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Sample records for normal brain morphology

  1. Extracting morphologies from third harmonic generation images of structurally normal human brain tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhiqing; Kuzmin, Nikolay V.; Groot, Marie Louise; de Munck, Jan C.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: The morphologies contained in 3D third harmonic generation (THG) images of human brain tissue can report on the pathological state of the tissue. However, the complexity of THG brain images makes the usage of modern image processing tools, especially those of image filtering,

  2. Sex differences in morphology of the brain stem and cerebellum with normal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguro, H.; Okada, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kobayashi, S.

    1998-01-01

    The cerebral hemispheres become atrophic with age. The sex of the individual may affect this process. There are few studies of the effects of age and sex on the brain stem and cerebellum. We used MRI morphometry to study changes in these structures in 152 normal subjects over 40 years of age. In the linear measurements, men showed significant age-associated atrophy in the tegmentum and pretectum of the midbrain and the base of the pons. In women, only the pretectum of the midbrain showed significant ageing effects after the age of 50 years, and thereafter remained rather constant. Only men had significant age-associated reduction in area of the crebellar vermis area after the age of 70 years. Both men and women showed supratentorial brain atrophy that progressed by decades. There were significant correlations between supratentorial brain atrophy and the diameter of the ventral midbrain, pretectum, and base of the pons in men, and between brain atrophy and the diameter of the fourth ventricle in women. (orig.)

  3. Sex differences in morphology of the brain stem and cerebellum with normal ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguro, H.; Okada, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kobayashi, S. [Internal Medicine III, Shimane Medical University, Izumo (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The cerebral hemispheres become atrophic with age. The sex of the individual may affect this process. There are few studies of the effects of age and sex on the brain stem and cerebellum. We used MRI morphometry to study changes in these structures in 152 normal subjects over 40 years of age. In the linear measurements, men showed significant age-associated atrophy in the tegmentum and pretectum of the midbrain and the base of the pons. In women, only the pretectum of the midbrain showed significant ageing effects after the age of 50 years, and thereafter remained rather constant. Only men had significant age-associated reduction in area of the crebellar vermis area after the age of 70 years. Both men and women showed supratentorial brain atrophy that progressed by decades. There were significant correlations between supratentorial brain atrophy and the diameter of the ventral midbrain, pretectum, and base of the pons in men, and between brain atrophy and the diameter of the fourth ventricle in women. (orig.) With 4 figs., 3 tabs., 16 refs.

  4. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  5. In vitro fertilisation when normal sperm morphology is less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outcome of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer in 90 couples where the husband's normal sperm morphology was less than 15% were analysed. Based on the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa the patients were divided into three groups: group A - normal morphological features 0 - 5%; group B - 6 ...

  6. In vitro fertilisation when normal sperm morphology is less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-18

    Aug 18, 1990 ... couples where the husband's normal sperm morphology was less than 15% ... gonadotrophin (HCG) 5000 ID was given when the average size of three ... have a normal sperm count and motility but have lower than normal ...

  7. Morphological Computation: Synergy of Body and Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Ghazi-Zahedi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous examples that show how the exploitation of the body’s physical properties can lift the burden of the brain. Examples include grasping, swimming, locomotion, and motion detection. The term Morphological Computation was originally coined to describe processes in the body that would otherwise have to be conducted by the brain. In this paper, we argue for a synergistic perspective, and by that we mean that Morphological Computation is a process which requires a close interaction of body and brain. Based on a model of the sensorimotor loop, we study a new measure of synergistic information and show that it is more reliable in cases in which there is no synergistic information, compared to previous results. Furthermore, we discuss an algorithm that allows the calculation of the measure in non-trivial (non-binary systems.

  8. Morphological evaluation of normal human corneal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Niels; Heegaard, Steffen; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    of corneas from 100 consecutively selected paraffin-embedded eyes were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS). All specimens were evaluated by light microscopy. The eyes were enucleated from patients with choroidal melanoma. Corneas were considered to be normal. RESULTS: Ninety of 100...

  9. Brain Volume Estimation Enhancement by Morphological Image Processing Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinali R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volume estimation of brain is important for many neurological applications. It is necessary in measuring brain growth and changes in brain in normal/ abnormal patients. Thus, accurate brain volume measurement is very important. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the method of choice for volume quantification due to excellent levels of image resolution and between-tissue contrast. Stereology method is a good method for estimating volume but it requires to segment enough MRI slices and have a good resolution. In this study, it is desired to enhance stereology method for volume estimation of brain using less MRI slices with less resolution. Methods: In this study, a program for calculating volume using stereology method has been introduced. After morphologic method, dilation was applied and the stereology method enhanced. For the evaluation of this method, we used T1-wighted MR images from digital phantom in BrainWeb which had ground truth. Results: The volume of 20 normal brain extracted from BrainWeb, was calculated. The volumes of white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid with given dimension were estimated correctly. Volume calculation from Stereology method in different cases was made. In three cases, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE was measured. Case I with T=5, d=5, Case II with T=10, D=10 and Case III with T=20, d=20 (T=slice thickness, d=resolution as stereology parameters. By comparing these results of two methods, it is obvious that RMSE values for our proposed method are smaller than Stereology method. Conclusion: Using morphological operation, dilation allows to enhance the estimation volume method, Stereology. In the case with less MRI slices and less test points, this method works much better compared to Stereology method.

  10. MRI of normal fetal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor; Krampl, Elisabeth; Ulm, Barbara; Witzani, Linde; Prayer, Lucas; Brugger, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed

  11. MRI of normal fetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: Daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Krampl, Elisabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ulm, Barbara [Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed.

  12. Functional neuroimaging of normal aging: Declining brain, adapting brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    2016-09-01

    Early functional neuroimaging research on normal aging brain has been dominated by the interest in cognitive decline. In this framework the age-related compensatory recruitment of prefrontal cortex, in terms of executive system or reduced lateralization, has been established. Further details on these compensatory mechanisms and the findings reflecting cognitive decline, however, remain the matter of intensive investigations. Studies in another framework where age-related neural alteration is considered adaptation to the environmental change are recently burgeoning and appear largely categorized into three domains. The age-related increase in activation of the sensorimotor network may reflect the alteration of the peripheral sensorimotor systems. The increased susceptibility of the network for the mental-state inference to the socioemotional significance may be explained by the age-related motivational shift due to the altered social perception. The age-related change in activation of the self-referential network may be relevant to the focused positive self-concept of elderly driven by a similar motivational shift. Across the domains, the concept of the self and internal model may provide the theoretical bases of this adaptation framework. These two frameworks complement each other to provide a comprehensive view of the normal aging brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Loss of Brain Aerobic Glycolysis in Normal Human Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Manu S; Vlassenko, Andrei G; Blazey, Tyler M; Su, Yi; Couture, Lars E; Durbin, Tony J; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie L-S; Morris, John C; Raichle, Marcus E

    2017-08-01

    The normal aging human brain experiences global decreases in metabolism, but whether this affects the topography of brain metabolism is unknown. Here we describe PET-based measurements of brain glucose uptake, oxygen utilization, and blood flow in cognitively normal adults from 20 to 82 years of age. Age-related decreases in brain glucose uptake exceed that of oxygen use, resulting in loss of brain aerobic glycolysis (AG). Whereas the topographies of total brain glucose uptake, oxygen utilization, and blood flow remain largely stable with age, brain AG topography changes significantly. Brain regions with high AG in young adults show the greatest change, as do regions with prolonged developmental transcriptional features (i.e., neoteny). The normal aging human brain thus undergoes characteristic metabolic changes, largely driven by global loss and topographic changes in brain AG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphologic alterations in normal and neoplastic tissues following hyperthermia treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badylak, S.F.; Babbs, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The sequential morphologic alterations in normal skeletal muscle in rats, Walker 256 tumors in rats, and transmissible venereal tumors (TVT) in dogs following microwave-induced hyperthermia (43 0 C and 45 0 for 20 minutes) were studied by light and electron microscopy. Normal muscle and Walker 256 tumors showed vascular damage at 5 minutes post-heating (PH), followed by suppuration and thrombosis at 6 and 48 hours PH, and by regeneration and repair at 7 days PH. Endothelial damage and parenchymal degeneration were present 5 minutes PH. Progressive ischemic injury occurred for at least 48 hours PH. Two hyperthermia treatments, separated by a 30 or 60 minute cooling interval, were applied to rats implanted with Walker 256 tumors. Increased selective heating of tumor tissue versus surrounding normal tissue, and increased intratumoral temperatures were found during the second hyperthermia treatment. Canine TVTs were resistant to hyperthermia damage. These results characterized the sequential morphologic alterations following hyperthermia treatment and showed that: 1) vascular damage contributed to the immediate and latent cytotoxic effects of hyperthermia, 2) selective heating occurred in the neoplastic tissue disrupted by prior heat treatment, and 3) not all neoplasms are responsive to hyperthermia treatment

  15. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in normal Iranian eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallah Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in normal Iranian eyes and compare endothelial cell characteristics in the Iranian population with data available in the literature for American and Indian populations. Methods Specular microscopy was performed in 525 eyes of normal Iranian people aged 20 to 85 years old. The studied parameters including mean endothelial cell density (MCD, mean cell area (MCA and coefficient of variation (CV in cell area were analyzed in all of the 525 eyes. Results MCD was 1961 ± 457 cell/mm2 and MCA was 537.0 ± 137.4 μm2. There was no statistically significant difference in MCD, MCA and CV between genders (Student t-test, P = 0.85, P = 0.97 and P = 0.15 respectively. There was a statistically significant decrease in MCD with age (P r = -0.64. The rate of cell loss was 0.6% per year. There was also a statistically significant increase in MCA (P r = 0.56 and CV (P r = 0.30 from 20 to 85 years of age. Conclusion The first normative data for the endothelium of Iranian eyes seems to confirm that there are no differences in MCD, MCA and CV between genders. Nevertheless, the values obtained in Iranian eyes seem to be different to those reported by the literature in Indian and American populations.

  16. Brain morphological signatures for chronic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan N Baliki

    Full Text Available Chronic pain can be understood not only as an altered functional state, but also as a consequence of neuronal plasticity. Here we use in vivo structural MRI to compare global, local, and architectural changes in gray matter properties in patients suffering from chronic back pain (CBP, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS and knee osteoarthritis (OA, relative to healthy controls. We find that different chronic pain types exhibit unique anatomical 'brain signatures'. Only the CBP group showed altered whole-brain gray matter volume, while regional gray matter density was distinct for each group. Voxel-wise comparison of gray matter density showed that the impact on the extent of chronicity of pain was localized to a common set of regions across all conditions. When gray matter density was examined for large regions approximating Brodmann areas, it exhibited unique large-scale distributed networks for each group. We derived a barcode, summarized by a single index of within-subject co-variation of gray matter density, which enabled classification of individual brains to their conditions with high accuracy. This index also enabled calculating time constants and asymptotic amplitudes for an exponential increase in brain re-organization with pain chronicity, and showed that brain reorganization with pain chronicity was 6 times slower and twice as large in CBP in comparison to CRPS. The results show an exuberance of brain anatomical reorganization peculiar to each condition and as such reflecting the unique maladaptive physiology of different types of chronic pain.

  17. Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Posthuma, D

    2006-01-01

    Variation in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume of the adult human brain is primarily genetically determined. Moreover, total brain volume is positively correlated with general intelligence, and both share a common genetic origin. However, although genetic effects on morphology...... of specific GM areas in the brain have been studied, the heritability of focal WM is unknown. Similarly, it is unresolved whether there is a common genetic origin of focal GM and WM structures with intelligence. We explored the genetic influence on focal GM and WM densities in magnetic resonance brain images...

  18. Effect of childhood maltreatment and brain-derived neurotrophic factor on brain morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, Laura S.; Schmaal, Lianne; Jansen, Rick; Milaneschi, Yuri; Opmeer, Esther M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with altered brain morphology, which may partly be due to a direct impact on neural growth, e.g. through the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway. Findings on CM, BDNF and brain volume are inconsistent and have never accounted for the

  19. Cannabis use disorders and brain morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzetti, V.; Cousijn, J.; Preedy, V.R.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) affect 13.1. million individuals worldwide and represent the most vulnerable portion of regular cannabis users. Neuroanatomical alterations in the brain may mediate the adverse outcomes of CUDs. We reviewed findings from 16 structural neuroimaging studies of gray matter

  20. Variant root morphology of third mandibular molar in normal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandibular third molar poses a challenge to dental surgeons due to it's unpredictable morphology which leads to increased difficulty during its extraction. The root morphology of the third molar is considered to be the most variable in the human dentition. The study aims to document these variations which will be useful ...

  1. Variant Root Morphology of Third Mandibular Molar in Normal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isaac kipyator

    2017-11-12

    Nov 12, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. The mandibular third molar poses a challenge to dental surgeons due to it's unpredictable morphology ... treatment in the School of Dental Sciences since 2010. ... mandibular third molar include presence of three.

  2. Subcortical Brain Morphology in Schizophrenia : Descriptive analysis based on MRI findings of subcortical brain volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Gunleiksrud, Sindre

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate magnetic resonance images (MR) from patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects for difference in brain morphology with focus on subcortical brain volumes. Method: The study compared fourteen subcortical brain structure volumes of 96 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=81) or schizoaffective disorder (n=15) with 106 healthy control subjects. Volume measures were obtained using voxel-based morphometry (FreeSurfer software suite) of ...

  3. 3-D brain image registration using optimal morphological processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncaric, S.; Dhawan, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) registration of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Positron Emission Tomographic (PET) images of the brain is important for analysis of the human brain and its diseases. A procedure for optimization of (3-D) morphological structuring elements, based on a genetic algorithm, is presented in the paper. The registration of the MR and PET images is done by means of a registration procedure in two major phases. In the first phase, the Iterative Principal Axis Transform (IPAR) is used for initial registration. In the second phase, the optimal shape description method based on the Morphological Signature Transform (MST) is used for final registration. The morphological processing is used to improve the accuracy of the basic IPAR method. The brain ventricle is used as a landmark for MST registration. A near-optimal structuring element obtained by means of a genetic algorithm is used in MST to describe the shape of the ventricle. The method has been tested on the set of brain images demonstrating the feasibility of approach. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

  4. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Hidemasa, E-mail: takaoh-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy.

  5. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy

  6. Do brain image databanks support understanding of normal ageing brain structure? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, David Alexander; Job, Dominic E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Poole, Ian; Ahearn, Trevor S.; Staff, Roger T.; Murray, Alison D.

    2012-01-01

    To document accessible magnetic resonance (MR) brain images, metadata and statistical results from normal older subjects that may be used to improve diagnoses of dementia. We systematically reviewed published brain image databanks (print literature and Internet) concerned with normal ageing brain structure. From nine eligible databanks, there appeared to be 944 normal subjects aged ≥60 years. However, many subjects were in more than one databank and not all were fully representative of normal ageing clinical characteristics. Therefore, there were approximately 343 subjects aged ≥60 years with metadata representative of normal ageing, but only 98 subjects were openly accessible. No databank had the range of MR image sequences, e.g. T2*, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), required to effectively characterise the features of brain ageing. No databank supported random subject retrieval; therefore, manual selection bias and errors may occur in studies that use these subjects as controls. Finally, no databank stored results from statistical analyses of its brain image and metadata that may be validated with analyses of further data. Brain image databanks require open access, more subjects, metadata, MR image sequences, searchability and statistical results to improve understanding of normal ageing brain structure and diagnoses of dementia. (orig.)

  7. Determinants of iron accumulation in the normal aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Gesierich, Benno; De Guio, François; Freudenberger, Paul; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Duchesnay, Edouard; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2016-07-01

    In a recent postmortem study, R2* relaxometry in gray matter (GM) of the brain has been validated as a noninvasive measure for iron content in brain tissue. Iron accumulation in the normal aging brain is a common finding and relates to brain maturation and degeneration. The goal of this study was to assess the determinants of iron accumulation during brain aging. The study cohort consisted of 314 healthy community-dwelling participants of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. Their age ranged from 38-82 years. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 3T and included R2* mapping, based on a 3D multi-echo gradient echo sequence. The median of R2* values was measured in all GM regions, which were segmented automatically using FreeSurfer. We investigated 25 possible determinants for cerebral iron deposition. These included demographics, brain volume, lifestyle factors, cerebrovascular risk factors, serum levels of iron, and single nucleotide polymorphisms related to iron regulating genes (rs1800562, rs3811647, rs1799945, and rs1049296). The body mass index (BMI) was significantly related to R2* in 15/32 analyzed brain regions with the strongest correlations found in the amygdala (p = 0.0091), medial temporal lobe (p = 0.0002), and hippocampus (p ≤ 0.0001). Further associations to R2* values were found in deep GM for age and smoking. No significant associations were found for gender, GM volume, serum levels of iron, or iron-associated genetic polymorphisms. In conclusion, besides age, the BMI and smoking are the only significant determinants of brain iron accumulation in normally aging subjects. Smoking relates to iron deposition in the basal ganglia, whereas higher BMI is associated with iron content in the neocortex following an Alzheimer-like distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Midbrain morphology reflects extent of brain damage in Krabbe disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Narayanan, Srikala; Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poe, Michele D.; Escolar, Maria L. [University of Pittsburgh, Program for the Study of Neurodevelopment in Rare Disorders, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    To study the relationships between midbrain morphology, Loes score, gross motor function, and cognitive function in infantile Krabbe disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were evaluated by two neuroradiologists blinded to clinical status and neurodevelopmental function of children with early or late infantile Krabbe disease. A simplified qualitative 3-point scoring system based on midbrain morphology on midsagittal MRI was used. A score of 0 represented normal convex morphology of the midbrain, a score of 1 represented flattening of the midbrain, and a score of 3 represented concave morphology of the midbrain (hummingbird sign). Spearman correlations were estimated between this simplified MRI scoring system and the Loes score, gross motor score, and cognitive score. Forty-two MRIs of 27 subjects were reviewed. Analysis of the 42 scans showed normal midbrain morphology in 3 (7.1 %) scans, midbrain flattening in 11 (26.2 %) scans, and concave midbrain morphology (hummingbird sign) in 28 (66.7 %) scans. Midbrain morphology scores were positively correlated with the Loes score (r = 0.81, p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with both gross motor and cognitive scores (r = -.84, p < 0.001; r = -0.87, p < 0.001, respectively). The inter-rater reliability for the midbrain morphology scale was κ =.95 (95 % CI: 0.86-1.0), and the inter-rater reliability for the Loes scale was κ =.58 (95 % CI: 0.42-0.73). Midbrain morphology scores of midsagittal MRI images correlates with cognition and gross motor function in children with Krabbe disease. This MRI scoring system represents a simple but reliable method to assess disease progression in patients with infantile Krabbe disease. (orig.)

  9. Midbrain morphology reflects extent of brain damage in Krabbe disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Narayanan, Srikala; Panigrahy, Ashok; Poe, Michele D.; Escolar, Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    To study the relationships between midbrain morphology, Loes score, gross motor function, and cognitive function in infantile Krabbe disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were evaluated by two neuroradiologists blinded to clinical status and neurodevelopmental function of children with early or late infantile Krabbe disease. A simplified qualitative 3-point scoring system based on midbrain morphology on midsagittal MRI was used. A score of 0 represented normal convex morphology of the midbrain, a score of 1 represented flattening of the midbrain, and a score of 3 represented concave morphology of the midbrain (hummingbird sign). Spearman correlations were estimated between this simplified MRI scoring system and the Loes score, gross motor score, and cognitive score. Forty-two MRIs of 27 subjects were reviewed. Analysis of the 42 scans showed normal midbrain morphology in 3 (7.1 %) scans, midbrain flattening in 11 (26.2 %) scans, and concave midbrain morphology (hummingbird sign) in 28 (66.7 %) scans. Midbrain morphology scores were positively correlated with the Loes score (r = 0.81, p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with both gross motor and cognitive scores (r = -.84, p < 0.001; r = -0.87, p < 0.001, respectively). The inter-rater reliability for the midbrain morphology scale was κ =.95 (95 % CI: 0.86-1.0), and the inter-rater reliability for the Loes scale was κ =.58 (95 % CI: 0.42-0.73). Midbrain morphology scores of midsagittal MRI images correlates with cognition and gross motor function in children with Krabbe disease. This MRI scoring system represents a simple but reliable method to assess disease progression in patients with infantile Krabbe disease. (orig.)

  10. Construction of Individual Morphological Brain Networks with Multiple Morphometric Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers have increased attentions to the morphological brain network, which is generally constructed by measuring the mathematical correlation across regions using a certain morphometric feature, such as regional cortical thickness and voxel intensity. However, cerebral structure can be characterized by various factors, such as regional volume, surface area, and curvature. Moreover, most of the morphological brain networks are population-based, which has limitations in the investigations of individual difference and clinical applications. Hence, we have extended previous studies by proposing a novel method for realizing the construction of an individual-based morphological brain network through a combination of multiple morphometric features. In particular, interregional connections are estimated using our newly introduced feature vectors, namely, the Pearson correlation coefficient of the concatenation of seven morphometric features. Experiments were performed on a healthy cohort of 55 subjects (24 males aged from 20 to 29 and 31 females aged from 20 to 28 each scanned twice, and reproducibility was evaluated through test–retest reliability. The robustness of morphometric features was measured firstly to select the more reproducible features to form the connectomes. Then the topological properties were analyzed and compared with previous reports of different modalities. Small-worldness was observed in all the subjects at the range of the entire network sparsity (20–40%, and configurations were comparable with previous findings at the sparsity of 23%. The spatial distributions of the hub were found to be significantly influenced by the individual variances, and the hubs obtained by averaging across subjects and sparsities showed correspondence with previous reports. The intraclass coefficient of graphic properties (clustering coefficient = 0.83, characteristic path length = 0.81, betweenness centrality = 0.78 indicates

  11. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Sanmiguel, Claudia P; Van Horn, John D; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42 morphological features, achieved 69

  13. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A.; Sanmiguel, Claudia P.; Van Horn, John D.; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    morphological features, achieved 69% accuracy in discriminating overweight from normal weight. In both brain signatures regions of the reward, salience, executive control and emotional arousal networks were associated with lower morphological values in overweight individuals compared to normal weight individuals, while the opposite pattern was seen for regions of the somatosensory network. Conclusions 1. An increased BMI (i.e., overweight subjects) is associated with distinct changes in gray-matter and fiber density of the brain. 2. Classification algorithms based on white-matter connectivity involving regions of the reward and associated networks can identify specific targets for mechanistic studies and future drug development aimed at abnormal ingestive behavior and in overweight/obesity. PMID:25737959

  14. D1 receptors regulate dendritic morphology in normal and stressed prelimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grant L; Borders, Candace B; Lundewall, Leslie J; Wellman, Cara L

    2015-01-01

    Both stress and dysfunction of prefrontal cortex are linked to psychological disorders, and structure and function of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are altered by stress. Chronic restraint stress causes dendritic retraction in the prelimbic region (PL) of mPFC in rats. Dopamine release in mPFC increases during stress, and chronic administration of dopaminergic agonists results in dendritic remodeling. Thus, stress-induced alterations in dopaminergic transmission in PL may contribute to dendritic remodeling. We examined the effects of dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) blockade in PL during daily restraint stress on dendritic morphology in PL. Rats either underwent daily restraint stress (3h/day, 10 days) or remained unstressed. In each group, rats received daily infusions of either the D1R antagonist SCH23390 or vehicle into PL prior to restraint; unstressed and stressed rats that had not undergone surgery were also examined. On the final day of restraint, rats were euthanized and brains were processed for Golgi histology. Pyramidal neurons in PL were reconstructed and dendritic morphology was quantified. Vehicle-infused stressed rats demonstrated dendritic retraction compared to unstressed rats, and D1R blockade in PL prevented this effect. Moreover, in unstressed rats, D1R blockade produced dendritic retraction. These effects were not due to attenuation of the HPA axis response to acute stress: plasma corticosterone levels in a separate group of rats that underwent acute restraint stress with or without D1R blockade were not significantly different. These findings indicate that dopaminergic transmission in mPFC during stress contributes directly to the stress-induced retraction of apical dendrites, while dopamine transmission in the absence of stress is important in maintaining normal dendritic morphology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Normalized regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Locatelli, Laura; Stival, Barbara; Bratina, Alessio; Nasuelli, Davide; Zorzon, Marino; Grop, Attilio; Brnabic-Razmilic, Ozana

    2003-01-01

    There is still a controversy regarding the best regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies. The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlate better with the MRI-defined regional brain lesions than the absolute measurements of regional brain atrophy. We assessed 45 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS (median disease duration 12 years), and measured T1-lesion load (LL) and T2-LL of frontal lobes and pons, using a reproducible semi-automated technique. The regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of frontal lobes and pons was obtained by use of a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semi-automated and automated segmentation processes. A normalized measurement, the regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF), was calculated as the ratio of RBPV to the total volume of the parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons. The total regional brain volume fraction (TRBVF) was obtained after we had corrected for the total volume of the parenchyma and the CSF in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons for the total intracranial volume. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for RBPF of the pons was 1% for intra-observer reproducibility and 1.4% for inter-observer reproducibility. Generally, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlated with regional brain volumes and disability better than did the absolute measurements. RBPF and TRBVF correlated with T2-LL of the pons (r=-0.37, P=0.011, and r= -0.40, P=0.0005 respectively) and with T1-LL of the pons (r=-0.27, P=0.046, and r=-0.31, P=0.04, respectively), whereas RBPV did not (r=-0.18, P = NS). T1-LL of the frontal lobes was related to RBPF (r=-0.32, P=0.033) and TRBVF (r=-0.29, P=0.05), but not to RBPV (R=-0.27, P= NS). There was only a trend of correlation between T2-LL of the frontal lobes and

  16. Neonatal Brain Tissue Classification with Morphological Adaptation and Unified Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eBeare

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the distribution of brain tissue types (tissue classification in neonates is necessary for studying typical and atypical brain development, such as that associated with preterm birth, and may provide biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Compared with magnetic resonance images of adults, neonatal images present specific challenges that require the development of specialized, population-specific methods. This paper introduces MANTiS (Morphologically Adaptive Neonatal Tissue Segmentation, which extends the unified segmentation approach to tissue classification implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM software to neonates. MANTiS utilizes a combination of unified segmentation, template adaptation via morphological segmentation tools and topological filtering, to segment the neonatal brain into eight tissue classes: cortical gray matter, white matter, deep nuclear gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, hippocampus and amygdala. We evaluated the performance of MANTiS using two independent datasets. The first dataset, provided by the NeoBrainS12 challenge, consisted of coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born ≤30 weeks’ gestation acquired at 30 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5, coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5 and axial T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5. The second dataset, provided by the Washington University NeuroDevelopmental Research (WUNDeR group, consisted of T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born <30 weeks’ gestation acquired shortly after birth (n= 12, preterm infants acquired at term-equivalent age (n= 12, and healthy term-born infants (born ≥38 weeks’ gestation acquired within the first nine days of life (n= 12. For the NeoBrainS12 dataset, mean Dice scores comparing MANTiS with manual segmentations were all above 0.7, except for

  17. Diffusion-weighted imaging in normal fetal brain maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F. [University Children' s Hospital UKBB, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Confort-Gouny, S.; Le Fur, Y.; Viout, P.; Cozzone, P. [UMR-CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, Marseille (France); Bennathan, M.; Chapon, F.; Fogliarini, C.; Girard, N. [Universite de la Mediterranee, Department of Neuroradiology AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France)

    2007-09-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides information about tissue maturation not seen on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolution over time of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of normal fetal brain in utero. DWI was performed on 78 fetuses, ranging from 23 to 37 gestational weeks (GW). All children showed at follow-up a normal neurological evaluation. ADC values were obtained in the deep white matter (DWM) of the centrum semiovale, the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobe, in the cerebellar hemisphere, the brainstem, the basal ganglia (BG) and the thalamus. Mean ADC values in supratentorial DWM areas (1.68 {+-} 0.05 mm{sup 2}/s) were higher compared with the cerebellar hemisphere (1.25 {+-} 0.06 mm{sup 2}/s) and lowest in the pons (1.11 {+-} 0.05 mm{sup 2}/s). Thalamus and BG showed intermediate values (1.25 {+-} 0.04 mm{sup 2}/s). Brainstem, cerebellar hemisphere and thalamus showed a linear negative correlation with gestational age. Supratentorial areas revealed an increase in ADC values, followed by a decrease after the 30th GW. This study provides a normative data set that allows insights in the normal fetal brain maturation in utero, which has not yet been observed in previous studies on premature babies. (orig.)

  18. Normal lactate concentration range in the neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Moyoko; Aida, Noriko; Shibasaki, Jun; Tachibana, Yasuhiko; Endo, Mamiko; Nozawa, Kumiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki

    2016-11-01

    Lactate peaks are occasionally observed during in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) scans of the neonatal brain, even in healthy patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of neonatal brain lactate concentration, as a definitive normal range would be clinically valuable. Using a clinical 3T scanner (echo/repetition times, 30/5000ms), single-voxel MRS data were obtained from the basal ganglia (BG) and centrum semiovale (CS) in 48 healthy neonates (postconceptional age (PCA), 30-43weeks), nine infants (age, 1-12months old), and 20 children (age, 4-15years). Lactate concentrations were calculated using an MRS signal quantification program, LCModel. Correlations between regional lactate concentration and PCA (neonates), or age (all subjects) were investigated. Absolute lactate concentrations of the BG and CS were as follows: neonates, 0.77mM (0-2.02) [median (range)] and 0.77 (0-1.42), respectively; infants, 0.38 (0-0.79) and 0.49 (0.17-1.17); and children, 0.17 (0-0.76) and 0.22 (0-0.80). Overall, subjects' lactate concentrations decreased significantly with age (Spearman: BG, n=61, ρ=-0.38, p=0.003; CS, n=68, ρ=-0.57, p<0.001). However, during the neonatal period no correlations were detected between lactate concentration in either region and PCA. We determined normal ranges of neonatal lactate concentration, which may prove useful for diagnostic purposes. Further studies regarding changes in brain lactate concentration during development would help clarify the reasons for higher concentrations observed during the neonatal period, and contribute to improvements in diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Autonomic and Brain Morphological Predictors of Stress Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Carnevali

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Stressful life events are an important cause of psychopathology. Humans exposed to aversive or stressful experiences show considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in their responses. However, the majority does not develop stress-related psychiatric disorders. The dynamic processes encompassing positive and functional adaptation in the face of significant adversity have been broadly defined as resilience. Traditionally, the assessment of resilience has been confined to self-report measures, both within the general community and putative high-risk populations. Although this approach has value, it is highly susceptible to subjective bias and may not capture the dynamic nature of resilience, as underlying construct. Recognizing the obvious benefits of more objective measures of resilience, research in the field has just started investigating the predictive value of several potential biological markers. This review provides an overview of theoretical views and empirical evidence suggesting that individual differences in heart rate variability (HRV, a surrogate index of resting cardiac vagal outflow, may underlie different levels of resilience toward the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Following this line of thought, recent studies describing associations between regional brain morphometric characteristics and resting state vagally-mediated HRV are summarized. Existing studies suggest that the structural morphology of the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC, particularly its cortical thickness, is implicated in the expression of individual differences in HRV. These findings are discussed in light of emerging structural neuroimaging research, linking morphological characteristics of the ACC to psychological traits ascribed to a high-resilient profile and abnormal structural integrity of the ACC to the psychophysiological expression of stress-related mental health consequences. We conclude that a multidisciplinary approach

  20. MRS of normal and impaired fetal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Nadine; Fogliarini, Celine; Viola, Angele; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Le Fur, Yann; Viout, Patrick; Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Cozzone, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral maturation in the human fetal brain was investigated by in utero localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Spectra were acquired on a clinical MR system operating at 1.5 T. Body phased array coils (four coils) were used in combination with spinal coils (two coils). The size of the nominal volume of interest (VOI) was 4.5 cm 3 (20 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm). The MRS acquisitions were performed using a spin echo sequence at short and long echo times (TE = 30 ms and 135 ms) with a VOI located within the cerebral hemisphere at the level of the centrum semiovale. A significant reduction in myo-inositol and choline and an increase in N-acetylaspartate were observed with progressive age. The normal MR spectroscopy data reported here will help to determine whether brain metabolism is altered, especially when subtle anatomic changes are observed on conventional images. Some examples of impaired fetal brain development studied by MRS are illustrated

  1. MRS of normal and impaired fetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine [Service de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Hopital la Timone, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France)]. E-mail: nadine.girard@ap-hm.fr; Fogliarini, Celine [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Viola, Angele [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Confort-Gouny, Sylviane [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Le Fur, Yann [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Viout, Patrick [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Chapon, Frederique [Service de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Hopital la Timone, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France); Levrier, Olivier [Service de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Hopital la Timone, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France); Cozzone, Patrick [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France)

    2006-02-15

    Cerebral maturation in the human fetal brain was investigated by in utero localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Spectra were acquired on a clinical MR system operating at 1.5 T. Body phased array coils (four coils) were used in combination with spinal coils (two coils). The size of the nominal volume of interest (VOI) was 4.5 cm{sup 3} (20 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm). The MRS acquisitions were performed using a spin echo sequence at short and long echo times (TE = 30 ms and 135 ms) with a VOI located within the cerebral hemisphere at the level of the centrum semiovale. A significant reduction in myo-inositol and choline and an increase in N-acetylaspartate were observed with progressive age. The normal MR spectroscopy data reported here will help to determine whether brain metabolism is altered, especially when subtle anatomic changes are observed on conventional images. Some examples of impaired fetal brain development studied by MRS are illustrated.

  2. Sex differences in normal age trajectories of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Shen, Xilin; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hampson, Michelle; Constable, R Todd

    2015-04-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance image (rs-fMRI) is increasingly used to study functional brain networks. Nevertheless, variability in these networks due to factors such as sex and aging is not fully understood. This study explored sex differences in normal age trajectories of resting-state networks (RSNs) using a novel voxel-wise measure of functional connectivity, the intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD). Males and females showed differential patterns of changing connectivity in large-scale RSNs during normal aging from early adulthood to late middle-age. In some networks, such as the default-mode network, males and females both showed decreases in connectivity with age, albeit at different rates. In other networks, such as the fronto-parietal network, males and females showed divergent connectivity trajectories with age. Main effects of sex and age were found in many of the same regions showing sex-related differences in aging. Finally, these sex differences in aging trajectories were robust to choice of preprocessing strategy, such as global signal regression. Our findings resolve some discrepancies in the literature, especially with respect to the trajectory of connectivity in the default mode, which can be explained by our observed interactions between sex and aging. Overall, results indicate that RSNs show different aging trajectories for males and females. Characterizing effects of sex and age on RSNs are critical first steps in understanding the functional organization of the human brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. SPET brain perfusion imaging in mild traumatic brain injury without loss of consciousness and normal computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Judeh, H H; Parker, R; Singh, M; el-Zeftawy, H; Atay, S; Kumar, M; Naddaf, S; Aleksic, S; Abdel-Dayem, H M

    1999-06-01

    We present SPET brain perfusion findings in 32 patients who suffered mild traumatic brain injury without loss of consciousness and normal computed tomography. None of the patients had previous traumatic brain injury, CVA, HIV, psychiatric disorders or a history of alcohol or drug abuse. Their ages ranged from 11 to 61 years (mean = 42). The study was performed in 20 patients (62%) within 3 months of the date of injury and in 12 (38%) patients more than 3 months post-injury. Nineteen patients (60%) were involved in a motor vehicle accident, 10 patients (31%) sustained a fall and three patients (9%) received a blow to the head. The most common complaints were headaches in 26 patients (81%), memory deficits in 15 (47%), dizziness in 13 (41%) and sleep disorders in eight (25%). The studies were acquired approximately 2 h after an intravenous injection of 740 MBq (20.0 mCi) of 99Tcm-HMPAO. All images were acquired on a triple-headed gamma camera. The data were displayed on a 10-grade colour scale, with 2-pixel thickness (7.4 mm), and were reviewed blind to the patient's history of symptoms. The cerebellum was used as the reference site (100% maximum value). Any decrease in cerebral perfusion in the cortex or basal ganglia less than 70%, or less than 50% in the medial temporal lobe, compared to the cerebellar reference was considered abnormal. The results show that 13 (41%) had normal studies and 19 (59%) were abnormal (13 studies performed within 3 months of the date of injury and six studies performed more than 3 months post-injury). Analysis of the abnormal studies revealed that 17 showed 48 focal lesions and two showed diffuse supratentorial hypoperfusion (one from each of the early and delayed imaging groups). The 12 abnormal studies performed early had 37 focal lesions and averaged 3.1 lesions per patient, whereas there was a reduction to--an average of 2.2 lesions per patient in the five studies (total 11 lesions) performed more than 3 months post-injury. In the

  4. Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Posthuma, D

    2006-01-01

    the focal GM and WM densities of each twin are correlated with the psychometric intelligence quotient of his/her cotwin. Genes influenced individual differences in left and right superior occipitofrontal fascicle (heritability up to 0.79 and 0.77), corpus callosum (0.82, 0.80), optic radiation (0.69, 0.......79), corticospinal tract (0.78, 0.79), medial frontal cortex (0.78, 0.83), superior frontal cortex (0.76, 0.80), superior temporal cortex (0.80, 0.77), left occipital cortex (0.85), left postcentral cortex (0.83), left posterior cingulate cortex (0.83), right parahippocampal cortex (0.69), and amygdala (0.80, 0......Variation in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume of the adult human brain is primarily genetically determined. Moreover, total brain volume is positively correlated with general intelligence, and both share a common genetic origin. However, although genetic effects on morphology...

  5. Different methods of measuring ADC values in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Youping; Sheng Junkang; Zhang Caiyuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate better method of measuring ADC values of normal brain, and provide reference for further research. Methods: Twenty healthy people's MR imaging were reviewed. All of them underwent routine MRI scans and echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and ADC maps were reconstructed on work station. Six regions of interest (ROI) were selected for each object, the mean ADC values were obtained for each position on DWI and ADC maps respectively. Results: On the anisotropic DWI map calculated in the hypothalamus, ADC M , ADC P , ADC S values were no significant difference (P>0.05), in the frontal white matter and internal capsule hindlimb, there was a significant difference (P ave value exist significant difference to direct measurement on the anisotropic (isotropic) ADC map (P<0.001). Conclusion: Diffusion of water in the frontal white matter and internal capsule are anisotropic, but it is isotropic in the hypothalamus; different quantitative methods of diffusion measurement of 4ADC values have significant difference, but ADC values calculated through the DWI map is more accurate, quantitative diffusion study of brain tissue should also consider the diffusion measurement method. (authors)

  6. Relative brain size and morphology of some South African bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures of relative brain size and brain macromorphology are described for four species of Microchiroptera, two from the Vespertilionidae and two from the Rhinolophidae, and two species from the Pteropodidae (Megachiroptera). Four brain parameters (brain length, hemisphere length, brain width and brain height) were ...

  7. Physical activity, fitness, glucose homeostasis, and brain morphology in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Niskanen, Eini; Aaltonen, Sari; Mutikainen, Sara; Wikgren, Jan; Heikkilä, Kauko; Kovanen, Vuokko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tarkka, Ina M; Kujala, Urho M

    2015-03-01

    The main aim of the present study (FITFATTWIN) was to investigate how physical activity level is associated with body composition, glucose homeostasis, and brain morphology in young adult male monozygotic twin pairs discordant for physical activity. From a population-based twin cohort, we systematically selected 10 young adult male monozygotic twin pairs (age range, 32-36 yr) discordant for leisure time physical activity during the past 3 yr. On the basis of interviews, we calculated a mean sum index for leisure time and commuting activity during the past 3 yr (3-yr LTMET index expressed as MET-hours per day). We conducted extensive measurements on body composition (including fat percentage measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), glucose homeostasis including homeostatic model assessment index and insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda index, calculated from glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test), and whole brain magnetic resonance imaging for regional volumetric analyses. According to pairwise analysis, the active twins had lower body fat percentage (P = 0.029) and homeostatic model assessment index (P = 0.031) and higher Matsuda index (P = 0.021) compared with their inactive co-twins. Striatal and prefrontal cortex (subgyral and inferior frontal gyrus) brain gray matter volumes were larger in the nondominant hemisphere in active twins compared with those in inactive co-twins, with a statistical threshold of P physical activity is associated with improved glucose homeostasis and modulation of striatum and prefrontal cortex gray matter volume, independent of genetic background. The findings may contribute to later reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and mobility limitations.

  8. The relationship between brain morphology and polysomnography in healthy good sleepers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias A Reinhard

    Full Text Available Normal sleep continuity and architecture show remarkable inter-individual variability. Previous studies suggest that brain morphology may explain inter-individual differences in sleep variables.Thirty-eight healthy subjects spent two consecutive nights at the sleep laboratory with polysomnographic monitoring. Furthermore, high-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were acquired in all participants. EEG sleep recordings were analyzed using standard sleep staging criteria and power spectral analysis. Using the FreeSurfer software for automated segmentation, 174 variables were determined representing the volume and thickness of cortical segments and the volume of subcortical brain areas. Regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship with polysomnographic and spectral EEG power variables.The analysis did not provide any support for the a-priori formulated hypotheses of an association between brain morphology and polysomnographic variables. Exploratory analyses revealed that the thickness of the left caudal anterior cingulate cortex was positively associated with EEG beta2 power (24-32 Hz during REM sleep. The volume of the left postcentral gyrus was positively associated with periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS.The function of the anterior cingulate cortex as well as EEG beta power during REM sleep have been related to dreaming and sleep-related memory consolidation, which may explain the observed correlation. Increased volumes of the postcentral gyrus may be the result of increased sensory input associated with PLMS. However, due to the exploratory nature of the corresponding analyses, these results have to be replicated before drawing firm conclusions.

  9. Polycystic ovarian morphology in normal women does not predict the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M K; Hall, J E; Adams, J M; Lee, H; Welt, C K

    2006-10-01

    Polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) is present in 25% of normal women in the absence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); however, the natural history of PCOM is unknown. We hypothesized that the presence of PCOM predisposes the development of PCOS. The study was a longitudinal follow-up study over 8.2 +/- 5.2 yr (mean +/- sd; range 1.7-17.5 yr). The study took place in an outpatient setting. Women who took part in a previous study as a normal control and had an ultrasound examination (n = 40) participated. Subjects underwent an interval menstrual history, physical exam, blood sampling, and repeat ultrasound in the follicular phase. Development of PCOS was diagnosed by irregular menses and hyperandrogenism, in the absence of other disorders. Changes in ovarian morphology over time were evaluated. At the baseline visit, 23 women (57.5%) had PCOM and 17 (42.5%) had normal ovarian morphology. One subject with PCOM developed irregular menses and presumptive PCOS. Eleven subjects with PCOM no longer met the criteria for PCOM at follow-up. There was no factor that predicted the change to normal ovarian morphology at the follow-up visit. These data suggest that PCOM in women with regular ovulatory cycles does not commonly predispose the development of PCOS. Although it is unusual to develop PCOM if the ovaries are normal on first assessment, ovaries in women with PCOM no longer meet the criteria for PCOM in approximately half of cases over time.

  10. Performance of brain-damaged, schizophrenic, and normal subjects on a visual searching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, G; Kyc, F

    1978-06-01

    Goldstein, Rennick, Welch, and Shelly (1973) reported on a visual searching task that generated 94.1% correct classifications when comparing brain-damaged and normal subjects, and 79.4% correct classifications when comparing brain-damaged and psychiatric patients. In the present study, representing a partial cross-validation with some modification of the test procedure, comparisons were made between brain-damaged and schizophrenic, and brain-damaged and normal subjects. There were 92.5% correct classifications for the brain-damaged vs normal comparison, and 82.5% correct classifications for the brain-damaged vs schizophrenic comparison.

  11. Finite element based nonlinear normalization of human lumbar intervertebral disc stiffness to account for its morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquer, Ghislain; Laurent, Marc; Brandejsky, Vaclav; Pretterklieber, Michael L; Zysset, Philippe K

    2014-06-01

    Disc degeneration, usually associated with low back pain and changes of intervertebral stiffness, represents a major health issue. As the intervertebral disc (IVD) morphology influences its stiffness, the link between mechanical properties and degenerative grade is partially lost without an efficient normalization of the stiffness with respect to the morphology. Moreover, although the behavior of soft tissues is highly nonlinear, only linear normalization protocols have been defined so far for the disc stiffness. Thus, the aim of this work is to propose a nonlinear normalization based on finite elements (FE) simulations and evaluate its impact on the stiffness of human anatomical specimens of lumbar IVD. First, a parameter study involving simulations of biomechanical tests (compression, flexion/extension, bilateral torsion and bending) on 20 FE models of IVDs with various dimensions was carried out to evaluate the effect of the disc's geometry on its compliance and establish stiffness/morphology relations necessary to the nonlinear normalization. The computed stiffness was then normalized by height (H), cross-sectional area (CSA), polar moment of inertia (J) or moments of inertia (Ixx, Iyy) to quantify the effect of both linear and nonlinear normalizations. In the second part of the study, T1-weighted MRI images were acquired to determine H, CSA, J, Ixx and Iyy of 14 human lumbar IVDs. Based on the measured morphology and pre-established relation with stiffness, linear and nonlinear normalization routines were then applied to the compliance of the specimens for each quasi-static biomechanical test. The variability of the stiffness prior to and after normalization was assessed via coefficient of variation (CV). The FE study confirmed that larger and thinner IVDs were stiffer while the normalization strongly attenuated the effect of the disc geometry on its stiffness. Yet, notwithstanding the results of the FE study, the experimental stiffness showed consistently

  12. Correlation of glucose metabolism in brain cells and brain morphological changes with clinical typing in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiongxiang Zhai; Huixian Qiao; Jiqing Liu

    2006-01-01

    palsy with PET image. RESULTS:All 31 children were involved in the final analysis.No one was dropped out in this study.①Analytic results of glucose metabolism in brain cells:Glucose metabolism of 28 children was abnormal,and the abnormal rate was 90%.The symptoms of glucose metabolism were as the same as those of hypometabolism.A total of 13 cases had multi-focal abnormality,8 mono-focal abnormality,7 glucose-diffused abnormality.and 3 normality.②Correlation between MRI examination and abnormal degree of PET imagling:Three cases had normal PET imagling but abnormal MRI examination. Among children with mono-focal abnormality of PET imagling,2 had brain atrophy,3 poor brain white matter,5 encephalomalacia focus, 1 hydrocephalus.and 1 normality.Among children with multi-focal abnormality of PET imagling,3 had brain atrophy,4 poor brain white matter,5 encephaiomalacia focus,and 1 hydrocephalus.Among children with glucose-diffused abnormality of PET imagling,3 had brain atrophy,2 poor brain white matter,1 hydrocephalus,and 1 nor mality.There were significant differences between various groups of MRI abnormality and abnormal degree of PET imagling(P<0.01),and brain atrophy was the main symptom.③Correlation between vanous types of cerebral palsy and abnormal degree of PET imagling:Among 10 children with cerebral palsy,one case had normal PET imagling,2 mono-focal abnormality,4 multi-focal abnormality,and 3 diffused abnormality.Among 13 children with cerebral palsy of mixed type.there wer 1,4,6 and 2 cases with normal and abnormal PEI imagling,respectively.Among 4 children with cerebral palsy of gradual-movement type,there were 0,1,2 and 1 cases with normal and abnormal PET imagling,respectively.Among 4 children with cerebrel palsy of ataxia,there was 1 and 1 case with normal and abnormal PET imaging,respectively.There were significant differences between various types of cerebral palsy and abnormal degree of PET imagling(P<0.01),and spasm and mixed types were obvious

  13. Morphology and epidermal thickness of normal skin imaged by optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Morsy, Hanan A.; Thrane, Lars

    2008-01-01

    colour. Methods: OCT imaging is based on infrared light reflection/backscatter from tissue. PS-OCT detects birefringence of tissue. Imaging was performed in 12 skin regions. ET was calculated from the OCT images. Results: Normal skin has a layered structure. Layering is less pronounced in adults......Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technology with a potential in the non-invasive diagnosis of skin cancer. To identify skin pathologies using OCT, it is of prime importance to establish baseline morphological features of normal skin. Aims: The aim of this study...... is to describe normal skin morphology using OCT and polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT), which is a way of representing birefringent tissue such as collagen in OCT images. Anatomical locations in 20 healthy volunteers were imaged, and epidermal thickness (ET) was measured and compared to age, gender and skin...

  14. Brain connectivity in normally developing children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Lewis, John D; Zhao, Lu; Chouinard-Decorte, François; Evans, Alan C

    2016-07-01

    The developing human brain undergoes an astonishing sequence of events that continuously shape the structural and functional brain connectivity. Distinct regional variations in the timelines of maturational events (synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning) occurring at the synaptic level are reflected in brain measures at macroscopic resolution (cortical thickness and gray matter density). Interestingly, the observed brain changes coincide with cognitive milestones suggesting that the changing scaffold of brain circuits may subserve cognitive development. Recent advances in connectivity analysis propelled by graph theory have allowed, on one hand, the investigation of maturational changes in global organization of structural and functional brain networks; and on the other hand, the exploration of specific networks within the context of global brain networks. An emerging picture from several connectivity studies is a system-level rewiring that constantly refines the connectivity of the developing brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Early radiation changes of normal dog brain following internal and external brain irradiation: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, H.; Maruyama, Y.; Markesbery, W.; Goldstein, S.; Wang, P.; Tibbs, P.; Young, B.; Feola, J.; Beach, L.

    1984-01-01

    To examine radiation-induced changes in the normal brain, internal or external radiation was given to normal dog brain. Seven medium-sized dogs were used in this study. Two dogs were controls and an ice-pick (plastic implant applicator) was placed in the right frontal lobe for about 5 hours but no irradiation. Two dogs underwent Cs-137 brain implantation for 4 and 5 hours, respectively using an ice-pick technique. Two dogs were given internal neutron irradiation using the same technique of intracerebral ice-pick brachytherapy. One dog received an external photon irradiation using 6-Mev Linear Accelerator. Postmortem microscopic examination was made to study the early cerebral changes to irradiation in three dogs: one control with no irradiation; one received intracerebral Cesium implantation; and one external photon irradiation. Vascular change was the most prominent microscopic finding. There were hemorrhage, endothelial proliferation and fibrinoid changes of small vessel wall. Most of the changes were localized in the white matter and the cortex remained intact. Details (CT, NMR and histological studies) are discussed

  16. Thermal dosimetry studies of ultrasonically induced hyperthermia in normal dog brain and in experimental brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britt, R.H.; Pounds, D.W.; Stuart, J.S.; Lyons, B.E.; Saxer, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    In a series of 16 acute experiments on pentobarbital anesthetized dogs, thermal distributions generated by ultrasonic heating using a 1 MHz PZT transducer were compared with intensity distributions mapped in a test tank. Relatively flat distributions from 1 to 3 cm have been mapped in normal dog brain using ''shaped'' intensity distributions generated from ultrasonic emission patterns which are formed by the interaction between compressional, transverse and flexural modes activated within the crystal. In contrast, these same intensity distributions generated marked temperature variations in 3 malignant brain tumors presumably due to variations in tumor blood flow. The results of this study suggest that a practical clinical system for uniform heating of large tumor volumes with varying volumes and geometries is not an achievable goal. The author's laboratory is developing a scanning ultrasonic rapid hyperthermia treatment system which will be able to sequentially heat small volume of tumor tissue either to temperatures which will sterilize tumor or to a more conventional thermal dose. Time-temperature studies of threshold for thermal damage in normal dog brain are currently in progress

  17. Morphology of ductile metals eroded by a jet of spherical particles impinging at normal incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadra Rao, P.; Young, S. G.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are used, together with surface profile measurements, in the present morphological study of the erosion of an aluminum alloy and copper by the normal impact of spherical glass erodent particles. The morphology of the damage pattern is a manifestation of the flow pattern of erodent particles, and yields insight into the mechanisms that may be active at different stages of erosion. The simultaneous appearance of radial cracks and concentric rings is reported, together with wave crests which contain an accumulation of metallic flakes. A preliminary analysis is advanced to explain the formation of the various damage patterns observed.

  18. Expression and relevant research of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in differentgrades of brain glioma and normal brain tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Fei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore and analyze expression and relevant research of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in different grades of brain glioma and normal brain tissues. Methods: 52 cases of patients with brain glioma treated in our hospital from December 2013 to December 2014, and 50 cases of normal brain-tissue patients with intracranial hypertension were selected, and proceeding test to the surgical resection of brain tissue of the above patients to determine its MGMT and XRCC1 protein content, sequentially to record the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 of both groups. Grading of tumors to brain glioma after operation was carried out, and the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in brain tissues of different patients was analyzed and compared;finally the contingency tables of X2 test was used to analyze the correlation of XRCC1and MGMT. Results:Positive rate of MGMT expression in normal brain tissue was 2%,while positive rate of MGMT expression in brain glioma was 46.2%,which was obviously higher than that in normal brain tissues (χ2=26.85, P0.05), which had no statistical significance. There were 12 cases of patients whose MGMT protein expression was positive and XRCC1 protein expression was positive; there were 18 cases of patients whose MGMT protein expression was negative and XRCC1 protein expression was negative. Contingency tables of X2 test was used to analyze the correlation of XRCC1 and MGMT, which indicated that the expression of XRCCI and MGMT in brain glioma had no correlation (r=0.9%, P=0.353), relevancy of both was r=0.9%. Conclusions: Positive rate of the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 in brain glioma was obviously higher than that in normal brain tissues, but the distribution of different grades of brain glioma had no obvious difference, and MGMT and XRCC1 expression had no obvious correlation, which needed further research.

  19. Microstructure, length, and connection of limbic tracts in normal human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaowen eYu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cingulum and fornix play an important role in memory, attention, spatial orientation and feeling functions. Both microstructure and length of these limbic tracts can be affected by mental disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, autism, anxiety, and schizophrenia. To date, there has been little systematic characterization of their microstructure, length and functional connectivity in normally developing brains. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI data from 65 normally developing right-handed subjects from birth to young adulthood was acquired. After cingulate gyrus part of the cingulum (cgc, hippocampal part of the cingulum (cgh and fornix (fx were traced with DTI tractography, absolute and normalized tract lengths and DTI-derived metrics including fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity were measured for traced limbic tracts. Free water elimination (FWE algorithm was adopted to improve accuracy of the measurements of DTI-derived metrics. The role of these limbic tracts in the functional network at birth and adulthood was explored. We found a logarithmic age-dependent trajectory for FWE-corrected DTI metric changes with fast increase of microstructural integrity from birth to 2-year-old followed by a slow increase to 25-year-old. Normalized tract length of cgc increases with age, while no significant relationship with age was found for normalized tract lengths of cgh and fx. Stronger microstructural integrity on the left side compared to that of right side was found. With integrated DTI and rs-fMRI, the key connectional role of cgc and cgh in the default mode network (DMN was confirmed as early as birth. Systematic characterization of length and DTI metrics after FWE correction of limbic tracts offers insight into their morphological and microstructural developmental trajectories. These trajectories may serve as a normal reference for pediatric patients with

  20. The morphological classification of normal and abnormal red blood cell using Self Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Wulandari, F. S.; Faza, S.; Muchtar, M. A.; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Blood is an essential component of living creatures in the vascular space. For possible disease identification, it can be tested through a blood test, one of which can be seen from the form of red blood cells. The normal and abnormal morphology of the red blood cells of a patient is very helpful to doctors in detecting a disease. With the advancement of digital image processing technology can be used to identify normal and abnormal blood cells of a patient. This research used self-organizing map method to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the digital image. The use of self-organizing map neural network method can be implemented to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the input image with 93,78% accuracy testing.

  1. Palatal shelf epithelium: a morphologic and histochemical study in X-irradiated and normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartner, L.P.; Hiatt, J.L.; Provenza, D.V.

    1978-01-01

    The palatal shelf epithelium of normal and irradiated mice was examined morphologically and histochemically, utilizing the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) technique for the demonstration of the basement membrane and the Nitro BT method for succinate dehydrogenase activity in order to demonstrate the metabolic competence of its cells. The 'programmed cell death theory' was not supported by the present investigation, since the cells of the medial ridge epithelium retained their structural and metabolic integrity even subsequent to the formation of cell nests. Additionally, the medial ridge epithelium of mice with radiation-induced cleft palates demonstrated normal structural and metabolic integrity long past the prospective time of fusion. (author)

  2. Sentiment Classification of Documents in Serbian: The Effects of Morphological Normalization and Word Embeddings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Batanović

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An open issue in the sentiment classification of texts written in Serbian is the effect of different forms of morphological normalization and the usefulness of leveraging large amounts of unlabeled texts. In this paper, we assess the impact of lemmatizers and stemmers for Serbian on classifiers trained and evaluated on the Serbian Movie Review Dataset. We also consider the effectiveness of using word embeddings, generated from a large unlabeled corpus, as classification features.

  3. Hemispherical dominance of glucose metabolic rate in the brain of the 'normal' ageing population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutts, DA; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL; Spyrou, NM

    2004-01-01

    In the 'normal' ageing brain a decrease in the cerebral metabolic rate has been determined across many brain regions. This study determines whether age differences would affect metabolic rates in regions and different hemispheres of the brain. The regional metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGlu) was

  4. What is ''normal aging brain for his/her age'' ? The first report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kinomura, Shigeo; Goto, Ryoi

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the correlations between the gray matter volume, white matter volume and age, and determined normal aging brain for his/her age in every decade. We analyzed magnetic resonance images of the brain from 828 normal Japanese subjects. Significant negative correlation between the gray matter ratio (ratio of the gray matter volume in intracranial volume) and age was shown. From these results, we determined ''normal aging brain for his/her age'' and ''atrophied brain for his/her age'' in every decade. (author)

  5. Magnetic resonance elastography in normal human brain: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lei; Gao Peiyi; Lin Yan; Han Jiancheng; Xi Zhinong; Shen Hao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the application of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in the human brain. Methods: An external force actuator was developed. The actuator was fixed to the head coil. During MRE scan, one side of the actuator was attached to the volunteers' head. Low frequency oscillation was produced by the actuator and generated shear waves propagating into brain tissue. The pulse sequence of MRE was designed. A modified gradient echo sequence was developed with motion sensitizing gradient (MSG) imposed along X, Y or Z direction. Cyclic displacement within brain tissue induced by shear waves caused a measurable phase shift in the received MR signal. From the measured phase shift, the displacement at each voxel could be calculated, and the shear waves within the brain were directly imaged. By adjusting the phase offset, the dynamic propagation of shear waves in a wave cycle was obtained. Phase images were processed with local frequency estimation (LFE) technique to obtain the elasticity images. Shear waves at 100 Hz, 150 Hz, and 200 Hz were applied. Results: The phase images of MRE directly imaged the propagating shear waves within the brain. The direction of the propagation was from surface of the brain to the center. The wavelength of shear waves varied with the change of actuating frequency. The change of wavelength of shear waves in gray and white matter of the brain was identified. The wavelength of shear waves in gray matter was shorter than that in white matter. The elasticity image of the brain revealed that the shear modulus of the white matter was higher than that of gray matter. Conclusion: The phase images of MRE can directly visualize the propagation of shear waves in the brain tissue. The elasticity image of the brain can demonstrate the change of elasticity between gray and white matter. (authors)

  6. Efficacy of hyaluronic acid binding assay in selecting motile spermatozoa with normal morphology at high magnification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Ana L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hyaluronic acid (HA binding assay in the selection of motile spermatozoa with normal morphology at high magnification (8400x. Methods A total of 16592 prepared spermatozoa were selected and classified into two groups: Group I, spermatozoa which presented their head attached to an HA substance (HA-bound sperm, and Group II, those spermatozoa that did not attach to the HA substance (HA-unbound sperm. HA-bound and HA-unbound spermatozoa were evaluated according to the following sperm forms: 1-Normal morphology: normal nucleus (smooth, symmetric and oval configuration, length: 4.75+/-2.8 μm and width: 3.28+/-0.20 μm, no extrusion or invagination and no vacuoles occupied more than 4% of the nuclear area as well as acrosome, post-acrosomal lamina, neck, tail, besides not presenting a cytoplasmic droplet or cytoplasm around the head; 2-Abnormalities of nuclear form (a-Large/small; b-Wide/narrow; c-Regional disorder; 3-Abnormalities of nuclear chromatin content (a-Vacuoles: occupy >4% to 50% of the nuclear area and b-Large vacuoles: occupy >50% of the nuclear area using a high magnification (8400x microscopy system. Results No significant differences were obtained with respect to sperm morphological forms and the groups HA-bound and HA-unbound. 1-Normal morphology: HA-bound 2.7% and HA-unbound 2.5% (P = 0.56. 2-Abnormalities of nuclear form: a-Large/small: HA-bound 1.6% vs. HA-unbound 1.6% (P = 0.63; b-Wide/narrow: HA-bound 3.1% vs. HA-unbound 2.7% (P = 0.13; c-Regional disorders: HA-bound 4.7% vs. HA-unbound 4.4% (P = 0.34. 3. Abnormalities of nuclear chromatin content: a-Vacuoles >4% to 50%: HA-bound 72.2% vs. HA-unbound 72.5% (P = 0.74; b-Large vacuoles: HA-bound 15.7% vs. HA-unbound 16.3% (P = 0.36. Conclusions The findings suggest that HA binding assay has limited efficacy in selecting motile spermatozoa with normal morphology at high magnification.

