventual parathyroid glands were isolated, 35 of which were effectively confirmed through histological observation to be parathyroid glands. The 20 cadaver parts were then divided into three groups according to the number of histologically confirmed parathyroid glands. In the first group, composed of 11 cases, all eventual parathyroid glands were confirmed. In the second group, composed of six cases, only some glands were confirmed. In the third group, composed of three cases, none of the possible glands were confirmed. In seven of the 20 isolated thyroid glands, eight parathyroid glands were identified during histological study: four subcapsular, three extra-capsular, one intra-thyroidal. There was no statistical relation in the dimensions of the parathyroid glands. The knowledge of the anatomy of the central visceral compartment of the neck and its most frequent variations reduces but doesn't eliminate thyroid surgery morbidity, especially parathyroid iatrogenic excision, difficulty which has been demonstrated during the dissection of cadaver parts.

  10. A new substitute for formalin: Application to embalming cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haizuka, Yoshinori; Nagase, Miki; Takashino, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Fujikura, Yoshihisa; Matsumura, George

    2018-01-01

    The development of formalin-free fixatives is an urgent issue in gross anatomy because of the health hazard and the tissue-hardening actions of formalin. We recently identified the fixative, antimicrobial, and preservative effects of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP), a precursor of the water-soluble macromolecular polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone, in animal experiments. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether NVP solution can be used as an alternative to formalin in human cadaveric dissection. Twelve donated cadavers were infused with NVP via the femoral and common carotid arteries using a peristaltic pump. Experienced teaching staff members in our department dissected the cadavers and examined their macroanatomical properties. The NVP-embalmed corpses showed no sign of decomposition or fungal growth. The bodies remained soft and flexible. Notably, the shoulder, elbow, wrist, phalangeal, hip, knee, cervical spine, and temporomandibular joints were highly mobile, almost equivalent to those of living individuals. The range of motion of most joints was greater in the NVP-fixed than formalin-fixed cadavers. Under the dermis, the subcutaneous fat was markedly reduced and the connective tissues were transparent, so the ligaments, cutaneous nerves, and veins were easily discernible. The abdominal wall and the visceral organs remained pliable and elastic, resembling those of fresh cadavers. The lungs, liver, and gastrointestinal tract were moveable in the thoracic and abdominal cavities and were readily isolated. NVP can be used successfully as a fixative and preservative solution for human cadavers; furthermore, NVP-embalmed bodies could be valuable for learning clinical skills and for training, and for developing innovative medical devices. Clin. Anat. 31:90-98, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Optimising magnetic resonance image quality of the ear in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Davina; Lüpke, Matthias; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Klopmann, Thilo; Nolte, Ingo; Seifert, Hermann

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an examination protocol for magnetic resonance imaging, in order to display diagnostically important information of the canine middle and inner ear. To ensure that this protocol could also be used as a basis for determining pathological changes, the anatomical structures of the ear were presented in detail. To minimise stress through anaesthesia in live animals, preliminary examinations were carried out on four dog cadavers. During these initial examinations, three-dimensional (3D) sequences proved to be superior to two-dimensional ones. Therefore, only 3D sequences were applied for the main examinations performed on six clinically healthy Beagles. The anonymised MR images were rated by three experienced reviewers using a five-point scale. The most valuable sequence was a T2-weighted CISS sequence (TR = 16.7 ms, TE = 8.08 ms). This sequence proved to be most suitable for illustrating the inner ear structures and enabled good tissue contrasts. The sequence ranked second best was also a T2-weighted DESS sequence (TR = 19 ms, TE = 6 ms), allowing the imaging of the tympanic cavity and enabling 3D reconstruction due to its isotropic voxels. Due to low contrast and strong noise, the other sequences (TSE, FISP, MP RAGE) were not suitable for anatomical illustration of the middle and inner ear.

  12. Human cadaver retina model for retinal heating during corneal surgery with a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yun, Jin; Zhao, Tianzhuo; Yan, Ying; Kurtz, Ron M.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2014-02-01

    Femtosecond lasers are widely used in everyday clinical procedures to perform minimally invasive corneal refractive surgery. The intralase femtosecond laser (AMO Corp. Santa Ana, CA) is a common example of such a laser. In the present study a numerical simulation was developed to quantify the temperature rise in the retina during femtosecond intracorneal surgery. Also, ex-vivo retinal heating due to laser irradiation was measured with an infrared thermal camera (Fluke Corp. Everett, WA) as a validation of the simulation. A computer simulation was developed using Comsol Multiphysics to calculate the temperature rise in the cadaver retina during femtosecond laser corneal surgery. The simulation showed a temperature rise of less than 0.3 degrees for realistic pulse energies for the various repetition rates. Human cadaver retinas were irradiated with a 150 kHz Intralase femtosecond laser and the temperature rise was measured withan infrared thermal camera. Thermal camera measurements are in agreement with the simulation. During routine femtosecond laser corneal surgery with normal clinical parameters, the temperature rise is well beneath the threshold for retina damage. The simulation predictions are in agreement with thermal measurements providing a level of experimental validation.

  13. Anatomical aspects of the gastrocnemius muscles: A study in 47 fresh cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelkov, Katarina; Atanasijevic, Tatjana C; Popovic, Vesna M; Sforza, Marcos; Atkinson, Connor J; Soldatovic, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    This study offers objective dimensions of the gastrocnemius muscle and analyzes correlations between dimensional variables, with a view to providing guidance on the proportions of a healthy gastrocnemius muscle for both genders. This anatomical study was conducted at the Institute of Forensic Medicine Faculty of Medicine University of Belgrade, Serbia, from May until November 2014. We included 47 fresh cadavers (up to 12-h postmortem interval) both male and female. The inclusion criteria were absence of any trauma or degenerative findings in lower limbs, normally weighed, and age between 18 and 60 years. The exclusion criteria were significant difference in dimensions between legs and overweighed cadavers. After statistical analysis of gathered data, we were able to define the exact shape and average measures of the medial and lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle in male and female. Factors affecting muscle dimensions are also defined in this study. The method of dissection that we applied could be recommended for exploration of different anatomical structures of calf region. The reported dimensions and correlations are useful guide in planning cosmetic and reconstructive procedures with high accuracy. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Human ear detection in the thermal infrared spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Ayman; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2012-06-01

    In this paper the problem of human ear detection in the thermal infrared (IR) spectrum is studied in order to illustrate the advantages and limitations of the most important steps of ear-based biometrics that can operate in day and night time environments. The main contributions of this work are two-fold: First, a dual-band database is assembled that consists of visible and thermal profile face images. The thermal data was collected using a high definition middle-wave infrared (3-5 microns) camera that is capable of acquiring thermal imprints of human skin. Second, a fully automated, thermal imaging based ear detection method is developed for real-time segmentation of human ears in either day or night time environments. The proposed method is based on Haar features forming a cascaded AdaBoost classifier (our modified version of the original Viola-Jones approach1 that was designed to be applied mainly in visible band images). The main advantage of the proposed method, applied on our profile face image data set collected in the thermal-band, is that it is designed to reduce the learning time required by the original Viola-Jones method from several weeks to several hours. Unlike other approaches reported in the literature, which have been tested but not designed to operate in the thermal band, our method yields a high detection accuracy that reaches ~ 91.5%. Further analysis on our data set yielded that: (a) photometric normalization techniques do not directly improve ear detection performance. However, when using a certain photometric normalization technique (CLAHE) on falsely detected images, the detection rate improved by ~ 4%; (b) the high detection accuracy of our method did not degrade when we lowered down the original spatial resolution of thermal ear images. For example, even after using one third of the original spatial resolution (i.e. ~ 20% of the original computational time) of the thermal profile face images, the high ear detection accuracy of our method

  15. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  16. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  17. Ear Disorders in Scuba Divers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Azizi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available History of underwater diving dates back to antiquity. Breath-hold technique in diving was known to the ancient nations. However, deep diving progressed only in the early decades of the 19th century as the result of advancements in efficient underwater technologies which subsequently led to invention of sophisticated sets of scuba diving in the 20th century. Currently, diving is performed for various purposes including commercial, recreational, military, underwater construction, oil industry, underwater archeology and scientific assessment of marine life. By increasing popularity of underwater diving, dive-related medical conditions gradually became more evident and created a new challenge for the health care professionals, so that eventually, a specialty the so-called “diving medicine” was established. Most of the diving-associated disorders appear in the head and neck. The most common of all occupational disorders associated with diving are otologic diseases. External otitis has been reported as the most common otolaryngologic problem in underwater divers. Exostosis of the external ear canal may be formed in divers as the result of prolonged diving in cold waters. Other disorders of the ear and paranasal sinuses in underwater divers are caused by barometric pressure change (i.e., barotraumas, and to a lesser extent by decompression sickness. Barotrauma of the middle ear is the most prevalent barotrauma in divers. The inner ear barotraumas, though important, is less common. The present paper is a brief overview of diving-related ear disorders particularly in scuba divers.

  18. Helicopter thermal imaging for detecting insect infested cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Jens; Rodner, Sandra; Schuch, Claus-Peter; Sprenger, Heinz; Weidlich, Lars; Reckel, Frank

    2017-09-01

    One of the most common techniques applied for searching living and even dead persons is the FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) system fixed on an aircraft like e.g. a helicopter, visualizing the thermal patterns emitted from objects in the long-infrared spectrum. However, as body temperature cools down to ambient values within approximately 24h after death, it is common sense that searching for deceased persons can be just applied the first day post-mortem. We postulated that the insect larval masses on a decomposing body generate a heat which can be considerably higher than ambient temperatures for a period of several weeks and that such heat signatures might be used for locating insect infested human remains. We examined the thermal history of two 70 and 90kg heavy pig cadavers for 21days in May and June 2014 in Germany. Adult and immature insects on the carcasses were sampled daily. Temperatures were measured on and inside the cadavers, in selected maggot masses and at the surroundings. Thermal imaging from a helicopter using the FLIR system was performed at three different altitudes up to 1500ft. during seven day-flights and one night-flight. Insect colonization was dominated by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) which occurred almost immediately after placement of the cadavers. Larvae were noted first on day 2 and infestation of both cadavers was enormous with several thousand larvae each. After day 14 a first wave of post-feeding larvae left the carcasses for pupation. Body temperature of both cadavers ranged between 15°C and 35°C during the first two weeks of the experiment, while body surface temperatures peaked at about 45°C. Maggot masses temperatures reached values up to almost 25°C above ambient temperature. Detection of both cadavers by thermal imaging was possible on seven of the eight helicopter flights until day 21. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Saturated salt solution method: a useful cadaver embalming for surgical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST.

  20. Effect of laryngoscopy on middle ear pressure during anaesthesia induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerli, Semih; Acar, Baran; Sahap, Mehmet; Horasanlı, Eyup

    2013-01-01

    The procedure of laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation (LOTI) has many impacts on several parts of the body. But its effect on middle ear pressure (MEP) is not known well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MEP changes subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube with laryngoscope. 44 patients were included in this study with a normal physical examination of ear, nose and throat. A standard general anaesthesia induction without any inhaler agent was performed to the all patients. The MEP measurements for both ears were applied under 1 minute; before induction (BI) and after intubation (AI) with a middle ear analyzer. Also hemodynamic parameters were recorded before induction and after intubation. Of the 44 patients were 25 women and 19 men with a 43.5±15.1 mean age. A statistically significant rise in MEP was seen in all patients subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube (Ptube, size and type of the blades, drugs and face masking time. But on the other hand in our opinion cardiovascular and haemodynamic response to LOTI has the most impact over the middle ear mucosa with mucosal venous congestion.

  1. Early uneven ear input induces long-lasting differences in left-right motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Michelle W; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Dieterich, Marianne; Brandt, Thomas; Vijayakumar, Sarath; McKeehan, Nicholas; Arezzo, Joseph C; Zukin, R Suzanne; Borkholder, David A; Jones, Sherri M; Frisina, Robert D; Hébert, Jean M

    2018-03-01

    How asymmetries in motor behavior become established normally or atypically in mammals remains unclear. An established model for motor asymmetry that is conserved across mammals can be obtained by experimentally inducing asymmetric striatal dopamine activity. However, the factors that can cause motor asymmetries in the absence of experimental manipulations to the brain remain unknown. Here, we show that mice with inner ear dysfunction display a robust left or right rotational preference, and this motor preference reflects an atypical asymmetry in cortico-striatal neurotransmission. By unilaterally targeting striatal activity with an antagonist of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a downstream integrator of striatal neurotransmitter signaling, we can reverse or exaggerate rotational preference in these mice. By surgically biasing vestibular failure to one ear, we can dictate the direction of motor preference, illustrating the influence of uneven vestibular failure in establishing the outward asymmetries in motor preference. The inner ear-induced striatal asymmetries identified here intersect with non-ear-induced asymmetries previously linked to lateralized motor behavior across species and suggest that aspects of left-right brain function in mammals can be ontogenetically influenced by inner ear input. Consistent with inner ear input contributing to motor asymmetry, we also show that, in humans with normal ear function, the motor-dominant hemisphere, measured as handedness, is ipsilateral to the ear with weaker vestibular input.

  2. Free manual of cadaver dissection modifiable by other anatomists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk

    2015-06-01

    Even in the rapidly changing field of cadaver dissection, published guide books still play an important role in the anatomy lab. However, commercial manuals with lengthy volumes and inflexible copyrights have several limitations which can be complemented by open-source manuals. Recently, the authors have manufactured and distributed a free electronic dissection manual (anatomy.co.kr), where descriptions are written concisely and images are drawn schematically. Moreover, simplified signs are employed to represent the cadaver viewing angles and manner of dissection. Based on the original files of this manual, other anatomists can revise and utilize the descriptions and figures. We expect many updated versions of our manual to be shared between students all over the world.

  3. Fresh frozen cadaver workshops for advanced vascular surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Shirley; Cowie, Margaret; Linehan, John; Hamdorf, Jeffery M

    2014-11-01

    Reduction in working hours, streamlined training schemes and increasing use of endovascular techniques has meant a reduction in operative experience for newer vascular surgical trainees, especially those exposures which are not routinely performed such as thoracoabdominal, thoracotomy and retroperitoneal aortic, for example. This paper describes an Advanced Anatomy of Exposure course which was designed and convened at the Clinical Training & Evaluation Centre in Western Australia and uses fresh frozen cadavers. Feedback was obtained from the participants who attended over three courses by questionnaire. Feedback was strongly positive for the course meeting both its learning outcomes and personal learning objectives, and in addition, making a significant contribution to specialty skills. Most participants thought the fresh frozen cadaveric model significantly improved the learning objectives for training. The fresh frozen cadaver is an excellent teaching model highly representative of the living open surgical scenario where advanced trainees and newly qualified consultants can improve their operative confidence and consequently patient safety in vascular surgery. An efficient fresh frozen cadaver teaching programme can benefit many health professionals simultaneously maximizing the use of donated human tissue. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. Insect Fauna of Human Cadavers in Tehran District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Talebzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entomological data can provide valuable information for crime scene investigations especially in post- mortem interval (PMI estimation. This study performed to determine insect fauna of human corpses in Tehran dis­trict.Methods: Insect specimens were collected from 12 human cadavers during spring and summer 2014 and were identi­fied using morphological characteristics.Results: Four fly species including two blowflies Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Calliphoridae, one flesh fly Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Sarcophagidae, and one phorid fly Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae and a beetle Der­mestes maculatus (Dermestidae was observed on the human cadavers. Chrysomya albiceps was the most dominant species on the corpses temporally and spatially.Conclusion: Chrysomya albiceps was the most dominant insect species on human cadavers in the area study spatio­temporally. The data make C. albiceps as a valuable entomological indicator for PMI estimation in Tehran and other parts of the country. However, further biological and ecological data such as its behavior, life tables, and consistent developmental time should be investigated when establishing a PMI in the region.

  5. Pulmonary Complications of Mustard Gas Exposure: A Study on Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Behnoush

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard gas is one of the chemical warfare gases that roughly about 45000 soldiers continue to suffer long-lasting consequences of exposure during the Iran-Iraq war between 1980 and 1988. According to the common pulmonary lesions due to this gas exposure, we studied gross and microscopic pulmonary lesions in cadavers and also assessed the main causes of mortality caused by mustard gas exposure. A case-series study was performed on hospital record files of 100 cadavers that were exposed with documented sulfur mustard gas during the Iran-Iraq war from 1979 to 1988 and autopsied in legal medicine organization In Tehran between 2005 and 2007 and gross and microscopic pathological findings of autopsied organs such as hematological, pulmonary, hepatic, and renal changes were evaluated. All cases were male with the mean age of 43 years. The time interval between the gas exposure and death was almost 20years. The most frequent pulmonary complication was chronic bronchitis in 81% of autopsied cadavers. Other pulmonary findings were progressive pulmonary fibrosis (9%, pulmonary infections and tuberculosis (29%, malignant cellular infiltration (4%, and aspergilloma (1%. According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the gas exposed persons and prohibiting chemical warfare are recommended.

  6. In-the-Ear Hearing-Instrument Antenna for ISM-Band Body-Centric Ear-to-Ear Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yatman, William H.; Larsen, Lauge K; Kvist, Søren Helstrup

    2012-01-01

    A compact 2.45 GHz slot-loop antenna is implemented for the use in the outer shell of an in-the-ear (ITE) hearing instrument (HI). The antenna is optimized for high ear-to-ear path gain (jS21j). The antenna simulation results are presented for two identical antennas, one placed in the center of e...

  7. Inflammatory diseases of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasquevisque, Gustavo Santos; Andrade, Carlos Ramon de; Boasquevisque, Edson Mendes

    2008-01-01

    Objective: to determine the aspects and frequency of middle ear alterations at computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with clinical suspicion for middle ear inflammatory disease. Material and method: imaging examination results of 95 patients (95 computed tomography and 1 magnetic resonance imaging) were compared with the results of otology, imaging and surgical findings. Results: fifty-two patients had normal imaging results. Forty-three patients had radiologic alterations compared to the physical, otology and histopathologic exams: acute otomastoiditis in 2 patients (4.6%), unilateral chronic otomastoiditis in 9 (21.0%), bilateral chronic otomastoiditis in 2 (4.6%), unilateral cholesteatoma in 26 (60.5%), and bilateral cholesteatoma in 4 (9.3%). Conclusion: computed tomography was able to demonstrate the characteristics of the lesions and found complications in majority of the cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was used only in one patient to rule out scar and cholesteatoma. The knowledge of the clinical and otologic data enables the radiologist to elaborate a more appropriate interpretation of the imaging findings. (author)

  8. Digital Active Noise Reduction Ear Plugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harley, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    .... In contrast to available ANR headsets that implement fixed analog filters, the prototype defines a digital filter that is optimally defined for the user's current acoustical environment. An above-the-ear (ATE) and an in-the-ear (ITE...

  9. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  10. External ear: An analysis of its uniqueness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruma Purkait

    2016-06-01

    Hence, the individuality of every ear has been confirmed which may find use in personal identification studies. The study is a step towards providing scientific support for admitting ear evidence in the Court of Law.

  11. Proteomics and the Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolde Thalmann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The inner ear, one of the most complex organs, contains within its bony shell three sensory systems, the evolutionary oldest gravity receptor system, the three semicircular canals for the detection of angular acceleration, and the auditory system - unrivaled in sensitivity and frequency discrimination. All three systems are susceptible to a host of afflictions affecting the quality of life for all of us. In the first part of this review we present an introduction to the milestones of inner ear research to pave the way for understanding the complexities of a proteomics approach to the ear. Minute sensory structures, surrounded by large fluid spaces and a hard bony shell, pose extreme challenges to the ear researcher. In spite of these obstacles, a powerful preparatory technique was developed, whereby precisely defined microscopic tissue elements can be isolated and analyzed, while maintaining the biochemical state representative of the in vivo conditions. The second part consists of a discussion of proteomics as a tool in the elucidation of basic and pathologic mechanisms, diagnosis of disease, as well as treatment. Examples are the organ of Corti proteins OCP1 and OCP2, oncomodulin, a highly specific calcium-binding protein, and several disease entities, Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and perilymphatic fistula.

  12. Eustachian tube function and middle ear barotrauma associated with extremes in atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, T; Ueda, H; Yanagita, N

    1996-11-01

    Eustachian tube (ET) function was studied by means of sonotubometry and tubotympano-aerodynamography (TTAG) prior to and following exposure to hypobaric or hyperbaric conditions. Forty normal adults were subjected to hypobaric pressure. Fifty adults who underwent hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy also were studied. Following hypobaric exposure, 14 of 80 ears (17.5%) exhibited middle ear barotrauma. Following hyperbaric exposure, 34 of 100 ears (34%) exhibited middle ear barotrauma. Dysfunction of the ET, characterized by altered active and passive opening capacity, was more prevalent following exposure to extremes in atmospheric pressure compared to baseline. The ET function, which was impaired after the first HBO treatment, improved gradually over the next 2 hours. Overall, however, ET function was worse after the seventh treatment. The patients who developed barotrauma exhibited worse ET function prior to hypobaric or hyperbaric exposure. Thus, abnormal ET function can be used to predict middle ear barotrauma prior to exposure to hypobaric or hyperbaric atmospheric pressure.

  13. Evaluation of automatic image quality assessment in chest CT - A human cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caro; De Crop, An; De Roo, Bieke; Smeets, Peter; Vergauwen, Merel; Dewaele, Tom; Van Borsel, Mathias; Achten, Eric; Van Hoof, Tom; Bacher, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of clinical image quality (IQ) is important to optimize CT protocols and to keep patient doses as low as reasonably achievable. Considering the significant amount of effort needed for human observer studies, automatic IQ tools are a promising alternative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate automatic IQ assessment in chest CT using Thiel embalmed cadavers. Chest CT's of Thiel embalmed cadavers were acquired at different exposures. Clinical IQ was determined by performing a visual grading analysis. Physical-technical IQ (noise, contrast-to-noise and contrast-detail) was assessed in a Catphan phantom. Soft and sharp reconstructions were made with filtered back projection and two strengths of iterative reconstruction. In addition to the classical IQ metrics, an automatic algorithm was used to calculate image quality scores (IQs). To be able to compare datasets reconstructed with different kernels, the IQs values were normalized. Good correlations were found between IQs and the measured physical-technical image quality: noise (ρ=-1.00), contrast-to-noise (ρ=1.00) and contrast-detail (ρ=0.96). The correlation coefficients between IQs and the observed clinical image quality of soft and sharp reconstructions were 0.88 and 0.93, respectively. The automatic scoring algorithm is a promising tool for the evaluation of thoracic CT scans in daily clinical practice. It allows monitoring of the image quality of a chest protocol over time, without human intervention. Different reconstruction kernels can be compared after normalization of the IQs. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth / For Kids / Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print en español La música ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  15. Elastic fiber-mediated enthesis in the human middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Tetsuaki; Shibata, Shunichi; Katori, Yukio; Ohtsuka, Aiji; Murakami, Gen; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2012-10-01

    Adaptation to constant vibration (acoustic oscillation) is likely to confer a specific morphology at the bone-tendon and bone-ligament interfaces at the ear ossicles, which therefore represent an exciting target of enthesis research. We histologically examined (i) the bone attachments of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles and (ii) the annular ligament of the incudostapedial joint obtained from seven elderly donated cadavers. Notably, both aldehyde-fuchsin and elastic-Masson staining demonstrated that the major fibrous component of the entheses was not collagen fibers but mature elastic fibers. The positive controls for elastic fiber staining were the arterial wall elastic laminae included in the temporal bone materials. The elastic fibers were inserted deeply into the type II collagen-poor fibrocartilage covering the ear ossicles. The muscle tendons were composed of an outer thin layer of collagen fibers and an inner thick core of elastic fibers near the malleus or stapes. In the unique elastic fiber-mediated entheses, hyaluronan, versican and fibronectin were expressed strongly along the elastic fibers. The hyaluronan seemed to act as a friction-reducing lubricant for the elastic fibers. Aggrecan was labeled strongly in a disk- or plica-like fibrous mass on the inner side of the elastic fiber-rich ligament, possibly due to compression stress from the ligament. Tenascin-c was not evident in the entheses. The elastic fiber-mediated entheses appeared resistant to tissue destruction in an environment exposed to constant vibration. The morphology was unlikely to be the result of age-related degeneration. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  16. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  17. Still Human: A Call for Increased Focus on Ethical Standards in Cadaver Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Michelle C

    2016-12-01

    Research on human cadavers is an important mechanism of scientific progress and comprises a large industry in the United States. However, despite its importance and influence, there is little ethical or regulatory oversight of cadaver-based research. This lack of transparency raises important ethical questions. Thus, this paper serves as a call for ethicists and regulators to pay increased attention to cadaver research. I argue that cadaver research ought to be considered a subset of human subjects research and held accountable to higher ethical standards. After describing current practices, I argue that oversight of cadaver research as a form of human subjects research is appropriate because cadaver research is similar to other types of human research, participants in cadaver research incur risks of harm, and a current lack of oversight has allowed the cadaver industry to entice research participation through ethically questionable practices. This paper urges greater dialogue among human subjects research ethicists and regulators about what constitutes appropriate protections for participants in cadaver research.

  18. Bilateral implant-retained auricular prosthesis for a patient with congenitally missing ears. A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Preeti Satheesh; Satheesh Kumar, K S; Savadi, Ravindra C

    2012-06-01

    Microtia is a major congenital anomaly of the external ear. It includes a spectrum of deformities from a grossly normal but small ear to the absence of the entire external ear. These deformities account for three in every 10,000 births, with bilaterally missing ears seen in fewer than 10% of all cases. Congenital abnormalities of the ear are unlikely to result in the complete absence of the ears, but the patient presented in this article had bilateral congenitally missing ears. There was loss of anatomic landmarks and alteration of normal bony architecture. Minimal tissue was available for retention; therefore, conventional techniques could not be used for achieving retention. A two-implant-supported auricular prosthesis was planned, but the patient was found to have deficient bone in the implant site. Hence the implants were placed posterior to these sites, and the superstructure was modified to accommodate for this change in position of the implant to ensure the esthetic positioning of the prosthesis. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Right Ear Advantage of Speech Audiometry in Single-sided Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Vincent G; Probst, Rudolf

    2018-04-01

    Postlingual single-sided deafness (SSD) is defined as normal hearing in one ear and severely impaired hearing in the other ear. A right ear advantage and dominance of the left hemisphere are well established findings in individuals with normal hearing and speech processing. Therefore, it seems plausible that a right ear advantage would exist in patients with SSD. The audiometric database was searched to identify patients with SSD. Results from the German monosyllabic Freiburg word test and four-syllabic number test in quiet were evaluated. Results of right-sided SSD were compared with left-sided SSD. Statistical calculations were done with the Mann-Whitney U test. Four hundred and six patients with SSD were identified, 182 with right-sided and 224 with left-sided SSD. The two groups had similar pure-tone thresholds without significant differences. All test parameters of speech audiometry had better values for right ears (SSD left) when compared with left ears (SSD right). Statistically significant results (p right and 97.5 ± 4.7% left, p right and 93.9 ± 9.1% left, p right and 63.8 ± 11.1 dB SPL left, p right ear advantage of speech audiometry was found in patients with SSD in this retrospective study of audiometric test results.

  20. Tick in the outer ear canal: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özalkan Özkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serious systemic diseases such as Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Lyme Disease, tularemia, typhus and Q fever can be transmitted by ticks. An 8-year-old boy and a 34-year-old woman were brought to our clinic with ear pains. No symptoms such as fever, headache or lethargy to suggest CCHF were present. The patients both lived in rural areas and were engaged in farming. Full blood count, liver and kidney function tests and serum electrolytes were within normal limits at laboratory tests. Prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time and INR were normal. The tick was grasped with alligator forceps and removed from the outer ear in one piece with the help of 0-degree rigid otoendoscopy.

  1. Imaging of the inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, J.W.; Bensimon, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    New computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) techniques allow more detailed anatomic studies of the inner ear. CT is still the best technique to study patients with fractures, congenital malformations and otodystrophies involving the inner ear. During recent years MR imaging has emerged as an excellent method to detect pathology in the internal auditory canal, membranous labyrinth and bony labyrinth and to characterize petrous apex lesions. MR has even proved its value in patients with fractures and congenital malformations making the diagnosis of, for instance, labyrinthine concussion and absence of the vestibulocochlear nerve possible. The diagnosis of acute/chronic labyrinthitis and intralabyrinthine tumors has also became possible. However, MR and CT are often complementary, as is the case in patients with mixed hearing loss, congenital malformations and petrous apex lesions. (orig.) [de

  2. Rehabilitation with ear prosthesis linked to osseointegrated implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo C; dos Santos, Daniela M; Haddad, Marcela F; Moreno, Amália

    2012-06-01

    The absence of an ear, which can be the result of a congenital malformation, surgical tumour resection or traumatic injury, is a significant aesthetic problem. Attachment of ear prostheses with adhesives can cause local irritation for the wearer and affect the colour of the prostheses. Use of implants in craniofacial reconstruction can improve the retention and stability of prostheses giving to patient greater comfort and security relative to adhesive attachment. The aim of this report was to present a clinical case of a mutilated patient who was rehabilitated by means of installing an ear prosthesis fixed through osseointegrated implants. The patient had two implants installed in the mastoid region that were linked by a bar, and a clip-type system was used. The ear prosthesis was constructed from medical-use silicone, pigmented to match the patient's skin colour and linked to the retention system. The patient's rehabilitation was satisfactory from both a functional and an aesthetic point of view, making it possible for the patient to return to a normal social life and regain lost self-esteem. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. [Cochlear implant in patients with congenital malformation of inner ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-yi; Wu, Wen-ming; Xi, Xin; Huang, De-liang; Yang, Wei-yan

    2004-02-01

    To study surgical difficulty and key of the cochlear implant in patients with congenital malformation of inner ear. The cochlear implantations were performed in our department from Jan. 2001 to Apr. 2003 for 18 patients with the malformation of inner ear. In this series, there were 11 cases of large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS), 3 cases of Waardenberg syndrome, 3 cases of Mondini malformation, and 1 case of Usher syndrome. All 18 patients accepted the Nucleus 24-channel cochlear implantations, including Nucleus straight electrode in 13 cases but Contour implantation in 5 cases of LVAS. During operations, leakage of perilymph but not cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the open of scala tympani occurred in 11 cases of LVAS, however, the electrode was inserted successfully. The abnormalities of round window occurred in one of 3 cases of Waardenberg syndrome and 3 cases of Mondini malformation, respectively. The cochlear implant could be conducted successfully for the LVAS, and the postoperative effect was same as the ones for the deafness persons with normal development of inner ear. However, for the patients with Mondini syndrome and common cavity, it is important to accurately assess the extent of abnormalities in the inner ear and accompanied malformation before operation, and to evaluate the full extent of difficulties of the operation in order to minimize the risk of CSF leakage and meningitis.

  4. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency neurotomy in cervical spine: sonoanatomic study of a new technique in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kang, C.H.; Lee, S.-H.; Derby, R.; Yang, S.N.; Lee, J.E.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lee, J.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To develop an ultrasound-guided technique for radiofrequency (RF) cervical medial branch neurotomy and to validate the accuracy of this new method. Materials and methods: Five non-embalmed, fresh cadavers were used; three male and two female cadavers with a median age at death of 67.2 years (range 50-84 years). This study was conducted in two parts. First, two of the cadavers were used to define the sonographic target point for RF cervical medial branch neurotomy using high-resolution ultrasound (12 to 5 MHz). The needles were guided to five consecutive cervical medial branches in the cadavers under ultrasound guidance. Subsequently, the position of the ultrasound-guided needle was verified using C-arm fluoroscopy. Ultrasound-guided RF neurotomy was performed to the C5 medial branches in all five cadavers. In the three cadavers not used in the first part of the study, ultrasound-guided RF neurotomy without C-arm fluoroscopic confirmation was performed to the C3-C7 medial branches. The accuracy of neurotomy was assessed by pathological examination of the cervical medial branches obtained through cadaver dissection. Results: In all five cadavers, the sonographic target point was identified in all C3-C7 segments with the 12 to 5 MHz linear transducer. In all 20 needle placements for the first and second cadavers, C-arm fluoroscopy validated proper needle tip positions. In all five cadavers, successful neurotomy was pathologically confirmed in 30 of 34 cervical medial branches. Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided cervical medial branch neurotomy was successfully performed in 30 of 34 cervical medial branches in five cadavers. However, before eliminating fluoroscopic validation of final needle tip positioning, the technique should be validated in symptomatic patients

  5. Surface Projection of Interosseous Foramen of the Leg: Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Arguello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was conducted to identify the surface projection of the interosseous foramen and associated structures of the proximal leg using the average clinician’s thumb width as a quick measurement to assist in differential diagnosis and treatment. Methods. Twelve cadavers (5 males and 7 females, age range = 51–91 years, and mean age = 76.9 were dissected for analysis. Location and size of interosseous foramen, location of anterior tibial artery, location of deep fibular nerve, and corresponding arterial branches were measured and converted into thumb widths. Results. Mean thumb width measured among the cadavers was 17.94±3.9 mm. The interosseous foramen measured was approximately 1 thumb width vertically (18.47±3.0 mm and 1/2 thumb width horizontally (7.32±2.1 mm and was located approximately 1 thumb width distally to the tibial tuberosity (20.81±6.8 mm and 2 thumb widths (37.47±4.7 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. The anterior tibial artery and deep fibular nerve converged approximately 4 thumb widths (74.31±14.8 mm inferior to the tibial tuberosity and 2 thumb widths (33.46±4.9 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. Conclusion. Clinicians may identify anatomical structures of the proximal leg with palpation using the thumb width for measurement.

  6. Lengths and Positions of the Vermiform Appendix among Sudanese Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab I. El-Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: The anatomy of vermiform appendix displays great variations in length and position between different populations. The reports relating these variations to a specific etiological factor are few. This study aims to describe the positions and lengths of vermiform appendix among Sudanese cadavers. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Omdurman Teaching Hospital Morgue and Omdurman Islamic University-Sudan. Sixty Sudanese cadavers (30 male and 30 female, were dissected in the period from June 2013 to June 2014. The positions and the lengths of vermiform appendix were measured in millimeters. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results: The cadavers’ age ranged between 20 to 80 years according to their medico-legal reports. Retrocaecal position was mainly observed in 60%, pelvic in 35%, post-ileal in 3.3%, and pre-ileal in 1.7%. The lengths of the appendix was found < 69 mm in 23.3%, 70-110 mm in 60%, and > 110 mm in 16.7%, also the study showed insignificant difference between the lengths and ages (p < 0.08, and between males and females (p = 0.23. Age was the influencing factor for the positions of vermiform appendixes (p = 0.04. Conclusion: The study showed that the commonest lengths of the appendix were 70-110 mm while the common position was retrocaecal regardless to age or gender. This data should be considered in surgical removal of the inflamed appendix.

  7. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Jensen, Bente Rona; Kirpensteijn, Jolle

    2013-01-01

    . Animals-12 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers. Procedures-CT images of each hind limb in intact cadavers were obtained; at 1-week intervals, 3 reconstructions were performed that were based on 1 plane passing through the centers of the femoral head and medial condyle and parallel to the caudal femoral...

  8. perception to cadaver dissection and views on anatomy as a subject

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, literature on medical students' perceptions on cadaver dissection and their opinions on anatomy as a subject is scanty ... Key words: Dissection, Perceptions, Cadaver, Anatomy. INTRODUCTION. Dissection has been the .... attention they give to the learning of anatomy, and this may possibly explain the relatively.

  9. A Proposal for a Policy on the Ethical Care and Use of Cadavers and Their Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champney, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent events have occurred that indicate the need for policies on the ethical care and use of cadavers and their tissues in the United States. At present, there are policies that address the procurement, handling and disposition of cadavers, but there are no national or society sponsored policies that clearly state the ethically appropriate use…

  10. Current Status of Cadaver Sources in Turkey and a Wake-Up Call for Turkish Anatomists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürses, Ilke Ali; Coskun, Osman; Öztürk, Adnan

    2018-01-01

    Persisting difficulties in body procurement in Turkey led to the acquisition of donated, unclaimed, autopsied, and imported bodies regulated under current legislature. Yet, no study had investigated the extent of the on-going cadaver problem. This study was aimed to outline cadaver sources in anatomy departments and their effectiveness by means of…

  11. Diet influences rates of carbon and nitrogen mineralization from decomposing grasshopper frass and cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect herbivory can produce a pulse of mineral nitrogen (N) in soil from the decomposition of frass and cadavers. In this study we examined how diet quality affects rates of N and carbon (C) mineralization from grasshopper frass and cadavers. Frass was collected from grasshoppers fed natural or mer...

  12. Medical Students' Reactions to Anatomic Dissection and the Phenomenon of Cadaver Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Austin D.; Greenwald, Emily E.; Soricelli, Rhonda L.; DePace, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of gross anatomy has, for centuries, relied on the dissection of human cadavers, and this formative experience is known to evoke strong emotional responses. The authors hypothesized that the phenomenon of cadaver naming is a coping mechanism used by medical students and that it correlates with other attitudes about dissection and body…

  13. Medical students' reactions to anatomic dissection and the phenomenon of cadaver naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Austin D; Greenwald, Emily E; Soricelli, Rhonda L; DePace, Dennis M

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of gross anatomy has, for centuries, relied on the dissection of human cadavers, and this formative experience is known to evoke strong emotional responses. The authors hypothesized that the phenomenon of cadaver naming is a coping mechanism used by medical students and that it correlates with other attitudes about dissection and body donation. The authors developed a 33-question electronic survey to which 1,156 medical students at 12 medical schools in the United States voluntarily responded (November 2011-March 2012). They also surveyed course directors from each institution regarding their curricula and their observations of students' coping mechanisms. The majority of students (574, 67.8%) named their cadaver. Students most commonly cited the cadaver's age as the reason they chose a particular name for the cadaver. A minority of the students who did not name the cadaver reported finding the practice of naming disrespectful. Almost all students indicated that they would have liked to know more about their donor, particularly his or her medical history. Finally, students who knew the birth name of the donor used it less frequently than predicted. The authors found that the practice of naming cadavers is extremely prevalent among medical students and that inventive naming serves as a beneficial coping mechanism. The authors suggest that developing a method of providing students with more information about their cadaver while protecting the anonymity of the donor and family would be useful. © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. The Wider Importance of Cadavers: Educational and Research Diversity from a Body Bequest Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon; Stringer, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The debate surrounding the use of cadavers in teaching anatomy has focused almost exclusively on the pedagogic role of cadaver dissection in medical education. The aim of this study was to explore the wider aspects of a body bequest program for teaching and research into gross anatomy in a University setting. A retrospective audit was undertaken…

  15. Development of a desiccated cadaver delivery system to apply entomopathogenic nematodes for control of soil pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentomopathogenic nematodes may be more capable of controlling soil pests when they are harbored by desiccated cadavers. A small-scale system was developed from a modified crop seed planter to effectively deliver desiccated nematode-infected cadavers into the soil. The system mainly consists of a me...

  16. The Reliance on Unclaimed Cadavers for Anatomical Teaching by Medical Schools in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangata, Hope; Ntaba, Phatheka; Akol, Princess; Louw, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all…

  17. Use of cadaver models in point-of-care emergency ultrasound education for diagnostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Brita E; Briese, Beau; Williams, Sarah R; Gharahbaghian, Laleh

    2012-10-01

    As the use of bedside emergency ultrasound (US) increases, so does the need for effective US education. To determine 1) what pathology can be reliably simulated and identified by US in human cadavers, and 2) feasibility of using cadavers to improve the comfort of emergency medicine (EM) residents with specific US applications. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey study assessed utility of cadaver simulation to train EM residents in diagnostic US. First, the following pathologies were simulated in a cadaver: orbital foreign body (FB), retrobulbar (RB) hematoma, bone fracture, joint effusion, and pleural effusion. Second, we assessed residents' change in comfort level with US after using this cadaver model. Residents were surveyed regarding their comfort level with various US applications. After brief didactic sessions on the study's US applications, participants attempted to identify the simulated pathology using US. A post-lab survey assessed for change in comfort level after the training. Orbital FB, RB hematoma, bone fracture, joint effusion, and pleural effusion were readily modeled in a cadaver in ways typical of a live patient. Twenty-two residents completed the pre- and post-lab surveys. After training with cadavers, residents' comfort improved significantly for orbital FB and RB hematoma (mean increase 1.6, pcadavers helpful. Cadavers can simulate orbital FB, RB hematoma, bone fracture, joint effusion, and pleural effusion, and in our center improved the comfort of residents in identifying all but pleural effusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An Economical Approach to Teaching Cadaver Anatomy: A 10-Year Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    Because of shrinking budgets and computerized virtual dissection programs, many large and small institutions are closing the door on traditional and expensive cadaver dissection classes. However, many health-care educators would argue there is still a place for cadaver dissection in higher education, so the continuing challenge is to provide the…

  19. "Detached Concern" of Medical Students in a Cadaver Dissection Course: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The cadaver dissection course remains a time-honored tradition in medical education, partly because of its importance in cultivating professional attitudes in students. This study aims to investigate students' attitudes--specifically characterized as "detached concern"--in a cadaver dissection course. An interpretative phenomenological…

  20. Toxic effects of formalin-treated cadaver on medical students, staff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Formaldehyde can be toxic, allergenic and carcinogenic. Evaporation of formaldehyde from formalin-treated cadavers in the anatomy dissection rooms can produce high exposure. This study was conducted to assess acute and chronic toxic effects of formalin-treated cadavers on medical students, staff ...

  1. Lessons from dynamic cadaver and invasive bone pin studies: do we know how the foot really moves during gait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nester Christopher J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper provides a summary of a Keynote lecture delivered at the 2009 Australasian Podiatry Conference. The aim of the paper is to review recent research that has adopted dynamic cadaver and invasive kinematics research approaches to better understand foot and ankle kinematics during gait. It is not intended to systematically cover all literature related to foot and ankle kinematics (such as research using surface mounted markers. Since the paper is based on a keynote presentation its focuses on the authors own experiences and work in the main, drawing on the work of others where appropriate Methods Two approaches to the problem of accessing and measuring the kinematics of individual anatomical structures in the foot have been taken, (i static and dynamic cadaver models, and (ii invasive in-vivo research. Cadaver models offer the advantage that there is complete access to all the tissues of the foot, but the cadaver must be manipulated and loaded in a manner which replicates how the foot would have performed when in-vivo. The key value of invasive in-vivo foot kinematics research is the validity of the description of foot kinematics, but the key difficulty is how generalisable this data is to the wider population. Results Through these techniques a great deal has been learnt. We better understand the valuable contribution mid and forefoot joints make to foot biomechanics, and how the ankle and subtalar joints can have almost comparable roles. Variation between people in foot kinematics is high and normal. This includes variation in how specific joints move and how combinations of joints move. The foot continues to demonstrate its flexibility in enabling us to get from A to B via a large number of different kinematic solutions. Conclusion Rather than continue to apply a poorly founded model of foot type whose basis is to make all feet meet criteria for the mechanical 'ideal' or 'normal' foot, we should embrace variation

  2. Internally Coupled Ears in Living Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Matthew James

    2015-01-01

    It is generally held that the right and left middle ears of mammals are acoustically isolated from each other, such that mammals must rely on neural computation to derive sound localisation cues. There are, however, some unusual species in which the middle ear cavities intercommunicate, in which case each ear might be able to act as a pressure-difference receiver. This could improve sound localisation at lower frequencies. The platypus Ornithorhynchus is apparently unique among mammals in tha...

  3. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  4. A novel cadaver-based educational program in general surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine E; Peacock, Warwick J; Tillou, Areti; Hines, O Joe; Hiatt, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    To describe the development of a cadaver-based educational program and report our residents' assessment of the new program. An anatomy-based educational program was developed using fresh frozen cadavers to teach surgical anatomy and operative skills to general surgery (GS) trainees. Residents were asked to complete a voluntary, anonymous survey evaluating perceptions of the program (6 questions formulated on a 5-point Likert scale) and comparing cadaver sessions to other types of learning (4 rank order questions). Large university teaching hospital. Medical students, residents, and faculty members were participants in the cadaver programs. Only GS residents were asked to complete the survey. Since its implementation, 150 residents of all levels participated in 13 sessions. A total of 40 surveys were returned for a response rate of 89%. Overall, respondents held a positive view of the cadaver sessions and believed them to be useful for learning anatomy (94% agree or strongly agree), learning the steps of an operation (76% agree or strongly agree), and increasing confidence in doing an operation (53% agree or strongly agree). Trainees wanted to have more sessions (87% agree or strongly agree), and believed they would spend free time in the cadaver laboratory (58% agree or strongly agree). Compared with other learning modalities, cadaver sessions were ranked first for learning surgical anatomy, followed by textbooks, simulators, web sites, animate laboratories, and lectures. Respondents also ranked cadaver sessions first for increasing confidence in performing a procedure and for learning the steps of an operation. Cost of cadavers represented the major expense of the program. Fresh cadaver dissections represent a solution to the challenges of efficient, safe, and effective general surgery education. Residents have a positive attitude toward these teaching sessions and found them to be more effective than other learning modalities. Copyright © 2012 Association of

  5. Fgf8 and Fgf3 are required for zebrafish ear placode induction, maintenance and inner ear patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Sophie; Brand, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The vertebrate inner ear develops from initially 'simple' ectodermal placode and vesicle stages into the complex three-dimensional structure which is necessary for the senses of hearing and equilibrium. Although the main morphological events in vertebrate inner ear development are known, the genetic mechanisms controlling them are scarcely understood. Previous studies have suggested that the otic placode is induced by signals from the chordamesoderm and the hindbrain, notably by fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) and Wnt proteins. Here we study the role of Fgf8 as a bona-fide hindbrain-derived signal that acts in conjunction with Fgf3 during placode induction, maintenance and otic vesicle patterning. Acerebellar (ace) is a mutant in the fgf8 gene that results in a non-functional Fgf8 product. Homozygous mutants for acerebellar (ace) have smaller ears that typically have only one otolith, abnormal semi-circular canals, and behavioral defects. Using gene expression markers for the otic placode, we find that ace/fgf8 and Fgf-signaling are required for normal otic placode formation and maintenance. Conversely, misexpression of fgf8 or Fgf8-coated beads implanted into the vicinity of the otic placode can increase ear size and marker gene expression, although competence to respond to the induction appears restricted. Cell transplantation experiments and expression analysis suggest that Fgf8 is required in the hindbrain in the rhombomere 4-6 area to restore normal placode development in ace mutants, in close neighbourhood to the forming placode, but not in mesodermal tissues. Fgf3 and Fgf8 are expressed in hindbrain rhombomere 4 during the stages that are critical for placode induction. Joint inactivation of Fgf3 and Fgf8 by mutation or antisense-morpholino injection causes failure of placode formation and results in ear-less embryos, mimicking the phenotype we observe after pharmacological inhibition of Fgf-signaling. Fgf8 and Fgf3 together therefore act during induction

  6. Deoxycholic Acid and the Marginal Mandibular Nerve: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandford, Alexander D; Ansari, Waseem; Young, Jason M; Maley, Bruce; Plesec, Thomas P; Hwang, Catherine J; Perry, Julian D

    2018-06-04

    One of the rare but serious complications observed with deoxycholic acid administration is damage to the marginal mandibular nerve. In this study, we evaluated if deoxycholic acid directly induces histologic damage to fresh cadaveric marginal mandibular nerve. A segment of marginal mandibular nerve was harvested from 12 hemifaces of 6 fresh cadavers. The nerve specimen was exposed to either 0.9% sterile saline for 24 h, deoxycholic acid (10 mg/ml) for 20 min, or deoxycholic acid (10 mg/ml) for 24 h. The nerve specimens were then fixed in glutaraldehyde for a minimum of 24 h. Toluidine blue stained sections were evaluated for stain intensity using light microscopy and color deconvolution image analysis. Supraplatysmal fat was harvested as a positive control and exposed to the same treatments as the marginal mandibular nerve specimens, then evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Toluidine blue staining was less in the marginal mandibular nerve exposed to deoxycholic acid when compared to saline. The specimen exposed to deoxycholic acid for 24 h showed less toluidine blue staining than that of the nerve exposed to deoxycholic acid for 20 min. Transmission electron microscopy of submental fat exposed to deoxycholic acid revealed disruption of adipocyte cell membrane integrity and loss of cellular organelles when compared to specimens only exposed to saline. Deoxycholic acid (10 mg/ml) damages the marginal mandibular nerve myelin sheath in fresh human cadaver specimens. Direct deoxycholic acid neurotoxicity may cause marginal mandibular nerve injury clinically. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  7. Evaluation of diode endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation in bovine cadaver eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Jay T; McMullen, Richard J; Cullen, John M; Gilger, Brian C

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the anterior chamber approach and energy levels for endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECPC) and assess ECPC-induced tissue damage in phakic eyes of bovine cadavers. 12 bovine cadaver eyes. Angle of reach was measured in 6 eyes following placement of a curved endoscopic probe through multiple corneal incisions. In another 6 eyes, each ocular quadrant underwent ECPC at 1 of 3 energy levels (0.75, 0.90, and 1.05 J) or remained untreated. Visible effects on tissues (whitening and contraction of ciliary processes) were scored (scale of 0 [no effects] to 6 [severe effects]), and severity and extent of histologic damage to the pigmented and nonpigmented ciliary epithelium and fibromuscular stroma were each scored (scale of 0 [no effect] to 3 [severe effect]) and summed for each quadrant. Overall mean scores for 6 quadrants/treatment were calculated. Mean ± SD combined angle of reach was 148 ± 24° (range, 123 ± 23° [ventromedial] to 174 ± 11° [dorsolateral]). At the 0.75-, 0.90-, and 1.05-J levels, mean visible tissue effect scores were 3.12 ± 0.47, 3.86 ± 0.35, and 4.68 ± 0.58, respectively; mean histologic damage scores were 4.79 ± 1.38 (mild damage), 6.82 ± 1.47 (moderate damage), and 9.37 ± 1.42 (severe damage), respectively. Occasional popping noises (venting of vaporized interstitial water) were heard at the 1.05-J level. Multiple incisions were necessary to facilitate 360° ECPC treatment in bovine eyes. For ECPC in vivo, the 0.75- and 0.90-J energy levels had the potential to effectively treat the ciliary epithelium.

  8. Transvaginal Pelvic Floor Muscle Injection Technique: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyanka; Ehlert, Michael; Sirls, Larry T; Peters, Kenneth

    Women with pelvic floor dysfunction can have tender areas on vaginal examination, which can be treated with trigger-point injections. There are no publications to evaluate the accuracy of pelvic floor muscle injections. Trigger-point injections were performed on 2 fresh cadaveric pelvises using a curved nasal cannula guide and 7-in spinal needle. This was performed using our standard template of 2 sets of injections at the 1-, 3-, and 5-o'clock positions distally and proximally. The first pelvis was dissected to examine dye penetration. Based on these results, we modified our technique and repeated the injections on the second cadaver. We dissected the second pelvis and compared our findings. The 1-o'clock proximal and distal injections stained the obturator internus and externus near the insertion at the ischiopubic ramus. The 3-o'clock injections stained the midbody of the pubococcygeus and puborectalis. The distal 5-o'clock position was too deep and stained the fat of the ischiorectal space. The proximal 5-o'clock injection stained the area of the pudendal nerve. Our goal at the distal 5-o'clock position was to infuse the iliococcygeus muscle, so we shortened the needle depth from 2 to 1 cm beyond the cannula tip. In our second dissection, the distal 5-o'clock injection again stained only the fat of the ischiorectal space. This is the first study to characterize the distribution of pelvic floor muscle injections in a cadaver model and confirms the ability to deliver medications effectively to the pelvic floor muscles.

  9. Interosseous Ligament and Transverse Forearm Stability: A Biomechanical Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Christina J; Darvish, Kurosh; Ilyas, Asif M; Jones, Christopher M

    2017-02-01

    The interosseous ligament (IOL) is known to be an important longitudinal stabilizer of the forearm. We hypothesize that it may also contribute to transverse stability, with pronosupination tensioning of the radius relative to the ulna. Therefore, when injured, we predict the interosseous space should widen in the transverse plane, enough to be appreciable on plain radiographs. A measurable difference in interosseous space, comparing an injured with an uninjured forearm, can potentially be of diagnostic and clinical value. Ten fresh-frozen cadaver arms (from 5 individuals) were radiographed in 6 different positions of forearm supination, first in an uninjured state and then with the IOL sectioned, both partially (central band only) and completely. The transverse interosseous distance was measured on radiographs using edge detection software and compared using analysis of variance and contrast analysis. The maximum range of pronosupination was also compared before and after injury, using a paired t test. Average maximum supination increased from 84° to 106°, and pronation from 69° to 84°, after the IOL was sectioned completely. Sectioning of the IOL led to a statistically significant increase in the interosseous distance, a minimum of 2 mm, in all but one forearm position. The IOL of the forearm plays an important role in providing transverse stability to the radius and ulna. When the IOL is sectioned, the forearm exhibits increased pronosupination range of motion. Radiographs of bilateral forearms taken in identical rotational position can reliably differentiate between an intact and torn IOL in cadavers. The IOL's stabilizing role during forearm rotation suggests a novel strategy for diagnosing forearm IOL injury using comparative radiographic measurements. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparison of a traditional endotracheal tube versus ETView SL in endotracheal intubation during different emergency conditions: A randomized, crossover cadaver trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszewski, Zenon; Krajewski, Paweł; Fudalej, Marcin; Smereka, Jacek; Frass, Michael; Robak, Oliver; Nguyen, Bianka; Ruetzler, Kurt; Szarpak, Lukasz

    2016-11-01

    Airway management is a crucial skill essential to paramedics and personnel working in Emergency Medical Services and Emergency Departments: Lack of practice, a difficult airway, or a trauma situation may limit the ability of paramedics to perform direct laryngoscopy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Videoscope devices are alternatives for airway management in these situations. The ETView VivaSight SL (ETView; ETView Ltd., Misgav, Israel) is a new, single-lumen airway tube with an integrated high-resolution imaging camera. To assess if the ETView VivaSight SL can be a superior alternative to a standard endotracheal tube for intubation in an adult cadaver model, both during and without simulated CPR. ETView VivaSight SL tube was investigated via an interventional, randomized, crossover, cadaver study. A total of 52 paramedics participated in the intubation of human cadavers in three different scenarios: a normal airway at rest without concomitant chest compression (CC) (scenario A), a normal airway with uninterrupted CC (scenario B) and manual in-line stabilization (scenario C). Time and rate of success for intubation, the glottic view scale, and ease-of-use of ETView vs. sETT intubation were assessed for each emergency scenario. The median time to intubation using ETView vs. sETT was compared for each of the aforementioned scenarios. For scenario A, time to first ventilation was achieved fastest for ETView, 19.5 [IQR, 16.5-22] sec, when compared to that of sETT at 21.5 [IQR, 20-25] sec (p = .013). In scenario B, the time for intubation using ETView was 21 [IQR, 18.5-24.5] sec (p cadavers and the time to ventilation were improved with the ETView. The time to glottis view, tube insertion, and cuff block were all found to be shorter with the ETView. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02733536.

  11. Objective Audiometry using Ear-EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Kidmose, Preben

    Recently, a novel electroencephalographic (EEG) method called ear-EEG [1], that enable recording of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from a personalized earpiece was introduced. Initial investigations show that well established AEPs, such as ASSR and P1-N1-P2 complex can be observed from ear-EEG...

  12. Congenital malformation of inner ear, single cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Pazmino, Julio Cesar; Marrugo Pardo, Gilberto Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Congenital malformations of the inner ear are rare conditions, but their detection requires high diagnostic accuracy. In this report we describe the case of a patient with single or common cavity, discuss the corresponding radiological images, describe the treatment of this patient with a cochlear implant, and review the classification and differential diagnosis of the other anomalies of the inner ear.

  13. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...... cues are negligible in small-sized animals. The chapter reviews the peripheral basis of directionality in these animal groups....

  14. Coupled ears in lizards and crocodilians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Bierman, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Lizard ears are coupled across the pharynx, and are very directional. In consequence all auditory responses should be directional, without a requirement for computation of sound source location. Crocodilian ears are connected through sinuses, and thus less tightly coupled. Coupling may improve th...... range is reviewed in the light of current theories of sound localization....

  15. High-resolution T2-weighted MR imaging of the inner ear using a long echo-train-length 3D fast spin-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, S.; Yamakawa, K.; Fukatsu, H.; Ishigaki, T.; Nakashima, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Aoki, I.; Miyazaki, M.; Takai, H.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of a long echo-train-length 3D fast spin-echo (3D-FSE) sequence in visualizing the inner ear structures. Ten normal ears and 50 patient ears were imaged on a 1.5T MR unit using a head coil. Axial high-resolution T2-weighted images of the inner ear and the internal auditory canal (IAC) were obtained in 15 min. In normal ears the reliability of the visualization for the inner ear structures was evaluated on original images and the targeted maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the labyrinth. In ten normal ears, 3D surface display (3D) images were also created and compared with MIP images. On the original images the cochlear aqueduct, the vessels in the vicinity of the IAC, and more than three branches of the cranial nerves were visualized in the IAC in all the ears. The visibility of the endolympathic duct was 80%. On the MIP images the visibility of the three semicircular canals, anterior and posterior ampulla, and of more than two turns of the cochlea was 100%. The MIP images and 3D images were almost comparable. The visibility of the endolymphatic duct was 80% in normal ears and 0% in the affected ears of the patients with Meniere's disease (p<0.001). In one patient ear a small intracanalicular tumor was depicted clearly. In conclusion, the long echo train length T2-weighted 3D-FSE sequence enables the detailed visualization of the tiny structures of the inner ear and the IAC within a clinically acceptable scan time. Furthermore, obtaining a high contrast between the soft/bony tissue and the cerebrospinal/endolymph/perilymph fluid would be of significant value in the diagnosis of the pathologic conditions around the labyrinth and the IAC. (orig.)

  16. Death, cadavers and post-mortem biomedical research: a point of view from a Christian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Philippe; Joly, Alain; Champagnat, Julie; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Facing modern developments of medicine and biomedical researches, religious communities are a strong source of ethics principles and orientations. Human dignity does not disappear after life, in a context of biomedical research on cadavers. Moral, political, social and scientific aspects of research on human cadavers (mainly autopsies) have been widely discussed in biomedical publications, whereas the religious ones (which could be predominant for some) have rarely been analyzed and presented. This article will present the results of a survey carried out a French Benedictine Abbey (relative to death, cadaver's status and biomedical research) and subsequent Christian background according to canonic texts and practical cases from anthropological, historical, archeological and biomedical origin.

  17. The acoustic reflex threshold in aging ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, C A; Silman, S; Miller, M H

    1983-01-01

    This study investigates the controversy regarding the influence of age on the acoustic reflex threshold for broadband noise, 500-, 1000-, 2000-, and 4000-Hz activators between Jerger et al. [Mono. Contemp. Audiol. 1 (1978)] and Jerger [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66 (1979)] on the one hand and Silman [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66 (1979)] and others on the other. The acoustic reflex thresholds for broadband noise, 500-, 1000-, 2000-, and 4000-Hz activators were evaluated under two measurement conditions. Seventy-two normal-hearing ears were drawn from 72 subjects ranging in age from 20-69 years. The results revealed that age was correlated with the acoustic reflex threshold for BBN activator but not for any of the tonal activators; the correlation was stronger under the 1-dB than under the 5-dB measurement condition. Also, the mean acoustic reflex thresholds for broadband noise activator were essentially similar to those reported by Jerger et al. (1978) but differed from those obtained in this study under the 1-dB measurement condition.

  18. Classification and Current Management of Inner Ear Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Sennaroğlu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphologically congenital sensorineural hearing loss can be investigated under two categories. Majority of the congenital hearing loss (80% are membranous malformations. Here the pathology involves inner ear hair cells. There is no gross bony abnormality and therefore, in these cases, high resolution computerized tomography and MRI of the temporal bone reveal normal findings. Remaining 20% have various malformations involving the bony labyrinth and therefore, can be radiologically demonstrated by CT and MRI. The latter group involves surgical challenges as well as problems in decision making. Some cases may be managed by hearing aid, some need cochlear implantation while some cases are candidates for an auditory brainstem implantation. During cochlear implantation, there may be facial nerve abnormalities, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, electrode misplacement or difficulty in finding the cochlea itself. During the surgery for inner ear malformations, surgeon must be ready to modify the surgical approach or choose special electrodes for surgery. In the present review article inner ear malformations are classified according to the differences observed in the cochlea. Hearing and language outcome after various implantation methods is closely related to the status of cochlear nerve and a practical classification of the cochlear nerve deficiency is also provided

  19. Radiation effect on the middle ear of the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hirofumi; Nishizawa, Shinji; Hiraide, Fumihisa; Inoue, Tetsuzo

    1984-01-01

    It is known that radiation therapy of the head and neck causes otitis media with effusion. Otitis media with effusion was induced in guinea pigs by cobalt-60 irradiation. Twenty guinea pigs with intact drum and normal Preyer reflex were used. We conducted, two experiments as follows: 1) The animals were irradiated with doses of 2,000 rad, 4,000 rad, and 6,000 rad. They were sacrificed seven days after the irradiation. 2) The animals were irradiated with doses of 4,000 rad and sacrificed one day, three days, seven days, and fourteen days after the irradiation. Vascular permeability of the middle ear mucosa was observed by Majno's vascular labelling technique. Pathological change of the middle ear was examined under the light microscope. Vascular permeability increased in three days after 4,000 rad irradiation and small vessels were labelled with carbon particles. Seven days after irradiation, carbon labelling of small vessels was more extensive and extravascular blackening was present in the adjacent tissues. Edematous change of the middle ear mucosa and metaplasia of the epithelial cells were also observed. New bone formation of the tympanic bulla was increased by repeated irradiations. (author)

  20. Air-Leak Effects on Ear-Canal Acoustic Absorbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Kopun, Judy G.; Gorga, Michael P.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Accurate ear-canal acoustic measurements, such as wideband acoustic admittance, absorbance, and otoacoustic emissions, require that the measurement probe be tightly sealed in the ear canal. Air leaks can compromise the validity of the measurements, interfere with calibrations, and increase variability. There are no established procedures for determining the presence of air leaks or criteria for what size leak would affect the accuracy of ear-canal acoustic measurements. The purpose of this study was to determine ways to quantify the effects of air leaks and to develop objective criteria to detect their presence. Design: Air leaks were simulated by modifying the foam tips that are used with the measurement probe through insertion of thin plastic tubing. To analyze the effect of air leaks, acoustic measurements were taken with both modified and unmodified foam tips in brass-tube cavities and human ear canals. Measurements were initially made in cavities to determine the range of critical leaks. Subsequently, data were collected in ears of 21 adults with normal hearing and normal middle-ear function. Four acoustic metrics were used for predicting the presence of air leaks and for quantifying these leaks: (1) low-frequency admittance phase (averaged over 0.1–0.2 kHz), (2) low-frequency absorbance, (3) the ratio of compliance volume to physical volume (CV/PV), and (4) the air-leak resonance frequency. The outcome variable in this analysis was the absorbance change (Δabsorbance), which was calculated in eight frequency bands. Results: The trends were similar for both the brass cavities and the ear canals. ΔAbsorbance generally increased with air-leak size and was largest for the lower frequency bands (0.1–0.2 and 0.2–0.5 kHz). Air-leak effects were observed in frequencies up to 10 kHz, but their effects above 1 kHz were unpredictable. These high-frequency air leaks were larger in brass cavities than in ear canals. Each of the four predictor variables

  1. Acceleration induced water removal from ear canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hosung; Averett, Katelee; Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-11-01

    Children and adults commonly experience having water trapped in the ear canals after swimming. To remove the water, individuals will shake their head sideways. Since a child's ear canal has a smaller diameter, it requires more acceleration of the head to remove the trapped water. In this study, we theoretically and experimentally investigated the acceleration required to break the surface meniscus of the water in artificial ear canals and hydrophobic-coated glass tubes. In experiments, ear canal models were 3D-printed from a CT-scanned human head. Also, glass tubes were coated with silane to match the hydrophobicity in ear canals. Then, using a linear stage, we measured the acceleration values required to forcefully eject the water from the artificial ear canals and glass tubes. A theoretical model was developed to predict the critical acceleration at a given tube diameter and water volume by using a modified Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Furthermore, this research can shed light on the potential of long-term brain injury and damage by shaking the head to push the water out of the ear canal. This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1604424.

  2. Tendons in the plantar aspect of the foot: MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Rodrigo [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Fleury Medical Center, Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aguiar, Rodrigo; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this anatomic imaging study was to illustrate the normal complex anatomy of tendons of the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic correlation in cadavers. Seven fresh cadaveric feet (obtained and used according to institutional guidelines, with informed consent from relatives of the deceased) were studied with intermediate-weighted fast-spin-echo MR imaging. For anatomic analysis, cadaveric specimens were sectioned in 3-mm-thick slices in the coronal and axial planes that approximated the sections acquired at MR imaging. The entire courses of the tendons into the plantar aspect of the foot were analyzed. The tibialis posterior tendon has a complex distal insertion. The insertions in the navicular, second, and third cuneiforms bones were identify in all cases using axial and coronal planes. A tendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons was identified in five of our specimens (71%). The coronal plane provided the best evaluation. The peroneus longus tendon changes its direction at three points then obliquely crosses the sole and inserts in the base of the first metatarsal bone and the plantar aspect of the first cuneiform. MR imaging provides detailed information about the anatomy of tendons in the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot. It allows analysis of their insertions and the intertendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons. (orig.)

  3. Histological study of the external, middle and inner ear of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, A; Aupperle, H; Seeger, J; Kubick, C; Schusser, G F

    2015-12-01

    Clinical, anatomical and histological aspects of the equine acoustic organ have been poorly investigated and illustrated in literature so far. It is understood that an intact acoustic organ and hearing function are of vital importance for the well-being of flight animals like horses. The knowledge of the acoustic organ is usually transferred analogously from other mammals to horses. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed and complete histological description of the healthy equine auditory organ, and to determine its congruity to other mammalians. Anatomical dissections and histological preparations were carried out on ten cadaver heads. Specimens of various parts of the equine acoustic organ were taken and evaluated histologically. The histological composition of external, middle and inner ear structures are predominantly congruent to those of other mammals, especially to human beings. Unique inwardly directed rete pegs within the osseous ear canal and the prominent tensor tympani muscle are described for the first time. Results obtained in this study can be employed as references for further research on the equine acoustic organ and improve the understanding of the clinical development of hearing loss, otitis externa/media/interna or tympanosclerosis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Flies (Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Beetles (Silphidae from Human Cadavers in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto Mauricio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult specimens of Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya megacephala, Ch. rufifacies, Lucilia sp. (Calliphoridae, Musca domestica (Muscidae, Oxelytrum discicolle (Silphidae and Sarcophagidae were recovered from 12 human cadavers in Cali, Valle, Colombia. Information regarding these findings is presented.

  5. Measurement of normal auditory ossicles by high-resolusion CT with application of normal criteria to disease cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Jyoko

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to define criteria for the normal position of ossicles and to apply them in patients with rhinolaryngologically or pathologically confirmed diseases. Ossicles were measured on high-resolution CT images of 300 middle ears, including 241 normal ears and 59 diseased ears, in a total of 203 subjects. Angles A, B, and C to the baseline between the most lateral margins of bilateral internal auditory canals, and distance ratio b/a were defined as measurement items. Normal angles A, B, and C and distance ratio b/a ranged from 19 deg to 59 deg, 101 deg to 145 deg, 51 deg to 89 deg, and 0.49 to 0.51, respectively. Based on these criteria, all of these items were within the normal range in 30/34 (88.2 %) ears for otitis media and mastoiditis. One or more items showed far abnormal values (standard deviation; more than 3) in 5/7 (71.4 %) ears for cholesteatoma and 4/4 (100 %) ears for external ear anomaly. These normal measurements may aid in evaluating the position of auditory ossicles especially in the case of cholesteatoma and auditory ossicle abnormality. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Measurement of normal auditory ossicles by high-resolusion CT with application of normal criteria to disease cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Jyoko

    1988-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to define criteria for the normal position of ossicles and to apply them in patients with rhinolaryngologically or pathologically confirmed diseases. Ossicles were measured on high-resolution CT images of 300 middle ears, including 241 normal ears and 59 diseased ears, in a total of 203 subjects. Angles A, B, and C to the baseline between the most lateral margins of bilateral internal auditory canals, and distance ratio b/a were defined as measurement items. Normal angles A, B, and C and distance ratio b/a ranged from 19 deg to 59 deg, 101 deg to 145 deg, 51 deg to 89 deg, and 0.49 to 0.51, respectively. Based on these criteria, all of these items were within the normal range in 30/34 (88.2 %) ears for otitis media and mastoiditis. One or more items showed far abnormal values (standard deviation; more than 3) in 5/7 (71.4 %) ears for cholesteatoma and 4/4 (100 %) ears for external ear anomaly. These normal measurements may aid in evaluating the position of auditory ossicles especially in the case of cholesteatoma and auditory ossicle abnormality. (Namekawa, K.).

  7. [Meta-analysis of the efficacy of cochlear implantation in deaf patients with inner ear malformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhai, Suoqiang; Han, Dongyi; Yang, Shiming; Shen, Weidong

    2014-04-01

    Assess and compare the clinical efficacy and safety of cochlear implantation in deaf patients with inner ear malformation and in the ones with normal inner ear structure, so that to clarify whether it is effective to restore hearing for the deaf patients with inner ear malformation. The literature with relevant key words were retrieved in the databases including PubMed, YZ365. com, WANFANG data, CMJD, CHKD and CNKI with language limited to Chinese and English. Extracted data included author, year of publication, diagnosis, treatment, et al. The clinical efficacy of cochlear implantation was assessed by the complications, electrode impedance, behavior T-level, hearing abilities and speech discrimination. Meta-analysis was performed using random or fixed effects model according to the heterogeneity of data. There were 11 randomized control studies involving 655 patients included in this study. There was no statistically significant difference among the deaf patients in mixed inner ear-malformation group, Mondini group and large vestibular aqueduct syndrome group in the aspects of postoperative complications, electrode impedance, behavior T-level, hearing abilities and speech discrimination. Cochlear implantation could be the way of treatment and rehabilitation for deaf patients with inner ear malformation. Further controlled studies with longer follow-up periods and more multiracial cases included may help to evaluate the efficacy of cochlear implantation for deaf patients with inner ear malformation more reliably.

  8. Endoscopic and minimally-invasive ear surgery: A path to better outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Pollak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of endoscopic ear surgery techniques promises to change the way we approach ear surgery. In this review paper, we explore the current evidence, seek to determine the advantages of endoscopic ear surgery, and see if these advantages are both measureable and meaningful. The wide field of view of the endoscope allows the surgeon to better visualize the various recesses of the middle ear cleft. Endoscopes make it possible to address the target pathology transcanal, while minimizing dissection or normal tissue done purely for exposure, leading to the evolution of minimally-invasive ear surgery and reducing morbidity. When used in chronic ear surgery, endoscopy appears to have the potential to significantly reduce cholesteatoma recidivism rates. Using endoscopes as an adjunct can increase the surgeon's confidence in total cholesteatoma removal. By doing so, endoscopes reduce the need to reopen the mastoid during second-look surgery, help preserve the canal wall, or even change post-cholesteatoma follow-up protocols by channeling more patients away from a planned second-look.

  9. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-10-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology.

  10. Inner ear dysfunction in caspase-3 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Minna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-3 is one of the most downstream enzymes activated in the apoptotic pathway. In caspase-3 deficient mice, loss of cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion cells coincide closely with hearing loss. In contrast with the auditory system, details of the vestibular phenotype have not been characterized. Here we report the vestibular phenotype and inner ear anatomy in the caspase-3 deficient (Casp3-/- mouse strain. Results Average ABR thresholds of Casp3-/- mice were significantly elevated (P Casp3+/- mice and Casp3+/+ mice at 3 months of age. In DPOAE testing, distortion product 2F1-F2 was significantly decreased (P Casp3-/- mice, whereas Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice showed normal and comparable values to each other. Casp3-/- mice were hyperactive and exhibited circling behavior when excited. In lateral canal VOR testing, Casp3-/- mice had minimal response to any of the stimuli tested, whereas Casp3+/- mice had an intermediate response compared to Casp3+/+ mice. Inner ear anatomical and histological analysis revealed gross hypomorphism of the vestibular organs, in which the main site was the anterior semicircular canal. Hair cell numbers in the anterior- and lateral crista, and utricle were significantly smaller in Casp3-/- mice whereas the Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice had normal hair cell numbers. Conclusions These results indicate that caspase-3 is essential for correct functioning of the cochlea as well as normal development and function of the vestibule.

  11. Safety zone for posterosuperior shoulder access: study on cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pereira Costa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The posterosuperior shoulder access used in surgical treatment for acromioclavicular dislocation was constructed through dissection of 20 shoulders from 10 recently chilled adult cadavers, and the distances from this route to the nearby neurovascular structures were analyzed. METHODS: A Kirschner wire was introduced into the top of the base of the coracoid process through the posterosuperior shoulder access, in the area of the origin of the conoid and trapezoid ligaments, thus reproducing the path for inserting two anchors for anatomical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments. The smallest distance from the insertion point of the Kirschner wire to the suprascapular nerve and artery/vein was measured. RESULTS: The mean distance from the suprascapular nerve to the origin of the coracoclavicular ligaments at the top of the base of the coracoid process was 18.10 mm (range: 13.77-22.80 in the right shoulder and 18.19 mm (range: 12.59-23.75 in the left shoulder. The mean distance from the suprascapular artery/vein to the origin of the coracoclavicular ligaments was 13.10 mm (range: 9.28-15.44 in the right shoulder and 14.11 mm (range: 8.83-18.89 in the left shoulder. Comparison between the contralateral sides did not show any statistical difference. CONCLUSION: The posterosuperior shoulder access route for anatomical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments in treating acromioclavicular dislocation should be performed respecting the minimum limit of 8.83 mm medially.

  12. Panceratic Complications of Mustard Gas Exposure: A Study on Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Farshid Fayyaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard is one of the chemical warfare gases that has been known as a vesicant or blistering agents. It is a chemical alkylating compound agent that can be frequently absorbed through skin, respiratory system, genital tract, and ocular system. This study was done to pathologically analyze the microscopic pancreatic lesions in cadavers. Methods: This case series study was performed during 2007 to 2012 in Legal Medicine Organization. Exposure was confirmed by the written reports of the field hospitals, based on acute presentation of eye, skin and pulmonary symptoms of the exposure. Results: Pancreatic autopsy findings were chronic inflammation, fibrosis and duct ectasia; acinar atrophy was also seen in 4 cases. All 4 cases had chronic pancreatic disease with abdominal pain, steatorrhea and weight loss that was confirmed by sonography. CT scan and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP have also demonstrated the chronic pancreatitis. Conclusion: According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the mustard gas exposed people in chemical factories is necessary.

  13. The Notch ligand JAG1 is required for sensory progenitor development in the mammalian inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Kiernan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, six separate sensory regions in the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance function. Each sensory region is made up of hair cells, which are the sensory cells, and their associated supporting cells, both arising from a common progenitor. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern the development of these sensory organs. Notch signaling plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of hair cells and supporting cells by mediating lateral inhibition via the ligands Delta-like 1 and Jagged (JAG 2. However, another Notch ligand, JAG1, is expressed early in the sensory patches prior to cell differentiation, indicating that there may be an earlier role for Notch signaling in sensory development in the ear. Here, using conditional gene targeting, we show that the Jag1 gene is required for the normal development of all six sensory organs within the inner ear. Cristae are completely lacking in Jag1-conditional knockout (cko mutant inner ears, whereas the cochlea and utricle show partial sensory development. The saccular macula is present but malformed. Using SOX2 and p27kip1 as molecular markers of the prosensory domain, we show that JAG1 is initially expressed in all the prosensory regions of the ear, but becomes down-regulated in the nascent organ of Corti by embryonic day 14.5, when the cells exit the cell cycle and differentiate. We also show that both SOX2 and p27kip1 are down-regulated in Jag1-cko inner ears. Taken together, these data demonstrate that JAG1 is expressed early in the prosensory domains of both the cochlear and vestibular regions, and is required to maintain the normal expression levels of both SOX2 and p27kip1. These data demonstrate that JAG1-mediated Notch signaling is essential during early development for establishing the prosensory regions of the inner ear.

  14. Structural Metadata Research in the Ears Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yang; Shriberg, Elizabeth; Stolcke, Andreas; Peskin, Barbara; Ang, Jeremy; Hillard, Dustin; Ostendorf, Mari; Tomalin, Marcus; Woodland, Phil; Harper, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Both human and automatic processing of speech require recognition of more than just words. In this paper we provide a brief overview of research on structural metadata extraction in the DARPA EARS rich transcription program...

  15. Mozart ear: diagnosis, treatment, and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ken; Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi; Saito, Tamotsu; Isogai, Noritaka; Mori, Hiromasa; Itani, Yoshihito

    2011-11-01

    Mozart ear is a congenital auricular deformity, which is mainly characterized by a bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle, a convexly protruded cavum conchae, and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus. It is said to be uncommon, and because no one has yet fully described neither the disease nor the treatment, the concept of Mozart ear has not been unified. This report describes a case of a 13-year-old girl presented with an unusual congenital deformity which showed the features of Mozart ear. It is an extremely rare deformity that only about 4 clinical cases have been reported in medical literature thereby a treatment method has not been fully discussed. For surgical correction of our cases, we excised deformed conchal cartilage, turned it over, regrafted, and maintained a cosmetically positive result. We also reviewed and described the origin, current concept, and treatment method of Mozart ear.

  16. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  17. Use of corrosion casting techniques to evaluate coronary collateral vessels and anastomoses in hearts of canine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noestelthaller, Arne; Probst, Alexander; Koenig, Horst E

    2005-10-01

    To study and investigate branching patterns of the canine coronary arteries and collateral circulation by use of corrosion casting techniques. 31 hearts obtained from cadavers of clinically normal dogs of various ages and breeds and of either sex. 3-dimensional reproduction of coronary arteries was achieved by postmortem injection and perfusion with casting materials into the aortic sinus via the ascending aorta. Perfused hearts were macerated and carefully irrigated; the air-dried specimens were examined macroscopically and with a magnifying headset. Collateral arteries and inter- and intra-arterial anastomoses were successfully detected in 8 corrosion cast specimens. In total, 9 coronary collateral arteries and 3 interarterial anastomoses were found. Our finding of coronary collateral arteries in canine hearts is in agreement with recent findings in coronary flow study. On the basis of our results, vasodilation treatment to improve collateral vessel remodeling in dogs with myocardial dysfunction may be warranted.

  18. Verrucous carcinoma of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, G E; Jurco, S; Alford, B R; McGavran, M H

    1981-01-01

    A case of a highly destructive, cytologically nondysplastic squamous epithelial lesion of the middle ear is presented. The cranial nerve involvement and bone destruction are more extensive than has been seen in cholesteatoma. Cultures are negative for Pseudomonas, and the patient does not have the reported diathesis for malignant otitis externa. The gross and microscopic features are those of verrucous carcinoma. To our knowledge, the middle ear has not been previously reported as a site of involvement by verrucous carcinoma.

  19. Osteoma of the middle ear: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa

    2005-01-01

    Osteomas of the middle ear are exceedingly rare benign neoplasms. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. They arise from the promontory, the pyramidal process and the ossicles, and they are usually asymptomatic or cause some conductive hearing loss. We report here the CT and pathologic findings in a 38-year-old woman with a benign osteoma of the middle ear along with chronic otitis media

  20. Commissioning of n_TOF EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    The construction of the second beam line and experiment area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility is currently ongoing and scheduled to be completed by July 2014. An extensive series of measurements is planned in order to determine the beam characteristics like the neutron flux, the spatial beam profile and the resolution function, as well as the response of several detectors considered for use in future measurements at EAR2. A rigorous study of backgrounds will be undertaken in various conditions.

  1. Osteoma of the middle ear: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa [College of Medicine, Inje University, Dongrae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Osteomas of the middle ear are exceedingly rare benign neoplasms. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. They arise from the promontory, the pyramidal process and the ossicles, and they are usually asymptomatic or cause some conductive hearing loss. We report here the CT and pathologic findings in a 38-year-old woman with a benign osteoma of the middle ear along with chronic otitis media.

  2. Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and MR imaging investigation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, Daniel; Cerri, Giovanni G. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Dirim, Berna; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Belentani, Clarissa L.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L. [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the normal complex insertional anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) in cadavers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic and histologic correlation. Ten cadaveric ankles were used according to institutional guidelines. MR T1-weighted spin echo imaging was performed to demonstrate aspects of the complex anatomic distal insertions of the TPT in cadaveric specimens. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. Generally, the TPT revealed a low signal in all MR images, except near the level of the medial malleolus, where the TPT suddenly changed direction and ''magic angle'' artifact could be observed. In five out of ten specimens (50%), a type I accessory navicular bone was found in the TPT. In all cases with a type I accessory navicular bone, the TPT had an altered signal in this area. Axial and coronal planes on MR imaging were the best in identifying the distal insertions of the TPT. A normal division of the TPT was observed just proximal to the insertion into the navicular bone in five specimens (100%) occurring at a maximum proximal distance from its attachment to the navicular bone of approximately 1.5 to 2 cm. In the other five specimens, in which a type I accessory navicular bone was present, the TPT directly inserted into the accessory bone and a slip less than 1.5 mm in thickness could be observed attaching to the medial aspect of the navicular bone (100%). Anatomic inspection confirmed the sites of the distal insertions of the components of the TPT. MR imaging enabled detailed analysis of the complex distal insertions of the TPT as well as a better understanding of those features of its insertion that can simulate a lesion. (orig.)

  3. Serous otitis media (S.O.M.). A bacteriological study of the ear canal and the middle ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabenda, S. I.; Peerbooms, P. G.; van Asselt, G. J.; Feenstra, L.; van der Baan, S.

    1988-01-01

    A bacteriological study of the middle-ear effusions and the ear canals in children with chronic serous otitis media (S.O.M.) was performed. Sixty-eight children (127 ears) were investigated. From this study it appeared that cleansing of the ear canal with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 70% ethanol for 30 s

  4. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Fading in the ISM-band for Tangentially-Polarized Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The ear-to-ear on-body channel fading has been studied in the ISM-band. The ear-to-ear path gain was measured on six persons in an indoor environment for a duration of 200 s. The channel fading has been characterized in terms of empirical cumulative distribution functions (CDF), average fade...

  5. Statistical Shape Analysis of the Human Ear Canal with Application to In-the-Ear Hearing Aid Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is about the statistical shape analysis of the human ear canal with application to the mechanical design of in-the-ear hearing aids. Initially, it is described how a statistical shape model of the human ear canal is built based on a training set of laser-scanned ear impressions. A thin...

  6. Radiographic Detectability of Retained Neuropatties in a Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wangjian Thomas; Almack, Robert; Mawson, John B; Cochrane, David Douglas

    2015-08-01

    Counts are the commonest method used to ensure that all sponges and neuropatties are removed from a surgical site before closure. When the count is not reconciled, plain radiographs of the operative site are taken to determine whether the missing patty has been left in the wound. The purpose of this study was to describe the detectability of commonly used neuropatties in the clinical setting using digital technologies. Neuropatties were implanted into the anterior and posterior cranial fossae and the thoracolumbar extradural space of a mature male cadaver. Four neuropatty sizes were used: 3 × 1 in, 2 × ½ in, ½ × ½ in, and ¼ × ¼ in. Neuropatties, with size and location chosen at random, were placed in the surgical sites and anteroposterior/posterior-anterior and lateral radiographs were taken using standard portable digital radiographic equipment. Six clinicians reviewed the digital images for the presence or absence of neuropatties. The readers were not aware of the number and size of the patties that were included in each image. The detectability of neuropatties is dependent on the size of the neuropatty's radiopaque marker and the operative site. Neuropatties measuring 2 × ½ in and 3 × 1 in were detected reliably regardless of the operative site. ¼ × ¼ in neuropatties were poorly detected by neurosurgeons and radiologists in all three operative sites. Readers of various experience and background were similar in their ability to detect neuropatties under these conditions. Under simulated operating room conditions and using currently available neuropatties and plain radiograph imaging technology, small ¼-in and ½-in neuropatties are poorly visible/detectable on digital images. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Laparoscopic training model using fresh human cadavers without the establishment of penumoperitoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Sasaki Imakuma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopy is a well-established alternative to open surgery for treating many diseases. Although laparoscopy has many advantages, it is also associated with disadvantages, such as slow learning curves and prolonged operation time. Fresh frozen cadavers may be an interesting resource for laparoscopic training, and many institutions have access to cadavers. One of the main obstacles for the use of cadavers as a training model is the difficulty in introducing a sufficient pneumoperitoneum to distend the abdominal wall and provide a proper working space. The purpose of this study was to describe a fresh human cadaver model for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum. Materials and Methods and Results: A fake abdominal wall device was developed to allow for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum in cadavers. The device consists of a table-mounted retractor, two rail clamps, two independent frame arms, two adjustable handle and rotating features, and two frames of the abdominal wall. A handycam is fixed over a frame arm, positioned and connected through a USB connection to a television and dissector; scissors and other laparoscopic materials are positioned inside trocars. The laparoscopic procedure is thus simulated. Conclusion: Cadavers offer a very promising and useful model for laparoscopic training. We developed a fake abdominal wall device that solves the limitation of space when performing surgery on cadavers and removes the need to acquire more costly laparoscopic equipment. This model is easily accessible at institutions in developing countries, making it one of the most promising tools for teaching laparoscopy.

  8. Cadaver-based training is superior to simulation training for cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayesu, James Kimo; Peak, David; Stearns, Dana

    2017-02-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) training mandates that residents be able to competently perform low-frequency critical procedures upon graduation. Simulation is the main method of training in addition to clinical patient care. Access to cadaver-based training is limited due to cost and availability. The relative fidelity and perceived value of cadaver-based simulation training is unknown. This pilot study sought to describe the relative value of cadaver training compared to simulation for cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy. To perform a pilot study to assess whether there is a significant difference in fidelity and educational experience of cadaver-based training compared to simulation training. To understand how important this difference is in training residents in low-frequency procedures. Twenty-two senior EM residents (PGY3 and 4) who had completed standard simulation training on cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy participated in a formalin-fixed cadaver training program. Participants were surveyed on the relative fidelity of the training using a 100 point visual analogue scale (VAS) with 100 defined as equal to performing the procedure on a real patient. Respondents were also asked to estimate how much the cadaveric training improved the comfort level with performing the procedures on a scale between 0 and 100 %. Open-response feedback was also collected. The response rate was 100 % (22/22). The average fidelity of the cadaver versus simulation training was 79.9 ± 7.0 vs. 34.7 ± 13.4 for cricothyrotomy (p Cadaver-based training provides superior landmark and tissue fidelity compared to simulation training and may be a valuable addition to EM residency training for certain low-frequency procedures.

  9. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mi....... The result of this trade-off would be the eco-morphological correlation in bat flight, with large-eared bats generally adopting slow-flight feeding strategies....

  10. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  11. Prenatal evaluation of the middle ear and diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katorza, Eldad; Nahama-Allouche, Catherine; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Castaigne, Vanina [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Paris (France); Gonzales, Marie; Marlin, Sandrine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Genetique et Embryologie medicales, Paris (France); Galliani, Eva [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Chirurgie maxillo-faciale, Paris (France); Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Rosenblatt, Jonathan [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre pluridisciplinaire de diagnostic prenatal, Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Analysis of the middle ear with fetal MRI has not been previously reported. To show the contribution of fetal MRI to middle ear imaging. The tympanic cavity was evaluated in 108 fetal cerebral MRI examinations (facial and/or cerebral malformation excluded) and in two cases, one of Treacher Collins syndrome (case 1) and the other of oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OUV) spectrum (case 2) with middle ear hypoplasia identified by MRI at 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. In all 108 fetuses (mean gestational age 32.5 weeks), the tympanic cavity and T2 hypointensity related to the ossicles were well visualised on both sides. Case 1 had micro/retrognathia and bilateral external ear deformity and case 2 had retrognathism with a left low-set and deformed ear. MRI made it possible to recognize the marked hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity, which was bilateral in case 1 and unilateral in case 2. Both syndromes are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities including middle ear hypoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed with US. The middle ear cavity can be visualized with fetal MRI. We emphasize the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia. (orig.)