  7. Genetic determination of human facial morphology: links between cleft-lips and normal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Stefan; van der Lijn, Fedde; Liu, Fan; Günther, Manuel; Sinigerova, Stella; Nowak, Stefanie; Ludwig, Kerstin U; Herberz, Ruth; Klein, Stefan; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Niessen, Wiro J; Breteler, Monique M B; van der Lugt, Aad; Würtz, Rolf P; Nöthen, Markus M; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Mangold, Elisabeth; Kayser, Manfred

    2011-11-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P), and other previous studies showed distinctly differing facial distance measurements when comparing unaffected relatives of NSCL/P patients with normal controls. Here, we test the hypothesis that genetic loci involved in NSCL/P also influence normal variation in facial morphology. We tested 11 SNPs from 10 genomic regions previously showing replicated evidence of association with NSCL/P for association with normal variation of nose width and bizygomatic distance in two cohorts from Germany (N=529) and the Netherlands (N=2497). The two most significant associations found were between nose width and SNP rs1258763 near the GREM1 gene in the German cohort (P=6 × 10(-4)), and between bizygomatic distance and SNP rs987525 at 8q24.21 near the CCDC26 gene (P=0.017) in the Dutch sample. A genetic prediction model explained 2% of phenotype variation in nose width in the German and 0.5% of bizygomatic distance variation in the Dutch cohort. Although preliminary, our data provide a first link between genetic loci involved in a pathological facial trait such as NSCL/P and variation of normal facial morphology. Moreover, we present a first approach for understanding the genetic basis of human facial appearance, a highly intriguing trait with implications on clinical practice, clinical genetics, forensic intelligence, social interactions and personal identity.

  8. Brain inflammatory cytokines and microglia morphology changes throughout hibernation phases in Syrian hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cogut, V.; Bruintjes, J. J.; Eggen, B. J. L.; van der Zee, E. A.; Henning, R. H.

    Hibernators tolerate low metabolism, reduced cerebral blood flow and hypothermia during torpor without noticeable neuronal or synaptic dysfunction upon arousal. Previous studies found extensive changes in brain during torpor, including synaptic rearrangements, documented both morphologically and

  9. Patterns of differences in brain morphology in humans as compared to extant apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Although human evolution is characterized by a vast increase in brain size, it is not clear whether or not certain regions of the brain are enlarged disproportionately in humans, or how this enlargement relates to differences in overall neural morphology. The aim of this study is to determine whether or not there are specific suites of features that distinguish the morphology of the human brain from that of apes. The study sample consists of whole brain, in vivo magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) and five ape species (gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos). Twenty-nine 3D landmarks, including surface and internal features of the brain were located on 3D MRI reconstructions of each individual using MEASURE software. Landmark coordinate data were scaled for differences in size and analyzed using Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (EDMA) to statistically compare the brains of each non-human ape species to the human sample. Results of analyses show both a pattern of brain morphology that is consistently different between all apes and humans, as well as patterns that differ among species. Further, both the consistent and species-specific patterns include cortical and subcortical features. The pattern that remains consistent across species indicates a morphological reorganization of 1) relationships between cortical and subcortical frontal structures, 2) expansion of the temporal lobe and location of the amygdala, and 3) expansion of the anterior parietal region. Additionally, results demonstrate that, although there is a pattern of morphology that uniquely defines the human brain, there are also patterns that uniquely differentiate human morphology from the morphology of each non-human ape species, indicating that reorganization of neural morphology occurred at the evolutionary divergence of each of these groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The neuro-radiological anatomy of the normal and abnormal rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, M.; Doller, P.; Voigt, K.

    1979-01-01

    In vivo and post mortem techniques for the radiological examination of normal brains have been developed, using 66 white adult rats. Aortic arch injections for survey angiograms (10 animals), selective catheterisation of the internal carotid artery (16 animals) and ventriculography by percutaneous needle puncture (20 animals) were performed in vivo; the animals survived and the examinations could be repeated. The techniques proved useful and accurate methods for the radiological demonstration of the topography and morphology of cerebral vessels and chambers; they also provided information on the function of the cerebral circulation and C.S.F. dynamics. The findings were checked and correlated by post mortem studies (20 animals) using contact radiography, micro-angiography and casts of the ventricles. As a result, extensive topographic and anatomic information concerning the cerebral vessels in the rat was obtained, including some microscopic-radiological findings. The combined use of these methods provided a basis for studying the growth of experimentally induced brain tumours and the effect of various types of treatment. (orig.) [de

  11. Preliminary application of SPECT three dimensional brain imaging in normal controls and patients with cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaosheng, Luan; Pengyong,; Xiqin, Sun; Wei, Wang; Huisheng, Liu; Wen, Zhou [88 Hospital PLA, Taian, SD (China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1992-11-01

    10 normal controls and 32 cerebral infarction patients were examined with SPECT three-dimensional (3D) and sectional imaging. The result shows that 3D brain imaging has significant value in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. 3D brain imaging is superior to sectional imaging in determining the location and size of superficial lesions. For the diagnosis of deep lesions, it is better to combine 3D brain imaging with sectional imaging. The methodology of 3D brain imaging is also discussed.

  12. Preliminary application of SPECT three dimensional brain imaging in normal controls and patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Zhaosheng; Pengyong; Sun Xiqin; Wang Wei; Liu Huisheng; Zhou Wen

    1992-01-01

    10 normal controls and 32 cerebral infarction patients were examined with SPECT three-dimensional (3D) and sectional imaging. The result shows that 3D brain imaging has significant value in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. 3D brain imaging is superior to sectional imaging in determining the location and size of superficial lesions. For the diagnosis of deep lesions, it is better to combine 3D brain imaging with sectional imaging. The methodology of 3D brain imaging is also discussed

  13. Biomechanical Analysis of Normal Brain Development during the First Year of Life Using Finite Strain Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong Chul; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Lin, Weili

    2016-01-01

    The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and...

  14. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of the brain: technical considerations and normal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Kubik-Huch, Rahel; Marincek, Borut [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Martin, Ernst [Department of Neuroradiology and Magnetic Resonance, University Children' s Hospital, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-08-01

    Fetal MRI examines non-invasively the unborn fetus. Ultrafast MRI sequences effectively suppress fetal motion. Multiple case reports and studies have shown that fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the central nervous system. The high contrast-to-noise ratio, the high spatial resolution, the multiplanar capabilities, the large field of view and the simultaneous visualisation of fetal and maternal structures have proven to be advantageous. Fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the normal and pathological development of the brain. Despite the fact that no side effects have been reported or are to be expected, the use of MRI during pregnancy is still limited to the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast media are not to be used as it passes the placenta. Ultrasound remains the primary screening modality for fetal pathology; fetal MRI can serve as an adjunct or second-line imaging modality. (orig.)

  15. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of the brain: technical considerations and normal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Kubik-Huch, Rahel; Marincek, Borut; Martin, Ernst

    2002-01-01

    Fetal MRI examines non-invasively the unborn fetus. Ultrafast MRI sequences effectively suppress fetal motion. Multiple case reports and studies have shown that fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the central nervous system. The high contrast-to-noise ratio, the high spatial resolution, the multiplanar capabilities, the large field of view and the simultaneous visualisation of fetal and maternal structures have proven to be advantageous. Fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the normal and pathological development of the brain. Despite the fact that no side effects have been reported or are to be expected, the use of MRI during pregnancy is still limited to the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast media are not to be used as it passes the placenta. Ultrasound remains the primary screening modality for fetal pathology; fetal MRI can serve as an adjunct or second-line imaging modality. (orig.)

  16. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of the brain: technical considerations and normal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Thierry A G M; Martin, Ernst; Kubik-Huch, Rahel; Marincek, Borut

    2002-08-01

    Fetal MRI examines non-invasively the unborn fetus. Ultrafast MRI sequences effectively suppress fetal motion. Multiple case reports and studies have shown that fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the central nervous system. The high contrast-to-noise ratio, the high spatial resolution, the multiplanar capabilities, the large field of view and the simultaneous visualisation of fetal and maternal structures have proven to be advantageous. Fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the normal and pathological development of the brain. Despite the fact that no side effects have been reported or are to be expected, the use of MRI during pregnancy is still limited to the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast media are not to be used as it passes the placenta. Ultrasound remains the primary screening modality for fetal pathology; fetal MRI can serve as an adjunct or second-line imaging modality.

  17. Cannabis Use Disorders and Altered Brain Morphology : Where is the evidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzetti, V; Batalla, A.; Cousijn, J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) affect 13.1 million individuals worldwide. Brain morphology specific to CUDs may mediate the adverse behavioral outcomes of CUDs. We reviewed findings from 20 human neuroimaging studies on grey and white matter morphology in cannabis users that specifically included CUD

  18. Three-dimensional morphology of the human embryonic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shiraishi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphogenesis of the cerebral vesicles and ventricles was visualized in 3D movies using images derived from human embryo specimens between Carnegie stage 13 and 23 from the Kyoto Collection. These images were acquired with a magnetic resonance microscope equipped with a 2.35-T superconducting magnet. Three-dimensional images using the same scale demonstrated brain development and growth effectively. The non-uniform thickness of the brain tissue, which may indicate brain differentiation, was visualized with thickness-based surface color mapping. A closer view was obtained of the unique and complicated differentiation of the rhombencephalon, especially with regard to the internal view and thickening of the brain tissue. The present data contribute to a better understanding of brain and cerebral ventricle development.

  19. Confirming the diversity of the brain after normalization: an approach based on identity authentication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanglin Chen

    Full Text Available During the development of neuroimaging, numerous analyses were performed to identify population differences, such as studies on age, gender, and diseases. Researchers first normalized the brain image and then identified features that represent key differences between groups. In these studies, the question of whether normalization (a pre-processing step widely used in neuroimaging studies reduces the diversity of brains was largely ignored. There are a few studies that identify the differences between individuals after normalization. In the current study, we analyzed brain diversity on an individual level, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The main idea was to utilize brain images for identity authentication. First, the brain images were normalized and registered. Then, a pixel-level matching method was developed to compute the identity difference between different images for matching. Finally, by analyzing the performance of the proposed brain recognition strategy, the individual differences in brain images were evaluated. Experimental results on a 150-subject database showed that the proposed approach could achieve a 100% identification ratio, which indicated distinct differences between individuals after normalization. Thus, the results proved that after the normalization stage, brain images retain their main distinguishing information and features. Based on this result, we suggest that diversity (individual differences should be considered when conducting group analysis, and that this approach may facilitate group pattern classification.

  20. Water diffusion reveals networks that modulate multiregional morphological plasticity after repetitive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mitsunari; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2014-03-25

    Repetitive brain stimulation protocols induce plasticity in the stimulated site in brain slice models. Recent evidence from network models has indicated that additional plasticity-related changes occur in nonstimulated remote regions. Despite increasing use of brain stimulation protocols in experimental and clinical settings, the neural substrates underlying the additional effects in remote regions are unknown. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) probes water diffusion and can be used to estimate morphological changes in cortical tissue that occur with the induction of plasticity. Using DWI techniques, we estimated morphological changes induced by application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left primary motor cortex (M1). We found that rTMS altered water diffusion in multiple regions including the left M1. Notably, the change in water diffusion was retained longest in the left M1 and remote regions that had a correlation of baseline fluctuations in water diffusion before rTMS. We conclude that synchronization of water diffusion at rest between stimulated and remote regions ensures retention of rTMS-induced changes in water diffusion in remote regions. Synchronized fluctuations in the morphology of cortical microstructures between stimulated and remote regions might identify networks that allow retention of plasticity-related morphological changes in multiple regions after brain stimulation protocols. These results increase our understanding of the effects of brain stimulation-induced plasticity on multiregional brain networks. DWI techniques could provide a tool to evaluate treatment effects of brain stimulation protocols in patients with brain disorders.

  1. Quantitative Machine Learning Analysis of Brain MRI Morphology throughout Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior; Long, Joe

    2016-01-01

    While cognition is clearly affected by aging, it is unclear whether the process of brain aging is driven solely by accumulation of environmental damage, or involves biological pathways. We applied quantitative image analysis to profile the alteration of brain tissues during aging. A dataset of 463 brain MRI images taken from a cohort of 416 subjects was analyzed using a large set of low-level numerical image content descriptors computed from the entire brain MRI images. The correlation between the numerical image content descriptors and the age was computed, and the alterations of the brain tissues during aging were quantified and profiled using machine learning. The comprehensive set of global image content descriptors provides high Pearson correlation of ~0.9822 with the chronological age, indicating that the machine learning analysis of global features is sensitive to the age of the subjects. Profiling of the predicted age shows several periods of mild changes, separated by shorter periods of more rapid alterations. The periods with the most rapid changes were around the age of 55, and around the age of 65. The results show that the process of brain aging of is not linear, and exhibit short periods of rapid aging separated by periods of milder change. These results are in agreement with patterns observed in cognitive decline, mental health status, and general human aging, suggesting that brain aging might not be driven solely by accumulation of environmental damage. Code and data used in the experiments are publicly available.

  2. Morphological and behavioral markers of environmentally induced retardation of brain development: an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, J.

    1987-01-01

    In most neurotoxicological studies morphological assessment focuses on pathological effects, like degenerative changes in neuronal perikarya, axonopathy, demyelination, and glial and endothelial cell reactions. Similarly, the assessment of physiological and behavioral effects center on evident neurological symptoms, like EEG and EMG abnormalities, resting and intention tremor, abnormal gait, and abnormal reflexes. This paper reviews briefly another central nervous system target of harmful environmental agents, which results in behavioral abnormalities without any qualitatively evident neuropathology. This is called microneuronal hypoplasia, a retardation of brain development characterized by a quantitative reduction in the normal population of late-generated, short-axoned neurons in specific brain regions. Correlated descriptive and experimental neurogenetic studies in the rat have established that all the cerebellar granule cells and a very high proportion of hippocampal granule cells are produced postnatally, and that focal, low-dose X-irradiation either of the cerebellum or of the hippocampus after birth selectively interferes with the acquisition of the full complement of granule cells (microneuronal hypoplasia). Subsequent behavioral investigations showed that cerebellar microneuronal hypoplasia results in profound hyperactivity without motor abnormalities, while hippocampal microneuronal hypoplasia results in hyperactivity, as well as attentional and learning deficits. There is much indirect clinical evidence that various harmful environmental agents affecting the pregnant mother and/or the infant lead to such childhood disorders as hyperactivity and attentional and learning disorders. 109 references

  3. Functional morphology of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikera S. Ibe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A gross morphological study of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840 was undertaken in order to document its normal features and assess the structure-function paradigm. The study was conducted by direct observation of 29 adult African giant pouched rats’ brains. In the telencephalon, the cerebral cortex was devoid of prominent gyri and sulci, but the large olfactory bulb and tract relaying impulses to the olfactory cortex were very prominent. The large size of the olfactory bulb correlated with the established sharp olfactory acuity of the rodent. In the mesencephalic tectum, the caudal colliculi were bigger than the rostral colliculi, indicating a more acute sense of hearing than sight. In the metencephalon, the cerebellar vermis, the flocculus and the paraflocculus were highly coiled and, thus, well developed. The myelencephalon revealed a better organised ventral surface than dorsal surface; the cuneate fascicle, the intermediate sulcus and the lateral sulcus were not evident on the dorsal surface, but there were clearly visible pyramids and olivary prominence on the ventral surface. In conclusion, the highly coiled cerebellar vermis, flocculus and paraflocculus, as well as the conspicuous pyramids and olivary prominence are indicative of a good motor coordination and balance in the African giant pouched rat.

  4. Normal and abnormal neuronal migration during brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakic, P.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual and factual advances in understanding neuronal migration in the past two decades have provided new insight into the pathogenesis of brain malformations at the cellular, molecular, and functional levels. Some of these results may have direct implications in understanding the consequences of ionizing radiation on the fetal central nervous system in utero. (orig.)

  5. Relative brain size and morphology of some South African bats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-04-03

    Apr 3, 1987 ... closely related to basal metabolic rate than ecological factors (Hofman 1983 .... CBS values for the two rhinolophid species, and a single value for the ..... Relative brain size and demographic strategies in didelphid marsupials.

  6. Computer modeling the boron compound factor in normal brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Huiskamp, R.; Wheeler, F.J.; Griebenow, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The macroscopic distribution of borocaptate sodium (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH or BSH) in normal tissues has been determined and can be accurately predicted from the blood concentration. The compound para-borono-phenylalanine (p-BPA) has also been studied in dogs and normal tissue distribution has been determined. The total physical dose required to reach a biological isoeffect appears to increase directly as the proportion of boron capture dose increases. This effect, together with knowledge of the macrodistribution, led to estimates of the influence of the microdistribution of the BSH compound. This paper reports a computer model that was used to predict the compound factor for BSH and p-BPA and, hence, the equivalent radiation in normal tissues. The compound factor would need to be calculated for other compounds with different distributions. This information is needed to design appropriate normal tissue tolerance studies for different organ systems and/or different boron compounds

  7. CT findings of normal pancreatic tail: variety of morphology and location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hye Seung; Son, San Hoo; Moon, Gae Hyuk; Kim, Hu Ho; Gong Jae Chul; Yang Jae Boum [Inchon Christian Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mee Sook [Jaesung Hospital. (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    To determine the morphology and location of normal pancreatic tail, as seen on abdominal CT. A hundred and one patients without pancreatic disease underwent CT scanning. We then determined how to relate the location of the pancreatic tail with the splenic hilum, left kidney, and pancreatic body. We compared the thickness of the tail with that of the body and analysed of the morphology of the tail. Seventy-seven percent of all pancreatic tails were located below the splenic hilum, with 59% of this proportion located 1 to 2 cm below. Fifty percent of tails were located at the level of the uppermost quarter of the left kidney, and a further 27% at the level of the second quarter; 75 % were located in the ventrolateral portion of this kidney and 23% in the ventral portion. In 48% of patients, the pancreatic tail and body were the same thickness, and in a further 48 %, the tail was thicker than the body. In 34% of patients, the tail showed focal bulging, and in another 32%, it tapered smoothly. Forty seven percent of tails were located below the pancreatic body and a further 37% were found at the same level as the body. Abdominal CT scans showed differing morphology and location of the pancreatic tail. The recognition of these variations will diminish speculation as to their true nature. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Morphology investigation of the mink’s brain (Mustela vison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mink is a strict carnivore and a seasonal breeder, which may be used as an experimental model for other carnivores. Using anatomical methods, 32 brains of the N. American mink were examined. It was found that the brain consists of four ventricles. Also, it was noted that the posterior horn was missing and that the olfactory recess was present in the lateral ventricle, a large-size interthalamic connection was present in the third ventricle, and a flat, necklace like bottom in the fourth ventricle. Only recently, the ins and outs of the mink’s anatomical structure have begun to absorb the attention of anatomists. Apparently, it is related to the fact that fury animals, among them the mink, are being domesticated. For this reason and because of easy access to the material, the purpose of brain dissection is to familiarize with the three dimensional structure of the brain and teach one of the great methods of studying the brain: looking at its structure.

  9. Brain morphology imaging by 3D microscopy and fluorescent Nissl staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazutkin, A A; Komissarova, N V; Toptunov, D M; Anokhin, K V

    2013-07-01

    Modern optical methods (multiphoton and light-sheet fluorescent microscopy) allow 3D imaging of large specimens of the brain with cell resolution. It is therefore essential to refer the resultant 3D pictures of expression of transgene, protein, and other markers in the brain to the corresponding structures in the atlas. This implies counterstaining of specimens with morphological dyes. However, there are no methods for contrasting large samples of the brain without their preliminary slicing. We have developed a method for fluorescent Nissl staining of whole brain samples. 3D reconstructions of specimens of the hippocampus, olfactory bulbs, and cortex were created. The method can be used for morphological control and evaluation of the effects of various factors on the brain using 3D microscopy technique.

  10. Population differences in brain morphology and microstructure among Chinese, Malay, and Indian neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jordan; Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad Farid; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Fortier, Marielle V; Meaney, Michael J; Qiu, Anqi

    2012-01-01

    We studied a sample of 75 Chinese, 73 Malay, and 29 Indian healthy neonates taking part in a cohort study to examine potential differences in neonatal brain morphology and white matter microstructure as a function of ethnicity using both structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We first examined the differences in global size and morphology of the brain among the three groups. We then constructed the T2-weighted MRI and DTI atlases and employed voxel-based analysis to investigate ethnic differences in morphological shape of the brain from the T2-weighted MRI, and white matter microstructure measured by fractional anisotropy derived from DTI. Compared with Malay neonates, the brains of Indian neonates' tended to be more elongated in anterior and posterior axis relative to the superior-inferior axis of the brain even though the total brain volume was similar among the three groups. Although most anatomical regions of the brain were similar among Chinese, Malay, and Indian neonates, there were anatomical variations in the spinal-cerebellar and cortical-striatal-thalamic neural circuits among the three populations. The population-related brain regions highlighted in our study are key anatomical substrates associated with sensorimotor functions.

  11. Three-dimensional sonographic measurement of normal fetal brain volume during the second half of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Roelfsema; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); S.M. Boito; J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: This study was undertaken to develop a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound method of measuring fetal brain volume. Study design: Serial 3D sonographic measurements of fetal brain volume were made in 68 normal singleton pregnancies at 18 to 34 weeks of gestation. A comparison

  12. Appearance of normal brain maturation on 1.5-T MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkovich, A.J.; Kjos, B.; Jackson, D.E. Jr.; Norman, D.

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the pattern of normal white-matter maturation as demonstrated by high-field-strength MR imaging, 82 normal infants were examined using a 1.5-T unit with spin-echo T1-weighted and T2-weighted pulse sequences. The infants ranged in age from 4 days to 2 years. The scans were assessed for qualitative changes of white matter relative to gray matter and correlated with the patient's age in 14 anatomic areas of the brain. The MR images showed that changes of brain maturation occur in an orderly manner, commencing in the brain stem and progressing to the cerebellum and the cerebrum. Changes from brain myelination were seen earlier on T1-weighted images than on T2-weighted images, possibly because of T1 shortening by the components of the developing myelin sheaths. The later changes on the T2-weighted images correlated best with the development of myelination, as demonstrated by histochemical methods. T1-weighted images were most useful to monitor normal brain development in the first 6 to 8 months of life; T2-weighted images were more useful after 6 months. The milestones in the MR appearance of normal maturation of the brain are presented. The milestones in the MR appearance of normal maturation of the brain are presented. Persistent areas of long T2 relaxation times are seen superior and dorsal to the ventricular trigone in all infants examined and should not be mistaken for ischemic change

  13. Increased self-diffusion of brain water in normal aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O

    1994-01-01

    With magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, brain water self-diffusion was measured in 17 healthy volunteers 22-76 (mean, 44.6) years old. The calculated values for the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) ranged from 0.58 x 10(-9) to 1.23 x 10(-9) m2/sec in cerebral white matter. A significant...... by an increase in the extracellular volume due to age-dependent neuronal degeneration or to changes in myelination. These findings have implications for future clinical investigations with diffusion MR imaging techniques in patients with neurologic diseases, and stress the importance of having an age...

  14. Normal morphology of sacroiliac joints in children: magnetic resonance studies related to age and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollow, M.; Paris, S.; Mutze, S.; Hamm, B.; Braun, J.; Kannenberg, J.; Biedermann, T.; Schauer-Petrowskaja, C.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To determine in a prospective study the normal MRI morphology of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in relation to age and sex during adolescence. Design and patients. A total of 98 children (63 boys, mean age 12.7±2.8 years; 35 girls, mean age 13.7±2.3 years), ranging in age from 8 to 17 years, with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) but without signs of sacroiliitis fulfilled the study prerequisites (no back pain and no pathologic changes of the SIJs on physical examination before MRI in a 1.5-year follow-up). An additional eight HLA-B27-negative boys and eight HLA-B27-negative girls without arthritis served as controls. The MRI protocol comprised a T1-weighted SE sequence, an opposed-phase T2*-weighted GE sequence, and a dynamic contrast-enhanced study in single-section technique. Results. Noncontrast MRI permitted differentiation of ''open'' from ossified segmental and lateral apophyses of the sacral wings, with a significant difference in age (P <0.05) between children with open and ossified apophyses. Ossification of the apophyses of the sacral wings was seen significantly earlier (P <0.05) in girls than in boys. Girls also had a significantly higher incidence of transitional lumbosacral vertebrae, pelvic asymmetries, and accessory joints. In the contrast-enhanced opposed-phase MRI study, normal cartilage of the SIJs showed no contrast enhancement whereas the joint capsule showed a moderate enhancement. Conclusion. There are significant age- and sex-related differences in the normal MRI morphology of juvenile SIJs. Our findings might serve as a standard of comparison for the evaluation of pathologic changes - in particular for the early identification of juvenile sacroiliitis. (orig.)

  15. Brain signatures of early lexical and morphological learning of a new language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktória; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez Fornells, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    Morphology is an important part of language processing but little is known about how adult second language learners acquire morphological rules. Using a word-picture associative learning task, we have previously shown that a brief exposure to novel words with embedded morphological structure (suffix for natural gender) is enough for language learners to acquire the hidden morphological rule. Here we used this paradigm to study the brain signatures of early morphological learning in a novel language in adults. Behavioural measures indicated successful lexical (word stem) and morphological (gender suffix) learning. A day after the learning phase, event-related brain potentials registered during a recognition memory task revealed enhanced N400 and P600 components for stem and suffix violations, respectively. An additional effect observed with combined suffix and stem violations was an enhancement of an early N2 component, most probably related to conflict-detection processes. Successful morphological learning was also evident in the ERP responses to the subsequent rule-generalization task with new stems, where violation of the morphological rule was associated with an early (250-400ms) and late positivity (750-900ms). Overall, these findings tend to converge with lexical and morphosyntactic violation effects observed in L1 processing, suggesting that even after a short exposure, adult language learners can acquire both novel words and novel morphological rules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antipsychotics, brain morphology and duration of untreated illness in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, G.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This thesis addresses the necessity of prophylactic antipsychotic treatment in first-episode schizophrenia patients and the effect of discontinuation of antipsychotics on brain volume and side-effects as well as the usage of these medications in general practice. Furthermore, the influence of

  17. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can

  18. Dendritic protein synthesis in the normal and diseased brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, Sharon A.; Bassell, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic activity is a spatially-limited process that requires a precise, yet dynamic, complement of proteins within the synaptic micro-domain. The maintenance and regulation of these synaptic proteins is regulated, in part, by local mRNA translation in dendrites. Protein synthesis within the postsynaptic compartment allows neurons tight spatial and temporal control of synaptic protein expression, which is critical for proper functioning of synapses and neural circuits. In this review, we discuss the identity of proteins synthesized within dendrites, the receptor-mediated mechanisms regulating their synthesis, and the possible roles for these locally synthesized proteins. We also explore how our current understanding of dendritic protein synthesis in the hippocampus can be applied to new brain regions and to understanding the pathological mechanisms underlying varied neurological diseases. PMID:23262237

  19. Thalamic and parietal brain morphology predicts auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Erb, Julia; Meyer, Lars; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill involving the attribution of meaning to acoustic events, engaging domain-specific (i.e., auditory) as well as domain-general (e.g., executive) brain networks. A listener's ability to categorize novel acoustic stimuli should therefore depend on both, with the domain-general network being particularly relevant for adaptively changing listening strategies and directing attention to relevant acoustic cues. Here we assessed adaptive listening behavior, using complex acoustic stimuli with an initially salient (but later degraded) spectral cue and a secondary, duration cue that remained nondegraded. We employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify cortical and subcortical brain structures whose individual neuroanatomy predicted task performance and the ability to optimally switch to making use of temporal cues after spectral degradation. Behavioral listening strategies were assessed by logistic regression and revealed mainly strategy switches in the expected direction, with considerable individual differences. Gray-matter probability in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and left precentral gyrus was predictive of "optimal" strategy switch, while gray-matter probability in thalamic areas, comprising the medial geniculate body, co-varied with overall performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that successful auditory categorization relies on domain-specific neural circuits in the ascending auditory pathway, while adaptive listening behavior depends more on brain structure in parietal cortex, enabling the (re)direction of attention to salient stimulus properties. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Three-dimensional assessment of brain tissue morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Germann, Marco; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Morel, Anne

    2006-08-01

    The microstructure of brain tissues becomes visible using different types of optical microscopy after the tissue sectioning. This preparation procedure introduces stress and strain in the anisotropic and inhomogeneous soft tissue slices, which are several 10 μm thick. Consequently, the three-dimensional dataset, generated out of the two-dimensional images with lateral submicrometer resolution, needs algorithms to correct the deformations, which can be significant for mellow tissue such as brain segments. The spatial resolution perpendicular to the slices is much worse with respect to the lateral sub-micrometer resolution. Therefore, we propose as complementary method the synchrotron-radiation-based micro computed tomography (SRμCT), which avoids any kind of preparation artifacts due to sectioning and histological processing and yields true micrometer resolution in the three orthogonal directions. The visualization of soft matter by the use of SRμCT, however, is often based on elaborate staining protocols, since the tissue exhibits (almost) the same x-ray absorption as the surrounding medium. Therefore, it is unexpected that human tissue from the pons and the medulla oblongata in phosphate buffer show several features such as the blood vessels and the inferior olivary nucleus without staining. The value of these tomograms lies especially in the precise non-rigid registration of the different sets of histological slices. Applications of this method to larger pieces of brain tissue, such as the human thalamus are planned in the context of stereotactic functional neurosurgery.

  1. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. In vivo H MR spectroscopy of human brain in six normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Bo Young; Suh, Tae Suk; Bahk, Yong Whee; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1993-01-01

    In vivo H MR spectroscopic studies were performed on the human brain in six normal volunteers. Some distinct proton metabolites, such as N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr), choline/phosphocholine (Cho), myo-inositol (Ins) and lipid (fat) were clearly identified in normal brain tissue. The signal intensity of NAA resonance is strongest. The standard ratios of metabolites from the normal brain tissue in specific regions were obtained for the references of further in vivo H MR spectroscopic studies. Our initial resulting suggest the in vivo H MR spectroscopy may provide more precise diagnosis on the basis of the metabolic information on brain tissues. The unique ability of In vivo H MR spectroscopy to offer noninvasive information about tissue biochemistry in patients will stimulate its impact on clinical research and disease diagnosis

  3. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2002-01-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5±3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis

  4. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  5. Importance of circulating IGF-1 for normal cardiac morphology, function and post infarction remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharin Täng, M; Redfors, B; Lindbom, M; Svensson, J; Ramunddal, T; Ohlsson, C; Shao, Y; Omerovic, E

    2012-12-01

    IGF-1 plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis, and plasma levels of IGF-1 correlate inversely with systolic function in heart failure. It is not known to what extent circulating IGF-1 secreted by the liver and local autocrine/paracrine IGF-1 expressed in the myocardium contribute to these beneficial effects on cardiac function and morphology. In the present study, we used a mouse model of liver-specific inducible deletion of the IGF-1 gene (LI-IGF-1 -/- mouse) in an attempt to evaluate the importance of circulating IGF-I on cardiac morphology and function under normal and pathological conditions, with an emphasis on its regulatory role in myocardial phosphocreatine metabolism. Echocardiography was performed in LI-IGF-1 -/- and control mice at rest and during dobutamine stress, both at baseline and post myocardial infarction (MI). High-energy phosphate metabolites were compared between LI-IGF-1 -/- and control mice at 4 weeks post MI. We found that LI-IGF-1 -/- mice had significantly greater left ventricular dimensions at baseline and showed a greater relative increase in cardiac dimensions, as well as deterioration of cardiac function, post MI. Myocardial creatine content was 17.9% lower in LI-IGF-1 -/- mice, whereas there was no detectable difference in high-energy nucleotides. These findings indicate an important role of circulating IGF-1 in preserving cardiac structure and function both in physiological settings and post MI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Restraint stress-induced morphological changes at the blood-brain barrier in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eSántha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is well known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognised in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3 and 21 days were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occludin and glucose transporter-1 and astroglia (GFAP. Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, one-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5 and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes

  7. The choroid plexus in normal full-term neonate : a study of morphological variety on sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Ji Hye

    1999-01-01

    differences with regard to gender and side. We have observed the morphological variety of the choroid plexus in normal full-term neonates on ultrasonograms and believe that a knowledge of the various sonographic patterns involved can help differentiating normal choroid plexus from intraventricular hemorrhage or choroidal abnormality

  8. The choroid plexus in normal full-term neonate : a study of morphological variety on sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Seok [Dankook Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Chunganggil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    statistical differences with regard to gender and side. We have observed the morphological variety of the choroid plexus in normal full-term neonates on ultrasonograms and believe that a knowledge of the various sonographic patterns involved can help differentiating normal choroid plexus from intraventricular hemorrhage or choroidal abnormality.

  9. Differences in brain morphology and working memory capacity across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathelt, Joe; Gathercole, Susan E; Johnson, Amy; Astle, Duncan E

    2018-05-01

    Working memory (WM) skills are closely associated with learning progress in key areas such as reading and mathematics across childhood. As yet, however, little is known about how the brain systems underpinning WM develop over this critical developmental period. The current study investigated whether and how structural brain correlates of components of the working memory system change over development. Verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory were assessed in 153 children between 5.58 and 15.92 years, and latent components of the working memory system were derived. Fractional anisotropy and cortical thickness maps were derived from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI and processed using eigenanatomy decomposition. There was a greater involvement of the corpus callosum and posterior temporal white matter in younger children for performance associated with the executive part of the working memory system. For older children, this was more closely linked with the thickness of the occipitotemporal cortex. These findings suggest that increasing specialization leads to shifts in the contribution of neural substrates over childhood, moving from an early dependence on a distributed system supported by long-range connections to later reliance on specialized local circuitry. Our findings demonstrate that despite the component factor structure being stable across childhood, the underlying brain systems supporting working memory change. Taking the age of the child into account, and not just their overall score, is likely to be critical for understanding the nature of the limitations on their working memory capacity. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of normal brain CT scan in Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Suh, J. H.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-06-15

    The safety of procedure combined with wealth of information have resulted in rapid acceptance of CT as a practical and reliable neurodignostic technique. To understand the alternation in tissue density and associated displacement and distortion caused by pathologic lesion in CT, it is necessary to have clear understanding of normal anatomical landmark. For the purpose of establishing normative criteria in Korean for comparative diagnosis, 500 normal CT scan without neurologic sign were studied. The brief results are follows; 1. Among many ventricular index measured for lateral ventricle, the bifrontal CVI is more sensitive and easily determined. Ventricular size increased with age, especially after 6th decade but no difference with sex. 2. Mean width of third ventricle is 5 mm ({+-} 0.3), more wider in male (male; 5.2 mm, female; 4.5 mm) and increased with age. 2. Mean width of fourth ventricle is 13 mm ({+-} 1.3), without difference in age and sex. The shape of ventricle is variable form of triangle. The position of ventricle relative to Twining's line can be determined, so ratio of distance from tuberculum sellae to center of fourth ventricle to Twining's line is between 0.46-0.52. 4. Suprasellar cistern is visible in 89.7% of scan and shape of cistern is found to be pentagonal (73.3%), hexagonal (23.0%) and tetragonal (3.7%). 5. Choroid plexus can be identified in 90% and asymmetrical in 4%. 45% of identified choroid plexus can be visible on scan without contrast enhancement, and more frequently visible in older age.

  11. Evaluation of normal brain CT scan in Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Suh, J. H.; Park, C. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The safety of procedure combined with wealth of information have resulted in rapid acceptance of CT as a practical and reliable neurodiagnostic technique. To understand the alternation in tissue density and associated displacement and distortion caused by pathologic lesion in CT, it is necessary to have clear understanding of normal anatomical landmark. For the purpose of establishing normartive criteria in Koreans for comparative diagnosis, 500 normal CT scan without neurologic sign were studied. The brief results are follows; 1. Among many ventricular index measured for lateral ventricle, the bifrontal CVI is more sensitive and easily determined. Ventricular size increased with age, especially after 6th decade but no difference with sex. 2. Mean width of third ventricle is 5mm( ± 0.3), more wider in male (male; 5.2mm, female; 4.5mm) and increased with age. 3. Mean width of fourth ventricle is 13mm( ± 1.3), without difference in age and sex. The shape of ventricle is variable form of triangle. The position of ventricle relative to Twining's line can be determined, so ratio of distance from tuberculum sellae to center of fourth ventricle to Twining's line is between 0.46-0.52. 4. Suprasellar cistern is visible in 89.7% of scan and shape of cistern is found to be pentagonal (73.3%), hexagonal (23.0%) and tetragonal (3.7%). 5. Choroid plexus can be identified in 90% and asymetrical in 4%. 45% of identified choroid plexus can be visible on scan without contrast enhancement, and more frequently visible in older age

  12. Evaluation of normal brain CT scan in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Suh, J. H.; Park, C. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The safety of procedure combined with wealth of information have resulted in rapid acceptance of CT as a practical and reliable neurodignostic technique. To understand the alternation in tissue density and associated displacement and distortion caused by pathologic lesion in CT, it is necessary to have clear understanding of normal anatomical landmark. For the purpose of establishing normative criteria in Korean for comparative diagnosis, 500 normal CT scan without neurologic sign were studied. The brief results are follows; 1. Among many ventricular index measured for lateral ventricle, the bifrontal CVI is more sensitive and easily determined. Ventricular size increased with age, especially after 6th decade but no difference with sex. 2. Mean width of third ventricle is 5 mm (± 0.3), more wider in male (male; 5.2 mm, female; 4.5 mm) and increased with age. 2. Mean width of fourth ventricle is 13 mm (± 1.3), without difference in age and sex. The shape of ventricle is variable form of triangle. The position of ventricle relative to Twining's line can be determined, so ratio of distance from tuberculum sellae to center of fourth ventricle to Twining's line is between 0.46-0.52. 4. Suprasellar cistern is visible in 89.7% of scan and shape of cistern is found to be pentagonal (73.3%), hexagonal (23.0%) and tetragonal (3.7%). 5. Choroid plexus can be identified in 90% and asymmetrical in 4%. 45% of identified choroid plexus can be visible on scan without contrast enhancement, and more frequently visible in older age

  13. Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hänggi Jürgen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurophysiological and neuroanatomical foundations of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS are still a matter of dispute. A main argument is that stutterers show atypical anatomical asymmetries of speech-relevant brain areas, which possibly affect speech fluency. The major aim of this study was to determine whether adults with PDS have anomalous anatomy in cortical speech-language areas. Methods Adults with PDS (n = 10 and controls (n = 10 matched for age, sex, hand preference, and education were studied using high-resolution MRI scans. Using a new variant of the voxel-based morphometry technique (augmented VBM the brains of stutterers and non-stutterers were compared with respect to white matter (WM and grey matter (GM differences. Results We found increased WM volumes in a right-hemispheric network comprising the superior temporal gyrus (including the planum temporale, the inferior frontal gyrus (including the pars triangularis, the precentral gyrus in the vicinity of the face and mouth representation, and the anterior middle frontal gyrus. In addition, we detected a leftward WM asymmetry in the auditory cortex in non-stutterers, while stutterers showed symmetric WM volumes. Conclusions These results provide strong evidence that adults with PDS have anomalous anatomy not only in perisylvian speech and language areas but also in prefrontal and sensorimotor areas. Whether this atypical asymmetry of WM is the cause or the consequence of stuttering is still an unanswered question.

  14. [Morphology of basement membrane and associated matrix proteins in normal and pathological tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, A

    1995-01-01

    Basement membranes (BM) are specialized structures of the extracellular matrix. Their composition is of particular importance for the maintenance of normal morphological and functional properties of a multitude of organs and tissue systems and it is thus required for regular homeostasis of body function. Generally, they possess three main functions, i.e. participation in the maintenance of tissue structure, control of fluid and substrate exchange, and regulation of cell growth and differentiation. BMs are made up by various components which are in part specifically localized within the BM zone, or which represent ubiquitous matrix constituents with specific quantitative and/or qualitative differences in their localization. On the basis of a thorough immunohistochemical analysis of normal and diseased tissues, we provide here a concept of "functional morphology/pathomorphology" of the different BM components analyzed: 1.) The ubiquitous BM-constituent collagen IV primarily stabilizes the BM-zone and thus represents the "backbone" of the BM providing mechanical strength. Its loss leads to cystic tissue transformation as it is evidenced from the analysis of polycystic nephropathies. Thus, in other cystic tissue transformations a similar formal pathogenesis may be present. 2.) The specific localization of collagen VII as the main structural component of anchoring fibrils underlines the mechanical anchoring function of this collagenous protein. Defects in this protein lead to hereditary epidermolysis. The rapid re-occurrence of epidermal collagen VII during normal human wound healing indicates a quick reconstitution of the mechanical tensile strength of healing wounds. 3.) The BM-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG, Perlecan) with its highly negative anionic charge can be assumed to exert filter control. This assumption is corroborated by the localizatory findings of a preferential deposition of HSPG in endothelial and particularly in glomerular BM. Similarly

  15. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is correlated closely with sperm progressive motility and normal morphology in healthy and fertile men with normal sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L-Y; Shan, J-J; Tong, X-M; Zhu, H-Y; Yang, L-Y; Zheng, Q; Luo, Y; Shi, Q-X; Zhang, S-Y

    2014-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been demonstrated to be expressed in mature spermatozoa and correlated with sperm quality. Sperm CFTR expression in fertile men is higher than that in infertile men suffering from teratospermia, asthenoteratospermia, asthenospermia and oligospermia, but it is unknown whether CFTR is correlated with sperm parameters when sperm parameters are normal. In this study, 282 healthy and fertile men with normal semen parameters were classified into three age groups, group (I): age group of 20-29 years (98 cases, 27.1 ± 6.2), group (II): age group of 30-39 years (142 cases, 33.7 ± 2.6) and group (III): age group of more than or equal to 40 years (42 cases, 44.1 ± 4.6). Sperm concentration, total count and progressive motility were analysed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Sperm morphology was analysed by modified Papanicolaou staining. Sperm CFTR expression was conducted by indirect immunofluorescence staining. There was a significant positive correlation (P sperm progressive motility (r = 0.221) and normal morphology (r = 0.202), but there were no correlations between sperm CFTR expression and semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm total count as well as male age (P > 0.05). Our findings show that CFTR expression is associated with sperm progressive motility and normal morphology in healthy and fertile men with normal sperm parameters, but not associated with the number of spermatozoa and male age. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Roles and regulation of brain glutamate transporters in normal and pathological brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Glutamate (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS. Synaptically released Glu acts on both ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic receptors, and excessive iGluR activation results in neuronal death (termed excitotoxicity). Removal of Glu from the synapse is thus critical for normal transmission and to prevent excitotoxicity, and is performed exclusively by a family of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs, also known as glutamate transporters). Disregulation of Glu transport may contribute to the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative conditions, and altered expression or function of EAATs has been identified in a number of these pathologies. These studies investigated the functional and pathological effects of EAAT inhibitors in vitro, and developed a novel screening assay for compounds with activity at EAATs. Astrocytic EAATs are responsible for the majority of Glu uptake in brain, so preparations containing both astrocytes and neurones are required to analyse the contribution of EAATs to neuroprotection. Organotypic hippocampal cultures (OHCs), which exhibit many of the features of the intact CNS, were prepared from 11-14 day old Sprague Dawley rats (anaesthetised with halothane). Hippocampal slices (350 μm thick) were maintained on culture well inserts in chemically defined medium. After 2 weeks, cultures were treated with EAAT inhibitors for 3-7 days in the presence or absence of 300 μM Glu. Treatment with most EAAT inhibitors resulted in cell death that was proportional to the Glu concentration in the medium. In contrast, (2S,3S,4R)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCG-III), a competitive substrate at EAATs (and possibly an antagonist at the kainate subtype of iGluR), appeared to be neuroprotective: increased Glu was not toxic in the presence of this drug. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of OHCs to inhibition of Glu uptake, highlighting the importance of EAATs in preventing excitotoxicity. Since modulation of

  17. Exercises in Anatomy, Connectivity, and Morphology using Neuromorpho.org and the Allen Brain Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Philip; Peck, Joshua; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory instruction of neuroscience is often limited by the lack of physical resources and supplies (e.g., brains specimens, dissection kits, physiological equipment). Online databases can serve as supplements to material labs by providing professionally collected images of brain specimens and their underlying cellular populations with resolution and quality that is extremely difficult to access for strictly pedagogical purposes. We describe a method using two online databases, the Neuromorpho.org and the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA), that freely provide access to data from working brain scientists that can be modified for laboratory instruction/exercises. Neuromorpho.org is the first neuronal morphology database that provides qualitative and quantitative data from reconstructed cells analyzed in published scientific reports. The Neuromorpho.org database contains cross species and multiple neuronal phenotype datasets which allows for comparative examinations. The ABA provides modules that allow students to study the anatomy of the rodent brain, as well as observe the different cellular phenotypes that exist using histochemical labeling. Using these tools in conjunction, advanced students can ask questions about qualitative and quantitative neuronal morphology, then examine the distribution of the same cell types across the entire brain to gain a full appreciation of the magnitude of the brain's complexity.

  18. Patterns of brain activity in normals and schizophrenics with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Brodie, J.D.; Canero, R.; Van Gelder, P.; Russell, J.A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The authors investigated the functional interaction among brain areas under baseline and upon activation by a visual task to compare the response of normal subjects from the ones of chronic schizophrenics. Cerebral metabolic images were obtained on twelve healthy volunteers an eighteen schizophrenics with positron emission tomography and 11-C-Deoxyglucose. Correlation coefficients among the relative metabolic values (region of interest divided by the average of whole brain gray matter) of 11 brain regions; frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital left and right lobes, left and right basal ganglia and thalamus were computed for the baseline and for the task. Under baseline, normals showed more functional correlations than schizophrenics. Both groups showed a thalamo-occipital (positive) and thalamo-frontal (negative) interaction. The highest correlations among homologous brain areas were the frontal, occipital and basal ganglia

  19. Chronic microelectrode investigations of normal human brain physiology using a hybrid depth electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M A; Volkov, I O; Noh, M D; Granner, M A; Mirsky, R; Garell, P C

    1997-01-01

    Neurosurgeons have unique access to in vivo human brain tissue, and in the course of clinical treatment important scientific advances have been made that further our understanding of normal brain physiology. In the modern era, microelectrode recordings have been used to systematically investigate the cellular properties of lateral temporal cerebral cortex. The current report describes a hybrid depth electrode (HDE) recording technique that was developed to enable neurosurgeons to simultaneously investigate normal cellular physiology during chronic intracranial EEG recordings. The HDE combines microelectrode and EEG recordings sites on a single shaft. Multiple microelectrode recordings are obtained from MRI defined brain sites and single-unit activity is discriminated from these data. To date, over 60 HDEs have been placed in 20 epilepsy surgery patients. Unique physiologic data have been gathered from neurons in numerous brain regions, including amygdala, hippocampus, frontal lobe, insula and Heschl's gyrus. Functional activation studies were carried out without risking patient safety or comfort.

  20. Grammatical categories in the brain: the role of morphological structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, O; Randall, B; Stamatakis, E A; Tyler, L K

    2007-08-01

    The current study addresses the controversial issue of how different grammatical categories are neurally processed. Several lesion-deficit studies suggest that distinct neural substrates underlie the representation of nouns and verbs, with verb deficits associated with damage to left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and noun deficits with damage to left temporal cortex. However, this view is not universally shared by neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We have suggested that these inconsistencies may reflect interactions between the morphological structure of nouns and verbs and the processing implications of this, rather than differences in their neural representations (Tyler et al. 2004). We tested this hypothesis using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, to scan subjects performing a valence judgment on unambiguous nouns and verbs, presented as stems ('snail, hear') and inflected forms ('snails, hears'). We predicted that activations for noun and verb stems would not differ, whereas inflected verbs would generate more activation in left frontotemporal areas than inflected nouns. Our findings supported this hypothesis, with greater activation of this network for inflected verbs compared with inflected nouns. These results support the claim that form class is not a first-order organizing principle underlying the representation of words but rather interacts with the processes that operate over lexical representations.

  1. Ultrasound-mediated delivery and distribution of polymeric nanoparticles in the normal brain parenchyma of a metastatic brain tumour model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Baghirov

    Full Text Available The treatment of brain diseases is hindered by the blood-brain barrier (BBB preventing most drugs from entering the brain. Focused ultrasound (FUS with microbubbles can open the BBB safely and reversibly. Systemic drug injection might induce toxicity, but encapsulation into nanoparticles reduces accumulation in normal tissue. Here we used a novel platform based on poly(2-ethyl-butyl cyanoacrylate nanoparticle-stabilized microbubbles to permeabilize the BBB in a melanoma brain metastasis model. With a dual-frequency ultrasound transducer generating FUS at 1.1 MHz and 7.8 MHz, we opened the BBB using nanoparticle-microbubbles and low-frequency FUS, and applied high-frequency FUS to generate acoustic radiation force and push nanoparticles through the extracellular matrix. Using confocal microscopy and image analysis, we quantified nanoparticle extravasation and distribution in the brain parenchyma. We also evaluated haemorrhage, as well as the expression of P-glycoprotein, a key BBB component. FUS and microbubbles distributed nanoparticles in the brain parenchyma, and the distribution depended on the extent of BBB opening. The results from acoustic radiation force were not conclusive, but in a few animals some effect could be detected. P-glycoprotein was not significantly altered immediately after sonication. In summary, FUS with our nanoparticle-stabilized microbubbles can achieve accumulation and displacement of nanoparticles in the brain parenchyma.

  2. Ultrasound-mediated delivery and distribution of polymeric nanoparticles in the normal brain parenchyma of a metastatic brain tumour model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghirov, Habib; Snipstad, Sofie; Sulheim, Einar; Berg, Sigrid; Hansen, Rune; Thorsen, Frits; Mørch, Yrr; Åslund, Andreas K. O.

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of brain diseases is hindered by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) preventing most drugs from entering the brain. Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles can open the BBB safely and reversibly. Systemic drug injection might induce toxicity, but encapsulation into nanoparticles reduces accumulation in normal tissue. Here we used a novel platform based on poly(2-ethyl-butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticle-stabilized microbubbles to permeabilize the BBB in a melanoma brain metastasis model. With a dual-frequency ultrasound transducer generating FUS at 1.1 MHz and 7.8 MHz, we opened the BBB using nanoparticle-microbubbles and low-frequency FUS, and applied high-frequency FUS to generate acoustic radiation force and push nanoparticles through the extracellular matrix. Using confocal microscopy and image analysis, we quantified nanoparticle extravasation and distribution in the brain parenchyma. We also evaluated haemorrhage, as well as the expression of P-glycoprotein, a key BBB component. FUS and microbubbles distributed nanoparticles in the brain parenchyma, and the distribution depended on the extent of BBB opening. The results from acoustic radiation force were not conclusive, but in a few animals some effect could be detected. P-glycoprotein was not significantly altered immediately after sonication. In summary, FUS with our nanoparticle-stabilized microbubbles can achieve accumulation and displacement of nanoparticles in the brain parenchyma. PMID:29338016

  3. Posterior urethral valves: Morphological normalization of posterior urethra after fulguration is a significant factor in prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Prema; Rao, K L N; Vijaymahantesh, S; Kanojia, R P; Samujh, R; Batra, Y K; Sodhi, K S; Saxena, A K; Bhattacharya, A; Mittal, B R

    2010-07-01

    To assess the changes in urethral morphology 3 months post fulguration of posterior urethral valves (PUVs) on micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG) and correlate these changes with the overall clinical status of the patient. A total of 217 children, managed for PUVs during a period of 6 years in a single surgical unit were prospectively studied. The ratio of the diameters of the prostatic and bulbar urethras (PU/BU) was calculated on the pre- and post-fulguration MCUG films. They were categorized into three groups based on the degree of normalization of posterior urethra (post-fulguration PU/BU ratio). Of the 133 patients, 131 had normal urinary stream and 4 (3%) had nocturnal enuresis. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), initially seen in 83 units (31% units), regressed completely at a mean duration of 6 months in 41 units (49%). Of the 152 non-VUR, hydroureteronephrosis (HUN) units, 11 were poorly functioning kidneys. Persistent slow but unobstructed drainage was seen in 23 units (16%) over a period of 1.5-5 years (mean 2.5 years). Group B: All the 11 patients had a normal stream. Four (36.4%) had daytime frequency for a mean duration of 1 year and one (9%) had nocturnal enuresis for 1 year. Grade IV-V VUR was seen in five patients (three bilateral), which regressed completely by 3 months in five units (62.5%). In the non-VUR, HUN patients, slow (but unobstructed) drainage was persistent in two units (14%) at 3 years. Group C: Of the 16 patients, only 5 (31.3%) were asymptomatic. Six patients (nine units) had persistent VUR for 6 months to 3 years. Of the 20 units with HUN, 17 (85%) were persistent at 1-4 years (mean 2 years). Eight patients (50%) required a second fulguration while 3 (18.7%) required urethral dilatation for stricture following which all parameters improved. Adequacy of fulguration should be assessed by a properly performed MCUG. A postop PU/BU ratio >3 SD (1.92) should alert to an incomplete fulguration or stricture. Patients within normal range ratio

  4. Posterior urethral valves: Morphological normalization of posterior urethra after fulguration is a significant factor in prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon Prema

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the changes in urethral morphology 3 months post fulguration of posterior urethral valves (PUVs on micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG and correlate these changes with the overall clinical status of the patient. Materials and Methods: A total of 217 children, managed for PUVs during a period of 6 years in a single surgical unit were prospectively studied. The ratio of the diameters of the prostatic and bulbar urethras (PU/BU was calculated on the pre- and post-fulguration MCUG films. They were categorized into three groups based on the degree of normalization of posterior urethra (post-fulguration PU/BU ratio. Results: Group A: Of the 133 patients, 131 had normal urinary stream and 4 (3% had nocturnal enuresis. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, initially seen in 83 units (31% units, regressed completely at a mean duration of 6 months in 41 units (49%. Of the 152 non-VUR, hydroureteronephrosis (HUN units, 11 were poorly functioning kidneys. Persistent slow but unobstructed drainage was seen in 23 units (16% over a period of 1.5-5 years (mean 2.5 years. Group B: All the 11 patients had a normal stream. Four (36.4% had daytime frequency for a mean duration of 1 year and one (9% had nocturnal enuresis for 1 year. Grade IV-V VUR was seen in five patients (three bilateral, which regressed completely by 3 months in five units (62.5%. In the non-VUR, HUN patients, slow (but unobstructed drainage was persistent in two units (14% at 3 years. Group C: Of the 16 patients, only 5 (31.3% were asymptomatic. Six patients (nine units had persistent VUR for 6 months to 3 years. Of the 20 units with HUN, 17 (85% were persistent at 1-4 years (mean 2 years. Eight patients (50% required a second fulguration while 3 (18.7% required urethral dilatation for stricture following which all parameters improved. Conclusions: Adequacy of fulguration should be assessed by a properly performed MCUG. A postop PU/BU ratio >3 SD (1.92 should alert to an incomplete

  5. Changes in brain morphology in albinism reflect reduced visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Holly; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth A H; Davies, George; Chambers, Claire; Gouws, Andre; Hoffmann, Michael; Morland, Antony B

    2014-07-01

    Albinism, in humans and many animal species, has a major impact on the visual system, leading to reduced acuity, lack of binocular function and nystagmus. In addition to the lack of a foveal pit, there is a disruption to the routing of the nerve fibers crossing at the optic chiasm, resulting in excessive crossing of fibers to the contralateral hemisphere. However, very little is known about the effect of this misrouting on the structure of the post-chiasmatic visual pathway, and the occipital lobes in particular. Whole-brain analyses of cortical thickness in a large cohort of subjects with albinism showed an increase in cortical thickness, relative to control subjects, particularly in posterior V1, corresponding to the foveal representation. Furthermore, mean cortical thickness across entire V1 was significantly greater in these subjects compared to controls and negatively correlated with visual acuity in albinism. Additionally, the group with albinism showed decreased gyrification in the left ventral occipital lobe. While the increase in cortical thickness in V1, also found in congenitally blind subjects, has been interpreted to reflect a lack of pruning, the decreased gyrification in the ventral extrastriate cortex may reflect the reduced input to the foveal regions of the ventral visual stream. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Normal and abnormal fetal brain development during the third trimester as demonstrated by neurosonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinger, G.; Lev, D.; Lerman-Sagie, T.

    2006-01-01

    The multiplanar neurosonographic examination of the fetus enables superb visualization of brain anatomy during pregnancy. The examination may be performed using a transvaginal or a transfundal approach and it is indicated in patients at high risk for CNS anomalies or in those with a suspicious finding during a routine examination. The purpose of this paper is to present a description of the normal brain and of abnormal findings usually diagnosed late in pregnancy, including malformations of cortical development, infratentorial anomalies, and prenatal insults

  7. Longitudinal genetic analysis of brain volumes in normal elderly male twins

    OpenAIRE

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Hardin, Jill; DeCarli, Charles; Krasnow, Ruth E.; Reed, Terry; Wolf, Philip A.; Swan, Gary E.; Carmelli, Dorit

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in brain volumes measured at two time points in normal elderly males from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study. The MRI scans were conducted four years apart on 33 monozygotic and 33 dizygotic male twin pairs, aged 68 to 77 years when first scanned. Volumetric measures of total brain and total cerebrospinal fluid were significantly heritable at baseline (over 70%). For both v...

  8. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging: brain normal linear biometric values below 24 gestational weeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazzini, C.; Righini, A.; Triulzi, F.; Rustico, M.; Consonni, D.

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently used to measure quantitative data concerning brain structural development. At present, morphometric MR imaging studies have been focused mostly on the third trimester of gestational age. However, in many countries, because of legal restriction on abortion timing, the majority of MR imaging fetal examination has to be carried out during the last part of the second trimester of pregnancy (i.e., before the 24th week of gestation). Accurate and reliable normative data of the brain between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation is not available. This report provides easy and practical parametric support to assess those normative data. From a database of 1,200 fetal MR imaging studies, we retrospectively selected 84 studies of the brain of fetuses aged 20-24 weeks of gestation that resulted normal on clinical and radiological follow-up. Fetuses with proved or suspected infections, twin pregnancy, and fetuses of mothers affected by pathology that might have influenced fetal growth were excluded. Linear biometrical measurements of the main cerebral structures were obtained by three experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. A substantial interobserver agreement for each measurements was reached, and normative data with median, maximum, and minimum value were obtained for brain structures. The knowledge of a range of normality and interindividual variability of linear biometrical values for the developing brain between 20th and 24th weeks of gestation may be valuable in assessing normal brain development in clinical settings. (orig.)

  9. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging: brain normal linear biometric values below 24 gestational weeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazzini, C.; Righini, A.; Triulzi, F. [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Rustico, M. [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Milan (Italy); Consonni, D. [Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Unit of Epidemiology, Milan (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently used to measure quantitative data concerning brain structural development. At present, morphometric MR imaging studies have been focused mostly on the third trimester of gestational age. However, in many countries, because of legal restriction on abortion timing, the majority of MR imaging fetal examination has to be carried out during the last part of the second trimester of pregnancy (i.e., before the 24th week of gestation). Accurate and reliable normative data of the brain between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation is not available. This report provides easy and practical parametric support to assess those normative data. From a database of 1,200 fetal MR imaging studies, we retrospectively selected 84 studies of the brain of fetuses aged 20-24 weeks of gestation that resulted normal on clinical and radiological follow-up. Fetuses with proved or suspected infections, twin pregnancy, and fetuses of mothers affected by pathology that might have influenced fetal growth were excluded. Linear biometrical measurements of the main cerebral structures were obtained by three experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. A substantial interobserver agreement for each measurements was reached, and normative data with median, maximum, and minimum value were obtained for brain structures. The knowledge of a range of normality and interindividual variability of linear biometrical values for the developing brain between 20th and 24th weeks of gestation may be valuable in assessing normal brain development in clinical settings. (orig.)

  10. Assessment the Plasticity of Cortical Brain Theory through Visual Memory in Deaf and Normal Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghanaee-Chamanabad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main aim of this research was to assess the differences of visual memory in deaf and normal students according to plasticity of cortical brain.Materials and Methods: This is an ex-post factor research. Benton visual test was performed by two different ways on 46 students of primary school. (22 deaf and 24 normal students. The t-student was used to analysis the data. Results: The visual memory in deaf students was significantly higher than the similar normal students (not deaf.While the action of visual memory in deaf girls was risen in comparison to normal girls in both ways, the deaf boys presented the better action in just one way of the two performances of Benton visual memory test.Conclusion: The action of plasticity of brain shows that the brain of an adult is dynamic and there are some changes in it. This brain plasticity has not limited to sensory somatic systems. Therefore according to plasticity of cortical brain theory, the deaf students due to the defect of hearing have increased the visual the visual inputs which developed the procedural visual memory.

  11. Morphological brain measures of cortico-limbic inhibition related to resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Love, Aubrey; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Labus, Jennifer S; Bhatt, Ravi; Chang, Lin; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Mayer, Emeran A

    2017-09-01

    Resilience is the ability to adequately adapt and respond to homeostatic perturbations. Although resilience has been associated with positive health outcomes, the neuro-biological basis of resilience is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to identify associations between regional brain morphology and trait resilience with a focus on resilience-related morphological differences in brain regions involved in cortico-limbic inhibition. The relationship between resilience and measures of affect were also investigated. Forty-eight healthy subjects completed structural MRI scans. Self-reported resilience was measured using the Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale. Segmentation and regional parcellation of images was performed to yield a total of 165 regions. Gray matter volume (GMV), cortical thickness, surface area, and mean curvature were calculated for each region. Regression models were used to identify associations between morphology of regions belonging to executive control and emotional arousal brain networks and trait resilience (total and subscales) while controlling for age, sex, and total GMV. Correlations were also conducted between resilience scores and affect scores. Significant associations were found between GM changes in hypothesized brain regions (subparietal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, amygdala, anterior mid cingulate cortex, and subgenual cingulate cortex) and resilience scores. There were significant positive correlations between resilience and positive affect and negative correlations with negative affect. Resilience was associated with brain morphology of regions involved in cognitive and affective processes related to cortico-limbic inhibition. Brain signatures associated with resilience may be a biomarker of vulnerability to disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [An autopsy case of brain candidiasis in premature infant: morphology and intraparenchymal distribution of Candida foci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Goto, N

    1993-07-01

    An autopsy case of brain candidiasis occurring in a premature infant is presented, and the morphology and intraparenchymal distribution of Candida foci are described in detail with the aid of serial sections of the affected brain. The patient was a boy, who was born after 25 weeks of gestation and died on day 15. Candida foci were composed of two infectious forms of Candida (yeasts and pseudohyphae) and various inflammatory reactions of the host. They were widely disseminated in the brain parenchyma, leptomeninges and ventricular system. In view of their morphology, they were classified into the acute and chronic inflammatory types. The acute type foci, characterized by microabscess of infiltration of neutrophils, were large and localized predominantly in the cerebral white matter, fiber tracts, central grey matter of the midbrain, reticular formation, floor of fourth ventricle and subependymal germinal layer; most of the acute type foci were found in the watershed zones where the blood supply was considered to be poorer than the other parts of the brain parenchyma. In contrast, the chronic type foci, characterized by nodular proliferation of astrocytes, were small and localized in the grey matter (the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and brainstem nuclei) and the leptomeninges. This study suggests that Candida infection to the brain may occur by different two kinds of way correlating with the proper vasoarchitecture of brain. In addition, it is recommended to make a close examination of the maternal vagina, placenta and umbilical cord after delivery to detect the risk of Candida infection.