  12. Body composition of two human cadavers by neutron activation and chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.S.; Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) is currently used to measure body composition in metabolic and nutritional studies in many clinical situations, but has not previously been validated by comparison with chemical analysis of human cadavers. Total body nitrogen (TBN) and chlorine (TBCl) were measured in two human cadavers by NAA before homogenization and chemical analysis (CHEM) after (cadaver 1: TBN, 1.47 NAA, 1.51 CHEM; TBCl, 0.144 NAA, 0.147 CHEM; cadaver 2: TBN, 0.576 NAA, 0.572 CHEM; TBCl, 0.0227 NAA, 0.0250 CHEM). The homogenates were also analyzed by NAA, and no significant differences were found, indicating that the effects of elemental inhomogeneity on the measurement of TBN and TBCl are insignificant. Total body water, fat, protein, minerals, and carbohydrates were measured chemically for each cadaver and compared with estimates for these compartments obtained from a body composition model, which when used in vivo involves NAA and tritium dilution. The agreement found justifies the use of the model for the measurement of changes in total body protein, water, and fat in sequential studies in groups of patients

  13. Upper and Lower Urinary Tract Endoscopy Training on Thiel-embalmed Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Uros; Kelc, Robi

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate Thiel-embalmed cadavers as a new training model for urological endoscopy procedures. Twelve urologists performed upper and lower urinary tract endoscopies on 5 different Thiel-embalmed cadavers to evaluate this potentially new training model in urological endoscopic procedural training. Using a 5-point Likert scale, the participants assessed the quality of the tissue and the overall experience of the endoscopy in comparison to a live patient procedure. Thiel-embalmed cadavers have shown to mimic live patient endoscopy of the upper and lower urinary tract in terms of almost identical overall anatomical conditions and manipulation characteristics of the tissue. The mucosa of the urethra and ureters showed similar colors and consistency in comparison to a live patient, whereas bladder mucosa was lacking the visibility of the vessels, thus was unsuitable for identifying any mucosal abnormalities. The flexibility of the muscles allowed for proper patient positioning, whereas the loss of muscle tonus made ureteroscopy more difficult although sufficiently comparable to the procedure done in a live patient. Thiel-embalmed cadavers have already been proven to be a suitable training model for several medical procedures. They are known for preserving tissue color, consistency, and flexibility without the irritant odors or risk of infection, which make them resemble live patients with real-life surgical challenges. The results of our study strongly suggest that despite some minor drawbacks, Thiel-embalmed cadavers are a suitable simulation model for initial training of urethrocystoscopy and ureteroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of sex from the anthropometric ear measurements of a Sudanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla; Omer, Nosyba

    2015-09-01

    The external ear and its prints have multifaceted roles in medico-legal practice, e.g., identification and facial reconstruction. Furthermore, its norms are essential in the diagnosis of congenital anomalies and the design of hearing aids. Body part dimensions vary in different ethnic groups, so the most accurate statistical estimations of biological attributes are developed using population-specific standards. Sudan lacks comprehensive data about ear norms; moreover, there is a universal rarity in assessing the possibility of sex estimation from ear dimensions using robust statistical techniques. Therefore, this study attempts to establish data for normal adult Sudanese Arabs, assessing the existence of asymmetry and developing a population-specific equation for sex estimation. The study sample comprised 200 healthy Sudanese Arab volunteers (100 males and 100 females) in the age range of 18-30years. The physiognomic ear length and width, lobule length and width, and conchal length and width measurements were obtained by direct anthropometry, using a digital sliding caliper. Moreover, indices and asymmetry were assessed. Data were analyzed using basic descriptive statistics and discriminant function analyses employing jackknife validations of classification results. All linear dimensions used were sexually dimorphic except lobular lengths. Some of the variables and indices show asymmetry. Ear dimensions showed cross-validated sex classification accuracy ranging between 60.5% and 72%. Hence, the ear measurements cannot be used as an effective tool in the estimation of sex. However, in the absence of other more reliable means, it still can be considered a supportive trait in sex estimation. Further, asymmetry should be considered in identification from the ear measurements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Replication of type 5 adenovirus promotes middle ear infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the chinchilla model of otitis media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrah, Kyle A.; Turner, Roberta L.; Pang, Bing; Perez, Antonia C.; Reimche, Jennifer L.; King, Lauren B.; Wren, John; Gandhi, Uma; Swords, W. Edward; Ornelles, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviral infection is a major risk factor for otitis media. We hypothesized that adenovirus promotes bacterial ascension into the middle ear through the disruption of normal function in the Eustachian tubes due to inflammation-induced changes. An intranasal infection model of the chinchilla was used to test the ability of type 5 adenovirus to promote middle ear infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The hyperinflammatory adenovirus mutant dl327 and the nonreplicating adenovirus mutant H5wt300ΔpTP were used to test the role of inflammation and viral replication, respectively, in promotion of pneumococcal middle ear infection. Precedent infection with adenovirus resulted in a significantly greater incidence of middle ear disease by S. pneumoniae as compared to nonadenovirus infected animals. Infection with the adenovirus mutant dl327 induced a comparable degree of bacterial ascension into the middle ear as did infection with the wild-type virus. By contrast, infection with the nonreplicating adenovirus mutant H5wt300ΔpTP resulted in less extensive middle ear infection compared to the wild-type adenovirus. We conclude that viral replication is necessary for adenoviral-induced pneumococcal middle ear disease. PMID:25251686

  16. CT of temporal bone - IV. inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jae Yoon; Sung, Kyu Bo; Youn, Eun Kyoung; Park, Youn Kyeung; Lee, Young Uk

    1990-01-01

    Temporal bone CT was done in 697 patients from April 1985 to October 1989. The abnormal findings were seen in 453 patients, which were chronic otitis media in 355 patients, fracture in 49 patients and congenital anomaly in 44 patients, etc. The abnormal findings of inner ear were observed on 46 patients. The results were summarized as follows : 1. The incidence of inner ear involvement by chronic otitis media was 7.3% (26/355 : labyrinthine fistula in 17 patients, labyrinthitis ossificans in 9 patients). Labyrinthine fistula was most commonly located on lateral semicircular canal (15/17, 88.2%). 2. Fusion of vestibule with lateral semicircular canal and formation of common cavity was demonstrated incidentally in 5 patients (0.7% of total number of temporal bone CT), and bilateral in 3 patients. 3. The incidence of inner ear anomaly in congenital ear anomaly was 11.4% (5/44). All cases were bilateral and three patients showed associated middle ear anomaly. 4. The incidence of involvement of bony labyrinth in temporal bone fracture was 10.2% (5/49). Labyrinthine fracture was seen all patients of transverse(3) and mixed fracture(1). In longitudinal fracture, labyrinthine fracture was seen in 2.2% (1/45). 5. Others were traumatic labyrinthitis ossificans(1), intracanalicular acoustic neuroma(3) and facial nerve neuroma(1)

  17. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  18. Benchmarks for the Dichotic Sentence Identification test in Brazilian Portuguese for ear and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Adriana Neves de; Gil, Daniela; Iorio, Maria Cecilia Martinelli

    2015-01-01

    Dichotic listening tests should be used in local languages and adapted for the population. Standardize the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Dichotic Sentence Identification test in normal listeners, comparing the performance for age and ear. This prospective study included 200 normal listeners divided into four groups according to age: 13-19 years (GI), 20-29 years (GII), 30-39 years (GIII), and 40-49 years (GIV). The Dichotic Sentence Identification was applied in four stages: training, binaural integration and directed sound from right and left. Better results for the right ear were observed in the stages of binaural integration in all assessed groups. There was a negative correlation between age and percentage of correct responses in both ears for free report and training. The worst performance in all stages of the test was observed for the age group 40-49 years old. Reference values for the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Dichotic Sentence Identification test in normal listeners aged 13-49 years were established according to age, ear, and test stage; they should be used as benchmarks when evaluating individuals with these characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in immunostaining of inner ears after antigen challenge into the scala tympani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimiya, I; Kurono, Y; Hirano, T; Mogi, G

    1998-04-01

    To study the mechanisms of immune responses and immune injuries in inner ears, labyrinthitis was induced by inoculation of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) into the scala tympani of systemically sensitized guinea pigs. Inner ears were then immunostained for KLH, immunoglobulin G (IgG), albumin, connexin26 (Cx26), and sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphate (Na,K-ATPase). Inflammatory cells containing KLH were observed in the scala tympani and in the collecting venule of the spiral modiolar vein (SMV). Spiral ligament, spiral limbus, and blood vessels including the SMV were diffusely positive for IgG and albumin. Immunoreactivity for Cx26 and Na,K-ATPase was decreased compared with the normal ears in the fibrocytes of the spiral ligament. These results suggest that inflammatory cells and blood constituents could extravasate into the cochlea from blood vessels and that fibrocyte damage in the spiral ligament could cause cochlear dysfunction.

  20. X-linked deafness, stapes gushers and a distinctive defect of the inner ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, P.D. (Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, London (United Kingdom)); Reardon, W.; Pembrey, M. (Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)); Bellman, S. (Hospital for Sick Children, London (United Kingdom)); Luxom, L. (National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom))

    1991-08-01

    We have made genetic linkage studies in 7 pedigrees in whom deafness was inherited in an X-linked manner. All patients had a full range of audiometric and vestibular function tests. Thin section high resolution CT in two planes was used to assess the state of the middle and inner ears. We found a distinctive inner ear deformity in some of the deaf males. Moreover, some of the obligate feamle carriers seem to have a milder form of the same anomaly associated with slight hearing loss. Genetic studies on some of the deaf males with apparently normal inner ear anatomy suggest a different locus on the X chromosome and hence a different pathogenesis for the deafness. (orig./GDG).

  1. X-linked deafness, stapes gushers and a distinctive defect of the inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, P.D.; Reardon, W.; Pembrey, M.; Bellman, S.; Luxom, L.

    1991-01-01

    We have made genetic linkage studies in 7 pedigrees in whom deafness was inherited in an X-linked manner. All patients had a full range of audiometric and vestibular function tests. Thin section high resolution CT in two planes was used to assess the state of the middle and inner ears. We found a distinctive inner ear deformity in some of the deaf males. Moreover, some of the obligate feamle carriers seem to have a milder form of the same anomaly associated with slight hearing loss. Genetic studies on some of the deaf males with apparently normal inner ear anatomy suggest a different locus on the X chromosome and hence a different pathogenesis for the deafness. (orig./GDG)

  2. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in human middle ear cholesteatoma and chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Zhao, Pengfei; Kataoka, Yuko; Yoshinobu, Junko; Maeda, Yukihide; Ishihara, Hisashi; Higaki, Takaya; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays an important role in the pathogenesis of middle ear diseases. Modulation of inflammasome-mediated inflammation may be a novel therapeutic strategy for cholesteatoma and chronic otitis media. NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical molecule mediating interleukin (IL)-1β responses. However, the expression of NLRP3 in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma and chronic otitis media has not been fully examined. This study sought to assess the expression of NLRP3, ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain and a pyrin domain), and caspase-1 in middle ear tissues in patients with cholesteatoma or chronic otitis media. Middle ear tissue samples were obtained from patients with cholesteatoma or chronic otitis media. Control middle ear samples were collected during cochlear implant surgery of patients without middle ear inflammation. The expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and immunohistochemical study. The levels of mRNA of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 were significantly elevated in cholesteatoma and chronic otitis media as compared with that of normal controls. The proteins of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 were observed in infiltrating inflammatory cells in cholesteatoma and chronic otitis media.

  3. A study on preparation of cross sectional anatomy specimen of cadaver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, C. K.; Choi, B. I.; Park, J. H.; Chang, K. H.; Yeon, K. M.; Han, M. C.; Kim, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    With the advent of cross sectional image of CT, ultrasound and magnetic resonance, the need for knowledge of cross sectional anatomy is stranger than ever. To meet this need, preparation of cross sectional anatomy specimen using cadaver is indispensable, not only because it tis the real cut surface anatomy but also because overt limitations of radiographic image in both contrast and special resolution. Authors prepared cross sectional anatomy specimen using a male cadaver, comprising photographs and slides of the 60 cross cut slices from the head to the pelvis. After photography, each slices was embedded using transparent resin allowing permanent preservation of specimen without altering its original architecture. Author's unique method of preparation is presented and 4 representative specimens are illustrated comparing cadaver's CT image, cross cut surface photography, and photography of resin embedded slice of the same cut surface.

  4. Practical guidelines for setting up neurosurgery skills training cadaver laboratory in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Ashish; Roy, Tara Sankar; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Deo, Rama Chandra; Tripathi, Manjul; Dhingra, Renu; Bhardwaj, Daya Nand; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Though the necessity of cadaver dissection is felt by the medical fraternity, and described as early as 600 BC, in India, there are no practical guidelines available in the world literature for setting up a basic cadaver dissection laboratory for neurosurgery skills training. Hands-on dissection practice on microscopic and endoscopic procedures is essential in technologically demanding modern neurosurgery training where ethical issues, cost constraints, medico-legal pitfalls, and resident duty time restrictions have resulted in lesser opportunities to learn. Collaboration of anatomy, forensic medicine, and neurosurgery is essential for development of a workflow of cadaver procurement, preservation, storage, dissection, and disposal along with setting up the guidelines for ethical and legal concerns.

  5. Introduction of a fresh cadaver laboratory during the surgery clerkship improves emergency technical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Saman; Kaplan, Stephen J; Knapp, Christopher M; Ho, Hang; Alvarado, Jared; Viscusi, Rebecca; Adamas-Rappaport, William

    2015-08-01

    Student acquisition of technical skills during the clinical years of medical school has been steadily declining. To address this issue, the authors instituted a fresh cadaver-based Emergency Surgical Skills Laboratory (ESSL). Sixty-three medical students rotating through the third-year surgery clerkship participated in a 2-hour, fresh cadaver-based ESSL conducted during the first 2 days of the clerkship. The authors evaluated students utilizing both surgical skills and written examination before the ESSL and at 4 weeks post ESSL. Students demonstrated a mean improvement of 64% (±11) (P cadaver laboratory is an effective method to provide proficiency in emergency technical skills not acquired during the clinical years of medical school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Single-port unilateral transaxillary totally endoscopic thyroidectomy: A survival animal and cadaver feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Neubarth Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single-port unilateral axillary thyroidectomy has great potential to become a valid alternative technique for thyroid surgery. We tested the technique in a study on live animals and cadavers to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of the procedure. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board (IRB approval was obtained in our university by the Council of Ethics for the study in surviving animals and cadavers. Subtotal thyroidectomy using unilateral axillary single port was performed in five dogs and five cadavers. Performing incision in the axillary fossa, a disposable single port was inserted. The dissection progressed for creating a subcutaneous tunnel to the subplatysmal region; after opening the platysma muscle and separation of the strap muscles, the thyroid gland was identified. After key anatomical landmarks were identified, the dissection was started at the upper pole towards the bottom, and to the isthmus. Specimens were extracted intact through the tunnel. Clinical and laboratorial observations of the experimental study in a 15-day follow-up and intraoperative data were documented. Results: All surgeries were performed in five animals which survived 15 days without postoperative complications. In the surgeries successfully performed in five cadavers, anatomical landmarks were recognised and intraoperative dissection of recurrent nerves and parathyroid glands was performed. Mean operative time was 64 min (46-85 min in animals and 123 min (110-140 min in cadavers, with a good cosmetic outcome since the incision was situated in the axillary fold. Conclusion: The technique of single-port axillary unilateral thyroidectomy was feasible and reproducible in the cadavers and animal survival study, suggesting the procedure as an alternative to minimally invasive surgery of the neck.

  7. Development of an ultrasound-guided technique for pudendal nerve block in cat cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Chiara; Angeli, Giovanni; Haenssgen, Kati; Stoffel, Michael H; Spadavecchia, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this prospective experimental cadaveric study was to develop an ultrasound-guided technique to perform an anaesthetic pudendal nerve block in male cats. Fifteen fresh cadavers were used for this trial. A detailed anatomical dissection was performed on one cat in order to scrutinise the pudendal nerve and its ramifications. In a second step, the cadavers of six cats were used to test three different ultrasonographic approaches to the pudendal nerve: the deep dorso-lateral, the superficial dorso-lateral and the median transperineal. Although none of the approaches allowed direct ultrasonographical identification of the pudendal nerve branches, the deep dorso-lateral was found to be the most advantageous one in terms of practicability and ability to identify useful and reliable landmarks. Based on these findings, the deep dorso-lateral approach was selected as technique of choice for tracer injections (0.1 ml 1% methylene blue injected bilaterally) in six cat cadavers distinct from those used for the ultrasonographical study. Anatomical dissection revealed a homogeneous spread of the tracer around the pudendal nerve sensory branches in all six cadavers. Finally, computed tomography was performed in two additional cadavers after injection of 0.3 ml/kg (0.15 ml/kg per each injection sites, left and right) contrast medium through the deep dorso-lateral approach in order to obtain a model of volume distribution applicable to local anaesthetics. Our findings in cat cadavers indicate that ultrasound-guided pudendal nerve block is feasible and could be proposed to provide peri-operative analgesia in clinical patients undergoing perineal urethrostomy.

  8. Are two ears not better than one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Rachel A; Killion, Mead; Mennite, Monica A; Chisolm, Theresa H

    2012-03-01

    The decision to fit one or two hearing aids in individuals with binaural hearing loss has been debated for years. Although some 78% of U.S. hearing aid fittings are binaural (Kochkin , 2010), Walden and Walden (2005) presented data showing that 82% (23 of 28 patients) of their sample obtained significantly better speech recognition in noise scores when wearing one hearing aid as opposed to two. To conduct two new experiments to fuel the monaural/binaural debate. The first experiment was a replication of Walden and Walden (2005), whereas the second experiment examined the use of binaural cues to improve speech recognition in noise. A repeated measures experimental design. Twenty veterans (aged 59-85 yr), with mild to moderately severe binaurally symmetrical hearing loss who wore binaural hearing aids were recruited from the Audiology Department at the Bay Pines VA Healthcare System. Experiment 1 followed the procedures of the Walden and Walden study, where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss was measured using the Quick Speech-in-Noise (QuickSIN) test on participants who were aided with their current hearing aids. Signal and noise were presented in the sound booth at 0° azimuth under five test conditions: (1) right ear aided, (2) left ear aided, (3) both ears aided, (4) right ear aided, left ear plugged, and (5) unaided. The opposite ear in (1) and (2) was left open. In Experiment 2, binaural Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustic Research (KEMAR) manikin recordings made in Lou Malnati's pizza restaurant during a busy period provided a typical real-world noise, while prerecorded target sentences were presented through a small loudspeaker located in front of the KEMAR manikin. Subjects listened to the resulting binaural recordings through insert earphones under the following four conditions: (1) binaural, (2) diotic, (3) monaural left, and (4) monaural right. Results of repeated measures ANOVAs demonstrated that the best speech recognition in noise performance was

  9. MRI measurement for inner ear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuling; Liu Huaijun; Chi Chen; Qin Ruiping; Shi Zhaoxia

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To reconstruct the image of inner ear by using 3D-FASE heavily T 2 WI, and to establish MRI measurement criterion of inner ear structures. Methods: One hundred and six inner ears of 53 healthy volunteers underwent MRI heavily T2-weighted axial scanning by using 3D fast advanced spin echo sequence. All the original images were transferred to an online workstation. Analyze AVW software was used for image post-processing. All the structures of inner ear were reconstructed, rotated from various angles and measured by using maximum intensity projection (MIP). Results: (1) All the structures of inner ear and internal auditory channel (IAC) could be visualized clearly by using 3D-FASE heavily T 2 WI. (2) Using analysis of variance, there was no age, side or race-related difference in inner ear volume, but it was bigger in male than in female [(0.242 ± 0.0236) mm 3 (male) versus (0.226 ± 0.021) mm 3 (female)]. There was no age, side-related differences in three semicircular canal height and vestibule vertical diameter, but, again, they were bigger in male than in female. The height of upper, lateral and posterior semicircular canal were (5.511 ± 0.626) mm (male) versus (5.167 ± 0.357) mm (female); (3.763 ± 0.495) mm (male) versus (3.446 ± 0.405) mm (female); (5.227 ± 0.547) mm (male) versus (4.786 ± 0.500) mm (female). There was no age, sex or side-related differences in three semicircular canal diameter and cochlea. The diameter of upper, lateral and posterior semicircular canal were (1.06 ± 0.119) mm, (1.14 ± 0.181) mm, and (1.22 ± 0.196)mm; the external diameter of cochlea basal turn was (6.520 ± 0.475) mm, the diameter of cochlea basal turn was (1.413 ± 0.144) mm, and cochlea height was (4.100 ± 0.405) mm. Conclusion: (1) For the first time, the MRI measurement criterion of inner ear structures is established. (2) Vestibule and three semicircular canal of inner ear are bigger in male than in female

  10. Using Four-Layer Sculpted Rib Cartilage Framework to Increase Transverse Height of the Reconstructive Ear in One Operative Stage for Microtia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Rui; Pang, Xingyuan; Ren, Jun

    2018-02-01

    This case study improves an operative method of ear reconstruction for microtia patients by using a four-layer rib cartilage framework to increase transverse height of the reconstructive ear to a natural level in one operative stage. The procedures of ear reconstruction were conducted from February 2014 to May 2016. The ear framework used in the procedures was fabricated from autologous rib cartilage into a four-layer spliced sculpture. Totally 23 patients with unilateral microtia were willing to be enrolled in this study. After the operation, 23 patients achieved 2.3-2.8 cm transverse height of reconstructed ears, which was basically the same as the normal side. Both patients and their families felt satisfied with the results. Follow-up was performed at 6-16 months after the procedures. Only one case showed significantly lowered transverse height of the reconstructed ear, compared to the normal one. It was due to the sleeping position of the patient (10-year-old boy), which put the reconstructed ear under pressure and reduced the transverse height of the ear. The method of four-layer sculpted autologous rib cartilage ear reconstruction has good clinical effect. It can provide a reconstructed ear that reaches normal transverse height and avoids a third operation to increase the transverse height by rib cartilage transplantation. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  11. Spread of Injectate Around Hip Articular Sensory Branches of the Femoral Nerve in Cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Greher, Manfred; Moriggl, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    of the femoral nerve. Methods: Fifteen cadaver sides were injected with 5 mL dye in the iliopsoas plane guided by ultrasound. Dissection was performed to verify the spread of injectate around the hip articular branches of the femoral nerve. Results: In 10 dissections (67% [95% confidence interval: 38.......2-32%]) adhesions partially obstructed the spread of dye. Conclusion: An injection of 5 mL in the iliopsoas plane spreads around all hip articular branches of the femoral nerve in 10 of 15 cadaver sides. If these findings translate to living humans, injection of local anaesthetic into the iliopsoas plane could...

  12. Perception of Surgical Faculty on the Utility of Modified Thiel Embalmed Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini C Appaji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical skills training on low and high fidelity simulators have been in practice for over a decade, but due to the high cost of virtual reality simulators it is beyond the reach of institutions and trainees. Among the simulators, high fidelity simulators such as a suitably prepared human anatomical specimen would give a real feel as if doing the procedure in the living. Hence, having soft, supple cadaver with organoleptic properties is an ideal situation for training by simulation and research. To facilitate the surgical skill training and research, chemical embalming was adopted with modifications of the Thiel method, for cadaver preservation. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the perception of the surgical faculty’s experience on the utility of modified Thiel embalmed cadavers for surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a feedback was taken from practicing surgeons of broad and sub specialties such as general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, plastic surgery, pediatric surgery, ophthalmology, ENT, OBG, Transplant surgery (n=54. A 5 point Likert scale questionnaire was used with criteria of measurements like skin color, consistency, odour, differentiation of the layers, approach to the area, joint mobility and suitability for the procedure. Results: The scores ranged from 3.9 to 4.46/5. The participants expressed satisfaction on the cadaver quality on their utility for performance of surgical procedures. They expressed that, such embalmed cadavers would be excellent for learning purpose, surgical skills training in orthopedic procedures like arthroscopy. They felt the joint mobility was good, the consistency was soft and differentiation of layers was good. Some felt the tissues were fragile and would easily give away losing their strength. Conclusion: Thiel embalmed cadavers retain their organoleptic properties and hence facilitate surgical skills training. The thiel embalmed

  13. Learning Anatomy through Thiel- vs. Formalin-Embalmed Cadavers: Student Perceptions of Embalming Methods and Effect on Functional Anatomy Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M. A.; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2018-01-01

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience…

  14. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what ... other treatments? What are the risks of the surgery? Is it safe to wait before getting ear ...

  15. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity ... self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, and ...

  16. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis ... relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What is otitis media? Otitis media refers to inflammation of the middle ...

  17. Sub-clinical middle ear malfunctions in elderly patients; prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... absent acoustic reflex. Keywords: Middle ear malfunctions, elderly patients. ... hearing loss, had audiometric changes suggestive of such. We regarded such .... predictors of silent middle ear malfunction (control for Age and Sex). Variable.

  18. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric ... of self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, ...

  19. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic ... relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What is otitis media? Otitis media refers to inflammation of the ...

  20. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2017-10-01

    Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mitigate the cost by producing aerodynamic lift. Here we compare quantitative aerodynamic measures of flight efficiency of two bat species, one large-eared ( Plecotus auritus ) and one small-eared ( Glossophaga soricina ), flying freely in a wind tunnel. We find that the body drag of both species is higher than previously assumed and that the large-eared species has a higher body drag coefficient, but also produces relatively more ear/body lift than the small-eared species, in line with prior studies on model bats. The measured aerodynamic power of P. auritus was higher than predicted from the aerodynamic model, while the small-eared species aligned with predictions. The relatively higher power of the large-eared species results in lower optimal flight speeds and our findings support the notion of a trade-off between the acoustic benefits of large external ears and aerodynamic performance. The result of this trade-off would be the eco-morphological correlation in bat flight, with large-eared bats generally adopting slow-flight feeding strategies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Headaches from ear, nose and throat diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reck, R.

    1984-01-01

    Headaches are a frequent symptom in ENT-patients. The complex sensory innervation of the ear, nose and paranasal sinuses is demonstrated. Heterotopic or referred pain must be differentiated from homotopic pain that is experienced at the point of injury. The nervous pathways of heterotopic otalgia are shown. The quality of pain of the most common rhinological and otological diseases is reported. (orig.) [de

  2. DNA isolation from rat tail or ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes a rapid procedure for isolating DNA from rat tail or ear punches. The simplest version of the protocol can be scaled for use in 96-well (deep-well) plates. The quality of the DNA is sufficient for any polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping approach.

  3. The first neutron beam hits EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    On 25 July 2014, about a year after construction work began, the Experimental Area 2 (EAR2) of CERN’s neutron facility n_TOF recorded its first beam. Unique in many aspects, EAR2 will start its rich programme of experimental physics this autumn.   The last part of the EAR2 beamline: the neutrons come from the underground target and reach the top of the beamline, where they hit the samples. Built about 20 metres above the neutron production target, EAR2 is in fact a bunker connected to the n_TOF underground facilities via a duct 80 cm in diameter, where the beamline is installed. The feet of the bunker support pillars are located on the concrete structure of the n_TOF tunnel and part of the structure lies above the old ISR building. A beam dump located on the roof of the building completes the structure. Neutrons are used by physicists to study neutron-induced reactions with applications in a number of fields, including nuclear waste transmutation, nuclear technology, nuclear astrop...

  4. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  5. Clinical review of inner ear malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokai, Hiromi; Oohashi, Masami; Ishikawa, Kazuo; Harada, Kouji; Hiratsuka, Hitoshi; Ogasawara, Makoto; Miyashita, Souji; Terayama, Yoshihiko

    2003-01-01

    We had 126 patients with inner ear malformation diagnosed with temporal bone computed tomography (CT) scans at Azabu Triology Hospital between 1996 and 2002. We classified cases of inner ear malformation according to Jackler et al. The incidence of inner ear malformation in our series was as follows; labyrinthine anomalies 61% (isolated lateral semicircular canal dysplasia 56%, compound semicircular canal dysplasia 4%, semicircular canal aplasia 1%), cochlear anomalies 24%, enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct 12%, narrow internal auditory canal 2%, complete labyrinthine aplasia 1%, enlargement of the cochlear aqueduct 0%. The most frequent anomaly was isolated lateral semicircular canal dysplasia. We did not detect any significant clinical features in this anomaly. There were 2 patients with cochlear anomalies who had past histories of meningitis. Some patients with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct had frequent attacks of fluctuating hearing. Clinically it is important to detect patients with inner ear malformation such as cochlear anomalies and enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct usually accompanied by congenital sensorineural hearing loss. For patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss, we recommend temporal bone CT scan. (author)

  6. Cholesteatoma of the external ear canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owen, Hanne H; Rosborg, Jørn; Gaihede, Michael

    2006-01-01

    (n = 2), and otorrhea (n = 1). Similar symptoms were found in secondary EECC, but less pronounced. In total the temporomandibular joint was exposed in 11 cases, while the mastoid and middle ear was invaded in six and three cases, respectively. In one primary case the facial nerve was exposed...

  7. The inner ear produces a natriuretic hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1996-01-01

    Cytoplasmic granules have been demonstrated in epithelial cells from the endolymphatic sac, an extraosseus part of the inner ear located in the posterior cranial fossa. Intravenously infused extracts from endolymphatic sacs in anesthetized rats elicited a potent natriuresis and diuresis without e...

  8. Proton Minibeam Radiation Therapy Reduces Side Effects in an In Vivo Mouse Ear Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girst, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.girst@unibw.de [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, Christoph; Reindl, Judith [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Siebenwirth, Christian [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Zlobinskaya, Olga [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Walsh, Dietrich W.M. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Ilicic, Katarina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel [Research Unit Analytical Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Oberschleißheim (Germany); and others

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy is a novel approach to minimize normal tissue damage in the entrance channel by spatial fractionation while keeping tumor control through a homogeneous tumor dose using beam widening with an increasing track length. In the present study, the dose distributions for homogeneous broad beam and minibeam irradiation sessions were simulated. Also, in an animal study, acute normal tissue side effects of proton minibeam irradiation were compared with homogeneous irradiation in a tumor-free mouse ear model to account for the complex effects on the immune system and vasculature in an in vivo normal tissue model. Methods and Materials: At the ion microprobe SNAKE, 20-MeV protons were administered to the central part (7.2 × 7.2 mm{sup 2}) of the ear of BALB/c mice, using either a homogeneous field with a dose of 60 Gy or 16 minibeams with a nominal 6000 Gy (4 × 4 minibeams, size 0.18 × 0.18 mm{sup 2}, with a distance of 1.8 mm). The same average dose was used over the irradiated area. Results: No ear swelling or other skin reactions were observed at any point after minibeam irradiation. In contrast, significant ear swelling (up to fourfold), erythema, and desquamation developed in homogeneously irradiated ears 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation. Hair loss and the disappearance of sebaceous glands were only detected in the homogeneously irradiated fields. Conclusions: These results show that proton minibeam radiation therapy results in reduced adverse effects compared with conventional homogeneous broad-beam irradiation and, therefore, might have the potential to decrease the incidence of side effects resulting from clinical proton and/or heavy ion therapy.

  9. Bacteriology of chronic discharging ears in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Ear swabs of discharging ears aseptically collected from 102 patients of various age groups attending Ear, Nose, and Throat out-patient clinic at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital were cultured for bacterial agents using blood agar, chocolate agar and MacConkey agar. Culture plates were incubated ...

  10. Inner ear malformations in siblings presenting with vestibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the association between inner ear abnormalities and progressive sensorineural hearing loss is well known, vestibular signs or loss of vestibular function in these ... We provide a brief overview of the latest classification of these inner ear defects as well as a review of the literature pertaining to children with inner ear ...

  11. Influence of Ear Surface Area on Heat Tolerance of Composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative importance of ear surface area on heat tolerance of composite rabbit population was evaluated. The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, climatic data were recorded to obtain categorical heat stress index. Physiological parameters, growth performance, ear length and ear width of the rabbits ...

  12. Role of skeletal muscle in ear development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rot, Irena; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Costain, Willard J; Hong, Paul; Tafra, Robert; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Mrduljas-Djujic, Natasa; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration. Our finding that the type I hair cells were absent in the mutants' cristae was further used here to identify a profile of genes specific to the lacking cell type. Microarrays followed by a detailed consultation of web-accessible mouse databases allowed us to identify 6 candidate genes with a possible role in the development of the inner ear sensory organs: Actc1, Pgam2, Ldb3, Eno3, Hspb7 and Smpx. Additionally, we searched for human homologues of the candidate genes since a number of syndromes in humans have associated inner ear abnormalities. Mutations in one of our candidate genes, Smpx, have been reported as the cause of X-linked deafness in humans. Our current study suggests an epigenetic role that mechanical, and potentially other, stimuli originating from muscle, play in organogenesis, and offers an approach to finding novel genes responsible for altered inner ear phenotypes.

  13. The Utility of Cadaver-Based Approaches for the Teaching of Human Anatomy: A Survey of British and Irish Anatomy Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Joy Y.; Cronin, Michael; Cryan, John F.; O'Mahony, Siobhain M.

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing reality anatomy such as dissection and demonstrating using cadavers has been described as a superior way to create meaning. The chemicals used to embalm cadavers differentially alter the tissue of the human body, which has led to the usage of different processes along the hard to soft-fixed spectrum of preserved cadavers. A questionnaire…

  14. Naturopathic treatment for ear pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrell, E Michael; Cohen, Herman Avner; Kahan, Ernesto

    2003-05-01

    Otitis media is 1 of the most frequent diseases of early infancy and childhood and 1 of the most common reasons for children to visit a physician. In the past 2 decades, there has been a substantial increase in the diagnosis of otitis media worldwide. In the United States, 93% of all children have had at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by 7 years of age. Otalgia is the hallmark of AOM. Most affected children either complain of earache or manifest behavior that the parents interpret as indicating ear pain. Treatment of the ear pain early in the course of AOM decreases both parental anxiety and the child's discomfort and accelerates the healing process. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of naturopathic versus traditional treatment for the management of otalgia commonly associated with AOM in children. The study was designed as a double-blind trial in an outpatient community clinic. A total of 171 children who were aged 5 to 18 years and had otalgia and clinical findings associated with middle-ear infection were studied. The children were randomly assigned to receive treatment with Naturopathic Herbal Extract Ear Drops (NHED) or anesthetic ear drops, with or without amoxicillin. On enrollment, the children were assigned by computer-numbered randomization to receive NHED (contents: allium sativum, verbascum thapsus, calendula flores, hypericum perfoliatum, lavender, and vitamin E in olive oil) 5 drops 3 times daily, alone (group A) or together with a topical anesthetic (amethocaine and phenazone in glycerin) 5 drops 3 times daily (group B), or oral amoxicillin 80 mg/kg/d (maximum 500 mg/dose) divided into 3 doses with either NHED 5 drops 3 times daily (group C) or topical anesthetic 5 drops 3 times daily (group D). A double-blind design was used, and all ear drops were placed in identical bottles. Treatment was initiated by the nurse in all cases. A single physician (M.S.) evaluated and treated all of the patients

  15. Correlations Between the Autolytic Changes and Postmortem Interval in Refrigerated Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocariu Ela Andra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In forensic pathology the autolytic process has been observed and documented in order to determine the postmortem interval as accurately as possible. The observation and experiments have been carried out on cadavers exposed to environmental conditions – heat, humidity, air currents, soil, water.

  16. How to decrease the emotional impact of cadaver dissection in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Javadnia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teaching anatomy is based on cadaver dissection. Working  with cadavers, whether through active dissection or by examination of prosected specimens, constitutes a potential stressor in medical  education.Purpose.To reduce the anxiety of the medical students by mentally preparing them before going to the dissection room.Methods: The questionnaires were distributed among 68 medical students. The pre-dissection questionnaire comprised questions related to demographic data and the first encounter with a cadaver. The students were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was prepared psychologically prior to dissection, but the control group entered the dissection room without any preparation. After the first dissection class, all students were surveyed by the second questionnaire  which surveyed physical and cognitive symptoms of anxiety, resulting from exposure to the dissection room at the first visit and six weeks later.Results: There was a significant difference (p<.05 in the rate of anxiety between experimental and control group in the initial visit. The difference in the rate of anxiety between the first exposure and six weeks later was significant in control group (p<.008, while it was not significant in the experimental group.Conclusion: The initial preparation could relatively reduce the rate of stress, so that the experimental group experienced less errs tonal effects during dissection compared to control group.Keyword: Emotional impact, cadaver dissection, medical students

  17. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  18. The Omental Pedicle Flap in Dogs Revised and Refined: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Marjan; Cornillie, Pieter; Simoens, Paul; Huyghe, Stephanie; de Rooster, Hilde

    2016-08-01

    To expand current knowledge on the canine omental vasculature and refine the existing lengthening technique of the canine omentum. Ex vivo study. Canine cadavers (n=20). In 10 canine cadavers the omental arteries were mapped using intravascular latex injection and these results were used to create an omental pedicle flap based on the splenic artery in 10 additional cadavers. The operating range of the flap was recorded with particular attention to the main regions of interest for omental transposition in dogs (axillary and inguinal regions). The superficial and deep omental leaves were each predominantly supplied by a left and a right marginal omental artery that anastomosed near the caudal omental border into a superficial and a deep omental arch, respectively. Anastomoses between arteries of the superficial and the deep omental leaves were weak and inconsistent, except for 1 anastomosis that was found in 8 of 10 dogs. By transposing the intact omentum, the right axilla could be reached in 3 dogs, both axillae in 1 dog, and both groins in all cadavers. In all cases, the omental pedicle reached to and beyond the axillary and inguinal regions. By unfolding the pedicle leaves, the width of the pedicle tip could be doubled. When lengthening the omentum is necessary to reach extra-abdominal structures, the omental pedicle flap based on the splenic artery appears to preserve the omental vascular supply. These observations warrant further clinical trials to evaluate this new omtental flap technique in vivo. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. A comparative study of vascular injection fluids in fresh-frozen and embalmed human cadaver forearms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, D.E.; Kruse, R.R.; Reijnen, M.M.; Kozicz, T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, various vascular injection products have been developed to facilitate anatomical dissections. This study aimed to compare the most commonly used vascular injection products in fresh-frozen and formalin-embalmed cadaver specimens. An overview of the properties, advantages and

  20. Primary fit of the Lord cementless total hip : a geometric study in cadavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmel, J.W.; Huiskes, H.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two Lord prostheses, bilaterally implanted in cadavers, were sectioned. The contact areas between bone and prosthesis were studied and measured using a specially developed reproducible method. Primary fixation of the femoral components appeared to be based principally on wedging of the prosthetic

  1. [Proposed difficult airway teaching methodology. Presentation of an interactive fresh frozen cadaver model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá Bauset, J C; de Andres Ibañez, J A; Valverde Navarro, A; Martinez Soriano, F

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a methodology based on the use of fresh-frozen cadavers for training in the management of the airway, and to evaluate the degree of satisfaction among learning physicians. About 6 fresh-frozen cadavers and 14 workstations were prepared where participants were trained in the different skills needed for airway management. The details of preparation of the cadavers are described. The level of satisfaction of the participant was determined using a Likert rating scale of 5 points, at each of the 14 stations, as well as the overall assessment and clinical usefulness of the course. The mean overall evaluation of the course and its usefulness was 4.75 and 4.9, out of 5, respectively. All parts of the course were rated above 4 out of 5. The high level of satisfaction of the course remained homogeneous in the 2 editions analysed. The overall satisfaction of the course was not finally and uniquely determined by any of its particular parts. The fresh cadaver model for training physicians in techniques of airway management is a proposal satisfactory to the participant, and with a realism that approaches the live patient. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. A biomechanical comparison of composite femurs and cadaver femurs used in experiments on operated hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Trude; Klaksvik, Jomar; Syversen, Unni; Foss, Olav A

    2014-12-18

    Fourth generation composite femurs (4GCFs, models #3406 and #3403) simulate femurs of males cadaver femurs (HCFs) selected to represent patients with hip fractures. Ten 4GCFs (Sawbones, Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc., Vashon, WA, USA) were compared to 24 HCFs from seven females and five males >60 years. Proximal femur anthropometric measurements were noted. Strain gauge rosettes were attached and femurs were mounted in a hip simulator applying a combined subject-specific axial load and torque. Baseline measurements of resistance to deformation were recorded. Standardized femoral neck fractures were surgically stabilized before the constructs were subjected to 20,000 load-cycles. An optical motion tracking system measured relative movements. Median (95% CI) head fragment migration was 0.8mm (0.4 to 1.1) in the 4GCF group versus 2.2mm (1.5 to 4.6) in the cadaver group (p=0.001). This difference in fracture stability could not be explained by observed differences in femoral anthropometry or potential overloading of 4GCFs. 4GCFs failed with fracture-patterns different from those observed in cadavers. To conclude, standard 4GCFs provide unrealistically stable bone-implant constructs and fail with fractures not observed in cadavers. Until a validated osteopenic or osteoporotic composite femur model is provided, standard 4GCFs should only be used when representing the biomechanical properties of young healthy femurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Technique to Perfuse Cadavers that Extends the Useful Life of Fresh Tissues: The Duke Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Caroline; Kellogg, Ryan T.; Zhang, Yixin; Baiak, Andresa; Leiweke, Clinton; Marcus, Jeffrey R.; Levin, L. Scott; Zenn, Michael R.; Erdmann, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    The demand for laboratory-based teaching and training is increasing worldwide as medical training and education confront the pressures of shorter training time and rising costs. This article presents a cost-effective perfusion technique that extends the useful life of fresh tissue. Refrigerated cadavers are preserved in their natural state for up…

  4. Mechanized Packing and Delivery System for Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Infected Mealworm Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes a mechanized system to pack mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes between two sheets of masking tape. The document is also an operation manual for the machine and provides all the machine specifications, and wiring and pneumatic diagram...

  5. The Use of Specially Designed Tasks to Enhance Student Interest in the Cadaver Dissection Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok Hoon; Shin, Jwa-Seop; Hwang, Young-il

    2012-01-01

    Cadaver dissection is a key component of anatomy education. Unfortunately, students sometimes regard the process of dissection as uninteresting or stressful. To make laboratory time more interesting and to encourage discussion and collaborative learning among medical students, specially designed tasks were assigned to students throughout…

  6. Optimizing the Use of Cadavers by Integrating Pathology during Anatomy Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Elsje-Márie; Burger, Elsie Helena; van Helden, Paul David; Mole, Calvin Gerald; Kotzé, Sanet Henriët

    2016-01-01

    An accurate knowledge of anatomy, especially natural variation within individuals, is of vital clinical importance. Cadaver dissection during anatomical training may be a valuable introduction to pathology for undergraduate students, which can contribute greatly to a successful medical career. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent…

  7. Upper and Lower Limb Muscle Architecture of a 104 Year-Old Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Marissa; Cless, Daniel; Infantolino, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Muscle architecture is an important component to typical musculoskeletal models. Previous studies of human muscle architecture have focused on a single joint, two adjacent joints, or an entire limb. To date, no study has presented muscle architecture for the upper and lower limbs of a single cadaver. Additionally, muscle architectural parameters from elderly cadavers are lacking, making it difficult to accurately model elderly populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to present muscle architecture of the upper and lower limbs of a 104 year old female cadaver. The major muscles of the upper and lower limbs were removed and the musculotendon mass, tendon mass, musculotendon length, tendon length, pennation angle, optimal fascicle length, physiological cross-sectional area, and tendon cross-sectional area were determined for each muscle. Data from this complete cadaver are presented in table format. The data from this study can be used to construct a musculoskeletal model of a specific individual who was ambulatory, something which has not been possible to date. This should increase the accuracy of the model output as the model will be representing a specific individual, not a synthesis of measurements from multiple individuals. Additionally, an elderly individual can be modeled which will provide insight into muscle function as we age.

  8. Simulated training in colonoscopic stenting of colonic strictures: validation of a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, F; Bucobo, J C; Devlin, D; You, K; Bergamaschi, R

    2015-07-01

    There are currently no available simulation models for training in colonoscopic stent deployment. The aim of this study was to validate a cadaver model for simulation training in colonoscopy with stent deployment for colonic strictures. This was a prospective study enrolling surgeons at a single institution. Participants performed colonoscopic stenting on a cadaver model. Their performance was assessed by two independent observers. Measurements were performed for quantitative analysis (time to identify stenosis, time for deployment, accuracy) and a weighted score was devised for assessment. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Student's t-test were used for nonparametric and parametric data, respectively. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used for reliability. Twenty participants performed a colonoscopy with deployment of a self-expandable metallic stent in two cadavers (groups A and B) with 20 strictures overall. The median time was 206 s. The model was able to differentiate between experts and novices (P = 0. 013). The results showed a good consensus estimate of reliability, with kappa = 0.571 (P cadaver model described in this study has content, construct and concurrent validity for simulation training in colonoscopic deployment of self-expandable stents for colonic strictures. Further studies are needed to evaluate the predictive validity of this model in terms of skill transfer to clinical practice. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Construct Validity of Fresh Frozen Human Cadaver as a Training Model in Minimal Access Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macafee, David; Pranesh, Nagarajan; Horgan, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The construct validity of fresh human cadaver as a training tool has not been established previously. The aims of this study were to investigate the construct validity of fresh frozen human cadaver as a method of training in minimal access surgery and determine if novices can be rapidly trained using this model to a safe level of performance. Methods: Junior surgical trainees, novices (cadavers. Expert laparoscopists (>100 laparoscopic procedures) performed 3 repetitions of identical tasks. Performances were scored using a validated, objective Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills scale. Scores for 3 consecutive repetitions were compared between experts and novices to determine construct validity. Furthermore, to determine if the novices reached a safe level, a trimmed mean of the experts score was used to define a benchmark. Mann-Whitney U test was used for construct validity analysis and 1-sample t test to compare performances of the novice group with the benchmark safe score. Results: Ten novices and 2 experts were recruited. Four out of 5 tasks (nondominant to dominant hand transfer; simulated appendicectomy; intracorporeal and extracorporeal knot tying) showed construct validity. Novices’ scores became comparable to benchmark scores between the eighth and tenth repetition. Conclusion: Minimal access surgical training using fresh frozen human cadavers appears to have construct validity. The laparoscopic skills of novices can be accelerated through to a safe level within 8 to 10 repetitions. PMID:23318058

  10. Splenorenal shunt via magnetic compression technique: a feasibility study in canine and cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Li, Jianpeng; Lu, Jianwen; Zhu, Haoyang; Liu, Wenyan; Zhang, Hongke; Yang, Huan; Guo, Hongchang; Lv, Yi

    2016-12-01

    The concept of magnetic compression technique (MCT) has been accepted by surgeons to solve a variety of surgical problems. In this study, we attempted to explore the feasibility of a splenorenal shunt using MCT in canine and cadaver. The diameters of the splenic vein (SV), the left renal vein (LRV), and the vertical interval between them, were measured in computer tomography (CT) images obtained from 30 patients with portal hypertension and in 20 adult cadavers. The magnetic devices used for the splenorenal shunt were then manufactured based on the anatomic parameters measured above. The observation of the anatomical structure showed there were no special structural tissues or any important organs between SV and LRV. Then the magnetic compression splenorenal shunt procedure was performed in three dogs and five cadavers. Seven days later, the necrotic tissue between the two magnets was shed and the magnets were removed with the anchor wire. The feasibility of splenorenal shunt via MCT was successfully shown in both canine and cadaver, thus providing a theoretical support for future clinical application.

  11. Evaluation of hands-on seminar for reduced port surgery using fresh porcine cadaver model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saseem Poudel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of various biological and non-biological simulators is playing an important role in training modern surgeons with laparoscopic skills. However, there have been few reports of the use of a fresh porcine cadaver model for training in laparoscopic surgical skills. The purpose of this study was to report on a surgical training seminar on reduced port surgery using a fresh cadaver porcine model and to assess its feasibility and efficacy. Materials and Methods: The hands-on seminar had 10 fresh porcine cadaver models and two dry boxes. Each table was provided with a unique access port and devices used in reduced port surgery. Each group of 2 surgeons spent 30 min at each station, performing different tasks assisted by the instructor. The questionnaire survey was done immediately after the seminar and 8 months after the seminar. Results: All the tasks were completed as planned. Both instructors and participants were highly satisfied with the seminar. There was a concern about the time allocated for the seminar. In the post-seminar survey, the participants felt that the number of reduced port surgeries performed by them had increased. Conclusion: The fresh cadaver porcine model requires no special animal facility and can be used for training in laparoscopic procedures.

  12. Evaluation of hands-on seminar for reduced port surgery using fresh porcine cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Saseem; Kurashima, Yo; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Kitashiro, Shuji; Kanehira, Eiji; Hirano, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The use of various biological and non-biological simulators is playing an important role in training modern surgeons with laparoscopic skills. However, there have been few reports of the use of a fresh porcine cadaver model for training in laparoscopic surgical skills. The purpose of this study was to report on a surgical training seminar on reduced port surgery using a fresh cadaver porcine model and to assess its feasibility and efficacy. The hands-on seminar had 10 fresh porcine cadaver models and two dry boxes. Each table was provided with a unique access port and devices used in reduced port surgery. Each group of 2 surgeons spent 30 min at each station, performing different tasks assisted by the instructor. The questionnaire survey was done immediately after the seminar and 8 months after the seminar. All the tasks were completed as planned. Both instructors and participants were highly satisfied with the seminar. There was a concern about the time allocated for the seminar. In the post-seminar survey, the participants felt that the number of reduced port surgeries performed by them had increased. The fresh cadaver porcine model requires no special animal facility and can be used for training in laparoscopic procedures.

  13. Student Perceptions of an Upper-Level, Undergraduate Human Anatomy Laboratory Course without Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Shirley J.

    2012-01-01

    Several programs in health professional education require or are considering requiring upper-level human anatomy as prerequisite for their applicants. Undergraduate students are confronted with few institutions offering such a course, in part because of the expense and logistical issues associated with a cadaver-based human anatomy course. This…

  14. Use of human cadavers in teaching of human anatomy in brazilian medical faculties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela de Sousa Leal Lopes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Human Anatomy is the study of human body structure and it has been related to the use of cadavers through the history. The aim of this research was to investigate the use of human cadavers in practical classes of human anatomy in Brazilian medical schools, and it was also made the identification of alternative methodologies and new technologies applied to the teaching of Anatomy. The research was conducted at the Faculdade Integral Diferencial from January to December of 2015. The population studied was composed by professors responsible for the Human Anatomy sector of the Brazilian medical faculties. It was addressed all the 242 medical colleges of the Brazil. It was obtained 81 answers. 96% of respondents reported make use of human corpses in its practical lessons of anatomy. It can be observed that 42% of the surveyed medical schools make use of only formaldehyde. 81% of faculties reported to face some difficulties to acquire human cadavers. 84% of medical schools make use of artificial models. 46% of faculties make use of diagnostic images. It can be concluded that human bodies, artificial models and new technologies are widely used in practical classes of anatomy in Brazil, since there is a difficulty to obtain cadavers.

  15. The Histopathologic Reliability of Tissue Taken from Cadavers within the Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Guenevere; Newman, William P., III; McGoey, Robin; Donthamsetty, Supriya; Karpinski, Aryn C.; Green, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the histopathologic reliability of embalmed cadaveric tissue taken from the gross anatomy laboratory. Tissue samples from hearts, livers, lungs, and kidneys were collected after the medical students' dissection course was completed. All of the cadavers were embalmed in a formalin-based fixative solution.…

  16. Validation of an optical system to measure acetabular shell deformation in cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Philipp; Bone, Martin C; Flohr, Markus; Preuss, Roman; Joyce, Tom J; Deehan, David; Holland, James

    2014-08-01

    Deformation of the acetabular shell at the time of surgery can result in poor performance and early failure of the hip replacement. The study aim was to validate an ATOS III Triple Scan optical measurement system against a co-ordinate measuring machine using in vitro testing and to check repeatability under cadaver laboratory conditions. Two sizes of custom-made acetabular shells were deformed using a uniaxial/two-point loading frame and measured at different loads. Roundness measurements were performed using both the ATOS III Triple Scan optical system and a co-ordinate measuring machine and then compared. The repeatability was also tested by measuring shells pre- and post-insertion in a cadaver laboratory multiple times. The in vitro comparison with the co-ordinate measuring machine demonstrated a maximum difference of 5 µm at the rim and 9 µm at the measurement closest to the pole of the shell. Maximum repeatability was below 1 µm for the co-ordinate measuring machine and 3 µm for the ATOS III Triple Scan optical system. Repeatability was comparable between the pre-insertion (below 2 µm) and post-insertion (below 3 µm) measurements in the cadaver laboratory. This study supports the view that the ATOS III Triple Scan optical system fulfils the necessary requirements to accurately measure shell deformation in cadavers. © IMechE 2014.

  17. Direct Acoustic Stimulation at the Lateral Canal: An Alternative Route to the Inner Ear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Verhaert

    Full Text Available Severe to profound mixed hearing loss is associated with hearing rehabilitation difficulties. Recently, promising results for speech understanding were obtained with a direct acoustic cochlear implant (DACI. The surgical implantation of a DACI with standard coupling through a stapedotomy can however be regarded as challenging. Therefore, in this experimental study, the feasibility of direct acoustic stimulation was investigated at an anatomically and surgically more accessible inner ear site. DACI stimulation of the intact, blue-lined and opened lateral semicircular canal (LC was investigated and compared with standard oval window (OW coupling. Additionally, stapes footplate fixation was induced. Round window (RW velocity, as a measure of the performance of the device and its coupling efficiency, was determined in fresh-frozen human cadaver heads. Using single point laser Doppler vibrometry, RW velocity could reliably be measured in low and middle frequency range, and equivalent sound pressure level (LE output was calculated. Results for the different conditions obtained in five heads were analyzed in subsequent frequency ranges. Comparing the difference in RW membrane velocity showed higher LE in the LC opened condition [mean: 103 equivalent dB SPL], than in LC intact or blue-lined conditions [63 and 74 equivalent dB SPL, respectively]. No difference was observed between the LC opened and the standard OW condition. Inducing stapes fixation, however, led to a difference in the low frequency range of LE compared to LC opened. In conclusion, this feasibility study showed promising results for direct acoustic stimulation at this specific anatomically and surgically more accessible inner ear site. Future studies are needed to address the impact of LC stimulation on cochlear micromechanics and on the vestibular system like dizziness and risks of hearing loss.

  18. Clonal analysis of corn plant development. I. The development of the tassel and the ear shoot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johri, M.M.; Coe, E.H. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the tassel and the ear shoot has been investigated in corn (Zea mays L.). X irradiation of dry kernels and seedlings heterozygous for anthocyanin markers or for factors altering tassel and ear morphology results in the formation of clones (sectors) from cells of the apical meristem. Most tassels develop from 4 +/- 1 cells of the mature embryo. The expression of ramosa-1, tunicate, tassel seed-6, and vestigial is cell autonomous in the tassel. These genes act late in development and modify the developmental fate or decision of an individual clone and not of the whole group of cells producing a tassel. The ear shoot develops from lineages of one to three cells derived each from the L-I (outmost cell layer) and L-II (second cell layer) of the apical meristem. Typically the clones start in the ear shoot (in the husks and possibly in the cob), extend upward in an internode, continue along the margin of the leaf sheath or leaf blade at the node above, and terminate in this or the next higher leaf. The separation of lineages for ear shoot and internode occurs in the period around 13 days after sowing. The analysis of clonal boundaries shows that a small number of embryonic cells become isolated in their developmental capacity. This commitment process appears to be analogous to the process of compartmentation in the imaginal disks of fruit flies. The extent of proliferation of individual cells within a group of highly flexible and any particular clone does not generate a specific part of a tassel or an ear shoot. There must be cellular communication between various clones so that the overall size and morphology of an organ remain normal and more or less fixed. Thus the process of development in plants is also highly regulative in nature and shares many features in common with development in fruit flies

  19. Contralateral Occlusion Test: The effect of external ear canal occlusion on hearing thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Luis Roque; Fernandes, Paulo; Escada, Pedro

    Bedside testing with tuning forks may decrease turnaround time and improve decision making for a quick qualitative assessment of hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of ear canal occlusion on hearing, in order to decide which tuning fork frequency is more appropriate to use for quantifying hearing loss with the Contralateral Occlusion Test. Twenty normal-hearing adults (forty ears) underwent sound field pure tone audiometry with and without ear canal occlusion. Each ear was tested with the standard frequencies. The contralateral ear was suppressed with by masking. Ear occlusion was performed by two examiners. Participants aged between 21 and 30 years (25.6±3.03 years) showed an increase in hearing thresholds with increasing frequencies from 19.94dB (250Hz) to 39.25dB (2000Hz). The threshold difference between occluded and unoccluded conditions was statistically significant and increased from 10.69dB (250Hz) to 32.12dB (2000Hz). There were no statistically significant differences according to gender or between the examiners. The occlusion effect increased the hearing thresholds and became more evident with higher frequencies. The occlusion method as performed demonstrated reproducibility. In the Contralateral Occlusion Test, 256Hz or 512Hz tuning forks should be used for diagnosis of mild hearing loss, and a 2048Hz tuning fork should be used for moderate hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  20. Anthropometric growth study of the ear in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shichun; Li, Dianguo; Liu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yibiao; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Duyin; Pan, Bo

    2018-04-01

    A large number of anthropometric studies of the auricle have been reported in different nations, but little data were available in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to analyze growth changes in the ear by measuring the width and length of ears in a Chinese population. A total of 480 participants were enrolled and classified into 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 14-, and 18-year groups (half were boys and half were girls in each group). Ear length, ear width, body weight, and body length were measured and recorded; ear index was calculated according to ear length and ear width. The growth of auricle and differences between genders were analyzed. Growth of ear in relation to body height and weight and the degree of emphasis on the length and width of the auricle were also analyzed. Ear length and width increased with age. Ear length achieved its mature size in both 14-year-old males and females. Ear width reached its mature size in males at 7 years and in females at 5 years. Different trends of ear index were shown between males and females. People in this population paid more attention to the length than the width of the auricle. The data indicated that ear development followed increase in age. There were gender and ethnic difference in the development of ear. These results may have potential implications for the diagnosis of congenital malformations, syndromes, and planning of ear reconstruction surgery. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inner ear pressure changes following square wave intracranial or ear canal pressure manipulation in the same guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, E; Wit, H; Segenhout, H; Albers, F

    Inner ear pressure was measured in scala tympani with a micropipette during square wave pressure manipulation of the intracranial compartment and, subsequently, of the external ear canal (EEC) in the same guinea pig. As expected, the combination of the cochlear aqueduct and the inner ear behaves as

  2. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) System: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Sun, Qi; Hu, Annan; Zhu, Yanjie; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence. This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE's Lumbar Location (HELLO) system in puncture reduction of PTED. Cadaver study. Comparative groups. HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A). Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B). On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C). At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (PHELLO system reduced 39%-45% radiation dosage when comparing Group A and Group B, but there was no significant difference in radiation exposure between Group A and Group C whatever at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05). There was no difference in location time between Group A and Group B or Group A and Group C either at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05). Small-sample preclinical study. HELLO system was effective in reducing puncture times, fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure, as well as the difficulty of learning PTED. (2015-RES-127).

  3. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO System: A Cadaver Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxin Fan

    Full Text Available Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence.This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE's Lumbar Location (HELLO system in puncture reduction of PTED.Cadaver study.Comparative groups.HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A. Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B. On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C.At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P0.05. There was no difference in location time between Group A and Group B or Group A and Group C either at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05.Small-sample preclinical study.HELLO system was effective in reducing puncture times, fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure, as well as the difficulty of learning PTED. (2015-RES-127.

  4. An evaluation of soil chemistry in human cadaver decomposition islands: Potential for estimating postmortem interval (PMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, J P; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A; Farris, T; Mix, K; Schwab, A P; Wescott, D J; Hamilton, M D

    2017-10-01

    Soil samples from the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, were analyzed for multiple soil characteristics from cadaver decomposition islands to a depth of 5centimeters (cm) from 63 human decomposition sites, as well as depths up to 15cm in a subset of 11 of the cadaver decomposition islands plus control soils. Postmortem interval (PMI) of the cadaver decomposition islands ranged from 6 to 1752 days. Some soil chemistry, including nitrate-N (NO 3 -N), ammonium-N (NH 4 -N), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), peaked at early PMI values and their concentrations at 0-5cm returned to near control values over time likely due to translocation down the soil profile. Other soil chemistry, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), orthophosphate-P (PO 4 -P), sodium (Na + ), and potassium (K + ), remained higher than the control soil up to a PMI of 1752days postmortem. The body mass index (BMI) of the cadaver appeared to have some effect on the cadaver decomposition island chemistry. To estimate PMI using soil chemistry, backward, stepwise multiple regression analysis was used with PMI as the dependent variable and soil chemistry, body mass index (BMI) and physical soil characteristics such as saturated hydraulic conductivity as independent variables. Measures of soil parameters derived from predator and microbial mediated decomposition of human remains shows promise in estimating PMI to within 365days for a period up to nearly five years. This persistent change in soil chemistry extends the ability to estimate PMI beyond the traditionally utilized methods of entomology and taphonomy in support of medical-legal investigations, humanitarian recovery efforts, and criminal and civil cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Maturational changes in ear advantage for monaural word recognition in noise among listeners with central auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Ahmed Shaikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate differences between ears in performance on a monaural word recognition in noise test among individuals across a broad range of ages assessed for (CAPD. Word recognition scores in quiet and in speech noise were collected retrospectively from the medical files of 107 individuals between the ages of 7 and 30 years who were diagnosed with (CAPD. No ear advantage was found on the word recognition in noise task in groups less than ten years. Performance in both ears was equally poor. Right ear performance improved across age groups, with scores of individuals above age 10 years falling within the normal range. In contrast, left ear performance remained essentially stable and in the impaired range across all age groups. Findings indicate poor left hemispheric dominance for speech perception in noise in children below the age of 10 years with (CAPD. However, a right ear advantage on this monaural speech in noise task was observed for individuals 10 years and older.

  6. Constructive interference in steady state(CISS) 3DFT MR imaging of the inner ear and adjacent structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Chul; Choi, Hae Young; Lee, Jung Sik; Ko, Eun Joo; Lee, Myung Sook

    1997-01-01

    To assess the value of 3 dimensional fourier transformation interference in steady state magnetic resonance imaging(3DFT CISS MRI) in depicting the inner ear and vascular structures. Using 3DFT CISS axial and coronal MRI scans of both ears with 17.1msec/8.0msec/50 degree(TR/TE/FA) and 0.9mm in nominal thickness, we studied 68 normal ears of 34 volunteers aged between 15 and 54 years. We assessed the visualization of the membranous labyrinth, and of cranial nerves VII and VIII in the inner ear canal. We analyzed the location of the vascular loop of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery in relation to cranial nerves VII and internal auditory canal. To define the three-dimensional images of the membranous labyrinth, MIP reconstruction of axial images was carried out. The very high signal of the intralabyrinth fluid enabled one hundred percent of the membranous labrynth to be seen There was a lack of contrast between soft tissue and bone such as the facial verve canal, vestibular aqueduct and canal of the subarcuate artery. In 25% of cases, the vascular loop was recognized in the porus acusticus, and in 6% of cases, inside the internal auditory canal. 3DFT CISS MRI is useful for determining the detailed anatomy of the inner ear and the nearby vascular loop. This special MR technique can be added as a routine protocol in the study of diseases of the inner ear

  7. Ear care: an update for nurses (part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Millward, K.

    2017-01-01

    A healthy ear is vital not just for hearing, but for balance and for full engagement with the community. In the first of two articles, Kat Millward reviews the anatomy of the ear, outlines methods of dealing with cerumen, and discusses methods of assessment and diagnosis\\ud \\ud Our ears are essential for both hearing and balance. Up to 4% of the population will have difficulties with their ears relating to impacted cerumen and many of them will present in primary care with ear discomfort or h...

  8. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  9. Fish as aquatic “sniffer dogs”: Olfactory-mediated behaviors and conditioning of common carps to cadaver odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even with the aide of modern technology, the search for cadaver or human remains underwater is still assisted by sniffer dogs mainly because of their superior sense of olfaction. However, dogs rely on volatile organic compounds in the air and that this may constraint their ability when searching for submerged cadavers. On the other hand, it has long been recognized that fishes use olfaction to sample odors from their surroundings to accomplish a task and are capable of acquiring new skills through training or conditioning. Despite decades of experimental and observational studies of the olfactory sensitivities of fishes, its potential application to forensic sciences has never been truly explored. In this pioneering research, we explore the possibility of using fish olfaction in detecting cadaver odors (porcine origin, using common carps Cyprinus carpio as model species in a series of experiments under laboratory conditions. We first observed the innate behavior of carps towards cadaver odors. Afterwards, the carps were trained in two-choice chamber experimental tanks by appetitive olfactory conditioning and odor masking methods. We also experimented on the effects of cadaver odors by early exposure using eggs and larval impregnation techniques, and observing the behaviors when they develop to early juveniles. In general, we found out that common carps are naturally repelled to cadaver odors. However using our devised conditioning protocol, results show that the conditioned carps were able to learn to be attracted to cadaver odors despite their innate aversion. The development of fish for cadaver detection is a simple but innovative idea and that it may present a cost-effective and reliable solution for the shortcomings of the existing methods in underwater cadaver search. We anticipate that this research will open up a variety of different studies in pursuit of developing fishes as biosensors and its application to forensic sciences.

  10. History and future of human cadaver preservation for surgical training: from formalin to saturated salt solution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Naito, Munekazu; Kawata, Shinichi; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, surgical training meant on-the-job training with live patients in an operating room. However, due to advancing surgical techniques, such as minimally invasive surgery, and increasing safety demands during procedures, human cadavers have been used for surgical training. When considering the use of human cadavers for surgical training, one of the most important factors is their preservation. In this review, we summarize four preservation methods: fresh-frozen cadaver, formalin, Thiel's, and saturated salt solution methods. Fresh-frozen cadaver is currently the model that is closest to reality, but it also presents myriad problems, including the requirement of freezers for storage, limited work time because of rapid putrefaction, and risk of infection. Formalin is still used ubiquitously due to its low cost and wide availability, but it is not ideal because formaldehyde has an adverse health effect and formalin-embalmed cadavers do not exhibit many of the qualities of living organs. Thiel's method results in soft and flexible cadavers with almost natural colors, and Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been appraised widely in various medical disciplines. However, Thiel's method is relatively expensive and technically complicated. In addition, Thiel-embalmed cadavers have a limited dissection time. The saturated salt solution method is simple, carries a low risk of infection, and is relatively low cost. Although more research is needed, this method seems to be sufficiently useful for surgical training and has noteworthy features that expand the capability of clinical training. The saturated salt solution method will contribute to a wider use of cadavers for surgical training.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear by using a hybrid radiofrequency coil at 7 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Heo, Phil; Kim, Young-Bo; Han, Gyu-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of the membranous structures of the inner ear has been limited to the detection of the normal fluid signal intensity within the bony labyrinth by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipped with a 1.5 Tesla (T) magnet. High-field (HF) MRI has been available for more than a decade, and numerous studies have documented its significant advantages over conventional MRI with regards to its use in basic scientific research and routine clinical assessments. No previous studies of the inner ear by using HF MRI have been reported, in part because high-quality resolution of mastoid pneumatization is challenging due to artifacts generated in the HF environment and insufficient performance of radiofrequency (RF) coils. Therefore, a hybrid RF coil with integrated circuitry was developed at 7 T and was targeted for anatomical imaging to achieve a high resolution image of the structure of the human inner ear, excluding the bony portion. The inner-ear's structure is composed of soft tissues containing hydrogen ions and includes the membranous labyrinth, endolymphatic space, perilymphatic space, and cochlear-vestibular nerves. Visualization of the inner-ear's anatomy was performed in-vivo with a custom-designed hybrid RF coil and a specific imaging protocol based on an interpolated breath-held examination sequence. The comparative signal intensity value at 30-mm away from the phantom side was 88% higher for the hybrid RF coil and 24% higher for the 8-channel transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) coil than for the commercial birdcage coil. The optimized MRI protocol employed a hybrid RF coil because it enabled high-resolution imaging of the inner-ear's anatomy and accurate mapping of structures including the cochlea and the semicircular canals. These results indicate that 7 T MRI achieves high spatial resolution visualization of the inner-ear's anatomy. Therefore, MRI imaging using a hybrid RF coil at 7 T could provide a powerful tool for clinical investigations of petrous

  12. Speech perception and production in children with inner ear malformations after cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachovitsas, Dimitrios; Psillas, George; Chatzigiannakidou, Vasiliki; Triaridis, Stefanos; Constantinidis, Jiannis; Vital, Victor

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the speech perception and speech intelligibility outcome after cochlear implantation in children with malformed inner ear and to compare them with a group of congenitally deaf children implantees without inner ear malformation. Six deaf children (five boys and one girl) with inner ear malformations who were implanted and followed in our clinic were included. These children were matched with six implanted children with normal cochlea for age at implantation and duration of cochlear implant use. All subjects were tested with the internationally used battery tests of listening progress profile (LiP), capacity of auditory performance (CAP), and speech intelligibility rating (SIR). A closed and open set word perception test adapted to the Modern Greek language was also used. In the dysplastic group, two children suffered from CHARGE syndrome, another two from mental retardation, and two children grew up in bilingual homes. At least two years after switch-on, the dysplastic group scored mean LiP 62%, CAP 3.8, SIR 2.1, closed-set 61%, and open-set 49%. The children without inner ear dysplasia achieved significantly better scores, except for CAP which this difference was marginally statistically significant (p=0.009 for LiP, p=0.080 for CAP, p=0.041 for SIR, p=0.011 for closed-set, and p=0.006 for open-set tests). All of the implanted children with malformed inner ear showed benefit of auditory perception and speech production. However, the children with inner ear malformation performed less well compared with the children without inner ear dysplasia. This was possibly due to the high proportion of disabilities detected in the dysplastic group, such as CHARGE syndrome and mental retardation. Bilingualism could also be considered as a factor which possibly affects the outcome of implanted children. Therefore, children with malformed inner ear should be preoperatively evaluated for cognitive and developmental delay. In this case

  13. A Rare Case of Petrified Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. Buikema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcification or ossification of the auricle, also referred to as petrified ear, is a rare diagnosis in dermatology. In medical literature, it has most often been attributed to trauma, hypothermia and frostbite, or hypercalcemia secondary to a metabolic or endocrine disorder, such as Addison's disease. Here, we report the clinical and radiologic findings of a 79-year-old African American male whose unilateral petrified auricle was an incidental finding. He had a preceding history of hyperparathyroidism and subsequent hypercalcemia treated with a subtotal parathyroidectomy three years prior to presentation. In addition to laboratory analysis, a history and physical examination was performed which revealed no other signs of hypercalcemia. Radiologic studies demonstrated partial ossification of the external auricular cartilage on the left side. The patient was diagnosed with the rare occurrence of a petrified ear. In light of this case, we provide a discussion concerning the possible etiologies of this diagnosis including appropriate patient evaluation and possible treatment recommendations.

  14. Chiasma crurale: intersection of the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons above the ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging-anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Florian M. [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Zurich (Switzerland); Gheno, Ramon; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Pathology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the precise anatomy and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the chiasma crurale in cadavers, paying special attention to degenerative changes Twelve fresh human ankles were harvested from 11 nonembalmed cadavers (mean age at death 77 years) and used according to institutional guidelines. MR imaging and MR tenography were used to investigate the anatomy of the chiasma crurale using proton density-weighted sequences. The gross anatomy of the chiasma crurale was evaluated and compared to the MR imaging findings. Histology was used to elucidate further the structure of the chiasma crurale. Above the chiasma, five specimens had a small amount of fat tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendon. In all specimens both tendons had a sheath below the chiasma but not above it. At the central portion of the chiasma there was no soft tissue between the tendons, except in two specimens that showed an anatomic variant consisting of a thick septum connecting the tibial periosteum and the deep transverse fascia of the leg. In MR images, eight specimens showed what were believed to be degenerative changes in the tendons at the level of the chiasma. However, during gross inspection and histologic analysis of the specimens, there was no tendon degeneration visible. At the central portion of the chiasma, there is no tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons unless there is an anatomic variant. At the chiasma crurale, areas with irregular tendon surfaces are normal findings and are not associated with tendon degeneration (fraying). (orig.)

  15. Ear embryonic rabdomiosarcoma. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueto, L.; Canabal, A.; Blanco, A.; Sabate, J.

    2002-01-01

    A case of embryonic rabdomiosarcoma in the ear of a 5-year-old girl who initially shows clinical symptoms of otitis media. The CT reveals a dense lesion of soft tissue which shows up slightly in the right external auditory channel. Also of interest were osteolytic areas in the petrous, clivus and zygomatic arch. A hypointensive lesion with marked enhancement after Gd-DPTA injection is observed. Discussed are the imaging methods used in the diagnosis of this tumor. (Author) 10 refs

  16. ElectroAcoustic Resource Site (EARS)

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Simon; Landy, Leigh

    2002-01-01

    Central to the MTIRC’s electroacoustic music studies focus, EARS is supported by the AHRC’s resource enhancement scheme (ca. £170k) and Unesco (£3k). Beyond its initial goal to create the glossary (~500 entries) and related index (providing a coherent hyperlink structure for the bibliography – ~3000 entries) there are further methodological research imperatives – to offer a web-based resource that: a) Realises an accessible research resource (glossary, keyword index and bibliography) to co...

  17. Structural Metadata Research in the Ears Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    detecting structural information in the word stream (the so-called “structural MDE” portion of the EARS program); other MDE efforts on speaker ... diarization are overviewed in [13]. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. We describe the structural MDE tasks, performance measurement, and corpora...tems have only recently been introduced, with NIST reporting re- sults with the Wilcoxon signed rank test for speaker -level average score differences

  18. Anomalous vessel in the middle ear: the role of CT and MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, J.G.M.P.; Iffenecker, C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Doyon, D.; Attal, P.

    1998-01-01

    An 8-year-old child was examined because of conductive hearing loss with a retrotympanic mass on otoscopy. CT and MR angiography showed a large inferior tympanic artery traversing the hypotympanum and joining a thin, irregular internal carotid artery with a normal middle meningeal artery. These investigations, coupled with knowledge of the embryological development allowed a diagnosis of a complex vascular anomaly in the middle ear and avoided potential surgical complications. (orig.)

  19. Successful transplantation of in vitro expanded human cadaver corneal endothelial precursor cells on to a cadaver bovine's eye using a nanocomposite gel sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikumar, Periyasamy; Haraguchi, Kazutoshi; Ohbayashi, Akira; Senthilkumar, Rajappa; Abraham, Samuel J K

    2014-05-01

    In vitro expansion of human corneal endothelial precursor (HCEP) cells has been reported via production of cell aggregated spheres. However, to translate this procedure in human patients warrants maintaining the position of the eyeballs facing down for 36 h, which is not feasible. In this study, we report a method using a nanocomposite (NC) gel sheet to accomplish the integration of HCEP cells to the endothelium of cadaver bovine's eyes. HCEP cells were isolated from the corneal endothelium of a cadaver human eye and then expanded using a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) as reported earlier. For the study, three cadaver bovine eyes were used. The NC gel sheets were inserted into the bovine eyes', aligned and suture-fixed in position under the host endothelium. HCEP cells previously expanded in the TGP were harvested and injected using a 26-gauge syringe between the endothelium and the NC gel sheet. The eyes were left undisturbed for three hours following which the NC gel sheets were gently removed. The corneas were harvested and subjected to histopathological studies. Histopathological studies showed that all the three corneas used for NC gel sheet implantation showed the presence of engrafted HCEP cells, seen as multi-layered cells over the native endothelium of the bovine cornea. Examination of the NC gel sheets used for implantation showed that only very few corneal endothelial cells remained on the sheets amounting to what could be considered negligible. The use of the NC gel sheet makes HCEP cell transplantation feasible for human patients. Further in vitro basic studies followed by translational studies are necessary to bring this method for clinical application in appropriate indications.

  20. CT analysis of 333 cases of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xin; Li Qiang; Wang Zhenchang; Xian Junfang; Lan Baosen

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the different CT findings of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear, 333 cases including 404 ears with external and middle ear malformations diagnosed by high resolution CT (HRCT) were analysed according to the location and type of the malformation. In 404 ears, there were 364 ears with atresia of external auditory meatus, 40 ears with stenosis of external auditory meatus, 377 ears with malformation of the ossicles, 382 ears with stenosis of tympanum and 333 ears with anterior position of the mastoid segment of the facial canal. HRCT can show the location and type of external and middle ear malformation and provide valuable information for surgery

  1. Pressure equilibration in the penguin middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadé, Jacob; Handrich, Yves; Bernheim, Joelle; Cohen, David

    2008-01-01

    King penguins have a venous structure in the form of a corpus cavernosum (CC) in their middle ear (ME) submucosa. The CC may be viewed as a special organelle that can change ME volume for pressure equilibration during deep-sea diving it is a pressure regulating organelle (PRO). A similar CC and muscles also surround the external ear (EE) and may constrict it, isolating the tympanic membrane from the outside. A CC was previously found also in the ME of marine diving mammals and can be expected to exist in other deep diving animals, such as marine turtles. Marine animals require equalization of middle ear (ME) pressure when diving hundreds or thousands of meters to catch prey. We investigated what mechanism enables king penguins to protect their ME when they dive to great depths. Biopsies and serial sections of the ME and the EE of the deep diving king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) were examined microscopically. It was demonstrated that the penguin ME has an extensive network of small and large submucosal venous sinuses. This venous formation, a corpus cavernosum, can expand and potentially 'flood' the ME almost completely on diving, thus elevating ME pressure and reducing the ME space. The EE has a similar protective mechanism.

  2. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    Full Text Available Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.

  3. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.

  4. Pathology of ear hematomas in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Richard; Hélie, Pierre; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of our study were to describe the pathology of ear hematomas in swine and to add to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of this condition. The pathogenesis of aural hematomas has been studied mainly in dogs; however, disagreements exist about the precise anatomic location of the hemorrhage. Sixteen pigs with ear hematoma at various stages of development were included in this study. The pigs were submitted for routine autopsy for various and unrelated reasons over a period of several years. Based on gross examination, the 16 cases of aural hematomas were subjectively classified as acute (n = 6), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 7). The age of the animals at the time of autopsy ranged from 2 weeks to adulthood, with all acute cases being hematoma developed predominantly in a subperichondral location on both sides of the cartilaginous plate simultaneously. Within these same cases, there were also some areas in which blood-filled clefts had formed within the cartilage itself. Besides fibroplasia, neoformation of cartilage was found to represent a significant part of the repair process. All chronic cases were characterized on cross-section of the ear by the presence of at least 2 distinct, wavy, focally folded, and roughly parallel plates of cartilage separated from each other by fibrous tissue. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Békésy's contributions to our present understanding of sound conduction to the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puria, Sunil; Rosowski, John J

    2012-11-01

    In our daily lives we hear airborne sounds that travel primarily through the external and middle ear to the cochlear sensory epithelium. We also hear sounds that travel to the cochlea via a second sound-conduction route, bone conduction. This second pathway is excited by vibrations of the head and body that result from substrate vibrations, direct application of vibrational stimuli to the head or body, or vibrations induced by airborne sound. The sensation of bone-conducted sound is affected by the presence of the external and middle ear, but is not completely dependent upon their function. Measurements of the differential sensitivity of patients to airborne sound and direct vibration of the head are part of the routine battery of clinical tests used to separate conductive and sensorineural hearing losses. Georg von Békésy designed a careful set of experiments and pioneered many measurement techniques on human cadaver temporal bones, in physical models, and in human subjects to elucidate the basic mechanisms of air- and bone-conducted sound. Looking back one marvels at the sheer number of experiments he performed on sound conduction, mostly by himself without the aid of students or research associates. Békésy's work had a profound impact on the field of middle-ear mechanics and bone conduction fifty years ago when he received his Nobel Prize. Today many of Békésy's ideas continue to be investigated and extended, some have been supported by new evidence, some have been refuted, while others remain to be tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A FGF3 mutation associated with differential inner ear malformation, microtia, and microdontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsebner, Reinhard; Ludwig, Martin; Parzefall, Thomas; Lucas, Trevor; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Bodamer, Olaf; Cengiz, Filiz Basak; Schoefer, Christian; Tekin, Mustafa; Frei, Klemens

    2010-02-01

    Analysis of association between genotype and phenotype. Prospective genetic study in a family. Auditory investigations, computer tomography, and genetic sequencing of the fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) gene were performed on a Somali family presenting with autosomal recessive, hearing impairment, microdontia, and outer ear morphologies ranging from normal auricle development to microtia assessed as type 1 Weerda dysplasia in affected individuals. Computed tomography imaging identified differential inter- and intraindividual malformations of the inner ear including labyrinth aplasia, development of a common cavity to the presence of a cochlear with 1.5 windings (Mondini malformation) in affected individuals, symptoms similar to those described as labyrinth aplasia, microtia, and microdontia (LAMM) syndrome, caused by mutations in FGF3. Genetic sequencing revealed the presence of a novel p.R95W missense mutation in FGF3 segregating with pathology. The p.R95W mutation substitutes a positively charged arginine for a polar tryptophan in the highly conserved RYLAM consensus of the beta 6 sheet of FGF3 that interacts with FGFR2. These findings describe, for the first time, variable inner ear malformations and outer ear dysplasia in the presence of constant microdontia, associated with homozygous inheritance of the p.R95W mutation in FGF3, mirroring phenotypes observed in mouse models ablating FGF3/FGFR2 signaling.

  7. HB-EGF expression as a potential biomarker of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shumin; Wang, Xiaoli; Ren, Hongmiao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Ren, Jihao; Liu, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) plays an essential role in the development and invasiveness of cholesteatoma. This study may help to realize the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma and make HB-EGF a promising target for drug intervention of cholesteatoma. To detect HB-EGF expression in human surgical specimens of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma and analyze its functional role as a regulator of epithelial keratinocytes hyperproliferation. A total of 34 patients who underwent surgical treatment for middle ear cholesteatoma were recruited in the study. The mRNA and protein expression of HB-EGF in middle ear cholesteatoma tissues and normal postauricular skin tissues was investigated by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. The correlation between bone resorption degree and HB-EGF expression was also analyzed. On average, compared with normal postauricular skin, expression of HB-EGF mRNA in the cholesteatoma epithelium was significantly elevated 2.41-fold by RT-qPCR, and HB-EGF protein significantly upregulated 2.32-fold by western blot. Positive HB-EGF immunostaining observed in the basal and suprabasal layers of cholesteatoma epithelium was significantly stronger than in normal postauricular skin. Meanwhile, an obviously positive correlation between HB-EGF protein expression and bone resorption degree was discovered.

  8. Alterations in the Contra lateral Ear in Chronic Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic otitis media (COM, a persistent and durable inflammation and infection of the middle ear, is a common disorder. Alterations in the contralateral ear in sufferers have been observed in recent years. Because only a few studies have been reported in this area, we performed this study in order to assess alterations in the contralateral ear of patients with COM.   Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive methods were used in 100 patients with COM who were selected for surgical treatment and admitted to hospital. An information form was completed for all patients including demographic data, medical history of otoscopy and paraclinical examinations such as pure tone audiometry (PTA, tympanometry, Schuller radiography, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT. All data were processed using SPSS (version 18 software and descriptive statistical tests.   Results: According to otoscopy, PTA, tympanometry and graphical analysis, 60% of patients experienced disorders of the contralateral ear. Otoscopy analysis showed 54% of patients had a disorder of the contralateral ear, with the most common disorder being perforation of the ear drum. PTA showed a 48% incidence of contralateral ear problems (85% conductive hearing impairment; 12.5% sensorineural hearing impairment; 1.2% mixed. A total of 73.2% of patients with conductive hearing loss had a problem across all frequencies, while half of the patients with sensorineural hearing impairment had problems at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. According to tympanometry, 38% of patients had problem in the contralateral ear. HRCT and Schuller graphical analyses indicated 31.5% and 36% occurrence of contralateral ear disorders, respectively.   Conclusion:  More than 50% of patients with COM in one ear have a chance of also presenting with the disease in the other ear. Outcomes of this study and previous studies have shown that COM should not be perceived as a disease limited

  9. Bioluminescent bacteria have potential as a marker of drowning in seawater: two immersed cadavers retrieved near estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Eiji; Kozawa, Shuji; Sakai, Masahiro; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2009-03-01

    We detected numerous bioluminescent bacteria in blood samples from two cadavers that had been immersed in estuarine environments. Autopsy, diatomaceous and toxicological findings indicated death by drowning, which agreed with environmental aspects and the findings of police investigations. Bioluminescent bacteria appeared in blood samples cultured on selective agar containing 2%, 3% and 4% NaCl after about 18h. Blood from the left side of the heart, the right side of the heart and the femoral vein generated 7.0 x 10(2), 2.0 x 10(4) and 8.0 x 10(2) cfu/ml of blood (case 1), and 1.8 x 10(4), 1.1 x 10(3) and 2.5 x 10(1) cfu/ml (case 2) of bioluminescent colonies, respectively, in agar containing 4% NaCl. Homologous analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene also identified the bioluminescent colonies as Vibrio fischeri and V. harveyi, which normally inhabit seawater. This simple assay might serve as an additional indicator to support a conclusion of death by drowning together with the diatom test.

  10. Histomorphologic study of the pituitary glands of Korean cadavers and correlation with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, In Hyuk; Suh, Jung Ho

    1989-01-01

    Histomorphological analysis of the pituitary glands of 62 Korean Adult cadavers was performed, and its results were compared to the findings of high resolution CT scan in 6 cases and magnetic resonance imaging in 2 cases. The CT attenuation density of pituitary glands was also evaluated with coronal scans of 103 normal Korean adults who had no clinical evidence of pituitary abnormalities. The pituitary gland was classified into 4 types based on the contours of superior margin of the glands; slightly convex (type I and type II), slightly concave (type III) and deeply concave (type IV). Among them type III was the most common (44.4%). The size and shape of each lobe of gland were varied. The mean length and height of gland were 10.9 ± 1.4 mm and 4.6 ± 1.2 mm. Rathke's cleft cysts over 0.5 mm in diameter was found in 54.8%, but it rarely exceeded 3 mm in diameter. Rathke's cleft cysts were commonly located at the middle one third between anterior lobe and pars intermedia of pituitary gland. The CT attenuation density of pituitary gland varied depending on the anatomic location and was roughly corresponding to the compactness of cellularity. Focal low attenuation density areas could be consider to represent Rathke's cleft cysts. In one of two pituitary glands, the posterior lobe showed high signal intensity in T1-weighted MRI, which was not corresponding to the intrasellar fat pad or cellularity of gland

  11. Desiccation and cold storage of Galleria mellonella cadavers and effects on in vivo production of Steinernema carpocapsae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Huan; Feng, Qing-zhou; Cui, Xi-yang; Liu, Ri-yue; Sun, Yan-bo; Li, Guo-chao; Tan, Hao; Song, Dong-min; Liu, Wen; Ruan, Wei-bin; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Direct application of insect cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) can successfully control target pest insects. Little is known about the effects of environmental factors (desiccation and temperature) on the production process for infective juveniles (IJ) in insects.

  12. Desiccation and cold storage of Galleria mellonella cadavers and effects on in vivo production of Steinernema carpocapsae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Wang, H.; Feng, Q.Z.; Cui, X.Y.; Liu, R.Y.; Sun, Y.B.; Li, G.C.; Tan, H.; Song, D.M.; Liu, W.; Ruan, W.B.; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDDirect application of insect cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) can successfully control target pest insects. Little is known about the effects of environmental factors (desiccation and temperature) on the production process for infective juveniles (IJ) in insects.

  13. Necropsy of a cadaver containing 50 mmCi of Na-131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, K.L.; Komerek, M.; Quain, B.; Bakshi, S.P.; Qureshi, F.; Shimaoka, K.; Rao, U.; Adamski, J.S.; Bender, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A patient who received an oral dose of 131 I for the treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma unexpectedly died with a large total-body retention of the radioiodine. An autopsy was required and the family requested the body to be transported out of state to their home town. Since the radiation intensity near the surface of the cadaver was above 200 mR/hr, advanced planning and special precautions were necessary in order for the autopsy to proceed safely. This required the immediate cooperation of the pathologists, nuclear medicine physicians, health physicists, an endocrine oncologist, and other hospital staff. As a result of team efforts, personnel radiation exposures were kept as low as reasonably achievable, contamination of the autopsy room was minimal, and the radiation level of the cadaver was adequately reduced for safe transport and burial

  14. Accuracy of computer-guided implantation in a human cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatzkair, Gustavo; Cheng, Alice; Brodie, Stan; Raviv, Eli; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2015-10-01

    To examine the accuracy of computer-guided implantation using a human cadaver model with reduced experimental variability. Twenty-eight (28) dental implants representing 12 clinical cases were placed in four cadaver heads using a static guided implantation template. All planning and surgeries were performed by one clinician. All radiographs and measurements were performed by two examiners. The distance of the implants from buccal and lingual bone and mesial implant or tooth was analyzed at the apical and coronal levels, and measurements were compared to the planned values. No significant differences were seen between planned and implanted measurements. Average deviation of an implant from its planning radiograph was 0.8 mm, which is within the range of variability expected from CT analysis. Guided implantation can be used safely with a margin of error of 1 mm. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Oral Implants Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. MEMS capacitive accelerometer-based middle ear microphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Darrin J; Zurcher, Mark A; Semaan, Maroun; Megerian, Cliff A; Ko, Wen H

    2012-12-01

    The design, implementation, and characterization of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive accelerometer-based middle ear microphone are presented in this paper. The microphone is intended for middle ear hearing aids as well as future fully implantable cochlear prosthesis. Human temporal bones acoustic response characterization results are used to derive the accelerometer design requirements. The prototype accelerometer is fabricated in a commercial silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MEMS process. The sensor occupies a sensing area of 1 mm × 1 mm with a chip area of 2 mm × 2.4 mm and is interfaced with a custom-designed low-noise electronic IC chip over a flexible substrate. The packaged sensor unit occupies an area of 2.5 mm × 6.2 mm with a weight of 25 mg. The sensor unit attached to umbo can detect a sound pressure level (SPL) of 60 dB at 500 Hz, 35 dB at 2 kHz, and 57 dB at 8 kHz. An improved sound detection limit of 34-dB SPL at 150 Hz and 24-dB SPL at 500 Hz can be expected by employing start-of-the-art MEMS fabrication technology, which results in an articulation index of approximately 0.76. Further micro/nanofabrication technology advancement is needed to enhance the microphone sensitivity for improved understanding of normal conversational speech.

  16. Heterosis expression in crosses between maize populations: ear yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Ricardo Machado da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of heterosis has been exploited extensively in maize (Zea mays L. breeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic potential of ten maize populations for ear yield following the diallel mating scheme. Six parental populations were obtained through phenotypic selection of open-pollinated ears in Rio Verde, GO, Brazil, (GO populations and four parental populations were synthesized in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil (GN populations: GO-D (DENTADO, GO- F (FLINT, GO-A (AMARELO, GO-B (BRANCO, GO-L (LONGO, GO-G (GROSSO, GN-01, GN-02, GN-03 and GN-04. Experiments were carried out in three environments: Anhembi (SP and Rio Verde (GO in 1998/99 (normal season crop and Piracicaba (SP in 1999 (off-season crop. All experiments were in completely randomized blocks with six replications. Analysis of variance grouped over environments showed high significance for heterosis and its components, although mid-parent heterosis and average heterosis were of low expression. The interaction treatments x environments was not significant. Total mid-parent heterosis effects ranged from de -4.3% to 17.3% with an average heterosis of 3.37%. Population with the highest yield (7.4 t ha-1 and with the highest effect of population (v i = 0.746 was GN-03, while the highest yielding cross was GO-B x GN-03 with 7,567 t ha-1. The highest specific heterosis effect (s ii' = 0.547 was observed in the cross GO-B x GN-03.

  17. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  18. Comparison between Hybrid III dummy and cadaver knee response in frontal impact

    OpenAIRE

    MASSON, Catherine; CAVALLERO, Claude

    2003-01-01

    Lower limb injuries frequently occur during car accidents. The purpose of this work was to compare the response of the hybrid iii lower limb with the response of cadaver lower limb subjected to similar impacts. These experiments were performed with the objective to evaluate the biofidelity, repeatability and response characteristics of the knee-femur-pelvis HIII dummy. The tests have examined the dynamic response of the knee-femur-pelvis complex to sub injury simple pendulum impacts. The expe...

  19. Pathological study of degenerative changes of finger joints in cadavers of aged persons

    OpenAIRE

    岩田,芳之

    1987-01-01

    In the present study, soft x-ray and light microscopic examinations were carried out on 17 interphalangeal (IP) joints and 85 distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints with Heberden's nodes from 15 cadavers. Microradiograms of the IP and DIP joints were analyzed as to the degenerative changes in the antero-posterior and lateral views according to our own criteria. Degenerative changes were more severe in females than in males. Advanced degeneration was found in the index, middle and little fingers,...