  13. Evidence of disrupted high-risk human papillomavirus DNA in morphologically normal cervices of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Sarah M; Pereira, Merlin; Roberts, Sally; Cuschieri, Kate; Nuovo, Gerard; Athavale, Ramanand; Young, Lawrence; Ganesan, Raji; Woodman, Ciarán B

    2016-02-15

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) causes nearly 100% of cervical carcinoma. However, it remains unclear whether HPV can establish a latent infection, one which may be responsible for the second peak in incidence of cervical carcinoma seen in older women. Therefore, using Ventana in situ hybridisation (ISH), quantitative PCR assays and biomarkers of productive and transforming viral infection, we set out to provide the first robust estimate of the prevalence and characteristics of HPV genomes in FFPE tissue from the cervices of 99 women undergoing hysterectomy for reasons unrelated to epithelial abnormality. Our ISH assay detected HR-HPV in 42% of our study population. The majority of ISH positive samples also tested HPV16 positive using sensitive PCR based assays and were more likely to have a history of preceding cytological abnormality. Analysis of subsets of this population revealed HR-HPV to be transcriptionally inactive as there was no evidence of a productive or transforming infection. Critically, the E2 gene was always disrupted in those HPV16 positive cases which were assessed. These findings point to a reservoir of transcriptionally silent, disrupted HPV16 DNA in morphologically normal cervices, re-expression of which could explain the increase in incidence of cervical cancer observed in later life.

  14. The research of morphological variations and sexual dimorphism of primary grooves on the medial side of brain hemispheres in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Goran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological studies of the various parts of the brain show certain morphological and morphometric differences in correlation with sex, so-called sexual dimorphism of the brain. Our research has been done on the cerebral hemispheres, taken from cadavers of both sexes and different age without pathological processes in the brain. The sample comprised 26 male brains and 16 female brains. We studied three primary grooves (sulcus cinguli, sulcus parietooccipitalis and sulcus calcarinus of the medial surface of the human cerebral hemispheres. We conducted morphological typology of grooves and morphometric measurements of primary brain grooves length in relation to sex and side of hemisphere. The results showed a statistically significant sex difference in the cingulate sulcus length (p0,05. Determined morphometric sexual dimorphism in cingulate sulcus length is significant because it implies the correlation between morphology and function of the explored areas of the cerebral cortex.

  15. Selection of appropriate template for spatial normalization of brain images: tensor based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2004-01-01

    Although there have been remarkable advances in spatial normalization techniques, the differences in the shape of the hemispheres and the sulcal pattern of brains relative to age, gender, races, and diseases cannot be fully overcome by the nonlinear spatial normalization techniques. T1 SPGR MR images in 16 elderly male normal volunteers (>55 y. mean age: = 61.8 ± 3.5 y) were spatially normalized onto the age/gender specific Korean templates, and the Caucasian MNI template and the extent of the deformations were compared. These particular subjects were never included in the development of the templates. First , the images were matched into the templates using an affine transformation to eliminate the global difference between the templates and source images. Second the affine registration was followed by an estimation of nonlinear deformation. Determinants of the Jacobian matrices of the nonlinear deformation were then calculated for every voxel to estimate the regional volume change during the nonlinear transformation Jacobian determinant images highlighted the great magnitude of the relative local volume changes obtained when the elderly brains were spatially normalized onto the young/midlife male or female templates. They reflect the enlargement of CSF space in the lateral ventricles, sylvian fissures and cisterna magna, and the shrinkage of the cortex noted mainly in frontal, insular and lateral temporal cortexes, and the cerebellums in the aged brains. In the Jacobian determinant images, a regional shrinkage of the brain in the left middle prefrontal cortex was observed in addition to the regional expansion in the ventricles and sylvian fissures, which may be due to the age differences between the template and source images. The regional anatomical difference between template and source images could impose an extreme deformation of the source images during the spatial normalization and therefore. Individual brains should be placed into the appropriate template

  16. Selection of appropriate template for spatial normalization of brain images: tensor based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Although there have been remarkable advances in spatial normalization techniques, the differences in the shape of the hemispheres and the sulcal pattern of brains relative to age, gender, races, and diseases cannot be fully overcome by the nonlinear spatial normalization techniques. T1 SPGR MR images in 16 elderly male normal volunteers (>55 y. mean age: = 61.8 {+-} 3.5 y) were spatially normalized onto the age/gender specific Korean templates, and the Caucasian MNI template and the extent of the deformations were compared. These particular subjects were never included in the development of the templates. First , the images were matched into the templates using an affine transformation to eliminate the global difference between the templates and source images. Second the affine registration was followed by an estimation of nonlinear deformation. Determinants of the Jacobian matrices of the nonlinear deformation were then calculated for every voxel to estimate the regional volume change during the nonlinear transformation Jacobian determinant images highlighted the great magnitude of the relative local volume changes obtained when the elderly brains were spatially normalized onto the young/midlife male or female templates. They reflect the enlargement of CSF space in the lateral ventricles, sylvian fissures and cisterna magna, and the shrinkage of the cortex noted mainly in frontal, insular and lateral temporal cortexes, and the cerebellums in the aged brains. In the Jacobian determinant images, a regional shrinkage of the brain in the left middle prefrontal cortex was observed in addition to the regional expansion in the ventricles and sylvian fissures, which may be due to the age differences between the template and source images. The regional anatomical difference between template and source images could impose an extreme deformation of the source images during the spatial normalization and therefore. Individual brains should be placed into the appropriate

  17. Morphometric connectivity analysis to distinguish normal, mild cognitive impaired, and Alzheimer subjects based on brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge; Mysling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...

  18. Biomechanical Analysis of Normal Brain Development during the First Year of Life Using Finite Strain Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Chul; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Lin, Weili

    2016-12-02

    The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and shear strains) were measured to reveal directional growth information every 3 months during the first year of life. Directional normal strain maps revealed that, during the first 6 months, the growth pattern of gray matter is anisotropic and spatially inhomogeneous with higher left-right stretch around the temporal lobe and interhemispheric fissure, anterior-posterior stretch in the frontal and occipital lobes, and superior-inferior stretch in right inferior occipital and right inferior temporal gyri. In contrast, anterior lateral ventricles and insula showed an isotropic stretch pattern. Volumetric and directional growth rates were linearly decreased with age for most of the cortical regions. Our results revealed anisotropic and inhomogeneous brain growth patterns of the human brain during the first year of life using longitudinal MRI and a biomechanical framework.

  19. Study of cerebral metabolism of glucose in normal human brain correlated with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The objective was to determine whether cerebral metabolism in various regions of the brain differs with advancing age by using 18F-FDG PET instrument and SPM software. Materials and Methods We reviewed clinical information of 295 healthy normal samples who were examined by a whole body GE Discovery LS PET-CT instrument in our center from Aug. 2004 to Dec. 2005.They (with the age ranging from 21 to 88; mean age+/-SD: 49.77+/-13.51) were selected with: (i)absence of clear focal brain lesions (epilepsy.cerebrovascular diseases etc);(ii) absence of metabolic diseases, such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and diabetes;(iii) absence of psychiatric disorders and abuse of drugs and alcohol. They were sub grouped into six groups with the interval of 10 years old starting from 21, and the gender, educational background and serum glucose were matched. All subgroups were compared to the control group of 31-40 years old (84 samples; mean age+/-SD: 37.15+/-2.63). All samples were injected with 18F-FDG (5.55MBq/kg), 45-60 minutes later, their brains were scanned for 10min. Pixel-by-pixel t-statistic analysis was applied to all brain images using the Statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) .The hypometabolic areas (p < 0. 01 or p<0.001, uncorrected) were identified in the Stereotaxic coordinate human brain atlas and three-dimensional localized by MNI Space utility (MSU) software. Results:Relative hypometabolic brain areas detected are mainly in the cortical structures such as bilateral prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus(BA22), parietal cortex (inferior parietal lobule and precuneus(BA40, insula(BA13)), parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala (p<0.01).It is especially apparent in the prefrontal cortex (BA9)and sensory-motor cortex(BA5, 7) (p<0.001), while basal ganglia and cerebellum remained metabolically unchanged with advancing age. Conclusions Regional cerebral metabolism of glucose shows a descent tendency with aging, especially in the prefrontal cortex (BA9)and

  20. Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ducharme

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of developmental trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual typically-developing subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753 from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models, with statistical correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory. Analyses were performed with and without controlling for total brain volume. These data are provided for reference and comparison with other databases. Further discussion and interpretation on cortical developmental trajectories can be found in the associated Ducharme et al.׳s article “Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – the importance of quality control procedures” (Ducharme et al., 2015 [1].

  1. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  2. Normal Brain-Skull Development with Hybrid Deformable VR Models Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; De Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation framework for a clinical application involving skull-brain co-development in infants, leading to a platform for craniosynostosis modeling. Craniosynostosis occurs when one or more sutures are fused early in life, resulting in an abnormal skull shape. Surgery is required to reopen the suture and reduce intracranial pressure, but is difficult without any predictive model to assist surgical planning. We aim to study normal brain-skull growth by computer simulation, which requires a head model and appropriate mathematical methods for brain and skull growth respectively. On the basis of our previous model, we further specified suture model into fibrous and cartilaginous sutures and develop algorithm for skull extension. We evaluate the resulting simulation by comparison with datasets of cases and normal growth.

  3. The blind brain: how (lack of) vision shapes the morphological and functional architecture of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo; Pietrini, Pietro

    2014-11-01

    Since the early days, how we represent the world around us has been a matter of philosophical speculation. Over the last few decades, modern neuroscience, and specifically the development of methodologies for the structural and the functional exploration of the brain have made it possible to investigate old questions with an innovative approach. In this brief review, we discuss the main findings from a series of brain anatomical and functional studies conducted in sighted and congenitally blind individuals by our's and others' laboratories. Historically, research on the 'blind brain' has focused mainly on the cross-modal plastic changes that follow sensory deprivation. More recently, a novel line of research has been developed to determine to what extent visual experience is truly required to achieve a representation of the surrounding environment. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that most of the brain fine morphological and functional architecture is programmed to develop and function independently from any visual experience. Distinct cortical areas are able to process information in a supramodal fashion, that is, independently from the sensory modality that carries that information to the brain. These observations strongly support the hypothesis of a modality-independent, i.e. more abstract, cortical organization, and may contribute to explain how congenitally blind individuals may interact efficiently with an external world that they have never seen. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  4. Morphological and functional MRI, MRS, perfusion and diffusion changes after radiosurgery of brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Kim, Sung Tae; Byun, Hong Sik; Jeon, Pyoung; Kim, Keonha; Kim, Hyungjin; Lee, Jung II

    2009-01-01

    Radiosurgery is a noninvasive procedure where spatially accurate and highly conformal doses of radiation are targeted at brain lesions with an ablative intent. Recently, radiosurgery has been established as an effective technique for local treatment of brain metastasis. After radiosurgery, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of the therapeutic response and of any complications. The therapeutic approach depends on the imaging findings obtained after radiosurgery, which have a role in the decision making to perform additional invasive modalities (repeat resection, biopsy) to obtain a definite diagnosis and to improve the survival of patients. Conventional MR imaging findings are mainly based on morphological alterations of tumors. However, there are variable imaging findings of radiation-induced changes including radiation necrosis in the brain. Radiologists are sometimes confused by radiation-induced injuries, including radiation necrosis, that are seen on conventional MR imaging. The pattern of abnormal enhancement on follow-up conventional MR imaging closely mimics that of a recurrent brain metastasis. So, classifying newly developed abnormal enhancing lesions in follow-up of treated brain metastasis with correct diagnosis is one of the key goals in neuro-oncologic imaging. To overcome limitations of the use of morphology-based conventional MR imaging, several physiological-based functional MR imaging methods have been used, namely diffusion-weighted imaging, perfusion MR imaging, and proton MR spectroscopy, for the detection of hemodynamic, metabolic, and cellular alterations. These imaging modalities provide additional information to allow clinicians to make proper decisions regarding patient treatment.

  5. The influences of silent cerebral infarction and hypertension on brain atrophy in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhefeng, Quan; Bokura, Hirokazu; Iijima, Kenichi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the influences of silent brain infarction (SBI) and hypertension on brain atrophy and its longitudinal progression in healthy adults. MRI scans were performed on 109 neurologically normal adults (mean age, 58.6±5.8 years), with follow-up at an average of 4.9 years later. Patient histories of hypertension, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption were examined. We evaluated brain atrophy using the brain atrophy index (BAI; the ratio of the brain area to the intracranial area) and the ventricular atrophy index (VAI; the ratio of the ventricular area to the brain area) on MRI T1-weighted images at the levels of the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle in horizontal sections. There were no differences in age, sex, dyslipidemia, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, and alcohol consumption between the normal group and the SBI or hypertension group. The BAI was significantly lower at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at both the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle levels (basal ganglia level, p=0.02; and lateral ventricle level, p=0.05). Moreover, the VAI was significantly higher at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at the lateral ventricle level (p=0.03). Furthermore, the BAI was significantly lower at entry for the hypertensive group than for the non-hypertensive group at the basal ganglia level (p=0.007). There were no significant differences in the annual variations of the BAI and VAI between the normal group and the SBI (+) or hypertensive group. The present results suggest that the SBI and hypertension are accelerating factors for brain atrophy and ventricular dilatation. (author)

  6. The influences of silent cerebral infarction and hypertension on brain atrophy in normal adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhefeng, Quan; Bokura, Hirokazu; Iijima, Kenichi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Shuhei [Shimane Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    We studied the influences of silent brain infarction (SBI) and hypertension on brain atrophy and its longitudinal progression in healthy adults. MRI scans were performed on 109 neurologically normal adults (mean age, 58.6{+-}5.8 years), with follow-up at an average of 4.9 years later. Patient histories of hypertension, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption were examined. We evaluated brain atrophy using the brain atrophy index (BAI; the ratio of the brain area to the intracranial area) and the ventricular atrophy index (VAI; the ratio of the ventricular area to the brain area) on MRI T1-weighted images at the levels of the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle in horizontal sections. There were no differences in age, sex, dyslipidemia, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, and alcohol consumption between the normal group and the SBI or hypertension group. The BAI was significantly lower at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at both the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle levels (basal ganglia level, p=0.02; and lateral ventricle level, p=0.05). Moreover, the VAI was significantly higher at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at the lateral ventricle level (p=0.03). Furthermore, the BAI was significantly lower at entry for the hypertensive group than for the non-hypertensive group at the basal ganglia level (p=0.007). There were no significant differences in the annual variations of the BAI and VAI between the normal group and the SBI (+) or hypertensive group. The present results suggest that the SBI and hypertension are accelerating factors for brain atrophy and ventricular dilatation. (author)

  7. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo [Department of Radiology, First Kamiida General Hospital (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean{+-}standard deviation 2.3{+-}1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  8. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo; Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean±standard deviation 2.3±1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  9. R2* mapping for brain iron: associations with cognition in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadery, Christine; Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Langkammer, Christian; Petrovic, Katja; Loitfelder, Marisa; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Fazekas, Franz; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2015-02-01

    Brain iron accumulates during aging and has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance (MR)-based R2* mapping enables the in vivo detection of iron content in brain tissue. We investigated if during normal brain aging iron load relates to cognitive impairment in region-specific patterns in a community-dwelling cohort of 336 healthy, middle aged, and older adults from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study. MR imaging and R2* mapping in the basal ganglia and neocortex were done at 3T. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing assessed memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. We found the highest iron concentration in the globus pallidus, and pallidal and putaminal iron was significantly and inversely associated with cognitive performance in all cognitive domains, except memory. These associations were iron load dependent. Vascular brain lesions and brain volume did not mediate the relationship between iron and cognitive performance. We conclude that higher R2*-determined iron in the basal ganglia correlates with cognitive impairment during brain aging independent of concomitant brain abnormalities. The prognostic significance of this finding needs to be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Histogram-based normalization technique on human brain magnetic resonance images from different acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofei; Shi, Lin; Luo, Yishan; Yang, Wei; Li, Hongpeng; Liang, Peipeng; Li, Kuncheng; Mok, Vincent C T; Chu, Winnie C W; Wang, Defeng

    2015-07-28

    Intensity normalization is an important preprocessing step in brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) analysis. During MR image acquisition, different scanners or parameters would be used for scanning different subjects or the same subject at a different time, which may result in large intensity variations. This intensity variation will greatly undermine the performance of subsequent MRI processing and population analysis, such as image registration, segmentation, and tissue volume measurement. In this work, we proposed a new histogram normalization method to reduce the intensity variation between MRIs obtained from different acquisitions. In our experiment, we scanned each subject twice on two different scanners using different imaging parameters. With noise estimation, the image with lower noise level was determined and treated as the high-quality reference image. Then the histogram of the low-quality image was normalized to the histogram of the high-quality image. The normalization algorithm includes two main steps: (1) intensity scaling (IS), where, for the high-quality reference image, the intensities of the image are first rescaled to a range between the low intensity region (LIR) value and the high intensity region (HIR) value; and (2) histogram normalization (HN),where the histogram of low-quality image as input image is stretched to match the histogram of the reference image, so that the intensity range in the normalized image will also lie between LIR and HIR. We performed three sets of experiments to evaluate the proposed method, i.e., image registration, segmentation, and tissue volume measurement, and compared this with the existing intensity normalization method. It is then possible to validate that our histogram normalization framework can achieve better results in all the experiments. It is also demonstrated that the brain template with normalization preprocessing is of higher quality than the template with no normalization processing. We have proposed

  11. Discrimination of different brain metastases and primary CNS lymphomas using morphologic criteria and diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bette, S.; Wiestler, B.; Huber, T.; Boeckh-Behrens, T.; Zimmer, C.; Kirschke, J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Delbridge, C. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology; Meyer, B.; Gempt, J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2016-12-15

    Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer and occur in about 15-40% of patients with malignancies. The aim of this retrospective study was to differentiate between metastases from different primary tumors/CNS lymphyomas using morphologic criteria, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Morphologic criteria such as hemorrhage, cysts, pattern of contrast enhancement and location were reported in 200 consecutive patients with brain metastases/primary CNS lymphomas. FA and ADC values were measured in regions of interest (ROIs) placed in the contrast-enhancing tumor part, the necrosis and the non-enhancing peritumoral region (NEPTR). Differences between histopathological subtypes of metastases were analyzed using non-parametric tests, decision trees and hierarchical clustering analysis. Significant differences were found in morphologic criteria such as hemorrhage or pattern of contrast enhancement. In diffusion measurements, significant differences between the different tumor entities were only found in ADC analyzed in the contrast-enhancing tumor part. Among single tumor entities, primary CNS lymphomas showed significantly lower median ADC values in the contrast-enhancing tumor part (ADC{sub lymphoma} 0.92 [0.83-1.07] vs. ADC{sub no} {sub lymphoma} 1.35 [1.10-1.64] P=0.001). Further differentiation between types of metastases was not possible using FA and ADC. There were morphologic differences among the main subtypes of brain metastases/CNS lymphomas. However, due to a high variability of common types of metastases and low specificity, prospective differentiation remained challenging. DTI including FA and ADC was not a reliable tool for differentiation between different histopathological subtypes of brain metastases except for CNS lymphomas showing lower ADC values. Biopsy, surgery and staging remain essential for diagnosis.

  12. Three-dimensional morphologic description and visualization of brain anatomy from MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraske, W.; George, F.W.; Zee, C.S.; Colletti, P.M.; Halls, J.M.; Boswell, W.O.

    1989-01-01

    The USC VOXAR-MRI system incorporates MR tissue classification algorithms to provide dynamic three- dimensional volumetric visualization and discrimination of brain anatomy and pathology for precision diagnosis, staging, and treatment planning. The VOXAR-MRI approach to tissue classification employs the three-dimensional reconstruction of various intracranial features from gray-scale morphologic erosion and dilation (GMED)-derived skeleton representation of the MR acquisition. Case presentations include an array of VOXAR-MRI-demonstrated tumors, abscesses, hematomas, and other lesions

  13. Elemental analysis of the frontal lobe of 'normal' brain tissue and that affected by Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    'Normal' brain tissue and brain tissue affected by Alzheimer's disease has been taken from the frontal lobe of both hemispheres and their elemental compositions in terms of major, minor and trace elements compared. Brain samples were obtained from the MRC Alzheimer's Disease Brain Bank, London. 25 samples were taken from 18 individuals (5 males and 13 females) of mean age 79.9 ± 7.3 years with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease and 26 samples from 15 individuals (8 males and 7 females) of mean age 71.8 ± 13.0 years with no pathological sings of Alzheimer's disease ('normals'). The elemental concentration of the samples were determined by the techniques of Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analysis, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Sc, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Cs were detected by INAA and significant differences in concentrations were found between concentrations in normal and Alzheimer tissue for the elements. Na, Cl, K, Se, Br and Rb, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cd were detected by PIXE analysis and significant differences found for the elements P, S, Cl, K and Ca. (author)

  14. Interactive effects of genetic polymorphisms and childhood adversity on brain morphologic changes in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Ham, Byung-Joo; Han, Kyu-Man

    2018-03-10

    The etiology of depression is characterized by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors and brain structural alteration. Childhood adversity is a major contributing factor in the development of depression. Interactions between childhood adversity and candidate genes for depression could affect brain morphology via the modulation of neurotrophic factors, serotonergic neurotransmission, or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and this pathway may explain the subsequent onset of depression. Childhood adversity is associated with structural changes in the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as white matter tracts such as the corpus callosum, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Childhood adversity showed an interaction with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene Val66Met polymorphism, serotonin transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR), and FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) gene rs1360780 in brain morphologic changes in patients with depression and in a non-clinical population. Individuals with the Met allele of BDNF Val66Met and a history of childhood adversity had reduced volume in the hippocampus and its subfields, amygdala, and PFC and thinner rostral ACC in a study of depressed patients and healthy controls. The S allele of 5-HTTLPR combined with exposure to childhood adversity or a poorer parenting environment was associated with a smaller hippocampal volume and subsequent onset of depression. The FKBP5 gene rs160780 had a significant interaction with childhood adversity in the white matter integrity of brain regions involved in emotion processing. This review identified that imaging genetic studies on childhood adversity may deepen our understanding on the neurobiological background of depression by scrutinizing complicated pathways of genetic factors, early psychosocial environments, and the accompanying morphologic changes in emotion-processing neural circuitry. Copyright

  15. Alteration of brain viscoelasticity after shunt treatment in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freimann, Florian Baptist; Sprung, Christian [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Neurosurgical Department, Berlin (Germany); Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Klatt, Dieter; Sack, Ingolf [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Lin, Kui; McLaughlin, Joyce [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Mathematics Department, Troy, NY (United States); Braun, Juergen [Charite - University Medicine Campus Benjamin Franklin, Institute of Medical Informatics, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) represents a chronic neurological disorder with increasing incidence. The symptoms of NPH may be relieved by surgically implanting a ventriculoperitoneal shunt to drain excess cerebrospinal fluid. However, the pathogenesis of NPH is not yet fully elucidated, and the clinical response of shunt treatment is hard to predict. According to current theories of NPH, altered mechanical properties of brain tissue seem to play an important role. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a unique method for measuring in vivo brain mechanics. In this study cerebral MRE was applied to test the viscoelastic properties of the brain in 20 patients with primary (N = 14) and secondary (N = 6) NPH prior and after (91 {+-} 16 days) shunt placement. Viscoelastic parameters were derived from the complex modulus according to the rheological springpot model. This model provided two independent parameters {mu} and {alpha}, related to the inherent rigidity and topology of the mechanical network of brain tissue. The viscoelastic parameters {mu} and {alpha} were found to be decreased with -25% and -10%, respectively, compared to age-matched controls (P < 0.001). Interestingly, {alpha} increased after shunt placement (P < 0.001) to almost normal values whereas {mu} remained symptomatically low. The results indicate the fundamental role of altered viscoelastic properties of brain tissue during disease progression and tissue repair in NPH. Clinical improvement in NPH is associated with an increasing complexity of the mechanical network whose inherent strength, however, remains degraded. (orig.)

  16. Trace element determinations in brain tissues from normal and clinically demented individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Leite, Renata E.P.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Ferretti, Renata E.L.; Suemoto, Claudia; Pasqualucci, Carlos A.; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Studies on trace element levels in human brains under normal and pathological conditions have indicated a possible correlation between some trace element concentrations and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, analysis of brain tissues was carried out to investigate if there are any differences in elemental concentrations between brain tissues from a normal population above 50 years of age presenting Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) equal to zero (CDR=0) and that cognitively affected population ( CDR=3). The tissues were dissected, ground, freeze-dried and then analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated in a neutron flux at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for Br, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma ray activities were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The one-way ANOVA test (p< 0.05) was used to compare the results. All the elements determined in the hippocampus brain region presented differences between the groups presenting CDR=0 and CDR=3. In the case of frontal region only the elements Na, Rb and Zn showed differences between these two groups. These findings proved the correlation between elemental levels present in brain tissues neurodegenerative diseases. Biological standard reference materials SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue and SRM 1577b Bovine Liver analyzed for quality control indicated good accuracy and precision of the results. (author)

  17. Alteration of brain viscoelasticity after shunt treatment in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freimann, Florian Baptist; Sprung, Christian; Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Klatt, Dieter; Sack, Ingolf; Lin, Kui; McLaughlin, Joyce; Braun, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) represents a chronic neurological disorder with increasing incidence. The symptoms of NPH may be relieved by surgically implanting a ventriculoperitoneal shunt to drain excess cerebrospinal fluid. However, the pathogenesis of NPH is not yet fully elucidated, and the clinical response of shunt treatment is hard to predict. According to current theories of NPH, altered mechanical properties of brain tissue seem to play an important role. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a unique method for measuring in vivo brain mechanics. In this study cerebral MRE was applied to test the viscoelastic properties of the brain in 20 patients with primary (N = 14) and secondary (N = 6) NPH prior and after (91 ± 16 days) shunt placement. Viscoelastic parameters were derived from the complex modulus according to the rheological springpot model. This model provided two independent parameters μ and α, related to the inherent rigidity and topology of the mechanical network of brain tissue. The viscoelastic parameters μ and α were found to be decreased with -25% and -10%, respectively, compared to age-matched controls (P < 0.001). Interestingly, α increased after shunt placement (P < 0.001) to almost normal values whereas μ remained symptomatically low. The results indicate the fundamental role of altered viscoelastic properties of brain tissue during disease progression and tissue repair in NPH. Clinical improvement in NPH is associated with an increasing complexity of the mechanical network whose inherent strength, however, remains degraded. (orig.)

  18. Alterations in Normal Aging Revealed by Cortical Brain Network Constructed Using IBASPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan; Yang, Chunlan; Shi, Feng; Wang, Qun; Wu, Shuicai; Lu, Wangsheng; Li, Shaowu; Nie, Yingnan; Zhang, Xin

    2018-04-16

    Normal aging has been linked with the decline of cognitive functions, such as memory and executive skills. One of the prominent approaches to investigate the age-related alterations in the brain is by examining the cortical brain connectome. IBASPM is a toolkit to realize individual atlas-based volume measurement. Hence, this study seeks to determine what further alterations can be revealed by cortical brain networks formed by IBASPM-extracted regional gray matter volumes. We found the reduced strength of connections between the superior temporal pole and middle temporal pole in the right hemisphere, global hubs as the left fusiform gyrus and right Rolandic operculum in the young and aging groups, respectively, and significantly reduced inter-module connection of one module in the aging group. These new findings are consistent with the phenomenon of normal aging mentioned in previous studies and suggest that brain network built with the IBASPM could provide supplementary information to some extent. The individualization of morphometric features extraction deserved to be given more attention in future cortical brain network research.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of neonatal brain. Assessment of normal and abnormal findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Koh; Kadono, Naoko; Kawase, Shohji; Kihara, Minako; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Akihiko; Sawada, Tadashi

    1994-01-01

    To establish the normal MRI appearance of the neonatal brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 124 neonates who admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Degree of myelination, ventricular size, width of the extracerebral space and focal lesion in the brain were evaluated to investigate the relationship between MRI findings of neonatal brain and the neurological prognosis. 85 neonates underwent MRI both at neonatal period and at the corrected age of one year. The change of abnormal MRI findings was evaluated. 19 neonates had abnormal neurological outcome on subsequent examinations. Delayed myelination, ventriculomegaly and large extracerebral space were seen in 13, 7 and 9 neonates respectively. 4, 3 and 5 neonates out of them showed abnormal neurological prognosis respectively. Of the 19 neonates with focal lesion in MRI, 2 had parenchymal hematoma in the brain, 2 had subdural hematoma, 5 had chronic hematoma following subependymal hemorrhage, 6 had cystic formation following subependymal hemorrhage, 2 had subcortical leukomalacia, one had periventricular leukomalacia and one had cyst in the parenchyma of cerebellum. 4 neonates of 19 with focal lesion in MRI showed abnormal development. Of the neonates who had abnormal neurological prognosis, 7 neonates showed no abnormal finding in MRI at neonatal period. 3 of them had mild mental retardation. MRI shows promise in the neonatal period. It facilitates recognition of abnormalities of neonatal brain and may be used to predict abnormal neurologic outcome. However physiological change in the brain of neonates, especially of premature neonates, should be considered on interpreting these findings. Awareness of developmental features should help to minimize misinterpretation of normal changes in the neonatal brain. (author)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of neonatal brain. Assessment of normal and abnormal findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Koh; Kadono, Naoko; Kawase, Shohji; Kihara, Minako; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Akihiko; Sawada, Tadashi (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1994-11-01

    To establish the normal MRI appearance of the neonatal brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 124 neonates who admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Degree of myelination, ventricular size, width of the extracerebral space and focal lesion in the brain were evaluated to investigate the relationship between MRI findings of neonatal brain and the neurological prognosis. 85 neonates underwent MRI both at neonatal period and at the corrected age of one year. The change of abnormal MRI findings was evaluated. 19 neonates had abnormal neurological outcome on subsequent examinations. Delayed myelination, ventriculomegaly and large extracerebral space were seen in 13, 7 and 9 neonates respectively. 4, 3 and 5 neonates out of them showed abnormal neurological prognosis respectively. Of the 19 neonates with focal lesion in MRI, 2 had parenchymal hematoma in the brain, 2 had subdural hematoma, 5 had chronic hematoma following subependymal hemorrhage, 6 had cystic formation following subependymal hemorrhage, 2 had subcortical leukomalacia, one had periventricular leukomalacia and one had cyst in the parenchyma of cerebellum. 4 neonates of 19 with focal lesion in MRI showed abnormal development. Of the neonates who had abnormal neurological prognosis, 7 neonates showed no abnormal finding in MRI at neonatal period. 3 of them had mild mental retardation. MRI shows promise in the neonatal period. It facilitates recognition of abnormalities of neonatal brain and may be used to predict abnormal neurologic outcome. However physiological change in the brain of neonates, especially of premature neonates, should be considered on interpreting these findings. Awareness of developmental features should help to minimize misinterpretation of normal changes in the neonatal brain. (author).

  1. Normal variation in early parental sensitivity predicts child structural brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Rianne; Thijssen, Sandra; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-10-01

    Early caregiving can have an impact on brain structure and function in children. The influence of extreme caregiving experiences has been demonstrated, but studies on the influence of normal variation in parenting quality are scarce. Moreover, no studies to date have included the role of both maternal and paternal sensitivity in child brain maturation. This study examined the prospective relation between mothers' and fathers' sensitive caregiving in early childhood and brain structure later in childhood. Participants were enrolled in a population-based prenatal cohort. For 191 families, maternal and paternal sensitivity was repeatedly observed when the child was between 1 year and 4 years of age. Head circumference was assessed at 6 weeks, and brain structure was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements at 8 years of age. Higher levels of parental sensitivity in early childhood were associated with larger total brain volume (adjusted β = 0.15, p = .01) and gray matter volume (adjusted β = 0.16, p = .01) at 8 years, controlling for infant head size. Higher levels of maternal sensitivity in early childhood were associated with a larger gray matter volume (adjusted β = 0.13, p = .04) at 8 years, independent of infant head circumference. Associations with maternal versus paternal sensitivity were not significantly different. Normal variation in caregiving quality is related to markers of more optimal brain development in children. The results illustrate the important role of both mothers and fathers in child brain development. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Information properties of morphologically complex words modulate brain activity during word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Tero; Hultén, Annika; Lehtonen, Minna; Lagus, Krista; Salmelin, Riitta

    2018-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies of the reading process point to functionally distinct stages in word recognition. Yet, current understanding of the operations linked to those various stages is mainly descriptive in nature. Approaches developed in the field of computational linguistics may offer a more quantitative approach for understanding brain dynamics. Our aim was to evaluate whether a statistical model of morphology, with well-defined computational principles, can capture the neural dynamics of reading, using the concept of surprisal from information theory as the common measure. The Morfessor model, created for unsupervised discovery of morphemes, is based on the minimum description length principle and attempts to find optimal units of representation for complex words. In a word recognition task, we correlated brain responses to word surprisal values derived from Morfessor and from other psycholinguistic variables that have been linked with various levels of linguistic abstraction. The magnetoencephalography data analysis focused on spatially, temporally and functionally distinct components of cortical activation observed in reading tasks. The early occipital and occipito-temporal responses were correlated with parameters relating to visual complexity and orthographic properties, whereas the later bilateral superior temporal activation was correlated with whole-word based and morphological models. The results show that the word processing costs estimated by the statistical Morfessor model are relevant for brain dynamics of reading during late processing stages. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A longitudinal study of structural brain network changes with normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eWu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate age-related changes in the topological organization of structural brain networks by applying a longitudinal design over 6 years. Structural brain networks were derived from measurements of regional gray matter volume and were constructed in age-specific groups from baseline and follow-up scans. The structural brain networks showed economical small-world properties, providing high global and local efficiency for parallel information processing at low connection costs. In the analysis of the global network properties, the local and global efficiency of the baseline scan were significantly lower compared to the follow-up scan. Moreover, the annual rate of changes in local and global efficiency showed a positive and negative quadratic correlation with the baseline age, respectively; both curvilinear correlations peaked at approximately the age of 50. In the analysis of the regional nodal properties, significant negative correlations between the annual rate of changes in nodal strength and the baseline age were found in the brain regions primarily involved in the visual and motor/ control systems, whereas significant positive quadratic correlations were found in the brain regions predominately associated with the default-mode, attention, and memory systems. The results of the longitudinal study are consistent with the findings of our previous cross-sectional study: the structural brain networks develop into a fast distribution from young to middle age (approximately 50 years old and eventually became a fast localization in the old age. Our findings elucidate the network topology of structural brain networks and its longitudinal changes, thus enhancing the understanding of the underlying physiology of normal aging in the human brain.

  4. Association of structural global brain network properties with intelligence in normal aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian U Fischer

    Full Text Available Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60-85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience.

  5. Association of Structural Global Brain Network Properties with Intelligence in Normal Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Florian U.; Wolf, Dominik; Scheurich, Armin; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60–85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient) were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience. PMID:24465994

  6. Computed tomography of the dog's brain: normal aspects and anatomical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorigados, C.A.B.; Pinto, A.C.B.F.

    2013-01-01

    Normal tomographic images of dog's heads were obtained, aimed to familiarize them with the normal aspects of the brain and correlate these findings with the relevant anatomy of the region studied. Several anatomical structures, such as the parenchyma of the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, the longitudinal fissure, the ventricular system, the cerebellum, the olfactory bulb, the corpus callosum, diencephalon, the pons, the medulla oblongata and the chiasmatic sulcus were directly identified or were related to neighboring structures which helped in their identification. (author)

  7. Topographical Distribution of Arsenic, Manganese, and Selenium in the Normal Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Agersnap; Pakkenberg, H.; Damsgaard, Else

    1979-01-01

    The concentrations of arsenic, manganese and selenium per gram wet tissue weight were determined in samples from 24 areas of normal human brains from 5 persons with ages ranging from 15 to 81 years of age. The concentrations of the 3 elements were determined for each sample by means of neutron...... activation analysis with radiochemical separation. Distinct patterns of distribution were shown for each of the 3 elements. Variations between individuals were found for some but not all brain areas, resulting in coefficients of variation between individuals of about 30% for arsenic, 10% for manganese and 20......% for selenium. The results seem to indicate that arsenic is associated with the lipid phase, manganese with the dry matter and selenium with the aqueous phase of brain tissue....

  8. Hemispherical dominance of glucose metabolic rate in the brain of the 'normal' ageing population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutts, D.A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the 'normal' ageing brain a decrease in the cerebral metabolic rate has been determined across many brain regions. It is determined whether age differences would affect metabolic rates in regions and different hemispheres of the brain. The regional metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGlu) was examined in a group of 72 subjects, ages 22 to 82 years, with 36 regions of interest chosen from both hemispheres of the cortex, midbrain and cerebellum. To determine metabolic rates the in-vivo technique of positron emission tomography (PET) was employed. Three age groups were chosen to compare hemispherical differences. In both young and intermediate age groups the left hemisphere had higher rCMRGlu values than those of the right for the majority of regions with, although less pronounced in the intermediate group. Importantly, the older age group displayed little difference between hemispheres. (author)

  9. Normal saline influences coagulation and endothelial function after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dekker, Simone E; Sillesen, Martin; Bambakidis, Ted

    2014-01-01

    ), colloids (Hextend [HEX]), and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) resuscitation are associated with differential effects on coagulation and endothelial systems. METHODS: We subjected 15 Yorkshire swine to TBI and HS (40% blood volume), and kept in HS for 2 hours before resuscitation with NS, HEX, or FFP. Markers......BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of trauma-related deaths. These insults disrupt coagulation and endothelial systems. This study investigated whether previously reported differences in lesion size and brain swelling during normal saline (NS...... of endothelial activation (E-selectin, Intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1), coagulation activation (prothrombin fragment 1 + 2), and natural anticoagulation (activated protein C [aPC]) were determined in serum and brain whole cell lysates. RESULTS: Serum levels of aPC were greater in the NS group (203 ± 30...

  10. Positron emission tomography studies in the normal and abnormal ageing of human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comar, D.; Baron, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Until recently, the investigation of the neurophysiological correlates of normal and abnormal ageing of the human brain was limited by methodological constraints, as the technics available provided only a few parameters (e.g. electroencephalograms, cerebral blood flow) monitored in superficial brain structures in a grossly regional and poorly quantitative way. Lately several non invasive techniques have been developed which allow to investigate in vivo both quantitatively and on local basis a number of previously inaccessible important aspects of brain function. Among these techniques, such as single photon emission tomography imaging of computerized electric events, nuclear magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography stands out as the most powerful and promising method since it allows the in vivo measurement of biochemical and pharmacological parameters

  11. Magnetization transfer on T2-weighted image : magnetization Transfer ratios in normal brain and cerebral lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Roh, Hong Gee; Suh, Chang Hae; Cho, Young Kook; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Sung Tae; Choi, Sung Kyu [Inha Univ. College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the magnetization transfer ratio(MTR) of various normal structures and pathologic lesions, as seen on magnetization transfer T2-weighted images (MT+T2WI). Materials and Methods : In ten normal volunteers, T2-weighted images without MT (MT-T2WI) and with MT(MT+T2WI) were obtained. Off-set pulses used in MT+T2WI were 400, 600, 1000, 1500, and 2000Hz. In 60 clinical cases infarction(n=10), brain tumors(n=5), traumatic hematomas(n=5), other hematomas(n=3) vascular malformation(n=2) white matter disease(n=2) normal(n=31) and others(n=2), both MT-T2WI and MT+T2WI images were obtained using an off-set pulse of 600 Hz. In all volunteers and patients, MTR in various normal brain parenchyma and abnormal areas was measured. Results : The MTRs of white and gray matter were 48% and 45% respectively at 400 Hz, 26% and 22% at 600Hz, 12% and 11% of 1000Hz, 10% and 9% 1500HZ, and 9% and 8% at 2000Hz of RF. The MTR of CSF was 43% at 400 Hz of off-resonance RF, while the contrast resolution of T2WI was poor. An off-resonance of 600Hz appeared to be the optimal frequency. In diseased areas,MTRs varied but were usually similar to or lower than those of brain parenchyma. Conclusion : The optimal off-resonance RF on MT+T2WI appears to be 600 Hz for relatively high MTR of brain parenchyma and low MTR of CSF,in which MTRs of white and gray matter were 26% and 22%, respectively, of 600Hz off-set pulse. The MTRs of cerebral lesions varied and further studies of various cerebral lesions are needed.

  12. Preliminary study of normal changes in brain white matter during childhood with diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jiangxi; Guo Xuemei; Xie Sheng; Wang Xiaoying; Jiang Xuexiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the normal changes in brain white matter during childhood by analyzing the anisotropy of different regions and different age groups with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods: DTI was performed in 89 children (age range from 2 days to 18 years) without brain abnormalities, and the data measured in fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were analyzed statistically. Children less than 6 months were ranged to group 1, 6-12 months to group 2, 1-3 years to group 3, 3-5 years to group 4, 5-8 years to group 5, 8-12 years to group 6, 12-18 years to group 7. Results: (1) There were significant differences in anisotropy (FA values) among different regions of white matter in brain. In group 7, the FA value of corpus callosum was 0.826 ± 0.039, middle cerebellar peduncle 0.678 ± 0.043, frontal white matter 0.489 ± 0.033. (2) The anisotropy among different age group was statistically different, P<0.05. (3) The anisotropy of white matter increased with the increasing of age, and FA values showed positively exponentially correlations with age. Conclusion: DTI shows the structure of white matters in vivo, with which normal changes in brain during childhood can be evaluated. (authors)

  13. Effect of 60Co-irradiation on normal and low protein diet fed rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Habibullah, M.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation (Co-60) on the brain tissue in Holtzmann strain adult male rats was studied. Two doses of irradiation (450 R,950 R) were tried on animals which were fed on normal as well as low protein diets over a period of 10 generations. In the normal rats, 450 R initially caused a lowered total protein. DNA and RNA content in the brain. After 7 days a tendency towards normalcy was observed. In the 950 R irradiated normal rats the diminution of protein content appeared irreversible. In malnourished 450 R irradiated rats, the protein content rose less steeply over the 7 days of observation. A higher dose of 950 R enhanced this effect on protein and also lowered the DNA content on day 5. The RNA content in the 950 R group with malnutrition showed a marked increase towards or beyond control perhaps as an expression of uncoupled feedback control. The paper gives evidence that protein deficiency may interfere with cellular regeneration in irradiated brain. (orig.) [de

  14. Effect of /sup 60/Co-irradiation on normal and low protein diet fed rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, S S [Garhwal Univ., Srinagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). Dept. of Zoology; Habibullah, M [Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). Neurobiology Lab.

    1980-06-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation (Co-60) on the brain tissue in Holtzmann strain adult male rats was studied. Two doses of irradiation (450 R,950 R) were tried on animals which were fed on normal as well as low protein diets over a period of 10 generations. In the normal rats, 450 R initially caused a lowered total protein. DNA and RNA content in the brain. After 7 days a tendency towards normalcy was observed. In the 950 R irradiated normal rats the diminution of protein content appeared irreversible. In malnourished 450 R irradiated rats, the protein content rose less steeply over the 7 days of observation. A higher dose of 950 R enhanced this effect on protein and also lowered the DNA content on day 5. The RNA content in the 950 R group with malnutrition showed a marked increase towards or beyond control perhaps as an expression of uncoupled feedback control. The paper gives evidence that protein deficiency may interfere with cellular regeneration in irradiated brain.

  15. Reversible changes in brain glucose metabolism following thyroid function normalization in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Q; Zhang, S; Guan, Y H; Ye, H Y; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Q Y; Xue, R D; Zeng, M F; Zuo, C T; Li, Y M

    2011-01-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism frequently present with regional cerebral metabolic changes, but the consequences of endocrine-induced brain changes after thyroid function normalization are unclear. We hypothesized that the changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism are related to thyroid hormone levels in patients with hyperthyroid, and some of these changes can be reversed with antithyroid therapy. Relative regional cerebral glucose metabolism was compared between 10 new-onset untreated patients with hyperthyroidism and 20 healthy control participants by using brain FDG-PET scans. Levels of emotional distress were evaluated by using the SAS and SDS. Patients were treated with methimazole. A follow-up PET scan was performed to assess metabolic changes of the brain when thyroid functions normalized. Compared with controls, patients exhibited lower activity in the limbic system, frontal lobes, and temporal lobes before antithyroid treatment. There were positive correlations between scores of depression and regional metabolism in the cingulate and paracentral lobule. The severity of depression and anxiety covaried negatively with pretreatment activity in the inferior temporal and inferior parietal gyri respectively. Compared with the hyperthyroid status, patients with normalized thyroid functions showed an increased metabolism in the left parahippocampal, fusiform, and right superior frontal gyri. The decrease in both FT3 and FT4 was associated with increased activity in the left parahippocampal and right superior frontal gyri. The changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism are related to thyroid hormone levels in patients with hyperthyroidism, and some cerebral hypometabolism can be improved after antithyroid therapy.

  16. Fine-mapping the effects of Alzheimer's disease risk loci on brain morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchupkin, Gennady V; Adams, Hieab H; van der Lee, Sven J; Vernooij, Meike W; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van der Lugt, Aad; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; Ikram, Mohammad A

    2016-12-01

    The neural substrate of genetic risk variants for Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unknown. We studied their effect on healthy brain morphology to provide insight into disease etiology in the preclinical phase. We included 4071 nondemented, elderly participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping. We performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on all gray-matter voxels for 19 previously identified, common AD risk variants. Whole-brain expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas was used to examine spatial overlap between VBM association results and expression of genes in AD risk loci regions. Brain regions most significantly associated with AD risk variants were the left postcentral gyrus with ABCA7 (rs4147929, p = 4.45 × 10 -6 ), right superior frontal gyrus by ZCWPW1 (rs1476679, p = 5.12 × 10 -6 ), and right postcentral gyrus by APOE (p = 6.91 × 10 -6 ). Although no individual voxel passed multiple-testing correction, we found significant spatial overlap between the effects of AD risk loci on VBM and the expression of genes (MEF2C, CLU, and SLC24A4) in the Allen Brain Atlas. Results are available online on www.imagene.nl/ADSNPs/. In this single largest imaging genetics data set worldwide, we found that AD risk loci affect cortical gray matter in several brain regions known to be involved in AD, as well as regions that have not been implicated before. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain Microstructural Correlates of Cognitive Dysfunction in Clinically and Biochemically Normal Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Deep, Amar; Gupta, Rakesh K; Atam, Virendra; Mohindra, Samir

    2017-09-01

    This study examined correlates of the brain's neurocognitive performance among clinically and biochemically normal adult patient with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We hypothesized that anti-HCV positive individuals would demonstrate structural brain abnormalities and neurocognitive dysfunction as well as the changes in cell component and extracellular space in the white matter regions of brain in asymptomatic HCV infection by using diffusion tensor tractrography (DTT) metrics. Anti-HCV positive patient ( n  = 40), and healthy controls ( n  = 31), fulfilling inclusion criteria (incidentally detected anti-HCV positive) and able to provide informed consent were screened and recruited for the study. All these subjects and controls underwent subjective assessment of their quality of life related symptoms, neuropsychometric tests (NPT) and magnetic resonance imaging. The patients were subjected to neuroimaging as well as psychological testing. There was no significant difference in basic laboratory parameters in these two groups. Independent t -test reveals significantly lower neuropsychological functioning as compared to healthy control. A significantly decreased FA values and myoinsitol were observed in HCV subjects on sensory, inferior longitudinal fascicules, and STR fiber bundles as compared to healthy control. Bivariate correlation analysis reveals that neuropsychological scores are significantly positive. Our result show that HCV positive individuals would demonstrate structural brain abnormalities and neurocognitive dysfunction as well as the changes in cell component and extracellular space in the white matter regions of brain in asymptomatic HCV infection by using DTT metrics.

  18. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo; Ishigaki, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean+/-standard deviation 2.3+/-1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (pright frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (pbrain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference.

  19. Towards adapting a normal patient database for SPECT brain perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N D; Soleimani, M; Mitchell, C N; Holmes, R B; Evans, M J; Cade, S C

    2012-01-01

    Single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) is a tool which can be used to image perfusion in the brain. Clinicians can use such images to help diagnose dementias such as Alzheimer's disease. Due to the intrinsic stochasticity in the photon imaging system, some form of statistical comparison of an individual image with a 'normal' patient database gives a clinician additional confidence in interpreting the image. Due to the variations between SPECT camera systems, ideally a normal patient database is required for each individual system. However, cost or ethical considerations often prohibit the collection of such a database for each new camera system. Some method of adapting existing normal patient databases to new camera systems would be beneficial. This paper introduces a method which may be regarded as a 'first-pass' attempt based on 2-norm regularization and a codebook of discrete spatially stationary convolutional kernels. Some preliminary illustrative results are presented, together with discussion on limitations and possible improvements

  20. A comparision of Brain-Behavioral Systems in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kobra Moradi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare   Brain-Behavioral Systems in patient with multiple sclerocis (MS and normal individuals. Materials and Methods: This research was a post facto comparative study, subjects included  healthy persons and all patients with MS, which in summer and autumn 2013 referred to neurologists in the Lorestan province. Of the population using as samples, 117 cases (75 patients and 42 normal subjects were selected, then Gray- Wilson Personality Questionnaire was completed for them. To analyze the data, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA test  was used to compare the two groups. Results: The results showed, in BAS scales, people with MS had significantly lower scores than normal subjects Conclusion: What comes from findings indicates that a low score in behavioral activation as a pathological factors in chronic diseases such as MS is concerned and is in need of psychological treatment.

  1. Neuropsychological deficits and morphological MRI brain scan abnormalities in apparently health non-encephalopathic patients with cirrhosis; A controlled Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.W.; De Lacey, G.; Dunk, A.A.; Sinclair, T.S.; Mowat, M.A.G.; Brunt, P.W. (Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Deans, H. (Aberdeen Univ. (UK). Dept. of Medical Physics (United Kingdom)); Crawford, J.R. (Aberdeen University Medical School (United Kingdom). Department of Psychology (United Kingdom)); Besson, J.A.O. (Aberdeen University Medical School (United Kingdom). Department of Mental Health (United Kingdom))

    1989-11-01

    By means of psychometric testing, we have determined the frequency of latent hepatic encephalopathy in a group of 19 cirrhotics with no clinical evidence of encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed in order to determine whether morphological cerebral abnormalities were associated with latent encephalopathy. Nineteen age and educationally matched patient with normal liver function acted as controls. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between cirrhotics and controls were found in tests of short-term visual memory and speed of reaction to light (cirrhotics 326 ( 132 ms vs. controls 225 ) 36 ms), sound (cirrhotics 361 ( 152 ms vs. controls 236 ) 52 ms) and choice (cirrhotics 651 ( 190 ms vs. controls 406 ) 101 ms) stimuli (all values mean S.D.). Reitan trail test performance, however, was similar in both groups. ( Trail A: cirrhotics 43 ( 19 s vs. controls 35 ) 13 s; Trail B: cirrhotics 105 ( 66 s vs. controls 93 ) 36 s.) In patients with cirrhosis, MRI revealed statistically significant increases in the maximum fissure width of right frontal sulci, light and left parietal sulci, inter-hemispheric fissure width and in bicaudafe index. These changes, indicating cerebral atrophy, were largely confined to alcoholics. There was poor correlation between measurements of cerebral morphology and neuropsychological performance, only 10% of associations achieving statistical significance. (author). 2 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs.

  2. Neuropsychological deficits and morphological MRI brain scan abnormalities in apparently health non-encephalopathic patients with cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.W.; De Lacey, G.; Dunk, A.A.; Sinclair, T.S.; Mowat, M.A.G.; Brunt, P.W.; Deans, H.; Crawford, J.R.; Besson, J.A.O.

    1989-01-01

    By means of psychometric testing, we have determined the frequency of latent hepatic encephalopathy in a group of 19 cirrhotics with no clinical evidence of encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed in order to determine whether morphological cerebral abnormalities were associated with latent encephalopathy. Nineteen age and educationally matched patient with normal liver function acted as controls. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between cirrhotics and controls were found in tests of short-term visual memory and speed of reaction to light (cirrhotics 326 ] 132 ms vs. controls 225 ] 36 ms), sound (cirrhotics 361 ] 152 ms vs. controls 236 ] 52 ms) and choice (cirrhotics 651 ] 190 ms vs. controls 406 ] 101 ms) stimuli (all values mean ] S.D.). Reitan trail test performance, however, was similar in both groups. ( Trail A: cirrhotics 43 ] 19 s vs. controls 35 ] 13 s; Trail B: cirrhotics 105 ] 66 s vs. controls 93 ] 36 s.) In patients with cirrhosis, MRI revealed statistically significant increases in the maximum fissure width of right frontal sulci, light and left parietal sulci, inter-hemispheric fissure width and in bicaudafe index. These changes, indicating cerebral atrophy, were largely confined to alcoholics. There was poor correlation between measurements of cerebral morphology and neuropsychological performance, only 10% of associations achieving statistical significance. (author). 2 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  3. Phenotypic and gene expression modification with normal brain aging in GFAP-positive astrocytes and neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Giovanna M; Peterson, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Astrocytes secrete growth factors that are both neuroprotective and supportive for the local environment. Identified by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, astrocytes exhibit heterogeneity in morphology and in the expression of phenotypic markers and growth factors throughout different adult brain regions. In adult neurogenic niches, astrocytes secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) within the neurogenic niche and are also a source of special GFAP-positive multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs). Normal aging is accompanied by a decline in CNS function and reduced neurogenesis. We asked whether a decreased availability of astrocyte-derived factors may contribute to the age-related decline in neurogenesis. Determining alterations of astrocytic activity in the aging brain is crucial for understanding CNS homeostasis in aging and for assessing appropriate therapeutic targets for an aging population. We found region-specific alterations in the gene expression of GFAP, VEGF, and FGF-2 and their receptors in the aged brain corresponding to changes in astrocytic reactivity, supporting astrocytic heterogeneity and demonstrating a differential aging effect. We found that GFAP-positive NSCs uniquely coexpress both VEGF and its key mitotic receptor Flk-1 in both young and aged hippocampus, indicating a possible autocrine/paracrine signaling mechanism. VEGF expression is lost once NSCs commit to a neuronal fate, but Flk-1-mediated sensitivity to VEGF signaling is maintained. We propose that age-related astrocytic changes result in reduced VEGF and FGF-2 signaling, which in turn limits NSC and progenitor cell maintenance and contributes to decreased neurogenesis. © 2011 The Authors. Aging Cell © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Loud Noise Exposure Produces DNA, Neurotransmitter and Morphological Damage within Specific Brain Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Frenzilli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to loud noise is a major environmental threat to public health. Loud noise exposure, apart from affecting the inner ear, is deleterious for cardiovascular, endocrine and nervous systems and it is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study we investigated DNA, neurotransmitters and immune-histochemical alterations induced by exposure to loud noise in three major brain areas (cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum of Wistar rats. Rats were exposed to loud noise (100 dBA for 12 h. The effects of noise on DNA integrity in all three brain areas were evaluated by using Comet assay. In parallel studies, brain monoamine levels and morphology of nigrostriatal pathways, hippocampus and cerebellum were analyzed at different time intervals (24 h and 7 days after noise exposure. Loud noise produced a sudden increase in DNA damage in all the brain areas under investigation. Monoamine levels detected at 7 days following exposure were differently affected depending on the specific brain area. Namely, striatal but not hippocampal dopamine (DA significantly decreased, whereas hippocampal and cerebellar noradrenaline (NA was significantly reduced. This is in line with pathological findings within striatum and hippocampus consisting of a decrease in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH combined with increased Bax and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Loud noise exposure lasting 12 h causes immediate DNA, and long-lasting neurotransmitter and immune-histochemical alterations within specific brain areas of the rat. These alterations may suggest an anatomical and functional link to explain the neurobiology of diseases which prevail in human subjects exposed to environmental noise.

  5. Relationship between symptom dimensions and brain morphology in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Motohisa; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Sutoh, Chihiro; Asano, Kenichi; Miyata, Haruko; Matsumoto, Junko; Nakazato, Michiko; Matsumoto, Koji; Masuda, Yoshitada; Iyo, Masaomi; Shimizu, Eiji; Nakagawa, Akiko

    2017-10-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is known as a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by symptom dimensions. Although substantial numbers of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the presence of brain abnormalities in OCD, their results are controversial. The clinical heterogeneity of OCD could be one of the reasons for this. It has been hypothesized that certain brain regions contributed to the respective obsessive-compulsive dimensions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between symptom dimensions of OCD and brain morphology using voxel-based morphometry to discover the specific regions showing alterations in the respective dimensions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The severities of symptom dimensions in thirty-three patients with OCD were assessed using Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R). Along with numerous MRI studies pointing out brain abnormalities in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) patients, a previous study reported a positive correlation between ASD traits and regional gray matter volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and amygdala in OCD patients. We investigated the correlation between gray and white matter volumes at the whole brain level and each symptom dimension score, treating all remaining dimension scores, age, gender, and ASD traits as confounding covariates. Our results revealed a significant negative correlation between washing symptom dimension score and gray matter volume in the right thalamus and a significant negative correlation between hoarding symptom dimension score and white matter volume in the left angular gyrus. Although our result was preliminary, our findings indicated that there were specific brain regions in gray and white matter that contributed to symptom dimensions in OCD patients.

  6. Morphological and functional alterations in the adenohypophysis in cases of brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Quan, Li; Zhao, Dong; Komatsu, Ayumi; Bessho, Yasumori; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2009-04-01

    In order to examine the function of the adenohypophysis during brain death, levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were investigated during forensic autopsy. Cases examined were those of brain death (n=12; within 24h postmortem; time to cardiac death after cerebral death was diagnosed, approximately 4-25 days), including those in which the cause of death was head injury (subdural hematoma or brain contusion, n=10) and asphyxia (strangulation, n=2). The concentrations of ACTH and TSH were measured by enzyme chemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA), and that of GH by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The immunoreactivities of ACTH, GH, and TSH in the adenohypophysis were observed and analyzed with electron microscopy. Morphological studies revealed partial necrosis of the central anterior lobe, but preservation of its periphery. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the appearance of peripheral adenohypophysis with each hormone. Ultrastructural findings for the pituitary and hypothalamus indicated swelling of the mitochondria and dilation of both the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, in most cases, concentrations of the anterior pituitary hormones in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were generally within the clinical reference range. These results indicate that the pituitary is partially preserved after brain death.

  7. Comparing CAT12 and VBM8 for Detecting Brain Morphological Abnormalities in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Farokhian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the brain morphological alterations that play important roles in neurodegenerative/neurological diseases will contribute to our understanding of the causes of these diseases. Various automated software programs are designed to provide an automatic framework to detect brain morphological changes in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis can also be used for the detection of brain volumetric abnormalities. Here, we compared gray matter (GM and white matter (WM abnormality results obtained by a VBM analysis using the Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12 via the current version of Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM12 with the results obtained by a VBM analysis using the VBM8 toolbox implemented in the older software SPM8, in adult temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE patients with (n = 51 and without (n = 57 hippocampus sclerosis (HS, compared to healthy adult controls (n = 28. The VBM analysis using CAT12 showed that compared to the healthy controls, significant GM and WM reductions were located in ipsilateral mesial temporal lobes in the TLE-HS patients, and slight GM amygdala swelling was present in the right TLE-no patients (n = 27. In contrast, the VBM analysis via the VBM8 toolbox showed significant GM and WM reductions only in the left TLE-HS patients (n = 25 compared to the healthy controls. Our findings thus demonstrate that compared to VBM8, a VBM analysis using CAT12 provides a more accurate volumetric analysis of the brain regions in TLE. Our results further indicate that a VBM analysis using CAT12 is more robust and accurate against volumetric alterations than the VBM8 toolbox.