  20. Anatomic Assessment of Variations in Kambin's Triangle: A Surgical and Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ali Fahir; Suzer, Tuncer; Can, Halil; Falsafi, Mani; Aydin, Murat; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc

    2017-04-01

    The relationship of exiting root and Kambin's triangle is discussed in this article. Transforaminal endoscopic surgery as the gold standard of less invasive lumbar disc surgeries is performed through Kambin's triangle. Existing root damage is one of the most important complication for this type of surgery. Anatomic variations in Kambin's triangle may be the main reason for nerve root damage during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery. Kambin's triangle was investigated with surgical views and cadaver studies. Thirty-four patients with far lateral disc herniation were treated with an extraforaminal approach under the microscope. On the other hand, 48 Kambin's triangles were dissected on 8 cadavers. Three main types of triangle were identified, and patients were grouped according to these 3 types of the triangle. Only 6 of the 34 patients had type 3 triangles, which is the wide classical triangle described by Kambin; however, 17 patients had type 2, with a narrow space in the triangle, and 11 patients had type 1, with no space inside the triangle. Cadaver results were similar; only 10 of the 48 specimens had the type 3 classical triangle, whereas 23 specimens had type 2, and 15 specimens had type 1 triangles. Our results disclosed narrowed or no space in 82.4% of the patients and 79.2% of the cadavers. We observed that a wide and safe room of the triangle may not be exist in some patients. Therefore, more care must be taken during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery to avoid nerve damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of Dual Mobility Liner Rim Damage Using Retrieved Components and Cadaver Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebergall, Audrey K; Freiberg, Andrew A; Greene, Meridith E; Malchau, Henrik; Muratoglu, Orhun; Rowell, Shannon; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Varadarajan, Kartik M

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the retentive rim of retrieved dual mobility liners for visible evidence of deformation from femoral neck contact and to use cadaver models to determine if anterior soft tissue impingement could contribute to such deformation. Fifteen surgically retrieved polyethylene liners were assessed for evidence of rim deformation. The average time in vivo was 31.4 months, and all patients were revised for reasons other than intraprosthetic dislocation. Liner interaction with the iliopsoas was studied visually and with fluoroscopy in cadaver specimens using a dual mobility system different than the retrieval study. For fluoroscopic visualization, a metal wire was sutured to the iliopsoas and wires were also embedded into grooves on the outer surface of the liner and the inner head. All retrievals showed evidence of femoral neck contact. The cadaver experiments showed that liner motion was impeded by impingement with the iliopsoas tendon in low flexion angles. When observing the hip during maximum hyperextension, 0°, 15°, and 30° of flexion, there was noticeable tenting of the iliopsoas caused by impingement with the liner. Liner rim deformation resulting from contact with the femoral neck likely begins during early in vivo function. The presence of deformation is indicative of a mechanism inhibiting mobility of the liner. The cadaver studies showed that liner motion could be impeded because of its impingement with the iliopsoas. Such soft tissue impingement may be one mechanism by which liner motion is routinely inhibited, which can result in load transfer from the neck to the rim. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Crash-Resistant Crewseat Limit-Load Optimization through Dynamic Testing with Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    shell on each surface of the verte- bral centrum is referred to as the bony end plate. Facing this bony end plate is a thin layer of hyaline cartilage ...most realistically, two vertebrae with the included intervertebral disc and hyaline cartilage . This section is referred to as the intervertebral joint...strengths of vertebrae from various studies ......... ... .......................... 5 2 Sumary of the test matrix for the cadaver test program . 33 3 Test

  3. Disease in the Society: Infectious Cadavers Result in Collapse of Ant Sub-Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Raquel G.; Hughes, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing number of experimental studies on mechanisms of social immunity in ant societies, little is known about how social behavior relates to disease progression within the nests of ants. In fact, when empirically studying disease in ant societies, it is common to remove dead ants from experiments to confirm infection by the studied parasite. This unfortunately does not allow disease to progress within the nest as it may be assumed would happen under natural conditions. Therefore, the approach taken so far has resulted in a limited knowledge of diseases dynamics within the nest environment. Here we introduced a single infectious cadaver killed by the fungus Beauveria bassiana into small nests of the ant Camponotus castaneus. We then observed the natural progression of the disease by not removing the corpses of the ants that died following the first entry of the disease. Because some behaviors such as social isolation of sick individuals or the removal of cadavers by nestmates are considered social immune functions and thus adaptations at the colony level that reduce disease spread, we also experimentally confined some sub-colonies to one or two chamber nests to prevent the expression of such behaviors. Based on 51 small nests and survival studies in 1,003 ants we found that a single introduced infectious cadaver was able to transmit within the nest, and social immunity did not prevent the collapse of the small sub-colonies here tested. This was true whether ants did or did not have the option to remove the infectious cadaver. Therefore, we found no evidence that the typically studied social immunity behaviors can reduce disease spread in the conditions here tested. PMID:27529548

  4. Intraosseous vascular access through the anterior mandible--a cadaver model pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Goldschalt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several insertion sites have been described for intraosseous puncture in cases of emergencies when a conventional vascular access cannot be established. This pilot study has been designed to evaluate the feasibility of the mandibular bone for the use of an intraosseous vascular access in a cadaver model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 17 dentistry and 16 medical students participating in a voluntary course received a short introduction into the method and subsequently used the battery powered EZ-IO system with a 15 mm cannula for a puncture of the anterior mandible in 33 cadavers. The time needed to perform each procedure was evaluated. India ink was injected into the accesses and during the anatomy course cadavers were dissected to retrace the success or failure of the puncture. Dental students needed 25.5±18.9(mean±standard deviations and medical students 33±20.4 s for the procedure (p = 0.18. Floor of mouth extravasation occurred in both groups in 3 cases. Success rates were 82 and 75% (p = 0.93. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite floor of mouth extravasation of injected fluid into a mandibular intraosseous access might severely complicate this procedure, the anterior mandible may be helpful as an alternative to other intraosseous and intravenous insertion sites when these are not available in medical emergencies.

  5. Laser-driven short-duration heating angioplasty: dilatation performance in cadaver atherosclerotic femoral arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Natsumi; Naruse, Sho; Arai, Tsunenori; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the artery dilatation performance of the short-duration heating balloon catheter in cadaver stenotic arteries. We designed a prototype short-duration heating balloon catheter that can heat artery media to around 60 °C in 15-25 s by a combination of laser-driven heat generation and continuous fluid irrigation in the balloon. We performed ex vivo short-duration heating dilatation in the cadaver atherosclerotic femoral arteries (initial percent diameter stenosis was 36-98%), with the maximum balloon temperature of 65+/-5 °C, laser irradiation duration of 25 s, and balloon dilatation pressure of 3.5 atm. The artery lumen configurations before and after the dilatations were assessed with a commercial IVUS system. After the short-duration heating dilatations, the percent diameter stenosis was reduced below 30% without any artery tears or dissections. We estimated that the artery media temperature was raised to around 60 °C in which plaque thickness was below 0.8 mm by a thermal conduction calculation. The estimated maximum temperature in artery adventitia and surrounding tissue was up to 45 °C. We found that the short-duration heating balloon could sufficiently dilate the cadaver stenotic arteries, without thermal injury in artery adventitia and surroundings.

  6. Dynamic Response and Residual Helmet Liner Crush Using Cadaver Heads and Standard Headforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, S J; Luck, J F; Bass, C R; Gardiner, J C; Onar-Thomas, A; Asfour, S S; Siegmund, G P

    2017-03-01

    Biomechanical headforms are used for helmet certification testing and reconstructing helmeted head impacts; however, their biofidelity and direct applicability to human head and helmet responses remain unclear. Dynamic responses of cadaver heads and three headforms and residual foam liner deformations were compared during motorcycle helmet impacts. Instrumented, helmeted heads/headforms were dropped onto the forehead region against an instrumented flat anvil at 75, 150, and 195 J. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify maximum liner crush depth and crush volume. General linear models were used to quantify the effect of head type and impact energy on linear acceleration, head injury criterion (HIC), force, maximum liner crush depth, and liner crush volume and regression models were used to quantify the relationship between acceleration and both maximum crush depth and crush volume. The cadaver heads generated larger peak accelerations than all three headforms, larger HICs than the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), larger forces than the Hybrid III and ISO, larger maximum crush depth than the ISO, and larger crush volumes than the DOT. These significant differences between the cadaver heads and headforms need to be accounted for when attempting to estimate an impact exposure using a helmet's residual crush depth or volume.

  7. Novel Application of Postmortem CT Angiography for Evaluation of the Intracranial Vascular Anatomy in Cadaver Heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, Ruben P A; van der Zwan, Albert; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Regli, Luca; Esposito, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Postmortem CT angiography is a common procedure used to visualize the entire human vasculature. For visualization of a specific organ's vascular anatomy, casting is the preferred method. Because of the permanent and damaging nature of casting, the organ cannot be further used as an experimental model after angiography. Therefore, there is a need for a minimally traumatic method to visualize organ-specific vascular anatomy. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a contrast enhancement technique that is capable of visualizing the intracranial vascular anatomy while preserving the anatomic integrity in cadaver heads. Seven human heads were used in this study. Heads were prepared by cannulating the vertebral and internal carotid arteries. Contrast agent was injected as a mixture of tap water, polyethylene glycol 600, and an iodinated contrast agent. Postmortem imaging was executed on a 64-MDCT scanner. Primary image review and 3D reconstruction were performed on a CT workstation. Clear visualization of the major cerebral arteries and smaller intracranial branches was achieved. Adequate visualization was obtained for both the anterior and posterior intracranial circulation. The minimally traumatic angiography method preserved the vascular integrity of the cadaver heads. A novel application of postmortem CT angiography is presented here. The technique can be used for radiologic evaluation of the intracranial circulation in cadaver heads. After CT angiography, the specimen can be used for further experimental or laboratory testing and teaching purposes.

  8. Endovascular Placement of an Extraluminal Femoropopliteal Bypass Graft in Human Cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynar, Manuel; Llorens, Rafael; Lopez-Sanchez, Carmen; Garcia-Martinez, Virginio; Qian Zhong; Lopera, Jorge; Castaneda, Wilfrido R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. A method to create an extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass graft using endovascular techniques was evaluated in situ on cadaver extremities in an attempt to develop a minimally invasive alternative technique for the management of infrainguinal occlusive arterial disease. Methods. The endovascular placement of an extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass graft was undertaken in 5 cadaver legs. Following percutaneous access to the popliteal artery (PA) or common femoral artery (CFA), a Rosch-Uchida needle was used to perforate the vascular wall, followed by the creation of an extraluminal tract using a looped wire and catheter. Once the desired level was reached the needle was again used to perforate the vascular wall of the proximal superficial femoral artery (SFA) or PA depending on the access used. Self-expanding expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) stent-grafts were then deployed to establish the extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass connecting the two arterial puncture sites. Following dilatation of the stent-graft, angiography was performed to assess the endoprostheses and to look for contrast leaks. Results. Technical success was achieved in all 5 legs. Procedure time varied from 15 to 30 min. The angiographic studies performed immediately after completion of the bypass procedure showed patency of the grafts with no evidence of kinking or leakage in any of the cases. Conclusion. This study has proved that the endovascular placement of an extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass graft in human cadaver legs using endovascular techniques under fluoroscopic control is technically feasible

  9. Development of a human cadaver model for training in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Erica R H; Billeter, Adrian; Druen, Devin; Roberts, Henry; Rice, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    The organ procurement network recommends a surgeon record 15 cases as surgeon or assistant for laparoscopic donor nephrectomies (LDN) prior to independent practice. The literature suggests that the learning curve for improved perioperative and patient outcomes is closer to 35 cases. In this article, we describe our development of a model utilizing fresh tissue and objective, quantifiable endpoints to document surgical progress, and efficiency in each of the major steps involved in LDN. Phase I of model development focused on the modifications necessary to maintain visualization for laparoscopic surgery in a human cadaver. Phase II tested proposed learner-based metrics of procedural competency for multiport LDN by timing procedural steps of LDN in a novice learner. Phases I and II required 12 and nine cadavers, with a total of 35 kidneys utilized. The following metrics improved with trial number for multiport LDN: time taken for dissection of the gonadal vein, ureter, renal hilum, adrenal and lumbrical veins, simulated warm ischemic time (WIT), and operative time. Human cadavers can be used for training in LDN as evidenced by improvements in timed learner-based metrics. This simulation-based model fills a gap in available training options for surgeons. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Measurement of the tendon of the biceps brachii after tenotomy: study on cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Cunha Machado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of elbow and forearm range of motion on the distal excursion of the long head of the biceps (LHB. METHODS: The distal excursion of the LHB after tenotomy of the shoulders of eight cadavers was ascertained by measuring the distance between a point marked out on the LHB, 3 cm from the anterolateral border of the acromion, and its position at different degrees of elbow flexion, using a digital pachymeter. The measurements at elbow flexion of 135°, 90°, 45° and 0° were noted: these angles were established using a goniometer. The measurements were made with the forearm in neutral, supination and pronation positions. RESULTS: Differences between the mean measurements of the distal excursion of the LHB (total sample were observed between the degrees of elbow flexion ( p< 0.01. However, no statistical differences were observed between the different forearm positions, between the sides, genders and ages of the cadavers studied. CONCLUSION: Progressive extension of the elbow caused progressive distal excursion of the LHB, but without interference in the forearm position, gender, side or age of the cadavers studied.

  11. Prevention and management of vascular complications in middle ear and cochlear implant surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lella, Filippo; Falcioni, Maurizio; Piccinini, Silvia; Iaccarino, Ilaria; Bacciu, Andrea; Pasanisi, Enrico; Cerasti, Davide; Vincenti, Vincenzo

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to illustrate prevention strategies and management of vascular complications from the jugular bulb (JB) and internal carotid artery (ICA) during middle ear surgery or cochlear implantation. The study design is retrospective case series. The setting is tertiary referral university hospital. Patients were included if presented pre- or intraoperative evidence of high-risk anatomical anomalies of ICA or JB during middle ear or cochlear implant surgery, intraoperative vascular injury, or revision surgery after the previous iatrogenic vascular lesions. The main outcome measures are surgical outcomes and complications rate. Ten subjects were identified: three underwent cochlear implant surgery and seven underwent middle ear surgery. Among the cochlear implant patients, two presented with anomalies of the JB impeding access to the cochlear lumen and one underwent revision surgery for incorrect positioning of the array in the carotid canal. Subtotal petrosectomy was performed in all cases. Anomalies of the JB were preoperatively identified in two patients with attic and external auditory canal cholesteatoma, respectively. In a patient, a high and dehiscent JB was found during myringoplasty, while another underwent revision surgery after iatrogenic injury of the JB. A dehiscent ICA complicated middle ear effusion in one case, while in another case, a carotid aneurysm determined a cholesterol granuloma. Rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the ICA occurred in a child during second-stage surgery and required permanent balloon occlusion without neurological complications. Knowledge of normal anatomy and its variants and preoperative imaging are the basis for prevention of vascular complications during middle ear or cochlear implant surgery.

  12. Effects of middle ear quasi-static stiffness on sound transmission quantified by a novel 3-axis optical force sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrev, Ivo; Sim, Jae Hoon; Aqtashi, Baktash; Huber, Alexander M; Linder, Thomas; Röösli, Christof

    2018-01-01

    Intra-operative quantification of the ossicle mobility could provide valuable feedback for the current status of the patient's conductive hearing. However, current methods for evaluation of middle ear mobility are mostly limited to the surgeon's subjective impression through manual palpation of the ossicles. This study investigates how middle ear transfer function is affected by stapes quasi-static stiffness of the ossicular chain. The stiffness of the middle ear is induced by a) using a novel fiber-optic 3-axis force sensor to quantify the quasi-static stiffness of the middle ear, and b) by artificial reduction of stapes mobility due to drying of the middle ear. Middle ear transfer function, defined as the ratio of the stapes footplate velocity versus the ear canal sound pressure, was measured with a single point LDV in two conditions. First, a controlled palpation force was applied at the stapes head in two in-plane (superior-inferior or posterior-anterior) directions, and at the incus lenticular process near the incudostapedial joint in the piston (lateral-medial) direction with a novel 3-axis PalpEar force sensor (Sensoptic, Losone, Switzerland), while the corresponding quasi-static displacement of the contact point was measured via a 3-axis micrometer stage. The palpation force was applied sequentially, step-wise in the range of 0.1-20 gF (1-200 mN). Second, measurements were repeated with various stages of stapes fixation, simulated by pre-load on the stapes head or drying of the temporal bone, and with severe ossicle immobilization, simulated by gluing of the stapes footplate. Simulated stapes fixation (forced drying of 5-15 min) severely decreases (20-30 dB) the low frequency (4 kHz) response. Stapes immobilization (gluing of the footplate) severely reduces (20-40 dB) the low and mid frequency response (force (Force-displacement measurements around the incudostapedial joint showed quasi-static stiffness in the range of 200-500 N/m for normal middle

  13. Presbycusis: do we have a third ear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Luis Roque; Escada, Pedro

    Age-related hearing changes are the most frequent cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adults. In the literature no studies exist concerning the importance of speechreading in individuals with presbycusis. Equally, no such studies have been carried out with speakers of the Portuguese (Portugal) language. To evaluate whether the intelligibility of words in presbycusis is improved by speechreading, in such a way that looking at the interlocutor's face while he is talking functions like a "third ear", and to determine the statistical relevance of the intelligibility improvement by speechreading. Eleven individuals (22 ears) with bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss compatible with presbycusis were evaluated. The subjects were aged between 57 and 82 years, with an average of 70±11.51 years and median of 69.5 years. A complete medical and audiological profile of each patient was created and all patients were submitted to a vocal audiogram, without and with observation of the audiologist's face. A descriptive and analytical statistical analysis was performed (Shapiro-Wilk and t pairs tests) adopting the significance level of 0.05 (5%). We noticed better performance in intelligibility with speechreading. The p-value was zero (ppresbycusis in this study, performed better on spoken word intelligibility when the hearing of those words was associated with speechreading. This phenomenon helps in such a way that observation of the interlocutor's face works like a "third ear". Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Analytical model of internally coupled ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vossen, Christine; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Leo van Hemmen, J

    2010-01-01

    Lizards and many birds possess a specialized hearing mechanism: internally coupled ears where the tympanic membranes connect through a large mouth cavity so that the vibrations of the tympanic membranes influence each other. This coupling enhances the phase differences and creates amplitude...... additionally provides the opportunity to incorporate the effect of the asymmetrically attached columella, which leads to the activation of higher membrane vibration modes. Incorporating this effect, the analytical model can explain measurements taken from the tympanic membrane of a living lizard, for example...

  15. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-01-01

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effect on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in ear development. • Knockdown of vdrb causes inner ear malformations during embryogenesis. • Knockdown of vdrb affects otic placode induction. • Knockdown of vdrb reduces the number of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. • Knockdown of vdrb disrupts balance and motor coordination.

  16. Ear replanatation: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Božikov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total ear amputation is a rare accident. The most common causes are traffic accidents (33 %, followed by fights (28 %. In 1980, Pennington et al. reported the first successful microsurgical ear replantation in a 29-year old man.Methods: An English literature review of trauma cases of total ear amputation showed only 13 successful replantations with arterial and venous microanastomoses. We present a case report of successful total ear replantation with arterial and vein microanastomoses in a 17-year old boy.Results: Our ear replantation with both arterial and venous anastomoses performed was successful and we achieved an excellent aesthetic outcome.Conclusion: The reason for such a low number of successful ear replantations is technical challenge due to small vessel diameter, difficult vessel identification, vessel approach and concomitant avulsion injury. The best aesthetic result in ear reconstruction is achieved by microsurgical replantation. The surgical technique depends on the intraoperative findings. Since ear replantation is a very challenging procedure, a microsurgeon needs to discuss with the patient the risk of partial/total necrosis of the replanted ear and the possibilities of other reconstructive options.

  17. Incorporating anthropometry into design of ear-related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bor-Shong

    2008-01-01

    To achieve mass customization and collaborative product design, human factors and ergonomics should play a key development role. The purpose of this study was to provide product designers with the anthropometic dimensions of outer ears for different demographic data, including gender and age. The second purpose was to compare the dimensions of various ear-related products (i.e., earphone, bluetooth earphone and ear-cup earphone) with the anthropometic database and recommend appropriate solutions for design. Two hundred subjects aged 20-59 was selected for this study and divided into four age stratifications. Further, three different dimensions of the outer ear (i.e., the earhole length, the ear connection length and the length of the pinna) were measured by superimposed grid photographic technique. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the effects of gender, and age on ear dimensions. The results showed that all ear dimensions had significant gender effects. A comparison between the anthropometric dimensions and those of current products revealed that most current ear-related products need to be redesigned using anthropometric data. The shapes of earhole and pinna are not circular. Consequently, ear products need to be elongated so that users may feel more comfortably and not have the product slip off easily.

  18. Responses of the ear to low frequency sounds, infrasound and wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Alec N; Hullar, Timothy E

    2010-09-01

    Infrasonic sounds are generated internally in the body (by respiration, heartbeat, coughing, etc) and by external sources, such as air conditioning systems, inside vehicles, some industrial processes and, now becoming increasingly prevalent, wind turbines. It is widely assumed that infrasound presented at an amplitude below what is audible has no influence on the ear. In this review, we consider possible ways that low frequency sounds, at levels that may or may not be heard, could influence the function of the ear. The inner ear has elaborate mechanisms to attenuate low frequency sound components before they are transmitted to the brain. The auditory portion of the ear, the cochlea, has two types of sensory cells, inner hair cells (IHC) and outer hair cells (OHC), of which the IHC are coupled to the afferent fibers that transmit "hearing" to the brain. The sensory stereocilia ("hairs") on the IHC are "fluid coupled" to mechanical stimuli, so their responses depend on stimulus velocity and their sensitivity decreases as sound frequency is lowered. In contrast, the OHC are directly coupled to mechanical stimuli, so their input remains greater than for IHC at low frequencies. At very low frequencies the OHC are stimulated by sounds at levels below those that are heard. Although the hair cells in other sensory structures such as the saccule may be tuned to infrasonic frequencies, auditory stimulus coupling to these structures is inefficient so that they are unlikely to be influenced by airborne infrasound. Structures that are involved in endolymph volume regulation are also known to be influenced by infrasound, but their sensitivity is also thought to be low. There are, however, abnormal states in which the ear becomes hypersensitive to infrasound. In most cases, the inner ear's responses to infrasound can be considered normal, but they could be associated with unfamiliar sensations or subtle changes in physiology. This raises the possibility that exposure to the

  19. Changes in microvascular permeability of the middle ear mucosa following the occulsion of the eustachian tube of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yasutaka

    1988-01-01

    Serial changes in submucosal microvascular permeability of the middle ear and the response to histamine after occlusion of the eustachian tube were functionally investigated using radioisotope in rabbits with experimentally induced otitis media with effusion. Tritium water was administered through intravenous injection and transference of tritium water into the middle ear cavity was measured by radioactivity of the middle ear perfusate. Morphological changes were concurrently examined for comparison. Vascular permeability, as measured one, 7, and 14 days after occlusion of the eustachian tube, increased with time. A histological study showed an edematous hypertrophy of the submucosal tissue of the middle ear, suggesting a noticeable increase in microvascular permeability. The response of the middle ear mucosa to histamine, which was added to the fluid for perfusion, gradually decreased after occlusion of the eustachian tube, although the effect of histamine tended to persist for a long time, irrespective of the amount of administration. The results indicated that the mucosal membrane of the middle ear has a noticeable permeability at least up to 14 days after occlusion, and that histamine may be responsible for the increase of submucosal microvascular permeability not only in the normal middle ear cavity but also in otitis media with effusion which results in the persistance of the disease. The presence of factors permeable to the blood, other than histamine, caused microvascular peameability to increase, probably resulting in chronic or irreversible inflammation. This may be explained by markedly proliferative or parenchymatous connective tissues observed 7 and l0 weeks after occlusion. It should be noted that surgical treatment be performed as early as possible in the case of otitis media with effusion. (Namekawa, K) 80 refs

  20. Protective effect of unilateral and bilateral ear plugs on noise-induced hearing loss: Functional and morphological evaluation in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kee Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the following study is to evaluate immediate protective effect of ear plug from noise morphologically and functionally. An 1-month aged 29 male C57BL/6 mice. Subjects were divided into four groups as normal control(G1, bilaterally plugged group (G2, unilaterally plugged group (G3 and noise control group (G4 and later 3 groups were exposed to 110 sound pressure level white noise for 60 min. Immediately after noise exposure, audiologic tests were performed and cochlear morphology and expression levels of a-synuclein in the cochlea were investigated. There were no functional changes in G2 and plugged ears of G3 after noise exposure, whereas unplugged ears of G3 and G4 showed significant hearing loss. In morphological study, there were a significant degeneration of the organ of Corti and mean number and diameter of efferent buttons, in unplugged ears of G3 and G4. Plugged ears of G3 also showed mild changes in morphological study. Reduction of a-synuclein was observed at the efferent terminals or cochlear extracts after noise exposure. The protective effect of ear plug on noise exposure was proven morphologically and functionally in the animal model of noise-induced hearing loss. Further study on cellular or ultrastructural level with ear plug will be needed to reveal more precise mechanism.

  1. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Model for Hearing Aid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    that the head is mod- eled more accurately, and the radiation pattern is sampled in more points. The model is able to take the on-body radiation pattern of the antenna, as well as arbitrary he ad contours into account. The model is validated by the use of measurements and Ansys HFSS simulations on the specific......The deterministic ear-to-ear on-body channel is modeled by the use of a number of elliptically shaped paths. The semi-major axes of the elliptica lly shaped paths are adjusted such that they trace the outline of the head. The path gain converges when the number of paths is increased, su ch...... anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) head. The model is used with a g enetic algorithm in order to synthesize a radiation pattern that is optimal for use with the ear-to-ear on-body channel. The radiation pattern is synthesized in terms of the spherical wave expansion coefficients of the hypothetical small antenna...

  2. Self-Reported Emergency Medicine Residency Applicant Attitudes Towards a Procedural Cadaver Laboratory Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman, Lance

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Residency applicants consider a variety of factors when ranking emergency medicine (EM programs for their NRMP match list. A human cadaver emergency procedure lab curriculum is uncommon. We hypothesized that the presence this curriculum would positively impact the ranking of an EM residency program.METHODS: The EM residency at Nebraska Medical Center is an urban, university-based program with a PGY I-III format. Residency applicants during the interview for a position in the PGY I class of 2006 were surveyed by three weekly electronic mailings. The survey was distributed in March 2006 after the final NRMP match results were released. The survey explored learner preferences and methodological commonality of models of emergency procedural training, as well as the impact of a procedural cadaver lab curriculum on residency ranking. ANOVA of ranks was used to compare responses to ranking questions.RESULTS: Of the 73 potential subjects, 54 (74% completed the survey. Respondents ranked methods of procedural instruction from 1 (most preferred or most common technique to 4 (least preferred or least common technique. Response averages and 95% confidence intervals for the preferred means of learning a new procedure are as follows: textbook (3.69; 3.51-3.87, mannequin (2.83; 2.64-3.02, human cadaver (1.93; 1.72-2.14, and living patient (1.56; 1.33-1.79. Response averages for the commonality of means used to teach a new procedure are as follows: human cadaver (3.63; 3.46-3.80, mannequin (2.70; 2.50-2.90, living patient (2.09; 1.85-2.33, and textbook (1.57; 1.32-1.82. When asked if the University of Nebraska Medical Center residency ranked higher in the individual's match list because of its procedural cadaver lab, 14.8% strongly disagreed, 14.8% disagreed, 40.7% were neutral, 14.8% agreed, and 14.8% strongly agreed.CONCLUSION: We conclude that, although cadaveric procedural training is viewed by senior medical student learners as a desirable means

  3. Miniature, minimally invasive, tunable endoscope for investigation of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Michal E; Shrestha, Sebina; Park, Jesung; Applegate, Brian E; Oghalai, John S; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a miniature, tunable, minimally invasive endoscope for diagnosis of the auditory system. The probe is designed to sharply image anatomical details of the middle ear without the need for physically adjusting the position of the distal end of the endoscope. This is achieved through the addition of an electrowetted, tunable, electronically-controlled lens to the optical train. Morphological imaging is enabled by scanning light emanating from an optical coherence tomography system. System performance was demonstrated by imaging part of the ossicular chain and wall of the middle ear cavity of a normal mouse. During the experiment, we electronically moved the plane of best focus from the incudo-stapedial joint to the stapedial artery. Repositioning the object plane allowed us to image anatomical details of the middle ear beyond the depth of field of a static optical system. We also demonstrated for the first time to our best knowledge, that an optical system with an electrowetted, tunable lens may be successfully employed to measure sound-induced vibrations within the auditory system by measuring the vibratory amplitude of the tympanic membrane in a normal mouse in response to pure tone stimuli.

  4. Speech understanding in noise with integrated in-ear and muff-style hearing protection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Abel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated hearing protection systems are designed to enhance free field and radio communications during military operations while protecting against the damaging effects of high-level noise exposure. A study was conducted to compare the effect of increasing the radio volume on the intelligibility of speech over the radios of two candidate systems, in-ear and muff-style, in 85-dBA speech babble noise presented free field. Twenty normal-hearing, English-fluent subjects, half male and half female, were tested in same gender pairs. Alternating as talker and listener, their task was to discriminate consonant-vowel-consonant syllables that contrasted either the initial or final consonant. Percent correct consonant discrimination increased with increases in the radio volume. At the highest volume, subjects achieved 79% with the in-ear device but only 69% with the muff-style device, averaged across the gender of listener/talker pairs and consonant position. Although there was no main effect of gender, female listener/talkers showed a 10% advantage for the final consonant and male listener/talkers showed a 1% advantage for the initial consonant. These results indicate that normal hearing users can achieve reasonably high radio communication scores with integrated in-ear hearing protection in moderately high-level noise that provides both energetic and informational masking. The adequacy of the range of available radio volumes for users with hearing loss has yet to be determined.

  5. Four variations of the Mondini inner ear malformations as seen in microdissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, L G; Hawkins, J E; Rouse, R C; Kingsley, T C

    1984-01-01

    Four variations and degrees of severity of the Mondini malformation were found in the temporal bones from two neonates, one with congenital heart disease and the other with trisomy D, and from one teenager with leukemia: 1) short cochlea and normal vestibular organs; 2) short cochlea and persistent horizontal canal anlage; 3) markedly shortened cochlea with no modiolus, wide internal auditory meatus, and persistent horizontal canal anlage; 4) same as variation 3, but with persistent anlagen in all semicircular canals. Variations 3 and 4 were from the case of trisomy D, in which the left cochlea had a normal hair cell population but few nerve fibers, and the intraganglionic spiral bundle was displaced from Rosenthal's canal to the osseous spiral lamina. The right ear had no cochlear nerve fibers; the organ of Corti was present, but hair cells were unusually small. In the case of trisomy D, both ears showed subtotal loss of vestibular nerve fibers. Although the rudimentary cristae of the right ear had numerous hair cells, the macular hair cells were fewer and malformed. No hydrops was present.

  6. Preoperative evaluation of the congenital aural atresia on computed tomography; an analysis of the severity of the deformity of the middle ear and mastoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasar, Mustafa [Gulhane Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik-Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: tasarmus@yahoo.com; Yetiser, Sertac [Gulhane Medical School, Department of ORL and HNS (Turkey); Yildirim, Duzgun [Gulhane Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik-Ankara (Turkey); Bozlar, Ugur [Gulhane Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik-Ankara (Turkey); Tasar, M. Aysin [Ankara Hospital, Department of Pediatrics (Turkey); Saglam, Mutlu [Gulhane Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik-Ankara (Turkey); Ugurel, M. Sahin [Gulhane Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik-Ankara (Turkey); Battal, Bilal [Gulhane Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik-Ankara (Turkey); Ucoz, Taner [Gulhane Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik-Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    Objective: To compare the development of temporal bone in normal and atretic ears and to assess some radiological landmarks that could be important in the hearing restoration interventions in such patients. Material and methods: Thirty-five patients with 40 atretic external ears were evaluated with temporal bone CT and compared to a control group of 40 normal ears retrospectively. Using comparable slice levels in all patients, the course and the caliper of the facial canal, the surface area of the incus and malleus, the level of mastoid aeration, the location and anteroposterior diameters of the jugular bulb and sigmoid sinus, the direction and the caliber of the tympanic bony part of the Eustachian tube, area of the middle ear cavity, distance from facial nerve to incudomalleolar joint, to the vestibule and to the jugular bulb were included in the assessment. Non-parametric and parametric statistical tests were used for comparison. Results: In atretic ears middle ear sectional area was found to be smaller at the equivalent plane as compared to control subjects (mean area index: 19.3 mm{sup 2} versus 47.4 mm{sup 2}). Mastoid aeration was low in general and the ossicles in the atretic ears were hypoplastic (mean ossicular sectional area: 8.3 mm{sup 2} versus 11 mm{sup 2}). The distance from the jugular bulb to the facial nerve was significantly lower (mean: 6.2 mm versus 6.8 mm) (p < 0.05) in the atretic ears. Facial canal caliber, distance from the facial canal to the incudomalleolar joint and distance from the facial canal to the vestibule in the atretic ears (means: 1.49, 2.93 and 1.82, respectively) did not show statistically significant difference from the control subjects (means: 1.44, 2.91 and 1.83, respectively) (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusion: External ear atresia is significantly associated with middle ear and mastoid abnormalities. The ossicles were underdeveloped which always have to be considered during reconstructive surgery. Radiologically, in the

  7. Ability of paramedics to perform endotracheal intubation during continuous chest compressions: a randomized cadaver study comparing Pentax AWS and Macintosh laryngoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszewski, Zenon; Czyzewski, Lukasz; Smereka, Jacek; Krajewski, Paweł; Fudalej, Marcin; Madziala, Marcin; Szarpak, Lukasz

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the trial was to compare the time parameters for intubation with the use of the Macintosh (MAC) laryngoscope and Pentax AWS-S100 videolaryngoscope (AWS; Pentax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) with and without chest compression (CC) by paramedics during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a cadaver model. This was a randomized crossover cadaver trial. Thirty-five paramedics with no experience in videolaryngoscopy participated in the study. They performed intubation in two emergency scenarios: scenario A, normal airway without CC; scenario B, normal airway with continuous CC. The median time to first ventilation with the use of the AWS and the MAC was similar in scenario A: 25 (IQR, 22-27) seconds vs. 24 (IQR, 22.5-26) seconds (P=.072). A statistically significant difference in TTFV between AWS and MAC was noticed in scenario B (P=.011). In scenario A, the first endotracheal intubation (ETI) attempt success rate was achieved in 97.1% with AWS compared with 94.3% with MAC (P=.43). In scenario B, the success rate after the first ETI attempt with the use of the different intubation methods varied and amounted to 88.6% vs. 77.1% for AWS and MAC, respectively (P=.002). The Pentax AWS offered a superior glottic view as compared with the MAC laryngoscope, which was associated with a higher intubation rate and a shorter intubation time during an uninterrupted CC scenario. However, in the scenario without CC, the results for AWS and MAC were comparable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusan, Maria; Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Ovesen, Therese

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to provide an extensive overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation. All 2,028 cases of acute infections admitted between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2006 were reviewed to assess the use of pre-admission antibiotics......, microbiological results, antibiotic and surgical management and length of hospitalisation. Infections of the oropharynx accounted for the vast majority of admissions, followed by ear infections, and cutaneous neck abscesses. Peritonsillar abscess was the most frequent diagnosis, accounting for over one third...... of admissions (39.8%, 808 out of 2,028). Complete microbiological data were available for 1,430 cultures, and were analysed for trends with respect to diagnosis, age, gender and use of pre-admission antibiotics. Forty-six percent (657 out of 1,430) of cultures yielded no growth or normal flora. This value...

  9. The role of pars flaccida in human middle ear sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritomo, H; Goode, R L; Gonzalez, J

    1988-04-01

    The role of the pars flaccida in middle ear sound transmission was studied with the use of twelve otoscopically normal, fresh, human temporal bones. Peak-to-peak umbo displacement in response to a constant sound pressure level at the tympanic membrane was measured with a noncontacting video measuring system capable of repeatable measurements down to 0.2 micron. Measurements were made before and after pars flaccida modifications at 18 frequencies between 100 and 4000 Hz. Four pars flaccida modifications were studied: (1) acoustic insulation of the pars flaccida to the ear canal with a silicone rubber baffle, (2) stiffening the pars flaccida with cyanoacrylate cement, (3) decreasing the tension of the pars flaccida with a nonperforating incision, and (4) perforation of the pars flaccida. All of the modifications (except the perforation) had a minimal effect on umbo displacement; this seems to imply that the pars flaccida has a minor acoustic role in human beings.

  10. Induced thermal resistance in the mouse ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.P.; Coultas, P.G.; Field, S.B.

    1979-01-01

    The mouse ear (pinna) was used to investigate the effect of two hyperthermic treatments. Heating was by immersion in hot water at 43.5 0 C. A single treatment of about 50 minutes was required to cause necrosis in 50% of the ears treated. When heat treatment was given in two equal fractions the total heating time had to be increased if the interval between fractions was greater than four hours. By 24 hours a total treatment of about 100 minutes was required, indicating almost complete recovery from the first heating. Priming treatments at 43.5 0 C induced thermal resistance to a second heat treatment at 43.5 0 C. Maximum resistance was observed one day after a 20 minute priming and two days after a 40 minute priming, when the heating time had to be increased to 120 minutes, an increase by a factor of 2.4. Shorter priming treatments induced less resistance, the minimum heating time to produce an effect being two minutes. In all cases the effect decreased during the next four to five days. These results indicate that the reduced response of tissues to fractionated hyperthermia is due both to the repair of sublethal heat damage and induction of thermal resistance. (author)

  11. Middle ear function in sinonasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Ardakani, Hossein Payedar; Ghazizadeh, Amir Hossain; Movahed, Rahman; Jarahi, Lida; Rajati, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    Nasal airway patency has long been considered a major factor in ear health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sinonasal polyposis on middle ear and eustachian tube (ET) functionality. Forty-four individuals with polyposis, 23 with non-polyposis nasal obstruction, and 23 healthy controls were enrolled. Demographic, clinical and imaging data of all participants were collected and ET function tests and audiologic tests were performed. Hearing loss (p = 0.02), flat tympanogram (p = 0.02), disturbed Toynbee and Valsalva tests (p = 0.01), and the prevalence of allergy (p = 0.04) and purulent nasal discharge (p polyposis group than the other groups. Regression analysis revealed that infection and allergy have more important roles in ET function than the nasal obstruction. Polyposis could impede ET function; however, it is probably not because of its obstructive nature, but because of the associated increased risk of infection.

  12. Wearable ear EEG for brain interfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Eric D.; Walker, Nicholas; Danko, Amanda S.

    2017-02-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) measuring electrical activity via electroencephalogram (EEG) have evolved beyond clinical applications to become wireless consumer products. Typically marketed for meditation and neu- rotherapy, these devices are limited in scope and currently too obtrusive to be a ubiquitous wearable. Stemming from recent advancements made in hearing aid technology, wearables have been shrinking to the point that the necessary sensors, circuitry, and batteries can be fit into a small in-ear wearable device. In this work, an ear-EEG device is created with a novel system for artifact removal and signal interpretation. The small, compact, cost-effective, and discreet device is demonstrated against existing consumer electronics in this space for its signal quality, comfort, and usability. A custom mobile application is developed to process raw EEG from each device and display interpreted data to the user. Artifact removal and signal classification is accomplished via a combination of support matrix machines (SMMs) and soft thresholding of relevant statistical properties.

  13. Enhanced visualization of inner ear structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Kucharski, Tomasz; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Bruzgielewicz, Antoni

    2004-07-01

    Recently surgery requires extensive support from imaging technologies in order to increase effectiveness and safety of operations. One of important tasks is to enhance visualisation of quasi-phase (transparent) 3d structures. Those structures are characterized by very low contrast. It makes differentiation of tissues in field of view very difficult. For that reason the surgeon may be extremly uncertain during operation. This problem is connected with supporting operations of inner ear during which physician has to perform cuts at specific places of quasi-transparent velums. Conventionally during such operations medical doctor views the operating field through stereoscopic microscope. In the paper we propose a 3D visualisation system based on Helmet Mounted Display. Two CCD cameras placed at the output of microscope perform acquisition of stereo pairs of images. The images are processed in real-time with the goal of enhancement of quasi-phased structures. The main task is to create algorithm that is not sensitive to changes in intensity distribution. The disadvantages of existing algorithms is their lack of adaptation to occuring reflexes and shadows in field of view. The processed images from both left and right channels are overlaid on the actual images exported and displayed at LCD's of Helmet Mounted Display. A physician observes by HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) a stereoscopic operating scene with indication of the places of special interest. The authors present the hardware ,procedures applied and initial results of inner ear structure visualisation. Several problems connected with processing of stereo-pair images are discussed.

  14. Movement of the external ear in human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagurasho, Miho; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2012-02-01

    External ears, one of the major face components, show an interesting movement during craniofacial morphogenesis in human embryo. The present study was performed to see if movement of the external ears in a human embryo could be explained by differential growth. In all, 171 samples between Carnegie stage (CS) 17 and CS 23 were selected from MR image datasets of human embryos obtained from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos. The three-dimensional absolute position of 13 representative anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, from MRI data was traced to evaluate the movement between the different stages with identical magnification. Two different sets of reference axes were selected for evaluation and comparison of the movements. When the pituitary gland and the first cervical vertebra were selected as a reference axis, the 13 anatomical landmarks of the face spread out within the same region as the embryo enlarged and changed shape. The external ear did move mainly laterally, but not cranially. The distance between the external and internal ear stayed approximately constant. Three-dimensionally, the external ear located in the caudal ventral parts of the internal ear in CS 17, moved mainly laterally until CS 23. When surface landmarks eyes and mouth were selected as a reference axis, external ears moved from the caudal lateral ventral region to the position between eyes and mouth during development. The results indicate that movement of all anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, can be explained by differential growth. Also, when the external ear is recognized as one of the facial landmarks and having a relative position to other landmarks such as the eyes and mouth, the external ears seem to move cranially. © 2012 Kagurasho et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  15. Ultrasonography of the equine shoulder: technique and normal appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tnibar, M A; Auer, J A; Bakkali, S

    1999-01-01

    This study was intended to document normal ultrasonographic appearance of the equine shoulder and anatomic landmarks useful in clinical imaging. Both forelimbs of five equine cadavers and both forelimbs of six live adult horses were used. To facilitate understanding of the images, a zoning system assigned to the biceps brachii and to the infraspinatus tendon was developed. Ultrasonography was performed with a real-time B-mode semiportable sector scanner using 7.5- and 5-MHz transducers. On one cadaver limb, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a system at 1.5 Tesla, T1-weighted spin-echo sequence. Ultrasonography images were compared to frozen specimens and MRI images to correlate the ultrasonographic findings to the gross anatomy of the shoulder. Ultrasonography allowed easy evaluation of the biceps brachii and the infraspinatus tendon and their bursae, the supraspinatus muscle and tendons, the superficial muscles of the shoulder, and the underlying humerus and scapula. Only the lateral and, partially, the caudal aspects of the humeral head could be visualized with ultrasound. Ultrasonographic appearance, orientation, and anatomic relationships of these structures are described. Ultrasonographic findings correlated well with MRI images and with gross anatomy in the cadavers' limbs.

  16. Identifying position, visibility, dimensions, and angulation of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Kasim; Christian, Jayanth; Jeyapalan, Karthigeyan; Natarajan, Shanmuganathan; Banu, Fathima; Veeravalli, Padmanabhan T

    2014-01-01

    We selected 254 subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 yr to assess the ear position, angulations of the ear in relation to the nose, visibility from the frontal view, and dimensions of the ear by using various anthropometric points of the face. Subjects were divided into four groups based on facial form. A reference plane indicator, facial topographical measurements, metal ruler, and digital photography were used. While considering the position of the ear, in all facial forms except square tapering, the most samples showed a tendency for the subaurale being in line with subnasale. Regression analysis showed a tendency to gnathion distance is the most dependent variable with length of the ear kept as a constant predictor, while both interalar distance and exocanthion to endocanthion distance correlate highly significantly to the width of the ear. In all subjects, the visibility of the ear when viewed from the front was an average of 1.5 mm. Regardless of facial form, ear angulation was generally less than nose angulation.

  17. Ad Hoc Constitution of Topical Antibiotics Solution for Ear Dressing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/ Purpose: In the management of chronic suppurative otitis media and otitis externa there are few cases where although an organism is cultured and isolated from the ear, there are either no antibiotic sensitive to the microbiological flora or the sensitive antibiotic is not available in the form of an ear drop, limiting ...

  18. Why do elephants flap their ears? | Wright | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blood flow in the ear of the African elephant Loxodonta africana was measured In anaesthetized animals using the dye dilution technique at the same time as the arterio-venous temperature difference. The calculated heat loss from the ear is shown to be a substantial proportion of the total metabolic heat-loss ...

  19. Economic Evaluation pf Antibacterial Usage in Ear, Nose and Throat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out economic evaluation of antibacterial usage for Ear, Nose and Throat infections in a tertiary health care facility in Nigeria. Methods: Antibacterial utilisation evaluation was carried out retrospectively over one year period by reviewing 122 case notes containing 182 prescriptions of patient with Ear Nose ...

  20. A break-even analysis of major ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, J D; Phillips, J S

    2015-10-01

    To determine variables which affect cost and profit for major ear surgery and perform a break-even analysis. Retrospective financial analysis. UK teaching hospital. Patients who underwent major ear surgery under general anaesthesia performed by the senior author in main theatre over a 2-year period between dates of 07 September 2010 and 07 September 2012. Income, cost and profit for each major ear patient spell. Variables that affect major ear surgery profitability. Seventy-six patients met inclusion criteria. Wide variation in earnings, with a median net loss of £-1345.50 was observed. Income was relatively uniform across all patient spells; however, theatre time of major ear surgery at a cost of £953.24 per hour varied between patients and was the main determinant of cost and profit for the patient spell. Bivariate linear regression of earnings on theatre time identified 94% of variation in earnings was due to variation in theatre time (r = -0.969; P break-even time for major ear surgery of 110.6 min. Theatre time was dependent on complexity of procedure and number of OPCS4 procedures performed, with a significant increase in theatre time when three or more procedures were performed during major ear surgery (P = 0.015). For major ear surgery to either break-even or return a profit, total theatre time should not exceed 110 min and 36 s. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Temporal bone CT analysis of congenital ear anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jung Won; Moon, Min Joo; Sung, Kyu Bo

    1988-01-01

    Authors analysed the CT findings of the congenital ear anomalies of twenty-nine patients for 2 years and 3 months. The results were as follows: 1. Most of the patients were under the age of 20 (82.7%) and prevalent in male (72.4%). 2. Clinically, congenital ear anomalies were detected in 20 patients (68.9%), conductive hearing loss in 4, sensorineural hearing loss in 1, and the remained 4 patients were detected incidentally without clinical symptom. 3. In the cases of unilateral involvement of 20 patients, right ear was more common (12/20). Eight of 9 bilateral involvement showed similar degree. 4. The middle ear malformations were found in 22 patients (75.9%) and bilateral in 4 patients. 26 cases of middle ear malformations had been classified by Frey into 4 groups; Group I in 5, Group II in 9, Graoup III in 9 and Group IV in 3. 5. Incidentally found ear anomaly was lateral semicircular canal formed a single cavity with the vestibule in all patients (5 pts.). 6. Inner ear malformations accompanying sensorineural hearing loss were found in 3 patients with bilateral involvement and middle ear malformations were accompanied in 2 patients. The degree of involvement of labyrinth was variable.

  2. The acoustical significance of age-dependent ear elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    , corresponding to what is reported in the literature. For female ears, virtually no acoustical effect was found. For male ears directional dependent effects in the range up to 5 dB on average was found for certain directions and frequencies. Implications on age dependent hearing loss (presbycusis...

  3. Profile of Ear Diseases among Elderly Patients in Sagamu, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of screening for hearing impairment in the elderly patients was also stressed. KEYWORDS: Cerumen, Ear disease, Elderly, Otitis, Presbycusis. Erratum Note: Olusola AS on the article “Profile of Ear Diseases among Elderly Patients in Sagamu, South-Western Nigeria” on Page Nig. J. Med 2013. 143-147.

  4. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  5. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  6. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  7. Directional characteristics for different in-ear recording points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Christensen, Flemming; Hoffmann, Pablo Faundez

    2015-01-01

    -back the sound. In this paper, measurements with different in-ear recording positions are conducted on nine subjects. The measurements are used for finding the optimal microphone position. The results show that spatial information equivalent to ears without insert earphones can be preserved up to around 4-5 kHz....

  8. Concha headphones and their coupling to the ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Lola Justine Kydia Olivia; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to obtain a better understanding of concha headphone. Concha headphones are the small types of earpiece that are placed in the concha. They are not sealed to the ear and therefore, there is a leak between the earpiece and the ear. This leak is the reason why...

  9. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to...

  10. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory lesions of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tono, Tetsuya; Saku, Kazuaki; Miyanaga, Satoshi; Kano, Kiyo; Morimitsu, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Yukiko.

    1988-01-01

    Eighteen patients with chronic otitis media, middle ear cholesteatoma, and postoperative inflammatory diseases of the middle ear underwent high resolution computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgical exploration of the middle ear. Results showed that CT provides higher detail resolution in middle ear structures, but provides limited density resolution in displaying inflammatory soft tissue lesions. By contrast, MRI differentiates among soft tissue lesions such as fluid-filled spaces, granulation tissues, and cholesteatomatous debris. Cholesterin granulomas show a particularly characteristic signal pattern with a very high intensity area in both T1 and T2 weighted images. It is concluded that MRI is useful in differentiating soft tissue density masses when used in conjunction with CT in middle ear inflammatory diseases. (author)

  12. Acoustic impedances of ear canals measured by impedance tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    During hearing sensitivity tests, the sound field is commonly generated by an earphone placed on a subject ear. One of the factors that can affect the sound transmission in the ear is the acoustic impedance of the ear canal. Its importance is related to the contribution of other elements involved...... in the transmission such as the earphone impedance. In order to determine the acoustic impedances of human ear canals, the standardized method for measurement of complex impedances used for the measurement of the audiometric earphone impedances is applied. It is based on the transfer function between two microphone...... locations in an impedance tube. The end of the tube representing the measurement plane is placed at the ear canal entrance. Thus, the impedance seen from the entrance inward is measured on 25 subjects. Most subjects participated in the previous measurement of the ratio between the pressures at the open...

  13. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  14. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  15. Direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic versus open ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N; Mohammadi, A; Jufas, N

    2018-02-01

    Totally endoscopic ear surgery is a relatively new method for managing chronic ear disease. This study aimed to test the null hypothesis that open and endoscopic approaches have similar direct costs for the management of attic cholesteatoma, from an Australian private hospital setting. A retrospective direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic ear surgery and traditional canal wall up mastoidectomy for the management of attic cholesteatoma in a private tertiary setting was undertaken. Indirect and future costs were excluded. A direct cost comparison of anaesthetic setup and resources, operative setup and resources, and surgical time was performed between the two techniques. Totally endoscopic ear surgery has a mean direct cost reduction of AUD$2978.89 per operation from the hospital perspective, when compared to canal wall up mastoidectomy. Totally endoscopic ear surgery is more cost-effective, from an Australian private hospital perspective, than canal wall up mastoidectomy for attic cholesteatoma.

  16. Quantitative analysis of transcranial and intraparenchymal light penetration in human cadaver brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, Clark E; DeLapp, Scott; Jacques, Steven; Anders, Juanita

    2015-04-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low-level light therapy has been used successfully for the treatment of injury and disease of the nervous system. The use of PBM to treat injury and diseases of the brain requires an in-depth understanding of light propagation through tissues including scalp, skull, meninges, and brain. This study investigated the light penetration gradients in the human cadaver brain using a Transcranial Laser System with a 30 mm diameter beam of 808 nm wavelength light. In addition, the wavelength-dependence of light scatter and absorbance in intraparenchymal brain tissue using 660, 808, and 940 nm wavelengths was investigated. Intact human cadaver heads (n = 8) were obtained for measurement of light propagation through the scalp/skull/meninges and into brain tissue. The cadaver heads were sectioned in either the transverse or mid-sagittal. The sectioned head was mounted into a cranial fixture with an 808 nm wavelength laser system illuminating the head from beneath with either pulsed-wave (PW) or continuous-wave (CW) laser light. A linear array of nine isotropic optical fibers on a 5 mm pitch was inserted into the brain tissue along the optical axis of the beam. Light collected from each fiber was delivered to a multichannel power meter. As the array was lowered into the tissue, the power from each probe was recorded at 5 mm increments until the inner aspect of the dura mater was reached. Intraparenchymal light penetration measurements were made by delivering a series of wavelengths (660, 808, and 940 nm) through a separate optical fiber within the array, which was offset from the array line by 5 mm. Local light penetration was determined and compared across the selected wavelengths. Unfixed cadaver brains provide good anatomical localization and reliable measurements of light scatter and penetration in the CNS tissues. Transcranial application of 808 nm wavelength light penetrated the scalp, skull, meninges, and brain

  17. Physiological artifacts in scalp EEG and ear-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Simon L; Looney, David; Mandic, Danilo P; Kidmose, Preben

    2017-08-11

    A problem inherent to recording EEG is the interference arising from noise and artifacts. While in a laboratory environment, artifacts and interference can, to a large extent, be avoided or controlled, in real-life scenarios this is a challenge. Ear-EEG is a concept where EEG is acquired from electrodes in the ear. We present a characterization of physiological artifacts generated in a controlled environment for nine subjects. The influence of the artifacts was quantified in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deterioration of the auditory steady-state response. Alpha band modulation was also studied in an open/closed eyes paradigm. Artifacts related to jaw muscle contractions were present all over the scalp and in the ear, with the highest SNR deteriorations in the gamma band. The SNR deterioration for jaw artifacts were in general higher in the ear compared to the scalp. Whereas eye-blinking did not influence the SNR in the ear, it was significant for all groups of scalps electrodes in the delta and theta bands. Eye movements resulted in statistical significant SNR deterioration in both frontal, temporal and ear electrodes. Recordings of alpha band modulation showed increased power and coherence of the EEG for ear and scalp electrodes in the closed-eyes periods. Ear-EEG is a method developed for unobtrusive and discreet recording over long periods of time and in real-life environments. This study investigated the influence of the most important types of physiological artifacts, and demonstrated that spontaneous activity, in terms of alpha band oscillations, could be recorded from the ear-EEG platform. In its present form ear-EEG was more prone to jaw related artifacts and less prone to eye-blinking artifacts compared to state-of-the-art scalp based systems.

  18. [Risk factors for inner ear diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszewska, G; Kaźmierczak, H; Doroszewski, W

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of obesity and arterial hypertension in patients suffering from vertigo, and/or tinnitus and/or hearing loss of unknown origin. 48 patients (25 women and 23 men) were included into this study. All patients had a negative previous medical history of any metabolic, cardiovascular or neurological disorders. Our results were compared to the control group of 31 healthy persons (16 women and 15 men). All subjects had a complete neurootologic examination, appropriate audiometric and vestibular studies. In most cases inner ear pathology was recognised. BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in all cases. Patients were overweight significantly more often comparing to the control group. Systolic and diastolic hypertension was found significantly more often in men from the patients than control group.

  19. Advances tomographic in evaluation of middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, Mayara Alves Pinheiro dos; Ledo, Mirelle D'arc Frota; Ribeiro, Marcio Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography has a key role in the study of hearing, since through it can be evaluated structures not seen by otoscope. In many clinical situations the diagnosis through this test proves limited, being fundamental examination of the associated image reconstructions: multiplanar reconstruction, maximum intensity projection, and volume-rendering technique. The ossicular chain is a complex formed by the ossicles malleus, incus and stapes, situated in the middle ear; it is difficult to view them in orthogonals planes. This review article intends to demonstrate the importance of post-processing the image of the ossicular chain for a better representation of the anatomy and possible diseases. Reformatting of images helps, significantly, to a better visualization of these structures as related congenital malformations, vascular abnormalities, inflammatory conditions, neoplasia and traumas. (author)

  20. The effect of different sowing depths on fresh ear yield and some ear characteristics of sweet corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Atar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with aim to investigate effect on fresh ear yield and some ear characteristics of sweet corn of sowing at different depths during 2015 and 2016 years in Isparta. The experiments were set up according to randomized complete block design with three replicates using BATEM TATLI sweet corn cultivar. Furrows were opened at depths of 10 and 20 cm after the soil preparation, and seeds were sown in the 4-5 cm depth in to these furrows. According to means of years, while furrow sowing increased ear diameter, ear weigh, number of kernels per ear and fresh ear yield compared to control, it was not effect on ear length. In the research, between 10 cm and 20 cm furrow sowing wasn’t significant statistically. Fresh ear yield in control, 10 cm and 20 cm furrow sowing were measured as 1110.9 kg ha-1 , 1228.4 kg ha-1 and 1289.4 kg ha-1 , respectively. According to results of research, 5 cm deep sowing in 10 cm furrows should be advised in sweet corn cultivation.

  1. Factors contributing to hearing impairment in patients with cleft lip/palate in Malaysia: A prospective study of 346 ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jack Pein; Soo, Siew Shuin; Manuel, Anura Michelle

    2016-09-01

    To determine the factors contributing towards hearing impairment in patients with cleft lip/palate. A prospective analysis was conducted on 173 patients (346 ears) with cleft lip and palate (CL/P) who presented to the combined cleft clinic at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) over 12 months. The patients' hearing status was determined using otoacoustic emission (OAE), pure tone audiometry (PTA) and auditory brainstem response (ABR). These results were analysed against several parameters, which included age, gender, race, types of cleft pathology, impact and timing of repair surgery. The patients' age ranged from 1-26 years old. They comprised 30% with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 28% with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), 28% with isolated cleft palate (ICP) and 14% with isolated cleft lip (ICL). Majority of the patients (68.2%) had normal otoscopic findings. Out of the 346 ears, 241 ears (70%) ears had passed the hearing tests. There was no significant relationship between patients' gender and ethnicity with their hearing status. The types of cleft pathology significantly influenced the outcome of PTA and ABR screening results (p cleft groups and the outcome of hearing tests. However, hearing improvement occurred when palatal repair was performed at the age of cleft patients had normal hearing (70%). Hearing threshold varied significantly between the different types of cleft pathology. Surgery conferred no significant impact on the hearing outcome unless surgery was performed at the age of <1 year old. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anatomical variants of tympanic compartments and their aeration pathways involved in the pathogenesis of middle ear inflammatory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MANIU, ALMA; CATANA, IULIU V.; HARABAGIU, OANA; PETRI, MARIA; COSGAREA, MARCEL

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this article is to review the anatomy of middle ear compartments and folds and to demonstrate through anatomical evidence their presence at birth. Additionally, their role in the obstructions of middle ear ventilatory pathway is highlighted. Methods Ninety-eight adult temporal bones, with no history of auricular disease and fifteen newborn temporal bones were studied by micro dissection. Documentation was done by color photography using the operation microscope Results Our micro-dissections have showed that mucosal folds from the middle ear are steadily present since birth, given that they were found in all newborn temporal bones. The mucosal folds in our normal adult material, showed some variations including membrane defects but they were constantly present. Our micro dissections showed that the epitympanic diaphragm consisted, in addition to malleal ligamental folds and ossicles, of only two constantly present folds: the tensor tympani fold and the incudomalleal fold. When the tensor fold is complete the only ventilation pathway to the anterior epitympanic space is through the isthmus, whereas its absence creates an efficient additional aeration route from the Eustachian tube to the epitympanum. Conclusions The goal of surgery in the chronic pathology of the middle ear should be restoration of normal ventilation of the attical-mastoid area. This is possible by removing the tensor fold and restoring the functionality of the isthmus tympani. PMID:26527977

  3. Does Endoscopic Piriformis Tenotomy Provide Safe and Complete Tendon Release? A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulomb, Rémy; Khelifi, Anis; Bertrand, Martin; Mares, Olivier; May, Olivier; Marchand, Philippe; Kouyoumdjian, Pascal

    2018-05-28

    Endoscopic piriformis release (EPR) is among the available treatments for piriformis syndrome. This procedure typically involves dividing the muscle near the sciatic nerve in the sub-gluteal space, which contains numerous blood vessels and nerves. The objectives of this prospective cadaver study were: 1) to assess the reproducibility and quality of endoscopic piriformis tenotomy near the greater trochanter; 2) to detect iatrogenic injuries to the lateral hip rotators, nerves, and vessels; 3) and to define the surgical safety margins relative to the sciatic nerve and inferior gluteal bundle. EPR at the greater trochanter ensures full release of the muscle with a limited risk of neuro-vascular injury. EPR was performed via two portals on 10 cadaver hips preserved in zinc chloride and placed in the prone position. A third, ancillary portal was required in 7 cases. The area was then dissected with the Kocher-Langenbeck approach to allow an assessment of the tenotomy, detect iatrogenic injuries, and measure the distances separating the tenotomy site from the sciatic nerve and inferior gluteal artery. Complete tenotomy was achieved in 9 (90%) cases. The tendon adhered to the capsule in 2 (20%) cases and showed acquired avulsion in 1 case. No injuries to the sciatic nerve or inferior gluteal artery occurred. Mean distances from the tenotomy site were 5.21±0.59cm (range, 4.5-6.6cm) for the sciatic nerve and 7.1±0.89cm (range, 5.4-8.5cm) for the inferior gluteal artery. EPR by a tenotomy at the greater trochanter without sciatic nerve release provides full release of the muscle with satisfactory safety margins and a short learning curve. III, prospective cadaver case-control study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Porcine cadaver organ or virtual-reality simulation training for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P; Napolitano, Daniel; De Win, Gunter; Miserez, Marc

    2015-01-01

    As conventional laparoscopic procedural training requires live animals or cadaver organs, virtual simulation seems an attractive alternative. Therefore, we compared the transfer of training for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy from porcine cadaver organs vs virtual simulation to surgery in a live animal model in a prospective randomized trial. After completing an intensive training in basic laparoscopic skills, 3 groups of 10 participants proceeded with no additional training (control group), 5 hours of cholecystectomy training on cadaver organs (= organ training) or proficiency-based cholecystectomy training on the LapMentor (= virtual-reality training). Participants were evaluated on time and quality during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a live anaesthetized pig at baseline, 1 week (= post) and 4 months (= retention) after training. All research was performed in the Center for Surgical Technologies, Leuven, Belgium. In total, 30 volunteering medical students without prior experience in laparoscopy or minimally invasive surgery from the University of Leuven (Belgium). The organ training group performed the procedure significantly faster than the virtual trainer and borderline significantly faster than control group at posttesting. Only 1 of 3 expert raters suggested significantly better quality of performance of the organ training group compared with both the other groups at posttesting (p virtual trainer group did not outperform the control group at any time. For trainees who are proficient in basic laparoscopic skills, the long-term advantage of additional procedural training, especially on a virtual but also on the conventional organ training model, remains to be proven. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Applied anatomic study of testicular veins in adult cadavers and in human fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Analyze the anatomic variations of the testicular veins in human cadavers and fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred male adult cadavers and 24 fetuses were studied. Four anatomic aspects were considered: 1 Number of testicular veins, 2 The local of vein termination, 3 Type and number of collaterals present and 4 Testicular vein termination angle. RESULTS: Cadavers - Right side - One testicular vein occurred in 85% and 2 veins in 5% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 21% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 82%, two veins in 15%, three veins in 2% and four veins in 1% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 31% of the cases. Fetuses - Right side -One testicular vein occurred in all cases. This vein drained to the vena cava in 83.3% of the cases, to the junction of the vena cava with the renal vein in 12.5% and to the renal vein in 4.2%. There were communicating veins with the colon in 25% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 66.6% of the cases, and 2 veins in occurred 33.3%. Communicating veins with the colon were found in 41.6% of the cases. CONCLUSION: The testicular vein presents numeric variations and also variations in its local of termination. In approximately 30% of the cases, there are collaterals that communicate the testicular vein with retroperitoneal veins. These anatomic findings can help understanding the origin of varicocele and its recurrence after surgical interventions.

  6. Functional and Structural Succession of Soil Microbial Communities below Decomposing Human Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobaugh, Kelly L.; Schaeffer, Sean M.; DeBruyn, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    The ecological succession of microbes during cadaver decomposition has garnered interest in both basic and applied research contexts (e.g. community assembly and dynamics; forensic indicator of time since death). Yet current understanding of microbial ecology during decomposition is almost entirely based on plant litter. We know very little about microbes recycling carcass-derived organic matter despite the unique decomposition processes. Our objective was to quantify the taxonomic and functional succession of microbial populations in soils below decomposing cadavers, testing the hypotheses that a) periods of increased activity during decomposition are associated with particular taxa; and b) human-associated taxa are introduced to soils, but do not persist outside their host. We collected soils from beneath four cadavers throughout decomposition, and analyzed soil chemistry, microbial activity and bacterial community structure. As expected, decomposition resulted in pulses of soil C and nutrients (particularly ammonia) and stimulated microbial activity. There was no change in total bacterial abundances, however we observed distinct changes in both function and community composition. During active decay (7 - 12 days postmortem), respiration and biomass production rates were high: the community was dominated by Proteobacteria (increased from 15.0 to 26.1% relative abundance) and Firmicutes (increased from 1.0 to 29.0%), with reduced Acidobacteria abundances (decreased from 30.4 to 9.8%). Once decay rates slowed (10 - 23 d postmortem), respiration was elevated, but biomass production rates dropped dramatically; this community with low growth efficiency was dominated by Firmicutes (increased to 50.9%) and other anaerobic taxa. Human-associated bacteria, including the obligately anaerobic Bacteroides, were detected at high concentrations in soil throughout decomposition, up to 198 d postmortem. Our results revealed the pattern of functional and compositional succession

  7. Cannula Versus Sharp Needle for Placement of Soft Tissue Fillers: An Observational Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loghem, Jani A J; Humzah, Dalvi; Kerscher, Martina

    2017-12-13

    Soft-tissue fillers have become important products for facial rejuvenation. Deep fat compartments and facial bones lose volume during the natural aging process. For the most natural-looking results, deep volumetric injections at strategic sites are therefore preferred. Supraperiosteal placement is performed with a sharp needle or a non-traumatic cannula. The primary objective was to determine whether there is a difference in precision between supraperiosteal placement with a sharp needle compared with a non-traumatic cannula in cadaver specimens. A secondary objective was to analyze the safety profiles of both injection techniques. Cadaver heads were injected with dye material and soft-tissue fillers at multiple aesthetic facial sites on the supraperiosteum and subsequently dissected for observation of dye and filler placement. The non-traumatic cannula technique resulted in product being confined to the deep anatomic layers. In contrast, with the sharp needle technique, material was placed in multiple anatomic layers, from the periosteum to more superficial skin layers. For both techniques results were consistent for all facial sites. Although direct extrapolation from cadavers to the in vivo situation cannot be made, cannulae showed more precision in placement of product. With the sharp needle, the material was injected on the periosteum, and then migrated in a retrograde direction along the trajectory of the needle path, ending up in multiple anatomic layers. The sharp needle technique also showed a higher complication risk with intra-arterial injection occurring, even though the needle tip was positioned on the periosteum and the product was injected with the needle in constant contact with the periosteum. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Diagnosis of Complex Pulley Ruptures Using Ultrasound in Cadaver Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, Isabelle; Hugel, Arnica; Schöffl, Volker; Rascher, Wolfgang; Jüngert, Jörg

    2017-03-01

    Pulley ruptures are common in climbing athletes. The purposes of this study were to determine the specific positioning of each pulley with regards to the joint, and to evaluate the ultrasound diagnostics of various pulley rupture combinations. For this, 34 cadaver fingers were analyzed via ultrasound, the results of which were compared to anatomic measurements. Different pulley ruptures were then simulated and evaluated using ultrasound in standardized dynamic forced flexion. Visualization of the A2 and A4 pulleys was achieved 100% of the time, while the A3 pulley was visible in 74% of cases. Similarly, injuries to the A2 and A4 pulleys were readily observable, while A3 pulley injuries were more challenging to identify (sensitivity of 0.2 for singular A3 pulley, 0.5 for A2/A4 pulley and 0.33 for A3/A4 pulley ruptures). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the optimal tendon-bone distance for pulley rupture diagnosis, a threshold which was determined to be 1.9 mm for A2 pulley ruptures and 1.85 for A4 pulley ruptures. This study was the first to carry out a cadaver ultrasound examination of a wide variety of pulley ruptures. Ultrasound is a highly accurate tool for visualizing the A2 and A4 pulleys in a cadaver model. This method of pathology diagnosis was determined to be suitable for injuries to the A2 and A4 pulleys, but inadequate for A3 pulley injuries. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Three-Dimensional Changes in the Midface Following Malar Calcium Hydroxyapatite Injection in a Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatherwright, James R; Brown, Matthew S; Katira, Kristopher M; Rowe, David J

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) changes in the midface following malar calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHa) injection have not been systematically analyzed. The authors analyzed 3D volume changes in midface and naso-labial fold (NLF) volume, as well as lateral movement in the NLF/naso-labial crease (NLC) junction following malar injection of CaHa in a cadaver model. A single surgeon injected CaHa in the supraperiosteal plane. Sequential images were obtained with the VECTRA 3D system pre- and post-1.5- and 3-cc CaHa injections. All measurements were performed by a single examiner. Injection location was verified anatomically. Injections were performed in 16 fresh cadaver hemi-faces. Maximal increases in projection were centered on the malar injection site, with associated decreases in projection and volume in the infero-medial locations. Relative mean increases in volume of 3.16 cc and 4.94 cc were observed following the 1.5-cc and 3-cc injections, respectively. There was a relative decrease in the volume of the NLF of -0.3 cc and -0.4 cc following the 1.5- and 3-cc injections, respectively. Injection of CaHa was associated with lateral movements of the NLF-NLC junction at the level of the nasal sill, philtral columns, and oral commissure, measuring 2.7, 2.5, and 1.9 mm and 2.8, 2.9, and 2.4 mm following the 1.5- and 3-cc injections, respectively. Anatomical dissection verified the location in the supraperiosteal space and within the middle malar fat pad. Following malar CaHa injection, 3D photographic analysis showed a measureable lifting effect with recruitment of ptotic tissue and lateral movement of the NLF-NLC junction in a cadaver model. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. HLA AND CROSS·REACTIVE ANTIGEN GROUP MATCHING FOR CADAVER KIDNEY ALLOCATION1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzl, Thomas E.; Eliasziw, Michael; Gjertson, David; Terasaki, Paul I.; Fung, John J.; Trucco, Massimo; Martell, Joan; McMichael, John; Scantlebury, Velma; Shapiro, Ron; Donner, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Background Allocation of cadaver kidneys by graded human leukocyte antigen (HLA) compatibility scoring arguably has had little effect on overall survival while prejudicing the transplant candidacy of African-American and other hard to match populations. Consequently, matching has been proposed of deduced amino acid residues of the individual HLA molecules shared by cross-reactive antigen groups (CREGs). We have examined the circumstances under which compatibility with either method impacted graft survival. Methods Using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling, we studied the relationship between levels of conventional HLA mismatch and other donor and recipient factors on primary cadaver kidney survival between 1981 and 1995 at the University of Pittsburgh (n=1,780) and in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Scientific Registry during 1991–1995 (n=31,291). The results were compared with those obtained by the matching of amino acid residues that identified CREG-compatible cases with as many as four (but not five and six) HLA mismatches. Results With more than one HLA mismatch (>85% of patients in both series), most of the survival advantage of a zero mismatch was lost. None of the HLA loci were “weak.” In the UNOS (but not Pittsburgh) category of one-HLA mismatch (n=1334), a subgroup of CREG-matched recipients (35.3%) had better graft survival than the remaining 64.7%, who were CREG-mismatched. There was no advantage of a CREG match in the two- to four-HLA incompatibility tiers. Better graft survival with tacrolimus was observed in both the Pittsburgh and UNOS series. Conclusions Obligatory national sharing of cadaver kidneys is justifiable only for zero-HLA-mismatched kidneys. The potential value of CREG matching observed in the one-HLA-mismatched recipients of the UNOS (but not the Pittsburgh) experience deserves further study. PMID:9381546

  11. Yield Strength Testing in Human Cadaver Nasal Septal Cartilage and L-Strut Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan F; Messinger, Kelton; Inman, Jared C

    2017-01-01

    To our knowledge, yield strength testing in human nasal septal cartilage has not been reported to date. An understanding of the basic mechanics of the nasal septum may help surgeons decide how much of an L-strut to preserve and how much grafting is needed. To determine the factors correlated with yield strength of the cartilaginous nasal septum and to explore the association between L-strut width and thickness in determining yield strength. In an anatomy laboratory, yield strength of rectangular pieces of fresh cadaver nasal septal cartilage was measured, and regression was performed to identify the factors correlated with yield strength. To measure yield strength in L-shaped models, 4 bonded paper L-struts models were constructed for every possible combination of the width and thickness, for a total of 240 models. Mathematical modeling using the resultant data with trend lines and surface fitting was performed to quantify the associations among L-strut width, thickness, and yield strength. The study dates were November 1, 2015, to April 1, 2016. The factors correlated with nasal cartilage yield strength and the associations among L-strut width, thickness, and yield strength in L-shaped models. Among 95 cartilage pieces from 12 human cadavers (mean [SD] age, 67.7 [12.6] years) and 240 constructed L-strut models, L-strut thickness was the only factor correlated with nasal septal cartilage yield strength (coefficient for thickness, 5.54; 95% CI, 4.08-7.00; P cadaver nasal septal cartilage, L-strut thickness was significantly associated with yield strength. In a bonded paper L-strut model, L-strut thickness had a more important role in determining yield strength than L-strut width. Surgeons should consider the thickness of potential L-struts when determining the amount of cartilaginous septum to harvest and graft. NA.

  12. A comparative study of vascular injection fluids in fresh-frozen and embalmed human cadaver forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doomernik, D E; Kruse, R R; Reijnen, M M P J; Kozicz, T L; Kooloos, J G M

    2016-10-01

    Over the years, various vascular injection products have been developed to facilitate anatomical dissections. This study aimed to compare the most commonly used vascular injection products in fresh-frozen and formalin-embalmed cadaver specimens. An overview of the properties, advantages and limitations of each substance was given, and a comparison of vascular infusion procedures in both preservation methods was made. A literature search was performed in order to identify the most commonly used vascular injection products. Acrylic paint, latex, gelatin, silicone, Araldite F and Batson's No. 17 were selected for the study. One fresh-frozen and one embalmed cadaver forearm were infused with each injection product according to a uniform protocol. The curing time, skin- and subcutaneous tissue penetration, degree of filling of the arterial tree, extravasations, consistency of the injected vessels during dissection, and the costs of each injection fluid were noted. There was a large variation between the injection fluids in processing- and curing time, colour intensity, flexibility, fragility, elasticity, strength, toxicity and costs. All fluids were suitable for infusion. The penetration of injection fluid into the skin and subcutaneous tissue was significantly better in fresh-frozen specimens (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively), with significantly smaller branches casted (P = 0.004). Vascular infusion of fresh-frozen cadaver specimens results in a significantly better filled coloured arterial tree, enabling more detail to be achieved and smaller branches casted. The biomechanical properties of fresh-frozen soft tissues are less affected compared with formalin fixation. All the injection fluids studied are suitable for vascular infusion, but their different properties ensure that certain products and procedures are more suitable for specific study purposes. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue for skin tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sweta K. [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India); Dinda, Amit K. [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Potdar, Pravin D. [Department of Molecular Medicine, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mishra, Narayan C., E-mail: mishrawise@gmail.com [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2013-10-15

    The present study aims to fabricate scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue and evaluate it for skin tissue engineering applications. Decellularized goat-lung scaffold was fabricated by removing cells from cadaver goat-lung tissue enzymatically, to have cell-free 3D-architecture of natural extracellular matrix. DNA quantification assay and Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed the absence of cellular material in the decellularized lung-tissue. SEM analysis of decellularized scaffold shows the intrinsic porous structure of lung tissue with well-preserved pore-to-pore interconnectivity. FTIR analysis confirmed non-denaturation and well maintainance of collagenous protein structure of decellularized scaffold. MTT assay, SEM analysis and H and E staining of human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cell, seeded over the decellularized scaffold, confirms stem cell attachment, viability, biocompatibility and proliferation over the decellularized scaffold. Expression of Keratin18 gene, along with CD105, CD73 and CD44, by human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cells over decellularized scaffold signifies that the cells are viable, proliferating and migrating, and have maintained their critical cellular functions in the presence of scaffold. Thus, overall study proves the applicability of the goat-lung tissue derived decellularized scaffold for skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • We successfully fabricated decellularized scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue. • Decellularized goat-lung scaffolds were found to be highly porous. • Skin derived MSC shows high cell viability and proliferation over the scaffold. • Phenotype of MSCs was well maintained over the scaffold. • The scaffold shows potential for applications in skin tissue engineering.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue for skin tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sweta K.; Dinda, Amit K.; Potdar, Pravin D.; Mishra, Narayan C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to fabricate scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue and evaluate it for skin tissue engineering applications. Decellularized goat-lung scaffold was fabricated by removing cells from cadaver goat-lung tissue enzymatically, to have cell-free 3D-architecture of natural extracellular matrix. DNA quantification assay and Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed the absence of cellular material in the decellularized lung-tissue. SEM analysis of decellularized scaffold shows the intrinsic porous structure of lung tissue with well-preserved pore-to-pore interconnectivity. FTIR analysis confirmed non-denaturation and well maintainance of collagenous protein structure of decellularized scaffold. MTT assay, SEM analysis and H and E staining of human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cell, seeded over the decellularized scaffold, confirms stem cell attachment, viability, biocompatibility and proliferation over the decellularized scaffold. Expression of Keratin18 gene, along with CD105, CD73 and CD44, by human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cells over decellularized scaffold signifies that the cells are viable, proliferating and migrating, and have maintained their critical cellular functions in the presence of scaffold. Thus, overall study proves the applicability of the goat-lung tissue derived decellularized scaffold for skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • We successfully fabricated decellularized scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue. • Decellularized goat-lung scaffolds were found to be highly porous. • Skin derived MSC shows high cell viability and proliferation over the scaffold. • Phenotype of MSCs was well maintained over the scaffold. • The scaffold shows potential for applications in skin tissue engineering

  15. Presbycusis: do we have a third ear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roque Reis

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Age-related hearing changes are the most frequent cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adults. In the literature no studies exist concerning the importance of speechreading in individuals with presbycusis. Equally, no such studies have been carried out with speakers of the Portuguese (Portugal language. Objectives: To evaluate whether the intelligibility of words in presbycusis is improved by speechreading, in such a way that looking at the interlocutor's face while he is talking functions like a “third ear”, and to determine the statistical relevance of the intelligibility improvement by speechreading. Methods: Eleven individuals (22 ears with bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss compatible with presbycusis were evaluated. The subjects were aged between 57 and 82 years, with an average of 70 ± 11.51 years and median of 69.5 years. A complete medical and audiological profile of each patient was created and all patients were submitted to a vocal audiogram, without and with observation of the audiologist's face. A descriptive and analytical statistical analysis was performed (Shapiro-Wilk and t pairs tests adopting the significance level of 0.05 (5%. Results: We noticed better performance in intelligibility with speechreading. The p-value was zero (p < 0.05, so we rejected the null hypothesis, showing that there was statistically significant difference with speechreading; the same conclusion was obtained by analysis of the confidence intervals. Conclusions: Individuals with presbycusis in this study, performed better on spoken word intelligibility when the hearing of those words was associated with speechreading. This phenomenon helps in such a way that observation of the interlocutor's face works like a "third ear".

  16. Response of forest soil euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Cercozoa) to pig cadavers assessed by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppey, Christophe V W; Fournier, Bertrand; Szelecz, Ildikò; Singer, David; Mitchell, Edward A D; Lara, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    Decomposing cadavers modify the soil environment, but the effect on soil organisms and especially on soil protists is still poorly documented. We conducted a 35-month experiment in a deciduous forest where soil samples were taken under pig cadavers, control plots and fake pigs (bags of similar volume as the pigs). We extracted total soil DNA, amplified the SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V9 region and sequenced it by Illumina technology and analysed the data for euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Euglyphida), a common group of protozoa known to respond to micro-environmental changes. We found 51 euglyphid operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 45 of which did not match any known sequence. Most OTUs decreased in abundance underneath cadavers between days 0 and 309, but some responded positively after a time lag. We sequenced the full-length SSU rRNA gene of two common OTUs that responded positively to cadavers; a phylogenetic analysis showed that they did not belong to any known euglyphid family. This study confirmed the existence of an unknown diversity of euglyphids and that they react to cadavers. Results suggest that metabarcoding of soil euglyphids could be used as a forensic tool to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) particularly for long-term (>2 months) PMI, for which no reliable tool exists.

  17. Femtosecond laser subsurface scleral treatment in cadaver human sclera and evaluation using two-photon and confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yan, Ying; Lian, Fuqiang; Kurtz, Ron; Juhasz, Tibor

    2016-03-01

    Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness worldwide and is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Partial-thickness drainage channels can be created with femtosecond laser in the translucent sclera for the potential treatment of glaucoma. We demonstrate the creation of partial-thickness subsurface drainage channels with the femtosecond laser in the cadaver human eyeballs and describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. A femtosecond laser operating at a wavelength of 1700 nm was scanned along a rectangular raster pattern to create the partial thickness subsurface drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes. Analysis of the dimensions and location of these channels is important in understanding their effects. We describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. High-resolution images, hundreds of microns deep in the sclera, were obtained to allow determination of the shape and dimension of such partial thickness subsurface scleral channels. Our studies suggest that the confocal and two-photon microscopy can be used to investigate femtosecond-laser created partial-thickness drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes.

  18. Porcine cadaver iris model for iris heating during corneal surgery with a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Wang, Jiang; Yan, Ying; Juhasz, Tibor; Kurtz, Ron

    2015-03-01

    Multiple femtosecond lasers have now been cleared for use for ophthalmic surgery, including for creation of corneal flaps in LASIK surgery. Preliminary study indicated that during typical surgical use, laser energy may pass beyond the cornea with potential effects on the iris. As a model for laser exposure of the iris during femtosecond corneal surgery, we simulated the temperature rise in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by the femtosecond laser. Additionally, ex-vivo iris heating due to femtosecond laser irradiation was measured with an infrared thermal camera (Fluke corp. Everett, WA) as a validation of the simulation.

  19. Bilateral Tensor Fasciae Suralis Muscles in a Cadaver with Unilateral Accessory Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan S. W. Bale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle variants are routinely encountered in the dissection laboratory and in clinical practice and therefore anatomists and clinicians need to be aware of their existence. Here we describe two different accessory muscles identified while performing educational dissection of a 51-year-old male cadaver. Tensor fasciae suralis, a rare muscle variant, was identified bilaterally and accessory flexor digitorum longus, a more common muscle variant, was present unilaterally. Tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus are clinically relevant muscle variants. To our knowledge, the coexistence of tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus in the same individual has not been reported in either cadaveric or imaging studies.

  20. NONLINEAR SPECTRAL IMAGING OF ELASTIC CARTILAGE IN RABBIT EARS

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    JING CHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Elastic cartilage in the rabbit external ear is an important animal model with attractive potential value for researching the physiological and pathological states of cartilages especially during wound healing. In this work, nonlinear optical microscopy based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation were employed for imaging and quantifying the intact elastic cartilage. The morphology and distribution of main components in elastic cartilage including cartilage cells, collagen and elastic fibers were clearly observed from the high-resolution two-dimensional nonlinear optical images. The areas of cell nuclei, a parameter related to the pathological changes of normal or abnormal elastic cartilage, can be easily quantified. Moreover, the three-dimensional structure of chondrocytes and matrix were displayed by constructing three-dimensional image of cartilage tissue. At last, the emission spectra from cartilage were obtained and analyzed. We found that the different ratio of collagen over elastic fibers can be used to locate the observed position in the elastic cartilage. The redox ratio based on the ratio of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH over flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD fluorescence can also be calculated to analyze the metabolic state of chondrocytes in different regions. Our results demonstrated that this technique has the potential to provide more accurate and comprehensive information for the physiological states of elastic cartilage.

  1. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  2. Conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology in young infants referred through a newborn universal hearing screening program in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, Sreedevi; Aithal, Venkatesh; Kei, Joseph; Driscoll, Carlie

    2012-10-01

    Although newborn hearing screening programs have been introduced in most states in Australia, the prevalence of conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology in the infants referred through these programs is not known. This study was designed to (1) evaluate the prevalence of conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology in infants referred by a newborn hearing screening program in north Queensland, (2) compare prevalence rates of conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology in indigenous and nonindigenous infants, and (3) review the outcomes of those infants diagnosed with conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology. Retrospective chart review of infants referred to the Audiology Department of The Townsville Hospital was conducted. Chart review of 234 infants referred for one or both ears from a newborn hearing screening program in north Queensland was conducted. A total of 211 infants attended the diagnostic appointment. Review appointments to monitor hearing status were completed for 46 infants with middle ear pathology or conductive hearing loss. Diagnosis of hearing impairment was made using an age-appropriate battery of audiological tests. Results were analyzed for both initial and review appointments. Mean age at initial diagnostic assessment was 47.5 days (SD = 31.3). Of the 69 infants with middle ear pathology during initial diagnostic assessment, 18 had middle ear pathology with normal hearing, 47 had conductive hearing loss, and 4 had mixed hearing loss. Prevalence of conductive hearing loss in the newborns was 2.97 per 1,000 while prevalence of middle ear pathology (with or without conductive hearing loss) was 4.36 per 1,000. Indigenous Australians or Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) infants had a significantly higher prevalence of conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology than non-ATSI infants (35.19 and 44.45% vs 17.83 and 28.66%, respectively). ATSI infants also showed poor resolution of conductive hearing loss

  3. Prophylactic antiemetic effects of midazolam, dexamethasone, and its combination after middle ear surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhdoom, Naeem K; Farid, Magdy F

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the efficacy of the combination of midazolam and dexamethasone, with midazolam and dexamethasone alone, for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in female patients undergoing middle ear surgery. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 80 female patients (mean age 32.6 years), undergoing middle ear surgery with general anesthesia at Ohud Hospital, Madina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from May 2007 to May 2008. Patients were classified into 4 groups. They received intravenous normal saline (S group), midazolam 0.075 mg/kg (M group), or dexamethasone 10 mg (D group), or a combination of midazolam and dexamethasone (MD group), before the induction of anesthesia. Postoperatively for 24 hours observation and assessment of nausea, vomiting, rescue anti-emetics, and side effects of the study drugs such as headache and drowsiness were carried out. There was a significant difference between the 4 groups. The MD group was the least to develop PONV compared to other groups (p<0.01). Regarding nausea, there was a non-significant difference between the 4 groups, although the MD group developed the least symptoms among the 4 groups, there were no significant differences in pain intensity and side effects such as, headache, dizziness, and drowsiness between the 4 groups. The combination of midazolam 0.075 mg/kg and dexamethasone 10 mg intravenously is better than either drug alone in reducing the incidence of PONV in female patients after middle ear surgery. (author)

  4. The eyes and ears are visual indicators of attention in domestic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathan, Jennifer; McComb, Karen

    2014-08-04

    Sensitivity to the attentional states of others has adaptive advantages, and in social animals, attending to others is important for predator detection, as well as a pre-requisite for normal social functioning and more complex socio-cognitive abilities. Despite widespread interest in how social species perceive attention in others, studies of non-human animals have been inconclusive about the detailed cues involved. Previous work has focused on head and eye direction, overlooking the fact that many mammals have obvious and mobile ears that could act as a visual cue to attention. Here we report that horses use the head orientation of a conspecific to locate food, but that this ability is disrupted when parts of the face (the eyes and ears) are covered up with naturalistic masks. The ability to correctly judge attention also interacted with the identity of the model horse, suggesting that individual differences in facial features may influence the salience of cues. Our results indicate that a combination of head orientation with facial expression, specifically involving both the eyes and ears, is necessary for communicating social attention. These findings emphasise that in order to understand how attention is communicated in non-human animals, it is essential to consider a broad range of cues.

  5. Targeted deletion of Sox10 by Wnt1-cre defects neuronal migration and projection in the mouse inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YanYan Mao

    Full Text Available Sensory nerves of the brainstem are mostly composed of placode-derived neurons, neural crest-derived neurons and neural crest-derived Schwann cells. This mixed origin of cells has made it difficult to dissect interdependence for fiber guidance. Inner ear-derived neurons are known to connect to the brain after delayed loss of Schwann cells in ErbB2 mutants. However, the ErbB2 mutant related alterations in the ear and the brain compound interpretation of the data. We present here a new model to evaluate exclusively the effect of Schwann cell loss on inner ear innervation. Conditional deletion of the neural crest specific transcription factor, Sox10, using the rhombic lip/neural crest specific Wnt1-cre driver spares Sox10 expression in the ear. We confirm that neural crest-derived cells provide a stop signal for migrating spiral ganglion neurons. In the absence of Schwann cells, spiral ganglion neurons migrate into the center of the cochlea and even out of the ear toward the brain. Spiral ganglion neuron afferent processes reach the organ of Corti, but many afferent fibers bypass the organ of Corti to enter the lateral wall of the cochlea. In contrast to this peripheral disorganization, the central projection to cochlear nuclei is normal. Compared to ErbB2 mutants, conditional Sox10 mutants have limited cell death in spiral ganglion neurons, indicating that the absence of Schwann cells alone contributes little to the embryonic survival of neurons. These data suggest that neural crest-derived cells are dispensable for all central and some peripheral targeting of inner ear neurons. However, Schwann cells provide a stop signal for migratory spiral ganglion neurons and facilitate proper targeting of the organ of Corti by spiral ganglion afferents.

  6. Targeted Deletion of Sox10 by Wnt1-cre Defects Neuronal Migration and Projection in the Mouse Inner Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, YanYan; Reiprich, Simone; Wegner, Michael; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Sensory nerves of the brainstem are mostly composed of placode-derived neurons, neural crest-derived neurons and neural crest-derived Schwann cells. This mixed origin of cells has made it difficult to dissect interdependence for fiber guidance. Inner ear-derived neurons are known to connect to the brain after delayed loss of Schwann cells in ErbB2 mutants. However, the ErbB2 mutant related alterations in the ear and the brain compound interpretation of the data. We present here a new model to evaluate exclusively the effect of Schwann cell loss on inner ear innervation. Conditional deletion of the neural crest specific transcription factor, Sox10, using the rhombic lip/neural crest specific Wnt1-cre driver spares Sox10 expression in the ear. We confirm that neural crest-derived cells provide a stop signal for migrating spiral ganglion neurons. In the absence of Schwann cells, spiral ganglion neurons migrate into the center of the cochlea and even out of the ear toward the brain. Spiral ganglion neuron afferent processes reach the organ of Corti, but many afferent fibers bypass the organ of Corti to enter the lateral wall of the cochlea. In contrast to this peripheral disorganization, the central projection to cochlear nuclei is normal. Compared to ErbB2 mutants, conditional Sox10 mutants have limited cell death in spiral ganglion neurons, indicating that the absence of Schwann cells alone contributes little to the embryonic survival of neurons. These data suggest that neural crest-derived cells are dispensable for all central and some peripheral targeting of inner ear neurons. However, Schwann cells provide a stop signal for migratory spiral ganglion neurons and facilitate proper targeting of the organ of Corti by spiral ganglion afferents. PMID:24718611

  7. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN CHRONICALLY DISCHARGING EARS

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    Sujatha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a disease of multiple aetiology and well known for its persis tence and recurrence inspite of treatment and are the bearbug of otologist, paediatrician and general practitioner. One of the reason s for the refractoriness to treatment and chronicity is coexist ing fungal infection of the ear. OBJECTIVES: Are to find out the prevalence of fungal infections in chronic discharging ears and to identify and isolate the type of fungus prevalent in these ears . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: Tertiary care hospital level descrip tive study was conducted in 50 cases of CSOM with actively discharging ears for a period of one year starting from February 2013. For all the cases aural swabs were collected from the diseased ear and were used for direct microscopic examination in potassi um hydroxide wet mount. Ear swab was cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plate for fungal cultures. The patient characteristics were prospectively recorded and results were analysed. CONCLUSION : There is high prevalence of coexisting fungal infection in actively discharging ears of CSOM patients

  8. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Apoorva; Akram, Khondoker M; Williams, Debbie; Armes, Hannah; Russell, Catherine; Hood, Derek; Armstrong, Stuart; Stewart, James P; Brown, Steve D M; Bingle, Lynne; Bingle, Colin D

    2016-11-01

    Otitis media (OM), or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME) epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs) at an air-liquid interface (ALI) that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host-pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. THE IDENTIFICATION OF EAR PRINTS USING COMPLEX GABOR FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A S Gunawan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a method used to recognize humans based on one or a few characteristicsphysical or behavioral traits that are unique such as DNA, face, fingerprints, gait, iris, palm, retina,signature and sound. Although the facts that ear prints are found in 15% of crime scenes, ear printsresearch has been very limited since the success of fingerprints modality. The advantage of the useof ear prints, as forensic evidence, are it relatively unchanged due to increased age and have fewervariations than faces with expression variation and orientation. In this research, complex Gaborfilters is used to extract the ear prints feature based on texture segmentation. Principal componentanalysis (PCA is then used for dimensionality-reduction where variation in the dataset ispreserved. The classification is done in a lower dimension space defined by principal componentsbased on Euclidean distance. In experiments, it is used left and right ear prints of ten respondentsand in average, the successful recognition rate is 78%. Based on the experiment results, it isconcluded that ear prints is suitable as forensic evidence mainly when combined with otherbiometric modalities.Keywords: Biometrics; Ear prints; Complex Gabor filters; Principal component analysis;Euclidean distance

  10. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Mulay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Otitis media (OM, or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs at an air–liquid interface (ALI that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi, suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host–pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development.