  8. Morphology of subcortical brain nuclei is associated with autonomic function in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffle, James K; Coen, Steven J; Giampietro, Vincent; Williams, Steven C R; Apkarian, A Vania; Farmer, Adam D; Aziz, Qasim

    2018-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a brain body interface which serves to maintain homeostasis by influencing a plethora of physiological processes, including metabolism, cardiorespiratory regulation and nociception. Accumulating evidence suggests that ANS function is disturbed in numerous prevalent clinical disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. While the brain is a central hub for regulating autonomic function, the association between resting autonomic activity and subcortical morphology has not been comprehensively studied and thus was our aim. In 27 healthy subjects [14 male and 13 female; mean age 30 years (range 22-53 years)], we quantified resting ANS function using validated indices of cardiac sympathetic index (CSI) and parasympathetic cardiac vagal tone (CVT). High resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired, and differences in subcortical nuclei shape, that is, 'deformation', contingent on resting ANS activity were investigated. CSI positively correlated with outward deformation of the brainstem, right nucleus accumbens, right amygdala and bilateral pallidum (all thresholded to corrected P right amygdala and pallidum (all thresholded to corrected P Left and right putamen volume positively correlated with CVT (r = 0.62, P = 0.0047 and r = 0.59, P = 0.008, respectively), as did the brainstem (r = 0.46, P = 0.049). These data provide novel evidence that resting autonomic state is associated with differences in the shape and volume of subcortical nuclei. Thus, subcortical morphological brain differences in various disorders may partly be attributable to perturbation in autonomic function. Further work is warranted to investigate these findings in clinical populations. Hum Brain Mapp 39:381-392, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy induces hypoxia in intracerebral gliosarcoma but not in the normal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, Audrey; Lemasson, Benjamin; Christen, Thomas; Potez, Marine; Rome, Claire; Coquery, Nicolas; Le Clec’h, Céline; Moisan, Anaick; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Leduc, Géraldine; Rémy, Chantal; Laissue, Jean A.; Barbier, Emmanuel L.; Brun, Emmanuel; Serduc, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is an innovative irradiation modality based on spatial fractionation of a high-dose X-ray beam into lattices of microbeams. The increase in lifespan of brain tumor-bearing rats is associated with vascular damage but the physiological consequences of MRT on blood vessels have not been described. In this manuscript, we evaluate the oxygenation changes induced by MRT in an intracerebral 9L gliosarcoma model. Methods: Tissue responses to MRT (two orthogonal arrays (2 × 400 Gy)) were studied using magnetic resonance-based measurements of local blood oxygen saturation (MR S O 2 ) and quantitative immunohistology of RECA-1, Type-IV collagen and GLUT-1, marker of hypoxia. Results: In tumors, MR S O 2 decreased by a factor of 2 in tumor between day 8 and day 45 after MRT. This correlated with tumor vascular remodeling, i.e. decrease in vessel density, increases in half-vessel distances (×5) and GLUT-1 immunoreactivity. Conversely, MRT did not change normal brain MR S O 2 , although vessel inter-distances increased slightly. Conclusion: We provide new evidence for the differential effect of MRT on tumor vasculature, an effect that leads to tumor hypoxia. As hypothesized formerly, the vasculature of the normal brain exposed to MRT remains sufficiently perfused to prevent any hypoxia

  10. Elemental composition of 'normal' and Alzheimer brain tissue by INA and PIXE analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumental methods based on the nuclear and atomic properties of the elements have been used for many years to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials for biomedical, industrial and environmental applications. These methods offer high sensitivity for accurate trace element measurements, suffer few interfering or competing effects. Present no blank problems and are convenient for both research and routine analyses. The present article describes the use of two trace element techniques. Firstly the use of activation of stable nuclei irradiated by neutrons in the core of a low power research reactor as a means of detection of elements through the resulting gamma-rays emitted. Secondly, the observations of the interactions of energetic ion beams with the material in order to identify elemental species. Over recent years there has been some interest in determining the elemental composition of 'normal' and Alzheimer affected brain tissue, however literature findings are inconsistent. Possible reasons for discrepancies need to be identified for further progress to be made. Here, post-mortem tissue samples, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from the frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobes of both hemispheres of brains from 13 'normal' and 19 Alzheimer subjects. The elemental composition of the samples was determined using the analytical techniques of INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis), RBS (Rutherford back-scattering) and PIXE (particle induced x-ray emission). The principal findings are summarised here. (author)

  11. Brain structural correlates of reward sensitivity and impulsivity in adolescents with normal and excess weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moreno-López

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroscience evidence suggests that adolescent obesity is linked to brain dysfunctions associated with enhanced reward and somatosensory processing and reduced impulse control during food processing. Comparatively less is known about the role of more stable brain structural measures and their link to personality traits and neuropsychological factors on the presentation of adolescent obesity. Here we aimed to investigate regional brain anatomy in adolescents with excess weight vs. lean controls. We also aimed to contrast the associations between brain structure and personality and cognitive measures in both groups. METHODS: Fifty-two adolescents (16 with normal weight and 36 with excess weight were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging and completed the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ, the UPPS-P scale, and the Stroop task. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to assess possible between-group differences in regional gray matter (GM and to measure the putative differences in the way reward and punishment sensitivity, impulsivity and inhibitory control relate to regional GM volumes, which were analyzed using both region of interest (ROI and whole brain analyses. The ROIs included areas involved in reward/somatosensory processing (striatum, somatosensory cortices and motivation/impulse control (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex. RESULTS: Excess weight adolescents showed increased GM volume in the right hippocampus. Voxel-wise volumes of the second somatosensory cortex (SII were correlated with reward sensitivity and positive urgency in lean controls, but this association was missed in excess weight adolescents. Moreover, Stroop performance correlated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volumes in controls but not in excess weight adolescents. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with excess weight have structural abnormalities in brain regions associated with somatosensory processing and motivation.

  12. Normalization of coagulopathy is associated with improved outcome after isolated traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Daniel S; Mitra, Biswadev; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2016-07-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) has been reported in the setting of isolated traumatic brain injury (iTBI) and is associated with poor outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of procoagulant agents administered to patients with ATC and iTBI during resuscitation, hypothesizing that timely normalization of coagulopathy may be associated with a decrease in mortality. A retrospective review of the Alfred Hospital trauma registry, Australia, was conducted and patients with iTBI (head Abbreviated Injury Score [AIS] ⩾3 and all other body AIS normalized ratio ⩾1.3) were selected for analysis. Data on procoagulant agents used (fresh frozen plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate, prothrombin complex concentrates, tranexamic acid, vitamin K) were extracted. Among patients who had achieved normalization of INR or survived beyond 24hours and were not taking oral anticoagulants, the association of normalization of INR and death at hospital discharge was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. There were 157 patients with ATC of whom 68 (43.3%) received procoagulant products within 24hours of presentation. The median time to delivery of first products was 182.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 115-375) minutes, and following administration of coagulants, time to normalization of INR was 605 (IQR 274-1146) minutes. Normalization of INR was independently associated with significantly lower mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.10; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38). Normalization of INR was associated with improved mortality in patients with ATC in the setting of iTBI. As there was a substantial time lag between delivery of products and eventual normalization of coagulation, specific management of coagulopathy should be implemented as early as possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CSF Flow in the Brain in the Context of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, W G

    2015-05-01

    CSF normally flows back and forth through the aqueduct during the cardiac cycle. During systole, the brain and intracranial vasculature expand and compress the lateral and third ventricles, forcing CSF craniocaudad. During diastole, they contract and flow through the aqueduct reverses. Hyperdynamic CSF flow through the aqueduct is seen when there is ventricular enlargement without cerebral atrophy. Therefore, patients presenting with clinical normal pressure hydrocephalus who have hyperdynamic CSF flow have been found to respond better to ventriculoperitoneal shunting than those with normal or decreased CSF flow. Patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus have also been found to have larger intracranial volumes than sex-matched controls, suggesting that they may have had benign external hydrocephalus as infants. While their arachnoidal granulations clearly have decreased CSF resorptive capacity, it now appears that this is fixed and that the arachnoidal granulations are not merely immature. Such patients appear to develop a parallel pathway for CSF to exit the ventricles through the extracellular space of the brain and the venous side of the glymphatic system. This pathway remains functional until late adulthood when the patient develops deep white matter ischemia, which is characterized histologically by myelin pallor (ie, loss of lipid). The attraction between the bare myelin protein and the CSF increases resistance to the extracellular outflow of CSF, causing it to back up, resulting in hydrocephalus. Thus idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus appears to be a "2 hit" disease: benign external hydrocephalus in infancy followed by deep white matter ischemia in late adulthood. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. Early functional and morphological brain disturbances in late-onset intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starčević, Mirta; Predojević, Maja; Butorac, Dražan; Tumbri, Jasna; Konjevoda, Paško; Kadić, Aida Salihagić

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether the brain disturbances develop in late-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) before blood flow redistribution towards the fetal brain (detected by Doppler measurements in the middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery). Further, to evaluate predictive values of Doppler arterial indices and umbilical cord blood gases and pH for early functional and/or morphological brain disturbances in late-onset IUGR. This cohort study included 60 singleton term pregnancies with placental insufficiency caused late-onset IUGR (IUGR occurring after 34 gestational weeks). Umbilical artery resistance index (URI), middle cerebral artery resistance index (CRI), and cerebroumbilical (C/U) ratio (CRI/URI) were monitored once weekly. Umbilical blood cord samples (arterial and venous) were collected for the analysis of pO2, pCO2 and pH. Morphological neurological outcome was evaluated by cranial ultrasound (cUS), whereas functional neurological outcome by Amiel-Tison Neurological Assessment at Term (ATNAT). 50 fetuses had C/U ratio>1, and 10 had C/U ratio≤1; among these 10 fetuses, 9 had abnormal neonatal cUS findings and all 10 had non-optimal ATNAT. However, the total number of abnormal neurological findings was much higher. 32 neonates had abnormal cUS (53.37%), and 42 (70.00%) had non-optimal ATNAT. Furthermore, Doppler indices had higher predictive validity for early brain disturbances than umbilical cord blood gases and pH. C/U ratio had the highest predictive validity with threshold for adverse neurological outcome at value 1.13 (ROC analysis), i.e., 1.18 (party machine learning algorithm). Adverse neurological outcome at average values of C/U ratios>1 confirmed that early functional and/or structural brain disturbances in late-onset IUGR develop even before activation of fetal cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms, i.e., before Doppler signs of blood flow redistribution between the fetal brain and the placenta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  15. Brain Energy and Oxygen Metabolism: Emerging Role in Normal Function and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E. Watts

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic metabolic changes occurring in neurons are critically important in directing brain plasticity and cognitive function. In other tissue types, disruptions to metabolism and the resultant changes in cellular oxidative state, such as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS or induction of hypoxia, are associated with cellular stress. In the brain however, where drastic metabolic shifts occur to support physiological processes, subsequent changes to cellular oxidative state and induction of transcriptional sensors of oxidative stress likely play a significant role in regulating physiological neuronal function. Understanding the role of metabolism and metabolically-regulated genes in neuronal function will be critical in elucidating how cognitive functions are disrupted in pathological conditions where neuronal metabolism is affected. Here, we discuss known mechanisms regulating neuronal metabolism as well as the role of hypoxia and oxidative stress during normal and disrupted neuronal function. We also summarize recent studies implicating a role for metabolism in regulating neuronal plasticity as an emerging neuroscience paradigm.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in normal aging and dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, A.; Fazekas, F.; Chawluk, J.; Zimmerman, R.

    1987-01-01

    The unusual sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting white matter lesions has yielded striking results in studying the aging brain and in diagnosing a variety of central nervous system disorders. These lesions are most obvious in the periventricular white matter and appear as punctate or confluent hyperintense abnormalities on T2-weighted images. Their correlation with increasing age and the ensuing increase of cardiovascular risk factors suggests ischemic damage as their probable underlying pathologic cause. MRI thus may prove an early and very sensitive indicator of incipient cerebrovascular disease, adding information on the association of vascular damage with the development of dementing illness. This report is a preliminary communication of an ongoing study which is evaluating the importance of these findings in the 'normal' aging brain and different forms of dementia. 11 refs.; 1 table

  17. A New Quantitative Method for the Non-Invasive Documentation of Morphological Damage in Paintings Using RTI Surface Normals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Manfredi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a reliable surface imaging method for the non-invasive detection of morphological changes in paintings. Usually, the evaluation and quantification of changes and defects results mostly from an optical and subjective assessment, through the comparison of the previous and subsequent state of conservation and by means of condition reports. Using quantitative Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI we obtain detailed information on the geometry and morphology of the painting surface with a fast, precise and non-invasive method. Accurate and quantitative measurements of deterioration were acquired after the painting experienced artificial damage. Morphological changes were documented using normal vector images while the intensity map succeeded in highlighting, quantifying and describing the physical changes. We estimate that the technique can detect a morphological damage slightly smaller than 0.3 mm, which would be difficult to detect with the eye, considering the painting size. This non-invasive tool could be very useful, for example, to examine paintings and artwork before they travel on loan or during a restoration. The method lends itself to automated analysis of large images and datasets. Quantitative RTI thus eases the transition of extending human vision into the realm of measuring change over time.

  18. SU-E-T-568: Improving Normal Brain Sparing with Increasing Number of Arc Beams for Volume Modulated Arc Beam Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, S; Hildebrand, K; Ahmad, S; Larson, D; Ma, L; Sahgal, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc beams have been newly reported for treating multiple brain metastases. The purpose of this study was to determine the variations in the normal brain doses with increasing number of arc beams for multiple brain metastases treatments via the TrueBeam Rapidarc system (Varian Oncology, Palo Alto, CA). Methods: A patient case with 12 metastatic brain lesions previously treated on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (GK) was used for the study. All lesions and organs at risk were contoured by a senior radiation oncologist and treatment plans for a subset of 3, 6, 9 and all 12 targets were developed for the TrueBeam Rapidarc system via 3 to 7 intensity modulated arc-beams with each target covered by at least 99% of the prescribed dose of 20 Gy. The peripheral normal brain isodose volumes as well as the total beam-on time were analyzed with increasing number of arc beams for these targets. Results: All intensisty modulated arc-beam plans produced efficient treatment delivery with the beam-on time averaging 0.6–1.5 min per lesion at an output of 1200 MU/min. With increasing number of arc beams, the peripheral normal brain isodose volumes such as the 12-Gy isodose line enclosed normal brain tissue volumes were on average decreased by 6%, 11%, 18%, and 28% for the 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-target treatment plans respectively. The lowest normal brain isodose volumes were consistently found for the 7-arc treatment plans for all the cases. Conclusion: With nearly identical beam-on times, the peripheral normal brain dose was notably decreased when the total number of intensity modulated arc beams was increased when treating multiple brain metastases. Dr Sahgal and Dr Ma are currently serving on the board of international society of stereotactic radiosurgery

  19. Measurement of normal corpus callosum with MRI in Korean adults and morphological change of corpus callosum by grade of hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dong Hoon; Chang, Seung Kuk; Kim, Jong Deok; Eun, Tchoong Kie; Park, Dong Woo

    1995-01-01

    To measure the size of normal corpus callosum in each portion using objective and reproducible method with MRI and evaluation of morphological change of corpus callosum by grade of hydrocephalus. Midsagittal T1-weighted MR imaging of the corpus callosum was investigated in 41 volunteers of normal Korean adults and 19 patients with hydrocephalus. Corpus callosum was measured for the anteroposterior length(A), height(B), and the thickness of genu(C), body(D), splenium(E), and the narrowest portion of body(F). And the analysis of morphology and signal intensity of the corpus callosum were also evaluated. Hydrocephalus was graded as mild, moderate, and severe, and comparison of thickness with normal corpus callosum in each portion was done. The mean length and height were 72.3 mm, 28.6 mm in male, and 70.7 mm, 28.9 mm in female. And the mean dimension for C, D, E and F were 13.1 mm, 8 mm, 13.2 mm, 5.2 mm in male, and 12.8 mm, 7.5 mm, 12.3 mm, 5 mm in female. The morphology of normal corpus callosum was 'hook' shaped on midline sagittal T1-weighted image. Narrowing at posterior third portion of body were present on 30 cases(73.2%) and even in thickness of the body in 11 cases(26.8%). The signal intensity of the corpus callosum on midsagittal T1-weighted spin echo image of normal cases was homogeneous hyperintense as compared with cerebral gray matter. In hydrocephalus, A and B were increased and other portions were decreased in thickness. Genu and the narrowest portion of body showed significant difference of thickness according to the grade of hydrocephalus. The mean dimension of all portion of corpus callosum were larger in male than female except for callosal height but not significant statistically with the exception of splenium. Hydrocephalus lead to morphological change of the corpus callosum. Among the portion of corpus callosum, genu and the narrowest portion of the body were thought to be the most sensitive indicators of degree in hydrocephalus

  20. [Outstanding problems of normal and pathological morphology of the diffuse endocrine system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V

    2011-01-01

    The diffuse endocrine system (DES)--a mosaic-cellular endoepithelial gland--is the biggest part of the human endocrine system. Scientists used to consider cells of DES as neuroectodermal. According to modem data cells of DES are different cytogenetic types because they develop from the different embryonic blastophyllum. So that any hormone-active tumors originated from DES of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital system shouldn't be considered as neuroendocrinal tumors. The basic problems of DES morphology and pathology are the creation of scientifically substantiated histogenetic classification of DES tumors.

  1. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment Normalizes Cortical Gene Expression after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darkazalli, Ali; Vied, Cynthia; Badger, Crystal-Dawn; Levenson, Cathy W

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a progressive disease state with many adverse and long-term neurological consequences. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising cytotherapy and have been previously shown to reduce secondary apoptosis and cognitive deficits associated with TBI. Consistent with the established literature, we observed that systemically administered human MSCs (hMSCs) accumulate with high specificity at the TBI lesion boundary zone known as the penumbra. Substantial work has been done to illuminate the mechanisms by which MSCs, and the bioactive molecules they secrete, exert their therapeutic effect. However, no such work has been published to examine the effect of MSC treatment on gene expression in the brain post-TBI. In the present study, we use high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq) of cortical tissue from the TBI penumbra to assess the molecular effects of both TBI and subsequent treatment with intravenously delivered hMSCs. RNAseq revealed that expression of almost 7000 cortical genes in the penumbra were differentially regulated by TBI. Pathway analysis using the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway database revealed that TBI regulated a large number of genes belonging to pathways involved in metabolism, receptor-mediated cell signaling, neuronal plasticity, immune cell recruitment and infiltration, and neurodegenerative disease. Remarkably, hMSC treatment was found to normalize 49% of all genes disrupted by TBI, with notably robust normalization of specific pathways within the categories mentioned above, including neuroactive receptor-ligand interactions (57%), glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (81%), and Parkinson's disease (100%). These data provide evidence in support of the multi-mechanistic nature of stem cell therapy and suggest that hMSC treatment is capable of simultaneously normalizing a wide variety of important molecular pathways that are disrupted by brain injury.

  2. Simultaneous morphological and functional imaging of the honeybee's brain by two-photon microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, A.

    2011-01-01

    Thanks to its rather simply structured but highly performing brain, the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is an important model for neurobiological studies. Therefore there is a great need for new functional imaging modalities adapted to this species. Herein we give a detailed report on the development and performance of a platform for in vivo functional and morphological imaging of the honeybee's brain, focusing on its primary olfactory centres, the antennal lobes (ALs). The experimental setup consists of a two-photon microscope combined with a synchronized odour stimulus generator. Our imaging platform allows to simultaneously obtain both morphological measurements of the ALs functional units, the glomeruli, and in vivo calcium recording of their neural activity. We were able to record the characteristic glomerular response maps to odour stimuli applied to the bee's antennae. Our approach offers several advantages over the commonly used conventional fluorescence microscopy. Two-photon microscopy provides substantial enhancement in both spatial and temporal resolutions, while minimizing photo damage. Calcium recordings show a more than fourfold improvement in the functional signal with respect to the techniques available up to now. Finally, the extended penetration depth, thanks to the infrared excitation, allows the functional imaging of profound glomeruli which have not been optically accessible up to now.

  3. Bioactive form of resveratrol in glioblastoma cells and its safety for normal brain cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Shu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Resveratrol, a plant polyphenol existing in grapes and many other natural foods, possesses a wide range of biological activities including cancer prevention. It has been recognized that resveratrol is intracellularly biotransformed to different metabolites, but no direct evidence has been available to ascertain its bioactive form because of the difficulty to maintain resveratrol unmetabolized in vivo or in vitro. It would be therefore worthwhile to elucidate the potential therapeutic implications of resveratrol metabolism using a reliable resveratrol-sensitive cancer cells.Objective: To identify the real biological form of trans-resveratrol and to evaluate the safety of the effective anticancer dose of resveratrol for the normal brain cells.Methods: The samples were prepared from the condition media and cell lysates of human glioblastoma U251 cells, and were purified by solid phase extraction (SPE. The samples were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS analysis. According to the metabolite(s, trans-resveratrol was biotransformed in vitro by the method described elsewhere, and the resulting solution was used to treat U251 cells. Meanwhile, the responses of U251 and primarily cultured rat normal brain cells (glial cells and neurons to 100μM trans-resveratrol were evaluated by multiple experimental methods.Results: The results revealed that resveratrol monosulfate was the major metabolite in U251 cells. About half fraction of resveratrol monosulfate was prepared in vitro and this trans-resveratrol and resveratrol monosulfate mixture showed little inhibitory effect on U251 cells. It is also found that rat primary brain cells (PBCs not only resist 100μM but also tolerate as high as 200μM resveratrol treatment.Conclusions: Our study thus demonstrated that trans-resveratrol was the bioactive form in glioblastoma cells and, therefore, the biotransforming

  4. Oxidative stress and acrosomal morphology: A cause of infertility in patients with normal semen parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa A. El-Taieb

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Percentages of MDA values and acrosomal anomalies were higher in infertile patients than normal subjects. The positive correlation between acrosomal anomalies and MDA values means association between OS and acrosomal anomalies which may indicate negative effects of OS on the acrosomal structure.

  5. The Brain of the Black (Diceros bicornis and White (Ceratotherium simum African Rhinoceroses: Morphology and Volumetrics from Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhil Bhagwandin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and volumetrics of the understudied brains of two iconic large terrestrial African mammals: the black (Diceros bicornis and white (Ceratotherium simum rhinoceroses are described. The black rhinoceros is typically solitary whereas the white rhinoceros is social, and both are members of the Perissodactyl order. Here, we provide descriptions of the surface of the brain of each rhinoceros. For both species, we use magnetic resonance images (MRI to develop a description of the internal anatomy of the rhinoceros brain and to calculate the volume of the amygdala, cerebellum, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and ventricular system as well as to determine the gyrencephalic index. The morphology of both black and white rhinoceros brains is very similar to each other, although certain minor differences, seemingly related to diet, were noted, and both brains evince the general anatomy of the mammalian brain. The rhinoceros brains display no obvious neuroanatomical specializations in comparison to other mammals previously studied. In addition, the volumetric analyses indicate that the size of the various regions of the rhinoceros brain measured, as well as the extent of gyrification, are what would be predicted for a mammal with their brain mass when compared allometrically to previously published data. We conclude that the brains of the black and white rhinoceros exhibit a typically mammalian organization at a superficial level, but histological studies may reveal specializations of interest in relation to rhinoceros behavior.

  6. Complete adrenocorticotropin deficiency after radiation therapy for brain tumor with a normal growth hormone reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Haruna; Yoshioka, Katsunobu; Yamagami, Keiko [Osaka City General Hospital (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-06-01

    A 34-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1, who had received radiation therapy after the excision of a brain tumor 5 years earlier, was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and weight loss. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) were undetectable before and after administration of 100 {mu}g corticotropin releasing hormone. The level of growth hormone without stimulation was 24.7 ng/ml. We diagnosed him to have complete ACTH deficiency attributable to radiation therapy. This is the first known case of a patient with complete ACTH deficiency after radiation therapy and a growth hormone reserve that remained normal. (author)

  7. Complete adrenocorticotropin deficiency after radiation therapy for brain tumor with a normal growth hormone reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Haruna; Yoshioka, Katsunobu; Yamagami, Keiko

    2002-01-01

    A 34-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1, who had received radiation therapy after the excision of a brain tumor 5 years earlier, was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and weight loss. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) were undetectable before and after administration of 100 μg corticotropin releasing hormone. The level of growth hormone without stimulation was 24.7 ng/ml. We diagnosed him to have complete ACTH deficiency attributable to radiation therapy. This is the first known case of a patient with complete ACTH deficiency after radiation therapy and a growth hormone reserve that remained normal. (author)

  8. Brain regional uptake of radioactive Sc, Mn, Zn, Se, Rb and Zr tracers into normal mice during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, R.; Enomoto, S.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive multitracer technique was applied to study the brain regional uptake of trace elements by the normal mice during aging. The brain regional radioactivities of 46 Sc, 54 Mn, 65 Zn, 75 Se, 83 Rb and 88 Zr were measured 48 hours after intraperitoneal injection of a solution in normal mice aged 6 to 52 weeks to evaluate the brain regional (corpus striatum, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and pons and medulla) uptakes. The radioactive distributions of 46 Sc, 54 Mn and 88 Zr tracers were variable and region-specific in the brain, while those of 65 Zn, 75 Se and 83 Rb tracers were comparable among all regions of interest. The brain regional uptakes of all tracers slightly increased with age from 10 to 28 weeks, and then remained constant during aging after 28 weeks. These uptake variations may be involved in the functional degenerative process of the blood-brain barrier during aging. (author)

  9. Normal sperm morphology and changes of semen characteristics and abnormal morphological spermatozoa among peri-mating seasons in captive japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tsukasa; Murase, Tetsuma; Nakamura, Sachiko; Komatsu, Takeshi; Tsubota, Toshio; Asano, Makoto

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain morphological data for normal spermatozoa and to investigate seasonal changes (the early, mid- and post-mating seasons) in abnormal morphology of spermatozoa and the characteristics of semen in Japanese black bears. Semen was collected by electroejaculation from 34 captive male Japanese black bears a total of 74 times. Length of head, width of head, length of midpiece and total length of the spermatozoa were 6.3 +/- 0.4, 4.5 +/- 0.3, 10.4 +/- 0.7 and 69.6 +/- 3.1 mum (mean +/- SD; 20 semen, 200 spermatozoa), respectively. In the semen collected during the mid-mating season, ejaculate volume, ejaculate pH, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, viability and intact acrosomes were 0.46 +/- 0.36 ml, 7.3 +/- 0.4, 659 +/- 644 x 10(6)/ml, 214 +/- 208 x 10(6), 82.9 +/- 9.6%, 89.3 +/- 9.5% and 97.0 +/- 3.2% (mean +/- SD; n=21, in ejaculate pH n=8), respectively. Sperm motility and viability in the early (n=7) and mid-mating (n=21) seasons were significantly higher than in the post-mating (n=8) season. The rates of detached heads in the early and mid-mating season were significantly lower than in the post-mating season. The main abnormal morphologies observed (mean +/- SD%; n=23) were simply bent tail (19.9 +/- 22.6), distal droplets (13.5 +/- 11.7), proximal droplets (9.6 +/- 7.8), teratoid spermatozoa (6.7 +/- 10.7), knobbed acrosome (4.9 +/- 8.6), acrosome damage (3.7 +/- 2.8) and bent midpiece (3.7 +/- 5.1). The data will be useful for artificial breeding and further research on male reproductive physiology in this species.

  10. Abnormal blood-brain barrier permeability in normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis investigated by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig Præstekær; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics.......To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics....

  11. Hierarchical clustering of Alzheimer and "normal" brains using elemental concentrations and glucose metabolism determined by PIXE, INAA and PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutts, DA; Spyrou, NM; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL

    Brain tissue samples, obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from both left and right hemispheres of three regions of the cerebrum, namely the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes for both Alzheimer and 'normal' subjects. Trace element

  12. The Designed Environment and How it Affects Brain Morphology and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiewski, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    The environment is inextricably related to mental health. Recent research replicates findings of a significant, linear correlation between a childhood exposure to the urban environment and psychosis. Related studies also correlate the urban environment and aberrant brain morphologies. These findings challenge common beliefs that the mind and brain remain neutral in the face of worldly experience. There is a signature within these neurological findings that suggests that specific features of design cause and trigger mental illness. The objective in this article is to work backward from the molecular dynamics to identify features of the designed environment that may either trigger mental illness or protect against it. This review analyzes the discrete functions putatively assigned to the affected brain areas and a neurotransmitter called dopamine, which is the primary target of most antipsychotic medications. The intention is to establish what the correlations mean in functional terms, and more specifically, how this relates to the phenomenology of urban experience. In doing so, environmental mental illness risk factors are identified. Having established these relationships, the review makes practical recommendations for those in public health who wish to use the environment itself as a tool to improve the mental health of a community through design. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Impaired cognitive functions in mild traumatic brain injury patients with normal and pathologic magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurca, E.; Sivak, S.; Kucera, P.

    2006-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common neurological (neurotraumatological) diagnosis. As well as different subjective symptoms, many patients develop neuropsychological dysfunction with objective impairment of attention, memory and certain executive functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not routinely used in MTBI patients despite its proven greater sensitivity and specificity in comparison with computed tomography (CT). The patient group consisted of 30 persons with MTBI and the control group consisted of 30 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Both groups underwent neurological examination, neuropsychological testing (including the Postconcussion Symptoms Scale questionnaire, PCSS) and brain MRI (the patient group within 96 h after injury). The analyzed groups did not differ significantly in terms of sex, age, or level or duration of education. MRI pathological findings (traumatic and nonspecific) were present in nine patients. Traumatic lesions were found in seven patients. Nonspecific white matter lesions were found in five healthy controls. There were significant differences between MTBI patients and controls in terms of subjective symptoms (PCSS) and selected neuropsychological tests. Statistically significant neuropsychological differences were found between MTBI patients with true traumatic lesions and MTBI patients with nonspecific lesions. There is evidence that MTBI patients with true traumatic MRI lesions are neuropsychologically different from MTBI patients with nonspecific MRI lesions or normal brain MRI. These results support the hypothesis that some acute MTBI signs and symptoms have a real organic basis which can be detected by selected new MRI modalities. (orig.)

  14. Diffusion tensor tractography of language functional areas and fiber pathways in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xuejin; Dai Jianping; Chen Hongyan; Gao Peiyi; Ai Lin; Tian Shengyong; Pang Ruilin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the fiber pathways of Broca area to the other functional brain areas with diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking. Methods: Conventionality MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tracking were performed using 3.0 T MRI in 20 healthy person. The fiber bundles and tracts were analyzed in Broca area and contralateral normal area. Results: The left-side fiber bundles were 428 and the right-side were 416 in B45 area, there were no statistically significant differences between both sides (t=0.216, P>0.05). The left-side fiber bundles were 432 and the right-side were 344 in B44 area,there were statistically significant (t=2.314, P 0.05). Differences of the arcuate fascicule between both sides were not statistically significant (t=-0.465, P>0.05), the mean FA on the left was higher than the right (t=1.912, P<0.05). DTI and fiber tracking exhibited that the fiber bundles from Broca area were distributed superoanteriorly to the lateral foreside of the frontal lobe, lateroinferiorly to the occipital lobe through external capsule, and went down through globus pallidus and internal capsule. Conclusion: The fiber tracts bewteen Broca area and other brain areas were the fundamental structures for performing language function of the human brain. (authors)

  15. Impaired cognitive functions in mild traumatic brain injury patients with normal and pathologic magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurca, E.; Sivak, S. [Comenius University, Clinic of Neurology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Kucera, P. [Comenius University, 1st Clinic of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2006-09-15

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common neurological (neurotraumatological) diagnosis. As well as different subjective symptoms, many patients develop neuropsychological dysfunction with objective impairment of attention, memory and certain executive functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not routinely used in MTBI patients despite its proven greater sensitivity and specificity in comparison with computed tomography (CT). The patient group consisted of 30 persons with MTBI and the control group consisted of 30 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Both groups underwent neurological examination, neuropsychological testing (including the Postconcussion Symptoms Scale questionnaire, PCSS) and brain MRI (the patient group within 96 h after injury). The analyzed groups did not differ significantly in terms of sex, age, or level or duration of education. MRI pathological findings (traumatic and nonspecific) were present in nine patients. Traumatic lesions were found in seven patients. Nonspecific white matter lesions were found in five healthy controls. There were significant differences between MTBI patients and controls in terms of subjective symptoms (PCSS) and selected neuropsychological tests. Statistically significant neuropsychological differences were found between MTBI patients with true traumatic lesions and MTBI patients with nonspecific lesions. There is evidence that MTBI patients with true traumatic MRI lesions are neuropsychologically different from MTBI patients with nonspecific MRI lesions or normal brain MRI. These results support the hypothesis that some acute MTBI signs and symptoms have a real organic basis which can be detected by selected new MRI modalities. (orig.)

  16. Effects of active music therapy on the normal brain: fMRI based evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglio, Alfredo; Galandra, Caterina; Sibilla, Luisella; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gaeta, Francesca; Di Salle, Francesco; Moro, Luca; Carne, Irene; Bastianello, Stefano; Baldi, Maurizia; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological bases of Active Music Therapy (AMT) and its effects on the normal brain. Twelve right-handed, healthy, non-musician volunteers were recruited. The subjects underwent 2 AMT sessions based on the free sonorous-music improvisation using rhythmic and melodic instruments. After these sessions, each subject underwent 2 fMRI scan acquisitions while listening to a Syntonic (SP) and an A-Syntonic (AP) Production from the AMT sessions. A 3 T Discovery MR750 scanner with a 16-channel phased array head coil was used, and the image analysis was performed with Brain Voyager QX 2.8. The listening to SP vs AP excerpts mainly activated: (1) the right middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal sulcus, (2) the right middle frontal gyrus and in particular the right precentral gyrus, (3) the bilateral precuneus, (4) the left superior temporal sulcus and (5) the left middle temporal gyrus. These results are consistent with the psychological bases of the AMT approach and with the activation of brain areas involved in memory and autobiographical processes, and also in personal or interpersonal significant experiences. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to explain possible effects of AMT in clinical settings.

  17. Brain perfusion SPECT in the mouse: normal pattern according to gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Wunder, Andreas; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Michel, Roger; Stemmer, Nina; Lukas, Mathias; Derlin, Thorsten; Gregor-Mamoudou, Betina; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph

    2012-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is a useful surrogate marker of neuronal activity and a parameter of primary interest in the diagnosis of many diseases. The increasing use of mouse models spawns the demand for in vivo measurement of rCBF in the mouse. Small animal SPECT provides excellent spatial resolution at adequate sensitivity and is therefore a promising tool for imaging the mouse brain. This study evaluates the feasibility of mouse brain perfusion SPECT and assesses the regional pattern of normal Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake and the impact of age and gender. Whole-brain kinetics was compared between Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-ECD using rapid dynamic planar scans in 10 mice. Assessment of the regional uptake pattern was restricted to the more suitable tracer, HMPAO. Two HMPAO SPECTs were performed in 18 juvenile mice aged 7.5 ± 1.5weeks, and in the same animals at young adulthood, 19.1 ± 4.0 weeks (nanoSPECT/CTplus, general purpose mouse apertures: 1.2kcps/MBq, 0.7mm FWHM). The 3-D MRI Digital Atlas Database of an adult C57BL/6J mouse brain was used for region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. SPECT images were stereotactically normalized using SPM8 and a custom made, left-right symmetric HMPAO template in atlas space. For testing lateral asymmetry, each SPECT was left-right flipped prior to stereotactical normalization. Flipped and unflipped SPECTs were compared by paired testing. Peak brain uptake was similar for ECD and HMPAO: 1.8 ± 0.2 and 2.1 ± 0.6 %ID (p=0.357). Washout after the peak was much faster for ECD than for HMPAO: 24 ± 7min vs. 4.6 ± 1.7h (p=0.001). The general linear model for repeated measures with gender as an intersubject factor revealed an increase in relative HMPAO uptake with age in the neocortex (p=0.018) and the hippocampus (p=0.012). A decrease was detected in the midbrain (p=0.025). Lateral asymmetry, with HMPAO uptake larger in the left hemisphere, was detected primarily in the neocortex, both at juvenile age (asymmetry index AI=2.7 ± 1

  18. Impact of Millimeter-Level Margins on Peripheral Normal Brain Sparing for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Lijun; Sahgal, Arjun; Larson, David A.; Pinnaduwage, Dilini; Fogh, Shannon; Barani, Igor; Nakamura, Jean; McDermott, Michael; Sneed, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how millimeter-level margins beyond the gross tumor volume (GTV) impact peripheral normal brain tissue sparing for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: A mathematical formula was derived to predict the peripheral isodose volume, such as the 12-Gy isodose volume, with increasing margins by millimeters. The empirical parameters of the formula were derived from a cohort of brain tumor and surgical tumor resection cavity cases (n=15) treated with the Gamma Knife Perfexion. This was done by first adding margins from 0.5 to 3.0 mm to each individual target and then creating for each expanded target a series of treatment plans of nearly identical quality as the original plan. Finally, the formula was integrated with a published logistic regression model to estimate the treatment-induced complication rate for stereotactic radiosurgery when millimeter-level margins are added. Results: Confirmatory correlation between the nominal target radius (ie, R T ) and commonly used maximum target size was found for the studied cases, except for a few outliers. The peripheral isodose volume such as the 12-Gy volume was found to increase exponentially with increasing Δ/R T , where Δ is the margin size. Such a curve fitted the data (logarithmic regression, R 2 >0.99), and the 12-Gy isodose volume was shown to increase steeply with a 0.5- to 3.0-mm margin applied to a target. For example, a 2-mm margin on average resulted in an increase of 55% ± 16% in the 12-Gy volume; this corresponded to an increase in the symptomatic necrosis rate of 6% to 25%, depending on the Δ/R T values for the target. Conclusions: Millimeter-level margins beyond the GTV significantly impact peripheral normal brain sparing and should be applied with caution. Our model provides a rapid estimate of such an effect, particularly for large and/or irregularly shaped targets

  19. Normalization of similarity-based individual brain networks from gray matter MRI and its association with neurodevelopment in infants with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalle, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Figueras, Francesc; Bargallo, Nuria; Eixarch, Elisenda; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-12-01

    Obtaining individual biomarkers for the prediction of altered neurological outcome is a challenge of modern medicine and neuroscience. Connectomics based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) stands as a good candidate to exhaustively extract information from MRI by integrating the information obtained in a few network features that can be used as individual biomarkers of neurological outcome. However, this approach typically requires the use of diffusion and/or functional MRI to extract individual brain networks, which require high acquisition times and present an extreme sensitivity to motion artifacts, critical problems when scanning fetuses and infants. Extraction of individual networks based on morphological similarity from gray matter is a new approach that benefits from the power of graph theory analysis to describe gray matter morphology as a large-scale morphological network from a typical clinical anatomic acquisition such as T1-weighted MRI. In the present paper we propose a methodology to normalize these large-scale morphological networks to a brain network with standardized size based on a parcellation scheme. The proposed methodology was applied to reconstruct individual brain networks of 63 one-year-old infants, 41 infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and 22 controls, showing altered network features in the IUGR group, and their association with neurodevelopmental outcome at two years of age by means of ordinal regression analysis of the network features obtained with Bayley Scale for Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. Although it must be more widely assessed, this methodology stands as a good candidate for the development of biomarkers for altered neurodevelopment in the pediatric population. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional brain imaging with SPECT in normal again and dementia. Methodological, pathophysiological, and diagnostic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldemar, G.

    1996-03-01

    New developments in instrumentation, radiochemistry, and data analysis, particularly the introduction of 99m Tc-labeled brain-retained tracers for perfusion studies, have opened up a new era of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this review critical methodological issues relating to the SPECT instrument, the radioactive tracers, the scanning procedure, the data analysis and interpretation of data, and subject selection are discussed together with the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed in normal aging. An overview is given of the topography and the pathophysiological and diagnostic significance of focal rCBF deficits in Alzheimer's disease and in other dementia disorders, in which SPECT is capable of early or preclinical disease detection. In Alzheimer's disease, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of focal rCBF deficits measured with SPECT and brain-retained tracers are very high, in particular when combined with medial temporal lob atrophy on CT. Together with neuropsychological testing, SPECT serves to map the topography of brain dysfunction. Thus, in the clinical setting, SPECT provides information that is supplemental to that obtained in other studies. Future applications include neuroreceptor studies and treatment studies, in which SPECT may serve as a diagnostic aid in the selection of patients and as a potential mean for monitoring treatment effects. Although positron emission tomography is the best characterized tool for addressing some of these clinical and research issues in dementia, only the less expensive and technically simpler SPECT technique will have the potential of being available as a screening diagnostic instrument in the clinical setting. It is concluded that, properly approached, functional brain imaging with SPECT represents an important tool in the diagnosis, management, and research of dementia disorders. (au) 251 refs

  1. Changes in cell proliferation and morphology in the large intestine of normal and DMH-treated rats following colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Tutton, P J

    1987-04-01

    Colostomies were formed in the midcolon of normal and DMH-treated rats. Changes in cell proliferation in the mucosa adjacent to the colostomy and in the defunctioned distal segment were measured at seven, 14, 30, and 72 days using a stathmokinetic technique. Animals were given intraperitoneal injections of vinblastine and sacrificed three hours later; counts of mitotic and nonmitotic cells were made in tissue sections, and three-hour accumulated mitotic indexes were estimated. The results show that, except at seven days in DMH-treated rats, cell proliferation was unchanged in the colon proximal to the colostomy. Morphologic evidence of hyperplasia was seen in some animals at seven and 14 days. The defunctioned segment showed rapid atrophy of both mucosa and muscularis and a gradual but progressive decrease in cell proliferation. The morphology of the mucosa adjacent to the suture line in both functioning and defunctioned segments in normal and DMH-treated rats was abnormal in many animals. Abnormalities that were seen included collections of dysplastic epithelial cells in the submucosa, focal adenomatous changes, and intramural carcinoma formation. Aggregates of lymphoid tissue often were associated with carcinomas.

  2. GROSS MORPHOLOGY AND ENCEPHALIZATION QUOTIENT OF BRAIN IN MALE AND FEMALE VANARAJA CHICKENS AT DIFFERENT AGES

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    Kuldeep Kumar Panigrahy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred fifty day-old sexed Vanaraja chicks (75 male + 75 female were taken as experimental birds. Dissection of cranium was performed carefully and study of gross morphology of brain was undertaken at different ages in male and female birds. The brain in situ appeared like a ‘spade’ symbol in playing card but it appeared rather wider and globular in both sexes. The cerebrum varied from pear to oval or even globular in shape in both sexes. On dorsal view, the cerebral hemispheres appeared moderately convex and smooth surfaced. On ventral surface, ill-developed olfactory lobes were observed anteriorly on either side of the median fissure in both male and female Vanaraja birds. The hippocampus was located transversely to the posterior one third parts of both cerebral hemispheres. Duncan’s EQ ranged from 5.801 ± 0.514 (T3-Male to 5.944 ± 0.451 (T1-Female on 21st day. There was significant decrease (p<0.05 in EQ from Day 21 to 42 across all the groups. On 84th day, the range of EQ was 1.346 ± 0.115 (T3-Male to 1.444 ± 0.114 (T1-Female. In case of Cuvier’s EQ, on 21st day the value ranged from 35.079 ± 0.288 (T2-Male to 36.531 ± 0.312 (T3-Female. There was significant reduction (p<0.05 in Cuvier’s EQ value from Trial-I (21st day to Trial-II (42nd day. Again, a significant decrease in EQ value was evident from Trial-III (63rd Day to Trial-IV (84th Day. On 84th day, the EQ ranged from 15.607 ± 0.123 (T3-Male to 16.038c ± 0.125 (T2-Male. Duncan’s formula had very high correlation coefficient with brain length (0.915. There was also very high degree correlation between brain weight and body weight (0.963. Brain weight and neuronal size are also highly correlated (0.902. Neuronal size and brain volume are also having a high correlation (0.902. The EQ values had medium correlation with neuronal size (0.701 for Cuvier’s Formula and 0.713 for Duncan’s formula. Duncan’s and Cuvier’s value had a very high degree of correlation

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MICROMETRICAL CHANGES OF THE PLACENTAL TERMINAL VILLI IN NORMAL AND PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED WITH GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Sharmila Bhanu P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM & OBJECTIVES Incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is escalating in Indian women amounting to 10% of the total pregnancies mainly due to the diet, obesity and sedentary life style. Placenta is a crucial organ of intrauterine life. The functional units of the placenta such as chorionic villi, foetal blood vessels, and the syncytial knots are altered histologically in gestational diabetic condition. The present study is undertaken to observe the morphological and micrometrical changes of the GDM and normal placenta. MATERIAL AND METHODS Total number of 96 placentas, out of which 48 are GDM and 48 from control were procured for the present study. The placentas were collected from our General Hospital, Nellore, AP. Morphology and micrometry of the placentas were studied. RESULTS The shape of placenta was similar in both groups, but the weight in GDM (537.27±131.97 g, diameter (168.2±13.23 mm and thickness (29.9±3.45 mm were significantly (P<0.005 increased when compared to control. The mean number (9.01±2.25 mm3 and diameter (0.08±0.03 mm of the terminal villi and number of foetal blood vessels (21.76±8.52 mm3 were found to be increased in GDM, but the diameter of the blood vessel (0.04±0.02 mm was decreased and highly significant (P<0.001. The syncytial knots and fibrinoid necrosis were also observed in GDM when compared to the normal placenta. CONCLUSION The placentas from GDM were observed with significant morphological and histological changes as compared to controls, which may alter the perinatal outcome resulting in macrosomia, congenital malformations and intrauterine growth retardation.

  4. Glutamate-glutamine and GABA in brain of normal aged and patients with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dandan; Liu, Dan; Yin, Jianzhong; Qian, Tianyi; Shrestha, Susan; Ni, Hongyan

    2017-07-01

    To explore the changes of glutamate-glutamine (Glx) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain in normal old age and cognitive impairment using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Seventeen normal young controls (NYC), 15 normal elderly controls (NEC), 21 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 17 with Alzheimer disease (AD) patients were included in this study. Glx and GABA+ levels in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right hippocampus (rHP) were measured by using a MEGA-PRESS sequence. Glx/Cr and GABA+/Cr ratios were compared between NYC and NEC and between the three elderly groups using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA); the tissue fractions of voxels were used as covariates. The relationships between metabolite ratios and cognitive performance were analysed using Spearman correlation coefficients. For NEC and NYC groups, Glx/Cr and GABA+/Cr ratios were lower in NEC in ACC and rHP. For the three elderly groups, Glx/Cr ratio was lower in AD in ACC compared to NEC and MCI; Glx/Cr ratio was lower in AD in rHP compared to NEC. There was no significant decrease for GABA+/Cr ratio. Glx and GABA levels may decrease simultaneously in normal aged, and Glx level decreased predominantly in AD, and it is helpful in the early diagnosis of AD. • Glx and GABA levels may decrease simultaneously in normal aged. • Glx level may decrease predominantly in Alzheimer disease. • The balance in excitatory-inhibitory systems may be broken in AD. • Decreased Glx level may be helpful in early diagnosis of AD.

  5. Simulations of exercise and brain effects of acute exposure to carbon monoxide in normal and vascular-diseased persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    At some level, carboxyhemoglobin (RbCO) due to inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) reduces maximum exercise duration in normal and ischemic heart patients. At high RbCO levels in normal subjects, brain function is also affected and behavioral performance is impaired. These are fin...

  6. Differences in trace element concentrations between Alzheimer and 'normal' human brain tissue using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayi, A.E.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Brain samples obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank were taken from the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal gyrus and medial temporal gyrus of 'normal' and Alzheimer's disease subjects in order to determine elemental concentrations and compare elemental composition. Brain samples from the cortex were taken from 18 subjects, eight 'normals' (6 males and 2 females) and eleven with Alzheimer's disease, (1 male and 10 females) and the following elemental concentrations, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Cs, Ba, and Eu were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The element which showed the greatest difference was Br, which was found to be significantly elevated in the cortex of Alzheimer's disease brains as compared to the 'normals' at significance (p < 0.001). (author)

  7. Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Colin S; Eeles, Rosalind; Wedge, David C; Van Loo, Peter; Gundem, Gunes; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Kremeyer, Barbara; Butler, Adam; Lynch, Andrew G; Camacho, Niedzica; Massie, Charlie E; Kay, Jonathan; Luxton, Hayley J; Edwards, Sandra; Kote-Jarai, ZSofia; Dennis, Nening; Merson, Sue; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Zamora, Jorge; Corbishley, Cathy; Thomas, Sarah; Nik-Zainal, Serena; O'Meara, Sarah; Matthews, Lucy; Clark, Jeremy; Hurst, Rachel; Mithen, Richard; Bristow, Robert G; Boutros, Paul C; Fraser, Michael; Cooke, Susanna; Raine, Keiran; Jones, David; Menzies, Andrew; Stebbings, Lucy; Hinton, Jon; Teague, Jon; McLaren, Stuart; Mudie, Laura; Hardy, Claire; Anderson, Elizabeth; Joseph, Olivia; Goody, Victoria; Robinson, Ben; Maddison, Mark; Gamble, Stephen; Greenman, Christopher; Berney, Dan; Hazell, Steven; Livni, Naomi; Fisher, Cyril; Ogden, Christopher; Kumar, Pardeep; Thompson, Alan; Woodhouse, Christopher; Nicol, David; Mayer, Erik; Dudderidge, Tim; Shah, Nimish C; Gnanapragasam, Vincent; Voet, Thierry; Campbell, Peter; Futreal, Andrew; Easton, Douglas; Warren, Anne Y; Foster, Christopher S; Stratton, Michael R; Whitaker, Hayley C; McDermott, Ultan; Brewer, Daniel S; Neal, David E

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide DNA sequencing was used to decrypt the phylogeny of multiple samples from distinct areas of cancer and morphologically normal tissue taken from the prostates of three men. Mutations were present at high levels in morphologically normal tissue distant from the cancer, reflecting clonal expansions, and the underlying mutational processes at work in morphologically normal tissue were also at work in cancer. Our observations demonstrate the existence of ongoing abnormal mutational processes, consistent with field effects, underlying carcinogenesis. This mechanism gives rise to extensive branching evolution and cancer clone mixing, as exemplified by the coexistence of multiple cancer lineages harboring distinct ERG fusions within a single cancer nodule. Subsets of mutations were shared either by morphologically normal and malignant tissues or between different ERG lineages, indicating earlier or separate clonal cell expansions. Our observations inform on the origin of multifocal disease and have implications for prostate cancer therapy in individual cases.

  8. Pluripotency Genes and Their Functions in the Normal and Aberrant Breast and Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Seymour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs attracted considerable interest with the successful isolation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs from the inner cell mass of murine, primate and human embryos. Whilst it was initially thought that the only PSCs were ESCs, in more recent years cells with similar properties have been isolated from organs of the adult, including the breast and brain. Adult PSCs in these organs have been suggested to be remnants of embryonic development that facilitate normal tissue homeostasis during repair and regeneration. They share certain characteristics with ESCs, such as an inherent capacity to self-renew and differentiate into cells of the three germ layers, properties that are regulated by master pluripotency transcription factors (TFs OCT4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4, SOX2 (sex determining region Y-box 2, and homeobox protein NANOG. Aberrant expression of these TFs can be oncogenic resulting in heterogeneous tumours fueled by cancer stem cells (CSC, which are resistant to conventional treatments and are associated with tumour recurrence post-treatment. Further to enriching our understanding of the role of pluripotency TFs in normal tissue function, research now aims to develop optimized isolation and propagation methods for normal adult PSCs and CSCs for the purposes of regenerative medicine, developmental biology, and disease modeling aimed at targeted personalised cancer therapies.

  9. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. H.; Lim, S. Y.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, O. H.; Bai, M. S.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W.

    1997-01-01

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84±17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78±10.36), mild defect ( 2 test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients

  10. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Lim, S. Y.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, O. H.; Bai, M. S.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84{+-}17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78{+-}10.36), mild defect (<50MQ : n=9, MQ=66.11{+-}13.87). The degree of rCBF decrease between the two groups was evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients.

  11. Probing the effect of human normal sperm morphology rate on cycle outcomes and assisted reproductive methods selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available Sperm morphology is the best predictor of fertilization potential, and the critical predictive information for supporting assisted reproductive methods selection. Given its important predictive value and the declining reality of semen quality in recent years, the threshold of normal sperm morphology rate (NSMR is being constantly corrected and controversial, from the 4th edition (14% to the 5th version (4%. We retrospectively analyzed 4756 cases of infertility patients treated with conventional-IVF(c-IVF or ICSI, which were divided into three groups according to NSMR: ≥14%, 4%-14% and <4%. Here, we demonstrate that, with decrease in NSMR(≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, in the c-IVF group, the rate of fertilization, normal fertilization, high-quality embryo, multi-pregnancy and birth weight of twins gradually decreased significantly (P<0.05, while the miscarriage rate was significantly increased (p<0.01 and implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, preterm birth rate, live birth rate, sex ratio, and birth weight(Singleton showed no significant change. In the ICSI group, with decrease in NSMR (≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, high-quality embryo rate, multi-pregnancy rate and birth weight of twins were gradually decreased significantly (p<0.05, while other parameters had no significant difference. Considering the clinical assisted methods selection, in the NFMR ≥14% group, normal fertilization rate of c-IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group (P<0.05, in the 4%-14% group, birth weight (twins of c-IVF were significantly higher than the ICSI group, in the <4% group, miscarriage of IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group. Therefore, we conclude that NSMR is positively related to embryo reproductive potential, and when NSMR<4% (5th edition, ICSI should be considered first, while the NSMR≥4%, c-IVF assisted reproduction might be preferred.

  12. Inter-subject FDG PET Brain Networks Exhibit Multi-scale Community Structure with Different Normalization Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Megan M; Kartha, Sonia; Granquist, Eric J; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2018-07-01

    Inter-subject networks are used to model correlations between brain regions and are particularly useful for metabolic imaging techniques, like 18F-2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Since FDG PET typically produces a single image, correlations cannot be calculated over time. Little focus has been placed on the basic properties of inter-subject networks and if they are affected by group size and image normalization. FDG PET images were acquired from rats (n = 18), normalized by whole brain, visual cortex, or cerebellar FDG uptake, and used to construct correlation matrices. Group size effects on network stability were investigated by systematically adding rats and evaluating local network connectivity (node strength and clustering coefficient). Modularity and community structure were also evaluated in the differently normalized networks to assess meso-scale network relationships. Local network properties are stable regardless of normalization region for groups of at least 10. Whole brain-normalized networks are more modular than visual cortex- or cerebellum-normalized network (p network resolutions where modularity differs most between brain and randomized networks. Hierarchical analysis reveals consistent modules at different scales and clustering of spatially-proximate brain regions. Findings suggest inter-subject FDG PET networks are stable for reasonable group sizes and exhibit multi-scale modularity.

  13. A comparison of different models of stroke on behaviour and brain morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C L R; Kolb, B

    2003-10-01

    We compared the effects of three models of permanent ischemia, as well as cortical aspiration, on behaviour and brain morphology. Rats received a stroke either by devascularization or by two different procedures of medial cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO; small vs. large). Animals were trained in a reaching task, forepaw asymmetry, forepaw inhibition, sunflower seed task and tongue extension. Behaviour was assessed 1 week after the lesion and at 2-week intervals for a total of 9 weeks. One week after the surgery all animals were severely impaired on all tasks and although they improved over time they only reached preoperative base lines on tongue extension. Animals with small MCAOs performed better in reaching and sunflower tasks; no other behavioural differences were detected among the groups. Pyramidal cells in forelimb and cingulate areas as well as spiny neurons of the striatum were examined for dendritic branching and spine density using a Golgi-Cox procedure. Each lesion type had a different impact on cell morphology. Overall, different changes (atrophy or hypertrophy) were observed with each kind of lesion and these changes were specific for the region (forelimb, cingulate, striatum) and the condition (intact vs. damaged hemisphere). These results suggest that: (i) different lesions to the motor cortex produce subtle differences in behaviour, and (ii) the method used to induce the lesion produces striking differences in cortical and subcortical plasticity.

  14. The morphological and molecular changes of brain cells exposed to direct current electric field stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Simon J; Lagacé, Marie; St-Amour, Isabelle; Arsenault, Dany; Cisbani, Giulia; Chabrat, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley; Lévesque, Martin; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2014-12-07

    The application of low-intensity direct current electric fields has been experimentally used in the clinic to treat a number of brain disorders, predominantly using transcranial direct current stimulation approaches. However, the cellular and molecular changes induced by such treatment remain largely unknown. Here, we tested various intensities of direct current electric fields (0, 25, 50, and 100V/m) in a well-controlled in vitro environment in order to investigate the responses of neurons, microglia, and astrocytes to this type of stimulation. This included morphological assessments of the cells, viability, as well as shape and fiber outgrowth relative to the orientation of the direct current electric field. We also undertook enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western immunoblotting to identify which molecular pathways were affected by direct current electric fields. In response to direct current electric field, neurons developed an elongated cell body shape with neurite outgrowth that was associated with a significant increase in growth associated protein-43. Fetal midbrain dopaminergic explants grown in a collagen gel matrix also showed a reorientation of their neurites towards the cathode. BV2 microglial cells adopted distinct morphological changes with an increase in cyclooxygenase-2 expression, but these were dependent on whether they had already been activated with lipopolysaccharide. Finally, astrocytes displayed elongated cell bodies with cellular filopodia that were oriented perpendicularly to the direct current electric field. We show that cells of the central nervous system can respond to direct current electric fields both in terms of their morphological shape and molecular expression of certain proteins, and this in turn can help us to begin understand the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits of direct current electric field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  15. Evaluating the morphological changes of intracranial arteries and whole-brain perfusion in undetermined isolated vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenxian; Feng, Youzhen; Lu, Weibiao; Xie, Xie; Xiong, Zhilin; Jing, Zhen; Cai, Xiangran; Huang, Li'an

    2016-11-15

    To determine the morphological changes of intracranial arteries and whole-brain perfusion in undetermined isolated vertigo (UIV) patients using 320-detector row computed tomography (CT). A total of 150 patients who underwent CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) imaging were divided into UIV group and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) group. Sixty individuals with sex- and age-matched without vertigo and cerebral diseases served as the control. The morphological changes of intracranial arteries, perfusion parameters and vascular risk factors (VRFs) were analyzed, calculated and compared. In UIV patients, hypertension (HT), hyperlipidemia and number of VRFs≥3 occurred more commonly (P<0.0125, respectively). The incidence of vertebral artery dominance (VAD), vertebral artery stenosis (VAS) and basilar artery curvature (BAC) were significantly higher (P<0.0125, respectively). HT was an independent risk predictor of non-VAD (OR: 5.411, 95%CI: 1.401; 20.900, P=0.014). HT and VAD associated with BAC served as risk predictors (OR: 4.081, 95%CI: 1.056;15.775, P=0.041 and OR: 6.284, 95%CI: 1.848; 21.365, P=0.003, respectively). The absolute difference in relative values of CTP parameters from cerebellum and brainstem were significantly different (P<0.05), and hypoperfusion was found in the territories of the non-VAD side and the BAC cohort (P<0.05, respectively). On the basis of multiple VRFs, morphological changes of vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) and the unilateral hypoperfusion of the cerebellum and brainstem, that acts as a herald for IV occurrence, which should be paid cautious attention to UIV patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Morphological and histochemical changes in the brain stem in case of experimental hemispheric intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Tertishniy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Investigation of the extent of morphological changes and activity of biogenic amines (according to the intensity of luminescence in the neurons of the brain stem in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Methods and results. ICH was designed on 29 white rats of Vistar line by the administration of autologous blood in the cerebral hemisphere. It was revealed that increased luminescence intensity by 18.4±5.5% was registered in monoaminergic neurons in 1–6 hours after experimental ICH. After 12 hours – 1 day development of dislocation syndrome leads to mosaic focal ischemic neuronal injuries with maximum reduction in the level of catecholamines by 29.5±5.0% compared with control cases. Three–6 days after ICH on a background of selective neuronal necrosis in substantial number of neurons in the nuclei of the brainstem the level of catecholamines is significantly reduced. Conclusion. Disclosed observations reflect significant functional pathology of neurons responsible for the regulation of cardiorespiratory function and may underlie disturbances of integrative activity in the brain stem in general.

  17. Morphological analysis of the cervical spinal canal, dural tube and spinal cord in normal individuals using CT myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, H.; Ohmori, K.; Takatsu, T.; Teramoto, T.; Ishida, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    1996-01-01

    To verify the conventional concept of ''developmental stenosis of the cervical spinal canal'', we performed a morphological analysis of the relations of the cervical spinal canal, dural tube and spinal cord in normal individuals. The sagittal diameter, area and circularity of the three structures, and the dispersion of each parameter, were examined on axial sections of CT myelograms of 36 normal subjects. The spinal canal was narrowest at C4, followed by C5, while the spinal cord was largest at C4/5. The area and circularity of the cervical spinal cord were not significantly correlated with any parameter of the spinal canal nor with the sagittal diameter and area of the dural tube at any level examined, and the spinal cord showed less individual variation than the bony canal. Compression of the spinal cord might be expected whenever the sagittal diameter of the spinal canal is below the lower limit of normal, that is about 12 mm on plain radiographs. Thus, we concluded that the concept of ''developmental stenosis of the cervical spinal canal'' was reasonable and acceptable. (orig.). With 2 figs., 3 tabs

  18. The Developmental Course of Sleep Disturbances Across Childhood Relates to Brain Morphology at Age 7: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocevska, Desana; Muetzel, Ryan L; Luik, Annemarie I; Luijk, Maartje P C M; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of sleep disturbances on the structural properties of the developing brain. This study explored associations between childhood sleep disturbances and brain morphology at 7 years. Mothers from the Generation R cohort reported sleep disturbances in 720 children at ages 2 months, 1.5, 2, 3, and 6 years. T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images were used to assess brain structure at 7 years. Associations of sleep disturbances at each age and of sleep disturbance trajectories with brain volumes (total brain volume, cortical and subcortical grey matter, white matter) were tested with linear regressions. To assess regional differences, sleep disturbance trajectories were tested as determinants for cortical thickness in whole-brain analyses. Sleep disturbances followed a declining trend from toddlerhood onwards. Infant sleep was not associated with brain morphology at age 7. Per SD sleep disturbances (one frequent symptom or two less frequent symptoms) at 2 and 3 years of age, children had -6.3 (-11.7 to -0.8) cm3 and -6.4 (-11.7 to -1.7) cm3 smaller grey matter volumes, respectively. Sleep disturbances at age 6 years were associated with global brain morphology (grey matter: -7.3 (-12.1 to -2.6), p value = .01). Consistently, trajectory analyses showed that more adverse developmental course of childhood sleep disturbances are associated with smaller grey matter volumes and thinner dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Sleep disturbances from age 2 years onwards are associated with smaller grey matter volumes. Thinner prefrontal cortex in children with adverse sleep disturbance trajectories may reflect effects of sleep disturbances on brain maturation. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. TNF signaling inhibition in the CNS: implications for normal brain function and neurodegenerative disease

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    Tansey Malú G

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF as an immune mediator has long been appreciated but its function in the brain is still unclear. TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1 is expressed in most cell types, and can be activated by binding of either soluble TNF (solTNF or transmembrane TNF (tmTNF, with a preference for solTNF; whereas TNFR2 is expressed primarily by microglia and endothelial cells and is preferentially activated by tmTNF. Elevation of solTNF is a hallmark of acute and chronic neuroinflammation as well as a number of neurodegenerative conditions including ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's (AD, Parkinson's (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and multiple sclerosis (MS. The presence of this potent inflammatory factor at sites of injury implicates it as a mediator of neuronal damage and disease pathogenesis, making TNF an attractive target for therapeutic development to treat acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. However, new and old observations from animal models and clinical trials reviewed here suggest solTNF and tmTNF exert different functions under normal and pathological conditions in the CNS. A potential role for TNF in synaptic scaling and hippocampal neurogenesis demonstrated by recent studies suggest additional in-depth mechanistic studies are warranted to delineate the distinct functions of the two TNF ligands in different parts of the brain prior to large-scale development of anti-TNF therapies in the CNS. If inactivation of TNF-dependent inflammation in the brain is warranted by additional pre-clinical studies, selective targeting of TNFR1-mediated signaling while sparing TNFR2 activation may lessen adverse effects of anti-TNF therapies in the CNS.

  20. EEG Oscillatory States: Universality, Uniqueness and Specificity across Healthy-Normal, Altered and Pathological Brain Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the dynamic repertoires and oscillatory types of local EEG states in 13 diverse conditions (examined over 9 studies) that covered healthy-normal, altered and pathological brain states were quantified within the same methodological and conceptual framework. EEG oscillatory states were assessed by the probability-classification analysis of short-term EEG spectral patterns. The results demonstrated that brain activity consists of a limited repertoire of local EEG states in any of the examined conditions. The size of the state repertoires was associated with changes in cognition and vigilance or neuropsychopathologic conditions. Additionally universal, optional and unique EEG states across 13 diverse conditions were observed. It was demonstrated also that EEG oscillations which constituted EEG states were characteristic for different groups of conditions in accordance to oscillations’ functional significance. The results suggested that (a) there is a limit in the number of local states available to the cortex and many ways in which these local states can rearrange themselves and still produce the same global state and (b) EEG individuality is determined by varying proportions of universal, optional and unique oscillatory states. The results enriched our understanding about dynamic microstructure of EEG-signal. PMID:24505292

  1. Soybean and tempeh total isoflvones improved antioxidant activities in normal and scopolamine-induced rat brain

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    Aliya Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the comparative studies between total isoflavone extracts from soybean and tempeh on the neuronal oxidative stress and antioxidant activities. Methods: The total isoflavones were administered orally for 15 days with 3 selected doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg. Piracetam (400 mg/kg, p.o. was used as a standard drug while scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a drug that promoted amnesia in selected groups. The oxidative markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide were measured in brain homogenate. The antioxidant activities evaluated were catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione. Results: Our results showed that soybean and tempeh isoflavones significantly improved the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione while decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide in both the brain of normal as well as scopolamine-induced animals. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that soybean and tempeh isoflavones could be useful in the management and prevention of age-related neurodegenerative changes including Alzheimer’s disease through its antioxidant activities.

  2. Detecting brain growth patterns in normal children using tensor-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Levitt, Jennifer G; Caplan, Rochelle; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W

    2009-01-01

    Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetric studies have shown age-related increases in the volume of total white matter and decreases in the volume of total gray matter of normal children. Recent adaptations of image analysis strategies enable the detection of human brain growth with improved spatial resolution. In this article, we further explore the spatio-temporal complexity of adolescent brain maturation with tensor-based morphometry. By utilizing a novel non-linear elastic intensity-based registration algorithm on the serial structural MRI scans of 13 healthy children, individual Jacobian growth maps are generated and then registered to a common anatomical space. Statistical analyses reveal significant tissue growth in cerebral white matter, contrasted with gray matter loss in parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. In addition, a linear regression with age and gender suggests a slowing down of the growth rate in regions with the greatest white matter growth. We demonstrate that a tensor-based Jacobian map is a sensitive and reliable method to detect regional tissue changes during development. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. MRI and brain spect findings in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and normal CT scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carrilho

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available 26 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy clinically documented by several abnormal interictal surface EEGs with typical unitemporal epileptiform activity and a normal CT scan were studied. Interictal99mTC HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI were performed in all subjects. Abnormalities were shown in 61.5% of MRI (n=16 and 65.4% of SPECT (n=17. Hippocampal atrophy associated to a high signal on T2-weighted MRI slices suggesting mesial temporal sclerosis was the main finding (n=12; 75% of abnormal MRI. MRI correlated well to surface EEG in 50% (n=13. There was also a good correlation between MRI and SPECT in 30.7% (n=8. SPECT and EEG were in agreement in 57.7% (n=l5. MRI, SPECT and EEG were congruent in 26.9% (n=7. These results support the usefulness of interictal brain SPECT and MRI in detecting lateralized abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy. On the other hand, in two cases, interictal SPECT correlated poorly with surface EEG. This functional method should not be used isolately in the detection of temporal lobe foci. MRI is more useful than CT as a neuroimaging technique in temporal lobe epilepsy. It may detect small structural lesions and mesial temporal lobe sclerosis which are not easily seen with traditional CT scanning.

  4. Altered blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with prehepatic portal hypertension turns to normal when portal pressure is lowered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizayaga, Francisco; Scorticati, Camila; Prestifilippo, Juan P; Romay, Salvador; Fernandez, Maria A; Castro, José L; Lemberg, Abraham; Perazzo, Juan C

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the blood-brain barrier integrity in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats induced by partial portal vein ligation, at 14 and 40 d after ligation when portal pressure is spontaneously normalized. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Sham14d , sham operated; Group II: PH14d , portal vein stenosis; (both groups were used 14 days after surgery); Group III: Sham40d, Sham operated and Group IV: PH40d Portal vein stenosis (Groups II and IV used 40 d after surgery). Plasma ammonia, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid protein and liver enzymes concentrations were determined. Trypan and Evans blue dyes, systemically injected, were investigated in hippocampus to study blood-brain barrier integrity. Portal pressure was periodically recorded. RESULTS: Forty days after stricture, portal pressure was normalized, plasma ammonia was moderately high, and both dyes were absent in central nervous system parenchyma. All other parameters were reestablished. When portal pressure was normalized and ammonia level was lowered, but not normal, the altered integrity of blood-brain barrier becomes reestablished. CONCLUSION: The impairment of blood-brain barrier and subsequent normalization could be a mechanism involved in hepatic encephalopathy reversibility. Hemodynamic changes and ammonia could trigger blood-brain barrier alterations and its reestablishment. PMID:16552803

  5. Differential effects of fresh frozen plasma and normal saline on secondary brain damage in a large animal model of polytrauma, hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwabejire, John O; Imam, Ayesha M; Jin, Guang

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the extent of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in large animal models can be reduced with early infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), but the precise mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether resuscitation with FFP or normal saline differed in th...... in their effects on cerebral metabolism and excitotoxic secondary brain injury in a model of polytrauma, TBI, and hemorrhagic shock....

  6. Brain morphological and microstructural features in cryptogenic late-onset temporal lobe epilepsy: a structural and diffusion MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Daichi; Sato, Noriko; Kimura, Yukio; Watanabe, Yutaka; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2018-04-13

    Although epilepsy in the elderly has attracted attention recently, there are few systematic studies of neuroimaging in such patients. In this study, we used structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the morphological and microstructural features of the brain in late-onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We recruited patients with TLE and an age of onset > 50 years (late-TLE group) and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (control group). 3-Tesla MRI scans, including 3D T1-weighted images and 15-direction DTI, showed normal findings on visual assessment in both groups. We used Statistical Parametric Mapping 12 (SPM12) for gray and white matter structural normalization and comparison and used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) for fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity comparisons of DTI. In both methods, p < 0.05 (family-wise error) was considered statistically significant. In total, 30 patients with late-onset TLE (mean ± SD age, 66.8 ± 8.4; mean ± SD age of onset, 63.0 ± 7.6 years) and 40 healthy controls (mean ± SD age, 66.6 ± 8.5 years) were enrolled. The late-onset TLE group showed significant gray matter volume increases in the bilateral amygdala and anterior hippocampus and significantly reduced mean diffusivity in the left temporofrontal lobe, internal capsule, and brainstem. No significant changes were evident in white matter volume or fractional anisotropy. Our findings may reflect some characteristics or mechanisms of cryptogenic TLE in the elderly, such as inflammatory processes.

  7. mTOR signaling and its roles in normal and abnormal brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki eTakei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Target of rapamycin (TOR was first identified in yeast as a target molecule of rapamycin, an anti-fugal and immunosuppressant macrolide compound. In mammals, its orthologue is called mTOR (mammalian TOR. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that converges different extracellular stimuli, such as nutrients and growth factors, and diverges into several biochemical reactions, including translation, autophagy, transcription, and lipid synthesis among others. These biochemical reactions govern cell growth and cause cells to attain an anabolic state. Thus, the disruption of mTOR signaling is implicated in a wide array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. In the central nervous system (CNS, the mTOR signaling cascade is activated by nutrients, neurotrophic factors, and neurotransmitters that enhances protein (and possibly lipid synthesis and suppresses autophagy. These processes contribute to normal neuronal growth by promoting their differentiation, neurite elongation and branching, and synaptic formation during development. Therefore, disruption of mTOR signaling may cause neuronal degeneration and abnormal neural development. While reduced mTOR signaling is associated with neurodegeneration, excess activation of mTOR signaling causes abnormal development of neurons and glia, leading to brain malformation. In this review, we first introduce the current state of molecular knowledge of mTOR complexes and signaling in general. We then describe mTOR activation in neurons, which leads to translational enhancement, and finally discuss the link between mTOR and normal/abnormal neuronal growth during development.

  8. Hierarchical clustering of Alzheimer and 'normal' brains using elemental concentrations and glucose metabolism determined by PIXE, INAA and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutts, D.A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Brain tissue samples, obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from both left and right hemispheres of three regions of the cerebrum, namely the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes for both Alzheimer and 'normal' subjects. Trace element concentrations in the frontal lobe were determined for twenty six Alzheimer (15 male, 11 female) and twenty six 'normal' (8 male, 18 female) brain tissue samples. In the parietal lobe ten Alzheimer (2 male, 8 female) and ten 'normal' (8 male, 2 female) samples were taken along with ten Alzheimer (4 male, 6 female) and ten 'normal' (6 male, 4 female) from the occipital lobe. For the frontal lobe trace element concentrations were determined using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis while in parietal and occipital regions instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used. Additionally eighteen Alzheimer (9 male, 9 female) and eighteen age matched 'normal' (8 male, 10 female) living subjects were examined using positron emission tomography (PET) in order to determine regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (rCMRGlu). The rCMRGlu of 36 regions of the brain was investigated including frontal, occipital and parietal lobes as in the trace element study. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to the trace element and glucose metabolism data to discover which variables in the resulting dendrograms displayed the most significant separation between Alzheimer and 'normal' subjects. (author)

  9. Diagnosing dementia and normal aging: clinical relevance of brain ratios and cognitive performance in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves M.L.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value (clinical application of brain measures and cognitive function. Alzheimer and multiinfarct patients (N = 30 and normal subjects over the age of 50 (N = 40 were submitted to a medical, neurological and cognitive investigation. The cognitive tests applied were Mini-Mental, word span, digit span, logical memory, spatial recognition span, Boston naming test, praxis, and calculation tests. The brain ratios calculated were the ventricle-brain, bifrontal, bicaudate, third ventricle, and suprasellar cistern measures. These data were obtained from a brain computer tomography scan, and the cutoff values from receiver operating characteristic curves. We analyzed the diagnostic parameters provided by these ratios and compared them to those obtained by cognitive evaluation. The sensitivity and specificity of cognitive tests were higher than brain measures, although dementia patients presented higher ratios, showing poorer cognitive performances than normal individuals. Normal controls over the age of 70 presented higher measures than younger groups, but similar cognitive performance. We found diffuse losses of tissue from the central nervous system related to distribution of cerebrospinal fluid in dementia patients. The likelihood of case identification by functional impairment was higher than when changes of the structure of the central nervous system were used. Cognitive evaluation still seems to be the best method to screen individuals from the community, especially for developing countries, where the cost of brain imaging precludes its use for screening and initial assessment of dementia.

  10. Differences in supratentorial white matter diffusion after radiotherapy - New biomarker of normal brain tissue damage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravn, Soeren; Jens Broendum Froekaer, Jens [Dept. of Radiology, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)], e-mail: sorl@rn.dk; Holmberg, Mats [Dept. of Oncology, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Soerensen, Preben [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Carl, Jesper [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2013-10-15

    Introduction: Therapy-induced injury to normal brain tissue is a concern in the treatment of all types of brain tumours. The purpose of this study was to investigate if magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could serve as a potential biomarker for the assessment of radiation-induced long-term white matter injury. Material and methods: DTI- and T1-weighted images of the brain were obtained in 19 former radiotherapy patients [nine men and 10 women diagnosed with astrocytoma (4), pituitary adenoma (6), meningioma (8) and craniopharyngioma (1), average age 57.8 (range 35-71) years]. Average time from radiotherapy to DTI scan was 4.6 (range 2.0-7.1) years. NordicICE software (NIC) was used to calculate apparent diffusion coefficient maps (ADC-maps). The co-registration between T1 images and ADC-maps were done using the auto function in NIC. The co-registration between the T1 images and the patient dose plans were done using the auto function in the treatment planning system Eclipse from Varian. Regions of interest were drawn on the T1-weighted images in NIC based on iso curves from Eclipse. Data was analysed by t-test. Estimates are given with 95 % CI. Results: A mean ADC difference of 4.6(0.3;8.9) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.03 was found between paired white matter structures with a mean dose difference of 31.4 Gy. Comparing the ADC-values of the areas with highest dose from the paired data (dose > 33 Gy) with normal white matter (dose < 5 Gy) resulted in a mean dose difference of 44.1 Gy and a mean ADC difference of 7.87(3.15;12.60) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.003. Following results were obtained when looking at differences between white matter mean ADC in average dose levels from 5 to 55 Gy in steps of 10 Gy with normal white matter mean ADC: 5 Gy; 1.91(-1.76;5.58) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.29; 15 Gy; 5.81(1.53;10.11) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.01; 25 Gy; 5.80(2.43;9.18) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.002; 35 Gy; 5.93(2.89;8.97) X 10

  11. The lazaroid U74389G protects normal brain from stereotactic radiosurgery-induced radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buatti, John M.; Friedman, William A.; Theele, Daniel P.; Bova, Francis J.; Mendenhall, William M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To test an established model of stereotactic radiosurgery-induced radiation injury with pretreatments of either methylprednisolone or the lazaroid U74389G. Methods and Materials: Nine cats received stereotactic radiosurgery with a linear accelerator using an animal radiosurgery device. Each received a dose of 125.0 Gy prescribed to the 84% isodose shell to the anterior limb of the right internal capsule. One animal received no pretreatment, two received citrate vehicle, three received 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone, and three received 5 mg/kg of U74389G. After irradiation, the animals had frequent neurologic examinations, and neurologic deficits developed in all of them. Six months after the radiation treatment, the animals were anesthetized, and had gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) scans, followed by Evans blue dye perfusion, euthanasia, and brain fixation. Results: Magnetic resonance scans revealed a decrease in the size of the lesions from a mean volume of 0.45 ± 0.06 cm 3 in the control, vehicle-treated, and methylprednisolone-treated animals to 0.22 ± 0.14 cm 3 in the U74389G-treated group. The scans also suggested the absence of necrosis and ventricular dilatation in the lazaroid-treated group. Gross pathology revealed that lesions produced in the untreated, vehicle-treated, and methylprednisolone-treated cats were similar and were characterized by a peripheral zone of Evans blue dye staining with a central zone of a mature coagulative necrosis and focal hemorrhage. However, in the U74389G-treated animals, the lesions were found to have an area of Evans blue dye staining, but lacked discrete areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Conclusion: These results suggest that the lazaroid U74389G protects the normal brain from radiation injury produced by stereotactic radiosurgery

  12. Deep brain stimulation of the bilateral nucleus accumbens in normal rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Gao, Li; Wang, Xue-lian; Chen, Lei; Fang, Wei; Ge, Shun-nan; Gao, Guo-dong

    2013-01-09

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been considered as a novel target of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for intractable psychiatric disorders. Quite a few questions exist about this new treatment, and might be explored in nonhuman primate models. There are several reports on DBS of brain nucleus other than NAc in nonhuman primates. Therefore, we stereotactically implanted the electrodes into bilateral NAc under the guidance of MRI using a clinical Leksell stereotactic system in normal rhesus monkeys. NAc could be recognized as the area of continuity between the caudate nucleus and putamen in the coronal sections, which is beneath the internal capsule, and the gray matter nucleus between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior commissure in axial sections, which is medial to the putamen. NAc is mainly at a point 2.0-3.0 mm inferior, 3.0-4.0 mm anterior, and 4.5-5.5 mm lateral to the anterior commissure. The electrodes were implanted accurately and connected to an implantable pulse generator subcutaneously. After recovery from surgery, stimulation with a variety of parameters was trialed, and continuous stimulation at 90 μs, 3.5 V, 160, or 60 Hz was administered individually for 7 days. The behaviors and spontaneous locomotor activity of the animals did not change significantly during stimulation. This is the first report on DBS of NAc in nonhuman primates to the best of our knowledge. Bilateral electrical stimulation of NAc is a safe treatment. This model could be helpful in further studies on the clinical use of NAc stimulation for psychiatric disorders and for a better understanding of the functions of this nucleus.

  13. White matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter integrity in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Clayden, Jonathan D; Royle, Natalie A; Murray, Catherine; Morris, Zoe; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-02-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin are a common finding in brain magnetic resonance imaging of older individuals and contribute to cognitive and functional decline. It is unknown how WMH form, although white matter degeneration is characterized pathologically by demyelination, axonal loss, and rarefaction, often attributed to ischemia. Changes within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in subjects with WMH have also been reported but have not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe the in vivo imaging signatures of both NAWM and WMH in a large group of community-dwelling older people of similar age using biomarkers derived from magnetic resonance imaging that collectively reflect white matter integrity, myelination, and brain water content. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were significantly lower, whereas mean diffusivity (MD) and longitudinal relaxation time (T1) were significantly higher, in WMH than NAWM (p curve, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.975-0.989). Furthermore, the level of deterioration of NAWM was strongly associated with the severity of WMH, with MD and T1 increasing and FA and MTR decreasing in NAWM with increasing WMH score, a relationship that was sustained regardless of distance from the WMH. These multimodal imaging data indicate that WMH have reduced structural integrity compared with surrounding NAWM, and MD provides the best discriminator between the 2 tissue classes even within the mild range of WMH severity, whereas FA, MTR, and T1 only start reflecting significant changes in tissue microstructure as WMH become more severe. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A study on brain ventricle measurements of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ung Jin; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebrocventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14 ± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shaped in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  15. A study on brain ventricle measurement of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ung Jin; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be a reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebroventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shape in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  16. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-01: Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases with Single-Isocenter VMAT: Optimizing Treatment Geometry to Reduce Normal Brain Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q; Snyder, K; Liu, C; Huang, Y; Li, H; Chetty, I; Wen, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an optimization algorithm to reduce normal brain dose by optimizing couch and collimator angles for single isocenter multiple targets treatment of stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods: Three metastatic brain lesions were retrospectively planned using single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Three matrices were developed to calculate the projection of each lesion on Beam’s Eye View (BEV) by the rotating couch, collimator and gantry respectively. The island blocking problem was addressed by computing the total area of open space between any two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. The couch and collimator angles resulting in the smallest open areas were the optimized angles for each treatment arc. Two treatment plans with and without couch and collimator angle optimization were developed using the same objective functions and to achieve 99% of each target volume receiving full prescription dose of 18Gy. Plan quality was evaluated by calculating each target’s Conformity Index (CI), Gradient Index (GI), and Homogeneity index (HI), and absolute volume of normal brain V8Gy, V10Gy, V12Gy, and V14Gy. Results: Using the new couch/collimator optimization strategy, dose to normal brain tissue was reduced substantially. V8, V10, V12, and V14 decreased by 2.3%, 3.6%, 3.5%, and 6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the conformity index, gradient index, and homogeneity index between two treatment plans with and without the new optimization algorithm. Conclusion: We have developed a solution to the island blocking problem in delivering radiation to multiple brain metastases with shared isocenter. Significant reduction in dose to normal brain was achieved by using optimal couch and collimator angles that minimize total area of open space between any of the two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. This technique has been integrated into Eclipse treatment system using scripting API

  17. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-01: Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases with Single-Isocenter VMAT: Optimizing Treatment Geometry to Reduce Normal Brain Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Snyder, K; Liu, C; Huang, Y; Li, H; Chetty, I; Wen, N [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an optimization algorithm to reduce normal brain dose by optimizing couch and collimator angles for single isocenter multiple targets treatment of stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods: Three metastatic brain lesions were retrospectively planned using single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Three matrices were developed to calculate the projection of each lesion on Beam’s Eye View (BEV) by the rotating couch, collimator and gantry respectively. The island blocking problem was addressed by computing the total area of open space between any two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. The couch and collimator angles resulting in the smallest open areas were the optimized angles for each treatment arc. Two treatment plans with and without couch and collimator angle optimization were developed using the same objective functions and to achieve 99% of each target volume receiving full prescription dose of 18Gy. Plan quality was evaluated by calculating each target’s Conformity Index (CI), Gradient Index (GI), and Homogeneity index (HI), and absolute volume of normal brain V8Gy, V10Gy, V12Gy, and V14Gy. Results: Using the new couch/collimator optimization strategy, dose to normal brain tissue was reduced substantially. V8, V10, V12, and V14 decreased by 2.3%, 3.6%, 3.5%, and 6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the conformity index, gradient index, and homogeneity index between two treatment plans with and without the new optimization algorithm. Conclusion: We have developed a solution to the island blocking problem in delivering radiation to multiple brain metastases with shared isocenter. Significant reduction in dose to normal brain was achieved by using optimal couch and collimator angles that minimize total area of open space between any of the two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. This technique has been integrated into Eclipse treatment system using scripting API.

  18. Radiation damage to the normal monkey brain. Experimental study induced by interstitial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Nobuya; Tamiya, Takashi; Matsumoto, Kengo; Furuta, Tomohisa; Ohmoto, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Radiation damage to normal brain tissue induced by interstitial irradiation with iridium-192 seeds was sequentially evaluated by computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histological examination. This study was carried out in 14 mature Japanese monkeys. The experimental area received more than 200-260 Gy of irradiation developed coagulative necrosis. Infiltration of macrophages to the periphery of the necrotic area was seen. In addition, neovascularization, hyalinization of vascular walls, and gliosis were found in the periphery of the area invaded by the macrophages. All sites at which the vascular walls were found to have acute stage fibrinoid necrosis eventually developed coagulative necrosis. The focus of necrosis was detected by MRI starting 1 week after the end of radiation treatment, and the size of the necrotic area did not change for 6 months. The peripheral areas showed clear ring enhancement with contrast material. Edema surrounding the lesions was the most significant 1 week after radiation and was reduced to a minimum level 1 month later. However, the edema then expanded once again and was sustained for as long as 6 months. CT did not provide as clear of a presentation as MRI, but it did reveal similar findings for the most part, and depicted calcification in the necrotic area. This experimental model is considered useful for conducting basic research on brachytherapy, as well as for achieving a better understanding of delayed radiation necrosis. (author)

  19. A computed tomography-based spatial normalization for the analysis of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hanna; Kim, Jin Su; Choi, Jae Yong; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung

    2014-01-01

    We developed a new computed tomography (CT)-based spatial normalization method and CT template to demonstrate its usefulness in spatial normalization of positron emission tomography (PET) images with [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET studies in healthy controls. Seventy healthy controls underwent brain CT scan (120 KeV, 180 mAs, and 3 mm of thickness) and [(18)F] FDG PET scans using a PET/CT scanner. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired for all subjects. By averaging skull-stripped and spatially-normalized MR and CT images, we created skull-stripped MR and CT templates for spatial normalization. The skull-stripped MR and CT images were spatially normalized to each structural template. PET images were spatially normalized by applying spatial transformation parameters to normalize skull-stripped MR and CT images. A conventional perfusion PET template was used for PET-based spatial normalization. Regional standardized uptake values (SUV) measured by overlaying the template volume of interest (VOI) were compared to those measured with FreeSurfer-generated VOI (FSVOI). All three spatial normalization methods underestimated regional SUV values by 0.3-20% compared to those measured with FSVOI. The CT-based method showed slightly greater underestimation bias. Regional SUV values derived from all three spatial normalization methods were correlated significantly (p normalization may be an alternative method for structure-based spatial normalization of [(18)F] FDG PET when MR imaging is unavailable. Therefore, it is useful for PET/CT studies with various radiotracers whose uptake is expected to be limited to specific brain regions or highly variable within study population.

  20. SPM analysis of cerebrovascular reserve capacity after stimulation with acetazolamide measured by Tc-99m ECD SPECT in normal brain MRI patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. H.; Yoon, S. N.; Yoon, J. K.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ajou, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate normal response of acetazolamide in normal individuals, whose brain MRI is normal, using SPM99. In total, 10 Tc- 99m ECD brain SPECT were evaluated retrospectively. The half of the patients were male. Their mean age was 47.1 years old with a range of 33-61 years. They all visited our neurology department to evaluate stroke symptom. Their brain MRI was normal. Rest/acetazolamide brain SPECT was perfomed using Tc-99m ECD and the sequential injection and subtraction method. SPECT was acquired using fanbeam collimators and triple-head gamma camera (MultiSPECT III, Siemens medical systems, Inc. Hoffman Estates, III, USA). Chang's attenuation correction was applied their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis by two nuclear physician and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared rest brain SPECT images with those of acetazolamide brain SPECT and measured the extent of the area with significant perfusion change (P<0.05) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Acetazolamide brain SPECT showed no significant decreased region in comparison to rest brain SPECT. Only small portion of left mid temporal gyrus revealed increased rCBF on acetazolamide brain SPECT in comparison to rest brain SPECT. It apperas that there is no significant change in rCBF between rest and acetazolamide brain SPECT using Tc-99m ECD. The small number of this study is limitation of our study.

  1. Quantitative analysis of normal fetal brain volume and flow by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: 3D ultrasound can be used to assess the fetal brain volume and blood flow development quantitatively. Our study indicates that the fetal brain vascularization and blood flow correlates significantly with the advancement of GA. This information may serve as a reference point for further studies of the fetal brain volume and blood flow in abnormal conditions.

  2. Development of normal fetal brain by MRI with a half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meilan; Liu Xuejun; Wang Jianhong; Zhao Cheng; Li Xiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate normal maturation of the fetal brain with half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) MRI. Methods: The normal brains of 25 fetuses of 12-38 weeks gestational age were examined in utero with half-Fourier RARE imaging. Gyrus maturation, gray and white matter differentiation, ventricle-to-brain diameter ratio, and subarachnoid space size were evaluated with respect to gestational age. Results: At 12-23 weeks, the brain had a smooth surface, and two or three layers were differentiated in the cerebral cortex. At 24-26 weeks, only a few shallow grooves were seen in the central sulcus, and three layers, including the immature cortex, intermediate zone, and germinal matrix, were differentiated in all fetuses. At 27-29 weeks, sulcus formation was observed in various regions of the brain parenchyma, and the germinal matrix became invisible. Sulcation was seen in the whole cerebral cortex from 30 weeks on. However, the cortex did not undergo infolding, and opercular formation was not seen before 33 weeks. At 23 weeks and earlier, the cerebral ventricles were large; thereafter, they gradually became smaller. The subarachnoid space overlying the cortical convexities was slightly dilated at all gestational ages, most markedly at 21-26 weeks. Conclusion: Changes in brain maturation proceed through stages in an orderly and predictable fashion and can be evaluated reliably with half-Fourier RARE MRI. (authors)

  3. Studies of the correlations between morphological brain changes on MRI and computerized EEG changes in schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kouzou

    1992-01-01

    Twenty eight schizophrenic patients, who ranged in age from 21 to 39 years with a mean of 30.2, and 21 age- and sex-matched normal volunteers were studied by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and electroencephalography (EEG). ALl subjects were given informed consent prior to the present study. They were all right-handed. Schizophrenic patients showed a significantly larger ventricular brain ratio (VBR) on the axial and coronal planes as compared with the control. The bilateral anterior horns, left body, left posterior horn of the lateral ventricle and the third ventricle were significantly larger in schizophrenic patients than the control. The middle half of the corpus callosum was smaller in schizophrenic patients than the control. Schizophrenia was more likely associated not only with delta and theta activities in the centro-parieto-occipital regions but also with beta 1 and beta 2 activities in the front-central regions. In schizophrenic patients, however, alpha 2 activity was markedly decreased in all regions. There were significant positive correlations between the total scores for brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and the areas of the left anterior and posterior horns of the lateral ventricle. The total BPRS scores positively correlated with the area of the third ventricle. In addition, positive correlations were significant between delata activity and the area of the left anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, between delta activity and the area of the third ventricle, and between beta 1 activity and the area of left posteior horn of the lateral ventricle. These results suggest that a dilated third ventricle is associated with electrophysiological brain pathology and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients. (N.K.) 76 refs

  4. Hearts of dystonia musculorum mice display normal morphological and histological features but show signs of cardiac stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G Boyer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dystonin is a giant cytoskeletal protein belonging to the plakin protein family and is believed to crosslink the major filament systems in contractile cells. Previous work has demonstrated skeletal muscle defects in dystonin-deficient dystonia musculorum (dt mice. In this study, we show that the dystonin muscle isoform is localized at the Z-disc, the H zone, the sarcolemma and intercalated discs in cardiac tissue. Based on this localization pattern, we tested whether dystonin-deficiency leads to structural defects in cardiac muscle. Desmin intermediate filament, microfilament, and microtubule subcellular organization appeared normal in dt hearts. Nevertheless, increased transcript levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF, 66% beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC, 95% and decreased levels of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump isoform 2A (SERCA2a, 26%, all signs of cardiac muscle stress, were noted in dt hearts. Hearts from two-week old dt mice were assessed for the presence of morphological and histological alterations. Heart to body weight ratios as well as left ventricular wall thickness and left chamber volume measurements were similar between dt and wild-type control mice. Hearts from dt mice also displayed no signs of fibrosis or calcification. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the intricate structure of the sarcomere by situating dystonin in cardiac muscle fibers and suggest that dystonin does not significantly influence the structural organization of cardiac muscle fibers during early postnatal development.

  5. Functional mapping of language networks in the normal brain using a word-association task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Shantanu; Basu, Amrita; Kumaran, Senthil S; Khushu, Subash

    2010-01-01

    Language functions are known to be affected in diverse neurological conditions, including ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and brain tumors. Because language networks are extensive, interpretation of functional data depends on the task completed during evaluation. The aim was to map the hemodynamic consequences of word association using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in normal human subjects. Ten healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning with a postlexical access semantic association task vs lexical processing task. The fMRI protocol involved a T2*-weighted gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) sequence (TR 4523 ms, TE 64 ms, flip angle 90°) with alternate baseline and activation blocks. A total of 78 scans were taken (interscan interval = 3 s) with a total imaging time of 587 s. Functional data were processed in Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM2) with 8-mm Gaussian kernel by convolving the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal with an hemodynamic response function estimated by general linear method to generate SPM{t} and SPM{F} maps. Single subject analysis of the functional data (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001) revealed extensive activation in the frontal lobes, with overlaps among middle frontal gyrus (MFG), superior, and inferior frontal gyri. BOLD activity was also found in the medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus (MOG), anterior fusiform gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules, and to a smaller extent, the thalamus and right anterior cerebellum. Group analysis (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001) revealed neural recruitment of bilateral lingual gyri, left MFG, bilateral MOG, left superior occipital gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, bilateral thalami, and right cerebellar areas. Group data analysis revealed a cerebellar–occipital–fusiform–thalamic network centered around bilateral lingual gyri for word association, thereby indicating how these areas facilitate language comprehension by activating a semantic

  6. Functional mapping of language networks in the normal brain using a word-association task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Shantanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Language functions are known to be affected in diverse neurological conditions, including ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and brain tumors. Because language networks are extensive, interpretation of functional data depends on the task completed during evaluation. Aim: The aim was to map the hemodynamic consequences of word association using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in normal human subjects. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning with a postlexical access semantic association task vs lexical processing task. The fMRI protocol involved a T2FNx01-weighted gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI sequence (TR 4523 ms, TE 64 ms, flip angle 90º with alternate baseline and activation blocks. A total of 78 scans were taken (interscan interval = 3 s with a total imaging time of 587 s. Functional data were processed in Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM2 with 8-mm Gaussian kernel by convolving the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signal with an hemodynamic response function estimated by general linear method to generate SPM{t} and SPM{F} maps. Results: Single subject analysis of the functional data (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001 revealed extensive activation in the frontal lobes, with overlaps among middle frontal gyrus (MFG, superior, and inferior frontal gyri. BOLD activity was also found in the medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus (MOG, anterior fusiform gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules, and to a smaller extent, the thalamus and right anterior cerebellum. Group analysis (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001 revealed neural recruitment of bilateral lingual gyri, left MFG, bilateral MOG, left superior occipital gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, bilateral thalami, and right cerebellar areas. Conclusions: Group data analysis revealed a cerebellar-occipital-fusiform-thalamic network centered around bilateral lingual gyri for word association, thereby indicating how these

  7. Can fruits and vegetables be used as substitute phantoms for normal human brain tissues in magnetic resonance imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramoto, Daisuke; Ushioda, Yuichi; Sasaki, Ayaka; Sakurai Yuki; Nagahama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Manami; Sugimori, Hiroyuki; Sakata, Motomichi

    2013-01-01

    Various custom-made phantoms designed to optimize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences have been created and subsequently reported in Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT). However, custom-made phantoms that correctly match the T 1 -value and T 2 -values of human brain tissue (gray matter and white matter) cannot be made easily or quickly. The aim of this project was to search for alternative materials, such as fruits and vegetables, for optimizing MRI sequences. The following eight fruits and vegetables were investigated: apple, tomato, melon, apple mango (Mangifera indica), banana, avocado, peach, and eggplant. Their potential was studied for use in modeling phantoms of normal human brain tissues. MRI (T 1 - and T 2 -weighted sequences) was performed on the human brain and the fruits and vegetables using various concentrations of contrast medium (gadolinium) in the same size tubes as the custom-made phantom. The authors compared the signal intensity (SI) in human brain tissue (gray matter and white matter) with that of the fruits and the custom-made phantom. The T 1 and T 2 values were measured for banana tissue and compared with those for human brain tissue in the literature. Our results indicated that banana tissue is similar to human brain tissue (both gray matter and white matter). Banana tissue can thus be employed as an alternative phantom for the human brain for the purpose of MRI. (author)

  8. Microglia show altered morphology and reduced arborization in human brain during aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Danielle S; Ma, Jolande; Jegathees, Thuvarahan; Goldsbury, Claire

    2017-11-01

    Changes in microglia function are involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) for which ageing is the major risk factor. We evaluated microglial cell process morphologies and their gray matter coverage (arborized area) during ageing and in the presence and absence of AD pathology in autopsied human neocortex. Microglial cell processes were reduced in length, showed less branching and reduced arborized area with aging (case range 52-98 years). This occurred during normal ageing and without microglia dystrophy or changes in cell density. There was a larger reduction in process length and arborized area in AD compared to aged-matched control microglia. In AD cases, on average, 49%-64% of microglia had discontinuous and/or punctate Iba1 labeled processes instead of continuous Iba1 distribution. Up to 16% of aged-matched control microglia displayed discontinuous or punctate features. There was no change in the density of microglial cell bodies in gray matter during ageing or AD. This demonstrates that human microglia show progressive cell process retraction without cell loss during ageing. Additional changes in microglia occur with AD including Iba1 protein puncta and discontinuity. We suggest that reduced microglial arborized area may be an aging-related correlate of AD in humans. These variations in microglial cells during ageing and in AD could reflect changes in neural-glial interactions which are emerging as key to mechanisms involved in ageing and neurodegenerative disease. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  9. Impact of Chemotherapy for Childhood Leukemia on Brain Morphology and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Krone, Franziska; Hoffmann, Andre; Holfeld, Elisabeth; Vorwerk, Peter; Kramm, Christof; Gruhn, Bernd; Koustenis, Elisabeth; Hernaiz-Driever, Pablo; Mandal, Rakesh; Suttorp, Meinolf; Hummel, Thomas; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Smolka, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Using multidisciplinary treatment modalities the majority of children with cancer can be cured but we are increasingly faced with therapy-related toxicities. We studied brain morphology and neurocognitive functions in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood acute, low and standard risk lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which was successfully treated with chemotherapy. We expected that intravenous and intrathecal chemotherapy administered in childhood will affect grey matter structures, including hippocampus and olfactory bulbs, areas where postnatal neurogenesis is ongoing. Methods We examined 27 ALL-survivors and 27 age-matched healthy controls, ages 15–22 years. ALL-survivors developed disease prior to their 11th birthday without central nervous system involvement, were treated with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy and received no radiation. Volumes of grey, white matter and olfactory bulbs were measured on T1 and T2 magnetic resonance images manually, using FIRST (FMRIB’s integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Memory, executive functions, attention, intelligence and olfaction were assessed. Results Mean volumes of left hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus and nucleus accumbens were smaller in the ALL group. VBM analysis revealed significantly smaller volumes of the left calcarine gyrus, both lingual gyri and the left precuneus. DTI data analysis provided no evidence for white matter pathology. Lower scores in hippocampus-dependent memory were measured in ALL-subjects, while lower figural memory correlated with smaller hippocampal volumes. Interpretation Findings demonstrate that childhood ALL, treated with chemotherapy, is associated with smaller grey matter volumes of neocortical and subcortical grey matter and lower hippocampal memory performance in adolescence and adulthood. PMID:24265700

  10. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in predementia late-onset bvFTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbelli, Silvia; Fiz, Francesco; Bossert, Irene; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Picori, Lorena; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Ferrara, Michela; Dessi, Barbara; Arnaldi, Dario; Picco, Agnese; Accardo, Jennifer; Nobili, Flavio; Girtler, Nicola; Mandich, Paola; Pagani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is challenging during the predementia stage when symptoms are subtle and confounding. Morphological and functional neuroimaging can be particularly helpful during this stage but few data are available. We retrospectively selected 25 patients with late-onset probable bvFTD. Brain structural MRI and FDG PET were performed during the predementia stage (mean MMSE score 27.1 ± 2.5) on average 2 years before. The findings with the two imaging modalities were compared (SPM8) with those in a group of 20 healthy subjects. The bvFTD patients were divided into two subgroups: those with predominant disinhibition (bvFTD+) and those with apathy (bvFTD-). Hypometabolism exceeded grey matter (GM) density reduction in terms of both extension and statistical significance in all comparisons. In the whole bvFTD group, hypometabolism involved the bilateral medial, inferior and superior lateral frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, left temporal and right parietal cortices and the caudate nuclei. GM density reduction was limited to the right frontal cortex and the left medial temporal lobe. In bvFTD+ patients hypometabolism was found in the bilateral medial and basal frontal cortex, while GM reduction involved the left anterior cingulate and left inferior frontal cortices, and the right insula. In bvFTD- patients, atrophy and mainly hypometabolism involved the lateral frontal cortex and the inferior parietal lobule. These findings suggest that hypometabolism is more extensive than, and thus probably precedes, atrophy in predementia late-onset bvFTD, underscoring different topographic involvement in disinhibited and apathetic presentations. If confirmed in a larger series, these results should prompt biomarker operationalization in bvFTD, especially for patient selection in therapeutic clinical trials. (orig.)

  11. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in predementia late-onset bvFTD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbelli, Silvia; Fiz, Francesco; Bossert, Irene; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Picori, Lorena; Sambuceti, Gianmario [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Health Science (DISSAL), Genoa (Italy); Ferrara, Michela; Dessi, Barbara; Arnaldi, Dario; Picco, Agnese; Accardo, Jennifer; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Clinical Neurology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Girtler, Nicola [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Clinical Neurology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Clinical Psychology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Mandich, Paola [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Medical Genetics, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-07-15

    The diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is challenging during the predementia stage when symptoms are subtle and confounding. Morphological and functional neuroimaging can be particularly helpful during this stage but few data are available. We retrospectively selected 25 patients with late-onset probable bvFTD. Brain structural MRI and FDG PET were performed during the predementia stage (mean MMSE score 27.1 ± 2.5) on average 2 years before. The findings with the two imaging modalities were compared (SPM8) with those in a group of 20 healthy subjects. The bvFTD patients were divided into two subgroups: those with predominant disinhibition (bvFTD+) and those with apathy (bvFTD-). Hypometabolism exceeded grey matter (GM) density reduction in terms of both extension and statistical significance in all comparisons. In the whole bvFTD group, hypometabolism involved the bilateral medial, inferior and superior lateral frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, left temporal and right parietal cortices and the caudate nuclei. GM density reduction was limited to the right frontal cortex and the left medial temporal lobe. In bvFTD+ patients hypometabolism was found in the bilateral medial and basal frontal cortex, while GM reduction involved the left anterior cingulate and left inferior frontal cortices, and the right insula. In bvFTD- patients, atrophy and mainly hypometabolism involved the lateral frontal cortex and the inferior parietal lobule. These findings suggest that hypometabolism is more extensive than, and thus probably precedes, atrophy in predementia late-onset bvFTD, underscoring different topographic involvement in disinhibited and apathetic presentations. If confirmed in a larger series, these results should prompt biomarker operationalization in bvFTD, especially for patient selection in therapeutic clinical trials. (orig.)

  12. Sex-specific differences in mitochondria biogenesis, morphology, respiratory function, and ROS homeostasis in young mouse heart and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Abdel Rahman M; Abdel-Rahman, Engy A; Mahmoud, Ali M; Ali, Mohamed H; Noureldin, Maha; Saber, Saber H; Mohsen, Mahmoud; Ali, Sameh S

    2017-03-01

    Sex-specific differences in mitochondrial function and free radical homeostasis are reported in the context of aging but not well-established in pathogeneses occurring early in life. Here, we examine if sex disparity in mitochondria function, morphology, and redox status starts early and hence can be implicated in sexual dimorphism in cardiac as well as neurological disorders prevalent at young age. Although mitochondrial activity in the heart did not significantly vary between sexes, female brain exhibited enhanced respiration and higher reserve capacity. This was associated with lower H 2 O 2 production in female cardiac and brain tissues. Using transmission electron microscopy, we found that the number of female cardiac mitochondria is moderately greater (117 ± 3%, P  = 0.049, N  = 4) than male's, which increased significantly for cortical mitochondria (134 ± 4%, P  = 0.001, N  = 4). However, male's cardiac mitochondria exhibited fragmented, circular, and smaller mitochondria relative to female's mitochondria, while no morphologic sex-dependent differences were observed in cortical mitochondria. No sex differences were detected in Nox2 and Nox4 proteins or O 2 -consuming/H 2 O 2 -producing activities in brain homogenate or synaptosomes. However, a strong trend of increased EPR-detected NOX superoxide in male synaptosomes hinted at higher superoxide dismutase activity in female brains, which was confirmed by two independent protocols. We also provide direct evidence that respiring mitochondria generally produce an order-of-magnitude lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) proportions than currently estimated. Our results indicate that sex differences in mitochondrial biogenesis, bioenergetics, and morphology may start at young age and that sex-dependent SOD capacity may be responsible for differences in ROS homeostasis in heart and brain. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological

  13. A roentgenographical study of the morphology of ventricles of the brain using computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inugami, Atsushi

    1981-01-01

    A basic experiment using an experimental model for the ventricles of the brain was made of the reproductivity of CT images using a whole body CT scanner, and the dimensions of the ventricles of 450 children on CT images were measured, to study changes in dimensions of the ventricles with the method for providing the sectional planes, or with the type of the CT scanner used, and the children with ventricular abnormalities were further studied. The sectional plane at OM-0 0 clinically gave a better reproductivity of the ventricles than at OM-15 0 . The measurements of the ventricles proved to vary with the mean value and also with the window width. In measuring the dimensions of the ventricles on the CT image, the ratio of widths of the anterior horn, third ventricle, corpus and posterior horn to that of the cerebral parenchyma was found to be correlated to the dimensions of the ventricles. No particular changes with the age structure of each cerebroventricular index (CVI) were noted. Apparent differences in the measurement were noted between each CVI of the abnormal group and the normal. CT scanning is a safe, easy non-invasive method for screening and observing the couse of ventricular diseases, accompanied by less risk. (author)

  14. Prevalence of lateral ventricle asymmetry in brain MRI studies of neurologically normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetta, Mauro; De Risio, Luisa; Newton, Richard; Dennis, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetry of the cerebral lateral ventricles is a common finding in cross-sectional imaging of otherwise normal canine brains and has been assumed to be incidental. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the prevalence of ventricular asymmetry in brain MRI studies of normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Brain MRI archives were searched for 100 neurologically normal dogs (Group 1) and 100 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (Group 2). For each dog, asymmetry of the lateral ventricles was subjectively classified as absent, mild, moderate, and severe based on a consensus of two observers who were unaware of group status. Ventricular areas were measured from transverse T1W images at the level of the interthalamic adhesion. An asymmetry ratio was calculated as the ratio of the larger to smaller ventricular transverse area. There was excellent agreement between subjective assessments of ventricular asymmetry and quantitative assessments using asymmetry ratios (k = 0.995). The prevalence of asymmetry was 38% in Group 1 dogs and 44% in Group 2 dogs. Assymmetry was scored as mild in the majority of Group 2 dogs. There was no significant association between presence/absence and degree of ventricular asymmetry vs. dog group, age, gender, or skull conformation. Findings from the current study supported previously published assumptions that asymmetry of the lateral cerebral ventricles is an incidental finding in MRI studies of the canine brain. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  15. Heart rate variability and QT dispersion study in brain death patients and comatose patients with normal brainstem function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakilian, A.R.; Iranmanesh, F.; Nadimi, A.E.; Kahnali, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    To compare heart rate variability (HRV) and QT dispersion in comatose patients with normal brainstem function and with brain death. Fourteen brain death patients with clinical signs of imminent brain death and 15 comatose patients were examined by neurologist in intensive care unit. HRV, RR interval and QT dispersion on ECG were assessed for 24 hours in both groups. Independent t-test and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis to determine significance which was set at p < 0.05. According to Holter findings, mean of standard deviation of RR-interval in the comatose and brain death groups was 48.33 and 35 respectively (p = 0.045). Mean of covariance coefficient of RR-interval was 0.065 in the comatose group and 0.043 in the brain deaths (p = 0.006). QT dispersion was not significant difference in two groups. HRV and RR-interval analysis appeared as an early finding for the diagnosis of brainstem death in comparison to comatose patients with normal brainstem function. QT dispersion had not significant in this regard. (author)

  16. Investigation of olfactory function in normal volunteers and patients with anosmia : analysis of brain perfusion SPECTs using statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate olfactory function with Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis in normal volunteers and patients with anosmia. The study populations were 8 subjects matched healthy volunteers and 16 subjects matched patients with anosmia. We obtaibed baseline and post-stimulation (3% butanol) brain perfusion SPECTs in the silent dark room. We analyzed the all SPECTs using SPM. The difference between two sets of brain perfusion SPECTs were compared with t-test. The voxels with p-value of less than 0.01 were considered to be significantly different. We demonstrated increased perfusion in the both cingulated gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior and inferior frontal gyri, right lingual gyrus and right fusiform gyrus on post-stimulation brain SPECT in normal volunteers, and demonstrated decreased perfusion in the both cingulate gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, right rectal gyrus and both superior and inferior frontal gyri in the 10 patients with anosmia. No significant hypoperfusion area was observed in the other 6 patients with anosmia. The baseline and post-stimulation brain perfusion SPECTs can helpful in the evaluation of olfactory function and be useful in the diagnosis of anosmia

  17. Investigation of olfactory function in normal volunteers and patients with anosmia : analysis of brain perfusion SPECTs using statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate olfactory function with Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis in normal volunteers and patients with anosmia. The study populations were 8 subjects matched healthy volunteers and 16 subjects matched patients with anosmia. We obtaibed baseline and post-stimulation (3% butanol) brain perfusion SPECTs in the silent dark room. We analyzed the all SPECTs using SPM. The difference between two sets of brain perfusion SPECTs were compared with t-test. The voxels with p-value of less than 0.01 were considered to be significantly different. We demonstrated increased perfusion in the both cingulated gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior and inferior frontal gyri, right lingual gyrus and right fusiform gyrus on post-stimulation brain SPECT in normal volunteers, and demonstrated decreased perfusion in the both cingulate gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, right rectal gyrus and both superior and inferior frontal gyri in the 10 patients with anosmia. No significant hypoperfusion area was observed in the other 6 patients with anosmia. The baseline and post-stimulation brain perfusion SPECTs can helpful in the evaluation of olfactory function and be useful in the diagnosis of anosmia.

  18. Investigation of olfactory function in normal volunteers by Tc-99m ECD Brain SPECT: Analysis using statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.A.; Kim, S.H.; Park, Y.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Sohn, H.S.; Chung, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate olfactory function according to Tc-99m ECD uptake pattern in brain perfusion SPET of normal volunteer by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. The study population was 8 healthy volunteer subjects (M:F = 6:2, age range: 22-54 years, mean 34 years). We performed baseline brain perfusion SPET using 555 MBq of Tc-99m ECD in a silent dark room. Two hours later, we obtained brain perfusion SPET using 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD after 3% butanol solution under the same condition. All SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the baseline and odor-identification SPET images were statistically analyzed using SPM-99 software. The difference between two sets of brain perfusion SPET was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected p values less than 0.01. SPM analysis revealed significant hyper-perfusion in both cingulated gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior and inferior frontal gyri, right lingual gyrus and right fusiform gyrus on odor-identification SPET. This study shows that brain perfusion SPET can securely support other diagnostic techniques in the evaluation of olfactory function

  19. Effects of intracarotid ioxaglate on the normal blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, J.; Sage, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Using two different models, the effect on the blood-brain barrier of intracarotid injections of sodium/meglumine ioxaglate at similar iodine concentrations (280 mgI/ml) was investigated. In both models the degree of blood-brain barrier damage was assessed visually using Evans' Blue stain. Quantitative assessment of blood-brain barrier disruption was made by contrast enhancement as measured by CT of the dog brain, and by 99m Tc-pertechnetate uptake by the brain in the rabbit model. No Evans' Blue staining was observed in any study using the canine/CT model. Slight staining was observed in two studies with ioxaglate using the rabbit/pertechnetate model. Statistical analysis of results from the canine/CT model did not detect any damage to the blood-brain barrier with either ioxaglate or saline control studies (P>0.1). However, in the rabbit/pertechnetate model a slight increase in disruption of the blood-brain barrier was observed with ioxaglate compared with control studies, but this was only significant at the 0.1 level. The results suggest that the rabbit/pertechnetate model is a more sensitive measure of blood-brain barrier disruption than the canine/CT model. This study also demonstrates that blood-brain barrier disruption following intracarotid injection of ioxaglate is minimal. (orig.)

  20. Explicit verbal memory impairments associated with brain functional deficits and morphological alterations in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Yang, Jong-Chul; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2015-11-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is associated with brain function and morphological alterations. This study investigated explicit verbal memory impairment in patients with GAD in terms of brain functional deficits in combination with morphologic changes. Seventeen patients with GAD and 17 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education level underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI and fMR imaging at 3 T during explicit verbal memory tasks with emotionally neutral and anxiety-inducing words. In response to the neutral words, the patients showed significantly lower activities in the regions of the hippocampus (Hip), middle cingulate gyrus (MCG), putamen (Pu) and head of the caudate nucleus (HCd) compared with healthy controls. In response to the anxiety-inducing words, the patients showed significantly higher activities in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus. However, they showed lower activities in the Hip, MCG, Pu and HCd. In addition, patients with GAD showed a significant reduction in gray matter volumes, especially in the regions of the Hip, midbrain, thalamus, insula and superior temporal gyrus, compared with healthy controls. This study examined a small sample sizes in each of the groups, and there was no consideration of a medication effect on brain activity and volume changes. This study provides evidence for the association between brain functional deficits and morphometric alterations in an explicit verbal memory task for patients with GAD. This finding is helpful for understanding explicit verbal memory impairment in connection with GAD symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Examination of the regional distribution of minor and trace elements in normal human brain by PIXE and chemometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Hebbrecht, G.; Reuck, J. de

    1993-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used to measure two minor and six trace elements, i.e. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb, in up to 50 different structures (regions) of brains from Belgian individuals without neurological disorders. The data matrix with the mean dry-weight elemental concentrations and mean wet-to-dry weight ratio (means over 18 brains) for the various structures was subjected to two chemometric techniques, i.e., VARIMAX rotated absolute principal component analysis (APCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis. Three components were identified by APCA: Components 1 and 3 represented aqueous fractions of the brain (respectively the intracellular and extracellular fluid), whereas component 2 apparently represented the solid brain fraction. The elements K, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb were predominantly attributed to component 1, Ca to component 3, and Fe to component 2. In the hierarchical cluster analysis seven different agglomerative cluster strategies were compared. The dendrograms obtained from the furthest neighbor and Ward's error sum strategy were virtually identical, and they consisted of two large clusters with 30 and 16 structures, respectively. The first cluster included all gray matter structures, while the second comprised all white matter. Furthermore, structures involved in the same physiological function or morphologically similar regions often conglomerated in one subcluster. This strongly suggests that there is some relationship between the trace element profile of a brain structure and its function. (orig.)

  2. Brain Morphology of the Zhoukoudian H.erectus Half a Million Years Ago

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiujie

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the process of human evolution,how has the brain changed? When did it happen? Why did it happen?These questions are some of the hottest topics in paleoanthropology today.The study of brain evolution falls into the sub-discipline of paleoneurology and is based on direct examination of the fossil record of humans and their closest hominid relatives.Unfortunately,brains are not preserved in the fossil record.The most direct evidence of ancestral brains is available,however,from endocasts.An endocast is the impression taken from the inside of a cranium retaining the surface features of the brain.

  3. Expression and cellular localization of hepcidin mRNA and protein in normal rat brain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raha-Chowdhury, R.; Raha, A.A.; Forostyak, Serhiy; Zhao, J.W.; Stott, S.R.W.; Bomford, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, APR 21 (2015), s. 24 ISSN 1471-2202 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : hepcidin * ferroportin * defensin * inflammatory cytokines * brain iron homeostasis * blood brain barrier * pericytes * sub-ventricular zone * neurogenesis Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.304, year: 2015

  4. Detection of Normal Aging Effects on Human Brain Metabolite Concentrations and Microstructure with Whole-Brain MR Spectroscopic Imaging and Quantitative MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eylers, V V; Maudsley, A A; Bronzlik, P; Dellani, P R; Lanfermann, H; Ding, X-Q

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of age-related physiological changes in the human brain is a prerequisite to identify neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, in this study whole-brain (1)H-MRS was used in combination with quantitative MR imaging to study the effects of normal aging on healthy human brain metabolites and microstructure. Sixty healthy volunteers, 21-70 years of age, were studied. Brain maps of the metabolites NAA, creatine and phosphocreatine, and Cho and the tissue irreversible and reversible transverse relaxation times T2 and T2' were derived from the datasets. The relative metabolite concentrations and the values of relaxation times were measured with ROIs placed within the frontal and parietal WM, centrum semiovale, splenium of the corpus callosum, hand motor area, occipital GM, putamen, thalamus, pons ventral/dorsal, and cerebellar white matter and posterior lobe. Linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation tests were used to analyze the data. Aging resulted in decreased NAA concentrations in the occipital GM, putamen, splenium of the corpus callosum, and pons ventral and decreased creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations in the pons dorsal and putamen. Cho concentrations did not change significantly in selected brain regions. T2 increased in the cerebellar white matter and decreased in the splenium of the corpus callosum with aging, while the T2' decreased in the occipital GM, hand motor area, and putamen, and increased in the splenium of the corpus callosum. Correlations were found between NAA concentrations and T2' in the occipital GM and putamen and between creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations and T2' in the putamen. The effects of normal aging on brain metabolites and microstructure are region-dependent. Correlations between both processes are evident in the gray matter. The obtained data could be used as references for future studies on patients. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  5. Optimization of stereotactically-guided conformal treatment planning of sellar and parasellar tumors, based on normal brain dose volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perks, Julian R.; Jalali, Rakesh; Cosgrove, Vivian P.; Adams, Elizabeth J.; Shepherd, Stephen F.; Warrington, Alan P.; Brada, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the optimal treatment plan for stereo tactically-guided conformal radiotherapy (SCRT) of sellar and parasellar lesions, with respect to sparing normal brain tissue, in the context of routine treatment delivery, based on dose volume histogram analysis. Methods and Materials: Computed tomography (CT) data sets for 8 patients with sellar- and parasellar-based tumors (6 pituitary adenomas and 2 meningiomas) have been used in this study. Treatment plans were prepared for 3-coplanar and 3-, 4-, 6-, and 30-noncoplanar-field arrangements to obtain 95% isodose coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) for each plan. Conformal shaping was achieved by customized blocks generated with the beams eye view (BEV) facility. Dose volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for the normal brain (excluding the PTV), and comparisons made for normal tissue sparing for all treatment plans at ≥80%, ≥60%, and ≥40% of the prescribed dose. Results: The mean volume of normal brain receiving ≥80% and ≥60% of the prescribed dose decreased by 22.3% (range 14.8-35.1%, standard deviation σ = 7.5%) and 47.6% (range 25.8-69.1%, σ 13.2%), respectively, with a 4-field noncoplanar technique when compared with a conventional 3-field coplanar technique. Adding 2 further fields, from 4-noncoplanar to 6-noncoplanar fields reduced the mean normal brain volume receiving ≥80% of the prescribed dose by a further 4.1% (range -6.5-11.8%, σ = 6.4%), and the volume receiving ≥60% by 3.3% (range -5.5-12.2%, σ = 5.4%), neither of which were statistically significant. Each case must be considered individually however, as a wide range is seen in the volume spared when increasing the number of fields from 4 to 6. Comparing the 4- and 6-field noncoplanar techniques to a 30-field conformal field approach (simulating a dynamic arc plan) revealed near-equivalent normal tissue sparing. Conclusion: Four to six widely spaced, fixed-conformal fields provide the optimum class solution

  6. Morphological covariance in anatomical MRI scans can identify discrete neural pathways in the brain and their disturbances in persons with neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Peterson, Bradley S

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesize that coordinated functional activity within discrete neural circuits induces morphological organization and plasticity within those circuits. Identifying regions of morphological covariation that are independent of morphological covariation in other regions therefore may therefore allow us to identify discrete neural systems within the brain. Comparing the magnitude of these variations in individuals who have psychiatric disorders with the magnitude of variations in healthy controls may allow us to identify aberrant neural pathways in psychiatric illnesses. We measured surface morphological features by applying nonlinear, high-dimensional warping algorithms to manually defined brain regions. We transferred those measures onto the surface of a unit sphere via conformal mapping and then used spherical wavelets and their scaling coefficients to simplify the data structure representing these surface morphological features of each brain region. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to calculate covariation in these morphological measures, as represented by their scaling coefficients, across several brain regions. We then assessed whether brain subregions that covaried in morphology, as identified by large eigenvalues in the PCA, identified specific neural pathways of the brain. To do so, we spatially registered the subnuclei for each eigenvector into the coordinate space of a Diffusion Tensor Imaging dataset; we used these subnuclei as seed regions to track and compare fiber pathways with known fiber pathways identified in neuroanatomical atlases. We applied these procedures to anatomical MRI data in a cohort of 82 healthy participants (42 children, 18 males, age 10.5 ± 2.43 years; 40 adults, 22 males, age 32.42 ± 10.7 years) and 107 participants with Tourette's Syndrome (TS) (71 children, 59 males, age 11.19 ± 2.2 years; 36 adults, 21 males, age 37.34 ± 10.9 years). We evaluated the construct validity of the identified covariation in morphology

  7. The role of morphology and short vowelization in reading Arabic among normal and dyslexic readers in grades 3, 6, 9, and 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2007-03-01

    This study was an investigation of several Arabic reading measures among dyslexics and normal Arabic readers across different ages (grades 3, 6, 9, and 12): the role of morphology, short vowelization (phonological and syntactic skills), spelling, reading isolated words, and reading comprehension. The results of the one-way ANOVAs indicated clear differences between the dyslexic readers and the normal readers on all reading measures. However, the stepwise regression analysis revealed consistent orthographic results: morphology (identification and/or production) and spelling were generally the most powerful predictors of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension among dyslexic and normal readers across these different age groups. The results are discussed in terms of the characteristics of the Arabic orthography and the heavy reliance of readers at all levels and ages on orthographic factors in reading.

  8. Global diffusion tensor imaging derived metrics differentiate glioblastoma multiforme vs. normal brains by using discriminant analysis: introduction of a novel whole-brain approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Rios, Camilo; Cortez-Conradis, David; Favila, Rafael; Moreno-Jimenez, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    Histological behavior of glioblastoma multiforme suggests it would benefit more from a global rather than regional evaluation. A global (whole-brain) calculation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived tensor metrics offers a valid method to detect the integrity of white matter structures without missing infiltrated brain areas not seen in conventional sequences. In this study we calculated a predictive model of brain infiltration in patients with glioblastoma using global tensor metrics. Retrospective, case and control study; 11 global DTI-derived tensor metrics were calculated in 27 patients with glioblastoma multiforme and 34 controls: mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, pure isotropic diffusion, pure anisotropic diffusion, the total magnitude of the diffusion tensor, linear tensor, planar tensor, spherical tensor, relative anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity. The multivariate discriminant analysis of these variables (including age) with a diagnostic test evaluation was performed. The simultaneous analysis of 732 measures from 12 continuous variables in 61 subjects revealed one discriminant model that significantly differentiated normal brains and brains with glioblastoma: Wilks' λ = 0.324, χ(2) (3) = 38.907, p tensor and linear tensor. These metrics might be clinically applied for diagnosis, follow-up, and the study of other neurological diseases.

  9. High resolution post-mortem MRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brain in the second trimester of gestation. Normal foetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scola, Elisa; Palumbo, Giovanni; Avignone, Sabrina; Cinnante, Claudia Maria [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Neuroradiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Conte, Giorgio [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Neuroradiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Postgraduation School in Radiodiagnostics, Milan (Italy); Boito, Simona; Persico, Nicola [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ' L. Mangiagalli' , Milan (Italy); Rizzuti, Tommaso [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Pathology Unit, Milan (Italy); Triulzi, Fabio [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Neuroradiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Milan (Italy)

    2018-01-15

    To describe normal foetal brain development with high resolution post-mortem MRI (PMMRI) of non-fixed foetal brains. We retrospectively collected PMMRIs of foetuses without intracranial abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations studied after a termination of pregnancy due to extracranial abnormalities or after a spontaneous intrauterine death. PMMRIs were performed on a 3-T scanner without any fixation and without removing the brain from the skull. All PMMRIs were evaluated in consensus by two neuroradiologists. Our analysis included ten PMMRIs (median gestational age (GA): 21 weeks; range: 17-28 weeks). At 19 and 20 weeks of GA, the corticospinal tracts are recognisable in the medulla oblongata, becoming less visible from 21 weeks. Prior to 20 weeks the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) is more hypointense than surrounding deep grey nuclei; starting from 21 weeks the PLIC becomes isointense, and is hyperintense at 28 weeks. From 19-22 weeks, the cerebral hemispheres show transient layers: marginal zone, cortical plate, subplate, and intermediate, subventricular and germinal zones. PMMRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brains preserves the natural tissue contrast and skull integrity. We assessed foetal brain development in a small cohort of foetuses, focusing on 19-22 weeks of gestation. (orig.)

  10. Total and regional brain volumes in a population-based normative sample from 4 to 18 years: the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5-18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem. Associations with cross-sectional age, sex, family income, parental education, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Key observations are: 1) age-related decreases in lobar GM most prominent in parietal and occipital cortex; 2) age-related increases in lobar WM, greatest in occipital, followed by the temporal lobe; 3) age-related trajectories predominantly curvilinear in females, but linear in males; and 4) small systematic associations of brain tissue volumes with BMI but not with IQ, family income, or parental education. These findings constitute a normative reference on regional brain volumes in children and adolescents.

  11. High resolution post-mortem MRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brain in the second trimester of gestation. Normal foetal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scola, Elisa; Palumbo, Giovanni; Avignone, Sabrina; Cinnante, Claudia Maria; Conte, Giorgio; Boito, Simona; Persico, Nicola; Rizzuti, Tommaso; Triulzi, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    To describe normal foetal brain development with high resolution post-mortem MRI (PMMRI) of non-fixed foetal brains. We retrospectively collected PMMRIs of foetuses without intracranial abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations studied after a termination of pregnancy due to extracranial abnormalities or after a spontaneous intrauterine death. PMMRIs were performed on a 3-T scanner without any fixation and without removing the brain from the skull. All PMMRIs were evaluated in consensus by two neuroradiologists. Our analysis included ten PMMRIs (median gestational age (GA): 21 weeks; range: 17-28 weeks). At 19 and 20 weeks of GA, the corticospinal tracts are recognisable in the medulla oblongata, becoming less visible from 21 weeks. Prior to 20 weeks the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) is more hypointense than surrounding deep grey nuclei; starting from 21 weeks the PLIC becomes isointense, and is hyperintense at 28 weeks. From 19-22 weeks, the cerebral hemispheres show transient layers: marginal zone, cortical plate, subplate, and intermediate, subventricular and germinal zones. PMMRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brains preserves the natural tissue contrast and skull integrity. We assessed foetal brain development in a small cohort of foetuses, focusing on 19-22 weeks of gestation. (orig.)

  12. Association of maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy with offspring IQ and brain morphology in childhood: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Muetzel, Ryan; Medici, Marco; Chaker, Layal; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Steegers, Eric A P; Visser, Theo J; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Peeters, Robin P

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is involved in the regulation of early brain development. Since the fetal thyroid gland is not fully functional until week 18-20 of pregnancy, neuronal migration and other crucial early stages of intrauterine brain development largely depend on the supply of maternal thyroid hormone. Current clinical practice mostly focuses on preventing the negative consequences of low thyroid hormone concentrations, but data from animal studies have shown that both low and high concentrations of thyroid hormone have negative effects on offspring brain development. We aimed to investigate the association of maternal thyroid function with child intelligence quotient (IQ) and brain morphology. In this population-based prospective cohort study, embedded within the Generation R Study (Rotterdam, Netherlands), we investigated the association of maternal thyroid function with child IQ (assessed by non-verbal intelligence tests) and brain morphology (assessed on brain MRI scans). Eligible women were those living in the study area at their delivery date, which had to be between April 1, 2002, and Jan 1, 2006. For this study, women with available serum samples who presented in early pregnancy (brain MRI scans (done at a median of 8·0 years of age [6·2-10·0]) were obtained. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders including concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin and child thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine. Data for child IQ were available for 3839 mother-child pairs, and MRI scans were available from 646 children. Maternal free thyroxine concentrations showed an inverted U-shaped association with child IQ (p=0·0044), child grey matter volume (p=0·0062), and cortex volume (p=0·0011). For both low and high maternal free thyroxine concentrations, this association corresponded to a 1·4-3·8 points reduction in mean child IQ. Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone was not associated with child IQ or brain morphology. All associations remained

  13. Cortical thinning in cognitively normal elderly cohort of 60 to 89 year old from AIBL database and vulnerable brain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongmin S.; Avinash, Gopal; Yan, Litao; McMillan, Kathryn

    2014-03-01

    Age-related cortical thinning has been studied by many researchers using quantitative MR images for the past three decades and vastly differing results have been reported. Although results have shown age-related cortical thickening in elderly cohort statistically in some brain regions under certain conditions, cortical thinning in elderly cohort requires further systematic investigation. This paper leverages our previously reported brain surface intensity model (BSIM)1 based technique to measure cortical thickness to study cortical changes due to normal aging. We measured cortical thickness of cognitively normal persons from 60 to 89 years old using Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study (AIBL) data. MRI brains of 56 healthy people including 29 women and 27 men were selected. We measured average cortical thickness of each individual in eight brain regions: parietal, frontal, temporal, occipital, visual, sensory motor, medial frontal and medial parietal. Unlike the previous published studies, our results showed consistent age-related thinning of cerebral cortex in all brain regions. The parietal, medial frontal and medial parietal showed fastest thinning rates of 0.14, 0.12 and 0.10 mm/decade respectively while the visual region showed the slowest thinning rate of 0.05 mm/decade. In sensorimotor and parietal areas, women showed higher thinning (0.09 and 0.16 mm/decade) than men while in all other regions men showed higher thinning than women. We also created high resolution cortical thinning rate maps of the cohort and compared them to typical patterns of PET metabolic reduction of moderate AD and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The results seemed to indicate vulnerable areas of cortical deterioration that may lead to brain dementia. These results validate our cortical thickness measurement technique by demonstrating the consistency of the cortical thinning and prediction of cortical deterioration trend with AIBL database.

  14. Mapping metals in Parkinson's and normal brain using rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Bogdan F Gh; George, Martin J; McCrea, Richard P E; Devon, Richard M; George, Graham N; Hanson, Akela D; Chapman, L Dean; Nichol, Helen; Bergmann, Uwe; Garachtchenko, Alex V; Luening, Katharina; Kelly, Michael E; Harder, Sheri M; Pickering, Ingrid J

    2009-01-01

    Rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence (RS-XRF) is a synchrotron technology that maps multiple metals in tissues by employing unique hardware and software to increase scanning speed. RS-XRF was validated by mapping and quantifying iron, zinc and copper in brain slices from Parkinson's disease (PD) and unaffected subjects. Regions and structures in the brain were readily identified by their metal complement and each metal had a unique distribution. Many zinc-rich brain regions were low in iron and vice versa. The location and amount of iron in brain regions known to be affected in PD agreed with analyses using other methods. Sample preparation is simple and standard formalin-fixed autopsy slices are suitable. RS-XRF can simultaneously and non-destructively map and quantify multiple metals and holds great promise to reveal metal pathologies associated with PD and other neurodegenerative diseases as well as diseases of metal metabolism.

  15. Gene expression changes in the course of normal brain aging are sexually dimorphic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Nicole C.; Cribbs, David H.; Coleman, Paul D.; Rogers, Joseph; Head, Elizabeth; Kim, Ronald; Beach, Tom; Miller, Carol; Troncoso, Juan; Trojanowski, John Q.; Zielke, H. Ronald; Cotman, Carl W.

    2008-01-01

    Gene expression profiles were assessed in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, superior-frontal gyrus, and postcentral gyrus across the lifespan of 55 cognitively intact individuals aged 20–99 years. Perspectives on global gene changes that are associated with brain aging emerged, revealing two overarching concepts. First, different regions of the forebrain exhibited substantially different gene profile changes with age. For example, comparing equally powered groups, 5,029 probe sets were significantly altered with age in the superior-frontal gyrus, compared with 1,110 in the entorhinal cortex. Prominent change occurred in the sixth to seventh decades across cortical regions, suggesting that this period is a critical transition point in brain aging, particularly in males. Second, clear gender differences in brain aging were evident, suggesting that the brain undergoes sexually dimorphic changes in gene expression not only in development but also in later life. Globally across all brain regions, males showed more gene change than females. Further, Gene Ontology analysis revealed that different categories of genes were predominantly affected in males vs. females. Notably, the male brain was characterized by global decreased catabolic and anabolic capacity with aging, with down-regulated genes heavily enriched in energy production and protein synthesis/transport categories. Increased immune activation was a prominent feature of aging in both sexes, with proportionally greater activation in the female brain. These data open opportunities to explore age-dependent changes in gene expression that set the balance between neurodegeneration and compensatory mechanisms in the brain and suggest that this balance is set differently in males and females, an intriguing idea. PMID:18832152

  16. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eNitzsche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams were acquired on a 1.5T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight, age and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM and white (WM matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and body weight explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species.

  17. Age-dependent association of thyroid function with brain morphology and microstructural organization : Evidence from brain imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaker, Layal; Cremers, Lotte G M; Korevaar, Tim I.M.; De Groot, Marius; Dehghan, Abbas; Franco, Oscar H.; Niessen, W.J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Peeters, Robin P.; Vernooij, Meike W.

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is crucial during neurodevelopment, but high levels of TH have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. No data on the association of thyroid function with brain imaging in the general population are available. We therefore investigated the association of

  18. Age-dependent association of thyroid function with brain morphology and microstructural organization: evidence from brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaker, Layal; Cremers, Lotte G M; Korevaar, Tim I M; de Groot, Marius; Dehghan, Abbas; Franco, Oscar H; Niessen, Wiro J; Ikram, M Arfan; Peeters, Robin P; Vernooij, Meike W

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is crucial during neurodevelopment, but high levels of TH have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. No data on the association of thyroid function with brain imaging in the general population are available. We therefore investigated the association of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine (FT4) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived total intracranial volume, brain tissue volumes, and diffusion tensor imaging measures of white matter microstructure in 4683 dementia- and stroke-free participants (mean age 60.2, range 45.6-89.9 years). Higher FT4 levels were associated with larger total intracranial volumes (β = 6.73 mL, 95% confidence interval = 2.94-9.80). Higher FT4 levels were also associated with larger total brain and white matter volumes in younger individuals, but with smaller total brain and white matter volume in older individuals (p-interaction 0.02). There was a similar interaction by age for the association of FT4 with mean diffusivity on diffusion tensor imaging (p-interaction 0.026). These results are in line with differential effects of TH during neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes and can improve the understanding of the role of thyroid function in neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Theory of mind mediates the prospective relationship between abnormal social brain network morphology and chronic behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Silk, Timothy J; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith Owen; Anderson, Vicki A

    2016-04-01

    Childhood and adolescence coincide with rapid maturation and synaptic reorganization of distributed neural networks that underlie complex cognitive-affective behaviors. These regions, referred to collectively as the 'social brain network' (SBN) are commonly vulnerable to disruption from pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the mechanisms that link morphological changes in the SBN to behavior problems in this population remain unclear. In 98 children and adolescents with mild to severe TBI, we acquired 3D T1-weighted MRIs at 2-8 weeks post-injury. For comparison, 33 typically developing controls of similar age, sex and education were scanned. All participants were assessed on measures of Theory of Mind (ToM) at 6 months post-injury and parents provided ratings of behavior problems at 24-months post-injury. Severe TBI was associated with volumetric reductions in the overall SBN package, as well as regional gray matter structural change in multiple component regions of the SBN. When compared with TD controls and children with milder injuries, the severe TBI group had significantly poorer ToM, which was associated with more frequent behavior problems and abnormal SBN morphology. Mediation analysis indicated that impaired theory of mind mediated the prospective relationship between abnormal SBN morphology and more frequent chronic behavior problems. Our findings suggest that sub-acute alterations in SBN morphology indirectly contribute to long-term behavior problems via their influence on ToM. Volumetric change in the SBN and its putative hub regions may represent useful imaging biomarkers for prediction of post-acute social cognitive impairment, which may in turn elevate risk for chronic behavior problems. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Length and volume of morphologically normal kidneys in Korean Children: Ultrasound measurement and estimation using body size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hwee; Kim, Myung Joon; Lim, Sok Hwan; Lee, Mi Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Eun [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and renal length and volume measured with ultrasound in Korean children who have morphologically normal kidneys, and to create simple equations to estimate the renal sizes using the anthropometric measurements. We examined 794 Korean children under 18 years of age including a total of 394 boys and 400 girls without renal problems. The maximum renal length (L) (cm), orthogonal anterior-posterior diameter (D) (cm) and width (W) (cm) of each kidney were measured on ultrasound. Kidney volume was calculated as 0.523 x L x D x W (cm{sup 3}). Anthropometric indices including height (cm), weight (kg) and body mass index (m{sup 2}/kg) were collected through a medical record review. We used linear regression analysis to create simple equations to estimate the renal length and the volume with those anthropometric indices that were mostly correlated with the US-measured renal sizes. Renal length showed the strongest significant correlation with patient height (R2, 0.874 and 0.875 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). Renal volume showed the strongest significant correlation with patient weight (R2, 0.842 and 0.854 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). The following equations were developed to describe these relationships with an estimated 95% range of renal length and volume (R2, 0.826-0.884, p < 0.001): renal length = 2.383 + 0.045 x Height (± 1.135) and = 2.374 + 0.047 x Height (± 1.173) for the right and left kidneys, respectively; and renal volume 7.941 + 1.246 x Weight (± 15.920) and = 7.303 + 1.532 x Weight (± 18.704) for the right and left kidneys, respectively. Scatter plots between height and renal length and between weight and renal volume have been established from Korean children and simple equations between them have been developed for use in clinical practice.

  1. Length and volume of morphologically normal kidneys in Korean Children: Ultrasound measurement and estimation using body size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hwee; Kim, Myung Joon; Lim, Sok Hwan; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Ji Eun

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and renal length and volume measured with ultrasound in Korean children who have morphologically normal kidneys, and to create simple equations to estimate the renal sizes using the anthropometric measurements. We examined 794 Korean children under 18 years of age including a total of 394 boys and 400 girls without renal problems. The maximum renal length (L) (cm), orthogonal anterior-posterior diameter (D) (cm) and width (W) (cm) of each kidney were measured on ultrasound. Kidney volume was calculated as 0.523 x L x D x W (cm 3 ). Anthropometric indices including height (cm), weight (kg) and body mass index (m 2 /kg) were collected through a medical record review. We used linear regression analysis to create simple equations to estimate the renal length and the volume with those anthropometric indices that were mostly correlated with the US-measured renal sizes. Renal length showed the strongest significant correlation with patient height (R2, 0.874 and 0.875 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). Renal volume showed the strongest significant correlation with patient weight (R2, 0.842 and 0.854 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). The following equations were developed to describe these relationships with an estimated 95% range of renal length and volume (R2, 0.826-0.884, p < 0.001): renal length = 2.383 + 0.045 x Height (± 1.135) and = 2.374 + 0.047 x Height (± 1.173) for the right and left kidneys, respectively; and renal volume 7.941 + 1.246 x Weight (± 15.920) and = 7.303 + 1.532 x Weight (± 18.704) for the right and left kidneys, respectively. Scatter plots between height and renal length and between weight and renal volume have been established from Korean children and simple equations between them have been developed for use in clinical practice.

  2. Diffusion tensor trace mapping in normal adult brain using single-shot EPI technique: A methodological study of the aging brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.G.; Hindmarsh, T.; Li, T.Q.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify age-related changes of the average diffusion coefficient value in normal adult brain using orientation-independent diffusion tensor trace mapping and to address the methodological influences on diffusion quantification. Material and Methods: Fifty-four normal subjects (aged 20-79 years) were studied on a 1.5-T whole-body MR medical unit using a diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar imaging technique. Orientation-independent diffusion tensor trace maps were constructed for each subject using diffusion-weighted MR measurements in four different directions using a tetrahedral gradient combination pattern. The global average (including cerebral spinal fluid) and the tissue average of diffusion coefficients in adult brains were determined by analyzing the diffusion coefficient distribution histogram for the entire brain. Methodological influences on the measured diffusion coefficient were also investigated by comparing the results obtained using different experimental settings. Results: Both global and tissue averages of the diffusion coefficient are significantly correlated with age (p<0.03). The global average of the diffusion coefficient increases 3% per decade after the age of 40, whereas the increase in the tissue average of diffusion coefficient is about 1% per decade. Experimental settings for self-diffusion measurements, such as data acquisition methods and number of b-values, can slightly influence the statistical distribution histogram of the diffusion tensor trace and its average value. Conclusion: Increased average diffusion coefficient in adult brains with aging are consistent with findings regarding structural changes in the brain that have been associated with aging. The study also demonstrates that it is desirable to use the same experimental parameters for diffusion coefficient quantification when comparing between different subjects and groups of interest

  3. Brain Potentials for Derivational Morphology: An ERP Study of Deadjectival Nominalizations in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktoria; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Clahsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates brain potentials to derived word forms in Spanish. Two experiments were performed on derived nominals that differ in terms of their productivity and semantic properties but are otherwise similar, an acceptability judgment task and a reading experiment using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in which correctly and…

  4. Quantitative autoradiography of 14C-D-glucose metabolism of normal and traumatized rat brain using micro-absorption photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonorden, S.

    1980-01-01

    It could be shown using 14 C-glucose as energy-providing substrate for brain tissue metabolism that for bolus type application a retarded and even channelling of the substrate into the metabolic process takes place. The presence of tracer in the tissue was established using autoradiography. A linear correlation between the amount of tissue-incorporated 14 C section thickness and exposure time could be established by means of densitometric measurement of brain sections of various thicknesses, by applying various 14 C-activities and by different exposure times. From these correlations direct conclusions may be made regarding the specific activity of the tissue provided that exposure time and section thickness of the sample are known. Comparative studies between cortex and narrow and between traumatized and non-traumatized brain tissue show that the rate of metabolism in brain cortex is markedly higher than in the marrow and that 14 C-incorporation is higher in traumatized tissue than in non-traumatized tissue. Whilst the difference in rate of metabolism between brain cortex and marrow can be clearly related to the differing cell count/unit surface area for cortex and marrow, the different energy conversion rates for functionally damaged and normal brain tissue is a specific characteristic of injury. Apart from the fact that an increased 14 C-deposition is in no way indicative of an increased metabolic activity, the possibility of quantifying 14 C-tissue content provides a basis for estimating therapeutic effects e.g. in the treatment of trauma-caused brain edema. (orig.) [de

  5. Data-driven identification of intensity normalization region based on longitudinal coherency of 18F-FDG metabolism in the healthy brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiwei; Wu, Ping; Ziegler, Sibylle I; Guan, Yihui; Wang, Yuetao; Ge, Jingjie; Schwaiger, Markus; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Zuo, Chuantao; Förster, Stefan; Shi, Kuangyu

    2017-02-01

    In brain 18 F-FDG PET data intensity normalization is usually applied to control for unwanted factors confounding brain metabolism. However, it can be difficult to determine a proper intensity normalization region as a reference for the identification of abnormal metabolism in diseased brains. In neurodegenerative disorders, differentiating disease-related changes in brain metabolism from age-associated natural changes remains challenging. This study proposes a new data-driven method to identify proper intensity normalization regions in order to improve separation of age-associated natural changes from disease related changes in brain metabolism. 127 female and 128 male healthy subjects (age: 20 to 79) with brain 18 F-FDG PET/CT in the course of a whole body cancer screening were included. Brain PET images were processed using SPM8 and were parcellated into 116 anatomical regions according to the AAL template. It is assumed that normal brain 18 F-FDG metabolism has longitudinal coherency and this coherency leads to better model fitting. The coefficient of determination R 2 was proposed as the coherence coefficient, and the total coherence coefficient (overall fitting quality) was employed as an index to assess proper intensity normalization strategies on single subjects and age-cohort averaged data. Age-associated longitudinal changes of normal subjects were derived using the identified intensity normalization method correspondingly. In addition, 15 subjects with clinically diagnosed Parkinson's disease were assessed to evaluate the clinical potential of the proposed new method. Intensity normalizations by paracentral lobule and cerebellar tonsil, both regions derived from the new data-driven coherency method, showed significantly better coherence coefficients than other intensity normalization regions, and especially better than the most widely used global mean normalization. Intensity normalization by paracentral lobule was the most consistent method within both

  6. Restoring the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease to normal via multi-input phase-shifted deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rahul; Sarma, Sridevi V

    2010-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) injects a high frequency current that effectively disables the diseased basal ganglia (BG) circuit in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, leading to a reversal of motor symptoms. Though therapeutic, high frequency stimulation consumes significant power forcing frequent surgical battery replacements and causing widespread influence into other brain areas which may lead to adverse side effects. In this paper, we conducted a rigorous study to assess whether low frequency signals can restore behavior in PD patients by restoring neural activity in the BG to the normal state. We used a biophysical-based model of BG nuclei and motor thalamus whose parameters can be set to simulate the normal state and the PD state with and without DBS. We administered pulse train DBS waveforms to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with frequencies ranging from 1-150Hz. For each DBS frequency, we computed statistics on the simulated neural activity to assess whether it is restored to the normal state. In particular, we searched for DBS waveforms that suppress pathological bursting, oscillations, correlations and synchronization prevalent in the PD state and that enable thalamic cells to relay cortical inputs reliably. We found that none of the tested waveforms restores neural activity to the normal state. However, our simulations led us to construct a novel DBS strategy involving low frequency multi-input phaseshifted DBS to be administered into the STN. This strategy successfully suppressed all pathological symptoms in the BG in addition to enabling thalamic cells to relay cortical inputs reliably.

  7. The whole-brain N-acetylaspartate correlates with education in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glodzik, Lidia; Wu, William E; Babb, James S; Achtnichts, Lutz; Amann, Michael; Sollberger, Marc; Monsch, Andreas U; Gass, Achim; Gonen, Oded

    2012-10-30

    N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is an index of neuronal integrity. We hypothesized that in healthy subjects its whole brain concentration (WBNAA) may be related to formal educational attainment, a common proxy for cognitive reserve. To test this hypothesis, 97 middle aged to elderly subjects (51-89 years old, 38% women) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and non-localizing proton spectroscopy. Their WBNAA was obtained by dividing their whole-head NAA amount by the brain volume. Intracranial volume and fractional brain volume, a metric of brain atrophy, were also determined. Each subject's educational attainment was the sum of his/her years of formal education. In the entire group higher education was associated with larger intracranial volume. The relationship between WBNAA and education was observed only in younger (51-70 years old) participants. In this group, education explained 21% of the variance in WBNAA. More WBNAA was related to more years of formal education in adults and younger elders. Prospective studies can determine whether this relationship reflects a true advantage from years of training versus innate characteristics predisposing a subject to higher achievements later in life. We propose that late-life WBNAA may be more affected by other factors acting at midlife and later. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Glucose hypometabolism is highly localized, but lower cortical thickness and brain atrophy are widespread in cognitively normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Scott; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Goffaux, Philippe; Whittingstall, Kevin; Lepage, Martin; Paquet, Nancy; Bocti, Christian; Fulop, Tamas; Cunnane, Stephen C

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have suggested that glucose hypometabolism may be present in specific brain regions in cognitively normal older adults and could contribute to the risk of subsequent cognitive decline. However, certain methodological shortcomings, including a lack of partial volume effect (PVE) correction or insufficient cognitive testing, confound the interpretation of most studies on this topic. We combined [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to quantify cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRg) as well as cortical volume and thickness in 43 anatomically defined brain regions from a group of cognitively normal younger (25 ± 3 yr old; n = 25) and older adults (71 ± 9 yr old; n = 31). After correcting for PVE, we observed 11-17% lower CMRg in three specific brain regions of the older group: the superior frontal cortex, the caudal middle frontal cortex, and the caudate (P ≤ 0.01 false discovery rate-corrected). In the older group, cortical volumes and cortical thickness were 13-33 and 7-18% lower, respectively, in multiple brain regions (P ≤ 0.01 FDR correction). There were no differences in CMRg between individuals who were or were not prescribed antihypertensive medication. There were no significant correlations between CMRg and cognitive performance or metabolic parameters measured in fasting plasma. We conclude that highly localized glucose hypometabolism and widespread cortical thinning and atrophy can be present in older adults who are cognitively normal, as assessed using age-normed neuropsychological testing measures. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Identification of valid reference genes for the normalization of RT qPCR gene expression data in human brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Rivka

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of gene expression in post mortem human brain can contribute to understanding of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT qPCR is often used to analyse gene expression. The validity of results obtained using RT qPCR is reliant on accurate data normalization. Reference genes are generally used to normalize RT qPCR data. Given that expression of some commonly used reference genes is altered in certain conditions, this study aimed to establish which reference genes were stably expressed in post mortem brain tissue from individuals with AD, PD or DLB. Results The present study investigated the expression stability of 8 candidate reference genes, (ubiquitin C [UBC], tyrosine-3-monooxygenase [YWHAZ], RNA polymerase II polypeptide [RP II], hydroxymethylbilane synthase [HMBS], TATA box binding protein [TBP], β-2-microglobulin [B2M], glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], and succinate dehydrogenase complex-subunit A, [SDHA] in cerebellum and medial temporal gyrus of 6 AD, 6 PD, 6 DLB subjects, along with 5 matched controls using RT qPCR (TaqMan® Gene Expression Assays. Gene expression stability was analysed using geNorm to rank the candidate genes in order of decreasing stability in each disease group. The optimal number of genes recommended for accurate data normalization in each disease state was determined by pairwise variation analysis. Conclusion This study identified validated sets of mRNAs which would be appropriate for the normalization of RT qPCR data when studying gene expression in brain tissue of AD, PD, DLB and control subjects.

  10. Distinct multivariate brain morphological patterns and their added predictive value with cognitive and polygenic risk scores in mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhat Trung Doan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain underpinnings of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are multidimensional, reflecting complex pathological processes and causal pathways, requiring multivariate techniques to disentangle. Furthermore, little is known about the complementary clinical value of brain structural phenotypes when combined with data on cognitive performance and genetic risk. Using data-driven fusion of cortical thickness, surface area, and gray matter density maps (GMD, we found six biologically meaningful patterns showing strong group effects, including four statistically independent multimodal patterns reflecting co-occurring alterations in thickness and GMD in patients, over and above two other independent patterns of widespread thickness and area reduction. Case-control classification using cognitive scores alone revealed high accuracy, and adding imaging features or polygenic risk scores increased performance, suggesting their complementary predictive value with cognitive scores being the most sensitive features. Multivariate pattern analyses reveal distinct patterns of brain morphology in mental disorders, provide insights on the relative importance between brain structure, cognitive and polygenetic risk score in classification of patients, and demonstrate the importance of multivariate approaches in studying the pathophysiological substrate of these complex disorders.

  11. Age-related changes in brain perfusion of normal subjects detected by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausz, Y.; Karger, H.; Chisin, R.; Bonne, O.; Gorfine, M.; Lerer, B.

    1998-01-01

    Previous functional imaging data generally show impairment in global cerebral blood flow (CBF) with age. Conflicting data, however, concerning age-related changes in regional CBF (rCBF) have been reported. We examined the relative rCBF in a sample of healthy subjects of various ages, to define and localize any age-related CBF reduction. Twenty-seven healthy subjects (17 male, 10 female; mean age 49 ± 15, range 26-71, median 47 years) were studied by 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. The younger age group consisted of subjects below, the older group above 47 years of age, respectively. Analysis was performed by applying three preformed templates, each containing delineated regions of interest (ROIs), to three transaxial brain slices at approximately 4, 6, and 7 cm above the orbitomeatal line (OML). The average number of counts for each ROI was normalized to mean uptake of the cerebellum and of the whole brain slice. Globally, 99m Tc-HMPAO uptake ratio normalized to cerebellum was significantly decreased in older subjects, affecting both hemispheres. A slight left-to-right asymmetry was observed in HMPAO uptake of the whole study group. It did not, however, change with age. Regionally, both cortical and subcortical structures of older subjects were involved: uptake ratio to cerebellum was significantly lower (after correction for multiple testing) in the left basal ganglia and in the left superior temporal, right frontal and bilateral occipital cortices at 4 cm above the OML. At 6 cm above the OML, reduced uptake ratios were identified in the left frontal and bilateral parietal areas. At 7 cm, reduced uptake was detected in the right frontal and left occipital cortices. Most of these differences were reduced when uptake was normalized to whole slice, whereas an increase in uptake ratios was observed in the cingulate cortex of the elderly. An inverse correlation between age and HMPAO uptake ratios normalized to cerebellum was observed in a number of brain regions. These

  12. The metabolism of Tay-Sachs ganglioside: catabolic studies with lysosomal enzymes from normal and Tay-Sachs brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, John F.; Johnson, William G.; Brady, Roscoe O.

    1972-01-01

    The catabolism of Tay-Sachs ganglioside, N-acetylgalactosaminyl- (N-acetylneuraminosyl) -galactosylglucosylceramide, has been studied in lysosomal preparations from normal human brain and brain obtained at biopsy from Tay-Sachs patients. Utilizing Tay-Sachs ganglioside labeled with 14C in the N-acetylgalactosaminyl portion or 3H in the N-acetylneuraminosyl portion, the catabolism of Tay-Sachs ganglioside may be initiated by either the removal of the molecule of N-acetylgalactosamine or N-acetylneuraminic acid. The activity of the N-acetylgalactosamine-cleaving enzyme (hexosaminidase) is drastically diminished in such preparations from Tay-Sachs brain whereas the activity of the N-acetylneuraminic acid-cleaving enzyme (neuraminidase) is at a normal level. Total hexosaminidase activity as measured with an artificial fluorogenic substrate is increased in tissues obtained from patients with the B variant form of Tay-Sachs disease and it is virtually absent in the O-variant patients. The addition of purified neuraminidase and various purified hexosaminidases exerted only a minimal synergistic effect on the hydrolysis of Tay-Sachs ganglioside in the lysosomal preparations from the control or patient with the O variant of Tay-Sachs disease. Images PMID:4639018

  13. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  14. Repeated verum but not placebo acupuncture normalizes connectivity in brain regions dysregulated in chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Egorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture, an ancient East Asian therapy, is aimed at rectifying the imbalance within the body caused by disease. Studies evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture with neuroimaging tend to concentrate on brain regions within the pain matrix, associated with acute pain. We, however, focused on the effect of repeated acupuncture treatment specifically on brain regions known to support functions dysregulated in chronic pain disorders. Transition to chronic pain is associated with increased attention to pain, emotional rumination, nociceptive memory and avoidance learning, resulting in brain connectivity changes, specifically affecting the periaqueductal gray (PAG, medial frontal cortex (MFC and bilateral hippocampus (Hpc. We demonstrate that the PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in patients with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis indeed correlates with clinical severity scores and further show that verum acupuncture-induced improvement in pain scores (compared to sham is related to the modulation of PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in the predicted direction. This study shows that repeated verum acupuncture might act by restoring the balance in the connectivity of the key pain brain regions, altering pain-related attention and memory.

  15. Diffusion-tensor MR imaging of gray and white matter development during normal human brain maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pratik; Miller, Jeffrey H; Shimony, Joshua S; Philip, Joseph V; Nehra, Deepika; Snyder, Abraham Z; Conturo, Thomas E; Neil, Jeffrey J; McKinstry, Robert C

    2002-10-01

    Conventional MR imaging findings of human brain development are thought to result from decreasing water content, increasing macromolecular concentration, and myelination. We use diffusion-tensor MR imaging to test theoretical models that incorporate hypotheses regarding how these maturational processes influence water diffusion in developing gray and white matter. Experimental data were derived from diffusion-tensor imaging of 167 participants, ages 31 gestational weeks to 11 postnatal years. An isotropic diffusion model was applied to the gray matter of the basal ganglia and thalamus. A model that assumes changes in the magnitude of diffusion while maintaining cylindrically symmetric anisotropy was applied to the white matter of the corpus callosum and internal capsule. Deviations of the diffusion tensor from the ideal model predictions, due to measurement noise, were estimated by using Monte Carlo simulations. Developing gray matter of the basal ganglia and developing white matter of the internal capsule and corpus callosum largely conformed to theory, with only small departures from model predictions in older children. However, data from the thalamus substantially diverged from predicted values, with progressively larger deviations from the model with increasing participant age. Changes in water diffusion during maturation of central gray and white matter structures can largely be explained by theoretical models incorporating simple assumptions regarding the influence of brain water content and myelination, although deviations from theory increase as the brain matures. Diffusion-tensor MR imaging is a powerful method for studying the process of brain development, with both scientific and clinical applications.

  16. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Lino; Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E.; Drosos, Athena M.; Sethna, Navil; Berde, Charles; Lebel, Alyssa A.; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS) offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks) but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state) with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning). Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects). These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects. PMID:25379449

  17. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Becerra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning. Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects. These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects.

  18. Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Normal Appearing White Matter in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Krakauer, Martin; Skimminge, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Contrast-enhanced T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to characterize location and extent of BBB disruptions in focal MS lesions. We employed quantitative T1 measurements before...

  19. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: 1. An increased BMI (i.e., overweight subjects is associated with distinct changes in gray-matter and fiber density of the brain. 2. Classification algorithms based on white-matter connectivity involving regions of the reward and associated networks can identify specific targets for mechanistic studies and future drug development aimed at abnormal ingestive behavior and in overweight/obesity.

  20. Functional Magnetic Resonance Study of Non-conventional Morphological Brains: malnourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition during brain development can cause serious problems that can be irreversible. Dysfunctional patterns of brain activity can be detected with functional MRI. We used BOLD functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to investigate region differences of brain activity between control and malnourished rats. The food-competition method was applied to a rat model to induce malnutrition during lactation. A 7T magnet was used to detect changes of the BOLD signal associated with changes in brain activity caused by the trigeminal nerve stimulation in malnourished and control rats. Major neuronal activation was observed in malnourished rats in several brain regions, including cerebellum, somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. Statistical analysis of the BOLD signals from various brain areas revealed significant differences in somatosensory cortex between the control and experimental groups, as well as a significant difference between the cerebellum and other structures in the experimental group. This study, particularly in malnourished rats, demonstrates increased BOLD activation in the cerebellum.

  1. Age-related deposition of brain iron in normal adults: an in vivo susceptibility weighted imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qidong; Xu Xiaojun; Zhang Minming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age on the iron concentration of the human brain. Methods: The brain iron level was evaluated in vivo in 78 healthy adult volunteers using a noninvasive magnetic resonance method termed susceptibility weighted imaging. The subjects were divided intothree groups due to different ages: young (22-35 years old, n=27), middle- aged (36-55 years old, n=35), and aged (56-78 years old, n=16). The phase values were measured on the corrected phase images in the globus pallidus, putamen, caudate, substantia nigra, red nucleus, thalamus and frontal white matter. The phase values of those regions measured from the subjects over than 30 years old were correlated with published values of brain iron concentration in normal adults to check the validity of the data. Then, the phase values of the three groups were tested for significant age-related differences using one-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc testing using least significant difference (LSD) procedure. Regression analysis was used to further examine age-related effects revealed by group comparisons, and to estimate the rates of age-related changes. Results: A strong negative correlation was found between the phase values and the published values of the brain iron concentration (r=-0.796, P= 0.032), which indicated that the higher the iron deposition level, the greater the negative phase values. In the putamen (F=20.115, P<0.01) and frontal white matter (F=3.536, P=0.034), significant differences were detected in the phase values of the three age groups. Linear regression analysis showed that phase values of the putamen, frontal white matter, and red nucleus decreased with age (The regression coefficients were -0.001, -0.001, and < -0.001 respectively, and the P value were all < 0.05), which indicated that the iron concentration of those brain structures increased with age. No significant age- related changes of the iron concentration were found in the

  2. Rough Sets and Stomped Normal Distribution for Simultaneous Segmentation and Bias Field Correction in Brain MR Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhirup; Maji, Pradipta

    2015-12-01

    The segmentation of brain MR images into different tissue classes is an important task for automatic image analysis technique, particularly due to the presence of intensity inhomogeneity artifact in MR images. In this regard, this paper presents a novel approach for simultaneous segmentation and bias field correction in brain MR images. It integrates judiciously the concept of rough sets and the merit of a novel probability distribution, called stomped normal (SN) distribution. The intensity distribution of a tissue class is represented by SN distribution, where each tissue class consists of a crisp lower approximation and a probabilistic boundary region. The intensity distribution of brain MR image is modeled as a mixture of finite number of SN distributions and one uniform distribution. The proposed method incorporates both the expectation-maximization and hidden Markov random field frameworks to provide an accurate and robust segmentation. The performance of the proposed approach, along with a comparison with related methods, is demonstrated on a set of synthetic and real brain MR images for different bias fields and noise levels.

  3. Transtemporal Investigation of Brain Parenchyma Elasticity Using 2-D Shear Wave Elastography: Definition of Age-Matched Normal Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Michael; Raasch, Nele; Hammel, Gertrud; Harter, Katharina; Lang, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    The goal of our research was to assess the possibility of reliable investigation of brain tissue stiffness using ultrasonographic brain parenchyma elastography with an intact temporal bone. We enrolled 108 patients after exclusion of intracranial pathology or healthy volunteers. All patients were subdivided by age into groups: 20-40, 40-60 and >60 y. For statistical analysis, the χ 2 test and t-test were used. The mean values, regardless of age and other parameters, were 3.34 kPa (SD = 0.59) on the left side and 3.33 kPa (SD = 0.58) on the right side. We found no correlation between the values, body mass index (r = 0.07, p = 0.48) and sex (t = -0.11, p = 0.91), but we observed a highly significant correlation between the values and age (r = 0.43, p <0.0001). We found ultrasonographic brain parenchyma elastography to be a valid, reproducible and investigator-independent method that reliably determines brain parenchyma stiffness. Normal values should serve as a reference for studies on various intracranial lesions. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vascular targeting of LIGHT normalizes blood vessels in primary brain cancer and induces intratumoural high endothelial venules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Jabouille, Arnaud; Steri, Veronica; Johansson-Percival, Anna; Michael, Iacovos P; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Junckerstorff, Reimar; Nowak, Anna K; Hamzah, Juliana; Lee, Gabriel; Bergers, Gabriele; Ganss, Ruth

    2018-06-01

    High-grade brain cancer such as glioblastoma (GBM) remains an incurable disease. A common feature of GBM is the angiogenic vasculature, which can be targeted with selected peptides for payload delivery. We assessed the ability of micelle-tagged, vascular homing peptides RGR, CGKRK and NGR to specifically bind to blood vessels in syngeneic orthotopic GBM models. By using the peptide CGKRK to deliver the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily member LIGHT (also known as TNF superfamily member 14; TNFSF14) to angiogenic tumour vessels, we have generated a reagent that normalizes the brain cancer vasculature by inducing pericyte contractility and re-establishing endothelial barrier integrity. LIGHT-mediated vascular remodelling also activates endothelia and induces intratumoural high endothelial venules (HEVs), which are specialized blood vessels for lymphocyte infiltration. Combining CGKRK-LIGHT with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and checkpoint blockade amplified HEV frequency and T-cell accumulation in GBM, which is often sparsely infiltrated by immune effector cells, and reduced tumour burden. Furthermore, CGKRK and RGR peptides strongly bound to blood vessels in freshly resected human GBM, demonstrating shared peptide-binding activities in mouse and human primary brain tumour vessels. Thus, peptide-mediated LIGHT targeting is a highly translatable approach in primary brain cancer to reduce vascular leakiness and enhance immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Anatomy and metabolism of the normal human brain studied by magnetic resonance at 1.5 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottomley, P.A.; Hart, H.R. Jr.; Edelstein, W.A.; Schenck, J.F.; Smith, L.S.; Leue, W.M.; Mueller, O.M.; Redington, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained of the human head in magnetic fields as high as 1.5 Tesla (T) using slotted resonator high radio-frequency (RF) detection coils. The images showed no RF field penetration problems and exhibited an 11 (+/-1)-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio over a .12-T imaging system. The first localized phosphorus 31, carbon 13, and proton MR chemical shift spectra recorded with surface coils from the head and body in the same instrument showed relative concentrations of phosphorus metabolites, triglycerides, and, when correlated with proton images, negligible lipid (-CH 2 -) signal from brain tissue on the time scale of the imaging experiment. Sugar phosphate and phosphodiester concentrations were significantly elevated in the head compared with muscle. This method should allow the combined assessment of anatomy, metabolism, and biochemistry in both the normal and diseased brain

  6. The INIA19 template and NeuroMaps atlas for primate brain image parcellation and spatial normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten eRohlfing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The INIA19 is a new, high-quality template for imaging-based studies of non-human primate brains created from high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR images of 19 rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta animals. Combined with the comprehensive cortical and subcortical label map of the NeuroMaps atlas, the INIA19 is equally suitable for studies requiring both spatial normalization and atlas label propagation. Population-averaged template images are provided for both the brain and the whole head, to allow alignment of the atlas with both skull-stripped and unstripped data, and thus to facilitate its use for skull stripping of new images. This article describes the construction of the template using freely-available software tools, as well as the template itself, which is being made available to the scientific community (http://nitrc.org/projects/inia19/.

  7. CT-based attenuation correction and resolution compensation for I-123 IMP brain SPECT normal database: a multicenter phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Yoshitaka; Ichihara, Takashi; Uno, Masaki; Ishiguro, Masanobu; Ito, Kengo; Kato, Katsuhiko; Sakuma, Hajime; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2018-03-19

    Statistical image analysis of brain SPECT images has improved diagnostic accuracy for brain disorders. However, the results of statistical analysis vary depending on the institution even when they use a common normal database (NDB), due to different intrinsic spatial resolutions or correction methods. The present study aimed to evaluate the correction of spatial resolution differences between equipment and examine the differences in skull bone attenuation to construct a common NDB for use in multicenter settings. The proposed acquisition and processing protocols were those routinely used at each participating center with additional triple energy window (TEW) scatter correction (SC) and computed tomography (CT) based attenuation correction (CTAC). A multicenter phantom study was conducted on six imaging systems in five centers, with either single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or SPECT/CT, and two brain phantoms. The gray/white matter I-123 activity ratio in the brain phantoms was 4, and they were enclosed in either an artificial adult male skull, 1300 Hounsfield units (HU), a female skull, 850 HU, or an acrylic cover. The cut-off frequency of the Butterworth filters was adjusted so that the spatial resolution was unified to a 17.9 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM), that of the lowest resolution system. The gray-to-white matter count ratios were measured from SPECT images and compared with the actual activity ratio. In addition, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation images were calculated after normalization and anatomical standardization to evaluate the variability of the NDB. The gray-to-white matter count ratio error without SC and attenuation correction (AC) was significantly larger for higher bone densities (p correction. The proposed protocol showed potential for constructing an appropriate common NDB from SPECT images with SC, AC and spatial resolution compensation.

  8. A lack of cerebral lateralization in schizophrenia is within the normal variation in brain maturation but indicates late, slow maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1999-10-19

    The planum temporale (PT) bias, PT leftward, PT symmetry, and PT rightward reversal and sidedness preference, consistent right-handedness, ambilaterality, and consistent left-handedness are placed on a continuum mirroring the normal variation in rate of brain maturation. Maturational rate declines as we pass from PT leftward bias and consistent right-handedness to PT reversal and consistent left-handedness. Concomitantly, we expect an increased prevalence of males due to their pubertal age being about 2 years later than that of females, and a shift in cognitive profile from higher verbal scores than performance scores on the WAIS to higher performance than verbal scores. Three disorders fulfilling the criteria of late CNS maturation apart from the corresponding cognitive profile were studied: infantile autism (IA), schizophrenia (S), and developmental dyslexia (DD). These disorders have in common deficits in cognition, perception, and somatomotor function. The deficits range from an arrest in brain development (which is evident in infancy superimposed on late maturation in IA) to overall delayed brain and somatic development in S (culminating in postpubertal psychotic episodes and persistent and generalized residual deficits). Finally, reading inability, problems in perception (vision and hearing) and in motor coordination, particularly between the two hemispheres, characterize DD. Enhancing brain maturation and the prevalence of 'normal' cerebral asymmetry--laterality is preferable if we want to reduce the risk of developing the above-mentioned disorders. It is suggested that in the past environmental challenges have favored early maturation, with its abundant neuronal population, arborization and excessive density of synapses and cerebral excitability which has powered evolution through the mechanism of natural selection. Early maturation is obtainable through optimal nutrition, including a satisfactory amount of marine fat (PUFA), before and during pregnancy and

  9. Analysis of the brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy - differences between normal grey and white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukowski, P.; Podgorski, P.; Guzinski, M.; Szewczyk, P.; Sasiadek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HMRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic method that allows for an assessment of the metabolite concentration in tissues. The sources of the strongest resonance signals within the brain are N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), myoinositol (mI) and water. The aim of our study was to analyse the ratios of metabolite signals within the brain in HMRS in the healthy population, to define the differences between the grey and white matter spectra. Material/Methods: We studied prospectively 90 subjects aged from 8 to 80 years (mean 43.3 years, SD=17.9), without neurological symptoms or abnormalities in magnetic resonance imaging. In all patients, brain HMRS with Signa HDx 1.5 T MR unit (GE Healthcare) was performed with PRESS sequence, using a single voxel method, at TE of 35 ms and TR of 1500 ms. Spectroscopic evaluation involved voxels placed in the white matter of parietal lobe (PWM) and the grey matter of posterior cingulate gyrus (PGM). On the basis of the intensity of NAA, Cr, Cho, mI and water signals, the proportions of these signals were calculated, as well as the ratio of the analyzed metabolite signal to the sum of signals of NAA, Cho, Cr and mI (%Met) in the PGM and PWM voxels. We compared the proportions in the same patients in PGM and PWM voxels. Results: There has been a statistically significant difference between the proportions of a majority of the metabolite ratios evaluated in PGM and PWM, indicating the higher concentration of NAA, Cr and mI in grey matter, and higher concentration of Cho in white matter. Conclusions: HMRS spectra of the brain grey and white matter differ significantly. The concentrations of NAA, Cr and mI are higher in grey matter, while of choline - in the white matter. (authors)

  10. Cellular proliferation and infiltration following interstitial irradiation of normal dog brain is altered by an inhibitor of polyamine synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fike, John R.; Gobbel, Glenn T.; Chou, Dean; Wijnhoven, Bas P. L.; Bellinzona, Mattia; Nakagawa, Minoru; Seilhan, Theresa M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to quantitatively define proliferative and infiltrative cell responses after focal 125 I irradiation of normal brain, and to determine the effects of an intravenous infusion of α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) on those responses. Methods and Materials: Adult beagle dogs were irradiated using high activity 125 I sources. Saline (control) or DFMO (150 mg/kg/day) was infused for 18 days starting 2 days before irradiation. At varying times up to 8 weeks after irradiation, brain tissues were collected and the cell responses in and around the focal lesion were quantified. Immunohistochemical stains were used to label astrocytes (GFAP), vascular endothelial cells (Factor VIII), polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs; MAC 387) and cells synthesizing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (BrdU). Cellular responses were quantified using a histomorphometric analysis. Results: After radiation alone, cellular events included a substantial acute inflammatory response followed by increased BrdU labeling and progressive increases in numbers of capillaries and astrocytes. α-Difluoromethylornithine treatment significantly affected the measured cell responses. As in controls, an early inflammatory response was measured, but after 2 weeks there were more PMNs/unit area than in controls. The onset of measurable BrdU labeling was delayed in DFMO-treated animals, and the magnitude of labeling was significantly reduced. Increases in astrocyte and vessel numbers/mm 2 were observed after a 2-week delay. At the site of implant, astrocytes from DFMO-treated dogs were significantly smaller than those from controls. Conclusions: There is substantial cell proliferation and infiltration in response to interstitial irradiation of normal brain, and these responses are significantly altered by DFMO treatment. Although the precise mechanisms by which DFMO exerts its effects in this model are not known, the results from this study suggest that modification of radiation

  11. Surface morphology of active normal faults in hard rock: Implications for the mechanics of the Asal Rift, Djibouti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzuti, Paul; Mignan, Arnaud; King, Geoffrey C. P.

    2010-10-01

    Tectonic-stretching models have been previously proposed to explain the process of continental break-up through the example of the Asal Rift, Djibouti, one of the few places where the early stages of seafloor spreading can be observed. In these models, deformation is distributed starting at the base of a shallow seismogenic zone, in which sub-vertical normal faults are responsible for subsidence whereas cracks accommodate extension. Alternative models suggest that extension results from localised magma intrusion, with normal faults accommodating extension and subsidence only above the maximum reach of the magma column. In these magmatic rifting models, or so-called magmatic intrusion models, normal faults have dips of 45-55° and root into dikes. Vertical profiles of normal fault scarps from levelling campaign in the Asal Rift, where normal faults seem sub-vertical at surface level, have been analysed to discuss the creation and evolution of normal faults in massive fractured rocks (basalt lava flows), using mechanical and kinematics concepts. We show that the studied normal fault planes actually have an average dip ranging between 45° and 65° and are characterised by an irregular stepped form. We suggest that these normal fault scarps correspond to sub-vertical en echelon structures, and that, at greater depth, these scarps combine and give birth to dipping normal faults. The results of our analysis are compatible with the magmatic intrusion models instead of tectonic-stretching models. The geometry of faulting between the Fieale volcano and Lake Asal in the Asal Rift can be simply related to the depth of diking, which in turn can be related to magma supply. This new view supports the magmatic intrusion model of early stages of continental breaking.

  12. Controlled Low-Pressure Blast-Wave Exposure Causes Distinct Behavioral and Morphological Responses Modelling Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Comorbid Mild Traumatic Brain Injury-Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Amitai; Ram, Omri; Ifergane, Gal; Matar, Michael A; Sagi, Ram; Ostfeld, Ishay; Hoffman, Jay R; Kaplan, Zeev; Sadot, Oren; Cohen, Hagit

    2017-01-01

    The intense focus in the clinical literature on the mental and neurocognitive sequelae of explosive blast-wave exposure, especially when comorbid with post-traumatic stress-related disorders (PTSD) is justified, and warrants the design of translationally valid animal studies to provide valid complementary basic data. We employed a controlled experimental blast-wave paradigm in which unanesthetized animals were exposed to visual, auditory, olfactory, and tactile effects of an explosive blast-wave produced by exploding a thin copper wire. By combining cognitive-behavioral paradigms and ex vivo brain MRI to assess mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) phenotype with a validated behavioral model for PTSD, complemented by morphological assessments, this study sought to examine our ability to evaluate the biobehavioral effects of low-intensity blast overpressure on rats, in a translationally valid manner. There were no significant differences between blast- and sham-exposed rats on motor coordination and strength, or sensory function. Whereas most male rats exposed to the blast-wave displayed normal behavioral and cognitive responses, 23.6% of the rats displayed a significant retardation of spatial learning acquisition, fulfilling criteria for mTBI-like responses. In addition, 5.4% of the blast-exposed animals displayed an extreme response in the behavioral tasks used to define PTSD-like criteria, whereas 10.9% of the rats developed both long-lasting and progressively worsening behavioral and cognitive "symptoms," suggesting comorbid PTSD-mTBI-like behavioral and cognitive response patterns. Neither group displayed changes on MRI. Exposure to experimental blast-wave elicited distinct behavioral and morphological responses modelling mTBI-like, PTSD-like, and comorbid mTBI-PTSD-like responses. This experimental animal model can be a useful tool for elucidating neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of blast-wave-induced mTBI and PTSD and comorbid mTBI-PTSD.

  13. THE LIVER OF WOODCHUCKS CHRONICALLY INFECTED WITH THE WOODCHUCK HEPATITIS VIRUS CONTAINS FOCI OF VIRUS CORE ANTIGEN NEGATIVE HEPATOCYTES WITH BOTH ALTERED AND NORMAL MORPHOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiao; Yamamoto, Toshiki; Zhou, Tianlun; Aldrich, Carol E.; Frank, Katy; Cullen, John M.; Jilbert, Allison R.; Mason, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The livers of woodchucks chronically infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) contain foci of morphologically altered hepatocytes (FAH) with “basophilic”, “amphophilic” and “clear cell” phenotypes, which are possibly pre-neoplastic in nature. Interestingly, most fail to express detectable levels of WHV proteins and nucleic acids. We studied sections of WHV-infected liver tissue to determine if all foci of hepatocytes that failed to express detectable levels of WHV, as assessed by immunoperoxidase staining for WHV core antigen, could be classified morphologically as FAH. We found that at least half of the foci of WHV core antigen negative hepatocytes did not show clear morphological differences in either H&E or PAS (periodic acid Schiff) stained sections from surrounding hepatocytes, and were therefore not designated as FAH. In the second approach, we assayed core antigen negative foci for the presence of fetuin B, a serum protein produced by normal hepatocytes, but not by neoplastic hepatocytes in hepatocellular carcinomas. Basophilic and amphophilic FAH had reduced levels of fetuin B compared to hepatocytes present in the surrounding liver; fetuin B staining was detected in clear cell FAH but the level could not be accurately assessed because of the displacement of fetuin B to the cell periphery by accumulated glycogen. The foci of morphologically normal WHV core antigen negative hepatocytes had similar levels of fetuin B to that of the surrounding hepatocytes. The co-existence of at least four types of WHV core antigen negative foci, including those with no obvious morphologic changes, raises the possibility that the different foci arise from distinct primary events. We hypothesize that a common event is loss of the ability to express WHV, allowing these hepatocytes to escape immune mediated cell death and to undergo clonal expansion to form distinct foci. PMID:17078989

  14. Voxel-based comparison of whole brain gray matter of patients with mild Alzheimer's disease with normal aging volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Sheng; Wu Hongkun; Xiao Jiangxi; Wang Yinhua; Jiang Xuexiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To detect gray matter abnormalities of whole brain in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Thirteen patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and sixteen normal aging volunteers underwent 3D SPGR scanning. For every subject, data was transferred to PC to be normalized, segmented and smoothed using SPM99. Non-dependent samples T-tests were conducted to compare gray matter' density voxel to voxel between the two groups. Results Significant reductions in gray matter density were found in the bilateral hippocampi and nucleus amygdalae, bilateral insulae, bilateral medial thalami, bilateral rectus gyri, right superior temporal gyms, right caudate nucleus, fight prefrontal lobe, right basal forebrain and portions of right occipital lobe. Conclusion: VBM reveals significant gray matter' reductions of numeral cortices in mild Alzheimer's disease. It can be a useful method to evaluate the anatomical changes in the progress of the disease. (authors)

  15. Coronal in vivo forward-imaging of rat brain morphology with an ultra-small optical coherence tomography fiber probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yijing; Bonin, Tim; Löffler, Susanne; Hüttmann, Gereon; Tronnier, Volker; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2013-02-01

    A well-established navigation method is one of the key conditions for successful brain surgery: it should be accurate, safe and online operable. Recent research shows that optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a potential solution for this application by providing a high resolution and small probe dimension. In this study a fiber-based spectral-domain OCT system utilizing a super-luminescent-diode with the center wavelength of 840 nm providing 14.5 μm axial resolution was used. A composite 125 μm diameter detecting probe with a gradient index (GRIN) fiber fused to a single mode fiber was employed. Signals were reconstructed into grayscale images by horizontally aligning A-scans from the same trajectory with different depths. The reconstructed images can display brain morphology along the entire trajectory. For scans of typical white matter, the signals showed a higher reflection of light intensity with lower penetration depth as well as a steeper attenuation rate compared to the scans typical for gray matter. Micro-structures such as axon bundles (70 μm) in the caudate nucleus are visible in the reconstructed images. This study explores the potential of OCT to be a navigation modality in brain surgery.

  16. Development of cortical morphology evaluated with longitudinal MR brain images of preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeskops, P.; Benders, M.J.N.L.; Kersbergen, K.J.; Groenendaal, F.; de Vries, L.S.; Viergever, M.A.; Išgum, I.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cerebral cortex develops rapidly in the last trimester of pregnancy. In preterm infants, brain development is very vulnerable because of their often complicated extra-uterine conditions. The aim of this study was to quantitatively describe cortical development in a cohort of 85

  17. Opaque for the Reader but Transparent for the Brain: Neural Signatures of Morphological Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Marcus; Lahiri, Aditi; Flaisch, Tobias; Hannemann, Ronny; Eulitz, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Within linguistics, words with a complex internal structure are commonly assumed to be decomposed into their constituent morphemes (e.g., un-help-ful). Nevertheless, an ongoing debate concerns the brain structures that subserve this process. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study varied the internal complexity of derived…

  18. Computerized tomography and morphological findings in brain infarcts and intracerebral haematonous for identical image planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clar, H E; Bock, W J; Hahse, H C; Gerhard, L; Flossdorf, R [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Roentgendiagnostisches Zentralinstitut; Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Neuropathologisches Inst.)

    1979-01-01

    Contrary to earlier, more optimistic publications, CT findings do not always agree with brain sections of the same image plane. For example, in spite of a clinically proved infrarot anamnesis, Huber was unable to detect a pathological CT finding in 20% of the cases. Still, CT is the method that yields the best information on cerebral ischaemios, haemorrhaegic infarcts, and haemorrhagies if purposefully applied.

  19. Computed tomography by reconstruction. Brain CT scanning. I. Basic physics, equipment, normal aspects, artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiras, J.; Palmieri, P.; Saudinos, J.; Salamon, G.

    1980-01-01

    The authors describe the physical basis, apparatus, normal images, and artefacts of computed tomography by reconstruction. Radio-anatomical sections enable clear comprehension of the computed tomography images. Other methods using computer reconstruction are outlined: tomography by Compton effect, tomography by positrons, tomography by gamma emission, tomography by protons, tomography by nuclear magnetic resonance [fr

  20. Correlation of morphological variants of the soft palate and Need's ratio in normal individuals: A digital cephalometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Sachdeva, Suresh K; Juneja, Suruchi; Kumaraswam; Kikkeri Lakshminarayana; Basavaraju, Suman

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the variation of soft palate morphology in different age and gender groups. The correlations of radiographic velar length (VL), velar width (VW), pharyngeal depth (PD), and Need's ratio with soft palate variants were also studied in the North Indian subpopulation. The study sample consisted of 300 subjects aged between 15 and 45 (mean: 31.32) years. The velar morphology on lateral cephalograms was examined and grouped into six types. The results obtained were subjected to a statistical analysis to find the correlation between variants of the soft palate with gender and different age groups. The most frequent type of soft palate was leaf shaped (48.7%), and the least common was crook shaped (3.0%) among both the genders and various age groups, showing a significant correlation. The mean VL, VW, and PD values were significantly higher in males and significantly correlated with the types of soft palate. A significant correlation was observed between the mean VL, VW, PD, and Need's ratio with various age groups, showing an inconsistent pattern with an increase in age. The types of soft palate, gender, and Need's ratio were also significantly correlated, with an overall higher mean value of the Need's ratio among female subjects and the S-shaped soft palate. The knowledge of a varied spectrum of velar morphology and the variants of the soft palate help in a better understanding of the velopharyngeal closure and craniofacial anomalies.

  1. Normal regional brain iron concentration in restless legs syndrome measured by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Knake

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Knake1, Johannes T Heverhagen2, Katja Menzler1, Boris Keil2, Wolfgang H Oertel1, Karin Stiasny-Kolster11Department of Neurology, Center of Nervous Diseases, 2Department of Radiology, Philipps University, Marburg, GermanyAbstract: Using a T2* gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI sequence, regional T2 signal intensity (SI values, a surrogate marker for T2 values, were determined in 12 regions of interest (substantia nigra, pallidum, caudate head, thalamus, occipital white matter, and frontal white matter bilaterally and in two reference regions (cerebrospinal fluid and bone in 12 patients suffering from moderate to severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS; mean age 58.5 ± 8.7 years for 12.1 ± 9.1 years and in 12 healthy control subjects (mean age 56.8 ± 10.6 years. Iron deposits shorten T2 relaxation times on T2-weighted MRI. We used regional T2* SI to estimate regional T2-values. A T2-change ratio was calculated for each region of interest relative to the reference regions. We did not find significant differences in any of the investigated brain regions. In addition, serum measures involved in iron metabolism did not correlate with T2 SI values. We could not replicate earlier findings describing reduced regional brain iron concentrations in patients with RLS. Our results do not support the view of substantially impaired regional brain iron in RLS.Keywords: restless legs syndrome, pathophysiology, iron, MRI, substantia nigra

  2. Volumetric analysis of the normal infant brain and in intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P B; Leth, H; Ring, P B

    1995-01-01

    and the volumes were determined by encircling each structure of interest on every slice. Segmentation into grey matter, white matter and CSF was done by semi-automatic discriminant analysis. Growth charts for the cerebrum, cerebellum, corpora striata, thalami, ventricles, and grey and white matter are provided...... for infants with appropriate birth weight. The striatal (P = 0.02) and thalamic (P matter to white matter (G/W-ratio) increased (P = 0.01). In the neonatal patients, brain volumes were independently associated...... growth retardation reduces grey matter volume more than white matter....

  3. Dynamics of large-scale brain activity in normal arousal states and epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Rowe, D. L.

    2002-04-01

    Links between electroencephalograms (EEGs) and underlying aspects of neurophysiology and anatomy are poorly understood. Here a nonlinear continuum model of large-scale brain electrical activity is used to analyze arousal states and their stability and nonlinear dynamics for physiologically realistic parameters. A simple ordered arousal sequence in a reduced parameter space is inferred and found to be consistent with experimentally determined parameters of waking states. Instabilities arise at spectral peaks of the major clinically observed EEG rhythms-mainly slow wave, delta, theta, alpha, and sleep spindle-with each instability zone lying near its most common experimental precursor arousal states in the reduced space. Theta, alpha, and spindle instabilities evolve toward low-dimensional nonlinear limit cycles that correspond closely to EEGs of petit mal seizures for theta instability, and grand mal seizures for the other types. Nonlinear stimulus-induced entrainment and seizures are also seen, EEG spectra and potentials evoked by stimuli are reproduced, and numerous other points of experimental agreement are found. Inverse modeling enables physiological parameters underlying observed EEGs to be determined by a new, noninvasive route. This model thus provides a single, powerful framework for quantitative understanding of a wide variety of brain phenomena.

  4. The evaluation of radioprotection with low dose CT scanning in normal rabbits brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuqing; Gong Shenchu; Wang Tianle; Shen Yunxia; Cui Lei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine wheather a lower radiation dose technique and various pitch could be used in CT of the rabbits' brain without jeopardizing the diagnostic accuracy of the images, and determine the evaluation of radioprotection with low dose CT scanning. Methods: Fifteen rabbits underwent CT using 200 mAs, 110 mAs or 70 mAs,and pitch 1.0 or 1.5. Anatomy details and the confidence level in reaching a diagnosis were evaluated by two radiologists in a double-blinded manner using a 4-point scoring system. The CTDI w of every group were compared. Results: For both reader there was no statistically significant difference between 6 group total score of 1-6 anatomical detail and each of 6 anatomical detail although score for each of 6 anatomical detail. The CTDI w of 70 mAs, in pitch 1.5 group decreased about 76.7%. Conclusion: Radiation dose reduction in brain CT is feasible in clinical use, and quality of images can be re- served. It plays an important role in radiation protection. (authors)

  5. Normal variation and long-term reproducibility of image-selected in vivo brain MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.; Porter, D.; Lowry, M.; Ayton, V.; Twelves, C.J.; Richards, M.A.; Garlick, P.; Maisey, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    MR spectroscopy of P-31 in the brain was performed with a 1.5-T MR imaging and spectroscopy system using ISIS with a 5-cm cube. A standardized spectral processing routine was adopted, and the ratios of peak areas were measured. Localized brain spectra were obtained from 17 healthy subjects, of whom ten had undergone repeated investigations after a delay of at least 1 month. The variation among healthy subjects, expressed as the mean +- standard deviation, and the long-term reproducibility, expressed as the coefficient of variation, were as follows: for peak areas phosphocreatine (PCr) Pi 2.46 +- 0.72, 21.3%, for PCr/PME, 1.97 +- 0.62, 16.8%, for PCr/PDE, 0.51 +- 0.07, 8.1%; for PCr/Υ-adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 1.13 + 0.15, 6.3%; for PCr/α-ATP, 1.09 +- 0.21, 10.3%, for PCr/β-ATP, 1.66 +- .027, 10.4%; and for pH, 7.00 +- 0.05, 0.8%

  6. Functional brain response to food images in successful adolescent weight losers compared with normal-weight and overweight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Kirwan, C Brock

    2015-03-01

    Research conducted with adults suggests that successful weight losers demonstrate greater activation in brain regions associated with executive control in response to viewing high-energy foods. No previous studies have examined these associations in adolescents. Functional neuroimaging was used to assess brain response to food images among groups of overweight (OW), normal-weight (NW), and successful weight-losing (SWL) adolescents. Eleven SWL, 12 NW, and 11 OW participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing images of high- and low-energy foods. When viewing high-energy food images, SWLs demonstrated greater activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared with OW and NW controls. Compared with NW and SWL groups, OW individuals demonstrated greater activation in the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate in response to food images. Adolescent SWLs demonstrated greater neural activation in the DLPFC compared with OW/NW controls when viewing high-energy food stimuli, which may indicate enhanced executive control. OW individuals' brain responses to food stimuli may indicate greater reward incentive processes than either SWL or NW groups. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  7. 1H MR spectroscopy of the normal human brains : comparison of automated prescan method with manual method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Suh, Chang Hae; Cho, Young Kook; Kim, Jin Hee

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate regional differences in relative metabolite ratios in the normal human brain by 1 H MR spectroscopy (MRS), and compare the spectral quality obtained by the automated prescan method (PROBE) and the manual method. A total of 61 reliable spectra were obtained by PROBE (28/34=82% success) and by the manual method (33/33=100% success). Regional differences in the spectral patterns of the five regions were clearly demonstrated by both PROBE and the manual methods. for prescanning, the manual method took slightly longer than PROBE (3-5 mins and 2 mins, respectively). There were no significant differences in spectral patterns and relative metabolic ratios between the two methods. However, auto-prescan by PROBE seemed to be very vulnerable to slight movement by patients, and in three cases, an acceptable spectrum was thus not obtained. PROBE is a highly practical and reliable method for single voxel 1 H MRS of the human brain; the two methods of prescanning do not result in significantly different spectral patterns and the relative metabolite ratios. PROBE, however, is vulnerable to slight movement by patients, and if the success rate for obtaining quality spectra is to be increased, regardless of the patient's condition and the region of the brain, it must be used in conjunction with the manual method. (author). 23 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Studies of the macroscopic and microscopic morphology (hippocampus of brain in Vencobb broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Kumar Gupta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to study the anatomy of different parts of brain and histology of hippocampus of Vencobb broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A 12 adult experimental birds were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. After separation of the brain, gross anatomy features were studied. Brain tissue was fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin for 2-3 days, and then routine dehydration process in ascending grades of ethyl alcohol was done. After xylene cleaning, paraffin impregnation was prepared. Paraffin blocks were cut, and slides were stained by Harris hematoxylin and eosin. Photography was carried out both under lower (×10 and higher (×40 magnifications. Results: The brain structure (dorsal view of Vencobb bird resembled the outline of a playing card symbol of a “spade.” The brain subdivisions are cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. Cerebrum was devoid of usual convolutions (elevations, gyri, depressions (grooves, and sulci. The cerebral hemispheres were tightly apposed along a median sulcus called interhemispheric fissure and cerebrum and cerebellum were separated by a small transverse fissure. The olfactory bulb was small structures, and the pineal body was clearly visible. The optic lobes were partially hidden under cerebral hemispheres, but laterally, it was large, prominent rounded or spherical bodies of the midbrain. The hippocampal area appeared as dorso-medial protrusion. Different types of neurons were distinguished in the hippocampus were pyramidal neurons, pyramidal-like neurons, and multipolar neurons, etc. There was rich vascularization in the form of blood capillaries throughout the hippocampus. Conclusion: Cerebrum was pear shaped and largest part of the brain. Cerebrum hemisphere was smooth devoid of convolutions, gyri, and depressions, but in the surface of cerebellum, there was the presence of a number of transverse depression (grooves and sulci subdividing into many folds. Olfactory bulb was poorly

  9. Studies of the macroscopic and microscopic morphology (hippocampus) of brain in Vencobb broiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shailesh Kumar; Behera, Kumaresh; Pradhan, C. R.; Mandal, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Kamdev; Behera, Dayanidhi; Shinde, Kuladip Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to study the anatomy of different parts of brain and histology of hippocampus of Vencobb broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A 12 adult experimental birds were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. After separation of the brain, gross anatomy features were studied. Brain tissue was fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin for 2-3 days, and then routine dehydration process in ascending grades of ethyl alcohol was done. After xylene cleaning, paraffin impregnation was prepared. Paraffin blocks were cut, and slides were stained by Harris hematoxylin and eosin. Photography was carried out both under lower (×10) and higher (×40) magnifications. Results: The brain structure (dorsal view) of Vencobb bird resembled the outline of a playing card symbol of a “spade.” The brain subdivisions are cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. Cerebrum was devoid of usual convolutions (elevations), gyri, depressions (grooves), and sulci. The cerebral hemispheres were tightly apposed along a median sulcus called interhemispheric fissure and cerebrum and cerebellum were separated by a small transverse fissure. The olfactory bulb was small structures, and the pineal body was clearly visible. The optic lobes were partially hidden under cerebral hemispheres, but laterally, it was large, prominent rounded or spherical bodies of the midbrain. The hippocampal area appeared as dorso-medial protrusion. Different types of neurons were distinguished in the hippocampus were pyramidal neurons, pyramidal-like neurons, and multipolar neurons, etc. There was rich vascularization in the form of blood capillaries throughout the hippocampus. Conclusion: Cerebrum was pear shaped and largest part of the brain. Cerebrum hemisphere was smooth devoid of convolutions, gyri, and depressions, but in the surface of cerebellum, there was the presence of a number of transverse depression (grooves) and sulci subdividing into many folds. Olfactory bulb was poorly developed

  10. [Quantitative analysis method based on fractal theory for medical imaging of normal brain development in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heheng; Luo, Liangping; Huang, Li

    2011-02-01

    The present paper is aimed to study the fractal spectrum of the cerebral computerized tomography in 158 normal infants of different age groups, based on the calculation of chaotic theory. The distribution range of neonatal period was 1.88-1.90 (mean = 1.8913 +/- 0.0064); It reached a stable condition at the level of 1.89-1.90 during 1-12 months old (mean = 1.8927 +/- 0.0045); The normal range of 1-2 years old infants was 1.86-1.90 (mean = 1.8863 +/- 4 0.0085); It kept the invariance of the quantitative value among 1.88-1.91(mean = 1.8958 +/- 0.0083) during 2-3 years of age. ANOVA indicated there's no significant difference between boys and girls (F = 0.243, P > 0.05), but the difference of age groups was significant (F = 8.947, P development.

  11. Computed tomography of the brain in the diagnosis of and prognosis in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikkelsoe, C.; Blomstrand, C.; Andersson, H.; Matousek, M.; Svendsen, P.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus were examined by CT before and after a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation. Evans ratio, periventricular hypodensity and width of hemispheric sulci, sylvian fissures, cella media, temporal horns and third and fourth ventricle were examined. Twenty-eight patients improved after the operation while 10 were unchanged (non responders). Those patients who improved had more often enlarged third ventricle, enlarged temporal horns and normal sylvian fissures than those who did not improve. No single CT parameter or combination of CT parameters alone could identify responders and non-responders. The ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation reduced ventricular size (Evans ratio, cella media width), abolished periventricular hypodensity and reduced width of the temporal horns and third ventricle in both responders and non-responders. Reduction of the width of the third ventricle correlated to clinical improvement. (orig.)

  12. Tracking Normalization of Brain Tumor Vasculature by Magnetic Imaging and Proangiogenic Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormigo, Adília; Gutin, Philip H.; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-01-01

    Clinical assessment of the response to antiangiogenic therapy has been cumbersome. A study in this issue of Cancer Cell demonstrates that a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantification of normalized vessels with measurements of circulating levels of proangiogenic factors, including FGF2, SDF1, and viable circulating endothelial cells, provides an effective means to evaluate the response of recurrent glioblastoma to a prototypical pan-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AZD2171. PMID:17222788

  13. Age-dependent changes in metabolites of the normal brain in childhood. Observation by proton MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanouchi, Miki; Harada, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Nishitani, Hiromu

    1996-01-01

    We investigated aging-dependent changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) of the normal brain in childhood, and observed differences in the four portions of the brain. Measurement by 1 H-MRS was carried out on the frontal lobe, parietotemporal lobe, temporal lobe and cerebellum. The NAA/Cho ratio increased rapidly in the period from 0 to 2 years of age in all portions except for the cerebellum, and gradually increased after three years of age. The number of measurements of the cerebellum was not sufficient to reach a conclusion, but no clear aging-related change was found. The Cho/Cr ratio decreased according to the neural development in all portions except the cerebellum. Because the T2 relaxation time of water after four years of age was almost the same as that of young adults, we used the relaxation times specified in the literature to quantify the metabolites observed by 1 H-MRS. The subjects used for quantification were aged from 4 to 12 years. The concentration of NAA in the temporal lobe was the lowest of the four portions, and that of Cho and Cr in the cerebellum was the highest in four portions. These results could not be obtained by signal ratios alone, and we considered that the quantification of metabolites is necessary for a better understanding of 1 H-MRS. This study showed that the results of 1 H-MRS vary depending on age and the portion in the brain. Our results may serve as a normal basis for the detection of pathological changes by 1 H-MRS. (author)

  14. Social networking sites use and the morphology of a social-semantic brain network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; He, Qinghua; Brevers, Damien; Bechara, Antoine

    2017-09-30

    Social lives have shifted, at least in part, for large portions of the population to social networking sites. How such lifestyle changes may be associated with brain structures is still largely unknown. In this manuscript, we describe two preliminary studies aimed at exploring this issue. The first study (n = 276) showed that Facebook users reported on increased social-semantic and mentalizing demands, and that such increases were positively associated with people's level of Facebook use. The second study (n = 33) theorized on and examined likely anatomical correlates of such changes in demands on the brain. Findings indicated that the grey matter volumes of the posterior parts of the bilateral middle and superior temporal, and left fusiform gyri were positively associated with the level of Facebook use. These results provided preliminary evidence that grey matter volumes of brain structures involved in social-semantic and mentalizing tasks may be linked to the extent of social networking sites use.

  15. Morphological brain plasticity induced by musical expertise is accompanied by modulation of functional connectivity at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Chételat, Gaël; Fouquet, Marine; Landeau, Brigitte; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Platel, Hervé

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to explore whether musical practice-related gray matter increases in brain regions are accompanied by modifications in their resting-state functional connectivity. 16 young musically experienced adults and 17 matched nonmusicians underwent an anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI). A whole-brain two-sample t test run on the T1-weighted structural images revealed four clusters exhibiting significant increases in gray matter (GM) volume in the musician group, located within the right posterior and middle cingulate gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus and right inferior orbitofrontal gyrus. Each cluster was used as a seed region to generate and compare whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity maps. The two clusters within the cingulate gyrus exhibited greater connectivity for musicians with the right prefrontal cortex and left temporal pole, which play a role in autobiographical and semantic memory, respectively. The cluster in the left superior temporal gyrus displayed enhanced connectivity with several language-related areas (e.g., left premotor cortex, bilateral supramarginal gyri). Finally, the cluster in the right inferior frontal gyrus displayed more synchronous activity at rest with claustrum, areas thought to play a role in binding sensory and motor information. We interpreted these findings as the consequence of repeated collaborative use in general networks supporting some of the memory, perceptual-motor and emotional features of musical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Georg N. Koskinas (1885-1975) and his scientific contributions to the normal and pathological anatomy of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2005-12-30

    Georg N. Koskinas is invariably recognised by neuroanatomists as Constantin von Economo's co-author on the celebrated Die Cytoarchitektonik der Hirnrinde des erwachsenen Menschen, published 80 years ago in Vienna and Berlin. That text and Atlas are generally accepted as a monumental landmark in the evolution of morphological brain research. A number of neuroanatomists and neurophysiologists continue to use to this day the parcellation scheme of the cerebral cortex into 107 areas, proposed by von Economo and Koskinas (and logically denoted by alphabetical characters from the initials of the respective lobes), despite the commoner adoption of Brodmann's scheme of 52, randomly numbered, areas. Several works have been written about the life and work of von Economo; on the other hand, virtually nothing can be found in the biomedical literature about Koskinas. This study aims at posthumously restoring part of the fame due this illustrious man of 20th century science -- and giant figure of brain anatomy -- whom history has not treated in the fairest of ways. We present newly gathered biographical data, as well as lesser known aspects of his scientific productivity. Koskinas' neuropathological studies, in collaboration with Ernst Sträussler -- of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease fame -- include findings from patients inoculated with malaria as a form of therapy for progressive general paresis (research related to psychiatrist Wagner von Jauregg's 1927 Nobel Prize), colloid degeneration, and the laminar distribution of status spongiosus lesions. Koskinas' neuropsychiatric activities in Greece upon his return from Vienna in 1927, and until his parting in 1975, are further related, including his successful -- and "Hippocratic" -- practice in the suburbs of Athens, his association with the Vogt Institute for Brain Research at Neustadt, and lesser known neuroanatomical works.

  17. Global developmental gene expression and pathway analysis of normal brain development and mouse models of human neuronal migration defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Pramparo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterozygous LIS1 mutations are the most common cause of human lissencephaly, a human neuronal migration defect, and DCX mutations are the most common cause of X-linked lissencephaly. LIS1 is part of a protein complex including NDEL1 and 14-3-3ε that regulates dynein motor function and microtubule dynamics, while DCX stabilizes microtubules and cooperates with LIS1 during neuronal migration and neurogenesis. Targeted gene mutations of Lis1, Dcx, Ywhae (coding for 14-3-3ε, and Ndel1 lead to neuronal migration defects in mouse and provide models of human lissencephaly, as well as aid the study of related neuro-developmental diseases. Here we investigated the developing brain of these four mutants and wild-type mice using expression microarrays, bioinformatic analyses, and in vivo/in vitro experiments to address whether mutations in different members of the LIS1 neuronal migration complex lead to similar and/or distinct global gene expression alterations. Consistent with the overall successful development of the mutant brains, unsupervised clustering and co-expression analysis suggested that cell cycle and synaptogenesis genes are similarly expressed and co-regulated in WT and mutant brains in a time-dependent fashion. By contrast, focused co-expression analysis in the Lis1 and Ndel1 mutants uncovered substantial differences in the correlation among pathways. Differential expression analysis revealed that cell cycle, cell adhesion, and cytoskeleton organization pathways are commonly altered in all mutants, while synaptogenesis, cell morphology, and inflammation/immune response are specifically altered in one or more mutants. We found several commonly dysregulated genes located within pathogenic deletion/duplication regions, which represent novel candidates of human mental retardation and neurocognitive disabilities. Our analysis suggests that gene expression and pathway analysis in mouse models of a similar disorder or within a common pathway can

  18. A method for detecting nonlinear determinism in normal and epileptic brain EEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghdadi, Amir H; Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Aghakhani, Yahya

    2007-01-01

    A robust method of detecting determinism for short time series is proposed and applied to both healthy and epileptic EEG signals. The method provides a robust measure of determinism through characterizing the trajectories of the signal components which are obtained through singular value decomposition. Robustness of the method is shown by calculating proposed index of determinism at different levels of white and colored noise added to a simulated chaotic signal. The method is shown to be able to detect determinism at considerably high levels of additive noise. The method is then applied to both intracranial and scalp EEG recordings collected in different data sets for healthy and epileptic brain signals. The results show that for all of the studied EEG data sets there is enough evidence of determinism. The determinism is more significant for intracranial EEG recordings particularly during seizure activity.

  19. [Intensity of pentose phosphate metabolism of carbohydrates in various brain areas in normal and starved animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimov, B F

    2002-01-01

    The activities of key enzymes of pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6 PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD), were studied in cytoplasmatic fractions of brain cortical (limbic, orbital, sensorimotor cortex) and subcortical (myelencefalon, mesencefalon, hypothalamus) structures of rats subjected to starvation for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days. Short-term starvation (1-3 days) caused activation of 6-GPD and 6-PGD both in cortical and subcortical structures. Long-term starvation for 5-7 days caused a decrease of activities of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes in all studied structures. It is suggested that enzymes of pentose phosphate pathway in nervous tissues are functionally and metabolically related to glutathione system and during starvation they indirectly participate in the regulation lipid peroxidation processes.

  20. Comparison of waxy and normal potato starch remaining granules after chemical surface gelatinization: Pasting behavior and surface morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Chen Zenghong,; Xu, Yalun; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Shuxing; Yang, Daqing; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    o understand the contribution of granule inner portion to the pasting property of starch, waxy potato starch and two normal potato starches and their acetylated starch samples were subjected to chemical surface gelatinization by 3.8 mol/L CaCl2 to obtain remaining granules. Native and acetylated,

  1. Effect of the Mediterranean diet on cognition and brain morphology and function: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radd-Vagenas, Sue; Duffy, Shantel L; Naismith, Sharon L; Brew, Bruce J; Flood, Victoria M; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2018-03-01

    Observational studies of the Mediterranean diet suggest cognitive benefits, potentially reducing dementia risk. We performed the first published review to our knowledge of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating Mediterranean diet effects on cognition or brain morphology and function, with an additional focus on intervention diet quality and its relation to "traditional" Mediterranean dietary patterns. We searched 9 databases from inception (final update December 2017) for RCTs testing a Mediterranean compared with alternate diet for cognitive or brain morphology and function outcomes. Analyses were based on 66 cognitive tests and 1 brain function outcome from 5 included studies (n = 1888 participants). The prescribed Mediterranean diets varied considerably between studies, particularly with regards to quantitative food advice. Only 8/66 (12.1%) of individual cognitive outcomes at trial level significantly favored a Mediterranean diet for cognitive performance, with effect sizes (ESs) ranging from small (0.32) to large (1.66), whereas 2 outcomes favored controls. Data limitations precluded a meta-analysis. Of 8 domain composite cognitive scores from 2 studies, the 3 (Memory, Frontal, and Global function) from PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) were significant, with ESs ranging from 0.39 to 1.29. A posttest comparison at a second PREDIMED site found that the Mediterranean diet modulates the effect of several genotypes associated with dementia risk for some cognitive outcomes, with mixed results. Finally, the risk of low-plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor was reduced by 78% (OR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.90) in those who consumed a Mediterranean diet compared to control diet at 3 y in this trial. There was no benefit of the Mediterranean diet for incident cognitive impairment or dementia. Five RCTs of the Mediterranean diet and cognition have been published to date. The data are mostly nonsignificant, with small ESs. However, the

  2. Profound morphological changes in the erythrocytes and fibrin networks of patients with hemochromatosis or with hyperferritinemia, and their normalization by iron chelators and other agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etheresia Pretorius

    Full Text Available It is well-known that individuals with increased iron levels are more prone to thrombotic diseases, mainly due to the presence of unliganded iron, and thereby the increased production of hydroxyl radicals. It is also known that erythrocytes (RBCs may play an important role during thrombotic events. Therefore the purpose of the current study was to assess whether RBCs had an altered morphology in individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH, as well as some who displayed hyperferritinemia (HF. Using scanning electron microscopy, we also assessed means by which the RBC and fibrin morphology might be normalized. An important objective was to test the hypothesis that the altered RBC morphology was due to the presence of excess unliganded iron by removing it through chelation. Very striking differences were observed, in that the erythrocytes from HH and HF individuals were distorted and had a much greater axial ratio compared to that accompanying the discoid appearance seen in the normal samples. The response to thrombin, and the appearance of a platelet-rich plasma smear, were also markedly different. These differences could largely be reversed by the iron chelator desferal and to some degree by the iron chelator clioquinol, or by the free radical trapping agents salicylate or selenite (that may themselves also be iron chelators. These findings are consistent with the view that the aberrant morphology of the HH and HF erythrocytes is caused, at least in part, by unliganded ('free' iron, whether derived directly via raised ferritin levels or otherwise, and that lowering it or affecting the consequences of its action may be of therapeutic benefit. The findings also bear on the question of the extent to which accepting blood donations from HH individuals may be desirable or otherwise.

  3. Evaluation of MRI and cannabinoid type 1 receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL for spatial normalization of rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronfeld, Andrea; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Maus, Stephan; Reuss, Stefan; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Miederer, Isabelle; Lutz, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Five male Sprague Dawley rats were investigated for template construction using MRI and [ 18 F]MK-9470 PET for CB1 receptor representation. PET images were reconstructed using the algorithms filtered back-projection, ordered subset expectation maximization in 2D, and maximum a posteriori in 3D. Landmarks were defined on each MR image, and templates were constructed under different settings, i.e., based on different tissue class images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and GM + WM] and regularization forms (“linear elastic energy,” “membrane energy,” and “bending energy”). Registration accuracy for MRI and PET templates was evaluated by means of the distance between landmark coordinates. Results: The best MRI template was constructed based on gray and white matter images and the regularization form linear elastic energy. In this case, most distances between landmark coordinates were <1 mm. Accordingly, MRI-based spatial normalization was most accurate, but results of the PET-based spatial normalization were quite comparable. Conclusions: Image registration using DARTEL provides a standardized and automatic framework for small animal brain data analysis. The authors were able to show that this method works with high reliability and validity. Using DARTEL templates

  4. Evaluation of MRI and cannabinoid type 1 receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL for spatial normalization of rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronfeld, Andrea; Müller-Forell, Wibke [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Maus, Stephan; Reuss, Stefan; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Miederer, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.miederer@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Lutz, Beat [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, Mainz 55128 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Five male Sprague Dawley rats were investigated for template construction using MRI and [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 PET for CB1 receptor representation. PET images were reconstructed using the algorithms filtered back-projection, ordered subset expectation maximization in 2D, and maximum a posteriori in 3D. Landmarks were defined on each MR image, and templates were constructed under different settings, i.e., based on different tissue class images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and GM + WM] and regularization forms (“linear elastic energy,” “membrane energy,” and “bending energy”). Registration accuracy for MRI and PET templates was evaluated by means of the distance between landmark coordinates. Results: The best MRI template was constructed based on gray and white matter images and the regularization form linear elastic energy. In this case, most distances between landmark coordinates were <1 mm. Accordingly, MRI-based spatial normalization was most accurate, but results of the PET-based spatial normalization were quite comparable. Conclusions: Image registration using DARTEL provides a standardized and automatic framework for small animal brain data analysis. The authors were able to show that this method works with high reliability and validity. Using DARTEL

  5. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Brain and hypophysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberer, S.; Assouline, A.; Mazeron, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Anticancer treatments-induced central nervous system neurotoxicity has become a major problem in recent years. Real advances in therapeutic results for cancer treatments have improved patients survival. Nowadays, central nervous system radiation therapy is widely prescribed, both for palliative and curative treatments in the management of malignant or benign tumors. Recent data on tolerance of normal central nervous system to radiation therapy are reviewed here, early and delayed radiation-induced effects are described and dose recommendations are suggested for clinical practice. (authors)

  6. Envelhecimento cerebral: o problema dos limites entre o normal e o patológico Brain ageing: problems of differential diagnosis between normal and pathologic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENITO PEREIRA DAMASCENO

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O autor relata três casos de pseudodemência e discute o problema dos limites entre o normal e o patológico no sujeito idoso. O envelhecimento cerebral acompanha-se de alterações mentais e neuropatológicas superponíveis às da demência de Alzheimer (DA, levando a problemas de diagnóstico diferencial. Ainda não existe um marcador biológico seguro de DA e os testes psicométricos podem dar resultados falso-positivos ou falso-negativos. No idoso normal, o declínio da memória operacional e memória secundária é maior que o das memórias primária e terciária, de modo similar ao encontrado nas fases iniciais da DA. Os testes de evocação retardada de lista de palavras, memória lógica, pensamento categórico, destreza visuo-motora-espacial e o Teste de Nomeação de Boston têm sido apontados como os mais discriminativos entre demência incipiente e normalidade. Na neuroimagem, os achados de atrofia ou hipoperfusão em regiões entorrinais-hipocampais ou temporo-parietais são sugestivos de DA, mas podem estar ausentes nas fases iniciais desta doença. O autor conclui sugerindo passos decisivos para o diagnóstico diferencial: avaliação neuropsicológica e comportamental abrangente (com levantamento do nível pré-mórbido de funcionamento cognitivo e sócio-ocupacional do paciente, bem como exames laboratoriais e de neuroimagem; e, se preciso, reavaliação após 4 a 6 meses, para verificar a consistência dos achados.The author reports three cases of pseudodementia and discuss the difficulties in establishing limits between normality and illness in the elderly. The mental and neuropathological changes that accompany the normal ageing of the brain are similar to those of early Alzheimer's dementia (AD. These similarities often lead to difficulties in the differential diagnosis, hence the search for consensus criteria. The decline of working and secondary memory is greater than that of primary and tertiary memory, as is found in AD

  7. Brain morphological changes in adolescent and adult patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, J; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Konrad, K

    2016-08-01

    Gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume loss occur in the brains of patients with acute anorexia nervosa (AN) and improve again upon weight restoration. Adolescence is an important time period for AN to begin. However, little is known about the differences between brain changes in adolescents vs adults. We used a meta-analysis and a qualitative review of all MRI studies regarding acute structural brain volume changes and their recovery in adolescents and adults with AN. 29 studies with 473 acute, 121 short-term weight-recovered and 255 long-term recovered patients with AN were included in the meta-analysis. In acute AN, GM and WM were reduced compared to healthy controls. Acute adolescent patients showed a significantly greater GM reduction than adults (-8.4 vs -3.1 %), the difference in WM (-4.0 vs -2.1 %) did not reach significance. Short-term weight-recovered patients showed a remaining GM deficit of 3.6 % and a non-significant WM reduction of 0.9 % with no age differences. Following 1.5-8 years of remission, GM and WM were no longer significantly reduced in adults (GM -0.4 %, WM -0.7 %); long-term studies for adolescents were scarce. The qualitative review showed that GM volume loss was correlated with cognitive deficits and three studies found GM regions, cerebellar deficits and WM to be predictive of outcome. GM and WM are strongly reduced in acute AN and even more pronounced in adolescence. Long-term recovery appears to be complete for adults while no conclusions can be drawn for adolescents, thus caution remains.

  8. Morphological and pathological evolution of the brain microcirculation in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Hunter

    Full Text Available Key pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD, including amyloid plaques, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA and neurofibrillary tangles do not completely account for cognitive impairment, therefore other factors such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathologies, may contribute to AD. In order to elucidate the microvascular changes that contribute to aging and disease, direct neuropathological staining and immunohistochemistry, were used to quantify the structural integrity of the microvasculature and its innervation in three oldest-old cohorts: 1 nonagenarians with AD and a high amyloid plaque load; 2 nonagenarians with no dementia and a high amyloid plaque load; 3 nonagenarians without dementia or amyloid plaques. In addition, a non-demented (ND group (average age 71 years with no amyloid plaques was included for comparison. While gray matter thickness and overall brain mass were reduced in AD compared to ND control groups, overall capillary density was not different. However, degenerated string capillaries were elevated in AD, potentially suggesting greater microvascular "dysfunction" compared to ND groups. Intriguingly, apolipoprotein ε4 carriers had significantly higher string vessel counts relative to non-ε4 carriers. Taken together, these data suggest a concomitant loss of functional capillaries and brain volume in AD subjects. We also demonstrated a trend of decreasing vesicular acetylcholine transporter staining, a marker of cortical cholinergic afferents that contribute to arteriolar vasoregulation, in AD compared to ND control groups, suggesting impaired control of vasodilation in AD subjects. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of noradrenergic vascular innervation, was reduced which may also contribute to a loss of control of vasoconstriction. The data highlight the importance of the brain microcirculation in the pathogenesis and evolution of AD.

  9. Normal myelination of the child brain on MRI - a meta-analysis; Die normale Myelinisierung des kindlichen Gehirns in der MRT - eine Metaanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, M.; Grodd, W. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Kraegeloh-Mann, I. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Entwicklungsneurologie und Neuropaediatrie

    2000-10-01

    Purpose: To establish age limits for the assessment of normal myelination of the brain on T{sub 1}-weighted (T{sub 1}w) and T{sub 2}-weighted (T{sub 2}w) images. Method: Comparison of previous publications (Barkovich et al. 1988, Grodd 1993, Hayakawa et al. 1990, Hittmair et al. 1994, Martin et al. 1988/1990/1991, Nakagawa et al. 1998, Staudt et al. 1993/1994, Stricker et al. 1990). Results: Despite technical and methodological differences, these studies principally agreed on the timing of myelination for most regions of the brain. Thus, a common timetable could be established: At 1 month, myelin is visible on both T{sub 1}w and T{sub 2}w in the medulla oblongata, tegmentum pontis, cerebellar peduncles and vermis, quadrigeminal plate, decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles, thalamus, posterior limb of internal capsule, optic radiation, corona radiata. Thereafter, the myelin-typical signal in the different regions of the brain should be present at the following ages (M=months): Anterior limb of internal capsule (2 M: T{sub 1}w; 7 M: T{sub 2}w), splenium of corpus callosum (4 M: T{sub 1}w; 6 M: T{sub 2}w), genu of corpus callosum (6 M: T{sub 1}w; 8 M: T{sub 2}w), centrum semiovale (2 M: T{sub 1}w; 7 M: T{sub 2}w). Branching of myelin into the gyri of the telencephalon (=arborization) appears at the latest at: occipital lobe (5 M: T{sub 1}w; 12 M: T{sub 2}w) and frontal lobe (7 M: T{sub 1}w; 14 M: T{sub 2}w). Conclusion: These extracted age limits can be used for a more reliable assessment of myelination than the time-tables from a single study. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Ermittlung von Altersgrenzen fuer die MR-tomographisch erfassbare Myelinisierung des kindlichen Gehirns in T{sub 1}- und T{sub 2}-gewichteten Aufnahmen (T{sub 1}w, T{sub 2}w). Methode: Vergleich bisher publizierter Zeitangaben (Barkovich et al 1988, Grodd 1993, Hayakawa et al 1990, Hittmair et al 1994, Martin et al 1988/1990/1991, Nakagawa et al 1998, Staudt et al 1993/1994, Stricker et al 1990

  10. A triple network connectivity study of large-scale brain systems in cognitively normal APOE4 carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The triple network model, consisting of the central executive network, salience network and default mode network, has been recently employed to understand dysfunction in core networks across various disorders. Here we used the triple network model to investigate the large-scale brain networks in cognitively normal APOE4 carriers who are at risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. To explore the functional connectivity for each of the three networks and the effective connectivity among them, we evaluated 17 cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD and at least one copy of the apolipoprotein e4 (APOE4 allele and compared the findings to those of 12 individuals who did not carry the APOE4 gene or have a family history of AD, using independent component analysis and Bayesian network approach. Our findings indicated altered within-network connectivity that suggests future cognitive decline risk, and preserved between-network connectivity that may support their current preserved cognition in the cognitively normal APOE4 allele carries. The study provides novel sights into our understanding of the risk factors for AD and their influence on the triple network model of major psychopathology.

  11. SU-E-J-212: MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessment of Tumor and Normal Brain Tissue Responses of Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma Treated by Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, P; Park, P; Li, H; Zhu, X; Mahajan, A; Grosshans, D [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can measure molecular mobility at the cellular level, quantified by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI may also reveal axonal fiber directional information in the white matter, quantified by the fractional anisotropy (FA). Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is a rare brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. Proton therapy (PT) is increasingly used in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors including JPA. However, the response of both tumors and normal tissues to PT is currently under investigation. We report tumor and normal brain tissue responses for a pediatric case of JPA treated with PT assessed using DTI. Methods: A ten year old male with JPA of the left thalamus received passive scattered PT to a dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in 28 fractions. Post PT, the patient has been followed up in seven years. At each follow up, MRI imaging including DTI was performed to assess response. MR images were registered to the treatment planning CT and the GTV mapped onto each MRI. The GTV contour was then mirrored to the right side of brain through the patient’s middle line to represent normal brain tissue. ADC and FA were measured within the ROIs. Results: Proton therapy can completely spare contra lateral brain while the target volume received full prescribed dose. From a series of MRI ADC images before and after PT at different follow ups, the enhancement corresponding to GTV had nearly disappeared more than 2 years after PT. Both ADC and FA demonstrate that contralateral normal brain tissue were not affect by PT and the tumor volume reverted to normal ADC and FA values. Conclusion: DTI allowed quantitative evaluation of tumor and normal brain tissue responses to PT. Further study in a larger cohort is warranted.

  12. SU-E-J-212: MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessment of Tumor and Normal Brain Tissue Responses of Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma Treated by Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, P; Park, P; Li, H; Zhu, X; Mahajan, A; Grosshans, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can measure molecular mobility at the cellular level, quantified by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI may also reveal axonal fiber directional information in the white matter, quantified by the fractional anisotropy (FA). Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is a rare brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. Proton therapy (PT) is increasingly used in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors including JPA. However, the response of both tumors and normal tissues to PT is currently under investigation. We report tumor and normal brain tissue responses for a pediatric case of JPA treated with PT assessed using DTI. Methods: A ten year old male with JPA of the left thalamus received passive scattered PT to a dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in 28 fractions. Post PT, the patient has been followed up in seven years. At each follow up, MRI imaging including DTI was performed to assess response. MR images were registered to the treatment planning CT and the GTV mapped onto each MRI. The GTV contour was then mirrored to the right side of brain through the patient’s middle line to represent normal brain tissue. ADC and FA were measured within the ROIs. Results: Proton therapy can completely spare contra lateral brain while the target volume received full prescribed dose. From a series of MRI ADC images before and after PT at different follow ups, the enhancement corresponding to GTV had nearly disappeared more than 2 years after PT. Both ADC and FA demonstrate that contralateral normal brain tissue were not affect by PT and the tumor volume reverted to normal ADC and FA values. Conclusion: DTI allowed quantitative evaluation of tumor and normal brain tissue responses to PT. Further study in a larger cohort is warranted

  13. Fibrillarin, a nucleolar protein, is required for normal nuclear morphology and cellular growth in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Mohammed Abdullahel; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Ma, Nan; Takata, Hideaki; Yokoyama, Masami; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2007-01-01

    Fibrillarin is a key small nucleolar protein in eukaryotes, which has an important role in pre-rRNA processing during ribosomal biogenesis. Though several functions of fibrillarin are known, its function during the cell cycle is still unknown. In this study, we confirmed the dynamic localization of fibrillarin during the cell cycle of HeLa cells and also performed functional studies by using a combination of immunofluorescence microscopy and RNAi technique. We observed that depletion of fibrillarin has almost no effect on the nucleolar structure. However, fibrillarin-depleted cells showed abnormal nuclear morphology. Moreover, fibrillarin depletion resulted in the reduction of the cellular growth and modest accumulation of cells with 4n DNA content. Our data suggest that fibrillarin would play a critical role in the maintenance of nuclear shape and cellular growth

  14. Biphasic and region-specific MAO-B response to aging in normal human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, J; Andrés, N; Andrade, C; Ojuel, J; Eriksson, K; Mahy, N

    1997-01-01

    Variations of monoamine oxidases (MAO) A and B were studied during aging in 27 human subjects (age range 17-93 years) in 18 brain structures of temporal cortex, frontal gyrus, hippocampal formation, striatum, cerebellum, and brainstem. [3H]Ro41-1049 and [3H]lazabemide were used as selective radioligands to image and quantify MAO-A and MAO-B respectively by enzyme autoradiography. Postmortem delay or time of tissue storage did not affect MAO-A or MAO-B levels. There was, moreover, no evidence of sexual dimorphism. A marked age-related increase in MAO-B was observed in most structures. This increase started at the age of 50-60 years. Before this age, MAO-B levels were constant in all structures studied. MAO-B-rich senile plaques were observed in some cortical areas but they did not significantly influence the age-related MAO-B increase. Surprisingly, no age-related MAO-B changes were observed in the substantia nigra. In contrast to MAO-B, no clear age-related changes in MAO-A were observed, indicating an independent regulation of the two isoenzymes, also suggested by the cross-correlation analysis of these data.

  15. Increased CD147 and MMP-9 expression in the normal rat brain after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Wei Ming; Li Shenghui; Zhou Ziwei; Xu Desheng

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced vascular injury is a major complication of Gamma knife surgery (GKS). Previous studies have shown that CD147 and MMP-9 are closely associated with vascular remodeling and pathological angiogenesis. Thus, we analysed changes in CD147 and MMP-9 expression in the cerebral cortex to investigate the correlation between CD147 and MMP-9 in the rat following GKS. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to GKS at a maximum dose of 75 Gy and then euthanized 1 to 12 weeks later. Using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, we found that CD147 and MMP-9 expression were markedly upregulated in the target area 8-12 weeks after GKS when compared with the control group. Immunofluorescent double staining demonstrated that CD147 signals colocalized with CD31, GFAP and MMP-9-positive cells. Importantly, CD147 levels correlated with increased MMP-9 expression in irradiated brain tissue. For the first time, these data demonstrate a potential relationship between CD147 and MMP-9 following GKS. In addition, our study also suggests that CD147 and MMP-9 may play a role in vascular injury after GKS. (author)

  16. Intra- and interhemispheric variations of diffusivity in subcortical white matter in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Nagao, Eiki; Kamano, Hironori; Honda, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose was to reveal potential regional variations in water molecular diffusivity within each cerebral hemisphere and across the right and left hemispheres. Diffusion-weighted images of 44 healthy right-handed adult male subjects were obtained using a diffusion tensor imaging sequence. Mean diffusivity (MD) values in subcortical white matter (WM) within 39 regions in each hemisphere were measured using an automated method. Intrahemispheric comparisons of MDs in subcortical WM were performed among six brain regions (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes and pre- and postcentral gyri). Interhemispheric comparisons of MDs were performed between the right and left counterparts of the 39 regions. In both hemispheres, diffusivity in the precentral gyrus was lower than those in other regions, while diffusivity in the parietal lobe was higher than others. MD asymmetry in which the left was lower than the right was found in the parietal lobe, middle occipital gyrus, and medial and orbital aspects of the frontal lobe. The converse asymmetry was revealed in the frontal operculum, supplementary motor cortex, temporal lobe, limbic cortices, precuneus and cuneus. Our results revealed significant intra- and interhemispheric regional variations in MD in subcortical WM, which may be related to different densities of axons and myelin sheaths. (orig.)

  17. Intra- and interhemispheric variations of diffusivity in subcortical white matter in normal human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Nagao, Eiki; Kamano, Hironori; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    Our purpose was to reveal potential regional variations in water molecular diffusivity within each cerebral hemisphere and across the right and left hemispheres. Diffusion-weighted images of 44 healthy right-handed adult male subjects were obtained using a diffusion tensor imaging sequence. Mean diffusivity (MD) values in subcortical white matter (WM) within 39 regions in each hemisphere were measured using an automated method. Intrahemispheric comparisons of MDs in subcortical WM were performed among six brain regions (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes and pre- and postcentral gyri). Interhemispheric comparisons of MDs were performed between the right and left counterparts of the 39 regions. In both hemispheres, diffusivity in the precentral gyrus was lower than those in other regions, while diffusivity in the parietal lobe was higher than others. MD asymmetry in which the left was lower than the right was found in the parietal lobe, middle occipital gyrus, and medial and orbital aspects of the frontal lobe. The converse asymmetry was revealed in the frontal operculum, supplementary motor cortex, temporal lobe, limbic cortices, precuneus and cuneus. Our results revealed significant intra- and interhemispheric regional variations in MD in subcortical WM, which may be related to different densities of axons and myelin sheaths. (orig.)

  18. Mice lacking glutamate carboxypeptidase II develop normally, but are less susceptible to traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Xu, Siyi; Cui, Zhenwen; Zhang, Mingkun; Lin, Yingying; Cai, Lei; Wang, Zhugang; Luo, Xingguang; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Yong; Luo, Qizhong; Jiang, Jiyao; Neale, Joseph H; Zhong, Chunlong

    2015-07-01

    Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is a transmembrane zinc metallopeptidase found mainly in the nervous system, prostate and small intestine. In the nervous system, glia-bound GCPII mediates the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) into glutamate and N-acetylaspartate. Inhibition of GCPII has been shown to attenuate excitotoxicity associated with enhanced glutamate transmission under pathological conditions. However, different strains of mice lacking the GCPII gene are reported to exhibit striking phenotypic differences. In this study, a GCPII gene knockout (KO) strategy involved removing exons 3-5 of GCPII. This generated a new GCPII KO mice line with no overt differences in standard neurological behavior compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates. However, GCPII KO mice were significantly less susceptible to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). GCPII gene KO significantly lessened neuronal degeneration and astrocyte damage in the CA2 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus 24 h after moderate TBI. In addition, GCPII gene KO reduced TBI-induced deficits in long-term spatial learning/memory tested in the Morris water maze and motor balance tested via beam walking. Knockout of the GCPII gene is not embryonic lethal and affords histopathological protection with improved long-term behavioral outcomes after TBI, a result that further validates GCPII as a target for drug development consistent with results from studies using GCPII peptidase inhibitors. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Histopathological investigation of radiation necrosis. Coagulation necrosis in the irradiated and non-irradiated brain tumors and in the normal brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Brain Research Inst.

    1977-01-01

    Eighty four irradiated tumors (including 59 gliomas) and the surrounding brain tissue were analyzed. In 'normal' brain tissue, typical coagulation necrosis attributable to irradiation was observed in the cerebral white matter, presenting a whitish-yellow color but no remarkable changes in volume. Histologically there was complete desintegration of myelin and axon. Vascular changes included hyalinous thickening, concentric cleavage, fibrinoid degeneration, adventitial fibrosis and edema of small arteries, fibrin thrombi or occlusion of arterioles and capillaries, and telangiectasia of small veins and venules. While other tumors showed hyalinous or fibrous scar tissue and decrease in volume, the gliomas maintained their original volume without residual tumor cells. Massive coagulation necrosis was occasionally found even in full volume, non-irradiated gliomas (controls), although the changes were fewer and not so varied as in typical radiation necrosis. With small dosages, it was difficult to judge whether the necrosis was caused by irradiation or occurred spontaneously. Coagulation necrosis in tumor tissue was found in 25 of 59 cases (42%) of irradiated gliomas, but in only 2 of 49 cases (4%) of the nonirradiated gliomas. In 49 cases no coagulation necrosis of the surrounding tissue was found. Although histopathological judgement is difficult, it is suggested that there is a significant correlation between coagulation necrosis and irradiation. Discussion of the relationship between coagulation necrosis and NSD (nominal standard dose) led to the conclusion that coagulation necrosis will not be caused by irradiation of less than 1400 rets in NSD.

  20. Virtual endocranial cast of earliest Eocene Diacodexis (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) and morphological diversity of early artiodactyl brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orliac, M. J.; Gilissen, E.

    2012-01-01

    The study of brain evolution, particularly that of the neocortex, is of primary interest because it directly relates to how behavioural variations arose both between and within mammalian groups. Artiodactyla is one of the most diverse mammalian clades. However, the first 10 Myr of their brain evolution has remained undocumented so far. Here, we used high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to investigate the endocranial cast of Diacodexis ilicis of earliest Eocene age. Its virtual reconstruction provides unprecedented access to both metric parameters and fine anatomy of the most complete endocast of the earliest artiodactyl. This picture is assessed in a broad comparative context by reconstructing endocasts of 14 other Early and Middle Eocene representatives of basal artiodactyls, allowing the tracking of the neocortical structure of artiodactyls back to its simplest pattern. We show that the earliest artiodactyls share a simple neocortical pattern, so far never observed in other ungulates, with an almond-shaped gyrus instead of parallel sulci as previously hypothesized. Our results demonstrate that artiodactyls experienced a tardy pulse of encephalization during the Late Neogene, well after the onset of cortical complexity increase. Comparisons with Eocene perissodactyls show that the latter reached a high level of cortical complexity earlier than the artiodactyls. PMID:22764165

  1. Brain parenchymal density measurements by CT in demented subjects and normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, M.; Danziger, W.L.; Chi, D.; Hughes, C.P.; Coben, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Parachymal density measurements of 14 regions of gray and white matter from each cerebral hemisphere were made from CT scans of 25 subjects who had varying degrees of dementia as measured by a global Clinical Dementia Rating, and also from CT scans of 33 normal control subjects. There were few significant differences between the two groups in the mean density value for each of the regions examined, although several individual psychometric tests did correlate with density changes. Moreover, for six regions in the cerebral cortex, and for one region in the thalamus of each hemisphere, we found no significant correlation between the gray-white matter density difference and dementia. There was, however, a loss of the discriminability between the gray and white matter with an increase in the size of the ventricles. These findings may be attributed to the loss of white matter volume

  2. Uninstructed BIAT faking when ego depleted or in normal state: differential effect on brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Wanja; Schindler, Sebastian; Englert, Christoph; Brand, Ralf; Kissler, Johanna

    2016-05-03

    Deception can distort psychological tests on socially sensitive topics. Understanding the cerebral processes that are involved in such faking can be useful in detection and prevention of deception. Previous research shows that faking a brief implicit association test (BIAT) evokes a characteristic ERP response. It is not yet known whether temporarily available self-control resources moderate this response. We randomly assigned 22 participants (15 females, 24.23 ± 2.91 years old) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design. Participants first completed a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on doping attitudes as a baseline measure and were then instructed to fake a negative doping attitude both when self-control resources were depleted and non-depleted. Cerebral activity during BIAT performance was assessed using high-density EEG. Compared to the baseline BIAT, event-related potentials showed a first interaction at the parietal P1, while significant post hoc differences were found only at the later occurring late positive potential. Here, significantly decreased amplitudes were recorded for 'normal' faking, but not in the depletion condition. In source space, enhanced activity was found for 'normal' faking in the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Behaviorally, participants were successful in faking the BIAT successfully in both conditions. Results indicate that temporarily available self-control resources do not affect overt faking success on a BIAT. However, differences were found on an electrophysiological level. This indicates that while on a phenotypical level self-control resources play a negligible role in deliberate test faking the underlying cerebral processes are markedly different.

  3. Morphological transitions of brain sphingomyelin are determined by the hydration protocol: ripples re-arrange in plane, and sponge-like networks disintegrate into small vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, H W; Bunjes, H; Ulrich, A S

    1999-06-01

    The phase transition of hydrated brain sphingomyelin occurs at around 35 degrees C, which is close to the physiological temperature. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy is used to characterize different gel state morphologies in terms of solid-ordered and liquid-ordered phase states, according to the occurrence of ripples and other higher-dimensional bilayer deformations. Evidently, the natural mixed-chain sphingomyelin does not assume the flat L beta, phase but instead the rippled P beta, phase, with symmetric and asymmetric ripples as well as macroripples and an egg-carton pattern, depending on the incubation conditions. An unexpected difference was observed between samples that are hydrated above and below the phase transition temperature. When the lipid is hydrated at low temperature, a sponge-like network of bilayers is formed in the gel state, next to some normal lamellae. The network loses its ripples during cold-incubation, which indicates the formation of a liquid-ordered (lo) gel phase. Ripples re-appear upon warming and the sponge-like network disintegrates spontaneously and irreversibly into small vesicles above the phase transition.

  4. High b-value diffusion-weighted MR imaging of normal brain at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cihangiroglu, Mutlu; Ulug, Aziz Muefit; Firat, Zeynep; Bayram, Ali; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Kovanlikaya, Ilhami

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the normative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values at 3 T using high b-value (3000 s/mm 2 ) diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and compare the signal characteristics of the high b value with standard b-value (1000 s/mm 2 ) DWI. Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this prospective study which included 20 volunteers (10 M, 10 F, mean age: 38.7 ± 14.9) without any known clinical disease or radiological findings. All brain examinations were performed with 3 T MR by using similar parameters of b1000 and b3000 DWI sequences. DWI and ADC maps were obtained. Signal intensity, noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR), contrast to noise (CNR), contrast ratio (CR), and ADC values of bilateral posterior limb of internal capsule, frontal white matter, parietal gray matter, pons, thalamus, splenium of corpus callosum were measured on b1000 and b3000 DW images. Results: In all anatomic locations, MR signal intensity, SNR and ADC values of b3000 images were significantly lower than MR signal intensity, SNR and ADC values of b1000 images (p < 0.001). The CNR and CR values at the posterior limb of internal capsule and pons were significantly increased on b3000 images (p < 0.001) and decreased in the other regions measured. Conclusion: The ADC values calculated from standard b-value DWI were significantly higher than those calculated from high b-value DWI. These results agree with the previous studies. In the regions where CNR values increase with high b value, b3000 DWI images may provide additional clinical information.

  5. Comparative analysis of morphological and topometric parameters of lumbar spine in normal state and in degenerative-dystrophic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisimova Е.А.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to carry out comparative analysis and identify patterns of topographic variation patterns of lumbar spine in normal and degenerative changes. Material and methods. CT- and MRT-grams for men and women I (M1-22-35 years; W — 21-35 years and II (M2-36-60 years; W2-36-55 years periods of mature age with no signs of trauma, scoliosis and systemic diseases of the spine (n=140 and CT- and MRT-grams in patients with revealed degenerative changes in the lumbar spine degree II-III (n=120. The pictures with digital PACS system measure the height of the vertebral body, intervertebral disc height, vertical, horizontal diameter and the area of intervertebral foramen. Results. The height of the lumbar vertebral bodies normally increased from27,90±0,38mmatthe level of L, to 29,93±0,33 mm Lm, and then decreased to 24,35±0,27 mm at level L^, in osteochondrosis it is statistically significantly lower at all levels on average by 20%. The height of the intervertebral disc with osteochondrosis below at all levels by an average of 25% of its value in the range 5,27±0,19 to 6,13±0,17mm, while the normal disc height varies from 6,88±030 to 9,36±0,28mm. The area of intervertebral holes normally ranging from 103,29±5,78 to 127,99±5,92mm2, with osteochondrosis aperture area is reduced to a greater extent by decreasing the vertical diameter in comparison with the horizontal. Conclusion. For the studied parameters characteristic topographic variability has been determined. The maximum values parameters are marked at the top of the lumbar lordosis, at chest height, lumbar and lumbosacral junctions sizes are reduced. In osteochondrosis the intervertebral disc height and the height of lumbar vertebral bodies are reduced; intervertebral foramina area is also reduced to a greater extent by reducing the vertical diameter than the horizontal one.

  6. Brain Tumor Therapy-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing Brainstem Measured With Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Chiaho; Merchant, Thomas E.; Gajjar, Amar; Broniscer, Alberto; Zhang, Yong; Li Yimei; Glenn, George R.; Kun, Larry E.; Ogg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize therapy-induced changes in normal-appearing brainstems of childhood brain tumor patients by serial diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods and Materials: We analyzed 109 DTI studies from 20 brain tumor patients, aged 4 to 23 years, with normal-appearing brainstems included in the treatment fields. Those with medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (n = 10) received postoperative craniospinal irradiation (23.4–39.6 Gy) and a cumulative dose of 55.8 Gy to the primary site, followed by four cycles of high-dose chemotherapy. Patients with high-grade gliomas (n = 10) received erlotinib during and after irradiation (54–59.4 Gy). Parametric maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were computed and spatially registered to three-dimensional radiation dose data. Volumes of interest included corticospinal tracts, medial lemnisci, and the pons. Serving as an age-related benchmark for comparison, 37 DTI studies from 20 healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 25 years, were included in the analysis. Results: The median DTI follow-up time was 3.5 years (range, 1.6–5.0 years). The median mean dose to the pons was 56 Gy (range, 7–59 Gy). Three patterns were seen in longitudinal FA and apparent diffusion coefficient changes: (1) a stable or normal developing time trend, (2) initial deviation from normal with subsequent recovery, and (3) progressive deviation without evidence of complete recovery. The maximal decline in FA often occurred 1.5 to 3.5 years after the start of radiation therapy. A full recovery time trend could be observed within 4 years. Patients with incomplete recovery often had a larger decline in FA within the first year. Radiation dose alone did not predict long-term recovery patterns. Conclusions: Variations existed among individual patients after therapy in longitudinal evolution of brainstem white matter injury and recovery. Early response

  7. Comparison of ADC map with trace map in the normal and infarct areas of the brains of stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyung; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Jeong, Eun Kee; Oh, Young Taick; Kim, Dong Ik

    1999-01-01

    To compare ADC mapping with trace mapping in normal and infarct areas of the brains of stroke patients. Eighteen patients diagnosed on the basis of clinical and brain MRI examinations as suffering from brain infarction were included in this study (hyperacute-1, acute-4, subacute-12, chronic-1). Diffusion weighted images of three orthogonal directions of a patient's brain were obtained by means of a single shot EPI pulse sequence, using a diffusion gradient with four serial b-factors. Three ADC maps were then reconstructed by post-image processing and were summed pixel by pixel to yield a trace map. ROIs were selected in the normal areas of white matter, gray matter and CSF of one hemisphere, and other ROIs of the same size were selected at the same site of the contralateral hemisphere. ADC and trace values were measured and right/left ratios of ADC and trace values were calculated. Using these values, we then compared the ADC map with the trace map, and compared the degree of anisotropic diffusion between white matter, gray matter and CSF. Except for three, whose infarct lesions were small and lay over white and gray matter, patients were divided into two groups. Those with infarct in the white matter (n=10) were assigned to one group, and those with infarct in the gray matter (n=5) to the other. ROIs were selected in the infarct area and other ROIs of the same size were selected at the same site of the contralateral hemisphere. ADC and trace values were measured and infarct/contralateral ratios were calculated. We then compared ADC ratio with trace ratio in white matter and gray matter infarct. In normal white matter, the Dxx ratio was 0.980±0.098, the Dyy ratio 1.019±0.086, the Dzz ratio 0.999±0.111, and the trace ratio 0.995±0.031. In normal gray matter, the Dxx ratio was 1.001±0.058, the Dyy ratio 0.996±0.063, Dzz ratio 1.005±0.070, and the trace ratio 1.001±0.028. In CSF, the Dxx ratio was 1.002±0.064, the Dyy ratio 1.023±0.055, the Dzz ratio 0.999

  8. Is There Evidence for Myelin Modeling by Astrocytes in the Normal Adult Brain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Varela-Echevarría

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A set of astrocytic process associated with altered myelinated axons is described in the forebrain of normal adult rodents with confocal, electron microscopy, and 3D reconstructions. Each process consists of a protuberance that contains secretory organelles including numerous lysosomes which polarize and open next to disrupted myelinated axons. Because of the distinctive asymmetric organelle distribution and ubiquity throughout the forebrain neuropil, this enlargement is named paraxial process (PAP. The myelin envelope contiguous to the PAP displays focal disruption or disintegration. In routine electron microscopy clusters of large, confluent, lysosomes proved to be an effective landmark for PAP identification. In 3D assemblies lysosomes organize a series of interconnected saccules that open up to the plasmalemma next to the disrupted myelin envelope(s. Activity for acid hydrolases was visualized in lysosomes, and extracellularly at the PAP-myelin interface and/or between the glial and neuronal outer aspects. Organelles in astrocytic processes involved in digesting pyknotic cells and debris resemble those encountered in PAPs supporting a likewise lytic function of the later. Conversely, processes entangling tripartite synapses and glomeruli were devoid of lysosomes. Both oligodendrocytic and microglial processes were not associated with altered myelin envelopes. The possible roles of the PAP in myelin remodeling in the context of the oligodendrocyte-astrocyte interactions and in the astrocyte's secretory pathways are discussed.

  9. Effects of sex and normal aging on regional brain activation during verbal memory performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Erin A.; Byne, William; Brickman, Adam M.; Mitsis, Effie M.; Newmark, Randall; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Knatz, Danielle T.; Chen, Amy D.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the main and interactive effects of age and sex on relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) within gray matter of 39 cortical Brodmann areas (BAs) and the cingulate gyrus using 18FDG-PET during a verbal memory task in 70 healthy normal adults, aged 20–87 years. Women showed significantly greater age-related rGMR decline in left cingulate gyrus than men (BAs 25, 24, 23, 31, 29). Both groups showed a decline in the anterior cingulate—a neuroanatomical structure that mediates effective cognitive-emotional interactions (BAs 32, 24, 25), while the other frontal regions did not show substantial decline. No sex differences in rGMR were identified within temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Sex differences were observed for rGMR within subcomponents of the cingulate gyrus with men higher in BA25 and BA29, but lower in BA24 and BA 23 compared to women. For men, better memory performance was associated with greater rGMR in BA24, whereas in women better performance was associated with orbitofrontal-BA12. These results suggest that both age-related metabolic decline and sex differences within frontal regions are more marked in medial frontal and cingulate areas, consistent with some age-related patterns of affective and cognitive change. PMID:19027195

  10. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xiao-Qi; Sun, Yimeng; Illies, Till; Zeumer, Hermann; Fiehler, Jens; Kruse, Bernd; Lanfermann, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay. (orig.)

  11. Homozygous mutation of focal adhesion kinase in embryonic stem cell derived neurons: normal electrophysiological and morphological properties in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komiyama NH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically manipulated embryonic stem (ES cell derived neurons (ESNs provide a powerful system with which to study the consequences of gene manipulation in mature, synaptically connected neurons in vitro. Here we report a study of focal adhesion kinase (FAK, which has been implicated in synapse formation and regulation of ion channels, using the ESN system to circumvent the embryonic lethality of homozygous FAK mutant mice. Results Mouse ES cells carrying homozygous null mutations (FAK-/- were generated and differentiated in vitro into neurons. FAK-/- ESNs extended axons and dendrites and formed morphologically and electrophysiologically intact synapses. A detailed study of NMDA receptor gated currents and voltage sensitive calcium currents revealed no difference in their magnitude, or modulation by tyrosine kinases. Conclusion FAK does not have an obligatory role in neuronal differentiation, synapse formation or the expression of NMDA receptor or voltage-gated calcium currents under the conditions used in this study. The use of genetically modified ESNs has great potential for rapidly and effectively examining the consequences of neuronal gene manipulation and is complementary to mouse studies.

  12. Comparative evaluation of sonographic ovarian morphology of Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome versus those of normal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study ovarian morphology by ultrasound in women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and to establish cut-off values of these parameters in Indian women with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 119 consecutive women diagnosed PCOS and 77 apparently healthy women were enrolled. Transabdominal ultrasound examination was carried out to assess ovarian volume, stromal echogenecity, follicle number and size. Cut-off values of the above ovarian parameters with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV were calculated. Results: Sensitivity of 79.49% and specificity of 90.67% was achieved with a cut-off of 8 mL as ovarian volume. A cut-off value of 9 follicles to distinguish between PCOS and control women yielded a sensitivity of 82.35% and specificity of 92.0% while as a follicular size of 5 mm yielded sensitivity and specificity of 74.67% and 78.15% respectively. With all the three parameters sensitivity was 87.39% and specificity 87.84% with 92.04% PPV and 81.25% NPV. Conclusion: Using two or three sonographic criteria in combination improves sensitivity and helps diagnose additional patients with PCOS. Our results are at variance with the established cut-off values highlighting the fact that American Society for Reproductive Medicine consensus cut-off values are not reproducible in Indian context.

  13. Low-level x-irradiation of the brain during development: morphological, physiological, and behavioral consequences. Progress report, September 1, 1974--August 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, J.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies on the effects of exposure to low-dose x radiation on the developing brain of rats. Brief summaries of results of morphological, physiological, and behavioral studies on rats exposed using various x-irradiation schedules are included. A list of papers published and submitted for publication during the period is included. (U.S.)

  14. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO MATERNAL AND PATERNAL DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND BRAIN MORPHOLOGY: A POPULATION-BASED PROSPECTIVE NEUROIMAGING STUDY IN YOUNG CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Muetzel, Ryan L; Thijssen, Sandra; van der Knaap, Noortje J F; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Fernández, Guillén; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya J H

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal depressive symptoms have been associated with multiple adverse outcomes. Previously, we demonstrated that prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with impaired growth of the fetus and increased behavioral problems in children aged between 1.5 and 6 years. In this prospective study, we aimed to assess whether prenatal maternal depressive symptoms at 3 years have long-term consequences on brain development in a cohort of children aged 6-10 years. As a contrast, the association of paternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and brain morphology was assessed to serve as a marker of background confounding due to shared genetic and environmental family factors. We assessed parental depressive symptoms during pregnancy with the Brief Symptom Inventory. At approximately 8 years of age, we collected structural neuroimaging data, using cortical thickness, surface area, and gyrification as outcomes (n = 654). We found that exposure to prenatal maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was associated with a thinner superior frontal cortex in the left hemisphere. Additionally, prenatal maternal depressive symptoms were related to larger caudal middle frontal area in the left hemisphere. Maternal depressive symptoms at 3 years were not associated with cortical thickness, surface area, or gyrification in the left and right hemispheres. No effects of paternal depressive symptoms on brain morphology were observed. Prenatal maternal depressive symptoms were associated with differences in brain morphology in children. It is important to prevent, identify, and treat depressive symptoms during pregnancy as it may have long-term consequences on child brain development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography for dopamine and serotonin transporters in normal and parkinsonian monkey brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, I-H.; Huang, W.-S.; Yeh, C.-B.; Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Shen, L.-H.; Liu, J.-C.; Ma, K.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated dopamine and serotonin transporters in primates using dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and compared the results with traditional single-isotope imaging. Methods: Four healthy and one 6-OHDA-induced PD monkeys were used for this study. SPECT was performed over 4 h after individual or simultaneous injection of [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporter imaging agent) and [ 123 I]ADAM (a serotonin transporter imaging agent). Results: The results showed that the image quality and uptake ratios in different brain regions were comparable between single- and dual-isotope studies. The striatal [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 uptake in the PD monkey was markedly lower than that in normal monkeys. The uptake of [ 123 I]ADAM in the midbrain of the PD monkey was comparable to that in the normal monkeys, but there were decreased uptakes in the thalamus and striatum of the PD monkey. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dual-isotope SPECT using [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 and [ 123 I]ADAM can simultaneously evaluate changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a PD model.

  16. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography for dopamine and serotonin transporters in normal and parkinsonian monkey brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, I-H. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Huang, W.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Yeh, C.-B. [Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Shen, L.-H. [Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyaun, 325 Taiwan (China); Liu, J.-C. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Ma, K.-H. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kuohsing91@yahoo.com.tw

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated dopamine and serotonin transporters in primates using dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and compared the results with traditional single-isotope imaging. Methods: Four healthy and one 6-OHDA-induced PD monkeys were used for this study. SPECT was performed over 4 h after individual or simultaneous injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporter imaging agent) and [{sup 123}I]ADAM (a serotonin transporter imaging agent). Results: The results showed that the image quality and uptake ratios in different brain regions were comparable between single- and dual-isotope studies. The striatal [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 uptake in the PD monkey was markedly lower than that in normal monkeys. The uptake of [{sup 123}I]ADAM in the midbrain of the PD monkey was comparable to that in the normal monkeys, but there were decreased uptakes in the thalamus and striatum of the PD monkey. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dual-isotope SPECT using [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 and [{sup 123}I]ADAM can simultaneously evaluate changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a PD model.

  17. Influence of obstetric complication severity on brain morphology in schizophrenia: an MR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersani, G.; Quartini, A.; Manuali, G.; Iannitelli, A.; Pucci, D.; Conforti, F.; Di Biasi, C.; Gualdi, G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a causal relationship exists between obstetric complications (OCs) severity and linear magnetic resonance (MR) measurements of brain atrophy in patients with schizophrenia. Linear measurements of ventricular enlargement (bifrontal span, Evans ratio, and bicaudate ratio) and hippocampal atrophy (interuncal distance) were completed on MR images obtained in 47 patients with schizophrenia. Regression analysis was used to look at association with OCs severity, assessed by the ''Midwife protocol'' of Parnas and colleagues. The relationship between MR measurements and phenomenologic variables such as age at onset, illness duration, and exposure to antipsychotic medications was explored. The relationship between MR measurements, OCs severity, and symptom presentation was also investigated. OCs severity was significantly associated with MR measurements of ventricular enlargement (bifrontal span, Evans ratio). As the severity of OCs increased, bifrontal span and Evans ratio increased. This effect was independent of age at onset, illness duration, or even antipsychotic treatment. Interestingly, bifrontal span, Evans ratio, and OCs severity score all showed a significant positive correlation with hallucinatory symptomatology. Although confirmatory studies are needed, our findings would support the idea that environmental factors, in this case severe OCs, might partly contribute to ventricular abnormalities in schizophrenia. (orig.)

  18. Influence of obstetric complication severity on brain morphology in schizophrenia: an MR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bersani, G.; Quartini, A.; Manuali, G.; Iannitelli, A. [University of Rome, Polo Pontino, Department of Psychiatric Sciences and Psychological Medicine, Rome (Italy); Pucci, D. [University of Rome, Department of Public Health ' ' G. Sanarelli' ' , Rome (Italy); Conforti, F. [University of Rome, I Medical Clinic, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Unit, Rome (Italy); Di Biasi, C.; Gualdi, G.

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a causal relationship exists between obstetric complications (OCs) severity and linear magnetic resonance (MR) measurements of brain atrophy in patients with schizophrenia. Linear measurements of ventricular enlargement (bifrontal span, Evans ratio, and bicaudate ratio) and hippocampal atrophy (interuncal distance) were completed on MR images obtained in 47 patients with schizophrenia. Regression analysis was used to look at association with OCs severity, assessed by the ''Midwife protocol'' of Parnas and colleagues. The relationship between MR measurements and phenomenologic variables such as age at onset, illness duration, and exposure to antipsychotic medications was explored. The relationship between MR measurements, OCs severity, and symptom presentation was also investigated. OCs severity was significantly associated with MR measurements of ventricular enlargement (bifrontal span, Evans ratio). As the severity of OCs increased, bifrontal span and Evans ratio increased. This effect was independent of age at onset, illness duration, or even antipsychotic treatment. Interestingly, bifrontal span, Evans ratio, and OCs severity score all showed a significant positive correlation with hallucinatory symptomatology. Although confirmatory studies are needed, our findings would support the idea that environmental factors, in this case severe OCs, might partly contribute to ventricular abnormalities in schizophrenia. (orig.)

  19. Coupling of morphology to surface transport in ion-beam-irradiated surfaces: normal incidence and rotating targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Garcia, Javier; Cuerno, Rodolfo; Castro, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Continuum models have proved their applicability to describe nanopatterns produced by ion-beam sputtering of amorphous or amorphizable targets at low and medium energies. Here we pursue the recently introduced 'hydrodynamic approach' in the cases of bombardment at normal incidence, or of oblique incidence onto rotating targets, known to lead to self-organized arrangements of nanodots. Our approach stresses the dynamical roles of material (defect) transport at the target surface and of local redeposition. By applying results previously derived for arbitrary angles of incidence, we derive effective evolution equations for these geometries of incidence, which are then numerically studied. Moreover, we show that within our model these equations are identical (albeit with different coefficients) in both cases, provided surface tension is isotropic in the target. We thus account for the common dynamics for both types of incidence conditions, namely formation of dots with short-range order and long-wavelength disorder, and an intermediate coarsening of dot features that improves the local order of the patterns. We provide for the first time approximate analytical predictions for the dependence of stationary dot features (amplitude and wavelength) on phenomenological parameters, that improve upon previous linear estimates. Finally, our theoretical results are discussed in terms of experimental data.

  20. Voxel-based analysis of Tc-99 m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Bora [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong-Won [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: neuroman@catholic.ac.kr; Shim, Yong-Soo; Chung, Sung-Woo [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kook-Jin; O, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sohn, Hyung-Sun; Chung, Soo-Kyo [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong-An [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); East-West Research Institute of Translational Medicine (EWTM), Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Incheon 403-720 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: nm@catholic.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a reversible dementia characterized by gait disturbance, incontinence and dementia. This study investigates the neuropsychological characteristics and changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with iNPH. Ten patients who met the criteria of probable iNPH and 13 normal control subjects were evaluated. The general cognitive function and detailed neuropsychological functions were measured by K-MMSE and comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (Tc-99m-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed to measure the rCBF and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and statistical probabilistic brain anatomic map (SPAM) was applied to the objective analysis of SPECT data. On the neuropsychological examination, all the patients showed abnormality in memory, psychomotor speed and frontal executive function. SPM analysis of SPECT images revealed that rCBF in bilateral thalami, right prefrontal area, bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, right caudate nucleus, and left parahippocampal gyrus was significantly decreased in patients with iNPH compared to normal controls (uncorrected P<0.005). In SPAM analysis, rCBF reduction was observed in bilateral prefrontal area, anterior, posterior cingulate gyri and caudate nuclei. We have found that rCBF changes occurred predominantly in prefrontal and subcortical areas, the changes were associated with frontal subcortical circuit, and the affected frontal subcortical circuit may contribute to the cognitive decline seen in the iNPH patients. The reduction of rCBF and clinical cognitive impairment are closely connected in patients with iNPH.

  1. Voxel-based analysis of Tc-99 m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Bora; Yang, Dong-Won; Shim, Yong-Soo; Chung, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Kook-Jin; O, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sohn, Hyung-Sun; Chung, Soo-Kyo; Chung, Yong-An

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a reversible dementia characterized by gait disturbance, incontinence and dementia. This study investigates the neuropsychological characteristics and changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with iNPH. Ten patients who met the criteria of probable iNPH and 13 normal control subjects were evaluated. The general cognitive function and detailed neuropsychological functions were measured by K-MMSE and comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (Tc-99m-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed to measure the rCBF and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and statistical probabilistic brain anatomic map (SPAM) was applied to the objective analysis of SPECT data. On the neuropsychological examination, all the patients showed abnormality in memory, psychomotor speed and frontal executive function. SPM analysis of SPECT images revealed that rCBF in bilateral thalami, right prefrontal area, bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, right caudate nucleus, and left parahippocampal gyrus was significantly decreased in patients with iNPH compared to normal controls (uncorrected P<0.005). In SPAM analysis, rCBF reduction was observed in bilateral prefrontal area, anterior, posterior cingulate gyri and caudate nuclei. We have found that rCBF changes occurred predominantly in prefrontal and subcortical areas, the changes were associated with frontal subcortical circuit, and the affected frontal subcortical circuit may contribute to the cognitive decline seen in the iNPH patients. The reduction of rCBF and clinical cognitive impairment are closely connected in patients with iNPH.

  2. Reproducibility of proton MR spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI): comparison of dyslexic and normal-reading children and effects of treatment on brain lactate levels during language tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Todd L; Berninger, Virginia W; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Richards, Anne L; Thomson, Jennifer B; Nagy, William E; Carlisle, Joanne F; Dager, Stephen R; Abbott, Robert D

    2002-01-01

    We repeated a proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) study to test the hypothesis that children with dyslexia and good readers differ in brain lactate activation during a phonologic judgment task before but not after instructional treatment. We measured PEPSI brain lactate activation (TR/TE, 4000/144; 1.5 T) at two points 1-2 months apart during two language tasks (phonologic and lexical) and a control task (passive listening). Dyslexic participants (n = 10) and control participants (n = 8) (boys and girls aged 9-12 years) were matched in age, verbal intelligence quotients, and valid PEPSI voxels. In contrast to patients in past studies who received combined treatment, our patients were randomly assigned to either phonologic or morphologic (meaning-based) intervention between the scanning sessions. Before treatment, the patients showed significantly greater lactate elevation in the left frontal regions (including the inferior frontal gyrus) during the phonologic task. Both patients and control subjects differed significantly in the right parietal and occipital regions during both tasks. After treatment, the two groups did not significantly differ in any brain region during either task, but individuals given morphologic treatment were significantly more likely to have reduced left frontal lactate activation during the phonologic task. The previous finding of greater left frontal lactate elevation in children with dyslexia during a phonologic judgment task was replicated, and brain activation changed as a result of treatment. However, the treatment effect was due to the morphologic component rather than the phonologic component.

  3. Developmental axon stretch stimulates neuron growth while maintaining normal electrical activity, intracellular calcium flux, and somatic morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loverde, Joseph R; Pfister, Bryan J

    2015-01-01

    Elongation of nerve fibers intuitively occurs throughout mammalian development, and is synchronized with expansion of the growing body. While most tissue systems enlarge through mitosis and differentiation, elongation of nerve fibers is remarkably unique. The emerging paradigm suggests that axons undergo stretch as contiguous tissues enlarge between the proximal and distal segments of spanning nerve fibers. While stretch is distinct from growth, tension is a known stimulus which regulates the growth of axons. Here, we hypothesized that the axon stretch-growth process may be a natural form of injury, whereby regenerative processes fortify elongating axons in order to prevent disconnection. Harnessing the live imaging capability of our axon stretch-growth bioreactors, we assessed neurons both during and following stretch for biomarkers associated with injury. Utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found no evidence of changes in spontaneous action potential activity or degradation of elicited action potentials during real-time axon stretch at strains of up to 18% applied over 5 min. Unlike traumatic axonal injury, functional calcium imaging of the soma revealed no shifts in free intracellular calcium during axon stretch. Finally, the cross-sectional areas of nuclei and cytoplasms were normal, with no evidence of chromatolysis following week-long stretch-growth limited to the lower of 25% strain or 3 mm total daily stretch. The neuronal growth cascade coupled to stretch was concluded to be independent of the changes in membrane potential, action potential generation, or calcium flux associated with traumatic injury. While axon stretch-growth is likely to share overlap with regenerative processes, we conclude that developmental stretch is a distinct stimulus from traumatic axon injury.

  4. Developmental Axon Stretch Stimulates Neuron Growth While Maintaining Normal Electrical Activity, Intracellular Calcium Flux, and Somatic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Loverde

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Elongation of nerve fibers intuitively occurs throughout mammalian development, and is synchronized with expansion of the growing body. While most tissue systems enlarge through mitosis and differentiation, elongation of nerve fibers is remarkably unique. The emerging paradigm suggests that axons undergo stretch as contiguous tissues enlarge between the proximal and distal segments of spanning nerve fibers. While stretch is distinct from growth, tension is a known stimulus which regulates the growth of axons. Here, we hypothesized that the axon stretch-growth process may be a natural form of injury, whereby regenerative processes fortify elongating axons in order to prevent disconnection. Harnessing the live imaging capability of our axon stretch-growth bioreactors, we assessed neurons both during and following stretch for biomarkers associated with injury. Utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found no evidence of changes in spontaneous action potential activity or degradation of elicited action potentials during real-time axon stretch at strains of up to 18 % applied over 5 minutes. Unlike traumatic axonal injury, functional calcium imaging of the soma revealed no shifts in free intracellular calcium during axon stretch. Finally, the cross-sectional areas of nuclei and cytoplasms were normal, with no evidence of chromatolysis following week-long stretch-growth limited to the lower of 25 % strain or 3 mm total daily stretch. The neuronal growth cascade coupled to stretch was concluded to be independent of the changes in membrane potential, action potential generation, or calcium flux associated with traumatic injury. While axon stretch-growth is likely to share overlap with regenerative processes, we conclude that developmental stretch is a distinct stimulus from traumatic axon injury.

  5. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  6. Preliminary morphological and morphometric study of rat cerebellum following sodium arsenite exposure during rapid brain growth (RBG) period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, Pushpa; Mohari, Nivedita; Mehra, Raj D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of arsenic exposure during rapid brain growth (RBG) period were studied in rat brains with emphasis on the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. The RBG period in rats extends from postnatal day 4 (PND 4) to postnatal day 10 (PND 10) and is reported to be highly vulnerable to environmental insults. Mother reared Wistar rat pups were administered intraperitoneal injections (i.p.) of sodium arsenite (aqueous solution) in doses of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) to groups II, III and IV (n = 6 animals/group) from PND 4 to 10 (sub acute). Control animals (group I) received distilled water by the same route. On PND 11, the animals were perfusion fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (PB) with pH 7.4. The cerebellum obtained from these animals was post-fixed and processed for paraffin embedding. Besides studying the morphological characteristics of Purkinje cells in cresyl violet (CV) stained paraffin sections (10 μm), morphometric analysis of Purkinje cells was carried out using Image Analysis System (Image Proplus software version 4.5) attached to Nikon Microphot-FX microscope. The results showed that on PND 11, the Purkinje cells were arranged in multiple layers extending from Purkinje cell layer (PL) to outer part of granule cell layer (GL) in experimental animals (contrary to monolayer arrangement within PL in control animals). Also, delayed maturation (well defined apical cytoplasmic cones and intense basal basophilia) was evident in Purkinje cells of experimental animals on PND 11. The mean Purkinje cell nuclear area was significantly increased in the arsenic treated animals compared to the control animals. The observations of the present study (faulty migration, delayed maturation and alteration in nuclear area measurements of Purkinje cells subsequent to arsenic exposure) thus provided the morphological evidence of structural alterations subsequent to arsenite induced developmental neurotoxicity which could be presumed to be

  7. Brain morphology and immunohistochemical localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Palmieri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the morphology of the diencephalic nuclei (likely involved in reproductive functions as well as on the distribution of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon and the diencephalon of the brain of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus by means of immunohistochemistry. Bluefin tuna has an encephalization quotient (QE similar to that of other large pelagic fish. Its brain exhibits well-developed optic tecta and corpus cerebelli. The diencephalic neuron cell bodies involved in reproductive functions are grouped in two main nuclei: the nucleus preopticus-periventricularis and the nucleus lateralis tuberis. The nucleus preopticus-periventricularis consists of the nucleus periventricularis and the nucleus preopticus consisting of a few sparse multipolar neurons in the rostral part and numerous cells closely packed and arranged in several layers in its aboral part. The nucleus lateralis tuberis is located in the ventral-lateral area of the diencephalon and is made up of a number of large multipolar neurones. Four different polyclonal primary antibodies against salmon (sGnRH, chicken (cGnRH-II (cGnRH-II 675, cGnRH-II 6 and sea bream (sbGnRH were employed in the immunohistochemical experiments. No immunoreactive structures were found with anti sbGnRH serum. sGnRH and cGnRH-II antisera revealed immunoreactivity in the perikarya of the olfactory bulbs, preopticus-periventricular nucleus, oculomotor nucleus and midbrain tegmentum. The nucleus lateralis tuberis showed immunostaining only with anti-sGnRH serum. Nerve fibres immunoreactive to cGnRH and sGnRH sera were found in the olfactory bulbs, olfactory nerve and neurohypophysis. The significance of the distribution of the GnRHimmunoreactive neuronal structures is discussed.

  8. Higher resting-state activity in reward-related brain circuits in obese versus normal-weight females independent of food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Hogenkamp, P S; Zhou, W; Dahlberg, L S; Stark, J; Larsen, A L; Olivo, G; Wiemerslage, L; Larsson, E-M; Sundbom, M; Benedict, C; Schi?th, H B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In response to food cues, obese vs normal-weight individuals show greater activation in brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake under both fasted and sated conditions. Putative effects of obesity on task-independent low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signals-that is, resting-state brain activity-in the context of food intake are, however, less well studied. OBJECTIVE: To compare eyes closed, whole-brain low-frequency BOLD signals between severely obese...

  9. A Study of volumetric variations of basal nuclei in the normal human brain by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkattan, Amal; Mahdy, Amal; Eltomey, Mohamed; Ismail, Radwa

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the effects of healthy aging on brain structures is necessary to identify abnormal changes due to diseases. Many studies have demonstrated age-related volume changes in the brain using MRI. 60 healthy individuals who had normal MRI aged from 20 years to 80 years were examined and classified into three groups: Group I: 21 persons; nine males and 12 females aging between 20-39 years old. Group II: 22 persons; 11 males and 11 females aging between 40-59 years old. Group III: 17 persons; eight males and nine females aging between 60-80 years old. Volumetric analysis was done to evaluate the effect of age, gender and hemispheric difference in the caudate and putamen by the slicer 4.3.3.1 software using 3D T1-weighted images. Data were analyzed by student's unpaired t test, ANOVA and regression analysis. The volumes of the measured and corrected caudate nuclei and putamen significantly decreased with aging in males. There was a statistically insignificant relation between the age and the volume of the measured caudate nuclei and putamen in females but there was a statistically significant relation between the age and the corrected caudate nuclei and putamen. There was no significant difference on the caudate and putamen volumes between males and females. There was no significant difference between the right and left caudate nuclei volumes. There was a leftward asymmetry in the putamen volumes. The results can be considered as a base to track individual changes with time (aging and CNS diseases). Clin. Anat. 30:175-182, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mild cognitive disorders are associated with different patterns of brain asymmetry than normal ageing: the PATH through life study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Cherbuin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Defining how brain structures differ in pre-clinical dementia is important to better understand the pathological processes involved and to inform clinical practice. The aim of this study was to identify significant brain correlates (volume and asymmetry in volume of mild cognitive disorders when compared to normal controls in a large community-based sample of young-old individuals who were assessed for cognitive impairment. Methods: Cortical and sub-cortical volumes were measured using a semi-automated method in 398 participants aged 65-70 years who were selected from a larger randomly sampled cohort and who agreed to undergo an MRI scan. Diagnoses were reached based on established protocols for MCI and a more inclusive category of any Mild Cognitive Disorder (any-MCD: which includes AAMI, AACD, OCD, MNC, CDR, MCI. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between volume and asymmetry of theoretically relevant cerebral structures (predictors and MCI or any-MCD while controlling for age, sex, and intra-cranial volume. Results: The main correlates of cognitive impairment assessed in multivariate analyses were hippocampal asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 0.83, 95%CI 0.71-0.96, p = .013; MCD: OR 0.86, 95%CI 0.77-0.97, p = .011, lateral ventricle asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.99, p = .009; MCD: OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.92-0.98, p = .004, and cerebellar cortex asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 1.51, 95%CI 1.13-2.01, p = .005. Conclusions: In this population-based cohort stronger associations were found between asymmetry measures, rather than raw volumes in cerebral structures, and mild cognitive disorders.

  11. Morphological evolution of dissolving feldspar particles with anisotropic surface kinetics and implications for dissolution rate normalization and grain size dependence: A kinetic modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Lüttge, Andreas

    2009-11-01

    With previous two-dimensional (2D) simulations based on surface-specific feldspar dissolution succeeding in relating the macroscopic feldspar kinetics to the molecular-scale surface reactions of Si and Al atoms ( Zhang and Lüttge, 2008, 2009), we extended our modeling effort to three-dimensional (3D) feldspar particle dissolution simulations. Bearing on the same theoretical basis, the 3D feldspar particle dissolution simulations have verified the anisotropic surface kinetics observed in the 2D surface-specific simulations. The combined effect of saturation state, pH, and temperature on the surface kinetics anisotropy has been subsequently evaluated, found offering diverse options for morphological evolution of dissolving feldspar nanoparticles with varying grain sizes and starting shapes. Among the three primary faces on the simulated feldspar surface, the (1 0 0) face has the biggest dissolution rate across an extensively wide saturation state range and thus acquires a higher percentage of the surface area upon dissolution. The slowest dissolution occurs to either (0 0 1) or (0 1 0) faces depending on the bond energies of Si-(O)-Si ( ΦSi-O-Si/ kT) and Al-(O)-Si ( ΦAl-O-Si/ kT). When the ratio of ΦSi-O-Si/ kT to ΦAl-O-Si/ kT changes from 6:3 to 7:5, the dissolution rates of three primary faces change from the trend of (1 0 0) > (0 1 0) > (0 0 1) to the trend of (1 0 0) > (0 0 1) > (0 1 0). The rate difference between faces becomes more distinct and accordingly edge rounding becomes more significant. Feldspar nanoparticles also experience an increasing degree of edge rounding from far-from-equilibrium to close-to-equilibrium. Furthermore, we assessed the connection between the continuous morphological modification and the variation in the bulk dissolution rate during the dissolution of a single feldspar particle. Different normalization treatments equivalent to the commonly used mass, cube assumption, sphere assumption, geometric surface area, and reactive

  12. Usefulness of 99mTc-DTPA cisternography and brain computerized tomography in the diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Horin, C.L.; Berezovsky, V.; Kristal, C.A.; Linov, L.; Kahane, E.; Merkin, V.

    2002-01-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a well-defined syndrome consisting of dementia, ataxia and incontinence. The treatment of this condition is installation of ventricle-peritoneal shunt, but only 50% of patients improved after surgery with sustained improvement in 25% of the cases. Another 25% can developed complications after surgery. The main problem is how to select those patients that can enjoy this kind of treatment. CT is a well-known procedure that can show anatomical changes due to NPH. 99mTc DTPA cisternography provides a measure of cerebrospinal flow dynamics and its alteration due to NPH. The aim of the study was to check retrospectively the effectiveness and usefulness of the combination of 99mTc DTPA cisternography and brain CT in the diagnosis of NPH. Methods: 20 charts of patients with clinical suspicion of NPH were checked retrospectively. All of them were clinically examined and passed brain CT and 99mTc DTPA cisternography. Lumbar puncture was done to 5 patients. Mini Mental Test was done only to 5 patients.2 patients had also MRI imaging. Results: 20 charts of patients clinically suspected of NPH were checked. Only 10/20 presented with the clinical triad of dementia, ataxia and incontinence. 12/20 patients were referred to neurosurgical consultation after both imaging studies. 7/12 were diagnosed as NPH and recommended to shunt surgery. 3/7 were operated. 1/3 died after the operation due to complications not related to neurosurgery. 4/7 are waiting for surgery. 2/12 the diagnosis of NPH was cancelled by the neurosurgeons. 1/12 the final diagnosis was obstructive hydrocephalus and another 2/12 the surgeons recommended follow up only. In 4/20 the diagnosis of NPH was role out and in another 4/20 no follow up was available. According to our data, the sensitivity of CT was 100%, specificity 30%, PPV 59% and NPV 100% and for 99mTc DTPA cisternography 100%; 10%; 52,5% and 100% respectively. When combined both examinations the sensitivity and NPV

  13. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in amnestic MCI: a voxel-based MRI and FDG-PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo; Villavecchia, Giampiero [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Dessi, Barbara; Brugnolo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Piccini, Alessandra [Cell Biology Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Genoa (Italy); Caroli, Anna [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy); Mario Negri Institute, Medical Imaging Unit, Biomedical Engineering Department, Bergamo (Italy); Frisoni, Giovanni [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    To reveal the morphological and functional substrates of memory impairment and conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) from the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Brain MRI and FDG-PET were performed in 20 patients with aMCI and 12 controls at baseline. During a mean follow-up of about 2 years, 9 patients developed AD (converters), and 11 did not (nonconverters). All images were processed with SPM2. FDG-PET and segmented grey matter (GM) images were compared in: (1) converters versus controls, (2) nonconverters versus controls, and (3) converters versus nonconverters. As compared to controls, converters showed lower GM density in the left parahippocampal gyrus and both thalami, and hypometabolism in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and superior parietal lobule in the left hemisphere. Hypometabolism was found in nonconverters as compared to controls in the left precuneus and posterior cingulated gyrus. As compared to nonconverters, converters showed significant hypometabolism in the left middle and superior temporal gyri. The discordant topography between atrophy and hypometabolism reported in AD is already present at the aMCI stage. Posterior cingulate-precuneus hypometabolism seemed to be an early sign of memory deficit, whereas hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex marked the conversion to AD. (orig.)

  14. Evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology after in utero repair of open neural tube defects assessed by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethmann, Christin; Scheer, Ianina; Kellenberger, Christian Johannes [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, The Zurich Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, Zurich (Switzerland); Children' s Research Center (CRC), Zurich (Switzerland); Meuli, Martin; Mazzone, Luca; Moehrlen, Ueli [University of Zurich, The Zurich Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, Zurich (Switzerland); Children' s Research Center (CRC), Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-11-15

    To describe characteristics of foetuses undergoing in utero repair of open neural tube defects (ONTD) and assess postoperative evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology. Analysis of pre- and postoperative foetal as well as neonatal MRI of 27 foetuses who underwent in utero repair of ONTD. Type and level of ONTD, hindbrain configuration, posterior fossa and liquor space dimensions, and detection of associated findings were compared between MRI studies and to age-matched controls. Level of bony spinal defect was defined with exactness of ± one vertebral body. Of surgically confirmed 18 myelomeningoceles (MMC) and 9 myeloschisis (MS), 3 MMC were misdiagnosed as MS due to non-visualisation of a flat membrane on MRI. Hindbrain herniation was more severe in MS than MMC (p < 0.001). After repair, hindbrain herniation resolved in 25/27 cases at 4 weeks and liquor spaces increased. While posterior fossa remained small (p < 0.001), its configuration normalised. Lateral ventricle diameter indexed to cerebral width decreased in 48% and increased in 12% of cases, implying a low rate of progressive obstructive hydrocephalus. Neonatally evident subependymal heterotopias were detected in 33% at preoperative and 50% at postoperative foetal MRI. MRI demonstrates change of Chiari malformation type II (CM-II) features. (orig.)

  15. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in amnestic MCI: a voxel-based MRI and FDG-PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbelli, Silvia; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Villavecchia, Giampiero; Dessi, Barbara; Brugnolo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio; Piccini, Alessandra; Caroli, Anna; Frisoni, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    To reveal the morphological and functional substrates of memory impairment and conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) from the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Brain MRI and FDG-PET were performed in 20 patients with aMCI and 12 controls at baseline. During a mean follow-up of about 2 years, 9 patients developed AD (converters), and 11 did not (nonconverters). All images were processed with SPM2. FDG-PET and segmented grey matter (GM) images were compared in: (1) converters versus controls, (2) nonconverters versus controls, and (3) converters versus nonconverters. As compared to controls, converters showed lower GM density in the left parahippocampal gyrus and both thalami, and hypometabolism in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and superior parietal lobule in the left hemisphere. Hypometabolism was found in nonconverters as compared to controls in the left precuneus and posterior cingulated gyrus. As compared to nonconverters, converters showed significant hypometabolism in the left middle and superior temporal gyri. The discordant topography between atrophy and hypometabolism reported in AD is already present at the aMCI stage. Posterior cingulate-precuneus hypometabolism seemed to be an early sign of memory deficit, whereas hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex marked the conversion to AD. (orig.)

  16. Evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology after in utero repair of open neural tube defects assessed by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rethmann, Christin; Scheer, Ianina; Kellenberger, Christian Johannes; Meuli, Martin; Mazzone, Luca; Moehrlen, Ueli

    2017-01-01

    To describe characteristics of foetuses undergoing in utero repair of open neural tube defects (ONTD) and assess postoperative evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology. Analysis of pre- and postoperative foetal as well as neonatal MRI of 27 foetuses who underwent in utero repair of ONTD. Type and level of ONTD, hindbrain configuration, posterior fossa and liquor space dimensions, and detection of associated findings were compared between MRI studies and to age-matched controls. Level of bony spinal defect was defined with exactness of ± one vertebral body. Of surgically confirmed 18 myelomeningoceles (MMC) and 9 myeloschisis (MS), 3 MMC were misdiagnosed as MS due to non-visualisation of a flat membrane on MRI. Hindbrain herniation was more severe in MS than MMC (p < 0.001). After repair, hindbrain herniation resolved in 25/27 cases at 4 weeks and liquor spaces increased. While posterior fossa remained small (p < 0.001), its configuration normalised. Lateral ventricle diameter indexed to cerebral width decreased in 48% and increased in 12% of cases, implying a low rate of progressive obstructive hydrocephalus. Neonatally evident subependymal heterotopias were detected in 33% at preoperative and 50% at postoperative foetal MRI. MRI demonstrates change of Chiari malformation type II (CM-II) features. (orig.)

  17. Study on cognition disorder and morphologic change of neurons in hippocampus area following traumatic brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪军; 崔建忠; 周云涛; 高俊玲

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation between cognition disorder and morphologic change of hippocampal neurons after traumatic brain injury (TBI).   Methods: Wistar rat models with severe TBI were made by Marmarous method. The histopathological change of the neurons in the hippocampus area were studied with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated X-dUPT nick end labeling (TUNEL), respectively. The cognitive function was evaluated with the Morris water maze test.   Results: The comprehensive neuronal degeneration and necrosis could be observed in CA2-3 regions of hippocampus at 3 days after injury. Apoptotic positive neurons in CA2-4 regions of hippocampus and dentate gyrus increased in the injured group at 24 hours following TBI. They peaked at 7 days and then declined. Significant impairment of spatial learning and memory was observed after injury in the rats.   Conclusions: The rats have obvious disorders in spatial learning and memory after severe TBI. Meanwhile, delayed neuronal necrosis and apoptosis can be observed in the neurons in the hippocampus area. It suggests that delayed hippocampal cell death may contribute to the functional deficit.

  18. Normal development of human brain white matter from infancy to early adulthood: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Satoshi; Matsui, Mie; Tanaka, Chiaki; Uematsu, Akiko; Miura, Kayoko; Kawana, Izumi; Noguchi, Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures the magnitude of anisotropy of water diffusion in white matter, has recently been used to visualize and quantify parameters of neural tracts connecting brain regions. In order to investigate the developmental changes and sex and hemispheric differences of neural fibers in normal white matter, we used DTI to examine 52 healthy humans ranging in age from 2 months to 25 years. We extracted the following tracts of interest (TOIs) using the region of interest method: the corpus callosum (CC), cingulum hippocampus (CGH), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). We measured fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). Approximate values and changes in growth rates of all DTI parameters at each age were calculated and analyzed using LOESS (locally weighted scatterplot smoothing). We found that for all TOIs, FA increased with age, whereas ADC, AD and RD values decreased with age. The turning point of growth rates was at approximately 6 years. FA in the CC was greater than that in the SLF, ILF and CGH. Moreover, FA, ADC and AD of the splenium of the CC (sCC) were greater than in the genu of the CC (gCC), whereas the RD of the sCC was lower than the RD of the gCC. The FA of right-hemisphere TOIs was significantly greater than that of left-hemisphere TOIs. In infants, growth rates of both FA and RD were larger than those of AD. Our data show that developmental patterns differ by TOIs and myelination along with the development of white matter, which can be mainly expressed as an increase in FA together with a decrease in RD. These findings clarify the long-term normal developmental characteristics of white matter microstructure from infancy to early adulthood. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Targeted Serum Metabolite Profiling Identifies Metabolic Signatures in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease, Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus and Brain Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Orešič

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Progression to AD is preceded by elevated levels of 2,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (2,4-DHB, implicating hypoxia in early pathogenesis. Since hypoxia may play a role in multiple CNS disorders, we investigated serum metabolite profiles across three disorders, AD, Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH and brain tumors (BT. Blood samples were collected from 27 NPH and 20 BT patients. The profiles of 21 metabolites were examined. Additionally, data from 37 AD patients and 46 controls from a previous study were analyzed together with the newly acquired data. No differences in 2,4-DHB were found across AD, NPH and BT samples. In the BT group, the fatty acids were increased as compared to HC and NPH groups, while the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate was increased as compared to AD. Glutamic acid was increased in AD as compared to the HC group. In the AD group, 3-hydroxybutyrate tended to be decreased with respect to all other groups (mean values −30% or more, but the differences were not statistically significant. Serine was increased in NPH as compared to BT. In conclusion, AD, NPH and BT have different metabolic profiles. This preliminary study may help in identifying the blood based markers that are specific to these three CNS diseases.

  20. Synaptic genes are extensively downregulated across multiple brain regions in normal human aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Nicole C.; Coleman, Paul D.; Cribbs, David H.; Rogers, Joseph; Gillen, Daniel L.; Cotman, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Synapses are essential for transmitting, processing, and storing information, all of which decline in aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Because synapse loss only partially accounts for the cognitive declines seen in aging and AD, we hypothesized that existing synapses might undergo molecular changes that reduce their functional capacity. Microarrays were used to evaluate expression profiles of 340 synaptic genes in aging (20–99 years) and AD across 4 brain regions from 81 cases. The analysis revealed an unexpectedly large number of significant expression changes in synapse-related genes in aging, with many undergoing progressive downregulation across aging and AD. Functional classification of the genes showing altered expression revealed that multiple aspects of synaptic function are affected, notably synaptic vesicle trafficking and release, neurotransmitter receptors and receptor trafficking, postsynaptic density scaffolding, cell adhesion regulating synaptic stability, and neuromodulatory systems. The widespread declines in synaptic gene expression in normal aging suggests that function of existing synapses might be impaired, and that a common set of synaptic genes are vulnerable to change in aging and AD. PMID:23273601

  1. Analysis of Morphological Characteristics and Origins of Idiopathic Premature Ventricular Contractions Under a 12-Lead Electrocardiogram in Children with Structurally Normal Hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianbin; He, Yuee; Qiu, Huixian; Zhang, Yuanhai; Chu, Maoping; Li, Yuechun; Chen, Qi

    2017-10-21

    Up to 40% of healthy children have premature ventricular complexes or contractions (PVCs) detected with 24-hour Holter monitoring. We aimed to investigate the morphological characteristics and origins of idiopathic PVCs under a 12-lead electrocardiogram in children with structurally normal hearts. All asymptomatic monomorphic PVC patients with structurally normal hearts under 18 years of age were included in this retrospective study. Characteristics of PVCs in lead V 1 under a 12-lead electrocardiogram were classified as left bundle branch block (PVC-LBBB) or right bundle branch block (PVC-RBBB). According to limb leads, PVC-LBBB or PVC-RBBB was divided into: PVCs-LBBB type I; PVCs-LBBB type II; PVCs-RBBB type I; PVCs-RBBB type II; and PVCs-RBBB type III. Out of 178 PVC patients, 94 cases of PVCs-LBBB (PVCs-LBBB type I = 60; PVCs-LBBB type II = 34) and 84 cases of PVCs-RBBB (PVCs-RBBB type I = 3; PVCs-RBBB type II = 55; PVCs-RBBB type III = 26) were identified. The frequency of PVCs-LBBB type I increased with age and the frequency of PVCs-RBBB type II and III decreased with age. Among the children monitor tested, from 1 years old to 18 years old, PVCs originating from the left or right ventricular outflow tract gradually increased with age, while PVCs originating from the branch sources decreased with age.

  2. Analysis of simulataneous I-123-IPT/Tc-99m-HMPAO dual isotope brain SPECT in Parkinson's disease and normal volunteers using SPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. A.; Juh, R. H.; Kim, S. H.; Park, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    The basal ganglia are usually poorly delineated in Parkinson's diseases on IPT images. We have studied simultaneous dual isotope brain SPECTs using I-123-IPT and Tc-99m-HMPAO, in order to overcome this limitation of IPT imaging. 17 patients (M: 7, F: 10) with Parkinson's disease (Idiopathic parkison's disease: 12, Multiple system atrophy: 5) and 4 normal volunteers (N) underwent the dual isotope brain SPECT following simultaneously injection of 370 MBq Tc-99m-HMPAO (energy window: 130-146 keV) and 111 MBq I-123-IPT (energy window: 152-168 keV). We first obtained parameters of spatial normalization during spatial normalization of Tc-99m-HMPAO brain SPECT using SPECT template. Using these parameters, we could spatially normalized I-123-IPT brain PSECT to standard space, because these images were obtained simultaneously. The difference between each groups(N vs IPD, N vs MSA, IPD vs MSA) were compared with t-test (p<0.01). We demonstrated decreased perfusion in the head and body caudate and globus pallidus on MSA compared with IPD. No significant hypo- and hyperperfusion area was observed in the other analysis. The method proposed in this study can effectively evaluate the dopamine function, and is easily applicable to conventional gamma camera system with any dual energy window acquisition modes

  3. Morphological characteristics of the optic nerve evaluated by confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC) in a normal population from the city of Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, M; Pazos, M; Morilla, A; Sebastián, M A; Xancó, R; Mora, C; Calderón, B; Vega, Z; Antón, A

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate morphological parameters of optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) examined with confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC) in a normal population, and analyze correlations of these parameters with demographic variables. Cross-sectional study in the context of a glaucoma screening campaign in the primary care center of Barcelona. The individuals selected were non-hypertensive Mediterranean Caucasians with risk for glaucoma development (individuals≥60 years old or≥40 years old with family history of glaucoma or intraocular pressure or myopia>3diopter). All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and scanning laser polarimetry (GDX-VCC), subjects with results within normal limits only being included. Structural parameters were analyzed along with age, refraction, and pachymetry based on the Spearman rank correlation test. A total of 224 subjects included, with a mean age of 63.4±11.1 years. Disc areas, excavation and ring area were 2.14±0.52mm(2), 0.44±0.34mm (2) and 1.69±0.38mm(2), respectively. The mean RNFL (GDX) was 55.9±6.9μm. Age was correlated with lower ring volume, highest rate of cup shape measure, largest mean and maximum cup depth, lower nerve fiber index (NFI) and RNFL (all p-values below .05). The mean values and distribution of several parameters of the papilla and the RNFL in normal Mediterranean Caucasians population are presented. A loss of thickness of the RNFL, ring thinning, and enlarged cup was observed with increased age. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain protein synthesis in normal and demented patients. A study by P.E.T. with 11C-L methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustany, P.; Soussaline, F.; Comar, D.; Henry, J.F.

    1982-09-01

    A compartmental model representing protein synthesis in the brain was validated experimentally in 9 baboons. After sequential injections of 11 C, 3 H and 14 C methionines on the same animal, followed by P.E.T. recording of the γ activity in a chosen brain section with time, the distribution of methionine injected into the different compartments of the model after a bolus was measured by crushing and precipitation with T.C.A. The agreement between direct in vitro findings and computed results is excellent. This method of studying brain protein synthesis in vivo was applied to 28 Alzheimer dementia cases and 20 normal subjects of the same age. The correlation between the results of clinical and psychometric tests and the brain protein synthesis activity confirms an anomaly in this biochemical synthesis process during the illness. A 65% fall in activity may be found in the frontal lobes of certain patients

  5. Cerebral circulation and metabolism in the patients with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic minor traumatic brain injury. A study by the positron emission tomography in twenty subjects with normal MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabasawa, Hidehiro; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Iida, Akihiko; Matsubara, Michitaka [Nagoya City Rehabilitation and Sports Center (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Many individuals are affected on their higher brain functions, such as intelligence, memory, and attention, even after minor traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Although higher brain dysfunction is based on impairment of the cerebral circulation and metabolism, the precise relationship between them remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the cerebral circulation or cerebral metabolism and higher brain dysfunction. Twenty subjects with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic MTBI were studied. They had no abnormal MRI findings. The full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) were quantitatively evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the subjects were classified into the normal group and the impaired group. Concurrent with the evaluation of FIQ, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed by the steady state method with {sup 15}O gases inhalation. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) were calculated in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. First, of all twenty subjects, we investigated rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} in all regions. Then we compared rCBF, OEF, and CMRO{sub 2} between the normal group and the impaired group based on FIQ score. We also studied the change of FIQ score of 13 subjects 9.3 months after the first evaluation. In addition, we investigated the change of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} along with the improvement of FIQ score. Although rCBF and OEF of all subjects were within the normal range in all regions, CMRO{sub 2} of more than half of subjects was under the lower normal limit in all regions except in the right occipital lobe, showing the presence of ''relative luxury perfusion''. Comparison of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} between normal group and impaired group revealed that CMRO{sub 2} of the impaired group was significantly lower than that of the

  6. Cerebral circulation and metabolism in the patients with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic minor traumatic brain injury. A study by the positron emission tomography in twenty subjects with normal MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabasawa, Hidehiro; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Iida, Akihiko; Matsubara, Michitaka

    2002-01-01

    Many individuals are affected on their higher brain functions, such as intelligence, memory, and attention, even after minor traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Although higher brain dysfunction is based on impairment of the cerebral circulation and metabolism, the precise relationship between them remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the cerebral circulation or cerebral metabolism and higher brain dysfunction. Twenty subjects with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic MTBI were studied. They had no abnormal MRI findings. The full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) were quantitatively evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the subjects were classified into the normal group and the impaired group. Concurrent with the evaluation of FIQ, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed by the steady state method with 15 O gases inhalation. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) were calculated in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. First, of all twenty subjects, we investigated rCBF, OEF and CMRO 2 in all regions. Then we compared rCBF, OEF, and CMRO 2 between the normal group and the impaired group based on FIQ score. We also studied the change of FIQ score of 13 subjects 9.3 months after the first evaluation. In addition, we investigated the change of rCBF, OEF and CMRO 2 along with the improvement of FIQ score. Although rCBF and OEF of all subjects were within the normal range in all regions, CMRO 2 of more than half of subjects was under the lower normal limit in all regions except in the right occipital lobe, showing the presence of ''relative luxury perfusion''. Comparison of rCBF, OEF and CMRO 2 between normal group and impaired group revealed that CMRO 2 of the impaired group was significantly lower than that of the normal group in the bilateral frontal, temporal, and occipital

  7. The clinical utility of MR diffusion tensor imaging and spatially normalized PET to evaluate traumatic brain injury patients with memory and cognitive impairments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Ayumi; Yasokawa, Yuuto; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Shinoda, Jun; Iwama, Toru

    2005-01-01

    We detected and compared abnormal brain areas using both MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET for traumatic brain injury patients with memory and cognitive impairments. Twenty normal subjects and eighteen diffuse axonal injury patients with memory and cognitive impairments were studied with DTI and eZIS of 18 F-FDG-PET. DTI contained fractional anisotorophy (FA) analysis and the tractography for the corpus callosum. After PET imaging was performed, statistical analysis using eZIS was undergone with followed processing steps, including smoothing, normalization and z transformation with respect to normal database. Z score map was superimposed on 3D MRI brain. Group analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). In diffuse axonal injury patients, the decline of FA was observed around the corpus callosum in comparison with normal subjects and the reduction of glucose metabolism was shown in the cingulated association. These results suggest that the reduction of metabolism within the cingulated cortex indicated deprived neuronal activation caused by the impaired neuronal connectivity that was revealed with DTI. Furthermore, the metabolic abnormalities within the cingulated cortex may be responsible for memory and cognitive impairments. DTI and spatially normalized PET have a role in neuroimaging interpretation for patients with memory and cognition impairments be cause its 3D better visualization allows objective and systematic investigation. (author)

  8. Automated method to compute Evans index for diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus on brain CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Ohmura, Tomomi; Matsuyama, Eri; Toyoshima, Hideto

    2017-03-01

    The early diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) considered as a treatable dementia is important. The iNPH causes enlargement of lateral ventricles (LVs). The degree of the enlargement of the LVs on CT or MR images is evaluated by using a diagnostic imaging criterion, Evans index. Evans index is defined as the ratio of the maximal width of frontal horns (FH) of the LVs to the maximal width of the inner skull (IS). Evans index is the most commonly used parameter for the evaluation of ventricular enlargement. However, manual measurement of Evans index is a time-consuming process. In this study, we present an automated method to compute Evans index on brain CT images. The algorithm of the method consisted of five major steps: standardization of CT data to an atlas, extraction of FH and IS regions, the search for the outmost points of bilateral FH regions, determination of the maximal widths of both the FH and the IS, and calculation of Evans index. The standardization to the atlas was performed by using linear affine transformation and non-linear wrapping techniques. The FH regions were segmented by using a three dimensional region growing technique. This scheme was applied to CT scans from 44 subjects, including 13 iNPH patients. The average difference in Evans index between the proposed method and manual measurement was 0.01 (1.6%), and the correlation coefficient of these data for the Evans index was 0.98. Therefore, this computerized method may have the potential to accurately compute Evans index for the diagnosis of iNPH on CT images.

  9. Heptanoate as a neural fuel: energetic and neurotransmitter precursors in normal and glucose transporter I-deficient (G1D) brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Good, Levi B; Ma, Qian; Malloy, Craig R; Pascual, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that triheptanoin can ameliorate seizures by supplying the tricarboxylic acid cycle with both acetyl-CoA for energy production and propionyl-CoA to replenish cycle intermediates. These potential effects may also be important in other disorders associated with impaired glucose metabolism because glucose supplies, in addition to acetyl-CoA, pyruvate, which fulfills biosynthetic demands via carboxylation. In patients with glucose transporter type I deficiency (G1D), ketogenic diet fat (a source only of acetyl-CoA) reduces seizures, but other symptoms persist, providing the motivation for studying heptanoate metabolism. In this work, metabolism of infused [5,6,7-13C3]heptanoate was examined in the normal mouse brain and in G1D by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In both groups, plasma glucose was enriched in 13C, confirming gluconeogenesis from heptanoate. Acetyl-CoA and glutamine levels became significantly higher in the brain of G1D mice relative to normal mice. In addition, brain glutamine concentration and 13C enrichment were also greater when compared with glutamate in both animal groups, suggesting that heptanoate and/or C5 ketones are primarily metabolized by glia. These results enlighten the mechanism of heptanoate metabolism in the normal and glucose-deficient brain and encourage further studies to elucidate its potential antiepileptic effects in disorders of energy metabolism. PMID:23072752

  10. Uniform distributions of glucose oxidation and oxygen extraction in gray matter of normal human brain: No evidence of regional differences of aerobic glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Fahmeed; Herman, Peter; Bailey, Christopher J; Møller, Arne; Globinsky, Ronen; Fulbright, Robert K; Rothman, Douglas L; Gjedde, Albert

    2016-05-01

    Regionally variable rates of aerobic glycolysis in brain networks identified by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) imply regionally variable adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regeneration. When regional glucose utilization is not matched to oxygen delivery, affected regions have correspondingly variable rates of ATP and lactate production. We tested the extent to which aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation power R-fMRI networks by measuring quantitative differences between the oxygen to glucose index (OGI) and the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in normal human brain (resting awake, eyes closed). Regionally uniform and correlated OEF and OGI estimates prevailed, with network values that matched the gray matter means, regardless of size, location, and origin. The spatial agreement between oxygen delivery (OEF≈0.4) and glucose oxidation (OGI ≈ 5.3) suggests that no specific regions have preferentially high aerobic glycolysis and low oxidative phosphorylation rates, with globally optimal maximum ATP turnover rates (VATP ≈ 9.4 µmol/g/min), in good agreement with (31)P and (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. These results imply that the intrinsic network activity in healthy human brain powers the entire gray matter with ubiquitously high rates of glucose oxidation. Reports of departures from normal brain-wide homogeny of oxygen extraction fraction and oxygen to glucose index may be due to normalization artefacts from relative PET measurements. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Elemental concentrations and tracer uptake behavior of manganese, zinc, and selenium in brain of normal mice during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarohda, Tohru; Yabushita, Yuko; Kanayama, Yousuke; Amano, Ryohei; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations and uptake behavior of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in mouse brain were studied by a multitracer technique, neutron activation analysis and autoradiography. Comparative concentrations on Mn, Zn, and Se and tracer uptake behavior of 54 Mn, 65 Zn, and 75 Se were examined in brains of 1-, 4-, 8-, 21-, and 56-day-old mice, and evaluated in terms of brain concentration (parts per million, ppm) and brain uptake rate (the radioactivity percentage of injected dose per gram of brain, %dose/g), respectively. As a result, the brain concentrations of Mn increased with growth, although those of Se and Zn did not change. On the other hand, the uptakes of the three tracers by brains of 1-day-old mice were much higher than those of older ones. Using radioactive 54 Mn as a single tracer, autoradiography was examined to determine the Mn uptake regional distribution in brains of 1-, 8-, and 21-day-old mice, and a higher regional uptake of Mn by the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus in brains of young mice was observed. (author)

  12. Relationship of metabolic and endocrine parameters to brain glucose metabolism in older adults: do cognitively-normal older adults have a particular metabolic phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, S; Castellano, C A; Bocti, C; Dionne, I; Fulop, T; Cunnane, S C

    2016-02-01

    Our primary objective in this study was to quantify whole brain and regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRg) in young and older adults in order to determine age-normalized reference CMRg values for healthy older adults with normal cognition for age. Our secondary objectives were to--(i) report a broader range of metabolic and endocrine parameters including body fat composition that could form the basis for the concept of a 'metabolic phenotype' in cognitively normal, older adults, and (ii) to assess whether medications commonly used to control blood lipids, blood pressure or thyroxine affect CMRg values in older adults. Cognition assessed by a battery of tests was normal for age and education in both groups. Compared to the young group (25 years old; n = 34), the older group (72 years old; n = 41) had ~14% lower CMRg (μmol/100 g/min) specifically in the frontal cortex, and 18% lower CMRg in the caudate. Lower grey matter volume and cortical thickness was widespread in the older group. These differences in CMRg, grey matter volume and cortical thickness were present in the absence of any known evidence for prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Percent total body fat was positively correlated with CMRg in many brain regions but only in the older group. Before and after controlling for body fat, HOMA2-IR was significantly positively correlated to CMRg in several brain regions in the older group. These data show that compared to a healthy younger adult, the metabolic phenotype of a cognitively-normal 72 year old person includes similar plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and TSH, higher hemoglobin A1c and percent body fat, lower CMRg in the superior frontal cortex and caudate, but the same CMRg in the hippocampus and white matter. Age-normalization of cognitive test results is standard practice and we would suggest that regional CMRg in cognitively healthy older adults should also be age-normalized.

  13. Influence of refractive error on pupillary dynamics in the normal and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Q. Truong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There have been several studies investigating static, baseline pupil diameter in visually-normal individuals across refractive error. However, none have assessed the dynamic pupillary light reflex (PLR. In the present study, both static and dynamic pupillary parameters of the PLR were assessed in both the visually-normal (VN and the mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI populations and compared as a function of refractive error. Methods: The VN population comprised 40 adults (22–56 years of age, while the mTBI population comprised 32 adults (21–60 years of age over a range of refractive errors (−9.00 D to +1.25 D. Seven pupillary parameters (baseline static diameter, latency, amplitude, and peak and average constriction and dilation velocities were assessed and compared under four white-light stimulus conditions (dim pulse, dim step, bright pulse, and bright step. The Neuroptics, infrared, DP-2000 binocular pupillometer (30 Hz sampling rate; 0.05 mm resolution was used in the monocular (right eye stimulation mode. Results: For the majority of pupillary parameters and stimulus conditions, a Gaussian distribution best fit the data, with the apex centered in the low myopic range (−2.3 to −4.9D. Responsivity was reduced to either side of the apex. Conclusions: Over a range of dynamic and static pupillary parameters, the PLR was influenced by refractive error in both populations. In cases of high refractive error, the PLR parameters may need to be compensated for this factor for proper categorization and diagnosis. Resumen: Objetivo: Existen diversos estudios que han investigado el diámetro pupilar estático y basal en individuos con visión normal en todo el espectro de errores refractivos. Sin embargo, ninguno de ellos ha evaluado el reflejo dinámico pupilar a la luz (RPL. En el presente estudio, se evaluaron tanto los parámetros pupilares estáticos como los dinámicos en poblaciones con visión normal (VN y en las afectadas

  14. Automatic extraction analysis of the anatomical functional area for normal brain 18F-FDG PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanhua; Jiang Xufeng; Zhang Liying; Lu Zhongwei; Li Peiyong; Zhu Chengmo; Zhang Jiange; Pan Jiapu

    2003-01-01

    Using self-designed automatic extraction software of brain functional area, the grey scale distribution of 18 F-FDG imaging and the relationship between the 18 F-FDG accumulation of brain anatomic function area and the 18 F-FDG injected dose, the level of glucose, the age, etc., were studied. According to the Talairach coordinate system, after rotation, drift and plastic deformation, the 18 F-FDG PET imaging was registered into the Talairach coordinate atlas, and then the average gray value scale ratios between individual brain anatomic functional area and whole brain area was calculated. Further more the statistics of the relationship between the 18 F-FDG accumulation of every brain anatomic function area and the 18 F-FDG injected dose, the level of glucose and the age were tested by using multiple stepwise regression model. After images' registration, smoothing and extraction, main cerebral cortex of the 18 F-FDG PET brain imaging can be successfully localized and extracted, such as frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain ventricle, thalamus and hippocampus. The average ratios to the inner reference of every brain anatomic functional area were 1.01 ± 0.15. By multiple stepwise regression with the exception of thalamus and hippocampus, the grey scale of all the brain functional area was negatively correlated to the ages, but with no correlation to blood sugar and dose in all areas. To the 18 F-FDG PET imaging, the brain functional area extraction program could automatically delineate most of the cerebral cortical area, and also successfully reflect the brain blood and metabolic study, but extraction of the more detailed area needs further investigation

  15. Differences in brain functional connectivity at resting state in neonates born to healthy obese or normal-weight mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown associations between maternal obesity at pre- or early pregnancy and long-term neurodevelopment in children, suggesting in utero effects of maternal obesity on offspring brain development. In this study, we examined whether brain functional connectivity to the prefrontal lo...

  16. Myelination progression in language-correlated regions in brain of normal children determined by quantitative MRI assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Peijen; Kuan, Chen-Chieh; Kaga, Kimitaka; Sano, Masaki; Mima, Kazuo

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the myelination progression course in language-correlated regions of children with normal brain development by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis compared with histological studies. The subjects were 241 neurologically intact neonates, infants and young children (128 boys and 113 girls) who underwent MRI between 2001 and 2007 at the University of Tokyo Hospital, ranging in age from 0 to 429 weeks corrected by postnatal age. To compare their data with adult values, 25 adolescents and adults (14 men and 11 women, aged from 14 to 83 years) were examined as controls. Axial T2-weighted images were obtained using spin-echo sequences at 1.5 T. Subjects with a history of prematurity, birth asphyxia, low Apgar score, seizures, active systemic disease, congenital anomaly, delayed development, infarcts, hemorrhages, brain lesions, or central nervous system malformation were excluded from the analysis. Seven regions of interest in language-correlated areas, namely Broca's area, Wernicke's area, the arcuate fasciculus, and the angular gyrus, as well as their right hemisphere homologous regions, and the auditory cortex, the motor cortex, and the visual cortex were examined. Signal intensity obtained by a region-of-interest methodology progresses from hyper- to hypointensity during myelination. We chose the inferior cerebellar peduncle as the internal standard of maturation. Myelination in all these seven language-correlated regions examined in this study shared the same curve pattern: no myelination was observed at birth, it reached maturation at about 1.5 years of age, and it continued to progress slowly thereafter into adult life. On the basis of scatter plot results, we put these areas into three groups: Group A, which included the motor cortex, the auditory cortex, and the visual cortex, myelinated faster than Group B, which included Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and the angular gyrus before 1.5 years old; Group C, consisting of the

  17. Liver transplantation nearly normalizes brain spontaneous activity and cognitive function at 1 month: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yue; Huang, Lixiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhong, Jianhui; Ji, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Chen, Lihua; Zuo, Panli; Zhang, Long Jiang; Shen, Wen

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the short-term brain activity changes in cirrhotic patients with Liver transplantation (LT) using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) with regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Twenty-six cirrhotic patients as transplant candidates and 26 healthy controls were included in this study. The assessment was repeated for a sub-group of 12 patients 1 month after LT. ReHo values were calculated to evaluate spontaneous brain activity and whole brain voxel-wise analysis was carried to detect differences between groups. Correlation analyses were performed to explore the relationship between the change of ReHo with the change of clinical indexes pre- and post-LT. Compared to pre-LT, ReHo values increased in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right inferior parietal lobule (IPL), right supplementary motor area (SMA), right STG and left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in patients post-LT. Compared to controls, ReHo values of post-LT patients decreased in the right precuneus, right SMA and increased in bilateral temporal pole, left caudate, left MFG, and right STG. The changes of ReHo in the right SMA, STG and IFG were correlated with change of digit symbol test (DST) scores (P brain activity of most brain regions with decreased ReHo in pre-LT was substantially improved and nearly normalized, while spontaneous brain activity of some brain regions with increased ReHo in pre-LT continuously increased. ReHo may provide information on the neural mechanisms of LT' effects on brain function.

  18. Computed tomography of the dog's brain: normal aspects and anatomical correlation; Tomografia computadorizada do encefalo do cao: aspectos da nor