  11. Efficacy of orthotic immobilization of the unstable subaxial cervical spine of the elderly patient: investigation in a cadaver model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, Drew A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of soft, semirigid and hard cervical collars to immobilize the neck in a destabilized cadaver model. Design This is a laboratory experiment. Setting The anatomy research lab of McMaster University. Patients None. Fresh cadavers from elderly patients suffering terminal medical illness and free of cervical structural disease were studied. Interventions Destabilizing discoligamentous lesions of the neck were created in the cadavers. Radiographs were taken in maximum displacement in the prone, decubitus and side-bending positions, first unsupported and then with soft, semirigid and hard collars applied. Displacements in angulation and translation were measured from the radiographs. Outcome measures Radiographic displacement under gravity load. Results In all cases there was no effective limitation of pathological displacement, and in many cases displacement was increased after collar application. Conclusions Cervical collars do not effectively support the unstable neck, and may be ineffective in preventing pathological displacements. PMID:15362326

  12. Trends and complications of ear piercing among selected Nigerian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide Toye Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reported health and socioeconomic consequences of ear piercing, especially in modern day society, underscore the need to further research into this subject. In this study, we determine the trends and complications of ear piercing among selected Nigerian population. Aim and Objectives: The aim and objective of this study was to draw attention to the trends and complications of ear piercing with a view to prevent its associated complications. Methodology: It is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out between February and May 2015 among selected Nigerian population from two of its six geo-political zones. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire which had been pretested was used to collect data from 458 respondents who consented using multistage sampling technique. Results: Of 480 respondents enumerated, 458 completed the questionnaires and gave their biodata. The male:female ratio was 1:6.2. Their ages ranged from 18 to 75 years with a mean of 35.56 ± 10.16. About 35.4% of the respondents were within the age group of 31–40 years. Majority of the respondents, i.e.,79.3% practiced ear piercing on their children. Most of them (86.8% preferred single piercing. Ear piercing was performed within the 1st week of birth in 37.2% of the respondents. Large percentage (93.2% of the respondents will not encourage ear piercing in male children. Nearly 20.5% of the respondents observed complications. Conclusion: Ear piercing remained a common practice in Nigeria, with respondents preferring it on females. Majority of the piercings are done in childhood and by untrained personnel. Keloid formation was the notable complication observed by the respondents. There is a need to increase awareness about the hazards of ear piercings and to enact laws that regulate ear piercings particularly in children which is hereby stretched.

  13. 3D ear identification based on sparse representation.

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    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm.

  14. [The anatomical features of the middle ear exerting the influence on the formation of exudative otitis media in the breast-fed infants of different gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matroskin, A G; Rakhmanova, I V; Dreval', A A; Kislyakov, A N; Vladimirov, A I

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the anatomical features of the structure of the middle ear and eustachian tube in the breast-fed infants of different gestational age that may be responsible for the formation of exudates (fluids). We have examined 150 temporal bones obtained from the children's cadavers that were allocated to three groups as follows: 50 temporal bones obtained at weeks 26-30 weeks of gestation (group 1), 44 bones 31-36 weeks of gestation (group 2), and 37-40 weeks of gestation (full-term babies, group 3),The analysis of the data obtained on an individual bases revealed either increase or decreases in the selected characteristics of the eustachian tube in comparison with the respective average values as well as the well apparent predominance of a single change or a combination of alteration of several parameters in one case in 26-30 weeks and 31-36 weeks groups. No significant changes were found in group 1. It is concluded that the presence of a single change or a combination of two or three abnormal changes in the parameters of the bone structures of the eustachian tube can affect the development of the secretory process in the middle ear especially in the children born after 36 weeks of pregnancy.

  15. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Artificial induction of Sox21 regulates sensory cell formation in the embryonic chicken inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Freeman

    Full Text Available During embryonic development, hair cells and support cells in the sensory epithelia of the inner ear derive from progenitors that express Sox2, a member of the SoxB1 family of transcription factors. Sox2 is essential for sensory specification, but high levels of Sox2 expression appear to inhibit hair cell differentiation, suggesting that factors regulating Sox2 activity could be critical for both processes. Antagonistic interactions between SoxB1 and SoxB2 factors are known to regulate cell differentiation in neural tissue, which led us to investigate the potential roles of the SoxB2 member Sox21 during chicken inner ear development. Sox21 is normally expressed by sensory progenitors within vestibular and auditory regions of the early embryonic chicken inner ear. At later stages, Sox21 is differentially expressed in the vestibular and auditory organs. Sox21 is restricted to the support cell layer of the auditory epithelium, while it is enriched in the hair cell layer of the vestibular organs. To test Sox21 function, we used two temporally distinct gain-of-function approaches. Sustained over-expression of Sox21 from early developmental stages prevented prosensory specification, and abolished the formation of both hair cells and support cells. However, later induction of Sox21 expression at the time of hair cell formation in organotypic cultures of vestibular epithelia inhibited endogenous Sox2 expression and Notch activity, and biased progenitor cells towards a hair cell fate. Interestingly, Sox21 did not promote hair cell differentiation in the immature auditory epithelium, which fits with the expression of endogenous Sox21 within mature support cells in this tissue. These results suggest that interactions among endogenous SoxB family transcription factors may regulate sensory cell formation in the inner ear, but in a context-dependent manner.

  17. [Investigation of neural stem cell-derived donor contribution in the inner ear following blastocyst injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkenstein, S; Brors, D; Hansen, S; Mlynski, R; Dinger, T C; Müller, A M; Dazert, S

    2008-03-01

    Utilising the enormous proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation potentials of somatic stem cells represents a possible therapeutical strategy for diseases of non-regenerative tissues like the inner ear. In the current study, the possibility of murine neural stem cells to contribute to the developing inner ear following blastocyst injection was investigated. Fetal brain-derived neural stem cells from the embryonic day 14 cortex of male mice were isolated and expanded for four weeks in neurobasal media supplemented with bFGF and EGF. Neural stem cells of male animals were harvested, injected into blastocysts and the blastocysts were transferred into pseudo-pregnant foster animals. Each blastocyst was injected with 5-15 microspheres growing from single cell suspension from neurospheres dissociated the day before. The resulting mice were investigated six months POST PARTUM for the presence of donor cells. Brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA) was performed in six animals. To visualize donor cells Lac-Z staining was performed on sliced cochleas of two animals. In addition, the cochleas of four female animals were isolated and genomic DNA of the entire cochlea was analyzed for donor contribution by Y-chromosome-specific PCR. All animals had normal thresholds in brainstem evoked response audiometry. The male-specific PCR product indicating the presence of male donor cells were detected in the cochleas of three of the four female animals investigated. In two animals, male donor cells were detected unilateral, in one animal bilateral. The results suggest that descendants of neural stem cells are detectable in the inner ear after injection into blastocysts and possess the ability to integrate into the developing inner ear without obvious loss in hearing function.

  18. Learning anatomy through Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers: Student perceptions of embalming methods and effect on functional anatomy knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M A; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2018-03-01

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience with Thiel- compared to formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. It also aimed to determine if one embalming method is more advantageous in terms of learning functional anatomy through the comparison of student anterior forearm functional anatomy knowledge. Student opinions and functional anatomy knowledge were obtained through use of a questionnaire from students at two medical schools, one using Thiel-, and one using more traditional formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. Both the Thiel group and the formalin group of students were surveyed shortly after completing an anterior forearm dissection session. Significant differences (P-values <0.01) in some attitudes were found toward the dissection experience between cohorts using Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers. The Thiel group of students felt more confident about recognizing anatomy in the living individual, found it easier to identify and dissect anatomical structures, and indicated more active exploration of functional anatomy due to the retained flexibility of the cadaver. However, on testing, no significant difference in functional anatomy knowledge was found between the two cohorts. Overall, although Thiel embalming may provide an advantageous learning experience in some investigated areas, more research needs to be carried out, especially to establish whether student perception is based on reality, at least in terms of structure identification. Anat Sci Educ 11: 166-174. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. A new noninvasive controlled intra-articular ankle distraction technique on a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ahmet T; Ozcanli, Haluk; Soyuncu, Yetkin; Dabak, Tayyar K

    2006-08-01

    Effective joint distraction is crucial in arthroscopic ankle surgery. We describe an effective and controlled intra-articular ankle distraction technique that we have studied by means of a fresh-frozen cadaver model. Using a kyphoplasty balloon, which is currently used in spine surgery, we tried to achieve a controlled distraction. After the fixation of the cadaver model, standard anteromedial and anterolateral portals were used for ankle arthroscopy. From the same portals, the kyphoplasty balloon was inserted and placed in an appropriate position intra-articularly. The necessary amount of distraction was achieved by inflating the kyphoplasty balloon with a pressure regulation pump. All anatomic sites of the ankle joint were easily visualized with the arthroscope during surgery by changing the pressure and the intra-articular position of the kyphoplasty balloon. Ankle distraction was clearly seen on the arthroscopic and image intensifier view. The kyphoplasty balloon is simple to place through the standard portals and the advantage is that it allows easy manipulation of the arthroscopic instruments from the same portal.

  20. Evaluation of a novel suture material for closure of intestinal anastomoses in canine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lane A; Monnet, Eric L

    2012-11-01

    To compare leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures for a novel suture material with pressures for comparable suture material when used in closure of intestinal anastomoses in canine cadavers. Healthy intestines from cadavers of dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study. 18 anastomoses were performed on intestinal sections within 72 hours after dogs were euthanized and intestinal samples collected. Anastomoses were performed with a simple continuous suture pattern. Leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were measured and recorded for 6 control segments and 18 anastomosed sections. A barbed glycomer 631 suture (size 4-0 United States Pharmacopeia [USP]) was compared with glycomer 631 sutures (sizes 3-0 and 4-0 USP). Results for leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were compared via an ANOVA. The barbed glycomer 631 suture material leaked at a significantly higher pressure than did the comparable glycomer 631 suture materials. Maximum intraluminal pressures were not significantly different among the suture materials. Barbed glycomer 631 4-0 USP suture material was as effective as glycomer 631 suture materials and may be a safe alternative for use in closure of enterectomies in dogs.

  1. Evaluation of serosal patch supplementation of surgical anastomoses in intestinal segments from canine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lane A; Monnet, Eric L

    2013-08-01

    To compare leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures of intestinal anastomoses with and without serosal patch supplementation in dogs. Healthy small intestine segments from cadavers of 2 dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study. 12 enterectomy constructs were created by anastomosis of intestinal segments with a standard simple continuous suture pattern. Half of the constructs were randomly selected for additional serosal patch support. Leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were measured in and compared between patch-supplemented and nonsupplemented constructs. Mean ± SD leakage pressure was significantly greater for the patch-supplemented anastomoses (81.8 ± 6.7 mm Hg) than for the nonsupplemented anastomoses (28.0 ± 6.7 mm Hg). Maximum intraluminal pressures were not significantly different between the groups. Serosal patch-supplemented anastomoses were able to sustain a significantly higher pressure before leakage than were nonsupplemented anastomoses in intestinal specimens from canine cadavers. The serosal patch supplementation may protect against leakage immediately after enterectomy in dogs.

  2. Simulation training using cadaver sheep chest in pleuroscopy - A step towards skills enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, T.; Saqib, M.; Nasir, T.; Siddique, N.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: For assessing the use of if simulation training on animal cadavers as a useful tool for training in pleuroscopy. Methods: The email-based cross-sectional study was conducted in December 2014 at Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised respiratory physicians and trainees after their participation in a two-day hands-on training course on pleuroscopy and pleural medical procedures. The responses were analysed and the responses of physicians and trainees were compared. Results: Of the 44 individuals who attended the course and were contacted through emails, 38(86.4%) responded, including 20(52.6%) physicians and 18(47.3%) trainees. All the 38(100%) subjects uniformly accepted the utility of simulation training in enhancing education, improving skill, and improving confidence by repeated practice, and felt that the inclusion of animal models for learning fundamental pleuroscopic procedures can help a lot in teaching. Conclusion: Animal cadavers can be used as an effective teaching tool for pleuroscopy training. (author)

  3. Shoulder Arthroscopy Simulator Training Improves Shoulder Arthroscopy Performance in a Cadaver Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, R. Frank; Shah, Neel; Warner, Jon J.P.; Gomoll, Andreas H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefits of shoulder arthroscopy simulator training with a cadaver model of shoulder arthroscopy. Methods Seventeen first year medical students with no prior experience in shoulder arthroscopy were enrolled and completed this study. Each subject completed a baseline proctored arthroscopy on a cadaveric shoulder, which included controlling the camera and completing a standard series of tasks using the probe. The subjects were randomized, and nine of the subjects received training on a virtual reality simulator for shoulder arthroscopy. All subjects then repeated the same cadaveric arthroscopy. The arthroscopic videos were analyzed in a blinded fashion for time to task completion and subjective assessment of technical performance. The two groups were compared with students t-tests, and change over time within groups was analyzed with paired t-tests. Results There were no observed differences between the two groups on the baseline evaluation. The simulator group improved significantly from baseline with respect to time to completion and subjective performance (parthroscopy simulator training resulted in significant benefits in clinical shoulder arthroscopy time to task completion in this cadaver model. This study provides important additional evidence of the benefit of simulators in orthopaedic surgical training. Clinical Relevance There may be a role for simulator training in shoulder arthroscopy education. PMID:23591380

  4. Return of the cadaver: Key role of anatomic dissection for plastic surgery resident training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähenbühl, Swenn Maxence; Čvančara, Paul; Stieglitz, Thomas; Bonvin, Raphaël; Michetti, Murielle; Flahaut, Marjorie; Durand, Sébastien; Deghayli, Lina; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim

    2017-07-01

    Successful Plastic Surgery Residency training is subjected to evolving society pressure of lower hourly work weeks imposed by external committees, labor laws, and increased public awareness of patient care quality. Although innovative measures for simulation training of surgery are appearing, there is also the realization that basic anatomy training should be re-enforced and cadaver dissection is of utmost importance for surgical techniques.In the development of new technology for implantable neurostimulatory electrodes for the management of phantom limb pain in amputee patients, a design of a cadaveric model has been developed with detailed steps for innovative transfascicular insertion of electrodes. Overall design for electrode and cable implantation transcutaneous was established and an operating protocol devised.Microsurgery of the nerves of the upper extremities for interfascicular electrode implantation is described for the first time. Design of electrode implantation in cadaver specimens was adapted with a trocar delivery of cables and electrodes transcutaneous and stabilization of the electrode by suturing along the nerve. In addition, the overall operating arena environment with specific positions of the multidisciplinary team necessary for implantable electrodes was elaborated to assure optimal operating conditions and procedures during the organization of a first-in-man implantation study.Overall importance of plastic surgery training for new and highly technical procedures is of importance and particularly there is a real need to continue actual cadaveric training due to patient variability for nerve anatomic structures.

  5. A novel method to measure femoral component migration by computed tomography: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettner, Friedrich; Sculco, Peter; Lipman, Joseph; Renner, Lisa; Faschingbauer, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is the most accurate technique to measure implant migration. However, it requires special equipment, technical expertise and analysis software and has not gained wide acceptance. The current paper analyzes a novel method to measure implant migration utilizing widely available computer tomography (CT). Three uncemented total hip replacements were performed in three human cadavers and six tantalum beads were inserted into the femoral bone similar to RSA. Six different 28 mm heads (-3, 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 mm) were added to simulate five reproducible translations (maximum total point migration) of the center of the head. Implant migration was measured in a 3-D analysis software (Geomagic Studio 7). Repeat manual reconstructions of the center of the head were performed by two investigators to determine repeatability and accuracy. The accuracy of measurements between the centers of two head sizes was 0.11 mm with a CI 95 % of 0.22 mm. The intra-observer repeatability was 0.13 mm (CI 95 % 0.25 mm). The interrater-reliability was 0.943. CT based measurement of head displacement in a cadaver model were highly accurate and reproducible.

  6. SIM Life: a new surgical simulation device using a human perfused cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, J P; Breque, C; Danion, J; Delpech, P O; Oriot, D; Richer, J P

    2017-02-01

    In primary and continuing medical education, simulation is becoming a mandatory technique. In surgery, simulation spreading is slowed down by the distance which exists between the devices currently available on the market and the reality, in particular anatomical, of an operating room. We propose a new model for surgical simulation with the use of cadavers in a circulation model mimicking pulse and artificial respiration available for both open and laparoscopic surgery. The model was a task trainer designed by four experts in our simulation laboratory combining plastic, electronic, and biologic material. The cost of supplies needed for the construction was evaluated. The model was used and tested over 24 months on 35 participants, of whom 20 were surveyed regarding the realism of the model. The model involved a cadaver, connected to a specific device that permits beating circulation and artificial respiration. The demonstration contributed to teaching small groups of up to four participants and was reproducible over 24 months of courses. Anatomic correlation, realism, and learning experience were highly rated by users CONCLUSION: This model for surgical simulation in both open and laparoscopic surgery was found to be realistic, available to assessed objectively performance in a pedagogic program.

  7. Construction of tomographic head model using sectioned photographic images of cadaver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choon Sik; Lee, Jai Ki; Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk

    2004-01-01

    Tomographic models are currently the most complete, developed and realistic models of the human anatomy. They have been used to estimate organ doses for diagnostic radiation examination and radiotherapy treatment planning, and radiation protection. The quality of original anatomic images is a key factor to build a quality tomographic model. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, from which most of current tomographic models are constructed, have their inherent shortcomings. In this study, a tomographic model of Korean adult male head was constructed by using serially sectioned photographs of cadaver. The cadaver was embedded, frozen, serially sectioned and photographed by high resolution digital camera at 0.2 mm interval. The contours of organs and tissues in photographs were segmented by several trained anatomists. The 120 segmented images of head at 2mm interval were converted into binary files and ported into Monte Carlo code to perform an example calculation of organ dose. Whole body tomographic model will be constructed by using the procedure developed in this study

  8. MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CORPUS CALLOSUM- A STUDY IN CADAVER AND MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambili Puthanveetil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The Corpus Callosum (CC can best be seen in the mid-sagittal section of brain both in cadaver and MRI. The morphometric measurements of the same will be of use in neurosurgical procedures. Sexual dimorphism and the age-related changes in its measurements remained controversial. Till date, no studies have been done on corpus callosum in Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS Measurements of CC has been taken and studied in detail in 24 formalin fixed brains from the Department of Anatomy and 48 MR images from the Department of Radiology. The changes according to age and sex were analysed. RESULTS The mean length of CC in the cadaver was 7.24 cm, which was 3.38 cm posterior to frontal pole and 5.73 cm anterior to occipital pole. In MR images, the mean length was 7.10 in males and 6.76 in females. The difference we got was not statistically significant. The length increased with age. Thickness of genu and body decreased as the age advances, but the splenial thickness was found to be increasing with age. There was significant correlation between the thicknesses of various parts of CC. CONCLUSION The values were almost similar to those in the previous studies. Morphometrically, a significant gender difference was not identified in the present study. There were changes according to age both in males and females.

  9. Three Software Tools for Viewing Sectional Planes, Volume Models, and Surface Models of a Cadaver Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Shin, Byeong Seok; Kwon, Koojoo

    2018-02-19

    The hand anatomy, including the complicated hand muscles, can be grasped by using computer-assisted learning tools with high quality two-dimensional images and three-dimensional models. The purpose of this study was to present up-to-date software tools that promote learning of stereoscopic morphology of the hand. On the basis of horizontal sectioned images and outlined images of a male cadaver, vertical planes, volume models, and surface models were elaborated. Software to browse pairs of the sectioned and outlined images in orthogonal planes and software to peel and rotate the volume models, as well as a portable document format (PDF) file to select and rotate the surface models, were produced. All of the software tools were downloadable free of charge and usable off-line. The three types of tools for viewing multiple aspects of the hand could be adequately employed according to individual needs. These new tools involving the realistic images of a cadaver and the diverse functions are expected to improve comprehensive knowledge of the hand shape. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  10. A pilot study to assess adductor canal catheter tip migration in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jody C; Harrison, T Kyle; Miller, Brett; Howard, Steven K; Conroy, Myles; Udani, Ankeet; Shum, Cynthia; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-04-01

    An adductor canal catheter may facilitate early ambulation after total knee arthroplasty, but there is concern over preoperative placement since intraoperative migration of catheters may occur from surgical manipulation and result in ineffective analgesia. We hypothesized that catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may influence tip migration for preoperatively inserted adductor canal catheters. In a male unembalmed human cadaver, 20 catheter insertion trials were divided randomly into one of four groups: flexible epidural catheter either tunneled or not tunneled; or rigid stimulating catheter either tunneled or not tunneled. Intraoperative patient manipulation was simulated by five range-of-motion exercises of the knee. Distance and length measurements were performed by a blinded regional anesthesiologist. Changes in catheter tip to nerve distance (p = 0.225) and length of catheter within the adductor canal (p = 0.467) were not different between the four groups. Two of five non-tunneled stimulating catheters (40 %) were dislodged compared to 0/5 in all other groups (p = 0.187). A cadaver model may be useful for assessing migration of regional anesthesia catheters; catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may not affect migration of adductor canal catheters based on this preliminary study. However, future studies involving a larger sample size, actual patients, and other catheter types are warranted.

  11. Anatomic variations found on dissection of depressor septi nasi muscles in cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar; Rezaee, Maryam; Koushki, Ehsan Shams

    2012-01-01

    To define variations of the depressor septi muscle in Iranians; to provide guidance for modification of this muscle during rhinoplasty in patients with an active muscle and short upper lip; and to correlate our findings with our clinical experience to develop the applied algorithms. This study was conducted by dissecting 82 depressor septi nasi muscles in 41 Iranian cadavers. Origin and insertion points of each muscle were studied. Three variations were found in muscle insertion points: periosteal, orbicularis oris, and floating. Forty-four percent of the muscles were inserted into the periosteum of the maxilla (n = 36); 39% of muscles were inserted into the orbicularis oris muscle (n = 32); and 17% were diminutive or floating (n = 14). Periosteal insertion was thicker and stronger than the other variations. In all cadavers, the origin of the muscle was medial crus of alar cartilage and caudal of the nasal septum. This cadaveric dissection showed that the percentage of depressor septi muscle insertions is not similar to that found in other surveys. In this study, periosteal insertion of the depressor septi muscle was the most common variation.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue for skin tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sweta K; Dinda, Amit K; Potdar, Pravin D; Mishra, Narayan C

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to fabricate scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue and evaluate it for skin tissue engineering applications. Decellularized goat-lung scaffold was fabricated by removing cells from cadaver goat-lung tissue enzymatically, to have cell-free 3D-architecture of natural extracellular matrix. DNA quantification assay and Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed the absence of cellular material in the decellularized lung-tissue. SEM analysis of decellularized scaffold shows the intrinsic porous structure of lung tissue with well-preserved pore-to-pore interconnectivity. FTIR analysis confirmed non-denaturation and well maintainance of collagenous protein structure of decellularized scaffold. MTT assay, SEM analysis and H&E staining of human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cell, seeded over the decellularized scaffold, confirms stem cell attachment, viability, biocompatibility and proliferation over the decellularized scaffold. Expression of Keratin18 gene, along with CD105, CD73 and CD44, by human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cells over decellularized scaffold signifies that the cells are viable, proliferating and migrating, and have maintained their critical cellular functions in the presence of scaffold. Thus, overall study proves the applicability of the goat-lung tissue derived decellularized scaffold for skin tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Neonatal Hairy Ear Pinnae and Gestational Diabetes: Just a Coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Enrico; Riello, Laura; Chirico, Michela; Semenzato, Rossella; Cutrone, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A newborn girl of 36 weeks gestation was noted to have several anomalies, including bilateral low ear attachment with ear pinnae hypertrichosis, left preauricular pit, micrognathia, short lingual frenulum, and short neck. Pregnancy history revealed poorly controlled maternal gestational diabetes (GD). Localized hypertrichosis of the ear pinnae may represent a potential marker of GD and thereby alert physicians to suspect other potentially GD-associated conditions such as macrosomia, asphyxia, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, polycythemia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and congenital anomalies, particularly those involving the central nervous system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Arched abdominal aorta and altered course of right ovarian vessels in a female cadaver: Clinical significance and embryological explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Guruprasad Kalthur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the vascular origin of ovarian artery have been reported in the past. However, the reports on altered course of ovarian artery are very few. In the present paper, we discuss about multiple variations observed in formalin fixed female cadaver. The right ovarian artery was 22 cm long and ran unusually behind the inferior vena cava (IVC. The right ovarian vein drained in to right renal vein at right angle instead of draining into IVC directly. In addition, to these variations, the cadaver had arched abdominal aorta and retro-aortic left renal vein.

  15. Role of the middle ear muscle apparatus in mechanisms of speech signal discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, B. S.; Bazarov, V. G.; Sachenko, S. V.

    1980-01-01

    A method of impedance reflexometry was used to examine 101 students with hearing impairment in order to clarify the interrelation between speech discrimination and the state of the middle ear muscles. Ability to discriminate speech signals depends to some extent on the functional state of intraaural muscles. Speech discrimination was greatly impaired in the absence of stapedial muscle acoustic reflex, in the presence of low thresholds of stimulation and in very small values of reflex amplitude increase. Discrimination was not impeded in positive AR, high values of relative thresholds and normal increase of reflex amplitude in response to speech signals with augmenting intensity.

  16. Comparison of reliability of five patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in pelvic limbs obtained from cadavers of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James E; Nielsen, Dorte H; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use.......To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use....

  17. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  18. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  19. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics in the chicken inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Eric C; Park, Debra L; Durham, Dianne; Girod, Douglas A

    2004-06-01

    Avians have the unique ability to regenerate cochlear hair cells that are lost due to ototoxins or excessive noise. Many methodological techniques are available to damage the hair cells for subsequent scientific study. A recent method utilizes topical application of an ototoxic drug to the round window membrane. The current study examines the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in the inner ear of chickens following topical application to the round window membrane or a single systemic high dose given intraperitoneally. Chickens were given gentamicin topically or systemically and survived for 1, 4, 12, 24, or 120 h (controls at 4 and 120 h). Serum and perilymph samples were obtained prior to sacrifice and measured for gentamicin levels. Results revealed higher levels of gentamicin in the perilymph of topically treated chickens than systemically treated chickens, with significant amounts of gentamicin still present in both at the latest survival time of 5 days. As expected, systemically treated chickens had much higher levels of gentamicin in the serum than topically treated chickens. Advantages and disadvantages to each method of drug administration are discussed.

  20. How minute sooglossid frogs hear without a middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise; Scotti, Thierry; Herzog, Philippe; Gerlach, Justin; Pollet, Nicolas; Aubry, Jean-François

    2013-09-17

    Acoustic communication is widespread in animals. According to the sensory drive hypothesis [Endler JA (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 340(1292):215-225], communication signals and perceptual systems have coevolved. A clear illustration of this is the evolution of the tetrapod middle ear, adapted to life on land. Here we report the discovery of a bone conduction-mediated stimulation of the ear by wave propagation in Sechellophryne gardineri, one of the world's smallest terrestrial tetrapods, which lacks a middle ear yet produces acoustic signals. Based on X-ray synchrotron holotomography, we measured the biomechanical properties of the otic tissues and modeled the acoustic propagation. Our models show how bone conduction enhanced by the resonating role of the mouth allows these seemingly deaf frogs to communicate effectively without a middle ear.

  1. Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesling, S.; Omenzetter, M.; Bartel-Friedrich, S.

    2009-01-01

    With the focus on imaging, this paper gives a summarized view of the present knowledge on fields, which are necessary to know for a profound understanding of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear. Typical and less typical combinations of malformed parts of the ear can be derived from the embryogenesis. Clinical signs and audiometric findings lead to diagnosis in congenital aural atresia. Isolated middle ear malformations can be clinically mixed up especially with otosclerosis and tympanosclerosis. Imaging is needed for exact morphological information. In malformations of the external and middle ear, CT is the imaging modality of choice. Requirements on CT-technique as well as radiological findings including classification and pre-surgical rating are described. Morphological CT-correlates of congenital malformations and their differential diagnoses are enlisted and illustrated. The impact of CT-results on therapy is explained and actual therapeutic concepts are briefly presented

  2. The ferret as a model for inner ear research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarey, K E

    1985-06-01

    Viral infections have long been suspected to be causative agents in a number of inner ear dysfunctions. With few exceptions, the virus has not been demonstrated as the direct agent leading to hearing loss and/or vertigo. Selective inner ear changes have been observed recently in sensory and nonsensory epithelial cells in the ferret model for Reye's syndrome after intranasal inoculation with influenza B combined with aspirin administration and the creation of an arginine deficiency. Such findings suggest that these agents act synergistically on the inner ear, particularly on cells that are metabolically active, and that the ferret may now be a useful model to examine the role of certain upper respiratory tract viruses implicated in inner ear disorders, singly and in combination with other agents that may cause metabolic alterations.

  3. [Reconstruction of the ear in the burns patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Córdova, Jorge Raúl; Jiménez Murat, Yusef; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando; Bracho-Olvera, Hazel; Carrillo Esper, Raúl

    Face burns are a singular pathology with great functional and psychological impact in the patients suffering them. The ears play a fundamental role in personal interactions and damage to this organ results in physical and emotional distress. The reconstructive treatment of the burned ear is a challenge. Multiple procedures have been described to achieve success in the reconstruction of the burned ear; immediate reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage, secondary reconstruction, alloplastic material reconstruction, tissue expansion, skin grafts and also microvascular flaps are some of the most common procedures used in this patients. All these techniques focus on giving a natural appearance to the patient. Burns to the ears affect 30% of the patients with facial burns, they require an excellent treatment given by a multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. In-the-Ear Spiral Monopole Antenna for Hearing Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A novel in-the-ear (ITE) antenna solution for hearing instruments that operates at 2.45 GHz is presented. The antenna consists of a quarter wave monopole and a ground plane that are placed in the ear. The simulated path gain | S 21 |is − 86 dB and the measured path gain is − 80 dB. Simulations an...... and measurements show that the antenna covers the entire 2.40 – 2.48 GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. It is the first ever ITE-antenna solution that demonstrates the possibility of establishing an ear-to-ear link by using a standard Bluetooth chip...

  5. Study on corrosion products from ear piercing studs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogero, Sizue O.; Costa, Isolda; Saiki, Mitiko

    2000-01-01

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to analyse elemental composition of commercial gold coated ear piercing substrate and metals present in their corrosion products. The cytotoxic effect was also verified in these corrosion product extracts, probably, due to the lixiviation of Ni present in high quantity in their substrates. The analysis of gold coated ear piercing surfaces by scanning electron microscopy before and after the corrosion test showed coating defects and the occurrence of corrosion process. (author)

  6. The ear region of Latimeria chalumnae: functional and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The anatomy of Latimeria chalumnae has figured prominently in discussions about tetrapod origins. While the gross anatomy of Latimeria is well documented, relatively little is known about its otic anatomy and ontogeny. To examine the inner ear and the otoccipital part of the cranium, a serial-sectioned juvenile coelacanth was studied in detail and a three-dimensional reconstruction was made. The ear of Latimeria shows a derived condition compared to other basal sarcopterygians in having a connection between left and right labyrinths. This canalis communicans is perilymphatic in nature and originates at the transition point of the saccule and the lagena deep in the inner ear, where a peculiar sense end organ can be found. In most gnathostomes the inner ears are clearly separated from each other. A connection occurs in some fishes, e.g. within the Ostariophysi. In the sarcopterygian lineage no connections between the inner ears are known except in the Actinistia. Some fossil actinistians show a posteriorly directed duct lying between the foramen magnum and the notochordal canal, similar to the condition in the ear of Latimeria, so this derived character complex probably developed early in actinistian history. Because some features of the inner ear of Latimeria have been described as having tetrapod affinities, the problem of hearing and the anatomy of the otical complex in the living coelacanth has been closely connected to the question of early tetrapod evolution. It was assumed in the past that the structure found in Latimeria could exemplify a transitional stage in otic evolution between the fishlike sarcopterygians and the first tetrapods in a functional or even phylogenetic way. Here the possibility is considered that the canalis communicans does not possess any auditory function but rather is involved in sensing pressure changes during movements involving the intracranial joint. Earlier hypotheses of a putative tympanic ear are refuted.

  7. Cisplatin Ototoxicity Blocks Sensory Regeneration in the Avian Inner Ear

    OpenAIRE

    Slattery, Eric L.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely-used in the treatment of solid tumors. Ototoxicity is a common side effect of cisplatin therapy, and often leads to permanent hearing loss. The sensory organs of the avian ear are able to regenerate hair cells after aminoglycoside ototoxicity. This regenerative response is mediated by supporting cells, which serve as precursors to replacement hair cells. Given the antimitotic properties of cisplatin, we examined whether the avian ear was al...

  8. Cochlear implantation in the Mondini inner ear malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, R T; Robbins, A J; Myres, W A; Pope, M L

    1986-07-01

    We report the case of a profoundly deaf 4-year-old boy with congenital deafness as a result of Mondini's dysplasia. The Mondini inner ear malformation is the result of arrested labyrinthine development during embryogenesis and is characterized by both bony and membranous anomalies of the inner ear. The dysplastic cochlear anatomy does not preclude successful cochlear implantation, and electrical threshold measurements are similar to those recorded in pediatric subjects deafened as a result of other causes.

  9. Melanoacanthoma of external ear: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Patnayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoacanthoma is a rare lesion. Melanoacanthoma of external ear is still rarer . We present two cases of melanoacanthoma of external ear in adults which presented as pigmented growths and clinically were suspected as malignant lesions. Histopathology was diagnostic as it demonstrated the characteristic elevated lesion with abundant melanin pigment. No recurrence of the lesion was reported after four years of initial diagnosis. These cases have been presented because of their uncommon location, highlighting the differential diagnoses.

  10. Poor Oral Hygiene and Middle Ear Infections: Any Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3–12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was det...

  11. Three-dimensional reconstruction and modeling of middle ear biomechanics by high-resolution computed tomography and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Fone; Chen, Peir-Rong; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Liu, Tien-Chen

    2006-05-01

    To present a systematic and practical approach that uses high-resolution computed tomography to derive models of the middle ear for finite element analysis. This prospective study included 31 subjects with normal hearing and no previous otologic disorders. Temporal bone images obtained from 15 right ears and 16 left ears were used for evaluation and reconstruction. High-resolution computed tomography of temporal bone was performed using simultaneous acquisition of 16 sections with a collimated slice thickness of 0.625 mm. All images were transferred to an Amira visualization system for three-dimensional reconstruction. The created three-dimensional model was translated into two commercial modeling packages, Patran and ANSYS, for finite element analysis. The characteristic dimensions of the model were measured and compared with previously published histologic section data. This result confirms that the geometric model created by the proposed method is accurate except that the tympanic membrane is thicker than when measured by the histologic section method. No obvious difference in the geometrical dimension between right and left ossicles was found (P > .05). The three-dimensional model created by finite element method and predicted umbo and stapes displacements are close to the bounds of the experimental curves of Nishihara's, Huber's, Gan's, and Sun's data across the frequency range of 100 to 8000 Hz. The model includes a description of the geometry of the middle ear components and dynamic equations of vibration. The proposed method is quick, practical, low-cost, and, most importantly, noninvasive as compared with histologic section methods.

  12. Effects of tubing length and coupling method on hearing threshold and real-ear to coupler difference measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Samantha; Pittman, Andrea; Fanning, Robert

    2013-06-01

    This tutorial demonstrates the effects of tubing length and coupling type (i.e., foam tip or personal earmold) on hearing threshold and real-ear-to-coupler difference (RECD) measures. Hearing thresholds from 0.25 kHz through 8 kHz are reported at various tubing lengths for 28 normal-hearing adults between the ages of 22 and 31 years. RECD values are reported for 14 of the adults. All measures were made with an insert earphone coupled to a standard foam tip and with an insert earphone coupled to each participant's personal earmold. Threshold and RECD measures obtained with a personal earmold were significantly different from those obtained with a foam tip on repeated measures analyses of variance. One-sample t tests showed these differences to vary systematically with increasing tubing length, with the largest average differences (7-8 dB) occurring at 4 kHz. This systematic examination demonstrates the equal and opposite effects of tubing length on threshold and acoustic measures. Specifically, as tubing length increased, sound pressure level in the ear canal decreased, affecting both hearing thresholds and the real-ear portion of the RECDs. This demonstration shows that when the same coupling method is used to obtain the hearing thresholds and RECD, equal and accurate estimates of real-ear sound pressure level are obtained.

  13. Detection of ossicular chain abnormalities using CT imaging. Comparison of axial and virtual middle ear endoscopic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Motomichi; Kamagata, Masaki; Harada, Kuniaki; Shirase, Ryuji; Oomoto, Hidechika; Himi, Tetsuo

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of axial and three-dimensional imaging (virtual endoscopy) with helical CT for the detection of ossicular chain abnormalities. In 15 patients who had traumatic ossicular dislocation, disruption, and congenital ossicular defect and anomaly, axial helical CT scanning of the temporal bone was performed with GE HSA. Axial and three-dimensional imaging was carried out in normal ears (15 ears) and abnormal ears (10 ears), for the detection of ossicular chain abnormalities. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis using a continuous reporting scale. Furthermore, ROC testing was done to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the detection of ossicular chain abnormalities. Diagnostic accuracy in the detection of ossicular chain abnormalities with three-dimensional imaging (A z =0.967, SD=0.022) was not significantly better than that of axial imaging (A z =0.930, SD=0.046); however, the interobserver standard deviation was better for three-dimensional imaging. Three-dimensional imaging resulted in an increase in true positive cases and a decrease in false negatives. Three-dimensional imaging also showed higher sensitivity and accuracy. In the evaluation of ossicular chain abnormalities, three-dimensional imaging (virtual endoscopy) is useful and provides additional information. Three-dimensional imaging may have an important role in diagnostic procedures and/or preoperative evaluation in otology. (author)

  14. Sound pressure gain produced by the human middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, H; Goode, R L

    1995-10-01

    The acoustic function of the middle ear is to match sound passing from the low impedance of air to the high impedance of cochlear fluid. Little information is available on the actual middle ear pressure gain in human beings. This article describes experiments on middle ear pressure gain in six fresh human temporal bones. Stapes footplate displacement and phase were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer before and after removal of the tympanic membrane, malleus, and incus. Acoustic insulation of the round window with clay was performed. Umbo displacement was also measured before tympanic membrane removal to assess baseline tympanic membrane function. The middle ear has its major gain in the lower frequencies, with a peak near 0.9 kHz. The mean gain was 23.0 dB below 1.0 kHz, the resonant frequency of the middle ear; the mean peak gain was 26.6 dB. Above 1.0 kHz, the second pressure gain decreased at a rate of -8.6 dB/octave, with a mean gain of 6.5 dB at 4.0 kHz. Only a small amount of gain was present above 7.0 kHz. Significant individual differences in pressure gain were found between ears that appeared related to variations in tympanic membrane function and not to variations in cochlear impedance.

  15. Inner ear test battery in guinea pig models - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Yi-Ho

    2018-06-01

    This study reviewed the development of the inner ear test battery comprising auditory brainstem response (ABR), and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) tests in guinea pig models at our laboratory over the last 20 years. Detailed description of the methodology for testing the small animals is also included. Inner ear disorders, i.e. ototoxicity, noise exposure, or perilymph fistula were established in guinea pig models first. One to four weeks after operation, each animal underwent ABR, oVEMP, cVEMP, and caloric tests. Then, animals were sacrificed for morphological study in the temporal bones. Inner ear endorgans can be comprehensively evaluated in guinea pig models via an inner ear test battery, which provides thorough information on the cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canal function of guinea pigs. Coupled with morphological study in the temporal bones of the animals may help elucidate the mechanism of inner ear disorders in humans. The inner ear test battery in guinea pig models may encourage young researchers to perform basic study in animals and stimulate the progress of experimental otology which is in evolution.

  16. Lumped parametric model of the human ear for sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z

    2004-09-01

    A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model.

  17. The ear in fetal MRI: what can we really see?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Nuno Canto [Neuroradiology Section C., Campos Costa, Fragosela, Viseu (Portugal); Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Teixeira, Joao [Department of Neuroradiology, Porto (Portugal); Raininko, Raili; Wikstrom, Johan [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to depict the components of the ear on brain-oriented fetal MRI studies. Retrospective evaluation of the ear in MRI studies was performed post-mortem in 16 fetuses ranging from 15 to 22 gestation weeks (GW), and in 122 examinations in vivo of fetuses ranging from 20 to 38 GW. The cochlea, vestibular apparatus, middle ear, and external auditory canal were separately graded according to the components that were delineated. The components of the inner and middle ear were fully delineated in 100% of the post-mortem examinations, but the external auditory canals were only seen in only 25%. In the in vivo group, the imaging detail was much lower. Cochlear turns could be identified in 75% of the fetuses, the vestibule and the lateral semicircular canals in 72% andossicles in 70%. Before 25 GW, the ability to identify these individual parts was 50%, 30%, and 33%, respectively, and above it was 89%, 93%, and 90%. In most cases, the external auditory canals could only be seen after 29 GW. In fetal MRI studies in vivo, it is possible to depict the components of the ear in the majority of the fetuses, in such a manner as to exclude major malformations. However, MRI might not provide enough detail to rule out pathology of the ear before 25 GW, this being a critical age for pregnancy management in many countries. (orig.)

  18. [HRCT imaging characterized of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear in 45 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinling; Meng, Meijuan; Huan, Yi; Zhang, Jinsong

    2003-10-01

    To explore the high resolution CT (HRCT) image characterized of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear(CAIE), and its value in the diagnosis and treatment of CAIE. The clinic data and axial HRCT scans of CAIE in 45 cases were analyzed. In 45 CAIE patients, most of them were frequently associated with slowly progressive sensorineural hearing loss in childhood, 15 ears were fluctuating hearing loss. Seventeen ears were unilateral semicircular canal paralysis. HRCT showed that Michel type 3 cases(4 ears), Mondini type 25 cases(39 ears). Large vestibular aqueduct malformation not associated with anomalies of inner ears 13 cases(23 ears), anomalies of internal auditory canal 4 cases (5 ears). Thirteen ears were associated with outer and middle ear malformation. HRCT image has the important value in the diagnosis and treatment of CAIE, especially for the excerpt of indication of cochlear implantation.

  19. Intrathecal volume changes in lumbar spinal canal stenosis following extension and flexion: An experimental cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Wolfram; Schwert, Martin; Zirke, Sonja; von Schulze Pellengahr, Christoph; Wiese, Matthias; Lahner, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The spinal canal stenosis is a common disease in elderly. The thecal sac narrowing is considered as the anatomical cause for the disease. There is evidence that the anatomical proportions of the lumbar spinal canal are influenced by postural changes. The liquor volume shift during these postural changes is a valuable parameter to estimate the dynamic qualities of this disease. The aim of this human cadaver study was the determination of intrathecal fluid volume changes during the lumbar flexion and the extension. A special measuring device was designed and built for the study to investigate this issue under controlled conditions. The measuring apparatus fixed the lumbar spine firmly and allowed only flexion and extension. The dural sac was closed water tight. The in vitro changes of the intrathecal volumes during the motion cycle were determined according to the principle of communicating vessels. Thirteen human cadaver spines from the Institute of Anatomy were examined in a test setting with a continuous adjustment of motion. The diagnosis of the lumbar spinal stenosis was confirmed by a positive computer tomography prior testing. The volume changes during flexion and extension cycles were measured stepwise in a 2 degree distance between 18° flexion and 18° extension. Three complete series of measurements were performed for each cadaver. Two specimens were excluded because of fluid leaks from further investigation. The flexion of the lumbar spine resulted in an intrathecal volume increase. The maximum volume effects were seen in the early flexion positions of 2° and 4°. The spine reclination resulted in a volume reduction. The maximum extension effect was seen between 14° and 16°. According to our results, remarkable volume effects were seen in the early movements of the lumbar spine especially for the flexion. The results support the concept of the spinal stenosis as a dynamic disease and allow a better understanding of the pathophysiology of this

  20. Fitting and verification of frequency modulation systems on children with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Erin C; Bryant, Danielle; Sanders, Katie; Baldus, Nicole; Algier, Katherine; Lewis, Audrey; Traber, Jordan; Layden, Paige; Amin, Aneeqa

    2014-06-01

    Several recent investigations support the use of frequency modulation (FM) systems in children with normal hearing and auditory processing or listening disorders such as those diagnosed with auditory processing disorders, autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Friedreich ataxia, and dyslexia. The American Academy of Audiology (AAA) published suggested procedures, but these guidelines do not cite research evidence to support the validity of the recommended procedures for fitting and verifying nonoccluding open-ear FM systems on children with normal hearing. Documenting the validity of these fitting procedures is critical to maximize the potential FM-system benefit in the above-mentioned populations of children with normal hearing and those with auditory-listening problems. The primary goal of this investigation was to determine the validity of the AAA real-ear approach to fitting FM systems on children with normal hearing. The secondary goal of this study was to examine speech-recognition performance in noise and loudness ratings without and with FM systems in children with normal hearing sensitivity. A two-group, cross-sectional design was used in the present study. Twenty-six typically functioning children, ages 5-12 yr, with normal hearing sensitivity participated in the study. Participants used a nonoccluding open-ear FM receiver during laboratory-based testing. Participants completed three laboratory tests: (1) real-ear measures, (2) speech recognition performance in noise, and (3) loudness ratings. Four real-ear measures were conducted to (1) verify that measured output met prescribed-gain targets across the 1000-4000 Hz frequency range for speech stimuli, (2) confirm that the FM-receiver volume did not exceed predicted uncomfortable loudness levels, and (3 and 4) measure changes to the real-ear unaided response when placing the FM receiver in the child's ear. After completion of the fitting, speech recognition in noise at a -5

  1. Safety of lumbar spine radiofrequency procedures in the presence of posterior pedicle screws: technical report of a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazelka, Halena M; Welch, Tasha L; Nassr, Ahmad; Lamer, Tim J

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether the thermal energy associated with lumbar spine radiofrequency neurotomy (RFN) performed near titanium and stainless steel pedicle screws is conducted to the pedicle screws or adjacent tissues, or both, thus introducing potential for thermal damage to those tissues. Cadaver study. Cadaver laboratory equipped with fluoroscopy, surgical spine implements, and radiofrequency generator. No live human subject; a fresh frozen (and thawed) cadaver torso was used for the study. Titanium and stainless steel pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of a fresh frozen cadaver torso with real-time fluoroscopic guidance. Conventional RFN cannula placement was performed at the level of pedicle screws and a control (nonsurgically altered) lumbar level. Neurotomy was performed with conventional radiofrequency lesioning parameters. Temperatures were recorded at multiple sites through thermistor probes. Direct contact of the radiofrequency cannula with the pedicle screws during conventional RFN produced a substantial increase in temperature in the surrounding soft tissues. A small increase in temperature occurred at the same sites at the control level. Titanium and stainless steel pedicle screws are capable of sustaining large increases in temperature when the radiofrequency probe comes in contact with the screw. These results are suggestive that pedicle screws could serve as a possible source of tissue heating and thermal injury during RFN. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Qualitative Assessment of Human Cadavers Embalmed by Thiel's Method Used in Laparoscopic Training for Renal Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Tang, Benjie; Eisma, Roos; Soames, Roger W.; Wen, Haitao; Nabi, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    Human cadaveric tissue is the fundamental substrate for basic anatomic and surgical skills training. A qualitative assessment of the use of human cadavers preserved by Thiel's method for a British Association of Urological Surgeons--approved, advanced laparoscopic renal resection skills training course is described in the present study. Four…

  3. Foundations for a Lifetime: A Qualitative Inquiry into the Recollection, Reconstruction and Meaning-Making Process of Cadaver Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michelle D.

    2013-01-01

    Cadaver dissection has been a central part of the education of medical professionals for centuries. Throughout that time, anatomists have claimed that dissection is a learning experience rich with life lessons encompassing more than simply gross anatomy. Yet, no published empirical data exist of the long-term impact that dissection has on medical…

  4. The preservation of a cadaver by a clay sealant: Implications for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.F.; Oscarson, D.W.; Cheung, S.C.H.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents a case history in which a cadaver and the associated burial objects were found well preserved after being buried for more than 2100 years in Southern China. The preservation is attributed to a layer of kaolin that surrounded the coffin and served as a barrier to water and air movement. The implications for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste are discussed

  5. Insects (Diptera) associated with cadavers at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Pernambuco, Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tatiana Costa; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2010-05-20

    Increasing rates of unsolved homicides in Brazil prompt the need for applied entomological data to be used as a complementary tool by criminal investigators. In that context, we analyzed the occurrence of forensically important insect species (Order Diptera) on 14 cadavers taken into the Institute of Legal Medicine (ILM), in Pernambuco, Brazil, according to the conditions of the body and the pattern of colonisation by insects. Simultaneously, we surveyed the diversity of insects in the surrounding environment using bait traps. Five species were present on cadavers: Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Cochliomyia macellaria (Calliphoridae), Oxysarcodexia riograndensis and Ravinia belforti (Sarcophagidae). A total of 4689 adult insects belonging to 24 species of seven dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae) was collected at the ILM premises. C. albiceps was the most frequent species on the corpses and the most abundant in the traps. Species referred to as of forensic importance, such as Lucilia eximia, Chrysomya putoria, Oxysarcodexia modesta and Ophyra chalcogaster were collected on traps, but not on cadavers. There seems to be a limited colonisation of cadavers at the scene of the death, despite the ubiquity of necrophagous species in the area. The results contribute to differentiate between species that are involved in decomposition and those found in and around the mortuary installations of the ILM, thus providing potential clues about the locality of death and the post-mortem interval.

  6. Examining High School Anatomy and Physiology Teacher Experience in a Cadaver Dissection Laboratory and Impacts on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Ingram, Debra; Jensen, Murray S.; Jackson, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that investigated the experiences of a group of high school anatomy and physiology teachers who participated in a cadaver dissection laboratory workshop organized through a university-school partnership. Teacher feedback was collected before, during, and after the workshop through pre-arrival surveys,…

  7. Real ear unaided gain and its relation with the equivalent volume of the external and middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos, Bárbara Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Old age is associated with changes in the characteristics of the middle ear transmission system and in external ear resonance, and these carry implications for the hearing aid (HA verification process for which targets and measures of the real ear insertion gain (REIG are used. Aim: To compare the real ear unaided gain (REUG and the equivalent volumes of the external ear (VeqEE and the middle ear (VeqME between elderly and adult patients. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which the medical records of 28 elderly patients (aged between 61 and 102 years, average hearing thresholds between 38.75 and 85 dB HL and 23 adult patients (aged 20-59, mean hearing thresholds between 31.25 and 116.25 dB HL with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and no history of middle ear abnormalities were analyzed. Immittance measurements (VeqEE, VeqME, and pressure of the peak of maximum compliance and the REUG (frequency and amplitude of the primary peak were recovered for a total of 40 ears. These data were compared between elderly and adults as well as between men and women, using Student's t test. Correlations (Pearson between immittance and REUG data were also verified. Results: No statistically significant differences (p < 0.01 were found for immittance and REUG data between elderly and adults, or between men and women. A negative and weak but significant correlation was observed between the REUG primary peak and VeqEE. Conclusion: Hearing aid verification can be performed with target and measures of the REIG in the elderly population.

  8. Use of necrophagous insects as evidence of cadaver relocation: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Matthias; Hedouin, Valéry

    2017-01-01

    The use of insects as indicators of post-mortem displacement is discussed in many texts, courses and TV shows, and several studies addressing this issue have been published. Although the concept is widely cited, it is poorly understood, and only a few forensic cases have successfully applied such a method. The use of necrophagous insects as evidence of cadaver relocation actually involves a wide range of biological aspects. Distribution, microhabitat, phenology, behavioral ecology, and molecular analysis are among the research areas associated with this topic. This article provides the first review of the current knowledge and addresses the potential and limitations of different methods to evaluate their applicability. This work reveals numerous weaknesses and erroneous beliefs as well as many possibilities and research opportunities. PMID:28785513

  9. Use of necrophagous insects as evidence of cadaver relocation: myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Charabidze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of insects as indicators of post-mortem displacement is discussed in many texts, courses and TV shows, and several studies addressing this issue have been published. Although the concept is widely cited, it is poorly understood, and only a few forensic cases have successfully applied such a method. The use of necrophagous insects as evidence of cadaver relocation actually involves a wide range of biological aspects. Distribution, microhabitat, phenology, behavioral ecology, and molecular analysis are among the research areas associated with this topic. This article provides the first review of the current knowledge and addresses the potential and limitations of different methods to evaluate their applicability. This work reveals numerous weaknesses and erroneous beliefs as well as many possibilities and research opportunities.

  10. Advertising cadavers in the republic of letters: anatomical publications in the early modern Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margócsy, Dániel

    2009-06-01

    This paper sketches how late seventeenth-century Dutch anatomists used printed publications to advertise their anatomical preparations, inventions and instructional technologies to an international clientele. It focuses on anatomists Frederik Ruysch (1638-1732) and Lodewijk de Bils (1624-69), inventors of two separate anatomical preparation methods for preserving cadavers and body parts in a lifelike state for decades or centuries. Ruysch's and de Bils's publications functioned as an 'advertisement' for their preparations. These printed volumes informed potential customers that anatomical preparations were aesthetically pleasing and scientifically important but did not divulge the trade secrets of the method of production. Thanks to this strategy of non-disclosure and advertisement, de Bils and Ruysch could create a well-working monopoly market of anatomical preparations. The 'advertising' rhetorics of anatomical publications highlight the potential dangers of equating the growth of print culture with the development of an open system of knowledge exchange.

  11. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicto de Campos Vidal

    Full Text Available Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1 after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1 overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue

  12. Flexible nine-channel photodetector probe facilitated intraspinal multisite transcutaneous photobiomodulation therapy dosimetry in cadaver dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Daqing; Sypniewski, Lara A.; Bailey, Christian; Dugat, Danielle; Burba, Daniel J.; De Taboada, Luis

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) of spinal cord disease remains speculative due to the lack of evidence for whether photobiomodulatory irradiances can be transcutaneously delivered to the spinal cord under a clinically acceptable PBMT surface irradiation protocol. We developed a flexible nine-channel photodetection probe for deployment within the spinal canal of a cadaver dog after hemilaminectomy to measure transcutaneously transmitted PBMT irradiance at nine sites over an eight-cm spinal canal length. The probe was built upon a 6.325-mm tubular stem, to the surface of which nine photodiodes were epoxied at approximately 1 cm apart. The photodiode has a form factor of 4.80 mm×2.10 mm×1.15 mm (length×width×height). Each photodiode was individually calibrated to deliver 1 V per 7.58 μW/cm2 continuous irradiance at 850 nm. The outputs of eight photodiodes were logged concurrently using a data acquisition module interfacing eight channels of differential analog signals, while the output of the ninth photodiode was measured by a precision multimeter. This flexible probe rendered simultaneous intraspinal (nine-site) measurements of transcutaneous PBMT irradiations at 980 nm in a pilot cadaver dog model. At a surface continuous irradiance of 3.14 W/cm2 applied off-contact between L1 and L2, intraspinal irradiances picked up by nine photodiodes had a maximum of 327.48 μW/cm2 without the skin and 5.68 μW/cm2 with the skin.

  13. Vertebral osteoporosis: perfused animal cadaver model for testing new vertebroplastic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Thomas; Huschak, Gerald; Beier, Andre; Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen; Meisel, Hans-Joerg; Emmrich, Frank

    2010-12-01

    Experimental study. It was aimed to establish a cadaver model to imitate osteoporotic perfused vertebral bone and to allow for transpedicular transfer of bone cement and various new materials into vertebrae. The model was perfused to simulate vertebroplasty in the presence of transvertebral blood flow. The injection of bone cement into vertebrae bears the risk of irreversible discharge of material into the venous system of the spinal canal. The bovine cadaver model studied allows visual studies of material distribution in a vertebral bone, the potential spill-out of material, and quantification of washout and disintegration phenomena. Thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 1-year-old calves were cut transversally into 5 mm slices, macerated, and decalcified. The softened bone slices were compressed between 2 transparent plastic discs. A standard vertebroplasty cannula (outer diameter 3.5 mm, inner diameter 2.5 mm) was inserted into the vertebral body via the pedicle to transfer the different vertebroplasty materials. Arterial blood flow was simulated by means of liquid irrigation via 2 needles in the ventral part of the vertebral body slice. Metal powder was mixed with the solution to indicate the blood flow in the bone. The model was evaluated with the vertebroplasty cement polymethylmethacrylate. The model permitted visualization of the insertion and distribution of vertebroplasty materials. Liquid bone cement was effused into the spinal canal as in the clinical situation. Higher modulus cement acted in the same way as in clinical vertebroplasty. Rigid vertebroplasty agents led to trabecular fractures and stable mechanical interactions with the bone and eventually moved dorsal bone fragments into the spinal canal. Sedimentation of the metal powder indicated regions of perfusion. The model simulated the clinical behavior of liquid and higher modulus vertebroplasty agents in the presence of blood flow. It enabled safe ex vivo testing of the mechanical and physical

  14. Musical preferences and learning outcome of medical students in cadaver dissection laboratory: A Nigerian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, G E; Nto, J N; Agu, A U; Ekezie, J; Esom, E A

    2016-11-01

    Background music has been reported to enhance learning in the cadaver dissection laboratory. This study was designed to determine the impact of various forms of musical genre and some of their characteristics on students' learning outcome in the dissection laboratory. Some selected musical genre in vocal and non-vocal forms and at different tempi and volume were played as background music (BM) to 253 Medical and Dental students during various sessions of cadaver dissection. Psychological Stress assessment was done using Psychological stress measure-9. Participants love for music, preferred musical genre and other musical characteristics were assessed. The impact of the various musical genre and their characteristics on learning was done via written examination on the region dissected during each musical session. A positive relationship was noted between students' preference for musical genre during leisure with their preference for BM during private study time (Pmusical genre on some selected learning factors. Country and Classical music gave the highest positive impact on the various learning factors in CDL followed by R&B. No significant difference was noted between the cognitive values of vocal and non-vocal music. Classical music most effectively reduced the stress induced by dissection in the CDL while Reggae and High life musical genre created a more stressful environment than regular background noise (Pmusical genre and their various characteristics. The inability to isolate the particular musical genre with these desired properties could account for the controversies in the reports of the role of music in academic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Cadaver study of anatomic landmark identification for placing ankle arthroscopy portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibling, B; Koch, G; Clavert, P

    2017-05-01

    Arthroscopy-assisted surgery is now widely used at the ankle for osteochondral lesions of the talus, anterior and posterior impingement syndromes, talocrural or subtalar fusion, foreign body removal, and ankle instability. Injuries to the vessels and nerves may occur during these procedures. To determine whether ultrasound topographic identification of vulnerable structures decreased the risk of iatrogenic injuries to vessels, nerves, and tendons and influenced the distance separating vulnerable structures from the arthroscope introduced through four different portals. Ultrasonography to identify vulnerable structures before or during arthroscopic surgery on the ankle may be useful. Twenty fresh cadaver ankles from body donations to the anatomy institute in Strasbourg, France, were divided into two equal groups. Preoperative ultrasonography to mark the trajectories of vessels, nerves, and tendons was performed in one group but not in the other. The portals were created using a 4-mm trocar. Each portal was then dissected. The primary evaluation criterion was the presence or absence of injuries to vessels, nerves, and tendons. The secondary evaluation criterion was the distance between these structures and the arthroscope. No tendon injuries occurred with ultrasonography. Without ultrasonography, there were two full-thickness tendon lesions, one to the extensor hallucis longus and the other to the Achilles tendon. Furthermore, with the anterolateral, anteromedial, and posteromedial portals, the distance separating the vessels and nerves from the arthroscope was greater with than without ultrasonography (P=0.041, P=0.005, and P=0.002), respectively; no significant difference was found with the anterior portal. Preoperative ultrasound topographic identification decreases the risk of iatrogenic injury to the vessels, nerves, and tendons during ankle arthroscopy and places these structures at a safer distance from the arthroscope. Our hypothesis was confirmed. IV

  16. Comparison of Expandable and Fixed Interbody Cages in a Human Cadaver Corpectomy Model: Fatigue Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekmezci, Murat; Tang, Jessica A; Cheng, Liu; Modak, Ashin; McClellan, Robert T; Buckley, Jenni M; Ames, Christopher P

    2016-11-01

    In vitro cadaver biomechanics study. The goal of this study is to compare the in situ fatigue life of expandable versus fixed interbody cage designs. Expandable cages are becoming more popular, in large part, due to their versatility; however, subsidence and catastrophic failure remain a concern. This in vitro analysis investigates the fatigue life of expandable and fixed interbody cages in a single level human cadaver corpectomy model by evaluating modes of subsidence of expandable and fixed cages as well as change in stiffness of the constructs with cyclic loading. Nineteen specimens from 10 human thoracolumbar spines (T10-L2, L3-L5) were biomechanically evaluated after a single level corpectomy that was reconstructed with an expandable or fixed cage and anterior dual rod instrumentation. All specimens underwent 98 K cycles to simulate 3 months of postoperative weight bearing. In addition, a third group with hyperlordotic cages was used to simulate catastrophic failure that is observed in clinical practice. Three fixed and 2 expandable cages withstood the cyclic loading despite perfect sagittal and coronal plane fitting of the endcaps. The majority of the constructs settled in after initial subsidence. The catastrophic failures that were observed in clinical practice could not be reproduced with hyperlordotic cages. However, all cages in this group subsided, and 60% resulted in endplate fractures during deployment of the cage. Despite greater surface contact area, expandable cages have a trend for higher subsidence rates when compared with fixed cages. When there is edge loading as in the hyperlordotic cage scenario, there is a higher risk of subsidence and intraoperative fracture during deployment of expandable cages.

  17. The effect of scapular position on subacromial contact behavior: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Sperling, John W; Steinmann, Scott P; Cofield, Robert H; An, Kai-Nan

    2017-05-01

    Patients with subacromial impingement were reported to show abnormal scapular positions during shoulder elevation. However, the relationship between the scapular positions and subacromial impingement is unclear. The purpose of this study was to biomechanically determine the effect of scapular position on subacromial contact behavior by using fresh frozen cadavers. The peak contact pressure on the coracoacromial arch was measured with a flexible tactile force sensor in 9 fresh frozen cadaver shoulders. The measurement was performed during passive glenohumeral elevation in the scapular plane ranging from 30° to 75°. The scapular downward and internal rotations and anterior tilt were simulated by tilting the scapula in 5° increments up to 20°. The measurement was also performed with combination of scapular downward and internal rotations and anterior tilt positions. The peak contact pressure decreased linearly with anterior tilt, and a significant difference between neutral scapular position (1.06 ± 0.89 MPa) and anterior tilt by 20° (0.46 ± 0.18 MPa) was observed (P < .05). However, the scapular positioning in the other directions did not change the peak contact pressure significantly. Furthermore, any combination of abnormal scapular positions did not affect peak contact pressure significantly. Scapular anterior tilt decreased peak contact pressure during passive shoulder elevation. In addition, scapular downward and internal rotations had little effect on peak contact pressure. The abnormal scapular motion reported in previous studies might not be directly related to symptoms caused by subacromial impingement. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A practical femtosecond laser procedure for DLEK endothelial transplantation: cadaver eye histology and topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Mark A; Ousley, Paula J; Will, Brian

    2005-05-01

    The manual dissection technique for deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty (DLEK) surgery is technically difficult and may not be smooth enough for consistently optimal postoperative vision. We evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of using a femtosecond laser to perform the dissections in the DLEK procedure. The Intralase femtosecond laser (with standard LASIK surgery spot settings) was used to create a 9.4-mm wide, 400-microm deep lamellar pocket dissection and a 5.0-mm wide side cut near-exit incision in 10 "recipient" whole cadaver eyes and in 10 "donor" cadaver corneal-scleral caps mounted onto an artificial anterior chamber. Recipient and donor disks were resected with special scissors, and the donor tissue was transplanted using the small incision (5.0-mm) DLEK technique. Topography of the recipient eyes was measured pre- and postlaser dissection, and the recipient and donor tissues were sent for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the smoothness of the dissections. Successful lamellar dissections were obtained in all tissues. The mean recipient topographic corneal curvature postoperatively was 43.3 +/- 1.7 diopters, which was not a significant change from the preoperative curvature of 44.0 +/- 0.8 diopters (P = 0.430). The mean recipient topographic astigmatism postoperatively was 1.7 +/- 0.8 diopters, which was not a significant change from the preoperative recipient astigmatism of 1.6 +/- 0.7 diopters (P = 0.426). Comparison of the histology of the laser-formed stromal dissections by scanning electron microscopy, however, did not appear significantly better than histology after manual DLEK dissections in either the recipient or the donor tissues. A femtosecond laser can create the lamellar dissections for the DLEK procedure, making this procedure easier and faster. As in the manual technique, corneal topography is unchanged by this surgery. More work will need to be done, however, to optimize the laser settings to provide even smoother

  19. Effectiveness of the Thoracic Pedicle Screw Placement Using the Virtual Surgical Training System: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yang; Lin, Yanping; Shi, Jiangang; Chen, Huajiang; Yuan, Wen

    2018-03-14

    The virtual simulation surgery has initially exhibited its promising potentials in neurosurgery training. To evaluate effectiveness of the Virtual Surgical Training System (VSTS) on novice residents placing thoracic pedicle screws in a cadaver study. A total of 10 inexperienced residents participated in this study and were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The group using VSTS to learn thoracic pedicle screw fixation was the simulation training (ST) group and the group receiving an introductory teaching session was the control group. Ten fresh adult spine specimens including 6 males and 4 females with a mean age of 58.5 yr (range: 33-72) were collected and randomly allocated to the 2 groups. After exposing anatomic structures of thoracic spine, the bilateral pedicle screw placement of T6-T12 was performed on each cadaver specimen. The postoperative computed tomography scan was performed on each spine specimen, and experienced observers independently reviewed the placement of the pedicle screws to assess the incidence of pedicle breach. The screw penetration rates of the ST group (7.14%) was significantly lower in comparison to the control group (30%, P < .05). Statistically significant difference in acceptable rates of screws also occurred between the ST (100%) and control (92.86%) group (P < .05). In addition, the average screw penetration distance in control group (2.37 mm ± 0.23 mm) was significantly greater than ST group (1.23 mm ± 0.56 mm, P < .05). The virtual reality surgical training of thoracic pedicle screw instrumentation effectively improves surgical performance of novice residents compared to those with traditional teaching method, and can help new beginners to master the surgical technique within shortest period of time.

  20. Introducing a Fresh Cadaver Model for Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Access Training in Undergraduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ryan; Ho, Hang; Ng, Vivienne; Tran, Melissa; Rappaport, Douglas; Rappaport, William J A; Dandorf, Stewart J; Dunleavy, James; Viscusi, Rebecca; Amini, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decade, medical students have witnessed a decline in the opportunities to perform technical skills during their clinical years. Ultrasound-guided central venous access (USG-CVA) is a critical procedure commonly performed by emergency medicine, anesthesia, and general surgery residents, often during their first month of residency. However, the acquisition of skills required to safely perform this procedure is often deficient upon graduation from medical school. To ameliorate this lack of technical proficiency, ultrasound simulation models have been introduced into undergraduate medical education to train venous access skills. Criticisms of simulation models are the innate lack of realistic tactile qualities, as well as the lack of anatomical variances when compared to living patients. The purpose of our investigation was to design and evaluate a life-like and reproducible training model for USG-CVA using a fresh cadaver. This was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. An 18-point procedural knowledge tool and an 18-point procedural skill evaluation tool were administered during a cadaver lab at the beginning and end of the surgical clerkship. During the fresh cadaver lab, procedure naïve third-year medical students were trained on how to perform ultrasound-guided central venous access of the femoral and internal jugular vessels. Preparation of the fresh cadaver model involved placement of a thin-walled latex tubing in the anatomic location of the femoral and internal jugular vein respectively. Fifty-six third-year medical students participated in this study during their surgical clerkship. The fresh cadaver model provided high quality and lifelike ultrasound images despite numerous cannulation attempts. Technical skill scores improved from an average score of 3 to 12 (pcadaver model prevented extravasation of fluid, maintained ultrasound-imaging quality, and proved to be an effective educational model allowing third-year medical

  1. Temporal and Spatial Impact of Human Cadaver Decomposition on Soil Bacterial and Arthropod Community Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baneshwar; Minick, Kevan J.; Strickland, Michael S.; Wickings, Kyle G.; Crippen, Tawni L.; Tarone, Aaron M.; Benbow, M. Eric; Sufrin, Ness; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Pechal, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-01

    As vertebrate carrion decomposes, there is a release of nutrient-rich fluids into the underlying soil, which can impact associated biological community structure and function. How these changes alter soil biogeochemical cycles is relatively unknown and may prove useful in the identification of carrion decomposition islands that have long lasting, focal ecological effects. This study investigated the spatial (0, 1, and 5 m) and temporal (3–732 days) dynamics of human cadaver decomposition on soil bacterial and arthropod community structure and microbial function. We observed strong evidence of a predictable response to cadaver decomposition that varies over space for soil bacterial and arthropod community structure, carbon (C) mineralization and microbial substrate utilization patterns. In the presence of a cadaver (i.e., 0 m samples), the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes was greater, while the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia was lower when compared to samples at 1 and 5 m. Micro-arthropods were more abundant (15 to 17-fold) in soils collected at 0 m compared to either 1 or 5 m, but overall, micro-arthropod community composition was unrelated to either bacterial community composition or function. Bacterial community structure and microbial function also exhibited temporal relationships, whereas arthropod community structure did not. Cumulative precipitation was more effective in predicting temporal variations in bacterial abundance and microbial activity than accumulated degree days. In the presence of the cadaver (i.e., 0 m samples), the relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased significantly with cumulative precipitation. Furthermore, soil bacterial communities and C mineralization were sensitive to the introduction of human cadavers as they diverged from baseline levels and did not recover completely in approximately 2 years. These data are valuable for understanding ecosystem

  2. Temporal and Spatial Impact of Human Cadaver Decomposition on Soil Bacterial and Arthropod Community Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baneshwar Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As vertebrate carrion decomposes, there is a release of nutrient-rich fluids into the underlying soil, which can impact associated biological community structure and function. How these changes alter soil biogeochemical cycles is relatively unknown and may prove useful in the identification of carrion decomposition islands that have long lasting, focal ecological effects. This study investigated the spatial (0, 1, and 5 m and temporal (3–732 days dynamics of human cadaver decomposition on soil bacterial and arthropod community structure and microbial function. We observed strong evidence of a predictable response to cadaver decomposition that varies over space for soil bacterial and arthropod community structure, carbon (C mineralization and microbial substrate utilization patterns. In the presence of a cadaver (i.e., 0 m samples, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes was greater, while the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia was lower when compared to samples at 1 and 5 m. Micro-arthropods were more abundant (15 to 17-fold in soils collected at 0 m compared to either 1 or 5 m, but overall, micro-arthropod community composition was unrelated to either bacterial community composition or function. Bacterial community structure and microbial function also exhibited temporal relationships, whereas arthropod community structure did not. Cumulative precipitation was more effective in predicting temporal variations in bacterial abundance and microbial activity than accumulated degree days. In the presence of the cadaver (i.e., 0 m samples, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased significantly with cumulative precipitation. Furthermore, soil bacterial communities and C mineralization were sensitive to the introduction of human cadavers as they diverged from baseline levels and did not recover completely in approximately 2 years. These data are valuable for understanding

  3. Conductive Hearing Loss in Autistic, Learning-Disabled, and Normal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald E. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Repeated impedance measures were given over five weeks to 11 autistic, 20 learning-disabled, and 20 normal children. A repeated measures analysis of variance led to the conclusion that fluctuating, negative middle ear pressure greater than normal characterizes both autistic and learning-disabled children with the more abnormal pressures typical in…

  4. External Ear Resonant Amplitude and Frequency of 3-7 Year Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Zare

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure external ear resonant amplitude and frequency in children (3-7 years old and to compare with adult measures. Method and materials: The external ear resonance peak amplitude and frequency of 63 children 3-7 years old were recorded. All of the children had normal tympanogram and there was no cerumen in external auditory canal. 20 adult of 21-24 years old (10 male , 10 female were selected in order to compare with children that had normal tympanogram. The tests included : 1-otoscopy 2- tympanometry 3-microphone probe tube test. Results: The average of resonance peak frequency for children and adult is 4200 Hz and 3200 Hz , respectively. The resonance frequency of children had significantly diffrence with average of resonance frequency in adults. The average of resonance peak amplitude for children and adult is 17.70 dB and 17.17 dB , respectively. Conclusion: Resonant frequency and amplitude affect the hearing aid prescription and fitting process and calculating insertion gain; so, this measures seem should be considered in children hearing aid fitting.

  5. Stimulus-dependent effects on right ear advantage in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smucny J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jason Smucny,1,3 Korey Wylie,3 Jason Tregellas1–31Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Research Science, Denver VA Medical, Center, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USABackground: When presented with different sounds in each ear (dichotic listening, healthy subjects typically show a preference for stimuli heard in the right ear, an effect termed "right ear advantage". Previous studies examining right ear advantage in schizophrenia have been inconsistent, showing either decreased or increased advantage relative to comparison subjects. Given evidence for enhanced semantic processing in schizophrenia, some of this inconsistency may be due to the type of stimuli presented (words or syllables. The present study examined right ear advantage in patients and controls using both words and syllables as stimuli.Methods: Right ear advantage was compared between 20 patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls. Two versions of the task were used, ie, a consonant-vowel pairing task and a fused rhymed words task.Results: A significant group × task interaction was observed. Relative to healthy controls, patients showed a greater difference on the syllable-based task compared with the word-based task. The number of distractors marked during the syllable-based task was inversely correlated with score on the Global Assessment of Function Scale.Conclusion: The findings are consistent with a left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia, but also suggest that differences may be stimulus-specific, with a relative sparing of the deficit in the context of word stimuli. Performance may be related to measures of social, occupational, and psychological function.Keywords: schizophrenia, right ear advantage, dichotic, distraction

  6. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn E Mills

    Full Text Available Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1 assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2 determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3 owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810 were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task', found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392 provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410 is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  7. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katelyn E; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task'), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  8. Assessment of Eustachian tube function in patients with tympanic membrane retraction and in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Inesângela; Petersen Schmidt Rosito, Letícia; Siliprandi, Bruno; Giugno, Cláudia; Selaimen da Costa, Sady

    The diagnosis of Eustachian tube dysfunctions is essential for better understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media. A series of tests to assess tube function are described in the literature; however, they are methodologically heterogeneous, with differences ranging from application protocols to standardization of tests and their results. To evaluate the variation in middle ear pressure in patients with tympanic membrane retraction and in normal patients during tube function tests, as well as to evaluate intra-individual variation between these tests. An observational, contemporary, cross-sectional study was conducted, in which the factor under study was the variation in middle ear pressure during tube function tests (Valsalva maneuver, sniff test, Toynbee maneuver) in healthy patients and in patients with mild and moderate/severe tympanic retraction. A total of 38 patients (76 ears) were included in the study. Patients underwent tube function tests at two different time points to determine pressure measurements after each maneuver. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 18.0, considering p-values <0.05 as statistically significant. Mean (standard deviation) age was 11 (2.72) years; 55.3% of patients were male and 44.7% female. The prevalence of type A tympanogram was higher among participants with healthy ears and those with mild retraction, whereas type C tympanograms were more frequent in the moderate/severe retraction group. An increase in middle ear pressure was observed during the Valsalva maneuver at the first time point evaluated in all three groups of ears (p=0.012). The variation in pressure was not significant either for the sniff test or for the Toynbee maneuver at the two time points evaluated (p≥0.05). Agreement between measurements obtained at the two different time points was weak to moderate for all tests in all three groups of ears, and the variations in discrepancy between measurements were higher in ears

  9. A miniaturized laser-Doppler-system in the ear canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.; Gerhardt, U.; Kupper, C.; Manske, E.; Witte, H.

    2013-03-01

    Gathering vibrational data from the human middle ear is quite difficult. To this date the well-known acoustic probe is used to estimate audiometric parameters, e.g. otoacoustic emissions, wideband reflectance and the measurement of the stapedius reflex. An acoustic probe contains at least one microphone and one loudspeaker. The acoustic parameter determination of the ear canal is essential for the comparability of test-retest measurement situations. Compared to acoustic tubes, the ear canal wall cannot be described as a sound hard boundary. Sound energy is partly absorbed by the ear canal wall. In addition the ear canal features a complex geometric shape (Stinson and Lawton1). Those conditions are one reason for the inter individual variability in input impedance measurement data of the tympanic membrane. The method of Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry is well described in literature. Using this method, the surface velocity of vibrating bodies can be determined contact-free. Conventional Laser-Doppler-Systems (LDS) for auditory research are mounted on a surgical microscope. Assuming a free line of view to the ear drum, the handling of those laser-systems is complicated. We introduce the concept of a miniaturized vibrometer which is supposed to be applied directly in the ear canal for contact-free measurement of the tympanic membrane surface vibration. The proposed interferometer is based on a Fabry-Perot etalon with a DFB laser diode as light source. The fiber-based Fabry-Perot-interferometer is characterized by a reduced size, compared to e.g. Michelson-, or Mach-Zehnder-Systems. For the determination of the phase difference in the interferometer, a phase generated carrier was used. To fit the sensor head in the ear canal, the required shape of the probe was generated by means of the geometrical data of 70 ear molds. The suggested prototype is built up by a singlemode optical fiber with a GRIN-lens, acting as a fiber collimator. The probe has a diameter of 1.8 mm and a

  10. Influence of meniscus on cartilage and subchondral bone features of knees from older individuals: A cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraine, Sébastien; Bouhadoun, Hamid; Engelke, Klaus; Laredo, Jean Denis; Chappard, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Cartilage and subchondral bone form a functional unit. Here, we aimed to examine the effect of meniscus coverage on the characteristics of this unit in knees of older individuals. We assessed the hyaline cartilage, subchondral cortical plate (SCP), and subchondral trabecular bone in areas covered or uncovered by the meniscus from normal cadaver knees (without degeneration). Bone cores harvested from the medial tibial plateau at locations uncovered (central), partially covered (posterior), and completely covered (peripheral) by the meniscus were imaged by micro-CT. The following were measured on images: cartilage volume (Cart.Vol, mm3) and thickness (Cart.Th, mm); SCP thickness (SCP.Th, μm) and porosity (SCP.Por, %); bone volume to total volume fraction (BV/TV, %); trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, μm), spacing (Tb.Sp, μm), and number (Tb.N, 1/mm); structure model index (SMI); trabecular pattern factor (Tb.Pf); and degree of anisotropy (DA). Among the 28 specimens studied (18 females) from individuals with mean age 82.8±10.2 years, cartilage and SCP were thicker at the central site uncovered by the meniscus than the posterior and peripheral sites, and Cart.Vol was greater. SCP.Por was highest in posterior samples. In the upper 1-5 mm of subchondral bone, central samples were characterized by higher values for BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, and connectivity (Tb.Pf), a more plate-like trabecular structure and lower anisotropy than with other samples. Deeper down, at 6-10 mm, the differences were slightly higher for Tb.Th centrally, DA peripherally and SMI posteriorly. The coverage or not by meniscus in the knee of older individuals is significantly associated with Cart.Th, SCP.Th, SCP.Por and trabecular microarchitectural parameters in the most superficial 5 mm and to a lesser extent the deepest area of subchondral trabecular bone. These results suggest an effect of differences in local loading conditions. In subchondral bone uncovered by the meniscus, the trabecular architecture

  11. Influence of meniscus on cartilage and subchondral bone features of knees from older individuals: A cadaver study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Touraine

    Full Text Available Cartilage and subchondral bone form a functional unit. Here, we aimed to examine the effect of meniscus coverage on the characteristics of this unit in knees of older individuals.We assessed the hyaline cartilage, subchondral cortical plate (SCP, and subchondral trabecular bone in areas covered or uncovered by the meniscus from normal cadaver knees (without degeneration. Bone cores harvested from the medial tibial plateau at locations uncovered (central, partially covered (posterior, and completely covered (peripheral by the meniscus were imaged by micro-CT. The following were measured on images: cartilage volume (Cart.Vol, mm3 and thickness (Cart.Th, mm; SCP thickness (SCP.Th, μm and porosity (SCP.Por, %; bone volume to total volume fraction (BV/TV, %; trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, μm, spacing (Tb.Sp, μm, and number (Tb.N, 1/mm; structure model index (SMI; trabecular pattern factor (Tb.Pf; and degree of anisotropy (DA.Among the 28 specimens studied (18 females from individuals with mean age 82.8±10.2 years, cartilage and SCP were thicker at the central site uncovered by the meniscus than the posterior and peripheral sites, and Cart.Vol was greater. SCP.Por was highest in posterior samples. In the upper 1-5 mm of subchondral bone, central samples were characterized by higher values for BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, and connectivity (Tb.Pf, a more plate-like trabecular structure and lower anisotropy than with other samples. Deeper down, at 6-10 mm, the differences were slightly higher for Tb.Th centrally, DA peripherally and SMI posteriorly.The coverage or not by meniscus in the knee of older individuals is significantly associated with Cart.Th, SCP.Th, SCP.Por and trabecular microarchitectural parameters in the most superficial 5 mm and to a lesser extent the deepest area of subchondral trabecular bone. These results suggest an effect of differences in local loading conditions. In subchondral bone uncovered by the meniscus, the trabecular architecture

  12. Three-dimensional fast recovery fast spin-echo imaging of the inner ear and the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, K.; Morikawa, M.; Ishimaru, H.; Ochi, M.; Hayashi, K. [Department of Radiology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Kabasawa, H. [GE Yokogawa Medical Systems, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of three-dimensional fast recovery fast spin-echo (3DFRFSE) for imaging of the inner ear as well as the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves. We evaluated 3DFRFSE sequences, comparing it with 3D fast spin-echo (3DFSE) in a water phantom and in 12 normal volunteers. We also examined 66 patients using 3DFRFSE sequence and assessed the visualization of their pathologies. In a water phantom study, signal intensity (SI) on 3DFRFSE was higher than that on 3DFSE at the same TR ranging from 1500 to 6000 ms. In normal volunteers, 3DFRFSE with TR of 2800 ms showed comparable SI, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) superior to those on 3DFSE with TR of 5000 ms. In clinical setting, 3DFRFSE was useful in demonstrating anatomic details in the labyrinth and pathologic findings of inner ear. The 3DFRFSE can provide high-resolution heavily T2-weighted images (T2WI) with shorter scan time than 3DFSE without significant disadvantage. The 3DFRFSE is a beneficial technique for evaluation of lesions in the inner ear as well as the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves. (orig.)

  13. The cochlear nerve canal and internal auditory canal in children with normal cochlea but cochlear nerve deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Fei; Li, Jianhong; Xian, Junfang; Wang, Zhenchang [Dept. of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)], e-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com; Mo, Lingyan [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)

    2013-04-15

    Background: There is an increasing frequency of requests for cochlear implantation (CI) in deaf children and more detailed image information is necessary for selecting appropriate candidates. Cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) is a contraindication to CI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to evaluate the integrity of the cochlear nerve. The abnormalities of the cochlear nerve canal (CNC) and internal auditory canal (IAC) have been reported to be associated with CND. Purpose: To correlate CNC manifestation, size, and IAC diameter on high-resolution CT (HRCT) with CND diagnosed by MRI in children. Material and Methods: HRCT images from 35 sensorineurally deaf children who had normal cochlea but bilateral or unilateral CND diagnosed by MRI were studied retrospectively. The CNC and IAC manifestation and size were assessed and correlated with CND. Results: CND was diagnosed by MRI in 54/70 ears (77.1%). Thirty-two ears had an absent cochlear nerve (59.3%), while 22 ears had a small cochlear nerve (40.7%). The CNC diameter was <1.5 mm in 36 ears (66.7%). The CNC diameter ranged between 1.5 and 2.0 mm in seven ears (13.0%) and was >2.0 mm in 11 ears (20.4%). The IAC diameter was <3.0 mm in 25 ears (46.3%) and >3.0 mm in 29 ears (53.7%). Conclusion: The hypoplastic CNC might be more highly indicative of CND than that of a narrow IAC.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging measurements of organs within the coelomic cavity of red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans), yellow-bellied sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta), Coastal plain cooters (Pseudemys concinna floridana), and hieroglyphic river cooters (Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Karina A; Schnack, Marcus; Rohn, Karl; Fehr, Michael

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine anatomic reference points for 4 turtle species and to evaluate data on relative anatomic dimensions, signal intensities (SIs), and position of selected organs within the coelomic cavity by use of MRI. ANIMALS 3 turtle cadavers (1 red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta elegans], 1 yellow-bellied slider [Trachemys scripta scripta], and 1 Coastal plain cooter [Pseudemys concinna floridana]) and 63 live adult turtles (30 red-eared sliders, 20 yellow-bellied sliders, 5 Coastal plain cooters, and 8 hieroglyphic river cooters [Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica]). PROCEDURES MRI and necropsy were performed on the 3 turtle cadavers. Physical examination, hematologic evaluation, and whole-body radiography were performed on the 63 live turtles. Turtles were sedated, and MRI in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes was used to measure organ dimensions, position within the coelomic cavity, and SIs. Body positioning after sedation was standardized with the head, neck, limbs, and tail positioned in maximum extension. RESULTS Measurements of the heart, liver, gallbladder, and kidneys in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes; relative position of those organs within the coelom; and SIs of the kidneys and liver were obtained with MRI and provided anatomic data for these 4 turtle species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE MRI was a valuable tool for determining the position, dimensions, and SIs of selected organs. Measurement of organs in freshwater chelonians was achievable with MRI. Further studies are needed to establish reference values for anatomic structures in turtles. Results reported here may serve as guidelines and aid in clinical interpretation of MRI images for these 4 species.

  15. High resolution computed tomography of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Tokio; Saijo, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    1983-01-01

    High resolution computed tomography was performed in 57 cases with various middle ear diseases (chronic otitis media, otitis media with effusion, acute otitis media and atelectasis). Although further improvement in detectability is necessary in order to discriminate each type of the soft tissue lesions, CT is the most useful method currently available in detecting the small structures and soft tissue lesions of the middle ear. In particular, the lesions at the tympanic isthmus and tympanic fold could very clearly be detected only by CT. In acute otitis media, lesions usually started in the attic and spread to the mastoid air cells. In otitis media with effusion, the soft tissue shadow was ovserved in the attic and mastoid air cell. CT is valuable in diagnosis, evaluation of the treatment and prognosis, and analysis of pathophysiology in the middle ear diseases. (author)

  16. Insights into inner ear-specific gene regulation: epigenetics and non-coding RNAs in inner ear development and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Karen B.

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate inner ear houses highly specialized sensory organs, tuned to detect and encode sound, head motion and gravity. Gene expression programs under the control of transcription factors orchestrate the formation and specialization of the non-sensory inner ear labyrinth and its sensory constituents. More recently, epigenetic factors and non-coding RNAs emerged as an additional layer of gene regulation, both in inner ear development and disease. In this review, we provide an overview on how epigenetic modifications and non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs (miRNAs), influence gene expression and summarize recent discoveries that highlight their critical role in the proper formation of the inner ear labyrinth and its sensory organs. In contrast to non-mammalian vertebrates, adult mammals lack the ability to regenerate inner ear mechano-sensory hair cells. Finally, we discuss recent insights into how epigenetic factors and miRNAs may facilitate, or in the case of mammals, restrict sensory hair cell regeneration. PMID:27836639

  17. Blastema Tissue Formed at Experimentally-Created Rabbit Ear Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity.   Materials and Methods: Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. Results: The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conclusion: Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  18. External ear anomalies and hearing impairment in Noonan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Trier, Dorothée C; van Nierop, Josephine; Draaisma, Jos M Th; van der Burgt, Ineke; Kunst, Henricus; Croonen, Ellen A; Admiraal, Ronald J C

    2015-06-01

    This is the first cohort in which hearing impairment and external ear anomalies in Noonan Syndrome are described extensively. Retrospective analysis of the otorhinolaryngological and clinical genetic data from 97 Noonan Syndrome (NS) patients. Forty-four NS patients were seen by an otorhinolaryngologist for the analysis of hearing impairment. In our cohort 80 of the 97 patients were genetically tested. In 71 of these mutations were found: in 48 patients a mutation in PTPN11, in 10 patients in SOS1, in 5 patients in SHOC2, in 5 patients in RAF1, in 1 patient in MAP2K2, in 1 patient in KRAS and in 1 patient in A2ML1. External ear anomalies were reported in 75 NS patients (77%). In 69 patients the ears were low-set, 28 patients had posteriorly rotated ears, 14 patients showed protruding ears and 18 had thickened helices. Hearing impairment was detected in 34 NS patients. Nine patients had sensorineural hearing impairment, two a permanent conductive hearing impairment, two other patients had mixed hearing impairment and 20 patients had conductive hearing impairment in the past, caused by otitis media with effusion. Their temporary conductive hearing impairment resolved between the ages of 2 and 18 years. Sensorineural hearing impairment varied between mild high-frequency hearing impairment and profound (uni- and bilateral) hearing impairment and was progressive in three patients. Four NS patients received cochlear implants for their severe sensorineural hearing impairment. The cohort is small for genotype-phenotype correlations, but sensorineural hearing impairment, especially the bilateral severe hearing impairment, was only seen in patients with a PTPN11 mutation. NS is characterized by dysmorphic external ear anomalies and both sensorineural and conductive hearing impairment. Audiological examinations are recommended in all patients with Noonan Syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prosthetic ossicular on middle ear: what look?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, Christiane Pena; Ramos, Frederico Rocha Henriques; Pires, Diego Demolinari; Antunes, Augusto Braga Fernandes; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Moreira, Wanderval; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this essay was to demonstrate the normal and pathological CT findings of the post-operative imaging of patients underwent ossicular prosthesis implants. The stapedectomy replaced by prosthesis is considered the 'gold standard' treatment of patients with oval window closure, related to otosclerosis or other inflammatory conditions. Several types of prosthesis are available and the choice depends on the extension of the disease or the surgeon's preferences. Based on extensive literature review, the normal postoperative findings, as well as some surgery inherent complications were described, including among others: perforation of the tympanic membrane, necrosis associated with subluxation/extrusion of the prosthesis, granuloma/cholesteatoma or periprosthetic fibrosis, perilymphatic fistula, facial nerve damage, among other. The knowledge of post-operative and related complications CT findings is extremely useful for head and neck radiologist, but it is essential for an assertive diagnoses a close clinical correlation. (author)

  20. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Boisen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin.