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Sample records for normal brain comparisons

  1. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

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    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  2. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of degenerating brain: a comparison of normal aging, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubisavljevic, M R; Ismail, F Y; Filipovic, S

    2013-07-01

    Although the brain's ability to change constantly in response to external and internal inputs is now well recognized the mechanisms behind it in normal aging and neurodegeneration are less well understood. To gain a better understanding, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used extensively to characterize non-invasively the cortical neurophysiology of the aging and degenerating brain. Furthermore, there has been a surge of studies examining whether repetitive TMS (rTMS) can be used to improve functional deficits in various conditions including normal aging, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The results of these studies in normal aging and neurodegeneration have emerged reasonably coherent in delineating the main pathology in spite of considerable technical limitations, omnipresent methodological variability, and extraordinary patient heterogeneity. Nevertheless, comparing and integrating what is known about TMS measurements of cortical excitability and plasticity in disorders that predominantly affect cortical brain structures with disorders that predominantly affect subcortical brain structures may provide better understanding of normal and abnormal brain aging fostering new. The present review provides a TMS perspective of changes in cortical neurophysiology and neurochemistry in normal aging and neurodegeneration by integrating what is revealed in individual TMS measurements of cortical excitability and plasticity in physiological aging, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's, disease. The paper also reflects on current developments in utilizing TMS as a physiologic biomarker to discriminate physiologic aging from neurodegeneration and its potential as a method of therapeutic intervention.

  3. The DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin counteracts stroke in the normal and diabetic mouse brain: a comparison with glimepiride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsalia, Vladimer; Ortsäter, Henrik; Olverling, Anna; Darlöf, Emilia; Wolbert, Petra; Nyström, Thomas; Klein, Thomas; Sjöholm, Åke; Patrone, Cesare

    2013-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a strong risk factor for stroke. Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor in clinical use against type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the potential antistroke efficacy of linagliptin in type 2 diabetic mice. To understand whether efficacy was mediated by glycemia regulation, a comparison with the sulfonylurea glimepiride was done. To determine whether linagliptin-mediated efficacy was dependent on a diabetic background, experiments in nondiabetic mice were performed. Type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding the mice a high-fat diet for 32 weeks. Mice were treated with linagliptin/glimepiride for 7 weeks. Stroke was induced at 4 weeks into the treatment by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Blood DPP-4 activity, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels, glucose, body weight, and food intake were assessed throughout the experiments. Ischemic brain damage was measured by determining stroke volume and by stereologic quantifications of surviving neurons in the striatum/cortex. We show pronounced antistroke efficacy of linagliptin in type 2 diabetic and normal mice, whereas glimepiride proved efficacious against stroke in normal mice only. These results indicate a linagliptin-mediated neuroprotection that is glucose-independent and likely involves GLP-1. The findings may provide an impetus for the development of DPP-4 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of stroke in diabetic patients.

  4. Normal language in abnormal brains.

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    Piattelli-Palmarini, Massimo

    2017-02-27

    There is little doubt that, in the adult, specific brain lesions cause specific language deficits. Yet, brain localizations of linguistic functions are made problematic by several reported cases of normal language in spite of major brain anomalies, mostly, but not exclusively, occurring early in life. The signal cases are hydrocephaly, spina bifida and hemispherectomy. These cases are discussed and possible solutions are suggested: namely a vast redundancy of neurons and/or the role of microtubules as neuron-internal processors and key factors in signaling and guiding the growth and reconfiguration of the brain.

  5. Comparison of molecular signatures in large scale protein interaction networks in normal and cancer conditions of brain, cervix, lung, ovary and prostate

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    Rajat Suvra Banik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cancer, the disease of intricateness, has remained beyond our complete perception so far. Network systems biology (termed NSB is one of the most recent approaches to understand the unsolved problems of cancer development. From this perspective, differential protein networks (PINs have been developed based on the expression and interaction data of brain, cervix, lung, ovary and prostate for normal and cancer conditions. Methods Differential expression database GeneHub-GEPIS and interaction database STRING were applied for primary data retrieval. Cytoscape platform and related plugins named network analyzer; MCODE and ModuLand were used for visualization of complex networks and subsequent analysis. Results Significant differences were observedamong different common network parameters between normal and cancer states. Moreover, molecular complex numbers and overlapping modularization found to be varying significantly between normal and cancerous tissues. The number of the ranked molecular complex and the nodes involved in the overlapping modules were meaningfully higher in cancer condition.We identified79 commonly up regulated and 6 down regulated proteins in all five tissues. Number of nodes, edges; multi edge node pair, and average number of neighbor are found with significant fluctuations in case of cervix and ovarian tissues.Cluster analysis showed that the association of Myc and Cdk4 proteins is very close with other proteins within the network.Cervix and ovarian tissue showed higher increment of the molecular complex number and overlapping module network during cancer in comparison to normal state. Conclusions The differential molecular signatures identified from the work can be studied further to understand the cancer signaling process, and potential therapeutic and detection approach. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(4.000: 605-615

  6. [Comparison of the brain pharmacokinetics of nasal tetramethylpyrazine phosphate pH-sensitive in situ gel in normal rats and model rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Wei; Yan, Yi-Lin; Zhou, Li-Ling

    2012-05-01

    The study is to investigate the brain pharmacokinetics change of nasal tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP) pH-sensitive in situ gel in normal and model rats. Acute cerebral ischemia rat model was successfully established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method. Both normal and model rats were given nasal TMPP pH-sensitive in situ gel (10 mg x kg(-1)). Perfusates of brain striatum area were collected at each time point by microdialysis. The content of TMPP was determined by HPLC. The pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated by Kinetica 4.4 software at each time point of the brain drug concentration. The main pharmacokinetics parameters of TMPP were fitted with compartments 2. After nasal TMPP pH-sensitive in situ gel the values of C(max) and AUC of both components in brain showed as follows: the value of model group > that of normal group. Significant difference can be observed in the process of brain pharmacokinetics in normal and model rats after giving nasal TMPP pH-sensitive in situ gel.

  7. Proteomic analysis of normal murine brain parts.

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    Taraslia, Vasiliki K; Kouskoukis, Alexandros; Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H; Tsangaris, George Th

    2013-01-01

    Murine brain is an excellent tool for studying protein expression and brain function in mammals. Although mice are an extensively used model to recapitulate various pathological conditions, the proteome of the normal mouse brain has not been yet reported. In the present study, we identified the total proteins of different parts of the brain of CB7BL/6 mice, a widely used strain, by applying proteomic methodologies. The adult mouse brain was dissected anatomically into the following regions: frontal cortex, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, midbrain, cerebellum, hypothalamus and medulla. Total protein extracts of these regions were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, following in-gel digestion with trypsin. Protein identification was carried out by peptide mass fingerprint. Thus, 515 different single-gene products were identified in total, 54 expressed specifically in the olfactory bulb, 62 in the hippocampus, 36 in the frontal cortex, five in the cerebellum, nine in the midbrain, eight in the hypothamamus and 10 in the medulla. The majority of the proteins were enzymes, structural proteins and transporters. Moreover, the distribution of these molecules appears to exhibit direct correlation with the function of the brain regions where they were expressed. This study leads to the complete characterization of the normal mouse brain proteome as well as the protein expression profile of the different brain regions. These results will aid in addressing unmet scientific needs regarding physiological and pathological brain functions.

  8. Lymphoreticular cells in human brain tumours and in normal brain.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation, using various rosetting assays of cell suspensions prepared by mechanical disaggregation or collagenase digestion, demonstrated lymphoreticular cells in human normal brain (cerebral cortex and cerebellum) and in malignant brain tumours. The study revealed T and B lymphocytes and their subsets (bearing receptors for Fc(IgG) and C3) in 5/14 glioma suspensions, comprising less than 15% of the cell population. Between 20-60% of cells in tumour suspensions morphologicall...

  9. Spatial normalization of brain images and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, J-F; Lebenberg, J; Lefranc, S; Labra, N; Auzias, G; Labit, M; Guevara, M; Mohlberg, H; Roca, P; Guevara, P; Dubois, J; Leroy, F; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Cachia, A; Dickscheid, T; Coulon, O; Poupon, C; Rivière, D; Amunts, K; Sun, Z Y

    2016-10-01

    The deformable atlas paradigm has been at the core of computational anatomy during the last two decades. Spatial normalization is the variant endowing the atlas with a coordinate system used for voxel-based aggregation of images across subjects and studies. This framework has largely contributed to the success of brain mapping. Brain spatial normalization, however, is still ill-posed because of the complexity of the human brain architecture and the lack of architectural landmarks in standard morphological MRI. Multi-atlas strategies have been developed during the last decade to overcome some difficulties in the context of segmentation. A new generation of registration algorithms embedding architectural features inferred for instance from diffusion or functional MRI is on the verge to improve the architectural value of spatial normalization. A better understanding of the architectural meaning of the cortical folding pattern will lead to use some sulci as complementary constraints. Improving the architectural compliance of spatial normalization may impose to relax the diffeomorphic constraint usually underlying atlas warping. A two-level strategy could be designed: in each region, a dictionary of templates of incompatible folding patterns would be collected and matched in a way or another using rare architectural information, while individual subjects would be aligned using diffeomorphisms to the closest template. Manifold learning could help to aggregate subjects according to their morphology. Connectivity-based strategies could emerge as an alternative to deformation-based alignment leading to match the connectomes of the subjects rather than images.

  10. Human brain : biochemical lateralization in normal subjects.

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    Jayasundar R

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical asymmetries in normal human brain were studied using the non-invasive technique of volume localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. The technique of STEAM was used to acquire water-suppressed proton spectra from 8 ml voxels placed in bilaterally symmetrical positions in the two hemispheres of the brain. One hundred and sixty eight right-handed male volunteers were studied for six different regions in the brain (n=28, for each region. Parietal, occipital, temporal, frontal, thalamus and cerebellum regions were studied. The focus was on metabolites such as N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr/PCr and choline (Cho containing compounds. Ratios of the peak areas were calculated for them. Quantitation of the metabolites were carried for data on 18 volunteers. Significant interhemispheric differences in the distribution of metabolites were observed for all the regions studied. There were statistically significant differences on right and left side for the metabolite ratios in all the regions studied. The study has shown the existence of significant lateralization in the distribution of proton MR visible metabolites for all the regions studied.

  11. MRI of normal fetal brain development.

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    Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor; Krampl, Elisabeth; Ulm, Barbara; Witzani, Linde; Prayer, Lucas; Brugger, Peter C

    2006-02-01

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed.

  12. MRI of normal fetal brain development

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    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: Daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Krampl, Elisabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ulm, Barbara [Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed.

  13. Three-dimensional sonographic measurement of normal fetal brain volume during the second half of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Roelfsema; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); S.M. Boito; J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: This study was undertaken to develop a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound method of measuring fetal brain volume. Study design: Serial 3D sonographic measurements of fetal brain volume were made in 68 normal singleton pregnancies at 18 to 34 weeks of gestation. A comparison

  14. Brain cholesterol in normal and pathological aging

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    Vanmierlo Tim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aberrations in cerebral cholesterol homeostasis can lead to severe neurological diseases. Recent findings strengthen the link between brain cholesterol metabolism and factors involved in synaptic plasticity, a process essential for learning and memory functions, as well as regeneration, which are affected in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Cholesterol homeostasis within the brain is independent of that in the rest of the body and needs to be strictly regulated for optimal brain functioning. In contrast with what was initially assumed brain cholesterol homeostasis can be modulated by extra-cerebral factors. We have found that enhancement of the cholesterol-turnover in the brain by administration of the synthetic activator of liver x receptos (LXRs, T0901317, leads to restoration of memory functions in an AD mouse-model.Memory in C57Bl6NCrl mice was not further improved by the same treatment. Moreover, it was found that in contrast with cholesterol, the structurally very similar dietary derived plant sterols can enter the brain. Plant sterols may be natural activators of LXRs. Evidence is provided suggesting that brassicasterol may be a novel additional biomarker in cerebrospinal fluid of AD patients. Insight into the regulation of cerebral cholesterol homeostasis will provide possibilities to modulate the key steps involved and may lead to the development of therapies for the prevention as well as treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

  15. Comparison of dopamine turnover, dopamine influx constant and activity ratio of striatum and occipital brain with {sup 18}F-dopa brain PET in normal controls and patients with Parkinson's disease

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    Oehme, Liane; Perick, Maria; Kotzerke, Joerg [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Dresden (Germany); Beuthien-Baumann, Bettina; Hoff, Joerg van den [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Dresden (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PET-Zentrum, Dresden (Germany); Wolz, Martin; Storch, Alexander; Loehle, Matthias; Herting, Birgit; Reichmann, Heinz [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie, Dresden (Germany); Langner, Jens [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PET-Zentrum, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    The aim of the study was to estimate normal ranges and test-retest measures for various parameters characterising dopamine metabolism from a prolonged {sup 18}F-dopa positron emission tomography (PET) measurement using a reference tissue model and compare their value for the detection of early Parkinson's disease (PD). Healthy volunteers (n = 9) and patients (n = 36) in an early stage of PD underwent an {sup 18}F-dopa PET measurement lasting 4 h. The influx rate constant k{sub occ} and the effective distribution volume ratio (EDVR, its inverse is an indicator for dopamine turnover) were estimated by a graphical approach using dynamic data in the striatum and, as a reference region, the occipital cortex. Furthermore, ratios of activity concentrations between striatum and occipital brain taken for three time intervals completed the data analysis. All parameters were determined both in eight small volumes of interest placed in the striatum as well as averaged for caudate nucleus and putamen. For the control group, reproducibility was checked in a second study 3 months later and ranges for normal values were derived from mean {+-} 2 standard deviations. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to assess the value of the parameters for diagnostic purposes. Patients with early-stage PD and healthy volunteers could be separated by the values of the putamen, not the caudate nucleus. The normal ranges of the putamen were 0.0151-0.0216/min for the influx rate constant k{sub occ} and 2.02-3.00 for EDVR. For the various time intervals used the striato-occipital ratios yielded 2.24-3.06, 2.43-3.42 and 2.35-3.21, respectively. Patients were characterised by significantly lower values (p < 0.001) and significant differences between ipsi- and contralateral sides (p < 0.001) with regard to their clinical symptoms and a rostrocaudal gradient. EDVR as well as k{sub occ} for the putamen were able to effectively differentiate between groups (sensitivity >97

  16. Brain cholesterol in normal and pathological aging.

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    Martin, Mauricio; Dotti, Carlos G; Ledesma, Maria Dolores

    2010-08-01

    Correct lipid homeostasis at the plasma membrane is essential for cell survival and performance. These are critically challenged in the aging brain. Changes in the levels of cholesterol, a major membrane component especially enriched in neurons, accompany the brain aging process. They also occur in neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the causes and consequences of these changes is a crucial step when trying to delay the cognitive decline, which comes with age, or to design strategies to fight neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. We here review work that has contributed to this understanding. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adolescent brain development in normality and psychopathology.

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    Luciana, Monica

    2013-11-01

    Since this journal's inception, the field of adolescent brain development has flourished, as researchers have investigated the underpinnings of adolescent risk-taking behaviors. Explanations based on translational models initially attributed such behaviors to executive control deficiencies and poor frontal lobe function. This conclusion was bolstered by evidence that the prefrontal cortex and its interconnections are among the last brain regions to structurally and functionally mature. As substantial heterogeneity of prefrontal function was revealed, applications of neuroeconomic theory to adolescent development led to dual systems models of behavior. Current epidemiological trends, behavioral observations, and functional magnetic resonance imaging based brain activity patterns suggest a quadratic increase in limbically mediated incentive motivation from childhood to adolescence and a decline thereafter. This elevation occurs in the context of immature prefrontal function, so motivational strivings may be difficult to regulate. Theoretical models explain this patterning through brain-based accounts of subcortical-cortical integration, puberty-based models of adolescent sensation seeking, and neurochemical dynamics. Empirically sound tests of these mechanisms, as well as investigations of biology-context interactions, represent the field's most challenging future goals, so that applications to psychopathology can be refined and so that developmental cascades that incorporate neurobiological variables can be modeled.

  18. Use of EPO as an adjuvant in PDT of brain tumors to reduce damage to normal brain

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    Rendon, Cesar A.; Lilge, Lothar

    2004-10-01

    In order to reduce damage to surrounding normal brain in the treatment of brain tumors with photodynamic therapy (PDT), we have investigated the use of the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) to exploit its well-established role as a neuroprotective agent. In vitro experiments demonstrated that EPO does not confer protection from PDT to rat glioma cells. In vivo testing of the possibility of EPO protecting normal brain tissue was carried out. The normal brains of Lewis rats were treated with Photofrin mediated PDT (6.25 mg/Kg B.W. 22 hours pre irradiation) and the outcome of the treatment compared between animals that received EPO (5000 U/Kg B.W. 22 hours pre irradiation) and controls. This comparison was made based on the volume of necrosis, as measured with the viability stain 2,3,5- Triphenyl tetrazoium chloride (TTC), and incidence of apoptosis, as measured with in situ end labeling assay (ISEL). Western blotting showed that EPO reaches the normal brain and activates the anti-apoptotic protein PKB/AKT1 within the brain cortex. The comparison based on volume of necrosis showed no statistical significance between the two groups. No clear difference was observed in the ISEL staining between the groups. A possible lack of responsivity in the assays that give rise to these results is discussed and future corrections are described.

  19. Variation within the Huntington's disease gene influences normal brain structure.

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    Mark Mühlau

    Full Text Available Genetics of the variability of normal and diseased brain structure largely remains to be elucidated. Expansions of certain trinucleotide repeats cause neurodegenerative disorders of which Huntington's disease constitutes the most common example. Here, we test the hypothesis that variation within the IT15 gene on chromosome 4, whose expansion causes Huntington's disease, influences normal human brain structure. In 278 normal subjects, we determined CAG repeat length within the IT15 gene on chromosome 4 and analyzed high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images by the use of voxel-based morphometry. We found an increase of GM with increasing long CAG repeat and its interaction with age within the pallidum, which is involved in Huntington's disease. Our study demonstrates that a certain trinucleotide repeat influences normal brain structure in humans. This result may have important implications for the understanding of both the healthy and diseased brain.

  20. Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rochellys Diaz Heijtz; Shugui Wang; Farhana Anuar; Yu Qian; Britta Björkholm; Annika Samuelsson; Martin L. Hibberd; Hans Forssberg; Sven Pettersson; Arturo Zychlinsky

    2011-01-01

    ...) mice with a normal gut microbiota. This behavioral phenotype is associated with altered expression of genes known to be involved in second messenger pathways and synaptic long-term potentiation in brain regions implicated in motor...

  1. More 'mapping' in brain mapping: statistical comparison of effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Anthony C.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2003-01-01

    The term 'mapping' in the context of brain imaging conveys to most the concept of localization; that is, a brain map is meant to reveal a relationship between some condition or parameter and specific sites within the brain. However, in reality, conventional voxel-based maps of brain function......, or for that matter of brain structure, are generally constructed using analyses that yield no basis for inferences regarding the spatial nonuniformity of the effects. In the normal analysis path for functional images, for example, there is nowhere a statistical comparison of the observed effect in any voxel relative...... to that in any other voxel. Under these circumstances, strictly speaking, the presence of significant activation serves as a legitimate basis only for inferences about the brain as a unit. In their discussion of results, investigators rarely are content to confirm the brain's role, and instead generally prefer...

  2. Factors associated with morphometric brain changes in cognitively normal aging

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    Renata Eloah de Lucena Ferretti-Rebustini

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is associated with reductions in brain weight and volume. The factors related to morphometric brain changes in cognitively normal aging remain unknown. We aimed to identify which clinical factors are associated with morphometric brain changes in cognitively normal aging. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 414 subjects, ≥50 years old submitted to clinical assessment and brain autopsy, after informed consent, was carried out at the São Paulo Autopsy Service, Brazil. Data on cognitive and functional evaluations were collected through structured interview applied to the next-of-kin. Brain weight (g and volume (mL measurements were obtained and adjusted for head circumference (cm. Associations between brain weight/volume and related factors were obtained through univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Participants were predominantly male (60.4%, Caucasian (69%, with mean age of 67.1 ± 10.9 years. Mean brain weight was 1219.2 ± 140.9 g, and mean brain volume was 1217.1 ± 152.3 mL. Head circumference was independently associated with low brain weight (p<0.001 and volume (p<0.001. Total and adjusted brain weight and volume decreased in some conditions. Female gender (p<0.001, hypertension (p<0.009, coronary artery disease (p<0.013 and walking assistance (p<0.011 were associated with lower adjusted brain weight while schooling was associated with higher adjusted brain weight (p<0.003. Female gender (p<0.001, age (p<0.001 and hypertension (p<0.011 were associated with low adjusted brain volume. CONCLUSION: Morphometric brain changes occur despite the absence of cognitive impairment and were predominantly associated with age, female gender, mobility impairment and cardiovascular conditions. Schooling may be a protective factor.

  3. More 'mapping' in brain mapping: statistical comparison of effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Anthony C.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2003-01-01

    , or for that matter of brain structure, are generally constructed using analyses that yield no basis for inferences regarding the spatial nonuniformity of the effects. In the normal analysis path for functional images, for example, there is nowhere a statistical comparison of the observed effect in any voxel relative...

  4. [Neuroethics (I): moral pathways in normal brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro-González, Luis C

    2014-03-01

    Introduccion. La moralidad es el conjunto de normas y valores que guian la conducta. Se mantienen en muy diferentes culturas. Permiten alcanzar logros sociales que solo se entienden bajo el desarrollo moral, con un sentido de justicia que penetra toda accion humana. Las funciones morales, fruto del desarrollo evolutivo, asientan en circuitos neuronales propios. Objetivo. Describir su aparicion, puesta en marcha y mecanismos operativos en el cerebro normal. Desarrollo. Las respuestas morales, en lo esencial homogeneas, estan muy vinculadas al desarrollo emocional, tanto basico e individual (miedo o ira) como social (compasion o justicia). Aparecen a partir de los binomios emocionales placer/dolor y recompensa/castigo, que conducen al binomio moral basico bueno/malo. En su puesta en marcha intervienen la corteza prefrontal (ventromedial y dorsolateral), la corteza cingular anterior y el sulco temporal superior, que serian evaluativos y elaborativos, utilitaristas; tambien la insula, la amigdala y el hipotalamo, ejecutivos de las respuestas morales mas emocionales puras y rapidas. Asimismo, es importante el sistema de neuronas espejo (frontoparietal), que permite el aprendizaje motor y las conductas empaticas, con las que se vincula con la teoria de la mente. Conclusiones. El desarrollo del sentido moral y sus respuestas nos han permitido alcanzar una complejidad y convivencia social que redundan en beneficio de la especie e individuos. El conocimiento del funcionamiento moral esta influyendo tambien en territorios diversos de la neurocultura.

  5. Differentiation of cancerous and normal brain tissue using label free fluorescence and Stokes shift spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Wang, Leana; Liu, Cheng-hui; He, Yong; Yu, Xinguang; Cheng, Gangge; Wang, Peng; Shu, Cheng; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-03-01

    In this report, optical biopsy was applied to diagnose human brain cancer in vitro for the identification of brain cancer from normal tissues by native fluorescence and Stokes shift spectra (SSS). 77 brain specimens including three types of human brain tissues (normal, glioma and brain metastasis of lung cancers) were studied. In order to observe spectral changes of fluorophores via fluorescence, the selected excitation wavelength of UV at 300 and 340 nm for emission spectra and a different Stokes Shift spectra with intervals Δλ = 40 nm were measured. The fluorescence spectra and SSS from multiple key native molecular markers, such as tryptophan, collagen, NADH, alanine, ceroid and lipofuscin were observed in normal and diseased brain tissues. Two diagnostic criteria were established based on the ratios of the peak intensities and peak position in both fluorescence and SSS spectra. It was observed that the ratio of the spectral peak intensity of tryptophan (340 nm) to NADH (440 nm) increased in glioma, meningioma (benign), malignant meninges tumor, and brain metastasis of lung cancer tissues in comparison with normal tissues. The ratio of the SS spectral peak (Δλ = 40 nm) intensities from 292 nm to 366 nm had risen similarly in all grades of tumors.

  6. Do brain image databanks support understanding of normal ageing brain structure? A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickie, David Alexander; Job, Dominic E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M. [University of Edinburgh, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital, Brain Research Imaging Centre (BRIC), Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE), Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Poole, Ian [Toshiba Medical Visualisation Systems Europe, Ltd., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Ahearn, Trevor S.; Staff, Roger T.; Murray, Alison D. [University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Biomedical Imaging Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE), Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    To document accessible magnetic resonance (MR) brain images, metadata and statistical results from normal older subjects that may be used to improve diagnoses of dementia. We systematically reviewed published brain image databanks (print literature and Internet) concerned with normal ageing brain structure. From nine eligible databanks, there appeared to be 944 normal subjects aged {>=}60 years. However, many subjects were in more than one databank and not all were fully representative of normal ageing clinical characteristics. Therefore, there were approximately 343 subjects aged {>=}60 years with metadata representative of normal ageing, but only 98 subjects were openly accessible. No databank had the range of MR image sequences, e.g. T2*, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), required to effectively characterise the features of brain ageing. No databank supported random subject retrieval; therefore, manual selection bias and errors may occur in studies that use these subjects as controls. Finally, no databank stored results from statistical analyses of its brain image and metadata that may be validated with analyses of further data. Brain image databanks require open access, more subjects, metadata, MR image sequences, searchability and statistical results to improve understanding of normal ageing brain structure and diagnoses of dementia. (orig.)

  7. Comparisons of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values in Penumbra, Infarct, and Normal Brain Regions in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Confirmatory Data Using Bootstrap Confidence Intervals, Analysis of Variance, and Analysis of Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Mejia, Mariana; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2016-03-01

    There is no consensus about apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in acute stroke regions that could be used by clinicians in a day-to-day clinical practice; regional measures using confidence intervals (CIs) and a graphic representation of means are scarce in the literature. Our aim in this study was to compare ADC values in infarct, penumbra, and normal brain regions in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). This is a retrospective study of 100 magnetic resonance imaging data sets from AIS patients. ADC values were measured in the infarct, penumbra, and normal regions. Three hundred measurements underwent 1-way analysis of variance, analysis of means, and calculation of 95% and 84% CIs. There was a statistically significant difference at the P level less than .025 in ADC values for the 3 regions (F[2, 297] = 168.039, P ≤ .001), with no overlap of the CIs for the means among the regions: normal brain (mean [M] = .847, standard deviation [SD] = .103, 95% CI: .825-.866), infarct (M = .533, SD = .157, 95% CI: .501-.563), and penumbra (M = .764, SD = .110, 95% CI: .740-.787). ADC values might be used as reference data in acute stroke-specific populations; CIs would provide radiologists and clinicians with additional quantitative tools to evaluate penumbra, infarct, and normal brain tissue and to tailor follow-up and treatment options for selected patients. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A quantitative transcriptome reference map of the normal human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracausi, Maria; Vitale, Lorenza; Pelleri, Maria Chiara; Piovesan, Allison; Bruno, Samantha; Strippoli, Pierluigi

    2014-10-01

    We performed an innovative systematic meta-analysis of 60 gene expression profiles of whole normal human brain, to provide a quantitative transcriptome reference map of it, i.e. a reference typical value of expression for each of the 39,250 known, mapped and 26,026 uncharacterized (unmapped) transcripts. To this aim, we used the software named Transcriptome Mapper (TRAM), which is able to generate transcriptome maps based on gene expression data from multiple sources. We also analyzed differential expression by comparing the brain transcriptome with those derived from human foetal brain gene expression, from a pool of human tissues (except the brain) and from the two normal human brain regions cerebellum and cerebral cortex, which are two of the main regions severely affected when cognitive impairment occurs, as happens in the case of trisomy 21. Data were downloaded from microarray databases, processed and analyzed using TRAM software and validated in vitro by assaying gene expression through several magnitude orders by 'real-time' reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The excellent agreement between in silico and experimental data suggested that our transcriptome maps may be a useful quantitative reference benchmark for gene expression studies related to the human brain. Furthermore, our analysis yielded biological insights about those genes which have an intrinsic over-/under-expression in the brain, in addition offering a basis for the regional analysis of gene expression. This could be useful for the study of chromosomal alterations associated to cognitive impairment, such as trisomy 21, the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability.

  9. Computed tomographic imaging of the brain of normal neonatal foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Cabrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide a more complete description of normal cross-sectional anatomy of the neonatal brain of the foal and associated structures by computed tomography (CT and gross anatomical sections. Using a fourth-generation CT scanner, 2-mm contiguous transverse images were acquired from two neonatal 5-days-old Quarter horse foals. After the study the animals were euthanised for reasons unrelated to head pathology. To assist in the accurate identification of brain and associated structures, transverse CT images were obtained and compared with the corresponding frozen cross-sections of the head. CT images matched well with their corresponding transverse gross sections and provided good differentiation between the bones and the soft tissues of the head. These CT images are intended to be a useful initial anatomic reference in the interpretation for clinical CT imaging studies of the brain and associated structures in live neonatal foals.

  10. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Tau protein in normal and Alzheimer's disease brain: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G V; Hartigan, J A

    1999-11-01

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that, in a hyperphosphorylated form, comprises the main component of the paired helical filaments and neurofibrillary tangles found in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) brain. It is therefore important to understand the normal functioning and processing of tau protein, and the abnormal posttranslational processing of tau in AD pathology. In 1996, Johnson and Jenkins reviewed the literature on the biochemistry, function, and phosphorylation of tau in normal and AD brain. Since that time, numerous publications have come out further elucidating the properties of tau. The present review updates the topics originally covered in the 1996 review, as well as presents a number of new topics. For example, mutations in the tau gene have been found in several non-AD, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorders that exhibit extensive neurofibrillary pathology. In addition, there is increasing evidence that tau may be involved in signal transduction, organelle transport, and cell growth, independent of its microtubule-binding functions. Taken together, the research reviewed here demonstrates that tau is a very complex protein with various functions that are intricately regulated. It is clear that more research is required to completely understand the functions and regulation of tau in normal and AD brain.

  12. Normalized regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Locatelli, Laura; Stival, Barbara; Bratina, Alessio; Nasuelli, Davide; Zorzon, Marino [Department of Clinical Medicine and Neurology, Cattinara Hospital, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume, 447-34149, Trieste (Italy); Grop, Attilio [Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Brnabic-Razmilic, Ozana [Statistical Analysis Centre, Heilbronn (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    There is still a controversy regarding the best regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies. The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlate better with the MRI-defined regional brain lesions than the absolute measurements of regional brain atrophy. We assessed 45 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS (median disease duration 12 years), and measured T1-lesion load (LL) and T2-LL of frontal lobes and pons, using a reproducible semi-automated technique. The regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of frontal lobes and pons was obtained by use of a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semi-automated and automated segmentation processes. A normalized measurement, the regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF), was calculated as the ratio of RBPV to the total volume of the parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons. The total regional brain volume fraction (TRBVF) was obtained after we had corrected for the total volume of the parenchyma and the CSF in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons for the total intracranial volume. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for RBPF of the pons was 1% for intra-observer reproducibility and 1.4% for inter-observer reproducibility. Generally, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlated with regional brain volumes and disability better than did the absolute measurements. RBPF and TRBVF correlated with T2-LL of the pons (r=-0.37, P=0.011, and r= -0.40, P=0.0005 respectively) and with T1-LL of the pons (r=-0.27, P=0.046, and r=-0.31, P=0.04, respectively), whereas RBPV did not (r=-0.18, P = NS). T1-LL of the frontal lobes was related to RBPF (r=-0.32, P=0.033) and TRBVF (r=-0.29, P=0.05), but not to RBPV (R=-0.27, P= NS). There was only a trend of correlation between T2-LL of the frontal lobes and

  13. Detection of γH2AX foci in mouse normal brain and brain tumor after boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Natsuko; Michiue, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Narabayashi, Masaru; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Ono, Koji

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated γH2AX foci as markers of DSBs in normal brain and brain tumor tissue in mouse after BNCT. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a particle radiation therapy in combination of thermal neutron irradiation and boron compound that specifically accumulates in the tumor. (10)B captures neutrons and produces an alpha ((4)He) particle and a recoiled lithium nucleus ((7)Li). These particles have the characteristics of extremely high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and therefore have marked biological effects. High LET radiation causes severe DNA damage, DNA DSBs. As the high LET radiation induces complex DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), large proportions of DSBs are considered to remain unrepaired in comparison with exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation. We analyzed the number of γH2AX foci by immunohistochemistry 30 min or 24 h after neutron irradiation. In both normal brain and brain tumor, γH2AX foci induced by (10)B(n,α)(7)Li reaction remained 24 h after neutron beam irradiation. In contrast, γH2AX foci produced by γ-ray irradiation at contaminated dose in BNCT disappeared 24 h after irradiation in these tissues. DSBs produced by (10)B(n,α)(7)Li reaction are supposed to be too complex to repair for cells in normal brain and brain tumor tissue within 24 h. These DSBs would be more difficult to repair than those by γ-ray. Excellent anti-tumor effect of BNCT may result from these unrepaired DSBs induced by (10)B(n,α)(7)Li reaction.

  14. Comparison of Analytical Methods of Brain [(18)F]FDG-PET after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karine; Hesby, Sara; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    patients compared to HC. In accordance these measurements correlated to level of consciousness. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Our study demonstrates that the analysis method of the [(18)F]FDG PET data has a substantial impact on the estimated whole brain cerebral glucose metabolism in patients...... with severe TBI or reduced level of consciousness. This can be used for simple semi-quantitative uptake values by normalizing brain activity uptake to plasma tracer concentration, or quantitative estimates of CMRglc.......BACKGROUND: Loss of consciousness has been shown to reduce cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRglc) measured by brain [(18)F]FDG-PET. Measurements of regional metabolic patterns by normalization to global cerebral metabolism or cerebellum may underestimate widespread reductions. NEW METHOD...

  15. STUDY OF REGIONAL STABILITY OF ECD DISTRIBUTION IN NORMAL BRAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培勇; 陈刚; 朱承谟

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate in vivo stability of ethylenedylbis cysteine diethylester ( ECD ) brain SPECT. Methods Each of13 normal volunteers (31.2±11.8 years) has12 dynamic SPECT scans acquired in 60min 1h after an injection of 99mTc-ECD using a triple headed gamma camera equipped with ultra high resolution fan beam collimators. Average counts per pixel were measured from frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital regions, cerebellum, basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter. Regional ECD clearance rates, regional gray-to-white matter (G/W) ratios and the change of the G /W ratio were calculated. Results The average ECD clearance rate was 4.2%/h, ranged from 3.03%/h to 5.41%/h corresponding to white matter and occipital. There was no significant difference between regional ECD clearance rates. Regional G/W ratio was between 1.27 to 1.75. The G /W ratio of temporal lobe was lower than the occipital (P<0.05). The change of regional G /W ratio with time is slow. Cbnclusion Regional ECD distribution is stable in normal brain. ECD clearance from brain is slow and no significant regional difference.

  16. [Normal and pathological ultrasonography of the fetal brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, H; Levi, S

    1984-01-01

    Advanced ultrasonic technology enabled the bidimensional imaging of fetal brain throughout pregnancy. The number of visible structures increases with gestational age. In order to certify the described items they were compared to similar anatomical sections available from brain specimens or an atlas of anatomy. Real-time as well as automatic compound scanning machines were used to obtain echographic images of fetal brain anatomy in utero. Many different scans were collected along three orthogonal directions: every 2 mm, with the automated compound scan and as close from each other as possible with the linear array real-time scanner. The material included 59 normal fetuses between the 15th and 40th week of gestation. Eight typical sections are made but the only structures identified are those being visible on every section obtained at the same level. Brain structures such as grey and white matter, nuclei, vessels and ventricles have different sonic properties. They are subsequently distinguishable on the ultrasonic image if the equipment is capable of detecting and showing such differences. Grey matter is more echogenic than white, choroid plexuses are very reflective as are vessel walls which also pulsate. Four horizontal sections are described in detail (Figs. 2-7). The coronal planes are demonstrated at three different levels (Figs. 8-12) and the sagittal plane is represented by Fig. 13. Thirty five structures were identified (Table 2). In the second section some brain and skull anomalies are briefly described. The principal signs of the abnormalities and possible encountered variations are listed such as cranial defects in anencephaly, acrania, encephalocele, iniencephaly; the anomaly of size and shape of head and ventricle, as in hydrocephaly and microcephaly, cystic-like- and solid-tumor lesions and Dandy Walker syndrome and hydranencephaly. Attention is drawn to possible artifacts and pitfalls in the differential diagnosis between similar looking pictures

  17. Diffusion-weighted imaging in normal fetal brain maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F. [University Children' s Hospital UKBB, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Confort-Gouny, S.; Le Fur, Y.; Viout, P.; Cozzone, P. [UMR-CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, Marseille (France); Bennathan, M.; Chapon, F.; Fogliarini, C.; Girard, N. [Universite de la Mediterranee, Department of Neuroradiology AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France)

    2007-09-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides information about tissue maturation not seen on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolution over time of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of normal fetal brain in utero. DWI was performed on 78 fetuses, ranging from 23 to 37 gestational weeks (GW). All children showed at follow-up a normal neurological evaluation. ADC values were obtained in the deep white matter (DWM) of the centrum semiovale, the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobe, in the cerebellar hemisphere, the brainstem, the basal ganglia (BG) and the thalamus. Mean ADC values in supratentorial DWM areas (1.68 {+-} 0.05 mm{sup 2}/s) were higher compared with the cerebellar hemisphere (1.25 {+-} 0.06 mm{sup 2}/s) and lowest in the pons (1.11 {+-} 0.05 mm{sup 2}/s). Thalamus and BG showed intermediate values (1.25 {+-} 0.04 mm{sup 2}/s). Brainstem, cerebellar hemisphere and thalamus showed a linear negative correlation with gestational age. Supratentorial areas revealed an increase in ADC values, followed by a decrease after the 30th GW. This study provides a normative data set that allows insights in the normal fetal brain maturation in utero, which has not yet been observed in previous studies on premature babies. (orig.)

  18. Nicotine enhances but does not normalize visual sustained attention and the associated brain network in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, L Elliot; Schroeder, Matthew; Ross, Thomas J; Buchholz, Brittany; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Wonodi, Ikwunga; Thaker, Gunvant K; Stein, Elliot A

    2011-03-01

    Sustained attention abnormality in schizophrenia is usually refractory to available treatment. Nicotine can transiently improve sustained attention in schizophrenia patients, although its neural mechanisms are unknown. Understanding the neural basis of this effect may lead to new treatment strategies for this cognitive deficit. Twenty schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy comparison smokers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, randomized functional magnetic resonance imaging study comparing nicotine vs placebo patch on sustained attention, using the rapid visual information-processing task. Schizophrenia patients had impaired visual sustained attention accuracy and processing speed (all P's attention network compared with healthy comparison subjects. Nicotine administration enhanced accuracy and processing speed compared with placebo (all P's ≤.006), with no drug × diagnosis interactions. However, schizophrenia patients' task performance remained impaired during the nicotine condition, even when compared with healthy comparison subjects in the placebo condition (all P's ≤.01). Nicotine exerted no significant reversal of the impaired attention network associated with schizophrenia. Activations in brain regions associated with nicotine-induced behavioral improvement were not significantly different between patients and comparison subjects. Thus, nicotine transiently enhanced sustained attention similarly in schizophrenia patients and in healthy comparison smokers. The neural mechanisms for this nicotinic effect in schizophrenia appear similar to those for healthy comparison subjects. However, nicotine, at least in a single sustained dose, does not normalize impaired sustained attention and its associated brain network in schizophrenia. These findings provide guidance for developing new treatment strategies for the sustained attention deficit in schizophrenia.

  19. The transcription factor Nfix is essential for normal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litwack E David

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nuclear Factor I (NFI multi-gene family encodes site-specific transcription factors essential for the development of a number of organ systems. We showed previously that Nfia-deficient mice exhibit agenesis of the corpus callosum and other forebrain defects; Nfib-deficient mice have defects in lung maturation and show callosal agenesis and forebrain defects resembling those seen in Nfia-deficient animals, while Nfic-deficient mice have defects in tooth root formation. Recently the Nfix gene has been disrupted and these studies indicated that there were largely uncharacterized defects in brain and skeletal development in Nfix-deficient mice. Results Here we show that disruption of Nfix by Cre-recombinase mediated excision of the 2nd exon results in defects in brain development that differ from those seen in Nfia and Nfib KO mice. In particular, complete callosal agenesis is not seen in Nfix-/- mice but rather there appears to be an overabundance of aberrant Pax6- and doublecortin-positive cells in the lateral ventricles of Nfix-/- mice, increased brain weight, expansion of the cingulate cortex and entire brain along the dorsal ventral axis, and aberrant formation of the hippocampus. On standard lab chow Nfix-/- animals show a decreased growth rate from ~P8 to P14, lose weight from ~P14 to P22 and die at ~P22. If their food is supplemented with a soft dough chow from P10, Nfix-/- animals show a lag in weight gain from P8 to P20 but then increase their growth rate. A fraction of the animals survive to adulthood and are fertile. The weight loss correlates with delayed eye and ear canal opening and suggests a delay in the development of several epithelial structures in Nfix-/- animals. Conclusion These data show that Nfix is essential for normal brain development and may be required for neural stem cell homeostasis. The delays seen in eye and ear opening and the brain morphology defects appear independent of the nutritional

  20. The impact of normalization and segmentation on resting-state brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Ricardo; Marques, Paulo; Soares, José; Alves, Victor; Sousa, Nuno

    2015-04-01

    Graph theory has recently received a lot of attention from the neuroscience community as a method to represent and characterize brain networks. Still, there is a lack of a gold standard for the methods that should be employed for the preprocessing of the data and the construction of the networks, as well as a lack of knowledge on how different methodologies can affect the metrics reported. The authors used graph theory analysis applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the influence of different node-defining strategies and the effect of normalizing the functional acquisition on several commonly reported metrics used to characterize brain networks. The nodes of the network were defined using either the individual FreeSurfer segmentation of each subject or the FreeSurfer segmented Montreal National Institute (MNI) 152 template, using the Destrieux and subcortical atlas. The functional acquisition was either kept on the functional native space or normalized into MNI standard space. The comparisons were done at three levels: on the connections, on the edge properties, and on the network properties levels. The results reveal that different registration and brain parcellation strategies have a strong impact on all the levels of analysis, possibly favoring the use of individual segmentation strategies and conservative registration approaches. In conclusion, several technical aspects must be considered so that graph theoretical analysis of connectivity MRI data can provide a framework to understand brain pathologies.

  1. Optimisation of brain SPET and portability of normal databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnden, Leighton R.; Behin-Ain, Setayesh; Goble, Elizabeth A. [The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Hatton, Rochelle L.; Hutton, Brian F. [Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia)

    2004-03-01

    Use of a normal database in quantitative regional analysis of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) facilitates the detection of functional defects in individual or group studies by accounting for inter-subject variability. Different reconstruction methods and suboptimal attenuation and scatter correction methods can introduce additional variance that will adversely affect such analysis. Similarly, processing differences across different instruments and/or institutions may invalidate the use of external normal databases. The object of this study was to minimise additional variance by comparing reconstructions of a physical phantom with its numerical template so as to optimise processing parameters. Age- and gender-matched normal scans acquired on two different systems were compared using SPM99 after processing with both standard and optimised parameters. For three SPET systems we have optimised parameters for attenuation correction, lower window scatter subtraction, reconstructed pixel size and fanbeam focal length for both filtered back-projection (FBP) and iterative (OSEM) reconstruction. Both attenuation and scatter correction improved accuracy for all systems. For single-iteration Chang attenuation correction the optimum attenuation coefficient (mu) was 0.45-0.85 of the narrow beam value (Nmu) before, and 0.75-0.85 Nmu after, scatter subtraction. For accurately modelled OSEM attenuation correction, optimum mu was 0.6-0.9 Nmu before and 0.9-1.1 Nmu after scatter subtraction. FBP appeared to change in-plane voxel dimensions by about 2% and this was confirmed by line phantom measurements. Improvement in accuracy with scatter subtraction was most marked for the highest spatial resolution system. Optimised processing reduced but did not remove highly significant regional differences between normal databases acquired on two different SPET systems. (orig.)

  2. {sup 1}H MR spectroscopic patterns of normal adult brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, In Chan; Chang, Kee Hyun; Min, Kwan Hong; Kim, Dong Sung; Han, Moon Hee; Kang, Sa Ouk; Min, Byoung Goo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate regional differences of {sup 1}H magnetic resonance(MR) spectral patterns in normal adult human brains. A total of 44 {sup 1}H MR spectra in 25 volunteers aged 27-45 were obtained in five regions including the frontal lobe(10), parietal lobe(10), temporal lobe(5), basal ganglia(10) and thalamus(9). {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy(MRS) was performed using a PRESS sequence with a TR of 2000 ms and a TE of 270ms from a volume of cm on a 1.5T clinical MR unit. Relative metabolite ratios of NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr and Cr/Cho in each region were measured and compared. A total of 44 reliable spectra were successfully obtained in all regions. NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr and Cr/Cho ratios varied considerably, ranging from 1.09{+-}0.2 to 2.46{+-}0.25, from 1.72{+-}0.35 to 2.45{+-}0.25 and from 0.64{+-}0.1 to 1.01{+-}0.12, respectively. Significant regional differences in metabolite ratios were observed; higher NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr ratios in the parietal lobe, lower NAA/Cho ratios in the temporal lobe, and lower Cr/Cho ratios in the temporal lobe compared to those of other regions(p<0.05). Differences in metabolite ratios between the right and left frontal lobes, and between the right and left basal ganglias were not significant. {sup 1}H MR spectra of the normal adult human brains using in vivo single voxel {sup 1}H MRS represented significant regional differences in metabolite ratios of NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr and Cr/Cho. Our {sup 1}H MR spectroscopic results are a useful reference for assessing the {sup 1}H MRS pattern of various intracranial diseases.

  3. Data-driven intensity normalization of PET group comparison studies is superior to global mean normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Aanerud, Joel; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global mean (GM) normalization is one of the most commonly used methods of normalization in PET and SPECT group comparison studies of neurodegenerative disorders. It requires that no between-group GM difference is present, which may be strongly violated in neurodegenerative disorders....... Importantly, such GM differences often elude detection due to the large intrinsic variance in absolute values of cerebral blood flow or glucose consumption. Alternative methods of normalization are needed for this type of data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two types of simulation were performed using CBF images...... from 49 controls. Two homogeneous groups of 20 subjects were sampled repeatedly. In one group, cortical CBF was artificially decreased moderately (simulation I) or slightly (simulation II). The other group served as controls. Ratio normalization was performed using five reference regions: (1) Global...

  4. Expression and relevant research of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in differentgrades of brain glioma and normal brain tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Fei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore and analyze expression and relevant research of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in different grades of brain glioma and normal brain tissues. Methods: 52 cases of patients with brain glioma treated in our hospital from December 2013 to December 2014, and 50 cases of normal brain-tissue patients with intracranial hypertension were selected, and proceeding test to the surgical resection of brain tissue of the above patients to determine its MGMT and XRCC1 protein content, sequentially to record the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 of both groups. Grading of tumors to brain glioma after operation was carried out, and the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in brain tissues of different patients was analyzed and compared;finally the contingency tables of X2 test was used to analyze the correlation of XRCC1and MGMT. Results:Positive rate of MGMT expression in normal brain tissue was 2%,while positive rate of MGMT expression in brain glioma was 46.2%,which was obviously higher than that in normal brain tissues (χ2=26.85, P0.05), which had no statistical significance. There were 12 cases of patients whose MGMT protein expression was positive and XRCC1 protein expression was positive; there were 18 cases of patients whose MGMT protein expression was negative and XRCC1 protein expression was negative. Contingency tables of X2 test was used to analyze the correlation of XRCC1 and MGMT, which indicated that the expression of XRCCI and MGMT in brain glioma had no correlation (r=0.9%, P=0.353), relevancy of both was r=0.9%. Conclusions: Positive rate of the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 in brain glioma was obviously higher than that in normal brain tissues, but the distribution of different grades of brain glioma had no obvious difference, and MGMT and XRCC1 expression had no obvious correlation, which needed further research.

  5. Zika Babies May Look Normal At Birth, Display Brain Defects Later: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162159.html Zika Babies May Look Normal at Birth, Display Brain ... 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies exposed to the Zika virus in the womb can look normal at ...

  6. Age-related changes of normal adult brain structure: analysed with diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-ting; ZHANG Chun-yan; ZHANG Jing; LI Wei

    2005-01-01

    Background It is known that the brain structure changes with normal aging. The objective of this study was to quantify the anisotropy and average diffusion coefficient (DCavg) of the brain in normal adults to demonstrate the microstructure changes of brain with aging.Methods One hundred and six normal adults were examined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The fractional anisotropy (FA), 1-volume ratio (1-VR), relative anisotropy (RA) and average diffusion coefficient (DCavg) of different anatomic sites of brain were measured, correlated with age and compared among three broad age groups.Results Except in lentiform nucleus, the anisotropy increased and DCavg decreased with aging. Both anisotropy and DCavg of lentiform nucleus increased with aging. The normal reference values of DTI parameters of normal Chinese adult in major anatomic sites were acquired. Conclusions DTI data obtained noninvasively can reflect the microstructural changes with aging. The normal reference values acquired can serve as reference standards in differentiation of brain white matter diseases.

  7. Comparison of Serum CRP in Migraine Sufferers and Normal Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminianfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: CRP (C-reactive protein is one of the known inflammatory markers in the body. Studies claim that the level of this marker in patients with migraine is higher than normal peoples. Despite the result of various studies, even the relation between serum CRP and migraine is not detected thoroughly and is in a halo of ambiguity, therefore in this study, we intended to assess the relation between migraine and serum CRP levels. Materials and Methods: The present study was performed as a case-control on 47 migraine suffers that presented Besat hospital on year 2011, at intervals between their attacks and 50 normal individuals. Serum CRP level was measured at interval between attacks or at least 72 hour after the completion of the last attack and was compared with obtained results from normal population. Results: The comparison of CRP level in two groups, indicated that the median CRP at case group was 16.40 mg/dl and at control group 9.76 mg/dl (p≤0.05. The comparison of CRP median between the sufferers of classic migraine, migraine without aura and individuals without migraine, indicated that the CRP median difference at without aura migraine sufferers and normal population was not meaningful, but classic migraine suffers had higher serum CRP level than the other two groups. Conclusion: Finally, we should stay that the present study demonstrate that CRP inflammatory marker was higher at migraine suffers in comparison with normal general population and could explained the role of inflammation in creation and progression of this type of headache.

  8. Hemispherical dominance of glucose metabolic rate in the brain of the 'normal' ageing population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutts, DA; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL; Spyrou, NM

    2004-01-01

    In the 'normal' ageing brain a decrease in the cerebral metabolic rate has been determined across many brain regions. This study determines whether age differences would affect metabolic rates in regions and different hemispheres of the brain. The regional metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGlu) was exa

  9. Auditory event-related brain potentials for an early discrimination between normal and pathological brain aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juliana Dushanova; Mario Christov

    2013-01-01

    The brain as a system with gradually decreasing resources maximizes its chances by reorganizing neural networks to ensure efficient performance. Auditory event-related potentials were recorded in 28 healthy volunteers comprising 14 young and 14 elderly subjects in auditory discrimination motor task (low frequency tone – right hand movement and high frequency tone – left hand movement). The amplitudes of the sensory event-related potential components (N1, P2) were more pronounced with increasing age for either tone and this effect for P2 amplitude was more pronounced in the frontal region. The latency relationship of N1 between the groups was tone-dependent, while that of P2 was tone-independent with a prominent delay in the elderly group over all brain regions. The amplitudes of the cognitive components (N2, P3) diminished with increasing age and the hemispheric asymmetry of N2 (but not for P3) reduced with increasing age. Prolonged N2 latency with increasing age was widespread for either tone while between-group difference in P3 latency was tone-dependent. High frequency tone stimulation and movement requirements lead to P3 delay in the elderly group. The amplitude difference of the sensory components between the age groups could be due to a general greater alertness, less expressed habituation, or decline in the ability to retreat attentional resources from the stimuli in the elderly group. With aging, a neural circuit reorganization of the brain activity affects the cognitive processes. The approach used in this study is useful for an early discrimination between normal and pathological brain aging for early treatment of cognitive alterations and dementia.

  10. Confirming the diversity of the brain after normalization: an approach based on identity authentication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanglin Chen

    Full Text Available During the development of neuroimaging, numerous analyses were performed to identify population differences, such as studies on age, gender, and diseases. Researchers first normalized the brain image and then identified features that represent key differences between groups. In these studies, the question of whether normalization (a pre-processing step widely used in neuroimaging studies reduces the diversity of brains was largely ignored. There are a few studies that identify the differences between individuals after normalization. In the current study, we analyzed brain diversity on an individual level, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The main idea was to utilize brain images for identity authentication. First, the brain images were normalized and registered. Then, a pixel-level matching method was developed to compute the identity difference between different images for matching. Finally, by analyzing the performance of the proposed brain recognition strategy, the individual differences in brain images were evaluated. Experimental results on a 150-subject database showed that the proposed approach could achieve a 100% identification ratio, which indicated distinct differences between individuals after normalization. Thus, the results proved that after the normalization stage, brain images retain their main distinguishing information and features. Based on this result, we suggest that diversity (individual differences should be considered when conducting group analysis, and that this approach may facilitate group pattern classification.

  11. Variance in brain volume with advancing age: implications for defining the limits of normality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alexander Dickie

    Full Text Available Statistical models of normal ageing brain tissue volumes may support earlier diagnosis of increasingly common, yet still fatal, neurodegenerative diseases. For example, the statistically defined distribution of normal ageing brain tissue volumes may be used as a reference to assess patient volumes. To date, such models were often derived from mean values which were assumed to represent the distributions and boundaries, i.e. percentile ranks, of brain tissue volume. Since it was previously unknown, the objective of the present study was to determine if this assumption was robust, i.e. whether regression models derived from mean values accurately represented the distributions and boundaries of brain tissue volume at older ages.We acquired T1-w magnetic resonance (MR brain images of 227 normal and 219 Alzheimer's disease (AD subjects (aged 55-89 years from publicly available databanks. Using nonlinear regression within both samples, we compared mean and percentile rank estimates of whole brain tissue volume by age.In both the normal and AD sample, mean regression estimates of brain tissue volume often did not accurately represent percentile rank estimates (errors=-74% to 75%. In the normal sample, mean estimates generally underestimated differences in brain volume at percentile ranks below the mean. Conversely, in the AD sample, mean estimates generally underestimated differences in brain volume at percentile ranks above the mean. Differences between ages at the 5(th percentile rank of normal subjects were ~39% greater than mean differences in the AD subjects.While more data are required to make true population inferences, our results indicate that mean regression estimates may not accurately represent the distributions of ageing brain tissue volumes. This suggests that percentile rank estimates will be required to robustly define the limits of brain tissue volume in normal ageing and neurodegenerative disease.

  12. The need of appropriate brain SPECT templates for SPM comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbelli, S.; Altrinetti, V.; Piccardo, A. [S Martino Univ Hosp, Nucl MedUnit DIMI, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Rodriguez, G.; Brugnolo, A.; Nobili, F. [S Martino Univ Hosp, Clin Neurophysiol Unit DiSEM, DiTeC, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Mignone, A. [Osped Riuniti Bergamo, Nucl Med Unit, I-24100 Bergamo (Italy); Pupi, A. [Univ Florence, Nucl Med Unit DFP, Florence (Italy); Koulibaly, P.M. [CEA-Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, TIRO, Dept Nucl Med, Ctr Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)

    2008-07-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is used worldwide to compare brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. The default template within the SPM package used for SPECT image normalization includes images of a group of healthy subjects studied with {sup 99m}TcHMPAO. Since [{sup 99m}Tc] HMPAO and [{sup 99m}Tc] ECD have shown to distribute differently in SPECT studies, we formulated the hypothesis that comparing set of [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD data normalized by means of a [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO template may lead to incorrect results. A customized [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD template was built with SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of 22 neurologically healthy women. Then, two sets of subjects, i.e. a group of patients with very early Alzheimer's disease (eAD) and a matched control group, studied by means of [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT, were chosen for comparisons. The same statistical approach (t-test between eAD patients and controls and correlation analysis between brain SPECT and a cognitive score) was applied twice, i.e. after normalization with either the default [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO template or the customized [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD template. In the comparison between eAD and controls, a cluster of difference in the posterior-cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres was only highlighted when using the customized [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD template, but was missed when using the default [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO template. In the correlation between brain perfusion and a cognitive score, the significant cluster was more significant and far more extended, also including the right superior temporal gyrus, using the customized [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD template than using the default [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO template. These data suggest the need of customized, radiopharmaceutical-matched SPECT templates to be used within the SPM package. The present customized [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD template is now freely available on the web. (authors)

  13. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression is higher in brain tissue from patients with refractory epilepsy than in normal controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lv; Jiqing Qiu; Zan Wang; Li Cui; Hongmei Meng; Weihong Lin

    2011-01-01

    The role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in epilepsy remains controversial. The present study utilized light and electron microscopy to investigate pathological and ultrastructural changes in brain tissue obtained from the seizure foci of 24 patients with temporal epilepsy. We found that epileptic tissue showed neuronal degeneration, glial cell proliferation, nuclear vacuolization, and neural cell tropism. Immunoelectron microscopy and immunohistochemistry showed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor was expressed at significantly higher levels in patients with refractory temporal epilepsy compared with normal controls, demonstrating that the pathological changes within seizure foci in patients with refractory epilepsy are associated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression alterations.

  14. High-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals metabolic effects of normal brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Janna L; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Swerdlow, Russell H; Choi, In-Young; Lee, Phil; Brooks, William M

    2014-07-01

    Altered brain metabolism is likely to be an important contributor to normal cognitive decline and brain pathology in elderly individuals. To characterize the metabolic changes associated with normal brain aging, we used high-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo to quantify 20 neurochemicals in the hippocampus and sensorimotor cortex of young adult and aged rats. We found significant differences in the neurochemical profile of the aged brain when compared with younger adults, including lower aspartate, ascorbate, glutamate, and macromolecules, and higher glucose, myo-inositol, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, total choline, and glutamine. These neurochemical biomarkers point to specific cellular mechanisms that are altered in brain aging, such as bioenergetics, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell membrane turnover, and endogenous neuroprotection. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be a valuable translational approach for studying mechanisms of brain aging and pathology, and for investigating treatments to preserve or enhance cognitive function in aging.

  15. Distinct Effects of Ionizing Radiation on In vivo Murine Kidney and Brain Normal Tissue Gene Expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiling Zhao; Eric Y. Chuang; Mark Mishra; Rania Awwad; Kheem Bisht; Lunching Sun; Phuongmai Nguyen; J. Daniel Pennington; Tony Jau Cheng Wang; C. Matthew Bradbury; Lei Huang; Zhijun Chen; Gil Bar-Sela; Michael E.C. Robbins; David Gius

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: There is a growing awareness that radiation-induced normal tissue injury in late-responding organs, such as the brain, kidney, and lung, involves complex and dynamic responses between multiple cell...

  16. Reference genes for normalization: A study of rat brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Birgit; Elfving, Betina; Wegener, Gregers

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has become a widely used tool in the search for disease genes. When examining gene expression with qPCR in psychiatric diseases, endogenous reference gene(s) must be used for normalization. Traditionally, genes such as beta-actin (ActB), Gap...

  17. Misrepresentation of surface rendering of pediatric brain malformations performed following spatial normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, L I; Widjaja, E; Wignall, E L; Wilkinson, I D; Griffiths, P D

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of spatial normalization on volume rendering in cases of pediatric brain malformation. Three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted volume datasets were acquired in three children, one with pachygyria, one with a Dandy-Walker malformation associated with polymicrogyria, and one with dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. On the non-normalized datasets, the skull margins were cropped and the remainder stripped with the brain extraction technique (BET). The data were also normalized into standard anatomic reference space using pediatric templates prior to the BET script. The surface constructions obtained by both techniques were then compared for geometric distortions. Normalization of 3D datasets resulted in significant distortions in the shape of the brain, with increased anterior-posterior dimensions and narrower transverse diameter in all three cases. In two cases, there were alterations in the appearance of the gyri and sulci, leading to a potential misinterpretation of the volume-rendered surface when the gyri and sulci were in fact normal. In pediatric brain, particularly those with congenital brain anomalies, normalization as a post-processing step should be avoided as this may lead to misrepresentation of brain morphometry.

  18. Relationships between brain metabolism decrease in normal aging and changes in structural and functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chételat, Gaël; Landeau, Brigitte; Salmon, Eric; Yakushev, Igor; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Mézenge, Florence; Perrotin, Audrey; Bastin, Christine; Manrique, Alain; Scheurich, Armin; Scheckenberger, Mathias; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    Normal aging is characterized by brain glucose metabolism decline predominantly in the prefrontal cortex. The goal of the present study was to assess whether this change was associated with age-related alteration of white matter (WM) structural integrity and/or functional connectivity. FDG-PET data from 40 young and 57 elderly healthy participants from two research centers (n=49/48 in Center 1/2) were analyzed. WM volume from T1-weighted MRI (Center 1), fractional anisotropy from diffusion-tensor imaging (Center 2), and resting-state fMRI data (Center 1) were also obtained. Group comparisons were performed within each imaging modality. Then, positive correlations were assessed, within the elderly, between metabolism in the most affected region and the other neuroimaging modalities. Metabolism decline in the elderly predominated in the left inferior frontal junction (LIFJ). LIFJ hypometabolism was significantly associated with macrostructural and microstructural WM disturbances in long association fronto-temporo-occipital fibers, while no relationship was found with functional connectivity. The findings offer new perspectives to understand normal aging processes and open avenues for future studies to explore causality between age-related metabolism and connectivity changes.

  19. The Ventricular System of the Brain: Anatomy and Normal Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratchko, Lindsay; Filatova, Irina; Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-04-01

    The cerebral ventricular system is intimately associated with the forebrain and brainstem. The ventricular system functions to produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid, which plays an important role in mechanical protection and regulation of homeostasis in the central nervous system. This article discusses anatomy and neuroimaging of the ventricular system and highlights normal anatomical variations that may be mistaken for pathology. Applied surgical anatomy is reviewed with emphasis on operative approach and potential risk to adjacent central nervous system structures.

  20. Hyperoxic brain effects are normalized by addition of CO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperoxic ventilation (>21% O2 is widely used in medical practice for resuscitation, stroke intervention, and chronic supplementation. However, despite the objective of improving tissue oxygen delivery, hyperoxic ventilation can accentuate ischemia and impair that outcome. Hyperoxia results in, paradoxically, increased ventilation, which leads to hypocapnia, diminishing cerebral blood flow and hindering oxygen delivery. Hyperoxic delivery induces other systemic changes, including increased plasma insulin and glucagon levels and reduced myocardial contractility and relaxation, which may derive partially from neurally mediated hormonal and sympathetic outflow. Several cortical, limbic, and cerebellar brain areas regulate these autonomic processes. The aim of this study was to assess recruitment of these regions in response to hyperoxia and to determine whether any response would be countered by addition of CO2 to the hyperoxic gas mixture.We studied 14 children (mean age 11 y, range 8-15 y. We found, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, that 2 min of hyperoxic ventilation (100% O2 following a room air baseline elicited pronounced responses in autonomic and hormonal control areas, including the hypothalamus, insula, and hippocampus, throughout the challenge. The addition of 5% CO2 to 95% O2 abolished responses in the hypothalamus and lingual gyrus, substantially reduced insular, hippocampal, thalamic, and cerebellar patterns in the first 48 s, and abolished signals in those sites thereafter. Only the dorsal midbrain responded to hypercapnia, but not hyperoxia.In this group of children, hyperoxic ventilation led to responses in brain areas that modify hypothalamus-mediated sympathetic and hormonal outflow; these responses were diminished by addition of CO2 to the gas mixture. This study in healthy children suggests that supplementing hyperoxic administration with CO2 may mitigate central and peripheral consequences of hyperoxia.

  1. Differential effects of energy stress on AMPK phosphorylation and apoptosis in experimental brain tumor and normal brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiles Thomas C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a known physiological cellular energy sensor and becomes phosphorylated at Thr-172 in response to changes in cellular ATP levels. Activated AMPK acts as either an inducer or suppressor of apoptosis depending on the severity of energy stress and the presence or absence of certain functional tumor suppressor genes. Results Here we show that energy stress differentially affects AMPK phosphorylation and cell-death in brain tumor tissue and in tissue from contra-lateral normal brain. We compared TSC2 deficient CT-2A mouse astrocytoma cells with syngeneic normal astrocytes that were grown under identical condition in vitro. Energy stress induced by glucose withdrawal or addition of 2-deoxyglucose caused more ATP depletion, AMPK phosphorylation and apoptosis in CT-2A cells than in the normal astrocytes. Under normal energy conditions pharmacological stimulation of AMPK caused apoptosis in CT-2A cells but not in astrocytes. TSC2 siRNA treated astrocytes are hypersensitive to apoptosis induced by energy stress compared to control cells. AMPK phosphorylation and apoptosis were also greater in the CT-2A tumor tissue than in the normal brain tissue following implementation of dietary energy restriction. Inefficient mTOR and TSC2 signaling, downstream of AMPK, is responsible for CT-2A cell-death, while functional LKB1 may protect normal brain cells under energy stress. Conclusion Together these data demonstrates that AMPK phosphorylation induces apoptosis in mouse astrocytoma but may protect normal brain cells from apoptosis under similar energy stress condition. Therefore, using activator of AMPK along with glycolysis inhibitor could be a potential therapeutic approach for TSC2 deficient human malignant astrocytoma.

  2. 磷酸川芎嗪鼻用pH敏感型原位凝胶在正常大鼠和模型大鼠的脑部药动学比较研究%Comparison of the brain pharmacokinetics of nasal tetramethylpyrazine phosphate pH-sensitive in situ gel in normal rats and model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏伟; 晏亦林; 周莉玲

    2012-01-01

    The study is to investigate the brain pharmacokinetics change of nasal tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP) pH-sensitive in situ gel in normal and model rats. Acute cerebral ischemia rat model was successfully established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method. Both normal and model rats were given nasal TMPP pH-sensitive in situ gel (10 mg·kg-1). Perfusates of brain striatum area were collected at each time point by microdialysis. The content of TMPP was determined by HPLC. The pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated by Kinetica 4.4 software at each time point of the brain drug concentration. The main pharmacokinetics parameters of TMPP were fitted with compartments 2. After nasal TMPP pH-sensitive in situ gel the values of Cmax and AUC of both components in brain showed as follows: the value of model group > that of normal group. Significant difference can be observed in the process of brain pharmacokinetics in normal and model rats after giving nasal TMPP pH-sensitive in situ gel.

  3. Texture analysis in quantitative MR imaging. Tissue characterisation of normal brain and intracranial tumours at 1.5 T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Ring, P; Thomsen, C

    1995-01-01

    of common first-order and second-order grey level statistics. Tissue differentiation in the images was estimated by the presence or absence of significant differences between tissue types. A fine discrimination was obtained between white matter, cortical grey matter, and cerebrospinal fluid in the normal...... brain, and white matter was readily separated from the tumour lesions. Moreover, separation of solid tumour tissue and peritumoural oedema was suggested for some tumour types. Mutual comparison of all tumour types revealed extensive differences, and even specific tumour differentiation turned out...

  4. The levels of soluble versus insoluble brain Abeta distinguish Alzheimer's disease from normal and pathologic aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Dickson, D W; Trojanowski, J Q; Lee, V M

    1999-08-01

    The abundance and solubility of Abeta peptides are critical determinants of amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, we compared levels of total soluble, insoluble, and total Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 in AD brains with those in age-matched normal and pathologic aging brains using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since the measurement of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 depends critically on the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies used in the sandwich ELISA, we first demonstrated that each assay is specific for Abeta1-40 or Abeta1-42 and the levels of these peptides are not affected by the amyloid precursor protein in the brain extracts. Thus, this sandwich ELISA enabled us to show that the average levels of total cortical soluble and insoluble Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were highest in AD, lowest in normal aging, and intermediate in pathologic aging. Remarkably, the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 were increased 20-fold while the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-42 were increased only 2-fold in the AD brains compared to pathologic aging brains. Further, the soluble pools of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were the largest fractions of total Abeta in the normal brain (i.e., 50 and 23%, respectively), but they were the smallest in the AD brain (i.e., 2.7 and 0.7%, respectively) and intermediate (i.e., 8 and 0.8%, respectively) in pathologic aging brains. Thus, our data suggest that pathologic aging is a transition state between normal aging and AD. More importantly, our findings imply that a progressive shift of brain Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 from soluble to insoluble pools and a profound increase in the levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 plays mechanistic roles in the onset and/or progression of AD.

  5. Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Young, E-mail: eyhan@uams.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Zhang Xin; Yan Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Moros, Eduardo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Corry, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2012-01-01

    At University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

  6. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... value and, in an investigation, prices used as the basis for export price or constructed export price as...

  7. Changes in topological organization of functional PET brain network with normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiliang; Ke, Lining; Liu, Huafeng; Huang, Wenhua; Hu, Zhenghui

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies about brain network have suggested that normal aging is associated with alterations in coordinated patterns of the large-scale brain functional and structural systems. However, age-related changes in functional networks constructed via positron emission tomography (PET) data are still barely understood. Here, we constructed functional brain networks composed of 90 regions in younger (mean age 36.5 years) and older (mean age 56.3 years) age groups with PET data. 113 younger and 110 older healthy individuals were separately selected for two age groups, from a physical examination database. Corresponding brain functional networks of the two groups were constructed by thresholding average cerebral glucose metabolism correlation matrices of 90 regions and analysed using graph theoretical approaches. Although both groups showed normal small-world architecture in the PET networks, increased clustering and decreased efficiency were found in older subjects, implying a degeneration process that brain system shifts from a small-world network to regular one along with normal aging. Moreover, normal senescence was related to changed nodal centralities predominantly in association and paralimbic cortex regions, e.g. increasing in orbitofrontal cortex (middle) and decreasing in left hippocampus. Additionally, the older networks were about equally as robust to random failures as younger counterpart, but more vulnerable against targeted attacks. Finally, methods in the construction of the PET networks revealed reasonable robustness. Our findings enhanced the understanding about the topological principles of PET networks and changes related to normal aging.

  8. Mechanical characterization of human brain tumors from patients and comparison to potential surgical phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Daniel C; Rubiano, Andrés; Dyson, Kyle; Simmons, Chelsey S

    2017-01-01

    While mechanical properties of the brain have been investigated thoroughly, the mechanical properties of human brain tumors rarely have been directly quantified due to the complexities of acquiring human tissue. Quantifying the mechanical properties of brain tumors is a necessary prerequisite, though, to identify appropriate materials for surgical tool testing and to define target parameters for cell biology and tissue engineering applications. Since characterization methods vary widely for soft biological and synthetic materials, here, we have developed a characterization method compatible with abnormally shaped human brain tumors, mouse tumors, animal tissue and common hydrogels, which enables direct comparison among samples. Samples were tested using a custom-built millimeter-scale indenter, and resulting force-displacement data is analyzed to quantify the steady-state modulus of each sample. We have directly quantified the quasi-static mechanical properties of human brain tumors with effective moduli ranging from 0.17-16.06 kPa for various pathologies. Of the readily available and inexpensive animal tissues tested, chicken liver (steady-state modulus 0.44 ± 0.13 kPa) has similar mechanical properties to normal human brain tissue while chicken crassus gizzard muscle (steady-state modulus 3.00 ± 0.65 kPa) has similar mechanical properties to human brain tumors. Other materials frequently used to mimic brain tissue in mechanical tests, like ballistic gel and chicken breast, were found to be significantly stiffer than both normal and diseased brain tissue. We have directly compared quasi-static properties of brain tissue, brain tumors, and common mechanical surrogates, though additional tests would be required to determine more complex constitutive models.

  9. Age-related changes of task-specific brain activity in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Chung; Chou, Chia-Yi; Huang, Chin-Fei; Lin, Yu-Te; Shih, Ching-Sen; Han, Shiang-Yi; Shen, Ming-Hsun; Chen, Tsung-Ching; Liang, Chi-lin; Lu, Ming-Chi; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2012-01-17

    An important question in healthcare for older patients is whether age-related changes in cortical reorganization can be measured with advancing age. This study investigated the factors behind such age-related changes, using time-frequency analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs). We hypothesized that brain rhythms was affected by age-related changes, which could be reflected in the ERP indices. An oddball task was conducted in two experimental groups, namely young participants (N=15; mean age 23.7±2.8 years) and older participants (N=15; mean age 70.1±7.9 years). Two types of stimuli were used: the target (1 kHz frequency) and standard (2 kHz frequency). We scrutinized three ERP indices: event-related spectral power (ERPSP), inter-trial phase-locking (ITPL), and event-related cross-phase coherence (ERPCOH). Both groups performed equally well for correct response rate. However, the results revealed a statistically significant age difference for inter-trial comparison. Compared with the young, the older participants showed the following age-related changes: (a) power activity decreased; however, an increase was found only in the late (P3, 280-450 ms) theta (4-7 Hz) component over the bilateral frontal and temporo-frontal areas; (b) low phase-locking in the early (N1, 80-140 ms) theta band over the parietal/frontal (right) regions appeared; (c) the functional connections decreased in the alpha (7-13 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) bands, but no difference emerged in the theta band between the two groups. These results indicate that age-related changes in task-specific brain activity for a normal aging population can be depicted using the three ERP indices.

  10. Prospective microglia and brain macrophage distribution pattern in normal rat brain shows age sensitive dispersal and stabilization with development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Payel; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Ghosh, Krishnendu; Mallick, Suvadip; Pal, Chiranjib; Laskar, Aparna; Ghosh, Anirban

    2015-09-01

    The monocytic lineage cells in brain, generally speaking brain macrophage and/or microglia show some dissimilar distribution patterns and disagreement regarding their origin and onset in brain. Here, we investigated its onset and distribution/colonization pattern in normal brain with development. Primarily, early and late embryonic stages, neonate and adult brains were sectioned for routine H/E staining; a modified silver-gold staining was used for discriminating monocytic lineage cells in brain; and TEM to deliver ultramicroscopic details of these cells in brain. Immunofluorescence study with CD11b marker revealed the distribution of active microglia/macrophage like cells. Overall, in early embryonic day 12, the band of densely stained cells are found at the margin of developing ventricles and cells sprout from there dispersed towards the outer edge. However, with development, this band shrunk and the dispersion trend decreased. The deeply stained macrophage like cell population migration from outer cortex to ventricle observed highest in late embryonic days, continued with decreased amount in neonates and settled down in adult. In adult, a few blood borne macrophage like cells were observed through the vascular margins. TEM study depicted less distinguishable features of cells in brain in early embryo, whereas from late embryo to adult different neuroglial populations and microglia/macrophages showed distinctive features and organization in brain. CD11b expression showed some similarity, though not fully, with the distribution pattern depending on the differentiation/activation status of these macrophage lineage cells. This study provides some generalized spatial and temporal pattern of macrophage/microglia distribution in rat brain, and further indicates some intrigue areas that need to be addressed.

  11. β-amyloid, hippocampal atrophy and their relation to longitudinal brain change in cognitively normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Evan; Villeneuve, Sylvia; Maillard, Pauline; Harvey, Danielle; Reed, Bruce; Jagust, William; DeCarli, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Recent literature has examined baseline hippocampal volume and extent of brain amyloidosis to test potential synergistic effects on worsening cognition and extent of brain atrophy. Use of hippocampal volume in prior studies was based on the notion that limbic circuit degeneration is an early manifestation of the Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathophysiology. To clarify these interactions early in the AD process, we tested the effects of amyloid and baseline normalized hippocampal volume on longitudinal brain atrophy rates in a group of cognitively normal individuals. Results showed that the combination of elevated β-amyloid and baseline hippocampal atrophy is associated with increased rates specific to the limbic circuit and splenium. Importantly, this atrophy pattern emerged from a voxelwise analysis, corroborated by regression models over region of interests in native space. The results are broadly consistent with previous studies of the effects of amyloid and baseline hippocampal atrophy in normals, while pointing to accelerated atrophy of AD-vulnerable regions detectable at the preclinical stage.

  12. De novo development of gliomas in a child with neurofibromatosis type 1, fragile X and previously normal brain magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Rabia; Hsiao, Esther Y.; Botteron, Kelly N.; McKinstry, Robert C.; Gutmann, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen to 20% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 develop low-grade glial neoplasms. However, since neuroimaging is not routinely obtained until a child is clinically symptomatic, little is known about presymptomatic radiographic characteristics of gliomas in this at-risk population. Herein, we describe a child with neurofibromatosis type 1 who initially had normal brain imaging before the development of multifocal gliomas. Comparison of these serial images demonstrated that brain tumors can arise de novo in children with this cancer predisposition syndrome, further underscoring the limited prognostic value of normal baseline magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26973730

  13. De novo development of gliomas in a child with neurofibromatosis type 1, fragile X and previously normal brain magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Zafar, MD, PhD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen to 20% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 develop low-grade glial neoplasms. However, since neuroimaging is not routinely obtained until a child is clinically symptomatic, little is known about presymptomatic radiographic characteristics of gliomas in this at-risk population. Herein, we describe a child with neurofibromatosis type 1 who initially had normal brain imaging before the development of multifocal gliomas. Comparison of these serial images demonstrated that brain tumors can arise de novo in children with this cancer predisposition syndrome, further underscoring the limited prognostic value of normal baseline magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. De novo development of gliomas in a child with neurofibromatosis type 1, fragile X and previously normal brain magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Rabia; Hsiao, Esther Y; Botteron, Kelly N; McKinstry, Robert C; Gutmann, David H

    2016-03-01

    Fifteen to 20% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 develop low-grade glial neoplasms. However, since neuroimaging is not routinely obtained until a child is clinically symptomatic, little is known about presymptomatic radiographic characteristics of gliomas in this at-risk population. Herein, we describe a child with neurofibromatosis type 1 who initially had normal brain imaging before the development of multifocal gliomas. Comparison of these serial images demonstrated that brain tumors can arise de novo in children with this cancer predisposition syndrome, further underscoring the limited prognostic value of normal baseline magnetic resonance imaging.

  15. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging: brain normal linear biometric values below 24 gestational weeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazzini, C.; Righini, A.; Triulzi, F. [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Rustico, M. [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Milan (Italy); Consonni, D. [Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Unit of Epidemiology, Milan (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently used to measure quantitative data concerning brain structural development. At present, morphometric MR imaging studies have been focused mostly on the third trimester of gestational age. However, in many countries, because of legal restriction on abortion timing, the majority of MR imaging fetal examination has to be carried out during the last part of the second trimester of pregnancy (i.e., before the 24th week of gestation). Accurate and reliable normative data of the brain between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation is not available. This report provides easy and practical parametric support to assess those normative data. From a database of 1,200 fetal MR imaging studies, we retrospectively selected 84 studies of the brain of fetuses aged 20-24 weeks of gestation that resulted normal on clinical and radiological follow-up. Fetuses with proved or suspected infections, twin pregnancy, and fetuses of mothers affected by pathology that might have influenced fetal growth were excluded. Linear biometrical measurements of the main cerebral structures were obtained by three experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. A substantial interobserver agreement for each measurements was reached, and normative data with median, maximum, and minimum value were obtained for brain structures. The knowledge of a range of normality and interindividual variability of linear biometrical values for the developing brain between 20th and 24th weeks of gestation may be valuable in assessing normal brain development in clinical settings. (orig.)

  16. Uptake of radiolabeled ions in normal and ischemia-damaged brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, G A; Pulsinelli, W A

    1986-05-01

    The regional concentrations of nine radiochemicals were measured in rat brain after induction of cerebral ischemia to identify tracers concentrated by brain undergoing selective neuronal necrosis. Transient (30 minute) forebrain ischemia was produced in the rat; 24 hours after cerebral recirculation the radiochemicals were injected intravenously and allowed to circulate for 5 hours. The brain concentrations of the radiochemicals in dissected regions were determined by scintillation counting. Forebrain ischemia of this nature will produce extensive injury to striatal neurons but will spare the great majority of neocortical neurons at 24 hours. The regional concentrations of these radiochemicals varied considerably in both control and ischemic animals. In postischemic animals, 4 radionuclides (63Ni, 99TcO4, 22Na, and [3H]tetracycline) were concentrated in the irreversibly damaged striatum in amounts ranging from 1.4 to 2.4 times greater than in normal tissue. The concentrations of 65Zn, 59Fe, 32PO4, and 147Pm in postischemic brain were similar to or less than those in normal brain. The concentration of [14C]EDTA was increased in injured and uninjured brain of postischemic rats. Autoradiographic analysis of the distribution patterns of some of these ions in normal animals showed that 99TcO4, 22Na, 65Zn, and 59Fe were distributed more uniformly throughout the brain than were 32PO4, 63Ni, and 147Pm. At 24 or 48 hours after ischemia, 63Ni, 99TcO4, and 22Na were preferentially concentrated in the damaged striatum and hippocampus, whereas 65Zn, 59Fe, 32PO4, and 147Pm did not accumulate in irreversibly injured tissue. Of the radiochemicals tested to date, Ni, TcO4, and tetracycline may be useful for diagnosing ischemic brain injury in humans, using positron emission tomography.

  17. Selection of appropriate template for spatial normalization of brain images: tensor based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Although there have been remarkable advances in spatial normalization techniques, the differences in the shape of the hemispheres and the sulcal pattern of brains relative to age, gender, races, and diseases cannot be fully overcome by the nonlinear spatial normalization techniques. T1 SPGR MR images in 16 elderly male normal volunteers (>55 y. mean age: = 61.8 {+-} 3.5 y) were spatially normalized onto the age/gender specific Korean templates, and the Caucasian MNI template and the extent of the deformations were compared. These particular subjects were never included in the development of the templates. First , the images were matched into the templates using an affine transformation to eliminate the global difference between the templates and source images. Second the affine registration was followed by an estimation of nonlinear deformation. Determinants of the Jacobian matrices of the nonlinear deformation were then calculated for every voxel to estimate the regional volume change during the nonlinear transformation Jacobian determinant images highlighted the great magnitude of the relative local volume changes obtained when the elderly brains were spatially normalized onto the young/midlife male or female templates. They reflect the enlargement of CSF space in the lateral ventricles, sylvian fissures and cisterna magna, and the shrinkage of the cortex noted mainly in frontal, insular and lateral temporal cortexes, and the cerebellums in the aged brains. In the Jacobian determinant images, a regional shrinkage of the brain in the left middle prefrontal cortex was observed in addition to the regional expansion in the ventricles and sylvian fissures, which may be due to the age differences between the template and source images. The regional anatomical difference between template and source images could impose an extreme deformation of the source images during the spatial normalization and therefore. Individual brains should be placed into the appropriate

  18. ANTHROPOMETRIC COMPARISON OF WORLD-CLASS SPRINTERS AND NORMAL POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Uth

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the anthropometry of sprinters and people belonging to the normal population. The height and body mass (BM distribution of sprinters (42 men and 44 women were statistically compared to the distributions of American and Danish normal populations. The main results showed that there was significantly less BM and height variability (measured as standard deviation among male sprinters than among the normal male population (US and Danish, while female sprinters showed less BM variability than the US and Danish normal female populations. On average the American normal population was shorter than the sprinters. There was no height difference between the sprinters and the Danish normal population. All female groups had similar height variability. Both male and female sprinters had lower body mass index (BMI than the normal populations. It is likely that there is no single optimal height for sprinters, but instead there is an optimum range that differs for males and females. This range in height appears to exclude people who are very tall or very short in stature. Sprinters are generally lighter in BM than normal populations. Also, the BM variation among sprinters is less than the variation among normal populations. These anthropometric characteristics typical of sprinters might be explained, in part, by the influence the anthropometric characteristics have on relative muscle strength and step length

  19. Rough Sets and Stomped Normal Distribution for Simultaneous Segmentation and Bias Field Correction in Brain MR Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhirup; Maji, Pradipta

    2015-12-01

    The segmentation of brain MR images into different tissue classes is an important task for automatic image analysis technique, particularly due to the presence of intensity inhomogeneity artifact in MR images. In this regard, this paper presents a novel approach for simultaneous segmentation and bias field correction in brain MR images. It integrates judiciously the concept of rough sets and the merit of a novel probability distribution, called stomped normal (SN) distribution. The intensity distribution of a tissue class is represented by SN distribution, where each tissue class consists of a crisp lower approximation and a probabilistic boundary region. The intensity distribution of brain MR image is modeled as a mixture of finite number of SN distributions and one uniform distribution. The proposed method incorporates both the expectation-maximization and hidden Markov random field frameworks to provide an accurate and robust segmentation. The performance of the proposed approach, along with a comparison with related methods, is demonstrated on a set of synthetic and real brain MR images for different bias fields and noise levels.

  20. Characterization of normal brain and brain tumor pathology by chisquares parameter maps of diffusion-weighted image data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Stephan E. E-mail: stephan@bwh.harvard.edu; Mamata, Hatsuho; Mulkern, Robert V

    2003-03-01

    Objective: To characterize normal and pathologic brain tissue by quantifying the deviation of diffusion-related signal from a simple monoexponential decay, when measured over a wider than usual range of b-factors. Methods and materials: Line scan diffusion imaging (LSDI), with diffusion weighting at multiple b-factors between 100 and 5000 s/mm{sup 2}, was performed on 1.5 T clinical scanners. Diffusion data of single slice sections were acquired in five healthy subjects and 19 brain tumor patients. In-patients, conventional T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained for reference purposes. The chisquare ({chi}{sup 2}) error parameter associated with the monoexponential fits of the measured tissue water signals was then used to quantify the departure from a simple monoexponential signal decay on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Results: Diffusion-weighted images over a wider b-factor range than typically used were successfully obtained in all healthy subjects and patients. Normal and pathologic tissues demonstrated signal decays, which clearly deviate from a simple monoexponential behavior. The {chi}{sup 2} of cortical and deep grey matter was considerably lower than in white matter. In peritumoral edema, however, {chi}{sup 2} was 68% higher than in normal white matter. In highly malignant brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or anaplastic astrocytoma, {chi}{sup 2} values were on average almost 400% higher than in normal white matter, while for one low grade astrocytoma and two cases of metastasis, {chi}{sup 2} was not profoundly different from the {chi}{sup 2} value of white matter. Maps of the {chi}{sup 2} values provide good visualization of spatial details. However, the tumor tissue contrast generated appeared in many cases to be different from the enhancement produced by paramagnetic contrast agents. For example, in cases where the contrast agent only highlighted the rim of the tumor, {chi}{sup 2} enhancement was present within the

  1. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either 95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  2. Whole brain N-acetylaspartate concentration is conserved throughout normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, William E; Gass, Achim; Glodzik, Lidia; Babb, James S; Hirsch, Jochen; Sollberger, Marc; Achtnichts, Lutz; Amann, Michael; Monsch, Andreas U; Gonen, Oded

    2012-10-01

    We hypothesize that normal aging implies neuronal durability, reflected by age-independent concentrations of their marker--the amino acid derivative N-acetylaspartate (NAA). To test this, we obtained the whole-brain and whole-head N-acetylaspartate concentrations (WBNAA and WHNAA) with proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy; and the fractional brain parenchyma volume (fBPV)--a metric of atrophy, by segmenting the magnetic resonance image (MRI) from 42 (18 male) healthy young (31.9 ± 5.8 years old) and 100 (64 male, 72.6 ± 7.3 years old) cognitively normal elderly. The 12.8 ± 1.9 mM WBNAA of the young was not significantly different from the 13.1 ± 3.1 mM in the elderly (p > 0.05). In contrast, both fBPV (87.3 ± 4.7% vs. 74.8 ± 4.8%) and WHNAA (11.1 ± 1.7 mM vs. 9.8 ± 2.4 mM) were significantly higher in the young (approximately 14%; p normal aging apart suggests that neuronal integrity is maintained across the lifespan. Clinically, WBNAA could be used as a marker for normal (hence, also abnormal) brain aging. In contrast, WHNAA and fBPV seem age-related suggesting that brain atrophy may occur without compromising the remaining tissue.

  3. Morphometric connectivity analysis to distinguish normal, mild cognitive impaired, and Alzheimer subjects based on brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge; Mysling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...

  4. A Comparison of Laterality Between Normal and Dyslexic Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Barbara

    Examined with 38 right-handed boys who were either dyslexic or normal readers and matched for age and IQ (mean age both groups=10.6, mean IQ normal readers=106, mean IQ dyslexic readers=105) were the weak, strong, and equal lateralization theories of dyslexia. Cerebral lateralization was measured for linguistic material (digits) using the dichotic…

  5. [Shh signal and its functional roles in normal and diseased brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruat, Martial; Angot, Elodie; Traiffort, Elisabeth

    2011-11-01

    The identification of a Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway in the adult vertebrate central nervous system has paved the way to the characterization of the functional roles of Shh signals in normal and diseased brain. This morphogen is proposed to play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of adult neurogenic niches and to modulate the proliferation of neuronal or glial precursors. Consistent with its role during embryogenesis, alteration of Shh signaling is associated with tumorigenesis while its recruitment in damaged neural tissue might be part of the regenerating process. We will discuss the most recent data of the Hedgehog pathway in the adult brain and its relevance as a novel therapeutic approach for brain diseases including brain tumors.

  6. R2* mapping for brain iron: associations with cognition in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadery, Christine; Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Langkammer, Christian; Petrovic, Katja; Loitfelder, Marisa; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Fazekas, Franz; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2015-02-01

    Brain iron accumulates during aging and has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance (MR)-based R2* mapping enables the in vivo detection of iron content in brain tissue. We investigated if during normal brain aging iron load relates to cognitive impairment in region-specific patterns in a community-dwelling cohort of 336 healthy, middle aged, and older adults from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study. MR imaging and R2* mapping in the basal ganglia and neocortex were done at 3T. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing assessed memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. We found the highest iron concentration in the globus pallidus, and pallidal and putaminal iron was significantly and inversely associated with cognitive performance in all cognitive domains, except memory. These associations were iron load dependent. Vascular brain lesions and brain volume did not mediate the relationship between iron and cognitive performance. We conclude that higher R2*-determined iron in the basal ganglia correlates with cognitive impairment during brain aging independent of concomitant brain abnormalities. The prognostic significance of this finding needs to be determined.

  7. MRI relaxation in the presence of fictitious fields correlates with myelin content in normal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Hanne; Sierra, Alejandra; Mangia, Silvia; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom; Gröhn, Olli; Liimatainen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Brain myelin plays an important role in normal brain function. Demyelination is involved in many degenerative brain diseases, thus quantitative imaging of myelin has been under active investigation. In previous work, we demonstrated the capability of the method known as Relaxation Along a Fictitious Field (RAFF) in the rotating frame of rank n (RAFFn) to provide image contrast between white and gray matter in human and rat brains. Here, we provide evidence pointing to myelin being the major source of this contrast. RAFFn relaxation time constant (TRAFFn) was mapped in rat brain ex vivo. TRAFFn was quantified in 12 different brain areas. TRAFFn values were compared with multiple other MRI metrics (T1, T2 , continuous wave T1ρ, adiabatic T1ρ and T2ρ, magnetization transfer ratio), and with histologic measurements of cell density, myelin and iron content. Highest contrast between white and grey matter was obtained with TRAFFn in the rotating frames of ranks n = 4 and 5. TRAFFn values correlated strongly with myelin content, whereas no associations between TRAFFn and iron content or cell density were found. TRAFFn with n = 4 or 5 provides a high sensitivity for selective myelin mapping in the rat brain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Increased brain edema following 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic in normal and tumor bearing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Henry; Angell-Petersen, Even; Spetalen, Signe; Mathews, Marlon; Madsen, Steen J.

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: Failure of treatment for high grade gliomas is usually due to local recurrence at the site of surgical resection indicating that a more aggressive form of local therapy, such as PDT, could be of benefit. PDT causes damage to both tumor cells as well as cerebral blood vessels leading to degradation of the blood brain barrier with subsequent increase of brain edema. The increase in brain edema following ALA-PDT was evaluated in terms of animal survival, histopatological changes in normal brain and tumor tissue and MRI scanning. The effect of steroid treatment, to reduce post-treatment PDT induced edema, was also examined. Methods:Tumors were established in the brains of inbred BD-IX and Fisher rats. At various times following tumor induction the animals were injected with ALA ip. and four hours later light treatment at escalating fluences and fluence rates were given. Nontumor bearing control animals were also exposed to ALA-PDT in a similar manner to evaluate damage to normal brain and degree of blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Results: Despite a very low level of PpIX production in normal brain, with a 200:1 tumor to normal tissue selectivity ratio measured at a distance of 2 mm from the tumor border, many animals succumbed shortly after treatment. A total radiant energy of 54 J to non-tumor bearing animals resulted in 50% mortality within 5 days of treatment. Treatment of tumor bearing animals with moderate fluence levels produced similar brain edema compared to higher fluence levels. ALA PDT in nontumor bearing animals produced edema that was light dose dependent. PDT appeared to open the BBB for a period of 24-48 hrs after which it was restored. The addition of post operative steroid treatment reduced the incident of post treatment morbidity and mortality. Conclusions: T2 and contrast enhanced T1 MRI scanning proved to be a highly effective and non-evasive modality in following the development of the edema reaction and the degree and time

  9. Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Young; Zhang, Xin; Yan, Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose; Moros, Eduardo; Corry, Peter

    2012-01-01

    At the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

  10. An algebraic topological method for multimodal brain networks comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago eSimas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding brain connectivity is one of the most important issues in neuroscience. Nonetheless, connectivity data can reflect either functional relationships of brain activities or anatomical connections between brain areas. Although both representations should be related, this relationship is not straightforward. We have devised a powerful method that allows different operations between networks that share the same set of nodes, by embedding them in a common metric space, enforcing transitivity to the graph topology. Here, we apply this method to construct an aggregated network from a set of functional graphs, each one from a different subject. Once this aggregated functional network is constructed, we use again our method to compare it with the structural connectivity to identify particular brain regions that differ in both modalities (anatomical and functional. Remarkably, these brain regions include functional areas that form part of the classical resting state networks. We conclude that our method -based on the comparison of the aggregated functional network- reveals some emerging features that could not be observed when the comparison is performed with the classical averaged functional network.

  11. Doses delivered to normal brain under different treatment protocols at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J.; Coderre, J.A.; Liu, H.B. [and others

    1996-12-31

    As of October 31, 1996, 23 glioblastoma multiforme patients underwent BNCT under several treatment protocols at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. For treatment planning and dosimetry purposes, these protocols may be divided into four groups. The first group comprises protocols that used an 8-cm collimator and allowed a peak normal brain dose of 10.5 Gy-Eq to avolume of 1 cm{sup 3} were the thermal neutron flux was maximal (even if it happened to be in the tumor volume). The second group differs from the first in that it allowed a peak normal brain dose of 12.6 Gy-Eq. The protocols of the third and fourth groups allowed the prescribed peak normal brain dose of 12.6 Gy-Eq to be outside of the tumor volume, used a 12-cm collimator and, respectively, uni- or bilateral irradiations. We describe the treatment planning procedures and report the doses delivered to various structures of the brain.

  12. Alteration of brain viscoelasticity after shunt treatment in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freimann, Florian Baptist; Sprung, Christian [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Neurosurgical Department, Berlin (Germany); Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Klatt, Dieter; Sack, Ingolf [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Lin, Kui; McLaughlin, Joyce [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Mathematics Department, Troy, NY (United States); Braun, Juergen [Charite - University Medicine Campus Benjamin Franklin, Institute of Medical Informatics, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) represents a chronic neurological disorder with increasing incidence. The symptoms of NPH may be relieved by surgically implanting a ventriculoperitoneal shunt to drain excess cerebrospinal fluid. However, the pathogenesis of NPH is not yet fully elucidated, and the clinical response of shunt treatment is hard to predict. According to current theories of NPH, altered mechanical properties of brain tissue seem to play an important role. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a unique method for measuring in vivo brain mechanics. In this study cerebral MRE was applied to test the viscoelastic properties of the brain in 20 patients with primary (N = 14) and secondary (N = 6) NPH prior and after (91 {+-} 16 days) shunt placement. Viscoelastic parameters were derived from the complex modulus according to the rheological springpot model. This model provided two independent parameters {mu} and {alpha}, related to the inherent rigidity and topology of the mechanical network of brain tissue. The viscoelastic parameters {mu} and {alpha} were found to be decreased with -25% and -10%, respectively, compared to age-matched controls (P < 0.001). Interestingly, {alpha} increased after shunt placement (P < 0.001) to almost normal values whereas {mu} remained symptomatically low. The results indicate the fundamental role of altered viscoelastic properties of brain tissue during disease progression and tissue repair in NPH. Clinical improvement in NPH is associated with an increasing complexity of the mechanical network whose inherent strength, however, remains degraded. (orig.)

  13. Trace element determinations in brain tissues from normal and clinically demented individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas; Leite, Renata E.P.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Ferretti, Renata E.L.; Suemoto, Claudia; Pasqualucci, Carlos A.; Jacob-Filho, Wilson, E-mail: renataleite@usp.br, E-mail: lea@grinberg.com.br, E-mail: reloah@usp.br, E-mail: farfel@usp.br, E-mail: csuemoto@gmail.com, E-mail: cpasqua@usp.br, E-mail: wijac@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina

    2013-07-01

    Studies on trace element levels in human brains under normal and pathological conditions have indicated a possible correlation between some trace element concentrations and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, analysis of brain tissues was carried out to investigate if there are any differences in elemental concentrations between brain tissues from a normal population above 50 years of age presenting Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) equal to zero (CDR=0) and that cognitively affected population ( CDR=3). The tissues were dissected, ground, freeze-dried and then analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated in a neutron flux at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for Br, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma ray activities were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The one-way ANOVA test (p< 0.05) was used to compare the results. All the elements determined in the hippocampus brain region presented differences between the groups presenting CDR=0 and CDR=3. In the case of frontal region only the elements Na, Rb and Zn showed differences between these two groups. These findings proved the correlation between elemental levels present in brain tissues neurodegenerative diseases. Biological standard reference materials SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue and SRM 1577b Bovine Liver analyzed for quality control indicated good accuracy and precision of the results. (author)

  14. Early complement activation increases in the brain in some aged normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, David A; Camp, Dianne M; Schonberger, Michael B; Singer, Daniel J; LeWitt, Peter A

    2004-09-01

    Complement activation is increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may contribute to the development and progression of this disorder. To compare early complement activation between normal and AD brain specimens, C4d and iC3b concentrations were measured in hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, temporal cortex, parietal cortex, and cerebellum from aged normal and AD subjects n=10-14 for both), and in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex from younger normal subjects (n=5-6). C4d and iC3b levels increased 2.3- to 4.6-fold in AD versus aged normal specimens (all P hippocampus or entorhinal cortex. However, the concentrations of these proteins were markedly increased in several aged normal specimens. Normal subject age was moderately associated with both C4d (r=0.49) and iC3b (r=0.53) concentrations in the hippocampus. Increased brain complement activation in some elderly individuals may promote the subsequent development of AD.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of neonatal brain. Assessment of normal and abnormal findings

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    Hasegawa, Koh; Kadono, Naoko; Kawase, Shohji; Kihara, Minako; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Akihiko; Sawada, Tadashi (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1994-11-01

    To establish the normal MRI appearance of the neonatal brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 124 neonates who admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Degree of myelination, ventricular size, width of the extracerebral space and focal lesion in the brain were evaluated to investigate the relationship between MRI findings of neonatal brain and the neurological prognosis. 85 neonates underwent MRI both at neonatal period and at the corrected age of one year. The change of abnormal MRI findings was evaluated. 19 neonates had abnormal neurological outcome on subsequent examinations. Delayed myelination, ventriculomegaly and large extracerebral space were seen in 13, 7 and 9 neonates respectively. 4, 3 and 5 neonates out of them showed abnormal neurological prognosis respectively. Of the 19 neonates with focal lesion in MRI, 2 had parenchymal hematoma in the brain, 2 had subdural hematoma, 5 had chronic hematoma following subependymal hemorrhage, 6 had cystic formation following subependymal hemorrhage, 2 had subcortical leukomalacia, one had periventricular leukomalacia and one had cyst in the parenchyma of cerebellum. 4 neonates of 19 with focal lesion in MRI showed abnormal development. Of the neonates who had abnormal neurological prognosis, 7 neonates showed no abnormal finding in MRI at neonatal period. 3 of them had mild mental retardation. MRI shows promise in the neonatal period. It facilitates recognition of abnormalities of neonatal brain and may be used to predict abnormal neurologic outcome. However physiological change in the brain of neonates, especially of premature neonates, should be considered on interpreting these findings. Awareness of developmental features should help to minimize misinterpretation of normal changes in the neonatal brain. (author).

  16. Whole-brain functional networks in cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hyun Seo

    Full Text Available The conceptual significance of understanding functional brain alterations and cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD process has been widely established. However, the whole-brain functional networks of AD and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, are not well clarified yet. In this study, we compared the characteristics of the whole-brain functional networks among cognitively normal (CN, MCI, and AD individuals by applying graph theoretical analyses to [(18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET data. Ninety-four CN elderly, 183 with MCI, and 216 with AD underwent clinical evaluation and FDG-PET scan. The overall small-world property as seen in the CN whole-brain network was preserved in MCI and AD. In contrast, individual parameters of the network were altered with the following patterns of changes: local clustering of networks was lower in both MCI and AD compared to CN, while path length was not different among the three groups. Then, MCI had a lower level of local clustering than AD. Subgroup analyses for AD also revealed that very mild AD had lower local clustering and shorter path length compared to mild AD. Regarding the local properties of the whole-brain networks, MCI and AD had significantly decreased normalized betweenness centrality in several hubs regionally associated with the default mode network compared to CN. Our results suggest that the functional integration in whole-brain network progressively declines due to the AD process. On the other hand, functional relatedness between neighboring brain regions may not gradually decrease, but be the most severely altered in MCI stage and gradually re-increase in clinical AD stages.

  17. SOX2+ cell population from normal human brain white matter is able to generate mature oligodendrocytes.

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    Jorge Oliver-De La Cruz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A number of neurodegenerative diseases progress with a loss of myelin, which makes them candidate diseases for the development of cell-replacement therapies based on mobilisation or isolation of the endogenous neural/glial progenitor cells, in vitro expansion, and further implantation. Cells expressing A2B5 or PDGFRA/CNP have been isolated within the pool of glial progenitor cells in the subcortical white matter of the normal adult human brain, all of which demonstrate glial progenitor features. However, the heterogeneity and differentiation potential of this pool of cells is not yet well established. METHODS: We used diffusion tensor images, histopathology, and immunostaining analysis to demonstrate normal cytoarchitecture and the absence of abnormalities in human temporal lobe samples from patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. These samples were used to isolate and enrich glial progenitor cells in vitro, and later to detect such cells in vivo. RESULTS: We have identified a subpopulation of SOX2+ cells, most of them co-localising with OLIG2, in the white matter of the normal adult human brain in vivo. These cells can be isolated and enriched in vitro, where they proliferate and generate immature (O4+ and mature (MBP+ oligodendrocytes and, to a lesser extent, astrocytes (GFAP+. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the existence of a new glial progenitor cell subpopulation that expresses SOX2 in the white matter of the normal adult human brain. These cells might be of use for tissue regeneration procedures.

  18. A comparison between keratoconus and normal population based corneal endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Aghazade Amiri

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Keratoconus does not have any considerable effect on cell density, polymegethism and pleomorphism, in mild and moderate stages and corneal opacity risk caused by intraocular surgeries (such as: Cataract or Glaucoma surgeries and some diseases (such as diabetes and uveitis is similar in keratoconic and normal eyes.

  19. Comparison of diadochokinetic rate between deaf children and normal children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wang; Zhihong Yao

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diadochokinetic rate reflects the motion state and synergic level of oral, lingual and speech muscle group, and it is an important index to judge the speech articulation, it is also very significant in the training and evaluation of vocal ability and the correction and treatment of speech.OBJECTIVE: To compare the diadochokinetic rate between deaf children and normal children.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTING: College of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Zhejiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.PARTICIPANTS: Twenty deaf children and 20 normal children of 6-7 years old, half boys and half girls, were selected from Hangzhou Rehabilitation Center for Deaf Children and Hangzhou Fuxing Kindergarten between January and March, 2006. The influences of organic dysarthria on our study had been eliminated, including intellectual and oral diseases, etc. Informed consents were obtained from the guardians of all the enrolled children.METHODS: ① The deaf children all cooperated with the study after proper communication with them. They practiced to pronounce/pa/,/ta/,/ka/clearly in order, then pronounced them together, that was/pataka/. They should slow down at first in order to pronounce clearly and cohere them together, then speeded up to practice,so that the results could not be affected by the unfamiliar pronunciation. After practice, the deaf children were tested by pronouncing /pataka/ for five time continuously, and they were asked to pronounce clearly and correctly with uniform intensity, loudness, speed, etc. They were tested for three times by the same methods,and the durations of the three times were recorded to obtain the average value, then the velocity was calculated. The tests for the normal children were the same as those mentioned above. ② The differences of the measurement data were compared by the ttest.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of diadochokinetic rate compared between deaf children and normal children.RESULTS: All the 20

  20. Color Doppler US of normal cerebral venous sinuses in neonates: a comparison with MR venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Elka [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO), Diagnostic Imaging Department, Ottawa (Canada); Daneman, Alan; Doria, Andrea S.; Blaser, Susan; Traubici, Jeffrey; Jarrin, Jose; Shroff, Manohar [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Moore, Aideen [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Neonatology, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    Color Doppler US (CDUS) has been used for evaluation of cerebral venous sinuses in neonates. However, there is very limited information available regarding the appearance of superficial and deep normal cerebral venous sinuses using CDUS and the specificity of the technique to rule out disease. To determine the specificity, inter-modality and inter-reader agreement of color Doppler US (CDUS). To evaluate normal cerebral venous sinuses in neonates in comparison to MR venography (MRV). Newborns undergoing a clinically indicated brain MRI were prospectively evaluated. All underwent a dedicated CDUS of the cerebral venous sinuses within 10 h (mean, 3.5 h, range, and 2-7.6 h) of the MRI study using a standard protocol. Fifty consecutive neonates participated in the study (30 males [60%]; 25-41 weeks old; mean, 37 weeks). The mean time interval between the date of birth and the CDUS study was 19.1 days. No cases showed evidence of thrombosis. Overall agreement for US reading was 97% (range, 82-100%), for MRV reading, 99% (range, 96-100%) and for intermodality, 100% (range, 96-100%). Excellent US-MRI agreement was noted for superior sagittal sinus, cerebral veins, straight sinus, torcular Herophili, sigmoid sinus, superior jugular veins (94-98%) and transverse sinuses (82-86%). In 10 cases (20%), MRV showed flow gaps whereas normal flow was demonstrated with US. Visualization of the inferior sagittal sinus was limited with both imaging techniques. Excellent reading agreement was noted for US, MRV and intermodality. CDUS is highly specific to rule out cerebral venous thrombosis in neonates and holds potential for clinical application as part of clinical-laboratory-imaging algorithms of pre/post-test probabilities of disease. (orig.)

  1. A longitudinal study of structural brain network changes with normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eWu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate age-related changes in the topological organization of structural brain networks by applying a longitudinal design over 6 years. Structural brain networks were derived from measurements of regional gray matter volume and were constructed in age-specific groups from baseline and follow-up scans. The structural brain networks showed economical small-world properties, providing high global and local efficiency for parallel information processing at low connection costs. In the analysis of the global network properties, the local and global efficiency of the baseline scan were significantly lower compared to the follow-up scan. Moreover, the annual rate of changes in local and global efficiency showed a positive and negative quadratic correlation with the baseline age, respectively; both curvilinear correlations peaked at approximately the age of 50. In the analysis of the regional nodal properties, significant negative correlations between the annual rate of changes in nodal strength and the baseline age were found in the brain regions primarily involved in the visual and motor/ control systems, whereas significant positive quadratic correlations were found in the brain regions predominately associated with the default-mode, attention, and memory systems. The results of the longitudinal study are consistent with the findings of our previous cross-sectional study: the structural brain networks develop into a fast distribution from young to middle age (approximately 50 years old and eventually became a fast localization in the old age. Our findings elucidate the network topology of structural brain networks and its longitudinal changes, thus enhancing the understanding of the underlying physiology of normal aging in the human brain.

  2. Association of structural global brain network properties with intelligence in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Florian U; Wolf, Dominik; Scheurich, Armin; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60-85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient) were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience.

  3. Association of structural global brain network properties with intelligence in normal aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian U Fischer

    Full Text Available Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60-85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience.

  4. Calbindin distribution in cortical and subcortical brain structures of normal and rabies-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Fernández, Orlando; Yepes, Gloria E; Gómez, Javier E; Pimienta, Hernán J

    2005-10-01

    Rabies has been an enigmatic disease of the nervous system because microscopic findings in the brain tissue are not paralleled by the severity of the clinical illness. The calcium binding protein calbindin (CB) is a neuronal marker of great interest in neuroanatomy and neuropathology. CB-ir neurons in the striatum and cerebral cortex are gabaergic cells. In the present work CB-immunoreactivity was evaluated in brains of normal and rabies-infected mice. Rabies infection caused loss of CB-immunostaining in the cortical supragranular layers as well as in the striatum. Loss of CB in the brains of mice infected with rabies virus can produce impairment in Ca++ homeostasis and in the gabaergic neurotransmission.

  5. Uptake of radiolabeled ions in normal and ischemia-damaged brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dienel, G.A.; Pulsinelli, W.A.

    1986-05-01

    The regional concentrations of nine radiochemicals were measured in rat brain after induction of cerebral ischemia to identify tracers concentrated by brain undergoing selective neuronal necrosis. Transient (30 minute) forebrain ischemia was produced in the rat; 24 hours after cerebral recirculation the radiochemicals were injected intravenously and allowed to circulate for 5 hours. The brain concentrations of the radiochemicals in dissected regions were determined by scintillation counting. Forebrain ischemia of this nature will produce extensive injury to striatal neurons but will spare the great majority of neocortical neurons at 24 hours. The regional concentrations of these radiochemicals varied considerably in both control and ischemic animals. In postischemic animals, 4 radionuclides (/sup 63/Ni, /sup 99/TcO/sub 4/, /sup 22/Na, and (/sup 3/H)tetracycline) were concentrated in the irreversibly damaged striatum in amounts ranging from 1.4 to 2.4 times greater than in normal tissue. The concentrations of /sup 65/Zn, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 32/PO/sub 4/, and /sup 147/Pm in postischemic brain were similar to or less than those in normal brain. The concentration of (14C)EDTA was increased in injured and uninjured brain of postischemic rats. Autoradiographic analysis of the distribution patterns of some of these ions in normal animals showed that /sup 99/TcO/sub 4/, /sup 22/Na, /sup 65/Zn, and /sup 59/Fe were distributed more uniformly throughout the brain than were /sup 32/PO/sub 4/, /sup 63/Ni, and /sup 147/Pm. At 24 or 48 hours after ischemia, /sup 63/Ni, /sup 99/TcO/sub 4/, and /sup 22/Na were preferentially concentrated in the damaged striatum and hippocampus, whereas /sup 65/Zn, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 32/PO/sub 4/, and /sup 147/Pm did not accumulate in irreversibly injured tissue. Of the radiochemicals tested to date, Ni, TcO/sub 4/, and tetracycline may be useful for diagnosing ischemic brain injury in humans, using positron emission tomography.

  6. Effects of stress hormones on the brain and cognition: Evidence from normal to pathological aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nery de Souza-Talarico

    Full Text Available Abstract Several studies have demonstrated a wide cognitive variability among aged individuals. One factor thought to be associated with this heterogeneity is exposure to chronic stress throughout life. Animal and human evidence demonstrates that glucocorticoids (GCs, the main class of stress hormones, are strongly linked to memory performance whereby elevated GC levels are associated with memory performance decline in both normal and pathological cognitive aging. Accordingly, it is believed that GCs may increase the brain's vulnerability to the effects of internal and external insults, and thus may play a role in the development of age-related cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD. The aim of this review article was to investigate the effects of GCs on normal and pathological cognitive aging by showing how these hormones interact with different brain structures involved in cognitive abilities, subsequently worsen memory performance, and increase the risk for developing dementia.

  7. Classification of normal and pathological aging processes based on brain MRI morphology measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gonzalez, J. L.; Yanez-Suarez, O.; Medina-Bañuelos, V.

    2014-03-01

    Reported studies describing normal and abnormal aging based on anatomical MRI analysis do not consider morphological brain changes, but only volumetric measures to distinguish among these processes. This work presents a classification scheme, based both on size and shape features extracted from brain volumes, to determine different aging stages: healthy control (HC) adults, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three support vector machines were optimized and validated for the pair-wise separation of these three classes, using selected features from a set of 3D discrete compactness measures and normalized volumes of several global and local anatomical structures. Our analysis show classification rates of up to 98.3% between HC and AD; of 85% between HC and MCI and of 93.3% for MCI and AD separation. These results outperform those reported in the literature and demonstrate the viability of the proposed morphological indexes to classify different aging stages.

  8. CSF Flow in the Brain in the Context of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, W G

    2015-05-01

    CSF normally flows back and forth through the aqueduct during the cardiac cycle. During systole, the brain and intracranial vasculature expand and compress the lateral and third ventricles, forcing CSF craniocaudad. During diastole, they contract and flow through the aqueduct reverses. Hyperdynamic CSF flow through the aqueduct is seen when there is ventricular enlargement without cerebral atrophy. Therefore, patients presenting with clinical normal pressure hydrocephalus who have hyperdynamic CSF flow have been found to respond better to ventriculoperitoneal shunting than those with normal or decreased CSF flow. Patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus have also been found to have larger intracranial volumes than sex-matched controls, suggesting that they may have had benign external hydrocephalus as infants. While their arachnoidal granulations clearly have decreased CSF resorptive capacity, it now appears that this is fixed and that the arachnoidal granulations are not merely immature. Such patients appear to develop a parallel pathway for CSF to exit the ventricles through the extracellular space of the brain and the venous side of the glymphatic system. This pathway remains functional until late adulthood when the patient develops deep white matter ischemia, which is characterized histologically by myelin pallor (ie, loss of lipid). The attraction between the bare myelin protein and the CSF increases resistance to the extracellular outflow of CSF, causing it to back up, resulting in hydrocephalus. Thus idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus appears to be a "2 hit" disease: benign external hydrocephalus in infancy followed by deep white matter ischemia in late adulthood.

  9. Comparison of power of modified Jarque-Bera normality tests and selected tests of normality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Střelec

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to modify the classical Jarque-Bera test and the robust Jarque-Bera test of normality. We use the median as an estimator instead of the mean in the classical Jarque-Bera test and in the robust Jarque-Bera test. This leads to the modified Jarque-Bera test and the modified robust Jarque-Bera test. Paper also demonstrates results of simulation studies of power of such tests with the various alternatives – light tailed alternatives as exponential, lognormal and gamma distribution, heavy tailed alternatives as Cauchy, Laplace, t3, t5 and logistic distributions and short tailed alternatives as beta and uniform distributions. These tests of normality are also used for normality testing of selected datasets of financial time series. Source data include logarithmic returns of monthly ave­ra­ge prices of Prague stock exchange index PX and monthly average prices of CZK/EUR exchange rate in the period from 2000 to 2007.

  10. Risk of multiple sclerosis after optic neuritis in patients with normal baseline brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Inês Brás; Matias, Fernando; Silva, Eduardo Duarte; Cunha, Luis; Sousa, Lívia

    2014-04-01

    When assessing and managing a patient with optic neuritis (ON), the risk of future development of multiple sclerosis (MS) is an important issue, as this can be the first presentation of the disease. Although the presence of lesions on baseline brain MRI is the strongest predictor of MS conversion, some patients with normal imaging also develop MS. We aimed to estimate MS risk in patients with ON and a normal baseline MRI and identify individuals with higher risk of conversion. We performed a retrospective study including patients with idiopathic ON and normal baseline brain MRI who presented to our hospital over an 8 year period. Of a total of 42 patients, 10 converted to MS: five during the first follow-up year, seven during the first 2 years and all of the patients within the first 5 years, with a 5 year MS conversion rate of 23.8%. MS conversion rates were significantly higher in patients with history of previous symptoms suggestive of demyelination (p=0.002), cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands unmatched in serum (p=0.004) and incomplete visual acuity recovery (≤6/12) after 1 year (p=0.002). Lower conversion rates were found in patients with optic disc edema (p=0.022). According to these results, a significant proportion of patients with idiopathic ON and a normal baseline brain MRI will develop MS, with a higher risk during the first 5 years. Therefore, in the presence of factors in favor of MS conversion, close follow-up, including semestral medical consultations and yearly brain MRI, can be recommended. Early immunomodulatory treatment may be individually considered as it can delay conversion and reduce new lesion development rate.

  11. Brain herniation in a patient with apparently normal intracranial pressure: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlqvist Mats B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Intracranial pressure monitoring is commonly implemented in patients with neurologic injury and at high risk of developing intracranial hypertension, to detect changes in intracranial pressure in a timely manner. This enables early and potentially life-saving treatment of intracranial hypertension. Case presentation An intraparenchymal pressure probe was placed in the hemisphere contralateral to a large basal ganglia hemorrhage in a 75-year-old Caucasian man who was mechanically ventilated and sedated because of depressed consciousness. Intracranial pressures were continuously recorded and never exceeded 17 mmHg. After sedation had been stopped, our patient showed clinical signs of transtentorial brain herniation, despite apparently normal intracranial pressures (less than 10 mmHg. Computed tomography revealed that the size of the intracerebral hematoma had increased together with significant unilateral brain edema and transtentorial herniation. The contralateral hemisphere where the intraparenchymal pressure probe was placed appeared normal. Our patient underwent emergency decompressive craniotomy and was tracheotomized early, but did not completely recover. Conclusions Intraparenchymal pressure probes placed in the hemisphere contralateral to an intracerebral hematoma may dramatically underestimate intracranial pressure despite apparently normal values, even in the case of transtentorial brain herniation.

  12. Characterizing structural association alterations within brain networks in normal aging using Gaussian Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yan; Chen, Kewei; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Jiacai; Li, Ke; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li

    2014-01-01

    Recent multivariate neuroimaging studies have revealed aging-related alterations in brain structural networks. However, the sensory/motor networks such as the auditory, visual and motor networks, have obtained much less attention in normal aging research. In this study, we used Gaussian Bayesian networks (BN), an approach investigating possible inter-regional directed relationship, to characterize aging effects on structural associations between core brain regions within each of these structural sensory/motor networks using volumetric MRI data. We then further examined the discriminability of BN models for the young (N = 109; mean age =22.73 years, range 20-28) and old (N = 82; mean age =74.37 years, range 60-90) groups. The results of the BN modeling demonstrated that structural associations exist between two homotopic brain regions from the left and right hemispheres in each of the three networks. In particular, compared with the young group, the old group had significant connection reductions in each of the three networks and lesser connection numbers in the visual network. Moreover, it was found that the aging-related BN models could distinguish the young and old individuals with 90.05, 73.82, and 88.48% accuracy for the auditory, visual, and motor networks, respectively. Our findings suggest that BN models can be used to investigate the normal aging process with reliable statistical power. Moreover, these differences in structural inter-regional interactions may help elucidate the neuronal mechanism of anatomical changes in normal aging.

  13. Probiotics normalize the gut-brain-microbiota axis in immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carli J; Emge, Jacob R; Berzins, Katrina; Lung, Lydia; Khamishon, Rebecca; Shah, Paarth; Rodrigues, David M; Sousa, Andrew J; Reardon, Colin; Sherman, Philip M; Barrett, Kim E; Gareau, Mélanie G

    2014-10-15

    The gut-brain-microbiota axis is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of intestinal physiology. Exposure to psychological stress causes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and causes altered intestinal barrier function, intestinal dysbiosis, and behavioral changes. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the effects of psychological stress on intestinal physiology and behavior, including anxiety and memory, are mediated by the adaptive immune system. Furthermore, we wanted to determine whether treatment with probiotics would normalize these effects. Here we demonstrate that B and T cell-deficient Rag1(-/-) mice displayed altered baseline behaviors, including memory and anxiety, accompanied by an overactive HPA axis, increased intestinal secretory state, dysbiosis, and decreased hippocampal c-Fos expression. Both local (intestinal physiology and microbiota) and central (behavioral and hippocampal c-Fos) changes were normalized by pretreatment with probiotics, indicating an overall benefit on health conferred by changes in the microbiota, independent of lymphocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate a role for adaptive immune cells in maintaining normal intestinal and brain health in mice and show that probiotics can overcome this immune-mediated deficit in the gut-brain-microbiota axis. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Comparison between normal and special chain-drive toothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolipski, M.

    1985-12-01

    A comparison of these two types of tooth arrangements on chain drives with round-link chains comes out clearly in favour of the special toothing. The article describes the advantages of this type of toothing. A proposal is made to use the special tooth arrangement in the construction of drive pocket wheels. Such a move would prevent the disastrous effects of links becoming jammed in the pockets during running-in and would consequently improve the service life of both chain and drive sprocket.

  15. Periodontal disease associates with higher brain amyloid load in normal elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamer, Angela R; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Tsui, Wai; Rusinek, Henry; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Mosconi, Lisa; Yi, Li; McHugh, Pauline; Craig, Ronald G; Svetcov, Spencer; Linker, Ross; Shi, Chen; Glodzik, Lidia; Williams, Schantel; Corby, Patricia; Saxena, Deepak; de Leon, Mony J

    2015-02-01

    The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques is a central feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). First reported in animal models, it remains uncertain if peripheral inflammatory and/or infectious conditions in humans can promote Aβ brain accumulation. Periodontal disease, a common chronic infection, has been previously reported to be associated with AD. Thirty-eight cognitively normal, healthy, and community-residing elderly (mean age, 61 and 68% female) were examined in an Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and a University-Based Dental School. Linear regression models (adjusted for age, apolipoprotein E, and smoking) were used to test the hypothesis that periodontal disease assessed by clinical attachment loss was associated with brain Aβ load using (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) positron emission tomography imaging. After adjusting for confounders, clinical attachment loss (≥3 mm), representing a history of periodontal inflammatory/infectious burden, was associated with increased PIB uptake in Aβ vulnerable brain regions (p = 0.002). We show for the first time in humans an association between periodontal disease and brain Aβ load. These data are consistent with the previous animal studies showing that peripheral inflammation/infections are sufficient to produce brain Aβ accumulations.

  16. Normal saline influences coagulation and endothelial function after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dekker, Simone E; Sillesen, Martin; Bambakidis, Ted

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of trauma-related deaths. These insults disrupt coagulation and endothelial systems. This study investigated whether previously reported differences in lesion size and brain swelling during normal saline (NS...... of endothelial activation (E-selectin, Intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1), coagulation activation (prothrombin fragment 1 + 2), and natural anticoagulation (activated protein C [aPC]) were determined in serum and brain whole cell lysates. RESULTS: Serum levels of aPC were greater in the NS group (203 ± 30...... pg/mL) compared with HEX (77 ± 28 pg/mL; P = .02) and FFP (110 ± 28 pg/mL; P = .09), as was PF 1 + 2 in the brain when compared with FFP (PF 1 + 2, 89 ± 46 vs 37 ± 14 ng/mL; P = .035). Brain E-selectin was greater in the NS group compared with FFP (3.36 ± 0.02 vs 3.31 ± 0.01 ng/mL; P = .029...

  17. Imaging brain effects of APOE4 in cognitively normal individuals across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Marine; Besson, Florent L; Gonneaud, Julie; La Joie, Renaud; Chételat, Gaël

    2014-09-01

    The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE4) is associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, several studies have compared the brain characteristics of APOE4 carriers versus non-carriers in presymptomatic stages to determine early AD biomarkers. The present review provides an overview on APOE4-related brain changes in cognitively normal individuals, focusing on the main neuroimaging biomarkers for AD, i.e. cortical beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition, hypometabolism and atrophy. The most consistent findings are observed with Aβ deposition as most studies report significantly higher cortical Aβ load in APOE4 carriers compared with non-carriers. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography studies are rare and tend to show hypometabolism in brain regions typically impaired in AD. Structural magnetic resonance imaging findings are the most numerous and also the most discrepant, showing atrophy in AD-sensitive regions in some studies but contradicting results as well. Altogether, this suggests a graded effect of APOE4, with a predominant effect on Aβ over brain structure and metabolism. Multimodal studies confirm this view and also suggest that APOE4 effects on brain structure and function are mediated by both Aβ-dependent and Aβ-independent pathological processes. Neuroimaging studies on asymptomatic APOE4 carriers offer relevant information to the understanding of early pathological mechanisms of the disease, although caution is needed as to whether APOE4 effects reflect AD pathological processes, and are representative of these effects in non-carriers.

  18. Comparison of overjet among 3 arch types in normal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-In; Bayome, Mohamed; Kim, Yoonji; Baek, Seung-Hak; Han, Seong Ho; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2011-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the amounts of overjet in the anterior and posterior segments of 3 arch forms by using facial axis points on 3-dimensional virtual models and to verify the minimum posterior extension required for classification of the arch form in normal occlusions. Facial axis points were digitized on 97 virtual models with normal occlusion, classified into 20 tapered, 25 ovoid, and 52 square arch forms. Intercanine and intermolar arch widths and depths were measured. The best-fitting curves were created, and overjet was measured at each facial axis point. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to assess the relationship between arch form and overjet in different areas. The minimum posterior extension to determine arch type was analyzed with the chi-square test. Subjects with a tapered arch form had larger overjet compared with those with ovoid and square forms, except at the central incisor. A significant difference in overjet among different areas was found in subjects with a square arch form (P overjet according to arch types. The extension to the first premolar was sufficient to classify arch form type. It might be beneficial to consider more coordinated preformed superelastic archwires according to variations in overjet of different arch types. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fractal description and quantitative analysis of normal brain development in infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hehong Li; Liangping Luo; Li Huang

    2011-01-01

    We examined the fractal pattern of cerebral computerized tomography images in 158 normal infants, aged 0-3 years, based on the quantitative analysis of chaotic theory. Results showed that the fractal dimension of cerebral computerized tomography images in normal infants remained stable from 1.86-1.91. The normal distribution range in the neonatal period, 1-2 months old infants, 1-2 year old infants, and of 2-3 year old infants was 1.88-1.90 (mean: 1.891 3 ± 0.006 4), 1.89-1.90 (mean: 1.892 7 ± 0.004 5), 1.86-1.90 (mean: 1.886 3 ± 0.008 5), and 1.88-1.91 (mean: 1.895 8 ± 0.008 3), respectively. The spectrum width of the multifractal spectrum (△α) in normal infants was 1.4618. These data suggest that the spectral width parameters of the multifractal spectrum and the fractal dimension criteria in normal children may be useful as a practical specific parameter for assessing the fractal mode of brain development in normal infants.

  20. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of normal human brain and glioma:a quantitive in vivo study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Zhi-yong; YAMAKI Toshiaki; WANG Yun-jie

    2005-01-01

    Background In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides a noninvasive method of examining a wide variety of cerebral metabolites in both healthy subjects and patients with various brain diseases.Absolute metabolite concentrations have been determined using external and internal standards with known concentrations.When an external standard is placed beside the head, variations in signal amplitudes due to B1 field inhomogeneity and static field inhomogeneity may occur.Hence an internal standard is preferable.The purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyze the metabolite concentrations in normal adult brains and gliomas by in vivo proton MRS using the fully relaxed water signal as an internal standard.Methods Between January 1998 and October 2001, 28 healthy volunteers and 16 patients with gliomas were examined by in vivo proton MRS.Single-voxel spectra were acquired using the point-resolved spectroscopic pulse sequence with a 1.5 T scanner (TR/TE/Ave=3000 ms/30 ms/64).Results The calculated concentrations of N-acetyl-asparatate (NAA), creatine (Cre), choline (Cho), and water (H2O) in the normal hemispheric white matter were (23.59±2.62) mmol/L, (13.06±1.8) mmol/L, (4.28±0.8) mmol/L, and (47 280.96±5414.85) mmol/L, respectively.The metabolite concentrations were not necessarily uniform in different parts of the brain.The concentrations of NAA and Cre decreased in all gliomas (P<0.001).The ratios of NAA/Cho and NAA/H2O showed a significant difference between the normal brain and gliomas, and also between the high and low grades (P<0.001).Conclusions Quantitative analysis of in vivo proton MR spectra using the fully relaxed water signal as an internal standard is useful.The concentrations of NAA and the ratios of NAA/H2O and NAA/Cho conduce to discriminating between the glioma and normal brain, and also between the low-grade glioma and high-grade glioma.

  1. Brain structural correlates of reward sensitivity and impulsivity in adolescents with normal and excess weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moreno-López

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroscience evidence suggests that adolescent obesity is linked to brain dysfunctions associated with enhanced reward and somatosensory processing and reduced impulse control during food processing. Comparatively less is known about the role of more stable brain structural measures and their link to personality traits and neuropsychological factors on the presentation of adolescent obesity. Here we aimed to investigate regional brain anatomy in adolescents with excess weight vs. lean controls. We also aimed to contrast the associations between brain structure and personality and cognitive measures in both groups. METHODS: Fifty-two adolescents (16 with normal weight and 36 with excess weight were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging and completed the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ, the UPPS-P scale, and the Stroop task. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to assess possible between-group differences in regional gray matter (GM and to measure the putative differences in the way reward and punishment sensitivity, impulsivity and inhibitory control relate to regional GM volumes, which were analyzed using both region of interest (ROI and whole brain analyses. The ROIs included areas involved in reward/somatosensory processing (striatum, somatosensory cortices and motivation/impulse control (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex. RESULTS: Excess weight adolescents showed increased GM volume in the right hippocampus. Voxel-wise volumes of the second somatosensory cortex (SII were correlated with reward sensitivity and positive urgency in lean controls, but this association was missed in excess weight adolescents. Moreover, Stroop performance correlated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volumes in controls but not in excess weight adolescents. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with excess weight have structural abnormalities in brain regions associated with somatosensory processing and motivation.

  2. Differentiating shunt-responsive normal pressure hydrocephalus from Alzheimer disease and normal aging: pilot study using automated MRI brain tissue segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serulle, Yafell; Rusinek, Henry; Kirov, Ivan I; Milch, Hannah; Fieremans, Els; Baxter, Alexander B; McMenamy, John; Jain, Rajan; Wisoff, Jeffrey; Golomb, James; Gonen, Oded; George, Ajax E

    2014-10-01

    Evidence suggests that normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is underdiagnosed in day to day radiologic practice, and differentiating NPH from cerebral atrophy due to other neurodegenerative diseases and normal aging remains a challenge. To better characterize NPH, we test the hypothesis that a prediction model based on automated MRI brain tissue segmentation can help differentiate shunt-responsive NPH patients from cerebral atrophy due to Alzheimer disease (AD) and normal aging. Brain segmentation into gray and white matter (GM, WM), and intracranial cerebrospinal fluid was derived from pre-shunt T1-weighted MRI of 15 shunt-responsive NPH patients (9 men, 72.6 ± 8.0 years-old), 17 AD patients (10 men, 72.1 ± 11.0 years-old) chosen as a representative of cerebral atrophy in this age group; and 18 matched healthy elderly controls (HC, 7 men, 69.7 ± 7.0 years old). A multinomial prediction model was generated based on brain tissue volume distributions. GM decrease of 33% relative to HC characterized AD (P normal GM volumes characterized NPH. A multinomial regression model based on gender, GM and ventricular volume had 96.3% accuracy differentiating NPH from AD and HC. In conclusion, automated MRI brain tissue segmentation differentiates shunt-responsive NPH with high accuracy from atrophy due to AD and normal aging. This method may improve diagnosis of NPH and improve our ability to distinguish normal from pathologic aging.

  3. Role of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the regulation of brain neuropeptides in normal and diabetic rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolta, Malak G.; Williams, Byron B.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) alteration on brain dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), beta-endorphin (beta-E), and immunoreactive insulin was studied in Sprague-Dawley diabetic and control rats. Diabetes was induced using alloxan (45 mg/kg), 15 days prior to sacrificing. Both control and diabetic animals were treated with either p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg) three days prior to sacrificing or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) twice daily for three days. PCPA treatment significantly decreased brain content of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindolel acetic acid, while it caused significant increase and decrease in brain beta-E and insulin levels, respectively, in both normal and diabetic rat. Meanwhile, the administration of fluoxetine resulted in significant increase in brain content of 5-HT, DA, NE and insulin but significant decline of beta-E in diabetic and saline control rats. The results of this experiment indicate that 5-HT may be regulating both beta-E and insulin regardless of the availability of pancreatic insulin.

  4. MTR variations in normal adult brain structures using balanced steady-state free precession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Meritxell; Wetzel, Stephan G.; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm [University of Basel Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Gloor, Monika; Bieri, Oliver; Scheffler, Klaus [University of Basel Hospital, Division of Radiological Physics, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-03-15

    Magnetization transfer (MT) is sensitive to the macromolecular environment of water protons and thereby provides information not obtainable from conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared to standard methods, MT-sensitized balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) offers high-resolution images with significantly reduced acquisition times. In this study, high-resolution magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) images from normal appearing brain structures were acquired with bSSFP. Twelve subjects were studied on a 1.5 T scanner. MTR values were calculated from MT images acquired in 3D with 1.3 mm isotropic resolution. The complete MT data set was acquired within less than 3.5 min. Forty-one brain structures of the white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) were identified for each subject. MTR values were higher for WM than GM. In general, MTR values of the WM and GM structures were in good accordance with the literature. However, MTR values showed more homogenous values within WM and GM structures than previous studies. MT-sensitized bSSFP provides isotropic high-resolution MTR images and hereby allows assessment of reliable MTR data in also very small brain structures in clinically feasible acquisition times and is thus a promising sequence for being widely used in the clinical routine. The present normative data can serve as a reference for the future characterization of brain pathologies. (orig.)

  5. Age-correlated gene expression in normal and neurodegenerative human brain tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajia Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human brain aging has received special attention in part because of the elevated risks of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease in seniors. Recent technological advances enable us to investigate whether similar mechanisms underlie aging and neurodegeneration, by quantifying the similarities and differences in their genome-wide gene expression profiles. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a computational method for assessing an individual's "physiological brain age" by comparing global mRNA expression datasets across a range of normal human brain samples. Application of this method to brains samples from select regions in two diseases--Alzheimer's disease (AD, superior frontal gyrus, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, in rostral aspect of frontal cortex ∼BA10--showed that while control cohorts exhibited no significant difference between physiological and chronological ages, FTLD and AD exhibited prematurely aged expression profiles. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes a quantitative scale for measuring premature aging in neurodegenerative disease cohorts, and it identifies specific physiological mechanisms common to aging and some forms of neurodegeneration. In addition, accelerated expression profiles associated with AD and FTLD suggest some common mechanisms underlying the risk of developing these diseases.

  6. Normalization of coagulopathy is associated with improved outcome after isolated traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Daniel S; Mitra, Biswadev; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2016-07-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) has been reported in the setting of isolated traumatic brain injury (iTBI) and is associated with poor outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of procoagulant agents administered to patients with ATC and iTBI during resuscitation, hypothesizing that timely normalization of coagulopathy may be associated with a decrease in mortality. A retrospective review of the Alfred Hospital trauma registry, Australia, was conducted and patients with iTBI (head Abbreviated Injury Score [AIS] ⩾3 and all other body AIS normalized ratio ⩾1.3) were selected for analysis. Data on procoagulant agents used (fresh frozen plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate, prothrombin complex concentrates, tranexamic acid, vitamin K) were extracted. Among patients who had achieved normalization of INR or survived beyond 24hours and were not taking oral anticoagulants, the association of normalization of INR and death at hospital discharge was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. There were 157 patients with ATC of whom 68 (43.3%) received procoagulant products within 24hours of presentation. The median time to delivery of first products was 182.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 115-375) minutes, and following administration of coagulants, time to normalization of INR was 605 (IQR 274-1146) minutes. Normalization of INR was independently associated with significantly lower mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.10; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38). Normalization of INR was associated with improved mortality in patients with ATC in the setting of iTBI. As there was a substantial time lag between delivery of products and eventual normalization of coagulation, specific management of coagulopathy should be implemented as early as possible.

  7. SU-E-T-568: Improving Normal Brain Sparing with Increasing Number of Arc Beams for Volume Modulated Arc Beam Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, S; Hildebrand, K; Ahmad, S [University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Larson, D; Ma, L [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sahgal, A [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc beams have been newly reported for treating multiple brain metastases. The purpose of this study was to determine the variations in the normal brain doses with increasing number of arc beams for multiple brain metastases treatments via the TrueBeam Rapidarc system (Varian Oncology, Palo Alto, CA). Methods: A patient case with 12 metastatic brain lesions previously treated on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (GK) was used for the study. All lesions and organs at risk were contoured by a senior radiation oncologist and treatment plans for a subset of 3, 6, 9 and all 12 targets were developed for the TrueBeam Rapidarc system via 3 to 7 intensity modulated arc-beams with each target covered by at least 99% of the prescribed dose of 20 Gy. The peripheral normal brain isodose volumes as well as the total beam-on time were analyzed with increasing number of arc beams for these targets. Results: All intensisty modulated arc-beam plans produced efficient treatment delivery with the beam-on time averaging 0.6–1.5 min per lesion at an output of 1200 MU/min. With increasing number of arc beams, the peripheral normal brain isodose volumes such as the 12-Gy isodose line enclosed normal brain tissue volumes were on average decreased by 6%, 11%, 18%, and 28% for the 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-target treatment plans respectively. The lowest normal brain isodose volumes were consistently found for the 7-arc treatment plans for all the cases. Conclusion: With nearly identical beam-on times, the peripheral normal brain dose was notably decreased when the total number of intensity modulated arc beams was increased when treating multiple brain metastases. Dr Sahgal and Dr Ma are currently serving on the board of international society of stereotactic radiosurgery.

  8. ROI measurement of the signal intensity of precentral cortex in the normal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaarslan, Ercan E-mail: arzuarslan@netscape.net; Arslan, Arzu

    2004-12-01

    Objective: It has recently been described that perirolandic cortex generally had a low signal intensity (SI) in neurologically normal brain. The aim of this study was to confirm this finding by an objective quantitative study. Materials and methods: Turbo fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images of 24 neurologically normal patients were evaluated retrospectively. Signal intensity measurements of the precentral and superior frontal cortices (SFCs) were obtained at a manually traced irregular region-of-interest (ROI). t-Test for paired samples was used to evaluate the significance of differences between signal intensity measurements. Results: Mean signal intensities of precentral and superior frontal cortices were 349.5 and 380.7, respectively, on the right, and 351.7 and 374.1 on the left hemisphere. The difference between the mean signal intensities of the side-matched precentral and superior frontal cortices was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: Low signal intensity of the precentral cortex (PCC) in normal brain on turbo FLAIR images is an objective finding, confirmed by ROI measurement.

  9. Post-contrast FLAIR MR imaging of the brain in children: normal and abnormal intracranial enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Choi, Choong-Gon [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-12-01

    To describe the normally enhancing intracranial structures on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI and evaluate the usefulness of postcontrast FLAIR images of the brain in the assessment of enhancing lesions by comparing postcontrast FLAIR imaging with postcontrast T1-weighted (T1-W) imaging in children. In 218 children, 249 pre- and postcontrast FLAIR MRI examinations of the brain were obtained consecutively between August 2001 and April 2002. The normally enhancing intracranial structures on FLAIR imaging were assessed in 77 MRI studies of 74 children who showed normal intracranial imaging findings. In 86 MRI studies in 68 children who showed enhancing intracranial lesions, lesion conspicuity on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was compared with that on postcontrast T1-W imaging for all lesions (n=107), intra-axial lesions (n=40), or extra-axial lesions (n=67). The normally enhancing intracranial structures on FLAIR MRI were the choroid plexus (99%, 76/77), pituitary stalk (84%, 65/77), pineal gland (71%, 55/77), dural sinuses (26%, 20/77), and cortical veins (9%, 7/77). Of all the enhancing lesions, lesion conspicuousness on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better than postcontrast T1-weighted imaging in 42, equal in 28, and worse in 37. Of 40 intra-axial lesions, lesion conspicuousness on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better in 6, equal in 10, and worse in 24. Of 67 extra-axial lesions, lesion conspicuity on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better in 36, equal in 18, and worse in 13. Conspicuousness of extra-axial lesions was significantly better than that of intra-axial lesions on postcontrast FLAIR imaging (P<0.001). The choroid plexus, pituitary stalk, pineal gland, dural sinuses, and cortical veins show normal enhancement on postcontrast FLAIR MRI in children, and postcontrast FLAIR imaging appears better than postcontrast T1-W imaging in the assessment of extra-axial enhancing lesions in children. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of normal and pathologic appearance in skull base and brain stem with metrizamide CT cisternography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimura, Tatsuo; Nakano, Masaru; Maeda, Yukio; Yokota, Masayuki; Kokubu, Kiyokazu; Shimada, Tatsuji (Hyogo College of Medicine (Japan))

    1985-02-01

    Metrizamide CT cisternography was performed in accordance with prone 60/sup 0/ head-down method, to study the normal anatomy of the skull base and brain stem. Cases of empty sellae, Rathke's cleft cyst, mucocele trigeminal neurinoma, pons glioma, acoustic neurinoma and jugular foramen tumor were studied together. As side effects of MCTC there were headache, vomiting and appearance of slow waves on EEG, but no convulsion. Transient encephalopathy was noted when 250 mgI/ml, 12 ml, was used. Using MCTC, it is possible to identify the vertebral artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery, basillar artery, vessels forming Willis ring as well as II, III, V, VII and VIII cranial nerves. Further, by measuring the brain stem parts on various levels, it may become possible to detect early changes of degenerative disease.

  11. Free magnesium levels in normal human brain and brain tumors: sup 31 P chemical-shift imaging measurements at 1. 5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.S.; Vigneron, D.B.; Murphy-Boesch, J.; Nelson, S.J.; Kessler, H.B.; Coia, L.; Curran, W.; Brown, T.R. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The authors have studied a series of normal subjects and patients with brain tumors, by using {sup 31}P three-dimensional chemical shift imaging to obtain localized {sup 31}P spectra of the brain. A significant proportion of brain cytosolic ATP in normal brain is not complexed to Mg{sup 2+}, as indicated by the chemical shift {delta} of the {beta}-P resonance of ATP. The ATP {beta}P resonance position in brain thus is sensitive to changes in intracellular free Mg{sup 2+} concentration and in the proportion of ATP complexed with Mg because this shift lies on the rising portion of the {delta} vs. Mg{sup 2+} titration curve for ATP. They have measured the ATP {beta}-P shift and compared intracellular free Mg{sup 2+} concentration and fractions of free ATP for normal individuals and a limited series of patients with brain tumors. In four of the five spectra obtained from brain tissue containing a substantial proportion of tumor, intracellular free Mg{sup 2+} was increased, and the fraction of free ATP was decreased, compared with normal brain.

  12. Bioactive form of resveratrol in glioblastoma cells and its safety for normal brain cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Shu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Resveratrol, a plant polyphenol existing in grapes and many other natural foods, possesses a wide range of biological activities including cancer prevention. It has been recognized that resveratrol is intracellularly biotransformed to different metabolites, but no direct evidence has been available to ascertain its bioactive form because of the difficulty to maintain resveratrol unmetabolized in vivo or in vitro. It would be therefore worthwhile to elucidate the potential therapeutic implications of resveratrol metabolism using a reliable resveratrol-sensitive cancer cells.Objective: To identify the real biological form of trans-resveratrol and to evaluate the safety of the effective anticancer dose of resveratrol for the normal brain cells.Methods: The samples were prepared from the condition media and cell lysates of human glioblastoma U251 cells, and were purified by solid phase extraction (SPE. The samples were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS analysis. According to the metabolite(s, trans-resveratrol was biotransformed in vitro by the method described elsewhere, and the resulting solution was used to treat U251 cells. Meanwhile, the responses of U251 and primarily cultured rat normal brain cells (glial cells and neurons to 100μM trans-resveratrol were evaluated by multiple experimental methods.Results: The results revealed that resveratrol monosulfate was the major metabolite in U251 cells. About half fraction of resveratrol monosulfate was prepared in vitro and this trans-resveratrol and resveratrol monosulfate mixture showed little inhibitory effect on U251 cells. It is also found that rat primary brain cells (PBCs not only resist 100μM but also tolerate as high as 200μM resveratrol treatment.Conclusions: Our study thus demonstrated that trans-resveratrol was the bioactive form in glioblastoma cells and, therefore, the biotransforming

  13. Complete adrenocorticotropin deficiency after radiation therapy for brain tumor with a normal growth hormone reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Haruna; Yoshioka, Katsunobu; Yamagami, Keiko [Osaka City General Hospital (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-06-01

    A 34-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1, who had received radiation therapy after the excision of a brain tumor 5 years earlier, was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and weight loss. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) were undetectable before and after administration of 100 {mu}g corticotropin releasing hormone. The level of growth hormone without stimulation was 24.7 ng/ml. We diagnosed him to have complete ACTH deficiency attributable to radiation therapy. This is the first known case of a patient with complete ACTH deficiency after radiation therapy and a growth hormone reserve that remained normal. (author)

  14. Thermoregulatory Instability in Childhood: Linking the Normal Brain to Hypothalamic Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central core temperature is tightly controlled by hypothalamic centers, a feature that makes sudden changes in body temperature very unusual. A dysfunction of these hypothalamic pathways leads to Shapiro’s syndrome, comprising spontaneous hypothermia, hyperhidrosis, and corpus callosum dysgenesis. Although it may affect any age, usually it presents in childhood. Variants to this syndrome with completely normal brain anatomy have been consistently reported, expanding the clinical spectrum of the syndrome. Herein, we report the case of a 4-year-old girl with Shapiro’s syndrome and unaffected corpus callosum.

  15. Comparison of CSF Distribution between Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Ishikawa, M; Yamamoto, K

    2016-07-01

    CSF volumes in the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure are increased in both idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease, though the differences in these volumes in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease have not been well-described. Using CSF segmentation and volume quantification, we compared the distribution of CSF in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease. CSF volumes were extracted from T2-weighted 3D spin-echo sequences on 3T MR imaging and quantified semi-automatically. We compared the volumes and ratios of the ventricles and subarachnoid spaces after classification in 30 patients diagnosed with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, 10 with concurrent idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease, 18 with Alzheimer disease, and 26 control subjects 60 years of age or older. Brain to ventricle ratios at the anterior and posterior commissure levels and 3D volumetric convexity cistern to ventricle ratios were useful indices for the differential diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus or idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease from Alzheimer disease, similar to the z-Evans index and callosal angle. The most distinctive characteristics of the CSF distribution in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus were small convexity subarachnoid spaces and the large volume of the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure. The distribution of the subarachnoid spaces in the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease group was the most deformed among these 3 groups, though the mean ventricular volume of the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease group was intermediate between that of the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease groups. The z-axial expansion of the lateral ventricle and compression of the brain just above the ventricle were the common findings in the parameters for differentiating

  16. Clinical NMR imaging of the brain in children: normal and neurologic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.A, (Hammersmith Hospital, London, England); Pennock, J.M.; Bydder, G.M.; Steiner, R.E.; Thomas, D.J.; Hayward, R.; Bryant, D.R.T.; Payne, J.A.; Levene, M.I.; Whitelaw, A.; Dubowitz, L.M.S.; Dubowitz, V.

    1983-11-01

    The results of initial clinical nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in eight normal and 52 children with a wide variety of neurologic diseases were reviewed. The high level of gray-white matter contrast available with inversion-recovery sequences provided a basis for visualizing normal myelination as well as delays or deficits in this process. The appearances seen in cases of parenchymal hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, and proencephalic cysts are described. Ventricular enlargement was readily identified and marginal edema was demonstrated with spin-echo sequences. Abnormalities were seen in cerebral palsy, congenital malformations, Hallervorden-Spatz disease, aminoaciduria, and meningitis. Space-occupying lesions were identified by virtue of their increased relaxation times and mass effects. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging has considerable potential in pediatric neuroradiologic practice, in some conditions supplying information not available by computed tomography or sonography.

  17. Cerebral circulation and metabolism in the patients with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic minor traumatic brain injury. A study by the positron emission tomography in twenty subjects with normal MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabasawa, Hidehiro; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Iida, Akihiko; Matsubara, Michitaka [Nagoya City Rehabilitation and Sports Center (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Many individuals are affected on their higher brain functions, such as intelligence, memory, and attention, even after minor traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Although higher brain dysfunction is based on impairment of the cerebral circulation and metabolism, the precise relationship between them remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the cerebral circulation or cerebral metabolism and higher brain dysfunction. Twenty subjects with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic MTBI were studied. They had no abnormal MRI findings. The full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) were quantitatively evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the subjects were classified into the normal group and the impaired group. Concurrent with the evaluation of FIQ, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed by the steady state method with {sup 15}O gases inhalation. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) were calculated in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. First, of all twenty subjects, we investigated rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} in all regions. Then we compared rCBF, OEF, and CMRO{sub 2} between the normal group and the impaired group based on FIQ score. We also studied the change of FIQ score of 13 subjects 9.3 months after the first evaluation. In addition, we investigated the change of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} along with the improvement of FIQ score. Although rCBF and OEF of all subjects were within the normal range in all regions, CMRO{sub 2} of more than half of subjects was under the lower normal limit in all regions except in the right occipital lobe, showing the presence of ''relative luxury perfusion''. Comparison of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} between normal group and impaired group revealed that CMRO{sub 2} of the impaired group was significantly lower than that of the

  18. Hierarchical clustering of Alzheimer and "normal" brains using elemental concentrations and glucose metabolism determined by PIXE, INAA and PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutts, DA; Spyrou, NM; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL

    Brain tissue samples, obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from both left and right hemispheres of three regions of the cerebrum, namely the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes for both Alzheimer and 'normal' subjects. Trace element

  19. Hierarchical clustering of Alzheimer and "normal" brains using elemental concentrations and glucose metabolism determined by PIXE, INAA and PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutts, DA; Spyrou, NM; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL

    2001-01-01

    Brain tissue samples, obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from both left and right hemispheres of three regions of the cerebrum, namely the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes for both Alzheimer and 'normal' subjects. Trace element concentrat

  20. Microstructure, length, and connection of limbic tracts in normal human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaowen eYu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cingulum and fornix play an important role in memory, attention, spatial orientation and feeling functions. Both microstructure and length of these limbic tracts can be affected by mental disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, autism, anxiety, and schizophrenia. To date, there has been little systematic characterization of their microstructure, length and functional connectivity in normally developing brains. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI data from 65 normally developing right-handed subjects from birth to young adulthood was acquired. After cingulate gyrus part of the cingulum (cgc, hippocampal part of the cingulum (cgh and fornix (fx were traced with DTI tractography, absolute and normalized tract lengths and DTI-derived metrics including fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity were measured for traced limbic tracts. Free water elimination (FWE algorithm was adopted to improve accuracy of the measurements of DTI-derived metrics. The role of these limbic tracts in the functional network at birth and adulthood was explored. We found a logarithmic age-dependent trajectory for FWE-corrected DTI metric changes with fast increase of microstructural integrity from birth to 2-year-old followed by a slow increase to 25-year-old. Normalized tract length of cgc increases with age, while no significant relationship with age was found for normalized tract lengths of cgh and fx. Stronger microstructural integrity on the left side compared to that of right side was found. With integrated DTI and rs-fMRI, the key connectional role of cgc and cgh in the default mode network (DMN was confirmed as early as birth. Systematic characterization of length and DTI metrics after FWE correction of limbic tracts offers insight into their morphological and microstructural developmental trajectories. These trajectories may serve as a normal reference for pediatric patients with

  1. Age sensitivity of behavioral tests and brain substrates of normal aging in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, John A; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of age sensitivity, the capacity of a behavioral test to reliably detect age-related changes, has utility in the design of experiments to elucidate processes of normal aging. We review the application of these tests in studies of normal aging and compare and contrast the age sensitivity of the Barnes maze, eyeblink classical conditioning, fear conditioning, Morris water maze, and rotorod. These tests have all been implemented to assess normal age-related changes in learning and memory in rodents, which generalize in many cases to age-related changes in learning and memory in all mammals, including humans. Behavioral assessments are a valuable means to measure functional outcomes of neuroscientific studies of aging. Highlighted in this review are the attributes and limitations of these measures in mice in the context of age sensitivity and processes of brain aging. Attributes of these tests include reliability and validity as assessments of learning and memory, well-defined neural substrates, and sensitivity to neural and pharmacological manipulations and disruptions. These tests engage the hippocampus and/or the cerebellum, two structures centrally involved in learning and memory that undergo functional and anatomical changes in normal aging. A test that is less well represented in studies of normal aging, the context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) in fear conditioning, is described as a method to increase sensitivity of contextual fear conditioning to changes in the hippocampus. Recommendations for increasing the age sensitivity of all measures of normal aging in mice are included, as well as a discussion of the potential of the under-studied CPFE to advance understanding of subtle hippocampus-mediated phenomena.

  2. Age Sensitivity of Behavioral Tests and Brain Substrates of Normal Aging in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Kennard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of age sensitivity, the capacity of a behavioral test to reliably detect age-related changes, has utility in the design of experiments to elucidate processes of normal aging. We review the application of these tests in studies of normal aging and compare and contrast the age sensitivity of the Barnes maze, eyeblink classical conditioning, fear conditioning, Morris water maze and rotorod. These tests have all been implemented to assess normal age-related changes in learning and memory in rodents, which generalize in many cases to age-related changes in learning and memory in all mammals, including humans. Behavioral assessments are a valuable means to measure functional outcomes of neuroscientific studies of aging. Highlighted in this review are the attributes and limitations of these measures in mice in the context of age sensitivity and processes of brain aging. Attributes of these tests include reliability and validity as assessments of learning and memory, well-defined neural substrates, and sensitivity to neural and pharmacological manipulations and disruptions. These tests engage the hippocampus and/or the cerebellum, two structures centrally involved in learning and memory that undergo functional and anatomical changes in normal aging. A test that is less well represented in studies of normal aging, the context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE in fear conditioning, is described as a method to increase sensitivity of contextual fear conditioning to changes in the hippocampus. Recommendations for increasing the age sensitivity of all measures of normal aging in mice are included, as well as a discussion of the potential of the under-studied CPFE to advance understanding of subtle hippocampus-mediated phenomena.

  3. Microstructure, length, and connection of limbic tracts in normal human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiaowen; Peng, Yun; Mishra, Virendra; Ouyang, Austin; Li, Hang; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Min; Liu, Shuwei; Huang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The cingulum and fornix play an important role in memory, attention, spatial orientation, and feeling functions. Both microstructure and length of these limbic tracts can be affected by mental disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, autism, anxiety, and schizophrenia. To date, there has been little systematic characterization of their microstructure, length, and functional connectivity in normally developing brains. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data from 65 normally developing right-handed subjects from birth to young adulthood was acquired. After cingulate gyrus part of the cingulum (cgc), hippocampal part of the cingulum (cgh) and fornix (fx) were traced with DTI tractography, absolute and normalized tract lengths and DTI-derived metrics including fractional anisotropy, mean, axial, and radial diffusivity were measured for traced limbic tracts. Free water elimination (FWE) algorithm was adopted to improve accuracy of the measurements of DTI-derived metrics. The role of these limbic tracts in the functional network at birth and adulthood was explored. We found a logarithmic age-dependent trajectory for FWE-corrected DTI metric changes with fast increase of microstructural integrity from birth to 2 years old followed by a slow increase to 25 years old. Normalized tract length of cgc increases with age, while no significant relationship with age was found for normalized tract lengths of cgh and fx. Stronger microstructural integrity on the left side compared to that of the right side was found. With integrated DTI and rs-fMRI, the key connectional role of cgc and cgh in the default mode network was confirmed as early as birth. Systematic characterization of length and DTI metrics after FWE correction of limbic tracts offers insight into their morphological and microstructural developmental trajectories. These trajectories may serve as a normal reference for pediatric patients with mental

  4. Genetic basis of neurocognitive decline and reduced white-matter integrity in normal human brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glahn, David C; Kent, Jack W; Sprooten, Emma; Diego, Vincent P; Winkler, Anderson M; Curran, Joanne E; McKay, D Reese; Knowles, Emma E; Carless, Melanie A; Göring, Harald H H; Dyer, Thomas D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Almasy, Laura; Charlesworth, Jac; Kochunov, Peter; Duggirala, Ravi; Blangero, John

    2013-11-19

    Identification of genes associated with brain aging should markedly improve our understanding of the biological processes that govern normal age-related decline. However, challenges to identifying genes that facilitate successful brain aging are considerable, including a lack of established phenotypes and difficulties in modeling the effects of aging per se, rather than genes that influence the underlying trait. In a large cohort of randomly selected pedigrees (n = 1,129 subjects), we documented profound aging effects from young adulthood to old age (18-83 y) on neurocognitive ability and diffusion-based white-matter measures. Despite significant phenotypic correlation between white-matter integrity and tests of processing speed, working memory, declarative memory, and intelligence, no evidence for pleiotropy between these classes of phenotypes was observed. Applying an advanced quantitative gene-by-environment interaction analysis where age is treated as an environmental factor, we demonstrate a heritable basis for neurocognitive deterioration as a function of age. Furthermore, by decomposing gene-by-aging (G × A) interactions, we infer that different genes influence some neurocognitive traits as a function of age, whereas other neurocognitive traits are influenced by the same genes, but to differential levels, from young adulthood to old age. In contrast, increasing white-matter incoherence with age appears to be nongenetic. These results clearly demonstrate that traits sensitive to the genetic influences on brain aging can be identified, a critical first step in delineating the biological mechanisms of successful aging.

  5. Effects of active music therapy on the normal brain: fMRI based evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglio, Alfredo; Galandra, Caterina; Sibilla, Luisella; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gaeta, Francesca; Di Salle, Francesco; Moro, Luca; Carne, Irene; Bastianello, Stefano; Baldi, Maurizia; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological bases of Active Music Therapy (AMT) and its effects on the normal brain. Twelve right-handed, healthy, non-musician volunteers were recruited. The subjects underwent 2 AMT sessions based on the free sonorous-music improvisation using rhythmic and melodic instruments. After these sessions, each subject underwent 2 fMRI scan acquisitions while listening to a Syntonic (SP) and an A-Syntonic (AP) Production from the AMT sessions. A 3 T Discovery MR750 scanner with a 16-channel phased array head coil was used, and the image analysis was performed with Brain Voyager QX 2.8. The listening to SP vs AP excerpts mainly activated: (1) the right middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal sulcus, (2) the right middle frontal gyrus and in particular the right precentral gyrus, (3) the bilateral precuneus, (4) the left superior temporal sulcus and (5) the left middle temporal gyrus. These results are consistent with the psychological bases of the AMT approach and with the activation of brain areas involved in memory and autobiographical processes, and also in personal or interpersonal significant experiences. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to explain possible effects of AMT in clinical settings.

  6. Regional distribution of potassium, calcium, and six trace elements in normal human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duflou, H.; Maenhaut, W.; De Reuck, J. (Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Gent (Belgium))

    1989-11-01

    Eight elements (i.e. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb) were measured in 50 different regions of 12 normal human brains by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The dry weight concentrations of K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb were consistently higher for gray than for white matter areas. The K, Zn and Se concentrations for the regions of mixed composition and, to some extent, also the Rb concentrations, were intermediate between the gray and white matter values, and they tended to decrease with decreasing neuron density. The mean dry weight concentrations of K, Ca, Zn, Se, and Rb in the various brain regions were highly correlated with the mean wet-to-dry weight ratios of these regions. For Mn, Fe, and Cu, however, such a correlation was not observed, and these elements exhibited elevated levels in several structures of the basal ganglia. For K, Fe, and Se the concentrations seemed to change with age. A hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that the structures clustered into two large groups, one comprising gray and mixed matter regions, the other white and mixed matter areas. Brain structures involved in the same physiological function or morphologically similar regions often conglomerated in a single subcluster.

  7. Tractographic reconstruction protocol optimization in the rat brain in-vivo: towards a normal atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Maria Giulia; Di Marzio, Alessandro; Mastropietro, Alfonso; Aquino, Domenico; Baselli, Giuseppe; Laganà, Maria Marcella; Zucca, Ileana; Frassoni, Carolina; Spreafico, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The tractographic reconstruction of anatomical and microstructural features provided by Magnetic Resonance (MR) Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) gives essential information of brain damage in several pathological animal models. The optimization of a tractographic protocol is undertaken in normal rats for the future construction of a reference atlas, as prerequisite for preclinical pathological in-vivo studies. High field, preclinical in-vivo DTI faces important difficulties relevant to Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), distortion, high required resolution, movement sensitivity. Given a pixel-size of 0.17 mm and TE/TR = 29/6500 ms, b value and slice thickness were fixed at 700 s/mm(2) and 0.58 mm, respectively, on preventive ex-vivo studies. In-vivo studies led to the choice of 30 diffusion directions, averaged on 16 runs. The final protocol required 51 min scanning and permitted a reliable reconstruction of main rat brain bundles. Tract reconstruction stopping rules required proper setting. In conclusion, the viability of DTI tractography on in-vivo rat studies was shown, towards the construction of a normal reference atlas.

  8. Oscillating gradient measurements of water diffusion in normal and globally ischemic rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Does, Mark D; Parsons, Edward C; Gore, John C

    2003-02-01

    Oscillating gradients were used to probe the diffusion-time/frequency dependence of water diffusion in the gray matter of normal and globally ischemic rat brain. In terms of a conventional definition of diffusion time, the oscillating gradient measurements provided the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water with diffusion times between 9.75 ms and 375 micros, an order of magnitude shorter than previously studied in vivo. Over this range, ADCs increased as much as 24% in vivo and 50% postmortem, depending on the nature of the oscillating gradient waveform used. Novel waveforms were employed to sample narrow frequency bands of the so-called diffusion spectrum. This spectral description of ADC includes the effects of restriction and/or flow, and is independent of experimental parameters, such as diffusion time. The results in rat brain were found to be consistent with restricted diffusion and the known micro-anatomy of gray matter. Differences between normal and postmortem data were consistent with an increase in water restriction and/or a decrease in flow, and tentatively suggest that physical changes following the onset of ischemia occur on a scale of about 2 microm, similar to a typical cellular dimension in gray matter.

  9. Brain perfusion SPECT in the mouse: normal pattern according to gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Wunder, Andreas; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Michel, Roger; Stemmer, Nina; Lukas, Mathias; Derlin, Thorsten; Gregor-Mamoudou, Betina; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph

    2012-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is a useful surrogate marker of neuronal activity and a parameter of primary interest in the diagnosis of many diseases. The increasing use of mouse models spawns the demand for in vivo measurement of rCBF in the mouse. Small animal SPECT provides excellent spatial resolution at adequate sensitivity and is therefore a promising tool for imaging the mouse brain. This study evaluates the feasibility of mouse brain perfusion SPECT and assesses the regional pattern of normal Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake and the impact of age and gender. Whole-brain kinetics was compared between Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-ECD using rapid dynamic planar scans in 10 mice. Assessment of the regional uptake pattern was restricted to the more suitable tracer, HMPAO. Two HMPAO SPECTs were performed in 18 juvenile mice aged 7.5 ± 1.5weeks, and in the same animals at young adulthood, 19.1 ± 4.0 weeks (nanoSPECT/CTplus, general purpose mouse apertures: 1.2kcps/MBq, 0.7mm FWHM). The 3-D MRI Digital Atlas Database of an adult C57BL/6J mouse brain was used for region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. SPECT images were stereotactically normalized using SPM8 and a custom made, left-right symmetric HMPAO template in atlas space. For testing lateral asymmetry, each SPECT was left-right flipped prior to stereotactical normalization. Flipped and unflipped SPECTs were compared by paired testing. Peak brain uptake was similar for ECD and HMPAO: 1.8 ± 0.2 and 2.1 ± 0.6 %ID (p=0.357). Washout after the peak was much faster for ECD than for HMPAO: 24 ± 7min vs. 4.6 ± 1.7h (p=0.001). The general linear model for repeated measures with gender as an intersubject factor revealed an increase in relative HMPAO uptake with age in the neocortex (p=0.018) and the hippocampus (p=0.012). A decrease was detected in the midbrain (p=0.025). Lateral asymmetry, with HMPAO uptake larger in the left hemisphere, was detected primarily in the neocortex, both at juvenile age (asymmetry index AI=2.7 ± 1

  10. Comparison of the Relationship between Cerebral White Matter and Grey Matter in Normal Dogs and Dogs with Lateral Ventricular Enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin J; Laubner, Steffi; Kolecka, Malgorzata; Failing, Klaus; Moritz, Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Ondreka, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Large cerebral ventricles are a frequent finding in brains of dogs with brachycephalic skull conformation, in comparison with mesaticephalic dogs. It remains unclear whether oversized ventricles represent a normal variant or a pathological condition in brachycephalic dogs. There is a distinct relationship between white matter and grey matter in the cerebrum of all eutherian mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if this physiological proportion between white matter and grey matter of the forebrain still exists in brachycephalic dogs with oversized ventricles. The relative cerebral grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume in dogs were determined based on magnetic-resonance-imaging datasets using graphical software. In an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using body mass as the covariate, the adjusted means of the brain tissue volumes of two groups of dogs were compared. Group 1 included 37 mesaticephalic dogs of different sizes with no apparent changes in brain morphology, and subjectively normal ventricle size. Group 2 included 35 brachycephalic dogs in which subjectively enlarged cerebral ventricles were noted as an incidental finding in their magnetic-resonance-imaging examination. Whereas no significant different adjusted means of the grey matter could be determined, the group of brachycephalic dogs had significantly larger adjusted means of lateral cerebral ventricles and significantly less adjusted means of relative white matter volume. This indicates that brachycephalic dogs with subjective ventriculomegaly have less white matter, as expected based on their body weight and cerebral volume. Our study suggests that ventriculomegaly in brachycephalic dogs is not a normal variant of ventricular volume. Based on the changes in the relative proportion of WM and CSF volume, and the unchanged GM proportions in dogs with ventriculomegaly, we rather suggest that distension of the lateral ventricles might be the underlying cause of pressure

  11. Comparison of the Relationship between Cerebral White Matter and Grey Matter in Normal Dogs and Dogs with Lateral Ventricular Enlargement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Schmidt

    Full Text Available Large cerebral ventricles are a frequent finding in brains of dogs with brachycephalic skull conformation, in comparison with mesaticephalic dogs. It remains unclear whether oversized ventricles represent a normal variant or a pathological condition in brachycephalic dogs. There is a distinct relationship between white matter and grey matter in the cerebrum of all eutherian mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if this physiological proportion between white matter and grey matter of the forebrain still exists in brachycephalic dogs with oversized ventricles. The relative cerebral grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume in dogs were determined based on magnetic-resonance-imaging datasets using graphical software. In an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA using body mass as the covariate, the adjusted means of the brain tissue volumes of two groups of dogs were compared. Group 1 included 37 mesaticephalic dogs of different sizes with no apparent changes in brain morphology, and subjectively normal ventricle size. Group 2 included 35 brachycephalic dogs in which subjectively enlarged cerebral ventricles were noted as an incidental finding in their magnetic-resonance-imaging examination. Whereas no significant different adjusted means of the grey matter could be determined, the group of brachycephalic dogs had significantly larger adjusted means of lateral cerebral ventricles and significantly less adjusted means of relative white matter volume. This indicates that brachycephalic dogs with subjective ventriculomegaly have less white matter, as expected based on their body weight and cerebral volume. Our study suggests that ventriculomegaly in brachycephalic dogs is not a normal variant of ventricular volume. Based on the changes in the relative proportion of WM and CSF volume, and the unchanged GM proportions in dogs with ventriculomegaly, we rather suggest that distension of the lateral ventricles might be the underlying cause

  12. The action sites of propofol in the normal human brain revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Zhijing; Ge, Yali; Zhang, Jinsong; Yu, Daihua; Chai, Wei; Wu, Shengxi; Xu, Lixian

    2010-12-01

    Propofol has been used for many years but its functional target in the intact brain remains unclear. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to demonstrate blood oxygen level dependence signal changes in the normal human brain during propofol anesthesia and explored the possible action targets of propofol. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in two experimental sessions. In session 1, the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale was performed to evaluate asleep to awake/alert status. In session 2, images with blood oxygen level dependence contrast were obtained with echo-planar imaging on a 1.5-T Philips Gyroscan Magnetic Resonance System and analyzed. In both sessions, subjects were intravenously administered with saline (for 3 min) and then propofol (for 1.5 min) and saline again (for 10.5 min) with a constant speed infusion pump. Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale scoring showed that the subjects experienced conscious–sedative–unconscious–analepsia, which correlated well with the signal decreases in the anesthesia states. Propofol induced significant signal decreases in hypothalamus (18.2%±3.6%), frontal lobe (68.5%±11.2%), and temporal lobe (34.7%±6.1%). Additionally, the signals at these three sites were fulminant and changed synchronously. While in the thalamus, the signal decrease was observed in 5 of 10 of the subjects and the magnitude of decrease was 3.9%±1.6%. These results suggest that there is most significant inhibition in hypothalamus, frontal lobe, and temporal in propofol anesthesia and moderate inhibition in thalamus. These brain regions might be the targets of propofol anesthesia in human brain.

  13. Brain Tumor Therapy-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing Brainstem Measured With Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Chiaho, E-mail: Chia-Ho.Hua@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Gajjar, Amar; Broniscer, Alberto [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Zhang, Yong [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Li Yimei [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Glenn, George R.; Kun, Larry E.; Ogg, Robert J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To characterize therapy-induced changes in normal-appearing brainstems of childhood brain tumor patients by serial diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods and Materials: We analyzed 109 DTI studies from 20 brain tumor patients, aged 4 to 23 years, with normal-appearing brainstems included in the treatment fields. Those with medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (n = 10) received postoperative craniospinal irradiation (23.4-39.6 Gy) and a cumulative dose of 55.8 Gy to the primary site, followed by four cycles of high-dose chemotherapy. Patients with high-grade gliomas (n = 10) received erlotinib during and after irradiation (54-59.4 Gy). Parametric maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were computed and spatially registered to three-dimensional radiation dose data. Volumes of interest included corticospinal tracts, medial lemnisci, and the pons. Serving as an age-related benchmark for comparison, 37 DTI studies from 20 healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 25 years, were included in the analysis. Results: The median DTI follow-up time was 3.5 years (range, 1.6-5.0 years). The median mean dose to the pons was 56 Gy (range, 7-59 Gy). Three patterns were seen in longitudinal FA and apparent diffusion coefficient changes: (1) a stable or normal developing time trend, (2) initial deviation from normal with subsequent recovery, and (3) progressive deviation without evidence of complete recovery. The maximal decline in FA often occurred 1.5 to 3.5 years after the start of radiation therapy. A full recovery time trend could be observed within 4 years. Patients with incomplete recovery often had a larger decline in FA within the first year. Radiation dose alone did not predict long-term recovery patterns. Conclusions: Variations existed among individual patients after therapy in longitudinal evolution of brainstem white matter injury and recovery. Early response in

  14. Simulations of exercise and brain effects of acute exposure to carbon monoxide in normal and vascular-diseased persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    At some level, carboxyhemoglobin (RbCO) due to inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) reduces maximum exercise duration in normal and ischemic heart patients. At high RbCO levels in normal subjects, brain function is also affected and behavioral performance is impaired. These are fin...

  15. From homogeneous to fractal normal and tumorous microvascular networks in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Laurent; Plouraboué, Franck; Steyer, Alexandre; Cloetens, Peter; Le Duc, Géraldine; Fonta, Caroline

    2007-02-01

    We studied normal and tumorous three-dimensional (3D) microvascular networks in primate and rat brain. Tissues were prepared following a new preparation technique intended for high-resolution synchrotron tomography of microvascular networks. The resulting 3D images with a spatial resolution of less than the minimum capillary diameter permit a complete description of the entire vascular network for volumes as large as tens of cubic millimeters. The structural properties of the vascular networks were investigated by several multiscale methods such as fractal and power-spectrum analysis. These investigations gave a new coherent picture of normal and pathological complex vascular structures. They showed that normal cortical vascular networks have scale-invariant fractal properties on a small scale from 1.4 mum up to 40 to 65 mum. Above this threshold, vascular networks can be considered as homogeneous. Tumor vascular networks show similar characteristics, but the validity range of the fractal regime extend to much larger spatial dimensions. These 3D results shed new light on previous two dimensional analyses giving for the first time a direct measurement of vascular modules associated with vessel-tissue surface exchange.

  16. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Lim, S. Y.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, O. H.; Bai, M. S.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84{+-}17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78{+-}10.36), mild defect (<50MQ : n=9, MQ=66.11{+-}13.87). The degree of rCBF decrease between the two groups was evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients.

  17. Increased concentrations of glutamate and glutamine in normal-appearing white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis and normal MR imaging brain scans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Tisell

    Full Text Available In Multiple Sclerosis (MS the relationship between disease process in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM and the development of white matter lesions is not well understood. In this study we used single voxel proton 'Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy' (qMRS to characterize the NAWM and thalamus both in atypical 'Clinically Definite MS' (CDMS patients, MRI(neg (N = 15 with very few lesions (two or fewer lesions, and in typical CDMS patients, MRI(pos (N = 20 with lesions, in comparison with healthy control subjects (N = 20. In addition, the metabolite concentrations were also correlated with extent of brain atrophy measured using Brain Parenchymal Fraction (BPF and severity of the disease measured using 'Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score' (MSSS. Elevated concentrations of glutamate and glutamine (Glx were observed in both MS groups (MRI(neg 8.12 mM, p<0.001 and MRI(pos 7.96 mM p<0.001 compared to controls, 6.76 mM. Linear regressions of Glx and total creatine (tCr with MSSS were 0.16 ± 0.06 mM/MSSS (p = 0.02 for Glx and 0.06 ± 0.03 mM/MSSS (p = 0.04 for tCr, respectively. Moreover, linear regressions of tCr and myo-Inositol (mIns with BPF were -6.22 ± 1.63 mM/BPF (p<0.001 for tCr and -7.71 ± 2.43 mM/BPF (p = 0.003 for mIns. Furthermore, the MRI(pos patients had lower N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartate-glutamate (tNA and elevated mIns concentrations in NAWM compared to both controls (tNA: p = 0.04 mIns p<0.001 and MRI(neg (tNA: p = 0.03 , mIns: p = 0.002. The results suggest that Glx may be an important marker for pathology in non-lesional white matter in MS. Moreover, Glx is related to the severity of MS independent of number of lesions in the patient. In contrast, increased glial density indicated by increased mIns and decreased neuronal density indicated by the decreased tNA, were only observed in NAWM of typical CDMS patients with white matter lesions.

  18. Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Sen; Multani, Asha S; Banerji, Pratip; Banerji, Prasanta

    2003-10-01

    Although conventional chemotherapies are used to treat patients with malignancies, damage to normal cells is problematic. Blood-forming bone marrow cells are the most adversely affected. It is therefore necessary to find alternative agents that can kill cancer cells but have minimal effects on normal cells. We investigated the brain cancer cell-killing activity of a homeopathic medicine, Ruta, isolated from a plant, Ruta graveolens. We treated human brain cancer and HL-60 leukemia cells, normal B-lymphoid cells, and murine melanoma cells in vitro with different concentrations of Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2. Fifteen patients diagnosed with intracranial tumors were treated with Ruta 6 and Ca3(PO4)2. Of these 15 patients, 6 of the 7 glioma patients showed complete regression of tumors. Normal human blood lymphocytes, B-lymphoid cells, and brain cancer cells treated with Ruta in vitro were examined for telomere dynamics, mitotic catastrophe, and apoptosis to understand the possible mechanism of cell-killing, using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Both in vivo and in vitro results showed induction of survival-signaling pathways in normal lymphocytes and induction of death-signaling pathways in brain cancer cells. Cancer cell death was initiated by telomere erosion and completed through mitotic catastrophe events. We propose that Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2 could be used for effective treatment of brain cancers, particularly glioma.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker and brain biopsy findings in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

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    Okko T Pyykkö

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The significance of amyloid precursor protein (APP and neuroinflammation in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH and Alzheimer's disease (AD is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of soluble APP (sAPP and amyloid beta (Aβ isoforms, proinflammatory cytokines, and biomarkers of neuronal damage in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in relation to brain biopsy Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau (HPτ findings. METHODS: The study population comprised 102 patients with possible NPH with cortical brain biopsies, ventricular and lumbar CSF samples, and DNA available. The final clinical diagnoses were: 53 iNPH (91% shunt-responders, 26 AD (10 mixed iNPH+AD, and 23 others. Biopsy samples were immunostained against Aβ and HPτ. CSF levels of AD-related biomarkers (Aβ42, p-tau, total tau, non-AD-related Aβ isoforms (Aβ38, Aβ40, sAPP isoforms (sAPPα, sAPPβ, proinflammatory cytokines (several interleukins (IL, interferon-gamma, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and biomarkers of neuronal damage (neurofilament light and myelin basic protein were measured. All patients were genotyped for APOE. RESULTS: Lumbar CSF levels of sAPPα were lower (p<0.05 in patients with shunt-responsive iNPH compared to non-iNPH patients. sAPPβ showed a similar trend (p = 0.06. CSF sAPP isoform levels showed no association to Aβ or HPτ in the brain biopsy. Quantified Aβ load in the brain biopsy showed a negative correlation with CSF levels of Aβ42 in ventricular (r = -0.295, p = 0.003 and lumbar (r = -0.356, p = 0.01 samples, while the levels of Aβ38 and Aβ40 showed no correlation. CSF levels of proinflammatory cytokines and biomarkers of neuronal damage did not associate to the brain biopsy findings, diagnosis, or shunt response. Higher lumbar/ventricular CSF IL-8 ratios (p<0.001 were seen in lumbar samples collected after ventriculostomy compared to the samples collected before the procedure

  20. Brain aging in normal Egyptians: cognition, education, personality, genetic and immunological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwan, Osamah; Madkour, Obsis; Elwan, Fadia; Mostafa, Mervat; Abbas Helmy, Azza; Abdel-Naseer, Maged; Abdel Shafy, Sanaa; El Faiuomy, Nervana

    2003-07-15

    Studying the cognitive and immunological changes that occur in old age as well as genetic function have been considered an important subject to differentiate between normal brain aging and early dementia especially Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study is to stress on age-related neuropsychological and electrophysiological (P(300)) changes in normal Egyptian subjects, to throw light on the value of genetic (Apo-E(4) genotype) and immunological markers [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) in the serum] as tools used in early detection of cognitive decline in cerebral aging. Ninety-four normal Egyptian subjects (below and above 60 years) were submitted to the following: (1) neuropsychological tests for testing memory, perception, psychomotor performance and attention, (2) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) for personality traits, (3) event-related potential study (P(300), latency and amplitude), (4) genetic test for detection of Apolipoprotein E genotype and (5) immunological studies including detection of the level of IL-6 and ICAM-1 in serum. There was a significant impairment of memory, psychomotor performance and perception in elderly subjects particularly males and subjects with low level of education. Regarding personality, significantly high scores were obtained in neuroticism scale of EPQ in elderly subjects. Apo-E(3)/E(3) was the most common genotype encountered in Egyptian subjects (49.1%). It was found that subjects with Apo-E(4) genotype did significantly worse in scores of intentional memory test (sensory memory) when compared with other genotypes. Statistically significant impairment in attention and sensory memory was found in subjects with high IL-6 level. This could not be detected in subjects with high ICAM-1 level. In conclusion, advancing age and lower levels of education are considered risk factors for cognitive decline in normal brain aging. Neuropsychological tests remain as the highly sensitive tools

  1. TNF signaling inhibition in the CNS: implications for normal brain function and neurodegenerative disease

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    Tansey Malú G

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF as an immune mediator has long been appreciated but its function in the brain is still unclear. TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1 is expressed in most cell types, and can be activated by binding of either soluble TNF (solTNF or transmembrane TNF (tmTNF, with a preference for solTNF; whereas TNFR2 is expressed primarily by microglia and endothelial cells and is preferentially activated by tmTNF. Elevation of solTNF is a hallmark of acute and chronic neuroinflammation as well as a number of neurodegenerative conditions including ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's (AD, Parkinson's (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and multiple sclerosis (MS. The presence of this potent inflammatory factor at sites of injury implicates it as a mediator of neuronal damage and disease pathogenesis, making TNF an attractive target for therapeutic development to treat acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. However, new and old observations from animal models and clinical trials reviewed here suggest solTNF and tmTNF exert different functions under normal and pathological conditions in the CNS. A potential role for TNF in synaptic scaling and hippocampal neurogenesis demonstrated by recent studies suggest additional in-depth mechanistic studies are warranted to delineate the distinct functions of the two TNF ligands in different parts of the brain prior to large-scale development of anti-TNF therapies in the CNS. If inactivation of TNF-dependent inflammation in the brain is warranted by additional pre-clinical studies, selective targeting of TNFR1-mediated signaling while sparing TNFR2 activation may lessen adverse effects of anti-TNF therapies in the CNS.

  2. Brain imaging in normal kids: a community-based MRI study in Malawian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potchen, M J; Kampondeni, S D; Mallewa, M; Taylor, T E; Birbeck, G L

    2013-04-01

    To collect normative MRI data for effective clinical and research applications. Such data may also offer insights into common neurological insults. We identified a representative, community-based sample of children aged 9-14 years. Children were screened for neurodevelopmental problems. Demographic data, medical history and environmental exposures were ascertained. Eligible children underwent the Neurologic Examination for Subtle Signs (NESS) and a brain MRI. Descriptive findings and analyses to identify risk factors for MRI abnormalities are detailed. One hundred and two of 170 households screened had age-appropriate children. Two of 102 children had neurological problems - one each with cerebral palsy and epilepsy. Ninety-six of 100 eligible children were enrolled. Mean age was 11.9 years (SD 1.5), and 43 (45%) were boys. No acute MRI abnormalities were seen. NESS abnormalities were identified in 6 of 96 children (6%). Radiographic evidence of sinusitis in 29 children (30%) was the most common MRI finding. Brain abnormalities were found in 16 (23%): mild diffuse atrophy in 4 (4%), periventricular white matter changes/gliosis in 6 (6%), multifocal punctuate subcortical white matter changes in 2 (2%), vermian atrophy in 1 (1%), empty sella in 3 (3%) and multifocal granulomas with surrounding gliosis in 1 (1%). Having an abnormal MRI was not associated with age, sex, antenatal problems, early malnutrition, febrile seizures, an abnormal neurological examination or housing quality (all P values >0.05). No predictors of radiographic sinusitis were identified. Incidental brain MRI abnormalities are common in normal Malawian children. The incidental atrophy and white matter abnormalities seen in this African population have not been reported among incidental findings from US populations, suggesting Malawi-specific exposures may be the cause. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Acetylome regulation by sirtuins in the brain: from normal physiology to aging and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michan, Shaday

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of the magnitude and physiological significance of proteome lysine acetylation remained incipient for five decades since it was first described. State-of-the-art methodologies, ranging from functional genomics to large-scale proteomics, have recently uncovered that this modification is more broadly represented in proteins than previously recognized, thus constituting the "acetylome." At present, it is estimated that acetylome covers only one tenth of the proteome, however, due its potential significance in physiology is capturing great attention. The first components of the cellular machinery, which finely orchestrate acetylome homeostasis, were identified by the end of last century. Since then, the majority of our growing knowledge concerning the physiological relevance of proteome reversible acetylation comes from the study of sirtuins, a unique type of lysine deacetylase that uses NAD(+). Sirtuins participate in a variety of cellular processes, ranging from transcription, DNA repair, energy balance, mitochondrial biogenesis and cell division, to apoptosis, autophagy and aging. Within the brain, besides their widespread epigenetic effects of dynamically modifying histones, sirtuins also target a variety of non-histone proteins either commonly deregulated in pathologies, or that participate in normal cerebral functions. For example, they modulate critical elements of the circadian rhythms, neurogenesis, synapses, cognition, serotonin synthesis, myelination, and proteins involved in neuropathology. Acetylome dynamics, and its regulation by sirtuins, may also help to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying brain aging. This work reviews the pathways as orchestrated by the interplay between acetylome and sirtuins in the brain, from physiology involvement, to aging processes, and pathological settings.

  4. MRI and brain spect findings in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and normal CT scan

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    P.G. Carrilho

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available 26 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy clinically documented by several abnormal interictal surface EEGs with typical unitemporal epileptiform activity and a normal CT scan were studied. Interictal99mTC HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI were performed in all subjects. Abnormalities were shown in 61.5% of MRI (n=16 and 65.4% of SPECT (n=17. Hippocampal atrophy associated to a high signal on T2-weighted MRI slices suggesting mesial temporal sclerosis was the main finding (n=12; 75% of abnormal MRI. MRI correlated well to surface EEG in 50% (n=13. There was also a good correlation between MRI and SPECT in 30.7% (n=8. SPECT and EEG were in agreement in 57.7% (n=l5. MRI, SPECT and EEG were congruent in 26.9% (n=7. These results support the usefulness of interictal brain SPECT and MRI in detecting lateralized abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy. On the other hand, in two cases, interictal SPECT correlated poorly with surface EEG. This functional method should not be used isolately in the detection of temporal lobe foci. MRI is more useful than CT as a neuroimaging technique in temporal lobe epilepsy. It may detect small structural lesions and mesial temporal lobe sclerosis which are not easily seen with traditional CT scanning.

  5. Soybean andtempeh total isolfavones improved antioxidant activities in normal and scopolamine-induced rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aliya Ahmad; Vasudevan Mani; Kalavathy Ramasamy; Atish Prakash; Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To highlight the comparative studies between total isoflavone extracts from soybean and tempeh on the neuronal oxidative stress and antioxidant activities. Methods: The total isoflavones were administered orally for 15 days with 3 selected doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg). Piracetam (400 mg/kg,p.o.) was used as a standard drug while scopolamine (1 mg/kg,i.p.) was used as a drug that promoted amnesia in selected groups. The oxidative markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide) were measured in brain homogenate. The antioxidant activities evaluated were catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione. Results: Our results showed that soybean and tempeh isoflavones significantly improved the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione while decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide in both the brain of normal as well as scopolamine-induced animals. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that soybean and tempeh isoflavones could be useful in the management and prevention of age-related neurodegenerative changes including Alzheimer’s disease through its antioxidant activities.

  6. EEG oscillatory states: universality, uniqueness and specificity across healthy-normal, altered and pathological brain conditions.

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    Alexander A Fingelkurts

    Full Text Available For the first time the dynamic repertoires and oscillatory types of local EEG states in 13 diverse conditions (examined over 9 studies that covered healthy-normal, altered and pathological brain states were quantified within the same methodological and conceptual framework. EEG oscillatory states were assessed by the probability-classification analysis of short-term EEG spectral patterns. The results demonstrated that brain activity consists of a limited repertoire of local EEG states in any of the examined conditions. The size of the state repertoires was associated with changes in cognition and vigilance or neuropsychopathologic conditions. Additionally universal, optional and unique EEG states across 13 diverse conditions were observed. It was demonstrated also that EEG oscillations which constituted EEG states were characteristic for different groups of conditions in accordance to oscillations' functional significance. The results suggested that (a there is a limit in the number of local states available to the cortex and many ways in which these local states can rearrange themselves and still produce the same global state and (b EEG individuality is determined by varying proportions of universal, optional and unique oscillatory states. The results enriched our understanding about dynamic microstructure of EEG-signal.

  7. EEG Oscillatory States: Universality, Uniqueness and Specificity across Healthy-Normal, Altered and Pathological Brain Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the dynamic repertoires and oscillatory types of local EEG states in 13 diverse conditions (examined over 9 studies) that covered healthy-normal, altered and pathological brain states were quantified within the same methodological and conceptual framework. EEG oscillatory states were assessed by the probability-classification analysis of short-term EEG spectral patterns. The results demonstrated that brain activity consists of a limited repertoire of local EEG states in any of the examined conditions. The size of the state repertoires was associated with changes in cognition and vigilance or neuropsychopathologic conditions. Additionally universal, optional and unique EEG states across 13 diverse conditions were observed. It was demonstrated also that EEG oscillations which constituted EEG states were characteristic for different groups of conditions in accordance to oscillations’ functional significance. The results suggested that (a) there is a limit in the number of local states available to the cortex and many ways in which these local states can rearrange themselves and still produce the same global state and (b) EEG individuality is determined by varying proportions of universal, optional and unique oscillatory states. The results enriched our understanding about dynamic microstructure of EEG-signal. PMID:24505292

  8. Soybean and tempeh total isoflvones improved antioxidant activities in normal and scopolamine-induced rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the comparative studies between total isoflavone extracts from soybean and tempeh on the neuronal oxidative stress and antioxidant activities. Methods: The total isoflavones were administered orally for 15 days with 3 selected doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg. Piracetam (400 mg/kg, p.o. was used as a standard drug while scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a drug that promoted amnesia in selected groups. The oxidative markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide were measured in brain homogenate. The antioxidant activities evaluated were catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione. Results: Our results showed that soybean and tempeh isoflavones significantly improved the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione while decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide in both the brain of normal as well as scopolamine-induced animals. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that soybean and tempeh isoflavones could be useful in the management and prevention of age-related neurodegenerative changes including Alzheimer’s disease through its antioxidant activities.

  9. Selection of Candidate Housekeeping Genes for Normalization in Human Postmortem Brain Samples

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    Aldo Pagano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The most frequently used technique to study the expression profile of genes involved in common neurological disorders is quantitative real-time RT-PCR, which allows the indirect detection of very low amounts of selected mRNAs in tissue samples. Expression analysis by RT-qPCR requires an appropriate normalization to the expression level of genes characterized by a stable, constitutive transcription. However, the identification of a gene transcribed at a very stable level is difficult if not impossible, since significant fluctuations of the level of mRNA synthesis often accompanies changes of cell behavior. The aim of this study is to identify the most stable genes in postmortem human brain samples of patients affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD suitable as reference genes. The experiments analyzed 12 commonly used reference genes in brain samples from eight individuals with AD and seven controls. After a careful analysis of the results calculated by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, we found that CYC1 and EIF4A2 are the best reference genes. We remark on the importance of the determination of the best reference genes for each sample to be analyzed and suggest a practical combination of reference genes to be used in the analysis of human postmortem samples.

  10. 3D volumetry comparison using 3T magnetic resonance imaging between normal and adenoma-containing pituitary glands

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    Ernesto Roldan-Valadez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computed-assisted three-dimensional data (3D allows for an accurate evaluation of volumes compared with traditional measurements. Aims: An in vitro method comparison between geometric volume and 3D volumetry to obtain reference data for pituitary volumes in normal pituitary glands (PGs and PGs containing adenomas. Design: Prospective, transverse, analytical study. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with 3D sequencing for computer-aided volumetry. PG phantom volumes by both methods were compared. Using the best volumetric method, volumes of normal PGs and PGs with adenoma were compared. Statistical analysis used the Bland-Altman method, t-statistics, effect size and linear regression analysis. Results: Method comparison between 3D volumetry and geometric volume revealed a lower bias and precision for 3D volumetry. A total of 27 patients exhibited normal PGs (mean age, 42.07 ± 16.17 years, although length, height, width, geometric volume and 3D volumetry were greater in women than in men. A total of 21 patients exhibited adenomas (mean age 39.62 ± 10.79 years, and length, height, width, geometric volume and 3D volumetry were greater in men than in women, with significant volumetric differences. Age did not influence pituitary volumes on linear regression analysis. Conclusions: Results from the present study showed that 3D volumetry was more accurate than the geometric method. In addition, the upper normal limits of PGs overlapped with lower volume limits during early stage microadenomas.

  11. Normal cerebral perfusion of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT. Evaluation by an anatomical standardization technique

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    Kawashima, Ryuta; Koyama, Masamichi; Ito, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Seiro; Sato, Kazunori; Ono, Shuichi; Goto, Ryoi; Sato, Tachio; Fukuda, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Development, Aging and Cancer

    1996-01-01

    A single photon emitter labeled tracer, {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD), has now been used for rCBF studies with SPECT. However, normal distribution pattern of this agent in the brain still remains unclear. Therefore, the specific purpose of this study was to investigate the normal distribution pattern of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT image. Regional cerebral distribution was measured with SPECT and 984{+-}17 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in ten normal subjects. During the SPECT measurement, subjects were placed comfortably in a supine position with their eyes closed. Each SPECT image was anatomically standardized using a computerized brain atlas system of Roland et al. (HBA: Human Brain Atlas) and X-CT image. Anatomically standardized SPECT images were globally normalized to 100 count/voxel. Then, the mean and SD images of brain SPECT were calculated voxel-by-voxel basis. The highest radioactivity was found in the medial aspect of the occipital lobe. The results indicate that the normal distribution pattern of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in the human brain may be not simply reflect the regional cerebral blood flow. (author).

  12. Altered blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with prehepatic portal hypertension turns to normal when portal pressure is lowered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco Eizayaga; Camila Scorticati; Juan P Prestifilippo; Salvador Romay; Maria A Fernandez; José L Castro; Abraham Lemberg; Juan C Perazzo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the blood-brain barrier integrity in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats induced by partial portal vein ligation, at 14 and 40 d after ligation when portal pressure is spontaneously normalized.METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group Ⅰ: Sham14d, sham operated; Group Ⅱ: PH14d, portal vein stenosis; (both groups were used 14 days after surgery); Group Ⅲ: Sham40d, Sham operated and Group Ⅳ: PH40d Portal vein stenosis (Groups Ⅱ and Ⅳ used 40 d after surgery). Plasma ammonia,plasma and cerebrospinal fluid protein and liver enzymes concentrations were determined. Trypan and Evans blue dyes, systemically injected, were investigated in hippocampus to study blood-brain barrier integrity. Portal pressure was periodically recorded.RESULTS: Forty days after stricture, portal pressure was normalized, plasma ammonia was moderately high,and both dyes were absent in central nervous system parenchyma. All other parameters were reestablished.When portal pressure was normalized and ammonia level was lowered, but not normal, the altered integrity of blood-brain barrier becomes reestablished.CONCLUSION: The impairment of blood-brain barrier and subsequent normalization could be a mechanism involved in hepatic encephalopathy reversibility. Hemodynamic changes and ammonia could trigger blood-brain barrier alterations and its reestablishment.

  13. Intra- and interhemispheric variations of diffusivity in subcortical white matter in normal human brain

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    Yoshiura, Takashi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Nagao, Eiki; Kamano, Hironori; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    Our purpose was to reveal potential regional variations in water molecular diffusivity within each cerebral hemisphere and across the right and left hemispheres. Diffusion-weighted images of 44 healthy right-handed adult male subjects were obtained using a diffusion tensor imaging sequence. Mean diffusivity (MD) values in subcortical white matter (WM) within 39 regions in each hemisphere were measured using an automated method. Intrahemispheric comparisons of MDs in subcortical WM were performed among six brain regions (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes and pre- and postcentral gyri). Interhemispheric comparisons of MDs were performed between the right and left counterparts of the 39 regions. In both hemispheres, diffusivity in the precentral gyrus was lower than those in other regions, while diffusivity in the parietal lobe was higher than others. MD asymmetry in which the left was lower than the right was found in the parietal lobe, middle occipital gyrus, and medial and orbital aspects of the frontal lobe. The converse asymmetry was revealed in the frontal operculum, supplementary motor cortex, temporal lobe, limbic cortices, precuneus and cuneus. Our results revealed significant intra- and interhemispheric regional variations in MD in subcortical WM, which may be related to different densities of axons and myelin sheaths. (orig.)

  14. Interspecific allometry of the brain and brain regions in parrots (psittaciformes): comparisons with other birds and primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Dean, Karen M; Nelson, John E

    2005-01-01

    Despite significant progress in understanding the evolution of the mammalian brain, relatively little is known of the patterns of evolutionary change in the avian brain. In particular, statements regarding which avian taxa have relatively larger brains and brain regions are based on small sample sizes and statistical analyses are generally lacking. We tested whether psittaciforms (parrots, cockatoos and lorikeets) have larger brains and forebrains than other birds using both conventional and phylogenetically based methods. In addition, we compared the psittaciforms to primates to determine if cognitive similarities between the two groups were reflected by similarities in brain and telencephalic volumes. Overall, psittaciforms have relatively larger brains and telencephala than most other non-passerine orders. No significant difference in relative brain or telencephalic volume was detected between psittaciforms and passerines. Comparisons of other brain region sizes between psittaciforms and other birds, however, exhibited conflicting results depending upon whether body mass or a brain volume remainder (total brain volume - brain region volume) was used as a scaling variable. When compared to primates, psittaciforms possessed similar relative brain and telencephalic volumes. The only exception to this was that in some analyses psittaciforms had significantly larger telencephala than primates of similar brain volume. The results therefore provide empirical evidence for previous claims that psittaciforms possess relatively large brains and telencephala. Despite the variability in the results, it is clear that psittaciforms tend to possess large brains and telencephala relative to non-passerines and are similar to primates in this regard. Although it could be suggested that this reflects the advanced cognitive abilities of psittaciforms, similar studies performed in corvids and other avian taxa will be required before this claim can be made with any certainty.

  15. A comprehensive visual rating scale of brain magnetic resonance imaging: application in elderly subjects with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Park, So Young; Park, Young Ho; Baek, Min Jae; Lim, Jae-Sung; Youn, Young Chul; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows cerebral structural changes. However, a unified comprehensive visual rating scale (CVRS) has seldom been studied. Thus, we combined brain atrophy and small vessel disease scales and used an MRI template as a CVRS. The aims of this study were to design a simple and reliable CVRS, validate it by investigating cerebral structural changes in clinical groups, and made comparison to the volumetric measurements. Elderly subjects (n = 260) with normal cognition (NC, n = 65), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 101), or Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 94) were evaluated with brain MRI according to the CVRS of brain atrophy and small vessel disease. Validation of the CVRS with structural changes, neuropsychological tests, and volumetric analyses was performed. The CVRS revealed a high intra-rater and inter-rater agreement and it reflected the structural changes of subjects with NC, MCI, and AD better than volumetric measures (CVRS-coronal: F = 13.5, p brain. It reflected cerebral structural changes of clinical groups and correlated with the age better than volumetric measures.

  16. mTOR signaling and its roles in normal and abnormal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Nobuyuki; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) was first identified in yeast as a target molecule of rapamycin, an anti-fugal and immunosuppressant macrolide compound. In mammals, its orthologue is called mammalian TOR (mTOR). mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that converges different extracellular stimuli, such as nutrients and growth factors, and diverges into several biochemical reactions, including translation, autophagy, transcription, and lipid synthesis among others. These biochemical reactions govern cell growth and cause cells to attain an anabolic state. Thus, the disruption of mTOR signaling is implicated in a wide array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. In the central nervous system, the mTOR signaling cascade is activated by nutrients, neurotrophic factors, and neurotransmitters that enhances protein (and possibly lipid) synthesis and suppresses autophagy. These processes contribute to normal neuronal growth by promoting their differentiation, neurite elongation and branching, and synaptic formation during development. Therefore, disruption of mTOR signaling may cause neuronal degeneration and abnormal neural development. While reduced mTOR signaling is associated with neurodegeneration, excess activation of mTOR signaling causes abnormal development of neurons and glia, leading to brain malformation. In this review, we first introduce the current state of molecular knowledge of mTOR complexes and signaling in general. We then describe mTOR activation in neurons, which leads to translational enhancement, and finally discuss the link between mTOR and normal/abnormal neuronal growth during development.

  17. mTOR signaling and its roles in normal and abnormal brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki eTakei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Target of rapamycin (TOR was first identified in yeast as a target molecule of rapamycin, an anti-fugal and immunosuppressant macrolide compound. In mammals, its orthologue is called mTOR (mammalian TOR. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that converges different extracellular stimuli, such as nutrients and growth factors, and diverges into several biochemical reactions, including translation, autophagy, transcription, and lipid synthesis among others. These biochemical reactions govern cell growth and cause cells to attain an anabolic state. Thus, the disruption of mTOR signaling is implicated in a wide array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. In the central nervous system (CNS, the mTOR signaling cascade is activated by nutrients, neurotrophic factors, and neurotransmitters that enhances protein (and possibly lipid synthesis and suppresses autophagy. These processes contribute to normal neuronal growth by promoting their differentiation, neurite elongation and branching, and synaptic formation during development. Therefore, disruption of mTOR signaling may cause neuronal degeneration and abnormal neural development. While reduced mTOR signaling is associated with neurodegeneration, excess activation of mTOR signaling causes abnormal development of neurons and glia, leading to brain malformation. In this review, we first introduce the current state of molecular knowledge of mTOR complexes and signaling in general. We then describe mTOR activation in neurons, which leads to translational enhancement, and finally discuss the link between mTOR and normal/abnormal neuronal growth during development.

  18. The effect of regadenoson-induced transient disruption of the blood-brain barrier on temozolomide delivery to normal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sadhana; Anders, Nicole M; Mangraviti, Antonella; Wanjiku, Teresia M; Sankey, Eric W; Liu, Ann; Brem, Henry; Tyler, Betty; Rudek, Michelle A; Grossman, Stuart A

    2016-02-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) significantly reduces the delivery of many systemically administered agents to the central nervous system. Although temozolomide is the only chemotherapy to improve survival in patients with glioblastoma, its concentration in brain is only 20 % of that in blood. Regadenoson, an FDA approved adenosine receptor agonist used for cardiac stress testing, transiently disrupts rodent BBB allowing high molecular weight dextran (70 kD) to enter the brain. This study was conducted to determine if regadenoson could facilitate entry of temozolomide into normal rodent brain. Temozolomide (50 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage to non-tumor bearing F344 rats. Two-thirds of the animals received a single dose of intravenous regadenoson 60-90 min later. All animals were sacrificed 120 or 360 min after temozolomide administration. Brain and plasma temozolomide concentrations were determined using HPLC/MS/MS. Brain temozolomide concentrations were significantly higher at 120 min when it was given with regadenoson versus alone (8.1 ± 2.7 and 5.1 ± 3.5 µg/g, P temozolomide administration. No differences were seen in plasma temozolomide concentrations with or without regadenoson. These results suggest co-administration of regadenoson with temozolomide results in 60% higher temozolomide levels in normal brain without affecting plasma concentrations. This novel approach to increasing intracranial concentrations of systemically administered agents has potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy in neuro-oncologic disorders.

  19. The effect of regadenoson-induced transient disruption of the blood–brain barrier on temozolomide delivery to normal rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sadhana; Anders, Nicole M.; Mangraviti, Antonella; Wanjiku, Teresia M.; Sankey, Eric W.; Liu, Ann; Brem, Henry; Tyler, Betty; Rudek, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) significantly reduces the delivery of many systemically administered agents to the central nervous system. Although temozolomide is the only chemotherapy to improve survival in patients with glioblastoma, its concentration in brain is only 20 % of that in blood. Regadenoson, an FDA approved adenosine receptor agonist used for cardiac stress testing, transiently disrupts rodent BBB allowing high molecular weight dextran (70 kD) to enter the brain. This study was conducted to determine if regadenoson could facilitate entry of temozolomide into normal rodent brain. Temozolomide (50 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage to non-tumor bearing F344 rats. Two-thirds of the animals received a single dose of intravenous regadenoson 60–90 min later. All animals were sacrificed 120 or 360 min after temozolomide administration. Brain and plasma temozolomide concentrations were determined using HPLC/MS/MS. Brain temozolomide concentrations were significantly higher at 120 min when it was given with regadenoson versus alone (8.1 ± 2.7 and 5.1 ± 3.5 μg/g, P <0.05). A similar trend was noted in brain:plasma ratios (0.45 ± 0.08 and 0.29 ± 0.09, P < 0.05). Brain concentrations and brain:plasma ratios were not significantly different 360 min after temozolomide administration. No differences were seen in plasma temozolomide concentrations with or without regadenoson. These results suggest co-administration of regadenoson with temozolomide results in 60 % higher temozolomide levels in normal brain without affecting plasma concentrations. This novel approach to increasing intracranial concentrations of systemically administered agents has potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy in neuro-oncologic disorders. PMID:26626489

  20. Normal myelination of the child brain on MRI - a meta-analysis; Die normale Myelinisierung des kindlichen Gehirns in der MRT - eine Metaanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, M.; Grodd, W. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Kraegeloh-Mann, I. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Entwicklungsneurologie und Neuropaediatrie

    2000-10-01

    Purpose: To establish age limits for the assessment of normal myelination of the brain on T{sub 1}-weighted (T{sub 1}w) and T{sub 2}-weighted (T{sub 2}w) images. Method: Comparison of previous publications (Barkovich et al. 1988, Grodd 1993, Hayakawa et al. 1990, Hittmair et al. 1994, Martin et al. 1988/1990/1991, Nakagawa et al. 1998, Staudt et al. 1993/1994, Stricker et al. 1990). Results: Despite technical and methodological differences, these studies principally agreed on the timing of myelination for most regions of the brain. Thus, a common timetable could be established: At 1 month, myelin is visible on both T{sub 1}w and T{sub 2}w in the medulla oblongata, tegmentum pontis, cerebellar peduncles and vermis, quadrigeminal plate, decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles, thalamus, posterior limb of internal capsule, optic radiation, corona radiata. Thereafter, the myelin-typical signal in the different regions of the brain should be present at the following ages (M=months): Anterior limb of internal capsule (2 M: T{sub 1}w; 7 M: T{sub 2}w), splenium of corpus callosum (4 M: T{sub 1}w; 6 M: T{sub 2}w), genu of corpus callosum (6 M: T{sub 1}w; 8 M: T{sub 2}w), centrum semiovale (2 M: T{sub 1}w; 7 M: T{sub 2}w). Branching of myelin into the gyri of the telencephalon (=arborization) appears at the latest at: occipital lobe (5 M: T{sub 1}w; 12 M: T{sub 2}w) and frontal lobe (7 M: T{sub 1}w; 14 M: T{sub 2}w). Conclusion: These extracted age limits can be used for a more reliable assessment of myelination than the time-tables from a single study. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Ermittlung von Altersgrenzen fuer die MR-tomographisch erfassbare Myelinisierung des kindlichen Gehirns in T{sub 1}- und T{sub 2}-gewichteten Aufnahmen (T{sub 1}w, T{sub 2}w). Methode: Vergleich bisher publizierter Zeitangaben (Barkovich et al 1988, Grodd 1993, Hayakawa et al 1990, Hittmair et al 1994, Martin et al 1988/1990/1991, Nakagawa et al 1998, Staudt et al 1993/1994, Stricker et al 1990

  1. Longitudinal study of callosal microstructure in the normal adult aging brain using quantitative DTI fiber tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Edith V; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2010-01-01

    We present a review of neuroimaging studies of normal adult aging conducted with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and data from one of the first longitudinal studies using DTI to study normal aging. To date, virtually all DTI studies of normal adult aging have been cross-sectional and have identified several patterns of white matter microstructural sparing and compromise that differentiate regional effects, fiber type, and diffusivity characteristics: (1) fractional anisotropy (FA) is lower and mean diffusivity is higher in older than younger adults, (2) aging is characterized by an anterior-to-posterior gradient of greater-to-lesser compromise also seen in superior-to-inferior fiber systems, and (3) association fibers connecting cortical sites appear to be more vulnerable to aging than projection fibers. The results of this longitudinal study of the macrostructure and microstructure of the corpus callosum yielded a consistent pattern of differences between healthy, young (20s to 30s) and elderly (60s to 70s) men and women without change over 2 years. We then divided the fibers of the corpus callosum into the midsagittal strip and the lateral distal fibers in an attempt to identify the locus of the age-related differences. The results indicated that, on average, mean values of FA and longitudinal diffusivity (lambdaL) were lower in the distal than midsagittal fibers in both groups, but the age effects and the anterior-to-posterior gradients were more pronounced for the distal than midsagittal fibers and extended more posteriorly in the distal than midsagittal fibers. Despite lack of evidence for callosal aging over 2 years, ventricular enlargement occurred and was disproportionately greater in the elderly relative to the young group, being 8.2% in the elderly but only 1.2% in the young group. Thus, different brain regions can express different rates of change with aging. Our longitudinal DTI data indicate that normal aging is associated with declining FA and

  2. Different coexpressions of arthritis-relevant genes between different body organs and different brain regions in the normal mouse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanhong; Huang, Yue; Wang, Lishi; Zhu, Jiaqian; Gu, Weikuan

    2013-02-25

    Structural changes in different parts of the brain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have been reported. RA is not regarded as a brain disease. Body organs such as spleen and lung produce RA-relevant genes. We hypothesized that the structural changes in the brain are caused by changes of gene expression in body organs. Changes in different parts of the brain may be affected by altered gene expressions in different body organs. This study explored whether an association between gene expressions of an organ or a body part varies in different brain structures. By examining the association of the 10 most altered genes from a mouse model of spontaneous arthritis in a normal mouse population, we found two groups of gene expression patterns between five brain structures and spleen. The correlation patterns between the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and spleen were similar, while the associations between the other three parts of the brain and spleen showed a different pattern. Among overall patterns of the associations between body organs and brain structures, spleen and lung had a similar pattern, and patterns for kidney and liver were similar. Analysis of the five additional known arthritis-relevant genes produced similar results. Analysis of 10 nonrelevant-arthritis genes did not result in a strong association of gene expression or clearly segregated patterns. Our data suggest that abnormal gene expressions in different diseased body organs may influence structural changes in different brain parts.

  3. An investigation of body part as object (BPO) responses in normal and brain-damaged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, R J; Duffy, J R

    1989-07-01

    A test of simple pantomime was administered to three groups of adults and comparisons were made across groups of the incidence of subjects who exhibited body part as object (BPO) responses and of the mean frequency of occurrence of BPO in each group. The three groups were left-hemisphere-damaged aphasics (N = 28), right-hemisphere-damaged (N = 24), and normal controls (N = 28). The results indicated no significant differences among groups on the BPO measures. Also, to test the strength of association between the frequency of occurrence of BPO and measures of limb apraxia and severity of aphasia for the left-hemisphere-damaged aphasic group, correlation coefficients were obtained. The correlations were low and nonsignificant. The results of this investigation do not support the common clinical assumption that the occurrence of BPO during the performance of simple pantomimes is pathognomic for left-hemisphere pathology or associated with limb apraxia.

  4. Automated Spatial Brain Normalization and Hindbrain White Matter Reference Tissue Give Improved [(18)F]-Florbetaben PET Quantitation in Alzheimer's Model Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhoff, Felix; Brendel, Matthias; Jaworska, Anna; Korzhova, Viktoria; Delker, Andreas; Probst, Federico; Focke, Carola; Gildehaus, Franz-Josef; Carlsen, Janette; Baumann, Karlheinz; Haass, Christian; Bartenstein, Peter; Herms, Jochen; Rominger, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical PET studies of β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation are of growing importance, but comparisons between research sites require standardized and optimized methods for quantitation. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate systematically the (1) impact of an automated algorithm for spatial brain normalization, and (2) intensity scaling methods of different reference regions for Aβ-PET in a large dataset of transgenic mice. PS2APP mice in a 6 week longitudinal setting (N = 37) and another set of PS2APP mice at a histologically assessed narrow range of Aβ burden (N = 40) were investigated by [(18)F]-florbetaben PET. Manual spatial normalization by three readers at different training levels was performed prior to application of an automated brain spatial normalization and inter-reader agreement was assessed by Fleiss Kappa (κ). For this method the impact of templates at different pathology stages was investigated. Four different reference regions on brain uptake normalization were used to calculate frontal cortical standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRCTX∕REF), relative to raw SUVCTX. Results were compared on the basis of longitudinal stability (Cohen's d), and in reference to gold standard histopathological quantitation (Pearson's R). Application of an automated brain spatial normalization resulted in nearly perfect agreement (all κ≥0.99) between different readers, with constant or improved correlation with histology. Templates based on inappropriate pathology stage resulted in up to 2.9% systematic bias for SUVRCTX∕REF. All SUVRCTX∕REF methods performed better than SUVCTX both with regard to longitudinal stability (d≥1.21 vs. d = 0.23) and histological gold standard agreement (R≥0.66 vs. R≥0.31). Voxel-wise analysis suggested a physiologically implausible longitudinal decrease by global mean scaling. The hindbrain white matter reference (R mean = 0.75) was slightly superior to the brainstem (R mean = 0.74) and the cerebellum (R mean = 0.73). Automated

  5. Automated spatial brain normalization and hindbrain white matter reference tissue give improved [18F]-florbetaben PET quantitation in Alzheimer´s model mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix eOverhoff

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical PET studies of β-amyloid (Aβ accumulation are of growing importance, but comparisons between research sites require standardized and optimized methods for quantitation. Therefore we aimed to evaluate systematically the 1 impact of an automated algorithm for spatial brain normalization, and 2 intensity scaling methods of different reference regions for Aβ-PET in a large dataset of transgenic mice. PS2APP mice in a six week longitudinal setting (N = 37 and another set of PS2APP mice at a histologically assessed narrow range of Aβ burden (N = 40 were investigated by [18F]-florbetaben PET. Manual spatial normalization by three readers at different training levels was performed prior to application of an automated brain spatial normalization and inter-reader agreement was assessed by Fleiss Kappa (κ. For this method the impact of templates at different pathology stages was investigated. Four different reference regions on brain uptake normalization were used to calculate frontal cortical standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRCTX/REF, relative to raw SUVCTX. Results were compared on the basis of longitudinal stability (Cohen’s d, and in reference to gold standard histopathological quantitation (Pearson’s R.Application of an automated brain spatial normalization resulted in nearly perfect agreement (all κ ≥ 0.99 between different readers, with constant or improved correlation with histology. Templates based on inappropriate pathology stage resulted in up to 2.9% systematic bias for SUVRCTX/REF. All SUVRCTX/REF methods performed better than SUVCTX both with regard to longitudinal stability (d ≥ 1.21 vs. d = 0.23 and histological gold standard agreement (R ≥ 0.66 vs. R ≥ 0.31. Voxel-wise analysis suggested a physiologically implausible longitudinal decrease of global mean scaling. The hindbrain white matter reference (Rmean = 0.75 was slightly superior to the brainstem (Rmean = 0.74 and the cerebellum (Rmean = 0

  6. White matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter integrity in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Clayden, Jonathan D; Royle, Natalie A; Murray, Catherine; Morris, Zoe; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-02-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin are a common finding in brain magnetic resonance imaging of older individuals and contribute to cognitive and functional decline. It is unknown how WMH form, although white matter degeneration is characterized pathologically by demyelination, axonal loss, and rarefaction, often attributed to ischemia. Changes within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in subjects with WMH have also been reported but have not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe the in vivo imaging signatures of both NAWM and WMH in a large group of community-dwelling older people of similar age using biomarkers derived from magnetic resonance imaging that collectively reflect white matter integrity, myelination, and brain water content. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were significantly lower, whereas mean diffusivity (MD) and longitudinal relaxation time (T1) were significantly higher, in WMH than NAWM (p < 0.0001), with MD providing the largest difference between NAWM and WMH. Receiver operating characteristic analysis on each biomarker showed that MD differentiated best between NAWM and WMH, identifying 94.6% of the lesions using a threshold of 0.747 × 10(-9) m(2)s(-1) (area under curve, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.975-0.989). Furthermore, the level of deterioration of NAWM was strongly associated with the severity of WMH, with MD and T1 increasing and FA and MTR decreasing in NAWM with increasing WMH score, a relationship that was sustained regardless of distance from the WMH. These multimodal imaging data indicate that WMH have reduced structural integrity compared with surrounding NAWM, and MD provides the best discriminator between the 2 tissue classes even within the mild range of WMH severity, whereas FA, MTR, and T1 only start reflecting significant changes in tissue microstructure as WMH become more severe.

  7. GFR normalized to total body water allows comparisons across genders and body sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Bjørn O; Melsom, Toralf; Mathisen, Ulla D; Jenssen, Trond G; Solbu, Marit D; Toft, Ingrid

    2011-08-01

    The normalization of GFR to a standardized body-surface area of 1.73 m(2) impedes comparison of GFR across individuals of different genders, heights, or weights. Ideally, GFR should be normalized to a parameter that best explains variation in GFR. Here, we measured true GFR by iohexol clearance in a representative sample of 1627 individuals from the general population who did not have diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or kidney disease. We also estimated total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume, lean body mass, liver volume, metabolic rate, and body-surface area. We compared two methods of normalizing GFR to these physiologic variables: (1) the conventional method of scaling GFR to each physiologic variable by simple division and (2) a method based on regression of the GFR on each variable. TBW explained a higher proportion of the variation in GFR than the other physiologic variables. GFR adjusted for TBW by the regression method exhibited less dependence on gender, height, and weight compared with the other physiologic variables. Thus, adjusting GFR for TBW by the regression method allows direct comparisons between individuals of different genders, weights, and heights. We propose that regression-based normalization of GFR to a standardized TBW of 40 L should replace the current practice of normalizing GFR to 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area.

  8. Differential effects of fresh frozen plasma and normal saline on secondary brain damage in a large animal model of polytrauma, hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwabejire, John O; Imam, Ayesha M; Jin, Guang

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the extent of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in large animal models can be reduced with early infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), but the precise mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether resuscitation with FFP or normal saline differed...

  9. SU-E-T-505: BrainLab Plan Comparisons: Brain Scan Pencil Beam versus IPlan Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowski, M; Edwards, J; Bauer, L; DuBose, R; Powell, H

    2012-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) dose modeling techniques are available in the newest version of Brain Lab's IPlan treatment planning system (TPS). Prior to the upgrade, at our facility, BrainLab's BrainScan was the treatment planning system available; pencil beam (PB) modeling is employed by BrainScan. As published in the literature, MC calculations, as compared to the PB algorithm, can generate differences in coverage as much as 20%. With the introduction of the new treatment planning system, treatment parameter comparisons were made with quantitative assessments. Differences due to changes in the dose calculation that could impact patient treatments and outcomes were investigated. Beam data was collected for the new BrainLab TPS IPLAN under the conditions as outlined in the manufacturer's Version 1.3 data collection, commissioning and acceptance guidelines. Utilizing BrainLab's treatment planning systems, treatment plan comparisons were made. First, PB modeling treatment plans were assessed for each treatment plan with pencil beam modeling in the BrainScan and IPlan TPS. Treatment plans with MC modeling were then compared to PB models. Differences in the dose distribution, DVH values, and monitor units were evaluated between the older version software (BrainScan) and the newer treatment planning system (IPlan). As predicted by the literature, the differences in the MC modeling versus PB modeling were significant depending upon the anatomy (tumor site). Modeling comparison for the treatment plans will be presented for SRS (Stereotactic Radiosurgery) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). Clinical implementation of a new treatment planning system must be approached with caution and with adherence to AAPM recommendations and guidelines. Whenever a new TPS calculation model is introduced, thorough comparison between former and new models should be obtained. An additional recommended test would be to perform an independent, end-to-end check of the overall system utilizing

  10. Identification of the boundary between normal brain tissue and ischemia region using two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huiping; Wang, Shu; Wang, Xingfu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-10-01

    Ischemic stroke is one of the common neurological diseases, and it is becoming the leading causes of death and permanent disability around the world. Early and accurate identification of the potentially salvageable boundary region of ischemia brain tissues may enable selection of the most appropriate candidates for early stroke therapies. In this work, TPEF microscopy was used to image the microstructures of normal brain tissues, ischemia regions and the boundary region between normal and ischemia brain tissues. The ischemia brain tissues from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to 6 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Our study demonstrates that TPEF microscopy has the ability to not only reveal the morphological changes of the neurons but also identify the boundary between normal brain tissue and ischemia region, which correspond well to the hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained images. With the development of miniaturized TPEF microscope imaging devices, TPEF microscopy can be developed into an effectively diagnostic and monitoring tool for cerebral ischemia.

  11. Synaptic genes are extensively downregulated across multiple brain regions in normal human aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Nicole C; Coleman, Paul D; Cribbs, David H; Rogers, Joseph; Gillen, Daniel L; Cotman, Carl W

    2013-06-01

    Synapses are essential for transmitting, processing, and storing information, all of which decline in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because synapse loss only partially accounts for the cognitive declines seen in aging and AD, we hypothesized that existing synapses might undergo molecular changes that reduce their functional capacity. Microarrays were used to evaluate expression profiles of 340 synaptic genes in aging (20-99 years) and AD across 4 brain regions from 81 cases. The analysis revealed an unexpectedly large number of significant expression changes in synapse-related genes in aging, with many undergoing progressive downregulation across aging and AD. Functional classification of the genes showing altered expression revealed that multiple aspects of synaptic function are affected, notably synaptic vesicle trafficking and release, neurotransmitter receptors and receptor trafficking, postsynaptic density scaffolding, cell adhesion regulating synaptic stability, and neuromodulatory systems. The widespread declines in synaptic gene expression in normal aging suggests that function of existing synapses might be impaired, and that a common set of synaptic genes are vulnerable to change in aging and AD.

  12. Radiation damage to the normal monkey brain: experimental study induced by interstitial irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima N

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiation damage to normal brain tissue induced by interstitial irradiation with iridium-192 seeds was sequentially evaluated by computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and histological examination. This study was carried out in 14 mature Japanese monkeys. The experimental area received more than 200-260 Gy of irradiation developed coagulative necrosis. Infiltration of macrophages to the periphery of the necrotic area was seen. In addition, neovascularization, hyalinization of vascular walls, and gliosis were found in the periphery of the area invaded by the macrophages. All sites at which the vascular walls were found to have acute stage fibrinoid necrosis eventually developed coagulative necrosis. The focus of necrosis was detected by MRI starting 1 week after the end of radiation treatment, and the size of the necrotic area did not change for 6 months. The peripheral areas showed clear ring enhancement with contrast material. Edema surrounding the lesions was the most significant 1 week after radiation and was reduced to a minimum level 1 month later. However, the edema then expanded once again and was sustained for as long as 6 months. CT did not provide as clear of a presentation as MRI, but it did reveal similar findings for the most part, and depicted calcification in the necrotic area. This experimental model is considered useful for conducting basic research on brachytherapy, as well as for achieving a better understanding of delayed radiation necrosis.

  13. PRUNE is crucial for normal brain development and mutated in microcephaly with neurodevelopmental impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollo, Massimo; Ahmed, Mustafa; Ferrucci, Veronica; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asadzadeh, Fatemeh; Carotenuto, Marianeve; Maroofian, Reza; Al-Amri, Ahmed; Singh, Royana; Scognamiglio, Iolanda; Mojarrad, Majid; Musella, Luca; Duilio, Angela; Di Somma, Angela; Karaca, Ender; Rajab, Anna; Al-Khayat, Aisha; Mohan Mohapatra, Tribhuvan; Eslahi, Atieh; Ashrafzadeh, Farah; Rawlins, Lettie E; Prasad, Rajniti; Gupta, Rashmi; Kumari, Preeti; Srivastava, Mona; Cozzolino, Flora; Kumar Rai, Sunil; Monti, Maria; Harlalka, Gaurav V; Simpson, Michael A; Rich, Philip; Al-Salmi, Fatema; Patton, Michael A; Chioza, Barry A; Efthymiou, Stephanie; Granata, Francesca; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Wiethoff, Sarah; Borgione, Eugenia; Scuderi, Carmela; Mankad, Kshitij; Hanna, Michael G; Pucci, Piero; Houlden, Henry; Lupski, James R; Crosby, Andrew H; Baple, Emma L

    2017-04-01

    PRUNE is a member of the DHH (Asp-His-His) phosphoesterase protein superfamily of molecules important for cell motility, and implicated in cancer progression. Here we investigated multiple families from Oman, India, Iran and Italy with individuals affected by a new autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and degenerative disorder in which the cardinal features include primary microcephaly and profound global developmental delay. Our genetic studies identified biallelic mutations of PRUNE1 as responsible. Our functional assays of disease-associated variant alleles revealed impaired microtubule polymerization, as well as cell migration and proliferation properties, of mutant PRUNE. Additionally, our studies also highlight a potential new role for PRUNE during microtubule polymerization, which is essential for the cytoskeletal rearrangements that occur during cellular division and proliferation. Together these studies define PRUNE as a molecule fundamental for normal human cortical development and define cellular and clinical consequences associated with PRUNE mutation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  14. Anatomical standardization of small animal brain FDG-PET images using synthetic functional template: experimental comparison with anatomical template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Christopher; Hjornevik, Trine; Courivaud, Frédéric; Willoch, Frode

    2011-07-15

    Anatomical standardization (also called spatial normalization) of positron emission tomography (PET) small animal brain images is required to make statistical comparisons across individuals. Frequently, PET images are co-registered to an individual MR or CT image of the same subject in order to transform the functional images to an anatomical space. In the present work, we evaluate the normalization of synthetic PET (synPET) images to a synthetic PET template. To provide absolute error in terms of pixel misregistration, we created a synthetic PET image from the individual MR image through segmentation of the brain into gray and white matter which produced functional and anatomical images in the same space. When comparing spatial normalization of synPET images to a synPET template with the gold standard (MR images to an MR template), a mean translation error of 0.24mm (±0.20) and a maximal mean rotational error of 0.85° (±0.91) were found. Significant decrease in misregistration error was measured when achieving spatial normalization of functional images to a functional template instead of an anatomical template. This accuracy strengthens the use of standardization methods where individual PET images are registered to a customized PET template in order to statistically assess physiological changes in rat brains.

  15. A methodology for generating normal and pathological brain perfusion SPECT images for evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods: application in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grova, C.; Jannin, P.; Biraben, A.; Buvat, I.; Benali, H.; Bernard, A. M.; Scarabin, J. M.; Gibaud, B.

    2003-12-01

    Quantitative evaluation of brain MRI/SPECT fusion methods for normal and in particular pathological datasets is difficult, due to the frequent lack of relevant ground truth. We propose a methodology to generate MRI and SPECT datasets dedicated to the evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods and illustrate the method when dealing with ictal SPECT. The method consists in generating normal or pathological SPECT data perfectly aligned with a high-resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI using realistic Monte Carlo simulations that closely reproduce the response of a SPECT imaging system. Anatomical input data for the SPECT simulations are obtained from this 3D T1-weighted MRI, while functional input data result from an inter-individual analysis of anatomically standardized SPECT data. The method makes it possible to control the 'brain perfusion' function by proposing a theoretical model of brain perfusion from measurements performed on real SPECT images. Our method provides an absolute gold standard for assessing MRI/SPECT registration method accuracy since, by construction, the SPECT data are perfectly registered with the MRI data. The proposed methodology has been applied to create a theoretical model of normal brain perfusion and ictal brain perfusion characteristic of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. To approach realistic and unbiased perfusion models, real SPECT data were corrected for uniform attenuation, scatter and partial volume effect. An anatomic standardization was used to account for anatomic variability between subjects. Realistic simulations of normal and ictal SPECT deduced from these perfusion models are presented. The comparison of real and simulated SPECT images showed relative differences in regional activity concentration of less than 20% in most anatomical structures, for both normal and ictal data, suggesting realistic models of perfusion distributions for evaluation purposes. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry coefficients measured on simulated data were found within

  16. Comparison of bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium in normal and dehydrated rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood AHMAD; Muhammad IQBAL; Ghulam MURTAZA

    2009-01-01

    Two different salts of diclofenac, diclofenac sodium and dielofenae potassium, in tablet dosage form were tested for their bioavailability and disposition kinetics in a group of eighteen rabbits in normal and experimentally induced dehydrated conditions with a wash out period of 7 days between both stages of study. Biochemical and physiological parameters were also measured in both normal and dehydrated states. Diclofenac levels in plasma were determined using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. Primary kinetic parameters i.e. AUC0-∞, Cmax, Tmax and other disposition kinetics were obtained with non-compartmental procedure. Biochemical parameters i.e. packed cell volume, plasma glucose and total lipid concentration in dehydrated rabbits increased significantly. Plasma concentration of diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium decreased significantly in water deprived rabbits. In comparison, diclofenac potassium in normal and dehydrated state of the same group of rabbits showed a significantly increased plasma concentration when compared with diclofenac sodium.

  17. Optimization of Treatment Geometry to Reduce Normal Brain Dose in Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases with Single–Isocenter Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qixue; Snyder, Karen Chin; Liu, Chang; Huang, Yimei; Zhao, Bo; Chetty, Indrin J.; Wen, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of patients with multiple brain metastases using a single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has been shown to decrease treatment time with the tradeoff of larger low dose to the normal brain tissue. We have developed an efficient Projection Summing Optimization Algorithm to optimize the treatment geometry in order to reduce dose to normal brain tissue for radiosurgery of multiple metastases with single-isocenter VMAT. The algorithm: (a) measures coordinates of outer boundary points of each lesion to be treated using the Eclipse Scripting Application Programming Interface, (b) determines the rotations of couch, collimator, and gantry using three matrices about the cardinal axes, (c) projects the outer boundary points of the lesion on to Beam Eye View projection plane, (d) optimizes couch and collimator angles by selecting the least total unblocked area for each specific treatment arc, and (e) generates a treatment plan with the optimized angles. The results showed significant reduction in the mean dose and low dose volume to normal brain, while maintaining the similar treatment plan qualities on the thirteen patients treated previously. The algorithm has the flexibility with regard to the beam arrangements and can be integrated in the treatment planning system for clinical application directly. PMID:27688047

  18. Functional mapping of language networks in the normal brain using a word-association task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Shantanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Language functions are known to be affected in diverse neurological conditions, including ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and brain tumors. Because language networks are extensive, interpretation of functional data depends on the task completed during evaluation. Aim: The aim was to map the hemodynamic consequences of word association using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in normal human subjects. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning with a postlexical access semantic association task vs lexical processing task. The fMRI protocol involved a T2FNx01-weighted gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI sequence (TR 4523 ms, TE 64 ms, flip angle 90º with alternate baseline and activation blocks. A total of 78 scans were taken (interscan interval = 3 s with a total imaging time of 587 s. Functional data were processed in Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM2 with 8-mm Gaussian kernel by convolving the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signal with an hemodynamic response function estimated by general linear method to generate SPM{t} and SPM{F} maps. Results: Single subject analysis of the functional data (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001 revealed extensive activation in the frontal lobes, with overlaps among middle frontal gyrus (MFG, superior, and inferior frontal gyri. BOLD activity was also found in the medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus (MOG, anterior fusiform gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules, and to a smaller extent, the thalamus and right anterior cerebellum. Group analysis (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001 revealed neural recruitment of bilateral lingual gyri, left MFG, bilateral MOG, left superior occipital gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, bilateral thalami, and right cerebellar areas. Conclusions: Group data analysis revealed a cerebellar-occipital-fusiform-thalamic network centered around bilateral lingual gyri for word association, thereby indicating how these

  19. Comparison of Feature Selection Techniques in Machine Learning for Anatomical Brain MRI in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohka, Jussi; Moradi, Elaheh; Huttunen, Heikki

    2016-07-01

    We present a comparative split-half resampling analysis of various data driven feature selection and classification methods for the whole brain voxel-based classification analysis of anatomical magnetic resonance images. We compared support vector machines (SVMs), with or without filter based feature selection, several embedded feature selection methods and stability selection. While comparisons of the accuracy of various classification methods have been reported previously, the variability of the out-of-training sample classification accuracy and the set of selected features due to independent training and test sets have not been previously addressed in a brain imaging context. We studied two classification problems: 1) Alzheimer's disease (AD) vs. normal control (NC) and 2) mild cognitive impairment (MCI) vs. NC classification. In AD vs. NC classification, the variability in the test accuracy due to the subject sample did not vary between different methods and exceeded the variability due to different classifiers. In MCI vs. NC classification, particularly with a large training set, embedded feature selection methods outperformed SVM-based ones with the difference in the test accuracy exceeding the test accuracy variability due to the subject sample. The filter and embedded methods produced divergent feature patterns for MCI vs. NC classification that suggests the utility of the embedded feature selection for this problem when linked with the good generalization performance. The stability of the feature sets was strongly correlated with the number of features selected, weakly correlated with the stability of classification accuracy, and uncorrelated with the average classification accuracy.

  20. Comparison of normalization methods for Illumina BeadChip HumanHT-12 v3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eils Roland

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normalization of microarrays is a standard practice to account for and minimize effects which are not due to the controlled factors in an experiment. There is an overwhelming number of different methods that can be applied, none of which is ideally suited for all experimental designs. Thus, it is important to identify a normalization method appropriate for the experimental setup under consideration that is neither too negligent nor too stringent. Major aim is to derive optimal results from the underlying experiment. Comparisons of different normalization methods have already been conducted, none of which, to our knowledge, comparing more than a handful of methods. Results In the present study, 25 different ways of pre-processing Illumina Sentrix BeadChip array data are compared. Among others, methods provided by the BeadStudio software are taken into account. Looking at different statistical measures, we point out the ideal versus the actual observations. Additionally, we compare qRT-PCR measurements of transcripts from different ranges of expression intensities to the respective normalized values of the microarray data. Taking together all different kinds of measures, the ideal method for our dataset is identified. Conclusions Pre-processing of microarray gene expression experiments has been shown to influence further downstream analysis to a great extent and thus has to be carefully chosen based on the design of the experiment. This study provides a recommendation for deciding which normalization method is best suited for a particular experimental setup.

  1. Classification of Brain Signals in Normal Subjects and Patients with Epilepsy Using Mixture of Experts

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    S. Amoozegar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available EEG is one of the most important and common sources for study of brain function and neurological disorders. Automated systems are under study for many years to detect EEG changes. Because of the importance of making correct decision, we are looking for better classification methods for EEG signals. In this paper a smart compound system is used for classifying EEG signals to different groups. Since in each classification the system accuracy of making decision is very important, in this study we look for some methods to improve the accuracy of EEG signals classification. In this paper the use of Mixture of Experts for improving the EEG signals classification of normal subjects and patients with epilepsy is shown and the classification accuracy is evaluated. Decision making was performed in two stages: 1 feature extractions with different methods of eigenvector and 2 Classification using the classifier trained by extracted features. This smart system inputs are formed from composites features that are selected appropriate with network structure. In this study tree methods based on eigenvectors (Minimum Norm, MUSIC, Pisarenko are chosen for the estimation of Power Spectral Density (PSD. After the implementation of ME and train it on composite features, we propose that this technique can reach high classification accuracy. Hence, EEG signals classification of epilepsy patients in different situations and control subjects is available. In this study, Mixture of Experts structure was used for EEG signals classification. Proper performance of Neural Network depends on the size of train and test data. Combination of multiple Neural Networks even without using the probable structure in obtaining weights in classification problem can produce high accuracy in less time, which is important and valuable in the classification point of view.

  2. Brain mechanisms for reading in children with and without dyslexia: a review of studies of normal development and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, Andrew C; Simos, Panagiotis G; Breier, Joshua I; Fletcher, Jack M; Foorman, Barbara R; Francis, David; Castillo, Eduardo M; Davis, Robert N

    2003-01-01

    In this article we review our experience with the application of magnetic source imaging (MSI), the newest of the functional imaging methods, to the study of brain mechanisms for reading among children who read normally and among those with dyslexia. After giving a general description of MSI, we present evidence for reliable and valid maps of the brain mechanism for aural language comprehension as well as for reading. Next, we present data from 39 normal readers, 40 children with dyslexia, and 30 younger children at risk for developing a reading disability. These data show different brain activation maps for individual children with dyslexia and children at risk for dyslexia than for those of normal readers. Such differences most likely reflect aberrant brain organization underlying phonological decoding, rather than variables such as degree of effort. Finally, we present preliminary data demonstrating that the aberrant activation profiles of children with dyslexia may return to normative patterns as a result of a successful reading intervention that enables children to improve phonological decoding skills.

  3. Effects of methylphenidate on resting-state brain activity in normal adults: an fMRI study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yihong Zhu; Bin Gao; Jianming Hua; Weibo Liu; Yichao Deng; Lijie Zhang; Biao Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly used stimulants for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Although several studies have evaluated the effects of MPH on human brain activation during specific cognitive tasks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),few studies have focused on spontaneous brain activity.In the current study,we investigated the effect of MPH on the intra-regional synchronization of spontaneous brain activity during the resting state in 18normal adult males.A handedness questionnaire and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were applied before medication,and a resting-state fMRI scan was obtained 1 h after medication (20 mg MPH or placebo,order counterbalanced between participants).We demonstrated that:(1) there were no significant differences in the performance of behavioral tasks between the MPH and placebo groups; (2) the left middle and superior temporal gyri had stronger MPH-related regional homogeneity (ReHo); and (3) the left lingual gyrus had weaker MPH-related ReHo.Our findings showed that the ReHo in some brain areas changes with MPH compared to placebo in normal adults,even though there are no behavioral differences.This method can be applied to patients with mental illness who may be treated with MPH,and be used to compare the difference between patients taking MPH and normal participants,to help reveal the mechanism of how MPH works.

  4. Prevalence of lateral ventricle asymmetry in brain MRI studies of neurologically normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetta, Mauro; De Risio, Luisa; Newton, Richard; Dennis, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetry of the cerebral lateral ventricles is a common finding in cross-sectional imaging of otherwise normal canine brains and has been assumed to be incidental. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the prevalence of ventricular asymmetry in brain MRI studies of normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Brain MRI archives were searched for 100 neurologically normal dogs (Group 1) and 100 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (Group 2). For each dog, asymmetry of the lateral ventricles was subjectively classified as absent, mild, moderate, and severe based on a consensus of two observers who were unaware of group status. Ventricular areas were measured from transverse T1W images at the level of the interthalamic adhesion. An asymmetry ratio was calculated as the ratio of the larger to smaller ventricular transverse area. There was excellent agreement between subjective assessments of ventricular asymmetry and quantitative assessments using asymmetry ratios (k = 0.995). The prevalence of asymmetry was 38% in Group 1 dogs and 44% in Group 2 dogs. Assymmetry was scored as mild in the majority of Group 2 dogs. There was no significant association between presence/absence and degree of ventricular asymmetry vs. dog group, age, gender, or skull conformation. Findings from the current study supported previously published assumptions that asymmetry of the lateral cerebral ventricles is an incidental finding in MRI studies of the canine brain.

  5. Comparison of heterogeneity quantification algorithms for brain SPECT perfusion images

    OpenAIRE

    Modzelewski, Romain; Janvresse, Elise; De La Rue, Thierry; Vera, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background Several algorithms from the literature were compared with the original random walk (RW) algorithm for brain perfusion heterogeneity quantification purposes. Algorithms are compared on a set of 210 brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) simulations and 40 patient exams. Methods Five algorithms were tested on numerical phantoms. The numerical anthropomorphic Zubal head phantom was used to generate 42 (6 × 7) different brain SPECT simulations. Seven diffuse cortical ...

  6. Comparison of Reading Literacy in Hearing Impaired and Normal Hearing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ali Asghar Kakojoibari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: listening, speaking, reading and writing are considered the lingual skills. These skills are in direct relation with each other. Listening is the first skill learnt by the individual through development. If damaged by hearing impairment, listening can cause serious defect to lingual skills. The goal of our research was to study the effect of hearing loss on reading literacy in hearing impairment students in comparison with normal hearing students.Methods: Study was performed using the examination booklets of Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS 2001. 119 hearing impairment students of 4th grade primary school, last year guidance school, and last year high school levels in schools providing exceptional student education were included. These individuals were compared to 46 normal hearing students of 4th grade primary school of ordinary schools. Comparative statistical analysis was performed using t-test.Results: Reading literacy and literal contents understanding was shown to have a significant difference between normal hearing and whole hearing impaired student (p<0.05, except the ones in high school level with moderate hearing loss. There was also seen a significant difference between normal hearing and hearing impairment students in understanding of information contents (p=0.03.Conclusion: Hearing loss has a negative effect on reading literacy. Consequently, curriculum change and evolution of educational programs in exceptional centers is needed, in order to promote reading literacy and to enhance rest hearing

  7. Comparison of Occlusion Effect in Normal Hearing Subjects via Real Ear Measurement and Audiometric Bing Test

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    Meymaneh Jafari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the most common complaints, particularly among patients with normal or near normal low-frequency hearing, is that their voice sounds "hollow". This is associated with "Occlusion effect". The aim of this study was to comparison of occlusion effect in normal hearing subjects via Real Ear Measurement and Audiometric Bing test. Materials and Method: Twenty volunteers with normal hearing (10 male, 10 female, with ages ranging from 18 – 24 years were enrolled in this study. First, audiometric Bing test was performed in frequencies of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 Hz. Then in real ear measurement, subjects were instructed to vocalize /â/ and /i/ for 5 seconds. Probe microphone was recorded the sound pressure in the ear canals. The degrees of occlusion effect unit were obtained for further analysis.Results: The means of occlusion effect were present in all subjects. There was no correlation between the results of audiometric Bing test and real-ear measurement. No significant difference was obtained between genders and monaural or binaural occlusion in real-ear measurement. But in audiometric Bing test, the difference between monaural or binaural occlusion was significant(p<0.05.Conclusion: The peak of occlusion effect varies significantly among hearing aid users, so the hearing aid must be tuned. Probe- microphone measures will assist in determination how much gain is enough, and where frequency- specific adjustments are needed.

  8. The Comparison Study of Renin and Angiotensin A H Levels on Normal Tension Glaucoma Patients and Normal Individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongmin Yun; Pei Fu; Kexi Ding; Qi Yang

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the levels of renin-angiotension system (RAS) components in normal tension glaucoma patients and normal controls.Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 11 normal tension glaucoma(NTG)patients and 11 age and sex matched controls. The levels of renin and angiotensin A Ⅱ of 11 NTG patients and normal controls were examined by radio-immunity test. Statistical analyses were performed by paired t test.Results :The levels of renin of NTG patients and normal controls are (769.085±183.217) pg/ml/n and (822.035±124.140) pg/ml/n, while the levels of angiotensin A Ⅱ of NTG patients and normal controls are (37.347±10.669)pg/ml and (24.836±10.665)pg/ml respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between the levels of renin and angiotensin among NTG patients and normal controls.Conclusion:There were not many abnormalities of the levels of circulating rennin and angiotensin A Ⅱ of NTG patients in our study.

  9. SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN VOLUME OF INSULAR CORTEX IN NORMAL AND NEURODEGENERATIVE HUMAN BRAINS : A STEREOLOGIC AND MACROSCOPIC STUDY

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    H. Haghir

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Lillie is known about the sexual differences in volume of human insular cortex in normal subjects and those suffering from ncurodcgcncrativc diseases. The objective of this study is 10 investigate the sex difference in volume of the left insular cortex in normal right-handed subjects versus subjects suffering from Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. This study was performed on 72 normal human brains (38 males. 34 females. II brains suffered from Alzheimer (4 males. 7 females, and 13 brains suffered from Parkinson (9 males, 4 females. The right hemispheres were used for neuropathologic studies. The volumes of the len insular cortex in the male and female normal subjects were 6.65 :.:: 1.55 em: and 5.X3 ,t: 1.12 em'. respectively (P = 0.0 I. The volumes of the left insular cortex in the male and female subjects suffering from Alzheimer were 5.6X :i.: !.49 ern' and 4.49 :i: (l.X6 em'. respectively (P = 0.2 I. The volumes of the left insular cortex in the male and female subjects suffering from Parkinson were 5.99 ± 1.05 em' und 5.37 ::: 0.51 em'. respectively (P =:= O. I8. The present study shows a significant larger left insular cortex volume in normal right-handed males than in females. No significant sexual difference in volume of the left insular cortex in subjects suffering from Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases W,IS observed. Disappearance of the normal sexual dimorphism in the volume of the insular cortex may be due to a more severe degeneration of this conical area in males during thc ncurodcgcncrativc disorders.

  10. A study on thallium-201 SPECT in brain metastases of lung cancer. With special reference to tumor size and tumor to normal brain thallium uptake ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togawa, Takashi; Yui, Nobuharu; Kinoshita, Fujimi; Yanagisawa, Masamichi; Namba, Hiroki [Chiba Cancer Center (Japan). Hospital

    1995-03-01

    Thallium-201 brain SPECT was performed on 20 patients with brain metastases of lung cancer using a three-head rotating gamma camera and the effect of tumor size on tumor detectability and tumor to normal brain thallium uptake ratio (T/N ratio) was studied. Among 71 metastatic lesions, only 9 (22.5%) of 40 lesions of 13 mm diameter or below and 31 (100%) of 31 lesions of 14 mm diameter or above could be detected in this study. There was significant correlation between T/N ratio and tumor size (r=0.75, p<0.001). The greater the metastatic lesion, the higher the T/N ratio. Even among the tumors in a single patient with multiple brain metastases, there was a significant linear correlation between tumor size and T/N ratio (r=0.96, p<0.01). In this patient, T/N ratio varied by the tumor size and these differences in T/N ratios were thought to be based on the partial volume effect. However, T/N{center_dot}d which was a parameter corrected by tumor diameter (d) showed a constant value regardless of tumor size. The present results showed that T/N ratio, which was usually believed to quantitate the malignancy grade of brain tumor, was affected by tumor size and that more accurate parameter could be obtained by the correction of T/N ratio by tumor size. (author).

  11. Total and regional brain volumes in a population-based normative sample from 4 to 18 years: the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5-18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem. Associations with cross-sectional age, sex, family income, parental education, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Key observations are: 1) age-related decreases in lobar GM most prominent in parietal and occipital cortex; 2) age-related increases in lobar WM, greatest in occipital, followed by the temporal lobe; 3) age-related trajectories predominantly curvilinear in females, but linear in males; and 4) small systematic associations of brain tissue volumes with BMI but not with IQ, family income, or parental education. These findings constitute a normative reference on regional brain volumes in children and adolescents.

  12. Distribution of PSA-NCAM in normal, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Helen C; Low, Victoria F; Swanson, Molly E V; Dieriks, Birger V; Turner, Clinton; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A

    2016-08-25

    Polysialated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) is a membrane bound glycoprotein widely expressed during nervous system development. While commonly described in the neurogenic niches of the adult human brain, there is limited evidence of its distribution in other brain regions. PSA-NCAM is an important regulator of cell-cell interactions and facilitates cell migration and plasticity. Recent evidence suggests these functions may be altered in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). This study provides a detailed description of the PSA-NCAM distribution throughout the human brain and quantitatively compares the staining load in cortical regions and sub-cortical structures between the control, AD and PD brain. Our results provide evidence of widespread, yet specific, PSA-NCAM expression throughout the human brain including regions devoid of PSA-NCAM in the rodent brain such as the caudate nucleus (CN) and cerebellum (CB). We also detected a significant reduction in PSA-NCAM load in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of cases that was inversely correlated with hyperphosphorylated tau load. These results demonstrate that PSA-NCAM-mediated structural plasticity may not be limited to neurogenic niches and is conserved in the aged brain. We also provide evidence that PSA-NCAM is reduced in the EC, a region severely affected by AD pathology. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biondi ring tangles in the choroid plexus of Alzheimer's disease and normal aging brains: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, G Y; Wisniewski, H M; Kascsak, R J

    1999-06-19

    The choroid plexus (CP) performs the vital function of producing up to 90% (450-1000 ml/day) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to nourish and to protect the brain in the CSF suspension. The CP also acts as a selective barrier between blood and CSF to regulate ions and other essential molecules. However, the accumulation of intracellular inclusions called Biondi ring tangles (BRTs) in CP cells of Alzheimer's disease (AD)/aging brains may affect these vital functions of the CP. Statistical analysis of quantitative data on the numbers of CP cells containing BRTs from 54 brains (29 AD and 25 normal control), age range 1-100 years, indicated a significant difference (pbiomarker for AD in addition to NPs and NFTs.

  14. Diffusional anisotropy of the human brain assessed with diffusion-weighted MR: Relation with normal brain development and aging

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    Nomura, Toshiyuki; Sakuma, Hajime; Takeda, Kan; Tagami, Tomoyasu; Okuda, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi (Mie Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    To analyze diffusional anisotropy in frontal and occipital white matter of human brain quantitatively as a function of age by using diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Ten neonates (<1 month), 13 infants (1-10 months), 9 children (1-11 years), and 16 adults (20-79 years) were examined. After taking axial spin-echo images of the brain, diffusion-sensitive gradients were added parallel or perpendicular to the orientation of nerve fibers. The apparent diffusion coefficient parallel to the nerve fibers (0) and that perpendicular to the fibers (90) were computed. The anisotropic ratio (90/0) was calculated as a function of age. Anisotropic ratios of frontal white matter were significantly larger in neonates as compared with infants, children, or adults. The ratios showed rapid decrease until 6 months and thereafter were identical in all subjects. In the occipital lobe, the ratios were also greater in neonates, but the differences from other age groups were not so prominent as in the frontal lobe. Comparing anisotropic ratios between frontal and occipital lobes, a significant difference was observed only in neonates. Diffusion-weighted images demonstrated that the myelination process starts earlier in the occipital lobe than in the frontal lobe. The changes of diffusional anisotropy in white matter are completed within 6 months after birth. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides earlier detection of brain myelination compared with the conventional T1- and T2-weighted images. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Structural and functional MRI of normal and compromised rat brain development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, K. van der

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric illness constitutes a major disease burden worldwide, yet its neurobiological substrates remain elusive. It is increasingly believed that early disturbances during critical and sensitive periods of brain development contribute to a delayed manifestation of psychiatric disease. This

  16. Mapping metals in Parkinson's and normal brain using rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Bogdan F. Gh; George, Martin J.; Bergmann, Uwe; Garachtchenko, Alex V.; Kelly, Michael E.; McCrea, Richard P. E.; Lüning, Katharina; Devon, Richard M.; George, Graham N.; Hanson, Akela D.; Harder, Sheri M.; Chapman, L. Dean; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Nichol, Helen

    2009-02-01

    Rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence (RS-XRF) is a synchrotron technology that maps multiple metals in tissues by employing unique hardware and software to increase scanning speed. RS-XRF was validated by mapping and quantifying iron, zinc and copper in brain slices from Parkinson's disease (PD) and unaffected subjects. Regions and structures in the brain were readily identified by their metal complement and each metal had a unique distribution. Many zinc-rich brain regions were low in iron and vice versa. The location and amount of iron in brain regions known to be affected in PD agreed with analyses using other methods. Sample preparation is simple and standard formalin-fixed autopsy slices are suitable. RS-XRF can simultaneously and non-destructively map and quantify multiple metals and holds great promise to reveal metal pathologies associated with PD and other neurodegenerative diseases as well as diseases of metal metabolism.

  17. Comparing Cognitive Failures and Metacognitive Beliefs in Mild Traumatic Brain Injured Patients and Normal Controls in Kashan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Head trauma is associated with multiple destructive cognitive symptoms and cognitive failure. Cognitive failures include problems with memory, attention and operation. Cognitive failures are considered as a process associated with metacognition. Objectives This study aimed to compare cognitive failures and metacognitive beliefs in mild Traumatic Brain Injured (TBI patients and normal controls in Kashan. Patients and Methods The study was performed on 40 TBI patients referred to the Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Kashan city and 40 normal controls in Kashan. Traumatic brain injured patients and normal controls were selected by convenience sampling. Two groups filled out the demographic sheet, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ and Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30. The data were analyzed by the SPSS-19 software with multivariate analysis of variance. Results The results of this study showed that there were no significant differences between TBI and controls in total scores and subscales of CFQ and MCQ (F = 0.801, P = 0.61. Conclusions Based on these findings, it seems that mild brain injuries don't make significant metacognitive problems and cognitive failures.

  18. Comparison of fat intake between patients with stroke and normal population

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    Leila Darvishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke happens when blood flow to parts of brain stops. Stroke is sometimes called "brain attack." Risk factor is something that increases the chance of getting a disease. Some risk factors for stroke cannot be changed, but some can be altered. The chance of stroke is higher in people who live an unhealthy lifestyle by: Being overweight as a result of over-eating, eating too much fat, smoking, etc., Therefore, we compared the fat intake between patients with stroke and normal population. Materials and Methods: Sixty nine patients with stroke (46 men and 23 women as cases and 60 subjects (30 men and 30 women as controls during April 2009 and May 2010 from Alzzahra hospital, Isfahan, Iran were evaluated. Dietary intakes were collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ through their close relatives such as spouse, daughter or mother. Also, anthropometry measurements such as weight, height and waist extracted from their medical files, however, body mass index (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR were calculated. Result: The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA both in men and women with stroke were significantly higher than controls (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 for men and P = 0.05 and P = 0.02 for women, respectively. Also, the mean intake of hydrogenated fats, butter, cream, mayonnaise sauce and nuts were higher in men with stroke with respect in control group; while, women with stroke consumed more hydrogenated fats, vegetable oils, cream and mayonnaise sauce than controls. Conclusion : Increased fat intake was observed in patients with stroke compared with normal population.

  19. Comparison of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Calcium Levels between Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Normal Women

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    Ashraf Moini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the relationship of vitamin D deficiency with insulin resistance syndrome as the component of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, the main aim of this study was to compare serum level of 25- hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] between PCOS patients and normal individuals. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to compare 25(OHD level between117 normal and 125 untreated PCOS cases at our clinic in Arash Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during 2011-2012. The obtained levels of 25(OHD were classified as follows: lower than 25 nmol/ml as severe deficiency, between 25-49.9 nmol/ml as deficiency, 50-74.9 nmol/ml as insufficiency, and above 75 nmol/ml asnormal. In addition, endocrine and metabolic variables were evaluated. Results: Among PCOS patients, our findings shows 3(2.4% normal, 7(5.6% with insufficiency, 33(26.4% with deficiency and 82(65.6% with severe deficiency, whereas in normal participants, 5(4.3% normal, 4(3.4% with insufficiency, 28(23.9% with deficiency and 80(68.4% with severe deficiency. Comparison of 25(OHD level between two main groups showed no significant differences (p= 0.65. Also, the calcium and 25(OHD levels had no significant differences in patients with overweight (p=0.22 and insulin resistance (p=0.64. But we also found a relationship between 25(OHD level and metabolic syndrome (p=0.01. Furthermore, there was a correlation between 25(OHD and body mass index (BMI in control group (p=0.01, while the C-reactive protein (CRP level was predominantly higher in PCOS group (p<0.001. Conclusion: Although the difference of 25(OHD level between PCOS and healthy women is not significant, the high prevalence of 25(OHD deficiency is a real alarm for public health care system and may influence our results.

  20. Gene expression changes in the course of normal brain aging are sexually dimorphic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Nicole C; Cribbs, David H; Coleman, Paul D; Rogers, Joseph; Head, Elizabeth; Kim, Ronald; Beach, Tom; Miller, Carol; Troncoso, Juan; Trojanowski, John Q; Zielke, H Ronald; Cotman, Carl W

    2008-10-07

    Gene expression profiles were assessed in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, superior-frontal gyrus, and postcentral gyrus across the lifespan of 55 cognitively intact individuals aged 20-99 years. Perspectives on global gene changes that are associated with brain aging emerged, revealing two overarching concepts. First, different regions of the forebrain exhibited substantially different gene profile changes with age. For example, comparing equally powered groups, 5,029 probe sets were significantly altered with age in the superior-frontal gyrus, compared with 1,110 in the entorhinal cortex. Prominent change occurred in the sixth to seventh decades across cortical regions, suggesting that this period is a critical transition point in brain aging, particularly in males. Second, clear gender differences in brain aging were evident, suggesting that the brain undergoes sexually dimorphic changes in gene expression not only in development but also in later life. Globally across all brain regions, males showed more gene change than females. Further, Gene Ontology analysis revealed that different categories of genes were predominantly affected in males vs. females. Notably, the male brain was characterized by global decreased catabolic and anabolic capacity with aging, with down-regulated genes heavily enriched in energy production and protein synthesis/transport categories. Increased immune activation was a prominent feature of aging in both sexes, with proportionally greater activation in the female brain. These data open opportunities to explore age-dependent changes in gene expression that set the balance between neurodegeneration and compensatory mechanisms in the brain and suggest that this balance is set differently in males and females, an intriguing idea.

  1. Neuronal networks and mediators of cortical neurovascular coupling responses in normal and altered brain states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecrux, C; Hamel, E

    2016-10-05

    Brain imaging techniques that use vascular signals to map changes in neuronal activity, such as blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging, rely on the spatial and temporal coupling between changes in neurophysiology and haemodynamics, known as 'neurovascular coupling (NVC)'. Accordingly, NVC responses, mapped by changes in brain haemodynamics, have been validated for different stimuli under physiological conditions. In the cerebral cortex, the networks of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons generating the changes in neural activity and the key mediators that signal to the vascular unit have been identified for some incoming afferent pathways. The neural circuits recruited by whisker glutamatergic-, basal forebrain cholinergic- or locus coeruleus noradrenergic pathway stimulation were found to be highly specific and discriminative, particularly when comparing the two modulatory systems to the sensory response. However, it is largely unknown whether or not NVC is still reliable when brain states are altered or in disease conditions. This lack of knowledge is surprising since brain imaging is broadly used in humans and, ultimately, in conditions that deviate from baseline brain function. Using the whisker-to-barrel pathway as a model of NVC, we can interrogate the reliability of NVC under enhanced cholinergic or noradrenergic modulation of cortical circuits that alters brain states.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  2. Oxidative metabolism of cocaine: comparison of brain and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benuck, M; Reith, M E; Sershen, H; Wiener, H L; Lajtha, A

    1989-01-01

    Norcocaine (NC) and N-hydroxynorcocaine (NHNC), products of the oxidative metabolism of cocaine, were examined in plasma, brain, and liver of mice injected intraperitoneally with cocaine. Plasma levels of NHNC were altered in vivo by inhibiting esterase activity with diazinon and chloral hydrate or activating esterase activity with phenobarbital, and activating the microsomal P-450 system with phenobarbital. Changes in plasma concentrations of NHNC resulted in similar changes in brain, which were often different from those in liver. After intracisternal administration of cocaine to mice, no appreciable amount of NC or NHNC could be detected in brain; the same results were obtained upon intracisternal and intraventricular administration to rats. Microsomal preparations from mouse brain were found to be considerably less active than those from liver in converting NC to NHNC. We conclude that the cerebral oxidative metabolism of cocaine is not appreciable and that most of the NC and NHNC found in the brain after systemic cocaine administration is derived from plasma rather than formed centrally by brain microsomal enzymes.

  3. Normalization in PET group comparison studies - The importance of a valid reference region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Jonsdottir, Kristjana Yr; Cumming, Paul;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism, the large interindividual variation commonly is minimized by normalization to the global mean prior to statistical analysis. This approach requires that no between-group or between-state diffe......INTRODUCTION: In positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism, the large interindividual variation commonly is minimized by normalization to the global mean prior to statistical analysis. This approach requires that no between-group or between......-state differences exist in the normalization region. Given the variability typical of global CBF and the practical limit on sample size, small group differences in global mean easily elude detection, but still bias the comparison, with profound consequences for the physiological interpretation of the results....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative [15O]H2O PET recordings of CBF were obtained in 45 healthy subjects (21-81 years) and 14 patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). With volume-of-interest (VOI) and voxel-based statistics, we conducted regression analyses of CBF as function of age in the healthy group...

  4. Age Sensitivity of Behavioral Tests and Brain Substrates of Normal Aging in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kennard, John A.; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of age sensitivity, the capacity of a behavioral test to reliably detect age-related changes, has utility in the design of experiments to elucidate processes of normal aging. We review the application of these tests in studies of normal aging and compare and contrast the age sensitivity of the Barnes maze, eyeblink classical conditioning, fear conditioning, Morris water maze, and rotorod. These tests have all been implemented to assess normal age-related changes in learning and memo...

  5. Normal cerebral perfusion of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. Evaluation by an anatomical standardization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Masamichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Ito, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Development, Aging and Cancer] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Single photon labeled tracer {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) has been used for rCBF studies by SPECT. However, normal perfusion pattern of this agent still remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate normal {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT image voxel by voxel. Eighteen male subjects without any prior or present history of medical illness participated in this study. All SPECT images were globally normalized to 100 count/voxel. Each subject had an X-ray CT scan at the same day of SPECT measurement. All subjects had normal X-ray CT scans. The standard anatomical structures of the computerized brain atlas of Roland et al. were fitted to X-ray CT images of a subject by linear and non-linear parameters. These parameters were subsequently used to transform SPECT images of the subject. After the anatomical standardization, mean and SD images of eight standardized images were calculated voxel-by-voxel basis. In the mean image, following structures showed relatively higher radioactivity; the putamen, the cerebellum, and the frontal lobe. In addition, the occipital lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and the putamen showed large degree of SD. Anatomical standardization of SPECT images may be useful as a reference to diagnose and evaluate various brain disorders. (author).

  6. Channels of the corpus callosum. Evidence from simple reaction times to lateralized flashes in the normal and the split brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboni, M; Zaidel, E

    1995-06-01

    We studied 75 normal subjects and three commissurotomized patients using unimanual simple reaction times to lateralized flashes as a behavioural estimate of interhemispheric transmission time. Three different versions of the paradigm were performed: (i) the basic task; (ii) a motor task, with an increased complexity of the motor response; and (iii) a visual task, with an increased complexity of the visual stimulus presentation. We tested two hypotheses. First, that the new versions of the simple reaction time task result in shifts in hemispheric specialization for processing motor output (indicated by a main effect of response hand) or visual input (indicated by a main effect of visual field) alone, without affecting callosal transmission. In that case normals and split brain patients would show no significant task by response hand by visual field interaction and no significant task by crossed-uncrossed difference interaction. Secondly, that the new versions of the task affect callosal transfer. In that case, normals, but not split brain patients, would show a significant task by response hand by visual field interaction and a significant task by crossed-uncrossed difference interaction. Results are consistent with the latter hypothesis, showing that the motor task significantly changed the response hand by visual field interaction and the crossed-uncrossed difference, but only in normal subjects, perhaps producing a switch in the callosal channel subserving the interhemispheric transfer.

  7. Laminar distribution of synaptopodin in normal and reeler mouse brain depends on the position of spine-bearing neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, Thomas; Haas, Carola A; Deissenrieder, Kathrin; Del Turco, Domenico; Coulin, Carola; Gebhardt, Carl; Drakew, Alexander; Schwarz, Karin; Mundel, Peter; Frotscher, Michael

    2002-11-04

    Synaptopodin is the first member of a novel class of proline-rich actin-associated proteins. In brain, it is present in the neck of a subset of mature telencephalic spines and is associated closely with the spine apparatus, a Ca(2+) storing organelle within the spine compartment. The characteristic region- and lamina-specific distribution of synaptopodin in rat brain suggested that the distribution pattern of synaptopodin depends on the cytoarchitectonic arrangement of spine-bearing neurons. To test this hypothesis, synaptopodin was studied in the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus of normal and reeler mice, in which developmental cell migration defects have disrupted the normal array of cells. In situ hybridization histochemistry as well as light- and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry were used. In brain of normal mice, the pattern of synaptopodin mRNA-expressing cells corresponds to that of spine-bearing neurons and synaptopodin protein is found in a region- and lamina-specific distribution pattern. It is specifically sorted to the spine neck where it is associated closely with the spine apparatus. In brain of reeler mice, the pattern of synaptopodin mRNA-expressing cells corresponds to that of the abnormally positioned spine-bearing neurons and the region- and lamina-specific distribution pattern is absent or altered. Nevertheless, synaptopodin was specifically sorted to the spine neck, as in controls. These data demonstrate that the light microscopic distribution pattern of synaptopodin protein depends on the position and orientation of the spine-bearing neurons. The intracellular sorting process, however, is independent of positional cues.

  8. Apolipoprotein ε4 is associated with lower brain volume in cognitively normal Chinese but not white older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Studying ethnically diverse groups is important for furthering our understanding of biological mechanisms of disease that may vary across human populations. The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 is a well-established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD, and may confer anatomic and functional effects years before clinical signs of cognitive decline are observed. The allele frequency of APOE ε4 varies both across and within populations, and the size of the effect it confers for dementia risk may be affected by other factors. Our objective was to investigate the role APOE ε4 plays in moderating brain volume in cognitively normal Chinese older adults, compared to older white Americans. We hypothesized that carrying APOE ε4 would be associated with reduced brain volume and that the magnitude of this effect would be different between ethnic groups. We performed whole brain analysis of structural MRIs from Chinese living in America (n = 41 and Shanghai (n = 30 and compared them to white Americans (n = 71. We found a significant interaction effect of carrying APOE ε4 and being Chinese. The APOE ε4xChinese interaction was associated with lower volume in bilateral cuneus and left middle frontal gyrus (Puncorrected<0.001, with suggestive findings in right entorhinal cortex and left hippocampus (Puncorrected<0.01, all regions that are associated with neurodegeneration in AD. After correction for multiple testing, the left cuneus remained significantly associated with the interaction effect (PFWE = 0.05. Our study suggests there is a differential effect of APOE ε4 on brain volume in Chinese versus white cognitively normal elderly adults. This represents a novel finding that, if verified in larger studies, has implications for how biological, environmental and/or lifestyle factors may modify APOE ε4 effects on the brain in diverse populations.

  9. Hypertonic 3% Saline in Comparison with 0.9% (Normal Saline in Treatment of Acute Bronchiolitis

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    Abdul-karem Jasem Mohammed Al-bahadily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBronchiolitis is the commonest cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infant. Respiratory syncytial virus is the commonest cause of bronchiolitis. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline and salbutamol in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in comparison with nebulized 0.9% saline and salbutamol.Materials and MethodsA prospective case second multicenter study was done at two pediatric tertiary centers at the period from 1st of December 2014 to 31 of March 2015. A total of 100 previously well infant and children of age 1-24 months with clinical diagnoses of bronchiolitis who were admitted to the hospital were included. They were divided into two groups, the study group received 4 ml of nebulized hypertonic 3% saline (for 14 days, and second group received 4 ml of nebulized normal 0.9% saline (for 14 days, each co-administer with 0.5 ml salbutamol.ResultsAll patients with acute bronchiolitis having similar baseline characteristic, mean age 4.9 + Standard deviation (SD months, male gender constitutes 68% of the patients and the majority (67% of the cases were below 6 months. The mean of clinical severity score at admission was 6.4 for normal saline (NS group and 6.6 for hypertonic 3% saline (HS group. The mean length of hospital stay of normal saline group = 4.3 + Standard deviation (SD day and for hypertonic saline group was = 4.7 + Standard deviation (SD day.ConclusionWe didn’t find any advantage of hypertonic 3% saline over 0.9% normal saline in terms of length of hospital stay and clinical severity score.

  10. Acidity and Acid-Sensing Ion Channels in the Normal and Alzheimer's Disease Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Eric B; Sumien, Nathalie

    2017-02-15

    Alzheimer's disease prevalence has reached epidemic proportion with very few treatment options, which are associated with a multitude of side effects. A potential avenue of research for new therapies are protons, and their associated receptor: acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC). Protons are often overlooked neurotransmitters, and proton-gated currents have been identified in the brain. Furthermore, ASICs have been determined to be crucial for proper brain function. While there is more work to be done, this review is intended to highlight protons as neurotransmitters and their role along with the role of ASICs within physiological functioning of the brain. We will also cover the pathophysiological associations between ASICs and modulators of ASICs. Finally, this review will sum up how the studies of protons, ASICs and their modulators may generate new therapeutic molecules for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Co-localization of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and wild-type huntingtin in normal and quinolinic acid-lesioned rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Francesca R; Zuccato, Chiara; Tartari, Marzia; Martorana, Alessandro; De March, Zena; Giampà, Carmela; Cattaneo, Elena; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2003-09-01

    Loss of huntingtin-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene transcription has been described in Huntington's disease (HD) [Zuccato et al. (2001) Science, 293, 493-498]. It has been shown that BDNF is synthesized in the pyramidal layer of cerebral cortex and released in the striatum [Altar et al. (1997) Nature, 389, 856-860; Conner et al. (1997) J. Neurosci., 17, 2295-2313]. Here we show the cellular localization of BDNF in huntingtin-containing neurons in normal rat brain; our double-label immunofluorescence study shows that huntingtin and BDNF are co-contained in approximately 99% of pyramidal neurons of motor cortex. In the striatum, huntingtin is expressed in 75% of neurons containing BDNF. In normal striatum we also show that BDNF is contained in cholinergic and in NOS-containing interneurons, which are relatively resistant to HD degeneration. Furthermore, we show a reduction in huntingtin and in BDNF immunoreactivity in cortical neurons after striatal excitotoxic lesion. Our data are confirmed by an ELISA study of BDNF and by a Western blot analysis of huntingtin in cortex of quinolic acid (QUIN)-lesioned hemispheres. In the lesioned striatum we describe that the striatal subpopulation of cholinergic neurons, surviving degeneration, contain BDNF. The finding that BDNF is contained in nearly all neurons that contain huntingtin in the normal cortex, along with the reduced expression of BDNF after QUIN injection of the striatum, shows that huntingtin may be required for BDNF production in cortex.

  12. A comparison with result of normalized image to different template image on statistical parametric mapping of ADHD children patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong Ho [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Joh, Chol Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Medical College, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    We studied 64 ADHD children patients group (4 {approx} 15 ys, mean age: 8 {+-} 2.6 ys. M/F: 52/12) and 12 normal group (6 {approx} 7 ys, mean age: 9.4 {+-} 3.4 ys, M/F: 8/4) of the brain had been used to analysis of blood flow between normal and ADHD group. For analysis of Children ADHD, we used 12 children's mean brain images and made Template image of SPM99 program. In crease of blood flow (P-value 0.05), the result of normalized images to Template image to offer from SPM99 program, showed significant cluster in inter-Hemispheric and occipital Lobe, in the case of normalized images to children template image, showed inter-hemispheric and parietal lobe.

  13. Identification of valid reference genes for the normalization of RT qPCR gene expression data in human brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Rivka

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of gene expression in post mortem human brain can contribute to understanding of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT qPCR is often used to analyse gene expression. The validity of results obtained using RT qPCR is reliant on accurate data normalization. Reference genes are generally used to normalize RT qPCR data. Given that expression of some commonly used reference genes is altered in certain conditions, this study aimed to establish which reference genes were stably expressed in post mortem brain tissue from individuals with AD, PD or DLB. Results The present study investigated the expression stability of 8 candidate reference genes, (ubiquitin C [UBC], tyrosine-3-monooxygenase [YWHAZ], RNA polymerase II polypeptide [RP II], hydroxymethylbilane synthase [HMBS], TATA box binding protein [TBP], β-2-microglobulin [B2M], glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], and succinate dehydrogenase complex-subunit A, [SDHA] in cerebellum and medial temporal gyrus of 6 AD, 6 PD, 6 DLB subjects, along with 5 matched controls using RT qPCR (TaqMan® Gene Expression Assays. Gene expression stability was analysed using geNorm to rank the candidate genes in order of decreasing stability in each disease group. The optimal number of genes recommended for accurate data normalization in each disease state was determined by pairwise variation analysis. Conclusion This study identified validated sets of mRNAs which would be appropriate for the normalization of RT qPCR data when studying gene expression in brain tissue of AD, PD, DLB and control subjects.

  14. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  15. Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

  16. Repeated verum but not placebo acupuncture normalizes connectivity in brain regions dysregulated in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Natalia; Gollub, Randy L; Kong, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture, an ancient East Asian therapy, is aimed at rectifying the imbalance within the body caused by disease. Studies evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture with neuroimaging tend to concentrate on brain regions within the pain matrix, associated with acute pain. We, however, focused on the effect of repeated acupuncture treatment specifically on brain regions known to support functions dysregulated in chronic pain disorders. Transition to chronic pain is associated with increased attention to pain, emotional rumination, nociceptive memory and avoidance learning, resulting in brain connectivity changes, specifically affecting the periaqueductal gray (PAG), medial frontal cortex (MFC) and bilateral hippocampus (Hpc). We demonstrate that the PAG-MFC and PAG-Hpc connectivity in patients with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis indeed correlates with clinical severity scores and further show that verum acupuncture-induced improvement in pain scores (compared to sham) is related to the modulation of PAG-MFC and PAG-Hpc connectivity in the predicted direction. This study shows that repeated verum acupuncture might act by restoring the balance in the connectivity of the key pain brain regions, altering pain-related attention and memory.

  17. Landmark-based morphometrics of the normal adult brain using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, S L; O'Higgins, P; Maudgil, D D; Dryden, I L; Lemieux, L; Fish, D R; Shorvon, S D

    2001-05-01

    We describe the application of statistical shape analysis to homologous landmarks on the cortical surface of the adult human brain. Statistical shape analysis has a sound theoretical basis. Landmarks are identified on the surface of a 3-D reconstruction of the segmented cortical surface from magnetic resonance image (MRI) data. Using publicly available software (morphologika) the location and size dependence of the landmarks are removed and the differences in landmark distribution across subjects are analysed using principal component analysis. These differences, representing shape differences between subjects, can be visually assessed using wireframe models and transformation grids. The MRI data of 58 adult brains (27 female and 15 left handed) were examined. Shape differences in the whole brain are described which concern the relative orientation of frontal lobe sulci. Analysis of all 116 hemispheres revealed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) between left and right hemispheres. This finding was significant for right- but not left-handed subjects alone. No other significant age, gender, handedness, or brain-size correlations with shape differences were found.

  18. Repeated verum but not placebo acupuncture normalizes connectivity in brain regions dysregulated in chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Egorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture, an ancient East Asian therapy, is aimed at rectifying the imbalance within the body caused by disease. Studies evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture with neuroimaging tend to concentrate on brain regions within the pain matrix, associated with acute pain. We, however, focused on the effect of repeated acupuncture treatment specifically on brain regions known to support functions dysregulated in chronic pain disorders. Transition to chronic pain is associated with increased attention to pain, emotional rumination, nociceptive memory and avoidance learning, resulting in brain connectivity changes, specifically affecting the periaqueductal gray (PAG, medial frontal cortex (MFC and bilateral hippocampus (Hpc. We demonstrate that the PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in patients with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis indeed correlates with clinical severity scores and further show that verum acupuncture-induced improvement in pain scores (compared to sham is related to the modulation of PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in the predicted direction. This study shows that repeated verum acupuncture might act by restoring the balance in the connectivity of the key pain brain regions, altering pain-related attention and memory.

  19. Topographical Distribution of Arsenic, Manganese, and Selenium in the Normal Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Agersnap; Pakkenberg, H.; Damsgaard, Else;

    1979-01-01

    activation analysis with radiochemical separation. Distinct patterns of distribution were shown for each of the 3 elements. Variations between individuals were found for some but not all brain areas, resulting in coefficients of variation between individuals of about 30% for arsenic, 10% for manganese and 20...

  20. Dosimetric comparison of Helical Tomotherapy and Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for single brain metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linskey Mark E

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helical Tomotherapy (HT integrates linear accelerator and computerized tomography (CT technology to deliver IMRT. Targets are localized (i.e. outlined as gross tumor volume [GTV] and planning target volume [PTV] on the planning kVCT study while daily MVCT is used for correction of patient's set-up and assessment of inter-fraction anatomy changes. Based on dosimetric comparisons, this study aims to find dosimetric equivalency between single fraction HT and Gamma Knife® stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS for the treatment of single brain metastasis. Methods The targeting MRI data set from the GKSRS were used for tomotherapy planning. Five patients with single brain metastasis treated with GKSRS were re-planned in the HT planning station using the same prescribed doses. There was no expansion of the GTV to create the PTV. Sub-volumes were created within the PTV and prescribed to the maximum dose seen in the GKSRS plans to imitate the hot spot normally seen in GKSRS. The PTV objective was set as a region at risk in HT planning using the same prescribed dose to the PTV periphery as seen in the corresponding GKSRS plan. The tumor volumes ranged from 437–1840 mm3. Results Conformality indices are inconsistent between HT and GKSRS. HT generally shows larger lower isodose line volumes, has longer treatment time than GKSRS and can treat a much larger lesion than GKSRS. Both HT and GKSRS single fraction dose-volume toxicity may be prohibitive in treating single or multiple lesions depending on the number and the sizes of the lesions. Conclusion Based on the trend for larger lower dose volumes and more constricted higher dose volumes in HT as compared to GKSRS, dosimetric equivalency was not reached between HT and GKSRS.

  1. Comparison between Humphrey Field Analyzer and Micro Perimeter 1 in normal and glaucoma subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Ratra

    2012-01-01

    Results: The mean light thresholds of 21 matching points in control group with MP1 and HFA were 14.97 ± 2.64 dB and 30.90 ± 2.08 dB, respectively. In subjects with glaucoma, the mean values were MP1: 11.73 ± 4.36 dB and HFA: 27.96 ± 5.41 dB. Mean difference of light thresholds among the two instruments was 15.86 ± 3.25 dB in normal subjects (P < 0.001 and 16.22 ± 2.77 dB in glaucoma subjects (P < 0.001. Pearson correlation analysis of the HFA and MP1 results for each test point location in both cases and control subjects showed significant positive correlation (controls, r = 0.439, P = 0.047; glaucoma subjects, r = 0.812, P < 0.001. There was no difference between nasal and temporal points but a slight vertical asymmetry was observed with MP1. Conclusion: There are significant and reproducible differences in the differential light threshold in MP1 and HFA in both normal and glaucoma subjects. We found a correction factor of 17.271 for comparison of MP1 with HFA. MP1 appeared to be more sensitive in predicting loss in glaucoma.

  2. Comparison of intonation production in cochlear-implanted children and normal hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Nourbakhsh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Due to defects of auditory feedback, children with hearing loss have inappropriate speech intonation. Consistently, results of previous studies have shown that cochlear-implanted children have some difficulties in their intonation. Intonation shows the type of the sentence which can be statement or question sentences. The purpose of this study was comparison of speech intonation in cochlear-implanted children and normal hearing children.Methods: The present study was performed on 25 cochlear-implanted children and 50 normal hearing children. Different pictures were shown to the subjects and they said statement and question sentences. All sentences were heard by eight speech therapists and perceptually judged. Using praat software mean base frequency and pitch alterations were measured.Results: In cochlear-implanted group, mean speech base frequency was higher and mean pitch alteration was lower than the control group. Mean experts' scores in cochlear-implanted group were lower than the control group. Differences in all three variables were statistically significant (p<0.05. There was a significant direct correlation between duration of time that the children had cochlear implant and perceptual judgment scores (p<0.05.Conclusion: According to the results, cochlear implant prosthesis has limited efficacy in improving speech intonation; although their ability to produce speech intonation improves by increasing duration of the time that children have cochlear implant. Thus speech therapists should consider intervening on speech intonation in treatment program of cochlear-implanted children.

  3. Stereological Analysis of Human Placenta in Cases of Placenta Previa in Comparison with Normally Implanted Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Sakhavar, Nahid; Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, Hamidreza; Ezazi-Bojnourdi, Tahmine

    2015-01-01

    Background Placenta previa (PP) is an obstetric complication that can affect maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence is rising due to cesarean sections. There is no quantitative data of placenta in PP. In this study, quantitative parameters of placenta in cases with PP in comparison with normally implanted controls were investigated. Methods In this quasi experimental study, placentas from pregnancies with PP and normally implanted controls (n = 10) were obtained from women who underwent cesarean section. Three full-thickness columns of each placenta were sampled using systematic uniform random sampling (SURS). Columns were cut into slices and slices were sectioned with 4 µm thickness. SURS selected sections were stained by Masson's trichrome. Stereological analysis was done on 8-10 SURS microscopic fields of each section. Absolute volume and volume density of chorionic villi, intervillous space, syncytiotrophoblast, fibrin and blood vessels in chorionic villi were estimated in both groups. Statistical analysis was done using Mann Whitney-U test and significant level was set at p placenta. These changes probably can be influential on the evolution and survival of fetus. PMID:25927025

  4. Comparison of Voice Perceptual Charactheristics between Speech - Language Pathologists', Dysphonic and Normal Voiced Adult's View

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    Seyyedeh Maryam khoddami

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In recent years, several tools for assessment of quality of patient life have been designed especially for dysphonics. Nowadays, we have useful assessments in health system that are refered for numerous clinical decisions. In this way, this investigation compares clinician and patient perception in dysphonic and normal voiced for first time.Methods: This study was carried out on 30 dysphonic and 30 subjects with normal voice. Their age, sex and job were same. In two groups, Consensus Auditory – Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V was used for evaluation of clinician perception and Voice Handicap Index - 30 (VHI-30 for assessment of patient perception. After collecting data, they were analyzed by Mann- witney and Wilcoxon tests.Results: The research revealed that mean of total and each section score of VHI-30 have significant difference between dysphonic and control group (p<0.01. Comparison of total and every parameter score of CAPE-V and speed also indicated significant difference between two groups (p<0.01. Study of reliability shows weak reliability (r=0.34 between clinician and patient perception of voice in dysphonics.Conclusion: Dysphonic patients percept their voice problem different and severe rather than clinicians that shows physical, psychological and social affects of dysphonia. This research confirms that patient – based assessment of voice is necessary to be part of common assessments of dysphonia.

  5. Characteristics of the aberrant pyramidal tract in comparison with the pyramidal tract in the human brain

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    Kwon Yong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aberrant pyramidal tract (APT refers to the collateral pathway of the pyramidal tract (PT through the medial lemniscus in the midbrain and pons. Using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT, we investigated the characteristics of the APT in comparison with the PT in the normal human brain. Results In thirty-four (18.3%, right hemisphere: 20, left hemisphere: 14 of the 186 hemispheres, the APTs separated from the PT at the upper midbrain level, descended through the medial lemniscus from the midbrain to the pons, and then rejoined with the PT at the upper medulla. Nine (26.5% of the 34 APTs were found to originate from the primary somatosensory cortex without a primary motor cortex origin. Values of fractional anisotropy (FA and tract volume of the APT were lower than those of the PT (P P >0.05. Conclusion We found that the APT has different characteristics, including less directionality, fewer neural fibers, and less origin from the primary motor cortex than the PT.

  6. The INIA19 template and NeuroMaps atlas for primate brain image parcellation and spatial normalization

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    Torsten eRohlfing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The INIA19 is a new, high-quality template for imaging-based studies of non-human primate brains created from high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR images of 19 rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta animals. Combined with the comprehensive cortical and subcortical label map of the NeuroMaps atlas, the INIA19 is equally suitable for studies requiring both spatial normalization and atlas label propagation. Population-averaged template images are provided for both the brain and the whole head, to allow alignment of the atlas with both skull-stripped and unstripped data, and thus to facilitate its use for skull stripping of new images. This article describes the construction of the template using freely-available software tools, as well as the template itself, which is being made available to the scientific community (http://nitrc.org/projects/inia19/.

  7. Tip and Torque Angle of Permanent Teeth: A Comparison Between Treated Patients and Normal Group

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    A.F. Miresmaeili

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The angle of long axis of tooth crown is called tip in mesiodostal and torque in faciolingual direction. Both have special importance for producing an ideal occlusion. The aim of the present study was determination of the average tip and torque of each permanent tooth in well treated patients with edgewise system compare to control group with normal occlusion. In this study, 19 well treated cases through standard edgewise technique with non extraction strategy and 20 students of pre-university schools with normal occlusion according to IOTN were selected. Reference points and lines were marked on facial surface of each tooth on casts. Special device was designed for measuring the faciolingual and mesiodistal inclination of crowns. After 3 times measuring the tip and torque of teeth, student t-test and Kruskal – Wallis analysis were used for statistical analysis.The mean age of control group was 18.8 ± 0.5 year and in treated group was 20.3 ± 0.8. There was significant difference between mean of torque in control group and treated group for upper lateral incisor (4.75±5.21 , 8.76±5.82 respectively , p<0.03 . Also a significant difference was seen in average torque of lower second premolar between control group and treated one ( -23.48±5.99 , -26.66±4.64 respectively , p<0.05. There were no significant differences in tip of teeth between two groups. In comparison with Andrews study, in normal occlusion group, upper canine & first molar and lower lateral & first premolar had more buccal root torque. Except the torque of upper lateral incisor and lower 2nd premolar, torque and tip of other teeth had no significant difference.

  8. Serial Post-mortem Relaxometry in the Normal Rat Brain and Following Stroke

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    Fagan, Andrew J.; Mullin, JM; Gallagher, L; Hadley, DM; Macrae, IM; Condon, B

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED Purpose: Investigation of MRI for non-invasive autopsy via measurements of serial changes in relaxation parameters of the rat brain during the post-mortem interval. Materials and Methods: Post-mortem relaxometry measurements were performed before and hourly after death for 24 hours on five control rats and five rats which underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Analyses were performed on representative regions of grey, white, and mixed grey/white matter structures. ...

  9. Theory of mind associations with other cognitive functions and brain imaging in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Rebecca A; Barrick, Thomas R; Markus, Hugh S; Morris, Robin G

    2009-06-01

    The study investigated age-related differences in theory of mind and explored the relationship between this ability, other cognitive abilities, and structural brain measures. A cohort of 106 adults (ages 50-90 years) was recruited. Participants completed tests of theory of mind, verbal and performance intelligence, executive function, and information processing speed and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (measurement of whole brain volume, volume of white matter hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging of white matter integrity). Theory of mind ability declined with increasing age, and the relationship between theory of mind and age was fully mediated by performance intelligence, executive function, and information processing speed and was partially mediated by verbal intelligence. Theory of mind performance correlated significantly with diffusion tensor imaging measures of white matter integrity but not with volume of white matter hyperintensities or whole-brain volume. Theory of mind age-related decline may not be independent of other cognitive functions; it may also be particularly susceptible to changes in white matter integrity. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. A clinical comparison of penetrating and blunt traumatic brain injuries.

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    Santiago, Luis A; Oh, Bryan C; Dash, Pramod K; Holcomb, John B; Wade, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of injury death and long-term disability in the USA. It commonly results from blunt (closed) or penetrating trauma. The majority of civilian TBI is caused by falls or motor vehicle collisions, whereas military TBI mainly results from explosions. Although penetrating injuries are less common than closed injuries in the civilian population, they are far more lethal. Unfortunately, the pathophysiologic differences between penetrating and closed TBI remain poorly understood due to the lack of studies on the subject. Many studies on the prognostic factors of mortality and functional outcome after TBI exclude penetrating brain injuries from their series because they are believed to have a different pathophysiology. 125 Articles regarding brain injury were reviewed and summarized for this report. Despite the absence of a clear delineation between penetrating and blunt TBI, the current guidelines for penetrating TBI suggest defaulting to management strategies used for closed TBI with limited supportive evidence. Thus, injuries that appear to have different pathophysiologies and outcomes are managed equally and perhaps not optimally. In view of the incomplete understanding of the impact of mechanism of injury on TBI outcomes, as demonstrated in the current review, new research studies are required to improve evidence-based TBI guidelines tailored especially for penetrating injuries.

  11. Comparison of foetomaternal circulation in normal pregnancies and pregnancy induced hypertension using color Doppler studies.

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    Gupta, Shikha; Misra, R; Ghosh, U K; Gupta, V; Srivastava, D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to assess fetomaternal blood flows in normal and abnormal pregnancies using color Doppler indices. Subjects were divided into two groups as: Group A of 25 subjects of normal pregnancy as controls and group B of 25 subjects of pregnancy induced hypertension. All the subjects were lying in the age-group of 25-35 years and having 28 to 34 weeks of gestation; the patients were evaluated by detailed history and were subjected to complete general examination. Blood pressure was taken on two occasions at least 6 hours apart. Systemic examination and obstetrical examination was done in all subjects. All cases were subjected to pathological tests- Haemogram, Test for proteins in urine. Ultrasound assessment of fetal growth was done by measuring BPD (Biparietal diameter), HC (Head circumference), FL (Femur length) and AC (Abdominal circumference): Average gestational age and effective fetal weight was then calculated by ultrasound machine. Color Doppler was used to assess the various Doppler indices indices: Pulsatility index (PI), Resistive index (RI) and Systolic diastolic ratio (S/D ratio) in bilateral uterine, umbilical and middle cerebral arteries and compared to the standard normograms. Percentage of subjects having abnormal Doppler indices were calculated. Assessment of percentage of SGA (small for gestational age) fetuses was done in all the three groups. Decline in mean values of all Doppler indices was found with advancing gestational age in normal pregnancy suggesting decreased vascular resistance and increased blood flow in fetomaternal circulation. In pregnancy induced hypertensives, the mean values of Doppler indices showed a decline as in normal pregnancy but showed an increase (more than 2 S.D. of the mean) for that gestational age in comparison to the control group suggesting increased impedance to blood flow in uteroplacental and fetomaternal circulation. Umbilical artery Doppler indices were found to be the most sensitive

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- gamma expression in human malignant and normal brain, breast and prostate-derived cells.

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    Nwankwo, J O; Robbins, M E

    2001-01-01

    The constitutive and gamma -linolenic acid (GLA)-induced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) immunoreactive protein in a panel of human malignant brain (U87MG, T98G); breast (MCF-7, MB MDA-231, MB MDA 435) and prostate (ALVA, DU-145, LNCaP, PC3) cell lines have been compared with those for their normal cell counterparts, the human normal astrocyte (NHA), mammary epithelial (HMEC) and prostate epithelial (PrEC) cells, respectively. Constitutive levels of expression for PPAR gamma protein were significantly higher in the malignant cell lines relative to their normal cells. GLA supplementation did not affect the protein expression in malignant cells but caused 6- and 3-fold increases in normal breast and prostate cells, respectively. Since activation of PPAR gamma protein in some human malignant cell lines has been demonstrated to induce tumour cell death, these findings signal the need to exploit the significantly elevated expression of this protein in the therapy of human cancer. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  13. Functional brain response to food images in successful adolescent weight losers compared with normal-weight and overweight controls.

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    Jensen, Chad D; Kirwan, C Brock

    2015-03-01

    Research conducted with adults suggests that successful weight losers demonstrate greater activation in brain regions associated with executive control in response to viewing high-energy foods. No previous studies have examined these associations in adolescents. Functional neuroimaging was used to assess brain response to food images among groups of overweight (OW), normal-weight (NW), and successful weight-losing (SWL) adolescents. Eleven SWL, 12 NW, and 11 OW participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing images of high- and low-energy foods. When viewing high-energy food images, SWLs demonstrated greater activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared with OW and NW controls. Compared with NW and SWL groups, OW individuals demonstrated greater activation in the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate in response to food images. Adolescent SWLs demonstrated greater neural activation in the DLPFC compared with OW/NW controls when viewing high-energy food stimuli, which may indicate enhanced executive control. OW individuals' brain responses to food stimuli may indicate greater reward incentive processes than either SWL or NW groups. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  14. Quantitation of normal metabolite concentrations in six brain regions by in-vivo 1 H-MR spectroscopy

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    Minati Ludovico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the concentrations of brain metabolites visible to in-vivo 1 H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS at 1.5 T in a sample of 28 normal subjects. Quantitation was attempted for inositol compounds, choline units, total creatine and N-acetyl moieties, using open-source software. Six brain regions were considered: frontal and parietal white matter, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, pons and cerebellum. Absolute concentrations were derived using tissue water as an internal reference and using an external reference; metabolite signal intensity ratios with respect to creatine were also calculated. The inter-individual variability was smaller for absolute concentrations (internal reference as compared to that for signal intensity ratios. Significant regional variability in concentration was found for all metabolites, indicating that separate normative values are needed for different brain regions. The values obtained in this study can be used as reference in future studies, provided the same methodology is followed; it is confirmed that despite unsuccessful attempts in the past, smaller coefficients of variation can indeed be obtained through absolute quantification.

  15. Cephalic Index in the First Three Years of Life: Study of Children with Normal Brain Development Based on Computed Tomography

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    Wirginia Likus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cephalic index is a highly useful method for planning surgical procedures, as well as assessing their effectiveness in correcting cranial deformations in children. There are relatively very few studies measuring cephalic index in healthy Caucasian young children. The aim of our study was to develop a classification of current cephalic index for healthy Caucasian children up to 3 years of age with normal brain development, using axial slice computer tomography performed with very thin slices (0.5 mm resulting in more accurate measurements. 180 healthy infants (83 females and 97 males were divided into 5 age categories: 0–3, 4–6, 7–12, 13–24, and 25–36 months. The average value of cephalic index in children up to 3 years of age amounted to 81.45 ± 7.06. The index value in case of children under 3 months was 80.19, 4 to 6 months was 81.45, 7 to 12 months was 83.15, in children under 2 years was 81.05, and in children under 3 years was 79.76. Mesocephaly is the dominating skull shape in children. In this study, we formulated a classification of current cephalic indices of children with normal brain development. Our date appears to be of utmost importance in anthropology, anatomy forensic medicine, and genetics.

  16. Comparison of regional gene expression differences in the brains of the domestic dog and human

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    Kennerly Erin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comparison of the expression profiles of 2,721 genes in the cerebellum, cortex and pituitary gland of three American Staffordshire terriers, one beagle and one fox hound revealed regional expression differences in the brain but failed to reveal marked differences among breeds, or even individual dogs. Approximately 85 per cent (42 of 49 orthologue comparisons of the regional differences in the dog are similar to those that differentiate the analogous human brain regions. A smaller percentage of human differences were replicated in the dog, particularly in the cortex, which may generally be evolving more rapidly than other brain regions in mammals. This study lays the foundation for detailed analysis of the population structure of transcriptional variation as it relates to cognitive and neurological phenotypes in the domestic dog.

  17. Computed tomography of the brain in the diagnosis of and prognosis in normal pressure hydrocephalus

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    Wikkelsoe, C.; Blomstrand, C.; Andersson, H.; Matousek, M.; Svendsen, P.

    1989-05-01

    Thirty-eight patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus were examined by CT before and after a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation. Evans ratio, periventricular hypodensity and width of hemispheric sulci, sylvian fissures, cella media, temporal horns and third and fourth ventricle were examined. Twenty-eight patients improved after the operation while 10 were unchanged (non responders). Those patients who improved had more often enlarged third ventricle, enlarged temporal horns and normal sylvian fissures than those who did not improve. No single CT parameter or combination of CT parameters alone could identify responders and non-responders. The ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation reduced ventricular size (Evans ratio, cella media width), abolished periventricular hypodensity and reduced width of the temporal horns and third ventricle in both responders and non-responders. Reduction of the width of the third ventricle correlated to clinical improvement.

  18. An efficiency comparison of control chart for monitoring process variance: Non-normality case

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    Sangkawanit, R.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are to investigate the relation between upper control limit and parameters of weighted moving variance linear weight control chart (WMVL, weighted moving variance: exponential weight control chart (WMVE , successive difference cumulative sum control chart (Cusum-SD and current sample mean cumulative sum control chart (Cusum-UM and to compare efficiencies of these control charts for monitoring increases in process variance, exponentially distributed data with unit variance and Student's t distributed data with variance 1.071429 (30 degrees of freedom as the in control process. Incontrol average run lengths (ARL0 of 200, 400 and 800 are considered. Out-of-control average run lengths (ARL1 obtained via simulation 10,000 times are used as a criteria.The main results are as follows: the upper control limit of WMVL has a negative relation with moving span while the upper control limit of WMVE has a negative relation with moving span and a positive relation with exponential weight. Both the upper control limits of Cusum-SD and Cusum-UM have a negative relation with reference value in which such relation looks like an exponential curve.The results of efficiency comparisons in case of exponentially distributed data for ARL0 of 200, 400 and 800 turned out to be quite similar. When standard deviation changes less than 50%, Cusum-SD control chart and Cusum-UM control chart have ARL1 less than those of WMVL control chart and WMVE control chart. However, when standard deviation changes more than 50%, WMVL control chart and WMVE control chart have ARL1 less than those of Cusum-SD control chart and Cusum-UM control chart. The results are different from the normally distributed data case, studied by Sparks in 2003. In case of Student's t distributed data for ARL0 of 200 and 400 when process variance shifts by a small amount (less than 50%, Cusum- UM control chart has the lowest ARL1 but when process variance shifts by a large amount

  19. Gain in brain immunity in the oldest-old differentiates cognitively normal from demented individuals.

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    Pavel Katsel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD neuropathological features (neuritic plaques and NFTs are not strongly associated with dementia in extreme old (over 90 years of age and compel a search for neurobiological indices of dementia in this rapidly growing segment of the elderly population. We sought to characterize transcriptional and protein profiles of dementia in the oldest-old. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Gene and protein expression changes relative to non-demented age-matched controls were assessed by two microarray platforms, qPCR and Western blot in different regions of the brains of oldest-old and younger old persons who died at mild or severe stages of dementia. Our results indicate that: i consistent with recent neuropathological findings, gene expression changes associated with cognitive impairment in oldest-old persons are distinct from those in cognitively impaired youngest-old persons; ii transcripts affected in young-old subjects with dementia participate in biological pathways related to synaptic function and neurotransmission while transcripts affected in oldest-old subjects with dementia are associated with immune/inflammatory function; iii upregulation of immune response genes in cognitively intact oldest-old subjects and their subsequent downregulation in dementia suggests a potential protective role of the brain immune-associated system against dementia in the oldest-old; iv consistent with gene expression profiles, protein expression of several selected genes associated with the inflammatory/immune system in inferior temporal cortex is significantly increased in cognitively intact oldest-old persons relative to cognitively intact young-old persons, but impaired in cognitively compromised oldest-old persons relative to cognitively intact oldest-old controls. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that disruption of the robust immune homeostasis that is characteristic of oldest-old individuals who avoided

  20. Comparison of Ejecta Distributions from Normal Incident Hypervelocity Impact on Lunar Regolith Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Cooke, William; Scruggs, Rob; Moser, Danielle E.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is progressing toward long-term lunar habitation. Critical to the design of a lunar habitat is an understanding of the lunar surface environment; of specific importance is the primary meteoroid and subsequent ejecta environment. The document, NASA SP-8013, was developed for the Apollo program and is the latest definition of the ejecta environment. There is concern that NASA SP-8013 may over-estimate the lunar ejecta environment. NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has initiated several tasks to improve the accuracy of our understanding of the lunar surface ejecta environment. This paper reports the results of experiments on projectile impact into powered pumice and unconsolidated JSC-1A Lunar Mare Regolith stimulant (JSC-1A) targets. The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) was used to accelerate projectiles to velocities in excess of 5 km/s and impact the targets at normal incidence. The ejected particles were detected by thin aluminum foil targets placed around the impact site and angular distributions were determined for ejecta. Comparison of ejecta angular distribution with previous works will be presented. A simplistic technique to characterize the ejected particles was formulated and improvements to this technique will be discussed for implementation in future tests.

  1. Comparison of cerebral blood flow pattern by transcranial Doppler in patients with diffuse and focal causes of brain death

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    Alireza Vakilian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to assess the cerebral vessels flow in brain death patients with different causes, including focal and diffuse lesions and comparison of flows according to the underlying causes. Materials and Methods: Two groups of 15 brain-dead patients one with focal and the other with diffuse brain lesions were compared according to their cerebral blood flow pattern 48 h passed brain death certification. Results: Bilateral absence of flow in middle cerebral artery (MCA was found in 54.5% of brain-dead patients with diffuse lesion and 50.33% of those with focal lesions. Systolic spike pattern in MCA flow was found in 46.2% of patients with focal lesion and 16.65% of patients with diffuse lesion. Diastole-systole separation pattern in MCA was seen in 16.65% of patients with the diffuse lesions. This pattern in MCA was not seen in patients with the focal lesion group. In carotid arteries, we did not find the absence of flow in any cases. Thirty percent of all patients in both groups had a normal flow pattern (36.6% of patients with focal lesions and 23.3% of patients with diffuse lesion. Patients with focal lesion had 33.3% systolic spike pattern flow and had 23.35% diastole-systole separation flow pattern. In intra-cranial vessels, systolic spike pattern was more common among patients with focal lesions than patients with diffuse lesion, however, this difference was not statistically significant (46.2% of patients with focal lesion and 16.65% of patients with diffuse lesion (P value = 0.244-0.09. Diastole-systole separation flow was more common in patients with diffuse lesions than those with the focal lesions although this could not reach the significant level as the previous pattern (20% of patients with diffuse lesion versus no case in patients with focal lesion (P value = 0.181. Conclusion: Absence of flow was the most common brain flow pattern in the focal and diffuse group lesions. There was no difference in flow pattern

  2. A 3800 gene microarray for cattle functional genomics: comparison of gene expression in spleen, placenta, and brain.

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    Band, Mark R; Olmstead, Colleen; Everts, Robin E; Liu, Zonglin L; Lewin, Harris A

    2002-05-01

    A cDNA microarray representing approximately 3800 cattle genes was created for functional genomic studies. The array elements were selected from > 7000 cDNA clones identified in a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) project that utilized spleen and normalized and subtracted placenta cDNA libraries. Sequence similarity searches of the 3820 ESTs represented on the array using BLASTN identified 3290 (86.1%) as putative human orthologs, with the remainder consisting of "novel" genes or highly divergent orthologs. Experiments were conducted with a prototype 768 gene microarray created from spleen cDNAs and with the 3800 gene array that included genes from spleen and placenta. The 768 gene array was used to profile RNA transcripts expressed by adult and fetal spleen. The 3800 gene array was used to profile transcripts expressed by adult brain and placenta. Microarray analysis of RNA extracted from fetal and adult spleen identified 29 genes that were differentially expressed two-fold or more. Transcriptional differences of two of these genes, IGJ and CTSS, were confirmed using TaqMan technology. The comparison of brain and placenta revealed 400 genes expressed at higher levels in brain and 72 genes expressed at higher levels in placenta. These results demonstrate the potential power of microarrays for understanding the molecular mechanisms of cattle development, disease resistance, nutrition, fertility and production traits.

  3. Evaluation of MRI and cannabinoid type 1 receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL for spatial normalization of rat brains

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    Kronfeld, Andrea; Müller-Forell, Wibke [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Maus, Stephan; Reuss, Stefan; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Miederer, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.miederer@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Lutz, Beat [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, Mainz 55128 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Five male Sprague Dawley rats were investigated for template construction using MRI and [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 PET for CB1 receptor representation. PET images were reconstructed using the algorithms filtered back-projection, ordered subset expectation maximization in 2D, and maximum a posteriori in 3D. Landmarks were defined on each MR image, and templates were constructed under different settings, i.e., based on different tissue class images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and GM + WM] and regularization forms (“linear elastic energy,” “membrane energy,” and “bending energy”). Registration accuracy for MRI and PET templates was evaluated by means of the distance between landmark coordinates. Results: The best MRI template was constructed based on gray and white matter images and the regularization form linear elastic energy. In this case, most distances between landmark coordinates were <1 mm. Accordingly, MRI-based spatial normalization was most accurate, but results of the PET-based spatial normalization were quite comparable. Conclusions: Image registration using DARTEL provides a standardized and automatic framework for small animal brain data analysis. The authors were able to show that this method works with high reliability and validity. Using DARTEL

  4. Evaluation of auditory brain-stem evoked response in middle: Aged type 2 diabetes mellitus with normal hearing subjects

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    Debadatta Mahallik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is commonly metabolic disorders of carbohydrate in which blood glucose levels are abnormally high due to relative or absolute insulin deficiency. In addition, it is characterized by abnormal metabolism of fat, protein resulting from insulin deficit or insulin action, or both. There are two broad categories of DM are designated as type 1 and type 2. Type 2 diabetes is due to predominantly insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency noninsulin-dependent DM. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than insulin-dependent DM. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess, if there is any abnormality in neural conduction in auditory brain-stem pathway in type 2 DM patients having normal hearing sensitivity when compared to age-matched healthy populations. Materials and Methods: This study included middle - aged 25 subjects having normal hearing with diabetes type 2 mellitus. All were submitted to the full audiological history taking, otological examination, basic audiological evaluation and auditory brain-stem response audiometry which was recorded in both ears, followed by calculation of the absolute latencies of wave I, III and V, as well as interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, I-V. Results: Type 2 DM patients showed significant prolonged absolute latencies of I, III (P = 0.001 and interpeak latencies I-III, III-V and I-V in left ear (P = 0.001 and absolute latencies of I, V (P = 0.001, interpeak latencies III-V was statistically significant in right ear. Conclusions: The prolonged absolute latencies and interpeak latencies suggests abnormal neural firing synchronization or in the transmission in the auditory pathways in normal hearing type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  5. Sustained expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for maintenance of dendritic spines and normal behavior.

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    Vigers, A J; Amin, D S; Talley-Farnham, T; Gorski, J A; Xu, B; Jones, K R

    2012-06-14

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays important roles in the development, maintenance, and plasticity of the mammalian forebrain. These functions include regulation of neuronal maturation and survival, axonal and dendritic arborization, synaptic efficacy, and modulation of complex behaviors including depression and spatial learning. Although analysis of mutant mice has helped establish essential developmental functions for BDNF, its requirement in the adult is less well documented. We have studied late-onset forebrain-specific BDNF knockout (CaMK-BDNF(KO)) mice, in which BDNF is lost primarily from the cortex and hippocampus in early adulthood, well after BDNF expression has begun in these structures. We found that although CaMK-BDNF(KO) mice grew at a normal rate and can survive more than a year, they had smaller brains than wild-type siblings. The CaMK-BDNF(KO) mice had generally normal behavior in tests for ataxia and anxiety, but displayed reduced spatial learning ability in the Morris water task and increased depression in the Porsolt swim test. These behavioral deficits were very similar to those we previously described in an early-onset forebrain-specific BDNF knockout. To identify an anatomical correlate of the abnormal behavior, we quantified dendritic spines in cortical neurons. The spine density of CaMK-BDNF(KO) mice was normal at P35, but by P84, there was a 30% reduction in spine density. The strong similarities we find between early- and late-onset BDNF knockouts suggest that BDNF signaling is required continuously in the CNS for the maintenance of some forebrain circuitry also affected by developmental BDNF depletion.

  6. Brain without anatomy: construction and comparison of fully network-driven structural MRI connectomes.

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    Olga Tymofiyeva

    Full Text Available MRI connectomics methods treat the brain as a network and provide new information about its organization, efficiency, and mechanisms of disruption. The most commonly used method of defining network nodes is to register the brain to a standardized anatomical atlas based on the Brodmann areas. This approach is limited by inter-subject variability and can be especially problematic in the context of brain maturation or neuroplasticity (cerebral reorganization after brain damage. In this study, we combined different image processing and network theory methods and created a novel approach that enables atlas-free construction and connection-wise comparison of diffusion MRI-based brain networks. We illustrated the proposed approach in three age groups: neonates, 6-month-old infants, and adults. First, we explored a data-driven method of determining the optimal number of equal-area nodes based on the assumption that all cortical areas of the brain are connected and, thus, no part of the brain is structurally isolated. Second, to enable a connection-wise comparison, alignment to a "reference brain" was performed in the network domain within each group using a matrix alignment algorithm with simulated annealing. The correlation coefficients after pair-wise network alignment ranged from 0.6102 to 0.6673. To test the method's reproducibility, one subject from the 6-month-old group and one from the adult group were scanned twice, resulting in correlation coefficients of 0.7443 and 0.7037, respectively. While being less than 1 due to parcellation and noise, statistically, these values were significantly higher than inter-subject values. Rotation of the parcellation largely explained the variability. Through the abstraction from anatomy, the developed framework allows for a fully network-driven analysis of structural MRI connectomes and can be applied to subjects at any stage of development and with substantial differences in cortical anatomy.

  7. Protection of normal brain cells from γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis by a mitochondria-targeted triphenyl-phosphonium-nitroxide: a possible utility in glioblastoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhentai; Jiang, Jianfei; Belikova, Natalia A; Stoyanovsky, Detcho A; Kagan, Valerian E; Mintz, Arlan H

    2010-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumor. A strong rationale to identify innovative approaches to treat these tumors is required since treatment failures result in local recurrences and median survivals range from 9 to 12 months. Glioma cells are reported to have less mitochondrial content compared to adjacent normal brain cells. Based on this difference, we suggest a new strategy, utilizing protection of normal brain cells by mitochondria-targeted electron scavengers and antioxidants-nitroxides-thus allowing for the escalation of the radiation doses. In this paper, we report that a conjugate of nitroxide with a hydrophobic cation, triphenyl-phosphonium (TPEY-Tempo), significantly protected brain endothelial cells from γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis while radiosensitizing brain tumor cells. Thus, TPEY-Tempo may be a promising adjunct in the treatment of glioblastoma with the potential to not only prolong survival but also to maintain quality of life and reduce treatment toxicity.

  8. Low risk of late intracranial complications in mild traumatic brain injury patients using oral anticoagulation after an initial normal brain computed tomography scan: education instead of hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonman, G G; Bakker, D P; Jellema, K

    2014-07-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common neurological disorder. Whether oral anticoagulation (OAC) use is a risk factor for secondary deterioration in mTBI patients after a normal computed tomography (CT) scan is unclear. Therefore data were retrospectively collected on patients with mTBI who used OAC to determine the incidence of secondary clinical deterioration after an initial normal head CT scan. This was a retrospective single-centre patient record study. All patients with an mTBI who presented at the emergency department between January 2007 and October 2011 were selected. Inclusion criteria were mTBI and at least 1 week of OAC use resulting in an international normalized radio > 1.1. CT scans were re-evaluated for this study. A total of 211 mTBI patients using OAC and with an initial CT scan without abnormalities were included in the analysis. In five patients a secondary deterioration was found. One patient developed a subdural hematoma after 15 h of clinical observation. The other four patients became symptomatic between 2 and 28 days after trauma. A low risk of secondary deterioration within 24 h in mTBI patients taking OAC with a normal first head CT scan was found. Our study does not support the recommendation of the current guidelines that these patients should be clinically observed for at least 24 h. The fact that in our series the majority of secondary deteriorations occurred between 2 and 28 days after trauma underscores the importance of patient instructions upon discharge from the hospital. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in normal and regenerating olfactory epithelium of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontera, Jimena Laura; Cervino, Ailen Soledad; Jungblut, Lucas David; Paz, Dante Agustín

    2015-03-01

    Olfactory epithelium has the capability to continuously regenerate olfactory receptor neurons throughout life. Adult neurogenesis results from proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells, and consequently, olfactory neuroepithelium offers an excellent opportunity to study neural regeneration and the factors involved in the maintenance and regeneration of all their cell types. We analyzed the expression of BDNF in the olfactory system under normal physiological conditions as well as during a massive regeneration induced by chemical destruction of the olfactory epithelium in Xenopus laevis larvae. We described the expression and presence of BDNF in the olfactory epithelium and bulb. In normal physiological conditions, sustentacular (glial) cells and a few scattered basal (stem) cells express BDNF in the olfactory epithelium as well as the granular cells in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, during massive regeneration, we demonstrated a drastic increase in basal cells expressing BDNF as well as an increase in BDNF in the olfactory bulb and nerve. Together these results suggest an important role of BDNF in the maintenance and regeneration of the olfactory system.

  10. Differential responses of tumors and normal brain to the combined treatment of 2-DG and radiation in glioablastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Venkatesh K; Venkataramana, Neelam K; Dwarakanath, B S; Santhosh, Vani

    2009-09-01

    2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), an inhibitor of glucose transport and glycolysis, enhances radiation damage selectively in tumor cells by modulating damage response pathways resulting in cell death in vitro and local tumor control. Phase I and II clinical trials in patients with malignant glioma have shown excellent tolerance to a combined treatment of orally administered 2-DG and hypofractionated radiotherapy without any acute toxicity and late radiation damage. Phase III efficacy trials are currently at an advanced stage. Re-exploratory surgery performed in 13 patients due to persistent symptoms of elevated ICP and mass effect at different follow-up periods revealed extensive tumor necrosis with well-preserved normal brain tissue adjoining the tumor included in the treatment volume as revealed by a histological examination. These observations are perhaps the first clinical evidences for differential effects of 2-DG on tumors and normal tissues in conformity with earlier in vitro and in vivo studies in normal and tumor-bearing mice.

  11. A Triple Network Connectivity Study of Large-Scale Brain Systems in Cognitively Normal APOE4 Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Li, Qing; Yu, Xinyu; Chen, Kewei; Fleisher, Adam S.; Guo, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jiacai; Reiman, Eric M.; Yao, Li; Li, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The triple network model, consisting of the central executive network (CEN), salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN), has been recently employed to understand dysfunction in core networks across various disorders. Here we used the triple network model to investigate the large-scale brain networks in cognitively normal apolipoprotein e4 (APOE4) carriers who are at risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To explore the functional connectivity for each of the three networks and the effective connectivity among them, we evaluated 17 cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD and at least one copy of the APOE4 allele and compared the findings to those of 12 individuals who did not carry the APOE4 gene or have a family history of AD, using independent component analysis (ICA) and Bayesian network (BN) approach. Our findings indicated altered within-network connectivity that suggests future cognitive decline risk, and preserved between-network connectivity that may support their current preserved cognition in the cognitively normal APOE4 allele carriers. The study provides novel sights into our understanding of the risk factors for AD and their influence on the triple network model of major psychopathology. PMID:27733827

  12. SU-E-J-212: MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessment of Tumor and Normal Brain Tissue Responses of Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma Treated by Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, P; Park, P; Li, H; Zhu, X; Mahajan, A; Grosshans, D [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can measure molecular mobility at the cellular level, quantified by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI may also reveal axonal fiber directional information in the white matter, quantified by the fractional anisotropy (FA). Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is a rare brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. Proton therapy (PT) is increasingly used in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors including JPA. However, the response of both tumors and normal tissues to PT is currently under investigation. We report tumor and normal brain tissue responses for a pediatric case of JPA treated with PT assessed using DTI. Methods: A ten year old male with JPA of the left thalamus received passive scattered PT to a dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in 28 fractions. Post PT, the patient has been followed up in seven years. At each follow up, MRI imaging including DTI was performed to assess response. MR images were registered to the treatment planning CT and the GTV mapped onto each MRI. The GTV contour was then mirrored to the right side of brain through the patient’s middle line to represent normal brain tissue. ADC and FA were measured within the ROIs. Results: Proton therapy can completely spare contra lateral brain while the target volume received full prescribed dose. From a series of MRI ADC images before and after PT at different follow ups, the enhancement corresponding to GTV had nearly disappeared more than 2 years after PT. Both ADC and FA demonstrate that contralateral normal brain tissue were not affect by PT and the tumor volume reverted to normal ADC and FA values. Conclusion: DTI allowed quantitative evaluation of tumor and normal brain tissue responses to PT. Further study in a larger cohort is warranted.

  13. The IMAGEN study: reinforcement-related behaviour in normal brain function and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G; Loth, E; Banaschewski, T; Barbot, A; Barker, G; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Dalley, J W; Flor, H; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Itterman, B; Lathrop, M; Mallik, C; Mann, K; Martinot, J-L; Paus, T; Poline, J-B; Robbins, T W; Rietschel, M; Reed, L; Smolka, M; Spanagel, R; Speiser, C; Stephens, D N; Ströhle, A; Struve, M

    2010-12-01

    A fundamental function of the brain is to evaluate the emotional and motivational significance of stimuli and to adapt behaviour accordingly. The IMAGEN study is the first multicentre genetic-neuroimaging study aimed at identifying the genetic and neurobiological basis of individual variability in impulsivity, reinforcer sensitivity and emotional reactivity, and determining their predictive value for the development of frequent psychiatric disorders. Comprehensive behavioural and neuropsychological characterization, functional and structural neuroimaging and genome-wide association analyses of 2000 14-year-old adolescents are combined with functional genetics in animal and human models. Results will be validated in 1000 adolescents from the Canadian Saguenay Youth Study. The sample will be followed up longitudinally at the age of 16 years to investigate the predictive value of genetics and intermediate phenotypes for the development of frequent psychiatric disorders. This review describes the strategies the IMAGEN consortium used to meet the challenges posed by large-scale multicentre imaging-genomics investigations. We provide detailed methods and Standard Operating Procedures that we hope will be helpful for the design of future studies. These include standardization of the clinical, psychometric and neuroimaging-acquisition protocols, development of a central database for efficient analyses of large multimodal data sets and new analytic approaches to large-scale genetic neuroimaging analyses.

  14. PRUNE is crucial for normal brain development and mutated in microcephaly with neurodevelopmental impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollo, Massimo; Ahmed, Mustafa; Ferrucci, Veronica; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asadzadeh, Fatemeh; Carotenuto, Marianeve; Maroofian, Reza; Al-Amri, Ahmed; Singh, Royana; Scognamiglio, Iolanda; Mojarrad, Majid; Musella, Luca; Duilio, Angela; Di Somma, Angela; Karaca, Ender; Rajab, Anna; Al-Khayat, Aisha; Mohan Mohapatra, Tribhuvan; Eslahi, Atieh; Ashrafzadeh, Farah; Rawlins, Lettie E.; Prasad, Rajniti; Gupta, Rashmi; Kumari, Preeti; Srivastava, Mona; Cozzolino, Flora; Kumar Rai, Sunil; Monti, Maria; Harlalka, Gaurav V.; Simpson, Michael A.; Rich, Philip; Al-Salmi, Fatema; Patton, Michael A.; Chioza, Barry A.; Efthymiou, Stephanie; Granata, Francesca; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Wiethoff, Sarah; Borgione, Eugenia; Scuderi, Carmela; Mankad, Kshitij; Hanna, Michael G.; Pucci, Piero; Houlden, Henry; Lupski, James R.; Crosby, Andrew H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract PRUNE is a member of the DHH (Asp-His-His) phosphoesterase protein superfamily of molecules important for cell motility, and implicated in cancer progression. Here we investigated multiple families from Oman, India, Iran and Italy with individuals affected by a new autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and degenerative disorder in which the cardinal features include primary microcephaly and profound global developmental delay. Our genetic studies identified biallelic mutations of PRUNE1 as responsible. Our functional assays of disease-associated variant alleles revealed impaired microtubule polymerization, as well as cell migration and proliferation properties, of mutant PRUNE. Additionally, our studies also highlight a potential new role for PRUNE during microtubule polymerization, which is essential for the cytoskeletal rearrangements that occur during cellular division and proliferation. Together these studies define PRUNE as a molecule fundamental for normal human cortical development and define cellular and clinical consequences associated with PRUNE mutation. PMID:28334956

  15. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate analysis of stainless steel by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KARKI VIJAY; SARKAR ARNAB; SINGH MANJEET; MAURYA GULAB SINGH; KUMAR ROHIT; RAI AWADHESH KUMAR; AGGARWAL SURESH KUMAR

    2016-06-01

    Analytical performance of six different spectrum normalization techniques, namelyinternal normalization, normalization with total light, normalization with background along with their three-point smoothing methods were studied using LIBS for quantification of Cr, Mn and Ni in stainless steel. Optimization of the number of laser shots per spectrum was carried out to obtain the best analytical results. Internal normalization technique model was used for selecting the bestemission lines having sufficient intensity and spectral purity for Cr, Mn and Ni for comparison of different normalization techniques. For detailed evaluation of these normalization techniques, under optimized experimental conditions, three statistical parameters i.e., standard error of prediction, relative standard deviation and average bias, were compared for these techniques using theselected emission lines. Results show that the internal normalization technique produces the best analytical results followed by total light normalization. The smoothing of the raw spectra reduces the random error and produces better analytical results provided the peak under study has sufficient $(\\ge 7)$ number of pixels.

  16. Using a Normalized Sobolev Norm of the Difference rather than the Difference of Sobolev Norms for Quantitative Surface Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Perlin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript we present a method for the quantitative comparison of two surfaces, applicable to temporal and/or spatial extent in one or two dimensions. Often surface comparisons are simply overlaid graphs of results from different methodologies that are qualitative at best; it is the purpose of this work to facilitate quantitative evaluation. The surfaces can be analytical, numerical, and/or experimental, and the result returned by the method, termed surface similarity parameter or normalized error, has been normalized so that its value lies between zero and one. When the parameter has a value of zero, the surfaces are in perfect agreement, whereas a value of one is indicative of perfect disagreement. To provide insight regarding the magnitude of the parameter, several canonical cases are presented, followed by results from breaking water wave experimental measurements with numerical simulations, and by a comparison of a prescribed, periodic, square-wave surface profile and the subsequent manufactured ...

  17. Plasticity in the development of handedness: evidence from normal development and early asymmetric brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, Daniela; Williams, Joshua; Snapp-Childs, Winona

    2006-09-01

    Previous research revealed that shifting patterns of hand preference in the first year of life are linked to infants' sensory-motor experiences as they learn to sit, creep, and walk. In this report, we examine whether new and different forms of locomotion and sensory-motor experiences similarly contribute to alter patterns of hand preference in early development. We examined the cases of three infants with unique developmental histories. Two infants adopted distinctive forms of locomotion in lieu of typical hands-and-knees crawling. One infant scooted using both hands and legs in a coupled fashion, while the other infant performed an asymmetrical, left-biased belly-crawl using only one arm to drag his body. The third infant suffered damage to his left-brain hemisphere shortly after birth and received intense physical therapy to his right arm as a result of it. We followed all three infants on a weekly basis and tracked changes in their reaching behavior, mode of locomotion, and postural achievements. The two infants with unique locomotor patterns displayed changes in hand preference that reciprocated the arm patterns that they used during locomotion. The infant who coupled his body for scooting began to reach bimanually, while the infant who adopted the left-biased belly-crawl developed a strong unimanual, right-hand, preference. The infant with left-hemisphere damage initially displayed a right-hand preference, then a temporary decline in preferred hand use as he began to cruise and walk, and ultimately resumed a right-hand preference in the 2nd year of life. This data is consistent with previous work showing that the development of hand preference in the 1st year of life is highly malleable and sensitive to a variety of new sensory-motor experiences.

  18. Comparison of numbers of interneurons in three thalamic nuclei of normal and epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavdar, Safiye; Bay, Hüsniye Hacioğlu; Yildiz, Sercan D; Akakin, Dilek; Sirvanci, Serap; Onat, Filiz

    2014-06-01

    The inhibitory sources in the thalamic nuclei are local interneurons and neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus. Studies of models of absence epilepsy have shown that the seizures are associated with an excess of inhibitory neurotransmission in the thalamus. In the present study, we used light-microscopic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunocytochemistry to quantify the interneurons in the lateral geniculate (LGN), ventral posteromedial (VPM), and ventral posterolateral (VPL) thalamic nuclei, and compared the values from normal Wistar rats and genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). We found that in both Wistar rats and GAERS, the proportion of interneurons was significantly higher in the LGN than in the VPM and VPL. In the LGN of Wistar rats, 16.4% of the neurons were interneurons and in the GAERS, the value was 15.1%. In the VPM, the proportion of interneurons was 4.2% in Wistar and 14.9% in GAERS; in the VPL the values were 3.7% for Wistar and 11.1% for the GAERS. There was no significant difference between Wistar rats and the GAERS regarding the counts of interneurons in the LGN, whereas the VPM and VPL showed significantly higher counts in GAERS. Comparison of the mean areas of both relay cells and interneuronal profiles showed no significant differences between Wistar rats and GAERS. These findings show that in the VPL and the VPM there are relatively more GABAergic interneurons in GAERS than in Wistar rats. This may represent a compensatory response of the thalamocortical circuitry to the absence seizures or may be related to the production of absence seizures.

  19. Development of Normalization Factors for Canada and the United States and Comparison with European Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautier, Anne; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Margni, Manuele

    2010-01-01

    showed that normalized profiles are highly dependent on the selected reference due to differences in the industrial and economic activities. To meet practitioners' needs, Canadian normalization factors have been calculated using the characterization factors from LUCAS (Canadian), IMPACT 2002+ (European...

  20. Development and calculation of an energy dependent normal brain tissue neutron RBE for evaluating neutron fields for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollard, J E; Blue, T E; Gupta, N; Gahbauer, R A

    2001-06-01

    In Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of malignant brain tumors, the energy dependence of a clinically relevant Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) for epithermal neutrons, RBE(En), is important in neutron field design. In the first half of this paper, we present the development of an expression for the energy dependent normal-tissue RBE, RBE(En). We then calculate a reasonable estimate for RBE(En) for adult brain tissue. In the second half of the paper, two separate RBE expressions are developed, one for the RBE of the neutrons that interact in tissue via the 14N(n,p)14C reaction, denoted RBE(N), and one for the RBE of the neutrons which interact in tissue via the 1H(n,n')1H reaction, denoted RBE(H). The absorbed-dose-averaged values of these expressions are calculated for the neutron flux spectrum in phantom for the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) epithermal neutron beam. The calculated values, [RBE(norm)N] = 3.4 and [RBE(norm)H] = 3.2, are within 6% of being equal, and support the use of equal values for RBEN and RBE(H) by researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Finally, values of [RBE(norm)N] and [RBE(norm)H], along with the absorbed-dose-averaged RBE for brain, [RBE(norm)b], were calculated as a function of depth along the centerline of an ellipsoidal head phantom using flux spectra calculated for our Accelerator-Based Neutron Source (ABNS). These values remained essentially constant with depth, supporting the use of constant values for RBE, as is done at BNL.

  1. The diversity of GABA(A) receptor subunit distribution in the normal and Huntington's disease human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldvogel, H J; Faull, R L M

    2015-01-01

    GABA(A) receptors are assembled into pentameric receptor complexes from a total of 19 different subunits derived from a variety of different subunit classes (α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ɛ, θ, and π) which surround a central chloride ion channel. GABA(A) receptor complexes are distributed heterogeneously throughout the brain and spinal cord and are activated by the extensive GABAergic inhibitory system. In this chapter, we describe the heterogeneous distribution of six of the most widely distributed subunits (α1, α2, α3, β2,3, and γ2) throughout the human basal ganglia. This review describes the studies we have carried out on the normal and Huntington's disease human basal ganglia using autoradiographic labeling and immunohistochemistry in the human basal ganglia. GABA(A) receptors are known to react to changing conditions in the brain in neurological disorders, especially in Huntington's disease and display a high degree of plasticity which is thought to compensate for loss of function caused by disease. In Huntington's disease, the variable loss of GABAergic medium spiny striatopallidal projection neurons is associated with a loss of GABA(A) receptor subunits in the striosome and/or the matrix compartments of the striatum. By contrast in the globus pallidus, a loss of the GABAergic striatal projection neurons results in a dramatic upregulation of subunits on the large postsynaptic pallidal neurons; this is thought to be a compensatory plastic mechanism resulting from the loss of striatal GABAergic input. Most interestingly, our studies have revealed that the subventricular zone overlying the caudate nucleus contains a variety of proliferating progenitor stem cells that possess a heterogeneity of GABA(A) receptor subunits which may play a role in human brain repair mechanisms. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Breakdown of the normal optic nerve head blood-brain barrier following acute elevation of intraocular pressure in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Anderson, D R

    1980-03-01

    Five hours of elevated intraocular pressure produced evidence of an altered blood-brain barrier at the optic nerve head in 27 of 29 monkey eyes. The change in vascular permeability was documented by fluorescein angiography (18 of 21 eyes), by Evans blue fluorescence microscopy (21 of 23 eyes), or by both methods. Leakage occurred from major blood vessels as well as from microvasculature of the nerve head. In 22 eyes, rapid axonal transport was studied after intravitreal injection of tritiated leucine. In 18 of these 22 eyes, autoradiography demonstrated a local interruption of axonal transport. In 15 eyes examined by all three methods, leakage from microvasculature (as opposed to leakage from the major vessels) was loosely associated with severe and widespread blockade of axonal transport at the lamina cribrosa. Although cause-and-effect relationships are not proved, ischemia may be responsible both for the focal endothelial damage with breakdown of the normal blood-brain barrier and for the local abnormalities of axonal transport.

  3. mTOR and autophagy in normal brain aging and caloric restriction ameliorating age-related cognition deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fengying; Chu, Xiaolei; Yin, Miaomiao; Liu, Xiaolei; Yuan, Hairui; Niu, Yanmei; Fu, Li

    2014-05-01

    Defect of autophagy is common to many neurodegenerative disorders because it serves as a major degradation pathway for the clearance of various aggregate-prone proteins. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which is recognized as the most important negative regulator of autophagy, is also involved in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of mTOR and its dependent autophagy in normal brain during aging remains unknown. Furthermore, caloric restriction (CR) is frequently used as a tool to study mechanisms behind aging and age-associated diseases because CR can prevent age-related diseases and prolong lifespan in several model organisms. Inhibiting mTOR and promoting autophagy activity play roles in aging delayed by CR. However, whether CR can ameliorate age-related cognition deficits by inhibiting mTOR and activate autophagy in hippocampus needs to be further investigated. Here we showed a decline of autophagic degradation in mice hippocampus in correlation with age-dependent cognitive dysfunction, whereas the activity of mTOR and its upstream brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling was decreased with aging. In addition, facilitating the mTOR pathway successfully declines and sustains autophagic degradation with aging in hippocampus by CR treatment and is involved in CR by ameliorating age-related cognitive deficits.

  4. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xiao-Qi [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Sun, Yimeng; Illies, Till; Zeumer, Hermann; Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Kruse, Bernd [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Pediatrics, Hamburg (Germany); Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay. (orig.)

  5. Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Protocol of the Normal Canine Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Krystina L.; Pease, Anthony P.; Ballegeer, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically dynamic susceptibility MRI (DSC-MRI) is routinely performed as a supplement to conventional MRI in human medicine for patients with intracranial neoplasia and cerebrovascular events. There is minimal data on the use of DSC-MRI in veterinary patients and a DSC-MRI protocol in the veterinary patient has not been described. Sixteen normal dogs, 6 years or older were recruited for this study. The sample population included 11 large dogs (>11 kg) and 5 small dogs (11 kg, a useable AIF and perfusion map was generated. One dog less than 11 kg received the same contrast dose and rate. In this patient, the protocol did not generate a useable AIF. The remainder of the dogs less than 11 kg followed a protocol of 0.2 mmol/kg gadolinium-based contrast media at 1.5 ml/s with a 10 ml saline flush at 1.5 ml/s. A useable AIF and perfusion map was generated in the remaining dogs <11 kg using the higher contrast dose and slower rate protocol. This study establishes a contrast dose and administration rate for canine DSC-MRI imaging that is different in dogs greater than 11 kg compared to dogs less than 11 kg. These protocols may be used for future applications to evaluate hemodynamic disturbances in canine intracranial pathology.

  6. Are left fronto-temporal brain areas a prerequisite for normal music-syntactic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammler, Daniela; Koelsch, Stefan; Friederici, Angela D

    2011-06-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies in music cognition research suggest that "language areas" are involved in the processing of musical syntax, but none of these studies clarified whether these areas are a prerequisite for normal syntax processing in music. The present electrophysiological experiment tested whether patients with lesions in Broca's area (N=6) or in the left anterior temporal lobe (N=7) exhibit deficits in the processing of structure in music compared to matched healthy controls (N=13). A chord sequence paradigm was applied, and the amplitude and scalp topography of the Early Right Anterior Negativity (ERAN) was examined, an electrophysiological marker of musical syntax processing that correlates with activity in Broca's area and its right hemisphere homotope. Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) (but not anterior superior temporal gyrus - aSTG) patients with lesions older than 4 years showed an ERAN with abnormal scalp distribution, and subtle behavioural deficits in detecting music-syntactic irregularities. In one IFG patient tested 7 months post-stroke, the ERAN was extinguished and the behavioural performance remained at chance level. These combined results suggest that the left IFG, known to be crucial for syntax processing in language, plays also a functional role in the processing of musical syntax. Hence, the present findings are consistent with the notion that Broca's area supports the processing of syntax in a rather domain-general way.

  7. MR tomography after head and brain trauma: Comparison with CT, EEG and neurological examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewes, W.; Moskopp, D.; Kurthen, M.; Solymosi, L.; Harder, T.; Kersting, G.

    1989-03-01

    56 patients with head and brain trauma and in coma were studied prospectively by means of MRT, CT, EEG and neurological examination. All patients had initial CT and EEG admission. MRT showed that in our patients morphological return to normal was the exception. Patients with head and brain injuries should be examined by MRT during the course of their illness. The use of special sequences, such as gradient-echo sequences for the diagnosis of haemorrhagic contusions, is indicated. CT should be retained for evaluating bone injury and cerebral damage during the acute stage.

  8. Eigenmodes of brain activity: Neural field theory predictions and comparison with experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P A; Zhao, X; Aquino, K M; Griffiths, J D; Sarkar, S; Mehta-Pandejee, Grishma

    2016-11-15

    Neural field theory of the corticothalamic system is applied to predict and analyze the activity eigenmodes of the bihemispheric brain, focusing particularly on their spatial structure. The eigenmodes of a single brain hemisphere are found to be close analogs of spherical harmonics, which are the natural modes of the sphere. Instead of multiple eigenvalues being equal, as in the spherical case, cortical folding splits them to have distinct values. Inclusion of interhemispheric connections between homologous regions via the corpus callosum leads to further splitting that depends on symmetry or antisymmetry of activity between brain hemispheres, and the strength and sign of the interhemispheric connections. Symmetry properties of the lowest observed eigenmodes strongly constrain the interhemispheric connectivity strengths and unihemispheric mode spectra, and it is predicted that most spontaneous brain activity will be symmetric between hemispheres, consistent with observations. Comparison with the eigenmodes of an experimental anatomical connectivity matrix confirms these results, permits the relative strengths of intrahemispheric and interhemispheric connectivities to be approximately inferred from their eigenvalues, and lays the foundation for further experimental tests. The results are consistent with brain activity being in corticothalamic eigenmodes, rather than discrete "networks" and open the way to new approaches to brain analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Comparison of Sugar Components in the Developing Grains of Sweet Corn and Normal Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng; HU Chang-hao; DONG Shu-ting; WANG Kong-jun; ZHANG Ji-wang

    2003-01-01

    The sugar components and their dynamic variation in the developing grains of sweet corn(Zeamays L. seccharata Sturt)and normal corn (Zea mays L. indentata Sturt) were compared. There are WSP(water-soluble polysaccharides), sucrose, fructose, glucose, mannitol and sorbitol in both sweet corn and nor-mal corn, but no maltose. Two components with different degrees of polymerization (D. P. N) were detected inthe sweet corn; only one of them was detected in the normal corn 20 days after pollination. With the develop-ment of grains, the total soluble sugar content(TSS)in sweet corn increased, but in normal corn it decreased.The dynamic variation of WSP, sucrose, glucose, fructose, mannitol and sorbitol in sweet and normal corngrains are different. The contents of sugar components in the sweet corn grains are higher than that in the nor-mal corn. Sweet corn accumulates less starch than normal corn.

  10. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography for dopamine and serotonin transporters in normal and parkinsonian monkey brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, I-H. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Huang, W.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Yeh, C.-B. [Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Shen, L.-H. [Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyaun, 325 Taiwan (China); Liu, J.-C. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Ma, K.-H. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kuohsing91@yahoo.com.tw

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated dopamine and serotonin transporters in primates using dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and compared the results with traditional single-isotope imaging. Methods: Four healthy and one 6-OHDA-induced PD monkeys were used for this study. SPECT was performed over 4 h after individual or simultaneous injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporter imaging agent) and [{sup 123}I]ADAM (a serotonin transporter imaging agent). Results: The results showed that the image quality and uptake ratios in different brain regions were comparable between single- and dual-isotope studies. The striatal [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 uptake in the PD monkey was markedly lower than that in normal monkeys. The uptake of [{sup 123}I]ADAM in the midbrain of the PD monkey was comparable to that in the normal monkeys, but there were decreased uptakes in the thalamus and striatum of the PD monkey. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dual-isotope SPECT using [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 and [{sup 123}I]ADAM can simultaneously evaluate changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a PD model.

  11. On the Comparison of Narcissistic, Antisocial, and Borderline Personality Traits among Addicted Prisoners, Non-Addicted Prisoners, and Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohammadzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare narcissistic, antisocial, and borderline personality traits among addicted prisoners, non-addict prisoners, and normal subjects. Method: This study employed a causal-comparative research method, with a sample size of 180 participants including addicted prisoners, non-addicted prisoners, and normal individuals (60 participants in each group of Miandoab city who were matched in terms of demographic characteristics. For data collection purposes, narcissistic personality inventory NPI-16, Millon antisocial inventory-III, and borderline personality inventory were employed. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between addicted prisoners and normal subjects and also between addicted prisoners and non-addicted prisoners in terms of narcissistic traits while no significant difference was obtained between the non-addicted prisoners and normal subjects. Conclusion: The comparison of the aforementioned groups contains important information for the prevention and treatment of addiction and crime prevention.

  12. Comparison of normalization algorithms for cross-batch color segmentation of histopathological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ryan A; Kothari, Sonal; Wang, May D

    2014-01-01

    Automated processing of digital histopathology slides has the potential to streamline patient care and provide new tools for cancer classification and grading. Before automatic analysis is possible, quality control procedures are applied to ensure that each image can be read consistently. One important quality control step is color normalization of the slide image, which adjusts for color variances (batch-effects) caused by differences in stain preparation and image acquisition equipment. Color batch-effects affect color-based features and reduce the performance of supervised color segmentation algorithms on images acquired separately. To identify an optimal normalization technique for histopathological color segmentation applications, five color normalization algorithms were compared in this study using 204 images from four image batches. Among the normalization methods, two global color normalization methods normalized colors from all stain simultaneously and three stain color normalization methods normalized colors from individual stains extracted using color deconvolution. Stain color normalization methods performed significantly better than global color normalization methods in 11 of 12 cross-batch experiments (pnormalization method using k-means clustering was found to be the best choice because of high stain segmentation accuracy and low computational complexity.

  13. Comparison of up ladder type and terraced type normalizing heat treatments of heavy cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建亮; 彭艳; 邱丑武; 张永振

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mixed grain and coarse grain structure, the long heat treatment cycle and large energy conservation in the heavy cylinder heat treatment process, the up ladder type and terraced type normalizing heat treatment of heavy cylinder after rolling were put forward. The microstructure and mechanical properties of 2.25Cr1Mo0.25V steel after the up ladder type normalizing, terraced type normalizing and isothermal type normalizing were studied. Experimental results show that: 1) For the grain refinement, the twice terraced type normalizing is better than the up ladder type and isothermal type normalizing, and the average grain size is 18μm; 2) The yield strength, tensile strength and−30 °C charpy impact energy after twice terraced type normalizing are 681 MPa, 768 MPa and 181 J, respectively, and the mechanical properties are better than those of the up ladder type and isothermal type normalizing; 3) Compared with the isothermal type normalizing, the holding time of terraced type normalizing can be shortened by 30%, which greatly reduces the energy consumption.

  14. Cocaine postmortem distribution in three brain structures: a comparison with whole blood and vitreous humour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Virginia M; Fukushima, André R; Fontes, Luiz R; Fuzinato, Daniela V; Florio, Jorge C; Chasin, Alice A M

    2013-04-01

    The presence of cocaine (COC) in fluids or tissues does not prove that death was due to drug consumption and the interpretation of postmortem concentrations is more complex than attempts at making such correlations in the living. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine in brain and compare with whole blood and vitreous humour. The distribution in three brain structures (prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum) was homogeneous. There is a strong correlation for cocaine concentrations between vitreous humour and brain, vitreous humour and whole blood, and whole blood and brain in overdose cases. In addition, the comparison of COC/benzoylecgonine (BE) ratios in different experimental specimens proved to be more appropriate for evaluating cocaine-related death than individual drug values. These findings suggest that the comparison of cocaine levels in different compartments is essential to assess the cause of death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Voxel-based analysis of Tc-99 m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Bora [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong-Won [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: neuroman@catholic.ac.kr; Shim, Yong-Soo; Chung, Sung-Woo [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kook-Jin; O, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sohn, Hyung-Sun; Chung, Soo-Kyo [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong-An [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); East-West Research Institute of Translational Medicine (EWTM), Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Incheon 403-720 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: nm@catholic.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a reversible dementia characterized by gait disturbance, incontinence and dementia. This study investigates the neuropsychological characteristics and changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with iNPH. Ten patients who met the criteria of probable iNPH and 13 normal control subjects were evaluated. The general cognitive function and detailed neuropsychological functions were measured by K-MMSE and comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (Tc-99m-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed to measure the rCBF and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and statistical probabilistic brain anatomic map (SPAM) was applied to the objective analysis of SPECT data. On the neuropsychological examination, all the patients showed abnormality in memory, psychomotor speed and frontal executive function. SPM analysis of SPECT images revealed that rCBF in bilateral thalami, right prefrontal area, bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, right caudate nucleus, and left parahippocampal gyrus was significantly decreased in patients with iNPH compared to normal controls (uncorrected P<0.005). In SPAM analysis, rCBF reduction was observed in bilateral prefrontal area, anterior, posterior cingulate gyri and caudate nuclei. We have found that rCBF changes occurred predominantly in prefrontal and subcortical areas, the changes were associated with frontal subcortical circuit, and the affected frontal subcortical circuit may contribute to the cognitive decline seen in the iNPH patients. The reduction of rCBF and clinical cognitive impairment are closely connected in patients with iNPH.

  16. Comparison of Tap Water and Normal Saline Iontophoresis in Idiopathic Hyperhidrosis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghobi, Zahra; Goljarian, Sakineh; Oskouei, Ali E.

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tap water (drinking water) and normal saline (sodium chloride solution 0.9%) iontophoresis treatment for a patient with idiopathic hyperhidrosis [Subjects and Methods] In this study, tap water and normal saline iontophoresis were used to treat a 21 year-old female who was suffering from severe palmoplantar idiopathic hyperhidrosis. Post-iontophoresis sweat intensity of 8 treatment sessions were averaged and then normalized re...

  17. Development of Normalization Factors for Canada and the United States and Comparison with European Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), normalization calculates the magnitude of an impact (midpoint or endpoint) relative to the total effect of a given reference. Using a country or a continent as a reference system is a first step towards global normalization. The goal of this wor...

  18. Comparison of Reading Performance between Visually Impaired and Normally Sighted Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Zainora; Omar, Rokiah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare reading performance between visually impaired and normally sighted school children. Participants (n = 299) were divided into three groups: normal vision (NV, n = 193), visually impaired print reader (PR, n = 52), and Braille reader (BR, n = 54). Reading performance was determined by measuring reading rate and…

  19. Comparison of saccadic reaction time between normal and glaucoma using an eye movement perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Mazumdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the saccadic reaction time (SRT in both the central and peripheral visual field in normal and glaucomatous eyes using eye movement perimetery (EMP. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four normal and 25 glaucoma subjects underwent EMP and visual field testing on the Humphrey Field Analyser (HFA 24-2 program. The EMP is based on infrared tracking of the corneal reflex. Fifty-four test locations corresponding to the locations on the 24-2 HFA program were tested. SRTs at different eccentricities and for different severities of glaucoma were compared between normal and glaucoma subjects. Results: Mean SRT was calculated for both normal and glaucoma subjects. Mann-Whitney U test showed statistically significant (P < 0.001 differences in SRT′s between normal and glaucoma subjects in all zones. Conclusion: SRT was prolonged in eyes with glaucoma across different eccentricities.

  20. Mild cognitive disorders are associated with different patterns of brain asymmetry than normal ageing: the PATH through life study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Cherbuin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Defining how brain structures differ in pre-clinical dementia is important to better understand the pathological processes involved and to inform clinical practice. The aim of this study was to identify significant brain correlates (volume and asymmetry in volume of mild cognitive disorders when compared to normal controls in a large community-based sample of young-old individuals who were assessed for cognitive impairment. Methods: Cortical and sub-cortical volumes were measured using a semi-automated method in 398 participants aged 65-70 years who were selected from a larger randomly sampled cohort and who agreed to undergo an MRI scan. Diagnoses were reached based on established protocols for MCI and a more inclusive category of any Mild Cognitive Disorder (any-MCD: which includes AAMI, AACD, OCD, MNC, CDR, MCI. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between volume and asymmetry of theoretically relevant cerebral structures (predictors and MCI or any-MCD while controlling for age, sex, and intra-cranial volume. Results: The main correlates of cognitive impairment assessed in multivariate analyses were hippocampal asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 0.83, 95%CI 0.71-0.96, p = .013; MCD: OR 0.86, 95%CI 0.77-0.97, p = .011, lateral ventricle asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.99, p = .009; MCD: OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.92-0.98, p = .004, and cerebellar cortex asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 1.51, 95%CI 1.13-2.01, p = .005. Conclusions: In this population-based cohort stronger associations were found between asymmetry measures, rather than raw volumes in cerebral structures, and mild cognitive disorders.

  1. Exposure to (12)C particles alters the normal dynamics of brain monoamine metabolism and behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Oleg V; Belokopytova, Ksenia V; Bazyan, Ara S; Kudrin, Vladimir S; Narkevich, Viktor B; Ivanov, Aleksandr A; Severiukhin, Yury S; Timoshenko, Gennady N; Krasavin, Eugene A

    2016-09-01

    Planning of the deep-space exploration missions raises a number of questions on the radiation protection of astronauts. One of the medical concerns is associated with exposure of a crew to highly energetic particles of galactic cosmic rays. Among many other health disorders, irradiation with these particles has a substantial impact on the central nervous system (CNS). Although radiation damage to CNS has been addressed extensively during the last years, the mechanisms underlying observed impairments remain mostly unknown. The present study reveals neurochemical and behavioural alterations induced in rats by 1Gy of 500MeV/u (12)C particles with a relatively moderate linear energy transfer (10.6keV/μm). It is found that exposure to carbon ions leads to significant modification of the normal monoamine metabolism dynamics as well as the locomotor, exploratory, and anxiety-like behaviours during a two-month period. The obtained results indicate an abnormal redistribution of monoamines and their metabolites in different brain regions after exposure. The most pronounced impairments are detected in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and hypothalamus that illustrate the sensitivity of these brain regions to densely ionizing radiations. It is also shown that exposure to (12)C particles enhances the anxiety in animals and accelerates the age-related reduction in their exploratory capability. The observed monoamine metabolism pattern may indicate the presence of certain compensatory mechanisms being induced in response to irradiation and capable of partial restoration of monoaminergic systems' functions. Overall, these findings support a possibility of CNS damage by space-born particles of a relatively moderate linear energy transfer.

  2. Ex-Vivo Characterization of Bioimpedance Spectroscopy of Normal, Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Rabbit Brain Tissue at Frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Zhang, Ge; Song, Jiali; Dai, Meng; Xu, Canhua; Dong, Xiuzhen; Fu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a severe cerebrovascular disease and is the second greatest cause of death worldwide. Because diagnostic tools (CT and MRI) to detect acute stroke cannot be used until the patient reaches the hospital setting, a portable diagnostic tool is urgently needed. Because biological tissues have different impedance spectra under normal physiological conditions and different pathological states, multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (MFEIT) can potentially detect stroke. Accurate impedance spectra of normal brain tissue (gray and white matter) and stroke lesions (ischemic and hemorrhagic tissue) are important elements when studying stroke detection with MFEIT. To our knowledge, no study has comprehensively measured the impedance spectra of normal brain tissue and stroke lesions for the whole frequency range of 1 MHz within as short as possible an ex vivo time and using the same animal model. In this study, we established intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic models in rabbits, then measured and analyzed the impedance spectra of normal brain tissue and stroke lesions ex vivo within 15 min after animal death at 10 Hz to 1 MHz. The results showed that the impedance spectra of stroke lesions significantly differed from those of normal brain tissue; the ratio of change in impedance of ischemic and hemorrhagic tissue with regard to frequency was distinct; and tissue type could be discriminated according to its impedance spectra. These findings further confirm the feasibility of detecting stroke with MFEIT and provide data supporting further study of MFEIT to detect stroke. PMID:27869707

  3. Quantitative sodium MRI of the human brain at 9.4 T provides assessment of tissue sodium concentration and cell volume fraction during normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulborn, Keith; Lui, Elaine; Guntin, Jonathan; Jamil, Saad; Sun, Ziqi; Claiborne, Theodore C; Atkinson, Ian C

    2016-02-01

    Sodium ion homeostasis is a fundamental property of viable tissue, allowing the tissue sodium concentration to be modeled as the tissue cell volume fraction. The modern neuropathology literature using ex vivo tissue from selected brain regions indicates that human brain cell density remains constant during normal aging and attributes the volume loss that occurs with advancing age to changes in neuronal size and dendritic arborization. Quantitative sodium MRI performed with the enhanced sensitivity of ultrahigh-field 9.4 T has been used to investigate tissue cell volume fraction during normal aging. This cross-sectional study (n = 49; 21-80 years) finds that the in vivo tissue cell volume fraction remains constant in all regions of the brain with advancing age in individuals who remain cognitively normal, extending the ex vivo literature reporting constant neuronal cell density across the normal adult age range. Cell volume fraction, as measured by quantitative sodium MRI, is decreased in diseases of cell loss, such as stroke, on a time scale of minutes to hours, and in response to treatment of brain tumors on a time scale of days to weeks. Neurodegenerative diseases often have prodromal periods of decades in which regional neuronal cell loss occurs prior to clinical presentation. If tissue cell volume fraction can detect such early pathology, this quantitative parameter may permit the objective measurement of preclinical disease progression. This current study in cognitively normal aging individuals provides the basis for the pursuance of investigations directed towards such neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. The Comparison of the Visuo-Spatial Abilities of Dyslexic and Normal Students in Taiwan and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on a comparison of the visuo-spatial abilities (correct rate and speed) between dyslexic and normal students in Taiwan and Hong Kong. There were a total of 120 10-12 year old students. Thirty students had been diagnosed as dyslexic in Taiwan (T.W. dyslexia) and thirty students had been diagnosed as dyslexic in Hong Kong (H.K.…

  5. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain ... About Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal ...

  6. Empirical comparison of color normalization methods for epithelial-stromal classification in H and E images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Amit; Sha, Lingdao; Vahadane, Abhishek Ramnath; Deaton, Ryan J.; Kumar, Neeraj; Macias, Virgilia; Gann, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Color normalization techniques for histology have not been empirically tested for their utility for computational pathology pipelines. Aims: We compared two contemporary techniques for achieving a common intermediate goal – epithelial-stromal classification. Settings and Design: Expert-annotated regions of epithelium and stroma were treated as ground truth for comparing classifiers on original and color-normalized images. Materials and Methods: Epithelial and stromal regions were annotated on thirty diverse-appearing H and E stained prostate cancer tissue microarray cores. Corresponding sets of thirty images each were generated using the two color normalization techniques. Color metrics were compared for original and color-normalized images. Separate epithelial-stromal classifiers were trained and compared on test images. Main analyses were conducted using a multiresolution segmentation (MRS) approach; comparative analyses using two other classification approaches (convolutional neural network [CNN], Wndchrm) were also performed. Statistical Analysis: For the main MRS method, which relied on classification of super-pixels, the number of variables used was reduced using backward elimination without compromising accuracy, and test - area under the curves (AUCs) were compared for original and normalized images. For CNN and Wndchrm, pixel classification test-AUCs were compared. Results: Khan method reduced color saturation while Vahadane reduced hue variance. Super-pixel-level test-AUC for MRS was 0.010–0.025 (95% confidence interval limits ± 0.004) higher for the two normalized image sets compared to the original in the 10–80 variable range. Improvement in pixel classification accuracy was also observed for CNN and Wndchrm for color-normalized images. Conclusions: Color normalization can give a small incremental benefit when a super-pixel-based classification method is used with features that perform implicit color normalization while the gain is

  7. Empirical comparison of color normalization methods for epithelial-stromal classification in H and E images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sethi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Color normalization techniques for histology have not been empirically tested for their utility for computational pathology pipelines. Aims: We compared two contemporary techniques for achieving a common intermediate goal - epithelial-stromal classification. Settings and Design: Expert-annotated regions of epithelium and stroma were treated as ground truth for comparing classifiers on original and color-normalized images. Materials and Methods: Epithelial and stromal regions were annotated on thirty diverse-appearing H and E stained prostate cancer tissue microarray cores. Corresponding sets of thirty images each were generated using the two color normalization techniques. Color metrics were compared for original and color-normalized images. Separate epithelial-stromal classifiers were trained and compared on test images. Main analyses were conducted using a multiresolution segmentation (MRS approach; comparative analyses using two other classification approaches (convolutional neural network [CNN], Wndchrm were also performed. Statistical Analysis: For the main MRS method, which relied on classification of super-pixels, the number of variables used was reduced using backward elimination without compromising accuracy, and test - area under the curves (AUCs were compared for original and normalized images. For CNN and Wndchrm, pixel classification test-AUCs were compared. Results: Khan method reduced color saturation while Vahadane reduced hue variance. Super-pixel-level test-AUC for MRS was 0.010-0.025 (95% confidence interval limits ± 0.004 higher for the two normalized image sets compared to the original in the 10-80 variable range. Improvement in pixel classification accuracy was also observed for CNN and Wndchrm for color-normalized images. Conclusions: Color normalization can give a small incremental benefit when a super-pixel-based classification method is used with features that perform implicit color normalization while the

  8. "COMPARISON BETWEEN NUMBER OF NERVE FIBERS IN NORMAL BREAST TISSUE, BENIGN LESIONS AND MALIGNANT BREAST TUMORS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Soltanghoraiee

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is common and is considered second cause of cancer related mortality in females. Regarding importance of breast cancer, more investigation in this field is recommended. For many years investigators believed that neoplasms were not innervated but new findings have proved otherwise. This descriptive study was carried out to compare number of nerve fibers in benign, malignant and normal breast tissue. Of each group several slides were reviewed and 3608.50 mm2 of malignant tumors (ductal carcinoma, 3641 mm2 of benign tumors (fibroadenoma and 2331.25 mm2 of normal breast tissue (mammoplasty were assessed. Numbers of nerve fibers were compared and a significant increase in nerve fibers was found in malignant tumors compared with benign tumors and normal breast tissue. Accuracy of hematoxylin and eosin method were examined by immunohistochemistry staining (neurofilament method and affirmed. These results reveal that malignant tumors of breast have more nerve fibers than normal breast tissue or benign tumors.

  9. Serum testosterone and gonadotropins levels in patients with premature ejaculation: A comparison with normal men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad G Mohseni

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Patients with PE have higher FT and FSH levels compared with normal men. The causative relationship between these entities and also the clinical importance of this finding has to be determined by more comprehensive studies.

  10. Comparison of sensory-specific satiety between normal weight and overweight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischel, Helene Egebjerg; Nielsen, Louise Aas; Gamborg, Michael Orland

    2016-01-01

    Sensory properties of some foods may be of importance to energy consumption and thus the development and maintenance of childhood obesity. This study compares selected food related qualities in overweight and normal weight children. Ninety-two participants were included; 55 were overweight...... between consumption of foods and answering of questionnaires. Compared to the normal weight, the overweight children displayed lower self-reported intake paces (χ(2)(2) = 6.3, p = 0.04), higher changes in liking for mozzarella (F(1,63) = 9.55, p = 0.003) and pretzels (F(1,87) = 5.27, p = 0.......024), and declines in wanting for something fat, of which the normal weight children displayed an increase (F(1,83) = 4,10, p = 0.046). No differences were found for sensory-specific satiety, wanting for the main food yoghurt, hunger, or satiety. In conclusion, overweight children did not differ from normal weight...

  11. Validation of MCDS by comparison of predicted with experimental velocity distribution functions in rarefied normal shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Van-diep, Gerald C.; Erwin, Daniel A.

    1989-01-01

    Velocity distribution functions in normal shock waves in argon and helium are calculated using Monte Carlo direct simulation. These are compared with experimental results for argon at M = 7.18 and for helium at M = 1.59 and 20. For both argon and helium, the variable-hard-sphere (VHS) model is used for the elastic scattering cross section, with the velocity dependence derived from a viscosity-temperature power-law relationship in the way normally used by Bird (1976).

  12. Meningoencephalitis and new onset of seizures in an patient with normal brain CT and multiple lesions on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Jose E.; Spichler, Anne; Oliveira, Augusto C.P. de; Lomar, Andre Villela [Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-02-01

    Toxoplasmic encephalitis is the most common cerebral mass lesion in patients with AIDS. The definitive diagnosis requires direct demonstration of the tachyzoite form of Toxoplasma gondii in cerebral tissue. The presumptive diagnosis is based on serology, clinical and radiological features, and on response to anti-Toxoplasma therapy. Typically, patients have a subacute presentation of focal neurological signs, with multiple lesions in computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the neurological and CT scan spectrum is broad. We report a case of toxoplasmic encephalitis in a heterosexual man without prior history of HIV infection. He was admitted with four days of headache, confusion, and new onset of seizures. His brain CT disclosed no alterations and MRI revealed multiple lesions. Empirical specific anti-Toxoplasma therapy was initiated and the patient experienced excellent clinical and radiological improvement. His HIV tests were positive and the CD{sub 4}{sup +} cell count was 74 cells/ml (8.5 %). On follow up, three months later, the general state of the patient was good, without neurological sequelae and with a normal MRI. We concluded that toxoplasmic encephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis in sexually active individuals, including cases without prior history or suspicion of HIV infection, and no abnormalities on CT scan. (author)

  13. Structural brain mutant of Drosophila melanogaster with reduced cell number in the medulla cortex and with normal optomotor yaw response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, K. F.; Heisenberg, M.

    1981-01-01

    KS58, one out of six known alleles of the small optic lobes (sol) gene in Drosophila melanogaster, reduces the cell number in the medulla cortex by degeneration of ganglion cells in the pupae to about 50%. Also, about half the volume of the medulla and lobula complex neuropils is missing. Many Golgistained cells in the mutant optic lobes resemble their homologues in wild type. However, special classes of transmedullary columnar neurons projecting to the lobula or to both lobula and lobula plate are not seen in the mutant. Some neurons linking the lobula complex to the central brain send branches to the medulla (the branches do not exist in wild type); some other types seem to be missing. The fate mapping of the KS58 focus reveals a location ventral to the head bristles and in sine oculis (so) flies the mutation further reduces the rudiments of the optic lobes normally seen. Therefore the sol phenotype is not induced by mutant eyes and the primary gene action seems to be on nervous tissue. The structural alterations of the small optic lobes are reflected in visual orientation behavior. The optomotor yaw response, however, is almost quantitatively preserved. The respective neural network should still be present in the mutant optic lobes. Images PMID:16592962

  14. Different Coexpressions of Arthritis-Relevant Genes between Different Body Organs and Different Brain Regions in the Normal Mouse Population

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yanhong; Huang, Yue; Wang, Lishi; Zhu, JiaQian; Gu, Weikuan

    2012-01-01

    Structural changes in different parts of the brain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have been reported. RA is not regarded as a brain disease. Body organs such as spleen and lung produce RA-relevant genes. We hypothesized that the structural changes in the brain are caused by changes of gene expression in body organs. Changes in different parts of the brain may be affected by altered gene expressions in different body organs. This study explored whether an association between gene expres...

  15. Report on the CCT Supplementary Comparison S1 of Infrared Spectral Normal Emittance/Emissivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Leonard; Wilthan, B; Monte, Christian; Hollandt, Jörg; Hameury, Jacques; Filtz, Jean-Remy; Girard, Ferruccio; Battuello, Mauro; Ishii, Juntaro

    2016-01-01

    The National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) of the United States, Germany, France, Italy and Japan, have joined in an inter-laboratory comparison of their infrared spectral emittance scales. This action is part of a series of supplementary inter-laboratory comparisons (including thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity) sponsored by the Consultative Committee on Thermometry (CCT) Task Group on Thermophysical Quantities (TG-ThQ). The objective of this collaborative work is to strengthen the major operative National Measurement Institutes' infrared spectral emittance scales and consequently the consistency of radiative properties measurements carried out worldwide. The comparison has been performed over a spectral range of 2 μm to 14 μm, and a temperature range from 23 °C to 800 °C. Artefacts included in the comparison are potential standards: oxidized inconel, boron nitride, and silicon carbide. The measurement instrumentation and techniques used for emittance scales are unique for each NMI, including the temperature ranges covered as well as the artefact sizes required. For example, all three common types of spectral instruments are represented: dispersive grating monochromator, Fourier transform and filter-based spectrometers. More than 2000 data points (combinations of material, wavelength and temperature) were compared. Ninety-eight percent (98%) of the data points were in agreement, with differences to weighted mean values less than the expanded uncertainties calculated from the individual NMI uncertainties and uncertainties related to the comparison process.

  16. A computer tomography-based spatial normalization for the analysis of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hanna; Choi, Jae Yong; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Su [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We developed a new computed tomography (CT)-based spatial normalization method and CT template to demonstrate its usefulness in spatial normalization of positron emission tomography (PET) images with [{sup 18}F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET studies in healthy controls. Seventy healthy controls underwent brain CT scan (120 KeV, 180 mAs, and 3 mm of thickness) and [{sup 18}F] FDG PET scans using a PET/CT scanner. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired for all subjects. By averaging skull-stripped and spatially-normalized MR and CT images, we created skull-stripped MR and CT templates for spatial normalization. The skull-stripped MR and CT images were spatially normalized to each structural template. PET images were spatially normalized by applying spatial transformation parameters to normalize skull-stripped MR and CT images. A conventional perfusion PET template was used for PET-based spatial normalization. Regional standardized uptake values (SUV) measured by overlaying the template volume of interest (VOI) were compared to those measured with FreeSurfer-generated VOI (FSVOI). All three spatial normalization methods underestimated regional SUV values by 0.3-20% compared to those measured with FSVOI. The CT-based method showed slightly greater underestimation bias. Regional SUV values derived from all three spatial normalization methods were correlated significantly (p < 0.0001) with those measured with FSVOI. CT-based spatial normalization may be an alternative method for structure-based spatial normalization of [18F] FDG PET when MR imaging is unavailable. Therefore, it is useful for PET/CT studies with various radiotracers whose uptake is expected to be limited to specific brain regions or highly variable within study population.

  17. A comparative study in Alzheimer's and normal brains of trace element distribution using PIXE and INA analyses and glucose metabolism by positron emission tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutts, DA; Maguire, RP; Stedman, JD; Leenders, KL; Spyrou, NM

    1999-01-01

    The onset of Alzheimer's disease has been shown to affect trace element concentrations in the brain when compared to "normal" subjects in ex vivo samples. The techniques used to determine trace element concentrations were proton-induced X-ray emission and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Wi

  18. Social comparison affects brain responses to fairness in asset division : an ERP study with the ultimatum game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; van Dijk, E.; Leliveld, M.C.; Zhou, X.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that social comparison influences individual's fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not clear how social comparison affects the brain activity in evaluating fairness during asset distribution. In this study, participants, acting as recipient

  19. Quantitative volumetric analysis of the optic radiation in the normal human brain using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging-based tractography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Hoon Lee; Ji-Won Park; Cheol-Pyo Hong

    2014-01-01

    To attain the volumetric information of the optic radiation in normal human brains, we per-formed diffusion tensor imaging examination in 13 healthy volunteers. Simultaneously, we used a brain normalization method to reduce individual brain variation and increase the accuracy of volumetric information analysis. In addition, tractography-based group mapping method was also used to investigate the probability and distribution of the optic radiation pathways. Our results showed that the measured optic radiation ifber tract volume was a range of about 0.16%and that the fractional anisotropy value was about 0.53. Moreover, the optic radiation probability ifber pathway that was determined with diffusion tensor tractography-based group mapping was able to detect the location relatively accurately. We believe that our methods and results are help-ful in the study of optic radiation ifber tract information.

  20. Biomechanical comparison of frontal plane knee joint moment arms during normal and Tai Chi walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodinsky, Adam; Fox, John; Decoux, Brandi; Weimar, Wendi; Liu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] Medial knee osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, affects adults. The external knee adduction moment, a surrogate knee-loading measure, has clinical implications for knee osteoarthritis patients. Tai Chi is a promising intervention for pain alleviation in knee osteoarthritis; however, the characteristics of external knee adduction moment during Tai Chi have not been established. [Subjects and Methods] During normal and Tai Chi walking, a gait analysis was performed to compare the external knee adduction moment moment-arm characteristics and paired t-tests to compare moment-arm magnitudes. [Results] A significant difference was observed in the average lateral direction of moment-arm magnitude during Tai Chi walking (-0.0239 ± 0.011 m) compared to that during normal walking (-0.0057 ± 0.004 m). No significant difference was found between conditions in average medial direction of moment-arm magnitude (normal walking: 0.0143 ± 0.010 m; Tai Chi walking: 0.0098 ± 0.014 m). [Conclusion] Tai Chi walking produced a larger peak lateral moment-arm value than normal walking during the stance phase, whereas Tai Chi walking and normal walking peak medial moment-arm values were similar, suggesting that medial knee joint loading may be avoided during Tai Chi walking.

  1. Comparison of plasma endothelin levels between osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biçimoğlu Ali

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that endothelins (ET have significant roles in bone remodeling, metabolism and physiopathology of several bone diseases. We aimed to investigate if there was any difference between the plasma ET levels of osteoporotic patients and normals. Methods 86 patients (70 women and 16 men with a mean age of 62.6 (ranges: 51–90 years were included in this study. Patients were divided into groups of osteoporosis, osteopenia and normal regarding reported T scores of DEXA evaluation according to the suggestions of World Health Organization. According to these criteria 19, 43 and 24 were normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic respectively. Then total plasma level of ET was measured in all patients with monoclonal antibody based sandwich immunoassay (EIA method. One-way analysis of variance test was used to compare endothelin values between normals, osteopenics and osteoporotics. Results Endothelin total plasma level in patients was a mean of 98.36 ± 63.96, 100.92 ± 47.2 and 99.56 ± 56.6 pg/ml in osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal groups respectively. The difference between groups was not significant (p > 0.05. Conclusion No significant differences in plasma ET levels among three groups of study participants could be detected in this study.

  2. Comparison of biological characteristics of marrow mesenchymal stem cells in hepatitis B patients and normal adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Peng; Hua Li; Lin Gu; Xiao-Mou Peng; Yang-Su Huang; Zhi-Liang Gao

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To establish a culture system of marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from hepatitis B patients and normal adults and to compare their biological characteristics.METHODS: MSCs were isolated from bone marrow in 34 male hepatitis B patients and 15 male normal adults and cultivated in vitro. Their biological characteristics including surface markers, shapes and appearances, growth curves, first passage time and passage generations were compared.RESULTS: Cultivation achievement ratio of hepatitis B patients was lower than that of normal adults, no statistical significance (82.35% vs 100%, P >0.05). Compared with MSCs of normal adults, MSCs of hepatitis B patients presented a statistical lower growth curve, longer first passage time (13.0 ± 1.6 d vs 11.4 ± 1.5 d, P < 0.05), fewer passaging generation numbers (10.5 ± 1.4 generations vs 12.3±1.7 generations, P < 0.05), though both shared same appearances, shapes and surface markers. MSCs in hepatitis B patients would expand, spread out and age more easily and there were more refractive particles in the cytoplasm.CONCLUSION: MSCs from hepatitis B patients can be cultured in vitro. Although their appearance, shape and surface marker are similar to those of MSCs from normal adults, there are differences in their biological characteristics.

  3. Comparison of the histological morphology between normal skin and scar tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shao-wei; Geng, Zhi-jun; Ma, Kui; Sun, Xiao-yan; Fu, Xiao-bing

    2016-04-01

    Skin wound healing is a complex event, and interrupted wound healing process could lead to scar formation. The aim of this study was to examine the morphological changes of scar tissue. Pathological staining (HE staining, Masson's trichrome staining, methenamine silver staining) was used to evaluate the morphological changes of regenerating epidermis in normal skin and scar tissue, and immunofluorescence staining to detect the expression of collagen IV, a component of basement membrane (BM), and the expression of integrinβ4, a receptor for BM laminins. Additionally, the expression of CK14, CK5, and CK10 was measured to evaluate the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes in normal skin and scar tissue. The results showed that the structure of the skin was histologically changed in scar tissue. Collagen IV, expressed under the epidermis of normal skin, was reduced distinctly in scar tissue. Integrinβ4, expressed in the basal layer of normal skin, was found absent in the basal layer of scar tissue. Additionally, it was found that keratinocytes in scarring epidermis were more proliferative than in normal skin. These results indicate that during the skin wound healing, altered formation of BM may affect the proliferation of keratinocytes, reepithelial and tissue remodeling, and then result in scar formation. Thus, remodeling BM structure during wound repair may be beneficial for improving healing in cutaneous wounds during clinical practice.

  4. Hypercapnic normalization of BOLD fMRI: comparison across field strengths and pulse sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Eric R.; Rostrup, Egill; Sidaros, Karam

    2004-01-01

    size, as well as experimental, such as pulse sequence and static magnetic field strength (B(0)). Thus, it is difficult to compare task-induced fMRI signals across subjects, field strengths, and pulse sequences. This problem can be overcome by normalizing the neural activity-induced BOLD fMRI response...... by a global hypercapnia-induced BOLD signal. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the BOLD normalization approach, gradient-echo BOLD fMRI at 1.5, 4, and 7 T and spin-echo BOLD fMRI at 4 T were performed in human subjects. For neural stimulation, subjects performed sequential finger movements at 2 Hz, while...... for global stimulation, subjects breathed a 5% CO(2) gas mixture. Under all conditions, voxels containing primarily large veins and those containing primarily active tissue (i.e., capillaries and small veins) showed distinguishable behavior after hypercapnic normalization. This allowed functional activity...

  5. A Study of Cancer Patients' Personality Profile and it's Comparison with that of Normal Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: This study compared the personality profile of cancer patients with that of normal persons. The aim was identifying personality traits related to people who suffered from cancer, and helping them to cope with the situation and adjust with life.Materials & Methods: This research was a casual comparative study. For this purpose 100 persons were selected from hematology and oncology center and asked to complete (NEO personality inventory. Then 94 persons were selected as matched group. Results: The result showed that neuroticism was high in cancer patients (p<0.00. Also there were significant differences between normal people and cancer patients in adaptibility and extroversion with high scores in normal people (p<0.05. But there were no significant difference between the two groups in agreeableness and conscientious.Conclusion: In general the result of this research demonstrated that the cancer patients were more neurotic and less adaptable and extrovert therefore they need psychotherapy.

  6. Comparison of Intercanine and Intermolar Width Between Cleft Lip Palate and Normal Class I Occlusion Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaj, Aiyesha; Ahmed, Imtiaz

    2015-11-01

    To determine the mean difference of arch dimensions (both intercanine and intermolar width) between cleft lip palate and normal class I occlusion group. Cross-sectional analytic study. Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, [Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS)], Karachi, from March 2012 to April 2013. Group 1 consisted of 32 subjects with complete repaired, non-syndromic unilateral and bilateral cleft lip palate. Group 2 consisted of 32 subjects with normal facial morphology and class I occlusion. Exclusion criteria were cleft lip palate subjects with systemic diseases, any arch expansion procedure, incomplete repaired palate, open fistulas, developmental or acquired craniofacial muscular deformities, autoimmune conditions, syndromes, endocrine abnormalities, neurological problems, or previous history of orthodontic treatment and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, history of trauma, impacted or missing teeth, periodontally involved teeth, subdivision molar classification, skeletal base II and III with molar class I. The transverse width (intercanine and intermolar width) of dental casts was measured with the help of digital caliper. The intercanine width was measured between cusp tips of the canine while the intermolar width distance was measured between mesiobuccal cusp tips of first molars, and buccal grooves of the mandibular first molars in both cleft lip palate and normal class I occlusion group, respectively. There were 64 subjects with mean 14.7 ±6.8 years in the cleft palate and 14.7 ±6.3 years in the normal group. There was statistically significant differences found between intercanine and intermolar width in maxillary arch (p < 0.001). In mandibular arch, only intercanine width has showed significant difference (p < 0.001) between cleft and normal occlusion class I group. Maxillary and mandibular intercanine width was found to be significantly reduced in cleft lip palate group (both unilateral and bilateral) as

  7. A comparison of three speaker-intrinsic vowel formant frequency normalization algorithms for sociophonetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne; Watt, Dominic; Johnson, Daniel Ezra

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates a speaker-intrinsic vowel formant frequency normalization algorithm initially proposed in Watt & Fabricius (2002). We compare how well this routine, known as the S-centroid procedure, performs as a sociophonetic research tool in three ways: reducing variance in area ratios...... from RP and Aberdeen English (northeast Scotland). We conclude that, for the data examined here, the S-centroid W&F procedures performs at least as well as the two most recognized speaker-intrinsic, vowel-extrinsic, formant-intrinsic normalization methods, Lobanov's (1971) z-score procedure and Nearey...

  8. Supervised Lowess normalization of comparative genome hybridization data – application to lactococcal strain comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsens Harma A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array-based comparative genome hybridization (aCGH is commonly used to determine the genomic content of bacterial strains. Since prokaryotes in general have less conserved genome sequences than eukaryotes, sequence divergences between the genes in the genomes used for an aCGH experiment obstruct determination of genome variations (e.g. deletions. Current normalization methods do not take into consideration sequence divergence between target and microarray features and therefore cannot distinguish a difference in signal due to systematic errors in the data or due to sequence divergence. Results We present supervised Lowess, or S-Lowess, an application of the subset Lowess normalization method. By using a predicted subset of array features with minimal sequence divergence between the analyzed strains for the normalization procedure we remove systematic errors from dual-dye aCGH data in two steps: (1 determination of a subset of conserved genes (i.e. likely conserved genes, LCG; and (2 using the LCG for subset Lowess normalization. Subset Lowess determines the correction factors for systematic errors in the subset of array features and normalizes all array features using these correction factors. The performance of S-Lowess was assessed on aCGH experiments in which differentially labeled genomic DNA fragments of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 and L. lactis MG1363 strains were hybridized to IL1403 DNA microarrays. Since both genomes are sequenced and gene deletions identified, the success rate of different aCGH normalization methods in detecting these deletions in the MG1363 genome were determined. S-Lowess detects 97% of the deletions, whereas other aCGH normalization methods detect up to only 60% of the deletions. Conclusion S-Lowess is implemented in a user-friendly web-tool accessible from http://bioinformatics.biol.rug.nl/websoftware/s-lowess. We demonstrate that it outperforms existing normalization methods and maximizes

  9. COMPARISON OF OXYGEN UPTAKE KINETICS AND OXYGEN DEFICIT IN SEVERELY OVERWEIGHT AND NORMAL WEIGHT ADOLESCENT FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Loftin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in oxygen uptake kinetics and oxygen deficit existed between normal weight and severely overweight adolescent girls. Subjects included 10 normal weight and 8 severely overweight girls. The participants performed a leg cycling VO2 peak test and a constant load leg cycling test at 80% of the ventilatory threshold (T-vent. In the constant workload test O2 kinetics as indicated by Phase I (VO2 L at 20 sec and Phase II time constants (t were determined. Also, the O2 deficit (VO2 L was measured. As expected significant differences were noted in body composition and VO2 peak relative to mass with normal weight body mass averaging 55.3 ± 7.0 kg, severely overweight 90.5 ± 18.0 kg, % fat normal weight 27.3 ± 3.9%, severely overweight 49.7 ± 4.9% and VO2 peak (ml·kg-1·min-1 normal weight 32.0 ± 2.7 and severely overweight 22.0 ± 5.3. VO2 peak (l·min-1 and T-vent (%VO2 max were similar between groups. Results revealed similar O2 kinetic responses between groups; phase I kinetics normal weight 0.72 ± 0.15 L; severely overweight 0.75 ± 0.13L, phase II (t normal weight 41.5 ± 21.3 sec; severely overweight 33.9 ± 22.7 sec. However, the O2 deficit was significantly higher in the severely overweight (0.75 ± 0.15L when compared to the normal weight group (0.34 ± 0.13L. Correlations ranged from r = -0.15 to 0.51 between VO2 peak (L·min-1 or fat weight and phase I, t and O2 deficit. These data generally support previous research concerning the independence of O2 uptake response and body size

  10. Comparison of dynamic changes in endogenous hormones and sugars between abnormal and normal Castanea mollissima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Liu; Yunqian Hu; Xiaoxian Li

    2008-01-01

    To elucidate the possible functions of endogenous hormones in the flowering of chestnut, concentrations of four endogenous hormones [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), zeatin riboside (ZR)) and the soluble sugars content were measured in both normal and developmentally abnormal Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) during flowering and fruiting stages. Our results showed that the contents of ZR, ABA, and GA exhibited a significant different pattern in normal trees from that in abnormal trees, while the contents of IAA and soluble sugars showed a similar change pattern between them. These results suggest that quantitative changes in endogenous hormones may correspond to different flowering and fruiting mechanisms.

  11. The comparison of quadriceps muscle strength between sprint runner and normal un-trained individuals (Determined by Kin-Com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebian Moghaddam S "

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is suggested that quadriceps muscle has an important role in stability & mobility of Knee joint in athletics and normal individuals; therefore, the purpose of this study was evaluation of the strength in Power Athletics (PA and Normal Un-trained Individuals (NUI groups. Methods and Materials: 31 Females (20 NUI & 11 PA participated in this study. For measuring the strength, each individual performed 5 continuous concentric-eccentric maximal contraction at angular velocities of 90°/s, 135°/s. Twenty five percent of each individual (Maximum Voluntary Isometric Contraction MVIC was determined and used as Pre-load force. Results: Averages concentric & eccentric torques were greater in PA group in comparison with NUI group. The significant difference (P<0.02 existed between PA and NUI groups. Average concentric torques of quadriceps muscle decreased (with increasing of speed from 90°/s to 135°/s and average eccentric torques increased. Average eccentric torques were greater (P<0.01 in PA & NUI groups in comparison with average concentric torques. Conclusion: PA group strength was greater in comparison with NUI group. This is possibly due to the type of muscle fibers in this group have (greater type II fibers. Accordingly, it is critical to consider the role of eccentric exercise in PA group for preventing sport injury.

  12. Modeling cardiac β-adrenergic signaling with normalized-Hill differential equations: comparison with a biochemical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saucerman Jeffrey J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New approaches are needed for large-scale predictive modeling of cellular signaling networks. While mass action and enzyme kinetic approaches require extensive biochemical data, current logic-based approaches are used primarily for qualitative predictions and have lacked direct quantitative comparison with biochemical models. Results We developed a logic-based differential equation modeling approach for cell signaling networks based on normalized Hill activation/inhibition functions controlled by logical AND and OR operators to characterize signaling crosstalk. Using this approach, we modeled the cardiac β1-adrenergic signaling network, including 36 reactions and 25 species. Direct comparison of this model to an extensively characterized and validated biochemical model of the same network revealed that the new model gave reasonably accurate predictions of key network properties, even with default parameters. Normalized Hill functions improved quantitative predictions of global functional relationships compared with prior logic-based approaches. Comprehensive sensitivity analysis revealed the significant role of PKA negative feedback on upstream signaling and the importance of phosphodiesterases as key negative regulators of the network. The model was then extended to incorporate recently identified protein interaction data involving integrin-mediated mechanotransduction. Conclusions The normalized-Hill differential equation modeling approach allows quantitative prediction of network functional relationships and dynamics, even in systems with limited biochemical data.

  13. Quantitative comparison of myocardial blood flow in normal and infarcted hearts by high resolution scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, C.Y.; Burow, R.D.; Scherlag, B.J.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Lazzara, R.

    1984-01-01

    The standard method for measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) with radioactive microspheres requires processing of selected tissue samples and consequent loss of exact relation to myocardial morphology. Also, in myocardial infarction (MI) there are inaccuracies due to overlap of tissues from borders of normal and MI. A new method uses Tc-99m labeled microspheres (20..mu..) which were injected into the left atrium in 18 normal dogs and 12 dogs with MI (5 had 1 day and 7 had 4 day old MI). The excised hearts were rinsed and frozen before ''bread-loaf'' sections, 3 mm thick, were cut. Images were acquired on a gamma camera with a volume resolution of 12 mm/sup 3/. A computer program for determining MBF was checked against the conventional microsphere method. The volume resolution of the latter method was 100 mm/sup 3/. The correlation coefficient between the two methods was r=0.96. Average MBF for a given section of normal RV and LV was 95 +- 13 and 119 +- 15 ml/min/100 g of tissue, respectively. Average MBF was compared in normal LV and from ischemic epicardium (IsZ) of the central MI and endocardial infarcted zone (IZ). The authors' new method, accurately and with high resolution, delineates zones of differing MBF and confirms the increase of MBF in surviving myocardium with healing.

  14. Apparent diffusion coefficient in cervical cancer of the uterus: comparison with the normal uterine cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Sato, Chiho; Ishigaki, Takeo [Nagoya University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan); Kumada, Hisashi; Miura, Shunichi [Toyohashi Municipal hospital, Department of Radiology, Toyohashi, Aich (Japan); Takizawa, Osamu [Siemens-Asahi Medical Technologies Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    A relation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and tumor cellular density has been reported. The purpose of this study was to measure the ADC values of cervical cancers in the uterus and compare them with those of normal cervical tissues, and to test whether ADC could differentiate between normal and malignant cervical tissues in the uterus. Twelve consecutive female patients with cervical cancer of the uterus and ten female patients with other pelvic abnormalities were included in this study. ADC was measured at 1.5 T with b-factors of 0, 300 and 600 s/mm{sup 2} using single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging and a parallel imaging technique. The mean ADC value of cervical cancer lesions was 1.09{+-}0.20 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and that of normal cervix tissue was 1.79{+-}0.24 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (P<0.0001). In nine patients treated by chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, the mean ADC value of the cervical cancer lesion increased significantly after therapy (P<0.001). The present study showed, with a small number of patients, that ADC measurement has a potential ability to differentiate between normal and cancerous tissue in the uterine cervix. Further study is necessary to determine the accuracy of ADC measurement in monitoring the treatment response. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of Clinical Features and Personality Dimensions between Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Normal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Ji-Won; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2009-09-01

    Personality dimension is considered as a risk factor of depression. This study was to compare aggression, impulsivity, hopelessness, and TCI (temperament and character dimensions) between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and normal controls. A total of 56 MDD patients and the same number of normal controls who were matched for age, gender, and education were recruited. All subjects completed the following questionnaires; Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, 11th Version (BIS-11), and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). MDD patients were significantly higher scores in anger, hostility of AQ, BHS, motor impulsivity of BIS-11, and Harm Avoidances (HA) of TCI with all subscales of HA than normal controls, whereas novelty seeking 1 (NS1) (Exploratory of NS), Reward Dependence (RD) with RD3 (Attachment) . RD4 (Dependence), Self-Directedness (SD) with most subscales of SD, Cooperativeness (CO), and ST3 (Spiritual Acceptance) showed lower scores than normal controls. Moreover, BHS and HA, BIS and NS showed moderate positive correlation in MDD patients, while BHS and SD, HA and SD were negatively correlated. The present study showed unique clinical features, especially personality dimensions of patients with MDD. Our results could be applicable to suggest treatment process and to predict one's prognosis for depression in that psychological properties are important for drug compliance and treatment response.

  16. Reconstructing muscle activation during normal walking: a comparison of symbolic and connectionist machine learning techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, Ben W.; Veltink, Peter H.; Rijkhoff, Nico J.M.; Rutten, Wim L.C.; Andrews, Brian J.

    1993-01-01

    One symbolic (rule-based inductive learning) and one connectionist (neural network) machine learning technique were used to reconstruct muscle activation patterns from kinematic data measured during normal human walking at several speeds. The activation patterns (or desired outputs) consisted of sur

  17. Comparison of colonic transit time findings between spastic pelvic floor syndrome and normal on defecogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Kwon; Choi, Sang Hee; Chung, Il Gyu; Lim, Hyo Keun; Choo, Sung Wook; Rhee, Poong Lyul [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate colonic transit time (CTT) in patients with spastic pelvic floor syndrome (SPFS) diagnosed by defecography and compare findings with those of patients with normal defecography. Over a recent 15-month period, 140 patients underwent both defecography and CTT test because of chronic idiopathic constipation. Of these, 54 with SPFS diagnosed by defecography and 49 controls with normal defecography were included in our study. CTT test involved the radiopaque marker method. Subjects ingested 24 markers at 9:00 Am on three consecutive days and a plain film of the abdomen was obtained on day 4. We calculated total and segmental CTT test findings in the two groups. Delayed total CTT was found in 35% of patients (19/54) with SPFS. Segmental CTT in the right, left and rectosigmoid colon was delayed in 31 % of patients (15/49) with SPFS. Segmental CTT in the right, left and rectosigmoid colon was delayed in 19 % (10/54), 44 % (24/54), and 31 % of cases (17/54), respectively. Total CTT was delayed in 31 % of patients (15/49) with normal defecography. In this group, segmental CTT in the left colon was delayed in 39 % of cases. There was no significant difference in CTT findings between the SPFS and normal groups on defecogram. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Reconstructing muscle activation during normal walking: a comparison of symbolic and connectionist machine learning techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, Ben W.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Rijkhoff, N.J.M.; Rijkhoff, Nico J.M.; Rutten, Wim; Andrews, Brian J.

    1993-01-01

    One symbolic (rule-based inductive learning) and one connectionist (neural network) machine learning technique were used to reconstruct muscle activation patterns from kinematic data measured during normal human walking at several speeds. The activation patterns (or desired outputs) consisted of

  19. Is the performance of acceleromyography improved with preload and normalization? A comparison with mechanomyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, Casper; Skovgaard, Lene Theil; Viby-Mogensen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that acceleromyography and mechanomyography cannot be used interchangeably. To improve the agreement between the two methods, it has been suggested to use a preload and to refer all train-of-four (TOF) ratios to the control TOF (normalization) when using ac...

  20. A Comparison of the Oral Narrative Abilities between Normal and Learning-Disabled Middle School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecan-Aker, Joan S.

    The study assessed the oral narrative abilities of 10 normal and 10 learning-disabled (LD) middle school children (11-12 years old). Narratives were assessed using A. Applebee's system for the development of story organization. The narratives were also examined for the specific components used within the stories themselves. Findings revealed…

  1. A comparison of definitions of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with normal serum creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Mohammad Reza; Nikravan, Nasrin; Salari-Far, Mojtaba; Davoudi, Safieh; Pahlavan-Sabbagh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the third leading cause of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients. The prevalence of CIN is reported to range from 0% to 50%, depending not only on patient condition and the procedure used but also the definition of CIN applied. We aimed to determine the best diagnostic indicator of CIN in patients with normal serum creatinine. This study included 206 patients with normal serum creatinine who underwent coronary angiography/angioplasty. Serum creatinine level and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured before and on the second and fifth days after contrast administration. The incidence of CIN based on a 25% increase in serum creatinine was calculated and compared with the incidence based on a 25% decrease in GFR or an increase of at least 0.5 mg/dL in serum creatinine. Of 206 patients, 127 were male (61.7%) and 79 were female (38.3%); the mean age was 59.56±10.3 years. The prevalence of CIN was 30% based on a 25% increase in serum creatinine, 23% based on a 25% decrease in GFR (Pcreatinine increase of at least 0.5 mg/dL (Pcreatinine levels remained within the normal range in the majority of patients with CIN based on the different definitions. In patients with normal serum creatinine, the absolute increase in serum creatinine may describe the prevalence of CIN more accurately than the relative increase in serum creatinine or relative decrease in GFR.

  2. Head Position Comparison between Students with Normal Hearing and Students with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Renato de Souza; Amorim da Silva, Polyanna Waleska; Souza, Robson Arruda; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão; Ferraz, Karla Mônica

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Head sense position is coordinated by sensory activity of the vestibular system, located in the inner ear. Children with sensorineural hearing loss may show changes in the vestibular system as a result of injury to the inner ear, which can alter the sense of head position in this population. Aim Analyze the head alignment in students with normal hearing and students with sensorineural hearing loss and compare the data between groups. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study examined the head alignment of 96 students, 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, aged between 7 and 18 years. The analysis of head alignment occurred through postural assessment performed according to the criteria proposed by Kendall et al. For data analysis we used the chi-square test or Fisher exact test. Results The students with hearing loss had a higher occurrence of changes in the alignment of the head than normally hearing students (p < 0.001). Forward head posture was the type of postural change observed most, occurring in greater proportion in children with hearing loss (p < 0.001), followed by the side slope head posture (p < 0.001). Conclusion Children with sensorineural hearing loss showed more changes in the head posture compared with children with normal hearing. PMID:25992037

  3. Head Position Comparison between Students with Normal Hearing and Students with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo, Renato de Souza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head sense position is coordinated by sensory activity of the vestibular system, located in the inner ear. Children with sensorineural hearing loss may show changes in the vestibular system as a result of injury to the inner ear, which can alter the sense of head position in this population. Aim: Analyze the head alignment in students with normal hearing and students with sensorineural hearing loss and compare the data between groups. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study examined the head alignment of 96 students, 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, aged between 7 and 18 years. The analysis of head alignment occurred through postural assessment performed according to the criteria proposed by Kendall et al. For data analysis we used the chi-square test or Fisher exact test. Results: The students with hearing loss had a higher occurrence of changes in the alignment of the head than normally hearing students (p < 0.001. Forward head posture was the type of postural change observed most, occurring in greater proportion in children with hearing loss (p < 0.001, followed by the side slope head posture (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Children with sensorineural hearing loss showed more changes in the head posture compared with children with normal hearing.

  4. Comparison of RNFL thickness and RPE-normalized RNFL attenuation coefficient for glaucoma diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, K. A.; van der Schoot, J.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a method to determine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) attenuation coefficient, based on normalization on the retinal pigment epithelium, was introduced. In contrast to conventional RNFL thickness measures, this novel measure represents a scattering property of the RNFL tissue. In this paper, we compare the RNFL thickness and the RNFL attenuation coefficient on 10 normal and 8 glaucomatous eyes by analyzing the correlation coefficient and the receiver operator curves (ROCs). The thickness and attenuation coefficient showed moderate correlation (r=0.82). Smaller correlation coefficients were found within normal (r=0.55) and glaucomatous (r=0.48) eyes. The full separation between normal and glaucomatous eyes based on the RNFL attenuation coefficient yielded an area under the ROC (AROC) of 1.0. The AROC for the RNFL thickness was 0.9875. No statistically significant difference between the two measures was found by comparing the AROC. RNFL attenuation coefficients may thus replace current RNFL thickness measurements or be combined with it to improve glaucoma diagnosis.

  5. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene: a gender-specific role in cognitive function during normal cognitive aging of the MEMO-Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Katharine R; Mitchell, David; Wersching, Heike; Czira, Maria E; Berger, Klaus; Baune, Bernhard T

    2012-08-01

    Cognitive aging processes are underpinned by multiple processes including genetic factors. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in age-related cognitive decline in otherwise healthy individuals. The gender-specific role of the BDNF gene in cognitive aging remains unclear. The identification of genetic biomarkers might be a useful approach to identify individuals at risk of cognitive decline during healthy aging processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BDNF gene and domains of cognitive functioning in normal cognitive aging. The sample, comprising 369 participants (M = 72.7 years, SD = 4.45 years), completed an extensive neuropsychological test battery measuring memory, motor function, and perceptual speed. The relationships between the SNPs rs6265, rs7103411, and rs7124442 and cognitive domains were examined. While significant main effects of BDNF SNPs on cognitive function were found for the association between rs7103411 and memory performance, gender-specific analyses revealed for females significant main effects of rs7103411 for memory and of rs6265 for perceptual speed independent of the APOE*E4 status and education. The finding for the association between rs6265 and perceptual speed in females remained significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. None of the analyses showed significant results for males. This study is the first to implicate that the SNPs rs6265 and rs7103411 affect cognitive function in the elderly in a gender-specific way.

  6. Angiographic analysis of the circle of wills: comparison between normal and aneurysm groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Suh, Dae Chul; Auh, Yong Ho [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Il [Pochon CHA University College of Medicine, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate angiographic variations of the circle of Willis in a normal group, and to compare the pattern of these variations between normal and aneurysm groups. We reviewed 220 cases in which subjects had undergone digital subtraction cerebral angiography which showed the circle of Willis in its entirety. One hundred patients were diagnosed as normal, and 110 had an aneurysm. We reviewed the absence or presence and relative size of each segment, and the configuration of the distal basilar artery. Where the circle was complete, we evaluated whether or not the circle was balanced. And we compared the pattern of these variations between the two groups. In the normal group, the most common pattern was a small anterior communicating artery with symmetrically large A1 segments in the anterior circulation(27%) and symmetrically small posterior communication arteries with large P1 segments in the posterior circulation(39%). The anterior half of the circle was complete in 90% of cases, and the posterior half in 63%. In cases in which it was incomplete, there was agenesis of the anterior communicating artery in 9% of cases, of the A1 segment in 1%, of the posterior communicating artery in 36%, and of the P1 segment in 3%. Unilateral absence of the posterior communicating artery and P1 segment was noted in two cases. In the distal basilar artery, symmetric cranial fusion was most common, accounting for 77% of cases. In contrast, incomplete circles with agenesis of the A1 (1% vs 12%, p < .05) or P1 segment (3% vs 10%, p < .05) were more common in the aneurysm group than among normal subjects. Unbalanced types with a size discrepancy between A1 segments(8% vs 18%, p < .05), or posterior communicating arteries equal to or larger than the P1 segment (27% vs 46%, p < .05) were also more common. In the distal basilar artery, symmetric cranial fusion was most common, and accounted for 69% of cases. A complete and balanced circle was more common in the normal group. The most common

  7. Automated method to compute Evans index for diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus on brain CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Ohmura, Tomomi; Matsuyama, Eri; Toyoshima, Hideto

    2017-03-01

    The early diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) considered as a treatable dementia is important. The iNPH causes enlargement of lateral ventricles (LVs). The degree of the enlargement of the LVs on CT or MR images is evaluated by using a diagnostic imaging criterion, Evans index. Evans index is defined as the ratio of the maximal width of frontal horns (FH) of the LVs to the maximal width of the inner skull (IS). Evans index is the most commonly used parameter for the evaluation of ventricular enlargement. However, manual measurement of Evans index is a time-consuming process. In this study, we present an automated method to compute Evans index on brain CT images. The algorithm of the method consisted of five major steps: standardization of CT data to an atlas, extraction of FH and IS regions, the search for the outmost points of bilateral FH regions, determination of the maximal widths of both the FH and the IS, and calculation of Evans index. The standardization to the atlas was performed by using linear affine transformation and non-linear wrapping techniques. The FH regions were segmented by using a three dimensional region growing technique. This scheme was applied to CT scans from 44 subjects, including 13 iNPH patients. The average difference in Evans index between the proposed method and manual measurement was 0.01 (1.6%), and the correlation coefficient of these data for the Evans index was 0.98. Therefore, this computerized method may have the potential to accurately compute Evans index for the diagnosis of iNPH on CT images.

  8. Comparison of Class II HLA antigen expression in normal and carcinomatous human breast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, D.J.; Maurizis, J.C.; Chassagne, J.; Chollet, P.; Plagne, R.

    1985-03-01

    Class II HLA antigen expression in breast carcinoma and normal breast gland cells was compared using a method more accurate than immunofluorescence. This new method involves labeling membrane proteins with /sup 131/I and the anti-Class II HLA monoclonal antibody with /sup 125/I. The isolation and purification of the doubly labeled (/sup 125/I-/sup 131/I) immune complex was performed by affinity chromatography and chromatofocusing successively. When the specific activity of glycoproteins is known, the amount of glycoprotein which bind specifically to the anti-Class II HLA monoclonal antibody can be deduced. In breast carcinoma cells, 1.5 to 2% of the purified glycoproteins bind specifically to the monoclonal antibody, whereas less than 0.3% of normal breast gland cells binds. In contrast, leukemic cells, of which 80 to 90% possess Class II HLA antigens, 2 to 3% of Class II HLA glycoproteins bind specifically with the anti-Class II HLA monoclonal antibody.

  9. Non-organic dysphonia. II. A comparison of subglottal pressures in normal and pathological voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramming, P

    1989-01-01

    In previous investigations, typical phonetogram differences have been revealed between healthy and pathological voices: the average maximum and minimum sound pressure levels that a patient suffering from non-organic dysphonia can produce at different fundamental frequencies deviate significantly from the corresponding values for a healthy voice. The subglottal pressure, being the primary tool for regulating the sound pressure level of voice, was estimated from the oral pressure during the voiceless stop/p/in 10 female and 10 male subjects with normal voices and in 10 female and 10 male non-organic dysphonic patients. In loud phonation, the female patients had significantly lower values than the female healthy subjects, while no corresponding significant difference was seen between the male subjects. In soft phonation, the male patients had significantly higher values than the normal healthy subjects, while the females showed no significant difference.

  10. Comparison of Normal and Breast Cancer Cell lines using Proteome, Genome and Interactome data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patwardhan, Anil J.; Strittmatter, Eric F.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Pallavicini, Maria

    2005-12-01

    Normal and cancer cell line proteomes were profiled using high throughput mass spectrometry techniques. Application of both protein-level and peptide-level sample fractionation combined with LC-MS/MS analysis enabled the confident identification of 2,235 unmodified proteins representing a broad range of functional and compartmental classes. An iterative multi-step search strategy was used to identify post-translational modifications and detected several proteins that are preferentially modified in cancer cells. Information regarding both unmodified and modified protein forms was combined with publicly available gene expression and protein-protein interaction data. The resulting integrated dataset revealed several functionally related proteins that are differentially regulated between normal and cancer cell lines.

  11. Comparison of nuclear matrix proteins between gastric cancer and normal gastric tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin-Xian Zhang; Yi Ding; Zhuo Li; Xiao-Ping Le; Wei Zhang; Ling Sun; Hui-Rong Shi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the alteration of nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs) in gastric cancer.METHODS: The NMPs extracted from 22 cases of gastric cancer and normal gastric tissues were investigated by SDS-PAGE technique and the data were analyzed using Genetools analysis software.RESULTS: Compared with normal gastric tissue, the expression of 30 ku and 28 ku NMPs in gastric cancer decreased significantly (P=0.002, P=0.001, P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the expression of the two NMPs between the various differentiated grades (P=0.947, P=0.356) and clinical stages of gastric cancer (P=0.920, P=0.243, P>0.05).CONCLUSION: The results suggested that the alteration of NMPs in gastric cancer occurred at the early stage of gastric cancer development.

  12. A comparison of definitions of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with normal serum creatinine

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    Mohammad Reza Khatami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN is the third leading cause of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients. The prevalence of CIN is reported to range from 0% to 50%, depending not only on patient condition and the procedure used but also the definition of CIN applied. We aimed to determine the best diagnostic indicator of CIN in patients with normal serum creatinine. This study included 206 patients with normal serum creatinine who underwent coronary angiography/angioplasty. Serum creatinine level and glomerular filtration rate (GFR were measured before and on the second and fifth days after contrast administration. The incidence of CIN based on a 25% increase in serum creatinine was calculated and compared with the incidence based on a 25% decrease in GFR or an increase of at least 0.5 mg/dL in serum creatinine. Of 206 patients, 127 were male (61.7% and 79 were female (38.3%; the mean age was 59.56 ± 10.3 years. The prevalence of CIN was 30% based on a 25% increase in serum creatinine, 23% based on a 25% decrease in GFR (P <0.012 and 3.8% based on a serum creatinine increase of at least 0.5 mg/dL (P <0.0001. The serum creatinine levels remained within the normal range in the majority of patients with CIN based on the different definitions. In patients with normal serum creatinine, the absolute increase in serum creatinine may describe the prevalence of CIN more accurately than the relative increase in serum creatinine or relative decrease in GFR.

  13. Neuroanatomical localization and quantification of amyloid precursor protein mRNA by in situ hybridization in the brains of normal, aneuploid, and lesioned mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendotti, C.; Forloni, G.L.; Morgan, R.A.; O' Hara, B.F.; Oster-Granite, M.L.; Reeves, R.H.; Gearhart, J.D.; Coyle, J.T. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1988-05-01

    Amyloid precursor protein mRNA was localized in frozen sections from normal and experimentally lesioned adult mouse brain and from normal and aneuploid fetal mouse brain by in situ hybridization with a {sup 35}S-labeled mouse cDNA probe. The highest levels of hybridization in adult brain were associated with neurons, primarily in telencephalic structures. The dense labeling associated with hippocampal pyramidal cells was reduced significantly when the cells were eliminated by injection of the neurotoxin ibotenic acid but was not affected when electrolytic lesions were placed in the medial septum. Since the gene encoding amyloid precursor protein has been localized to mouse chromosome 16, the authors also examined the expression of this gene in the brains of mouse embryos with trisomy 16 and trisomy 19 at 15 days of gestation. RNA gel blot analysis and in situ hybridization showed a marked increase in amyloid precursor protein mRNA in the trisomy 16 mouse head and brain when compared with euploid littermates or with trisomy 19 mice.

  14. Comparison of eye-movement patterns in schizophrenic and normal adults during examination of facial affect displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T; Shimizu, A; Yamashita, K; Iwase, M; Kajimoto, O; Kawasaki, T

    2000-12-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are known to have deficits in facial affect recognition. Subjects were 25 schizophrenic patients and 25 normal subjects who were shown pairs of slides of laughing faces and asked to compare the intensity of laughter in the two slides. Eye movements were recorded using an infrared scleral reflection technique. Normal subjects efficiently compared the same facial features in the two slides, examining the eyes and mouth, important areas for recognizing laughter, for a longer time than other regions of the face. Schizophrenic patients spent less time ex amining the eyes and mouth and often examined other regions of the face or areas other than the face. Similar results were obtained for the number of fixation points. That schizophrenic patients may have employed an inefficient strategy with few effective eye movements in facial comparison and recognition may help to explain the deficits in facial recognition observed in schizophrenic patients.

  15. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography in determination of cardiac dimensions in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, B J; Waters, J; Kwan, O L; DeMaria, A N

    1985-06-01

    No data exist regarding the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to assess cardiac size and performance in human beings. Therefore, measurements of cardiac dimensions by magnetic resonance imaging were compared with those obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography in 21 normal subjects. Magnetic resonance transverse cardiac sections were obtained during electrocardiographic gating using a spin echo pulse sequence. In normal subjects, magnetic resonance imaging yielded a range of values for cardiac dimensions having a similar standard deviation as that of two-dimensional echocardiography. Diastolic measurements of the aorta, left atrium, left ventricle and septum obtained by magnetic resonance imaging correlated well with those obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography (r = 0.82, 0.78, 0.81 and 0.75, respectively). The correlation coefficient of r = 0.35 observed for the posterior wall thickness was not surprising in view of the narrow range of normal values. Only a general correlation (r = 0.53) existed for the right ventricular diastolic dimension; this was probably related to the difficulty in obtaining representative measurements due to the complex geometry of this chamber. Failure of systolic dimension measurements by magnetic resonance imaging to correlate with those obtained by echocardiography is probably related to limitations of electrocardiographic gating, especially of determining the exact end-systolic frame. Although technically complex at present, magnetic resonance imaging does provide an additional noninvasive technique for measurement of cardiac size.

  16. Normalizing surface electromyographic measures of the masticatory muscles: Comparison of two different methods for clinical purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Andrea; Tartaglia, Gianluca Martino; Connelly, Stephen Thaddeus; Ferrario, Virgilio Ferruccio; De Felicio, Claudia Maria; Sforza, Chiarella

    2016-10-01

    To compare a new normalization technique (wax pad, WAX) with the currently utilized cotton roll (COT) method in surface electromyography (sEMG) of the masticatory muscles. sEMG of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles of 23 subjects was recorded while performing two repetitions of 5s maximum voluntary clenches (MVC) on COT and WAX. For each task, the mean value of sEMG amplitude and its coefficient of variation were calculated, and the differences between the two repetitions computed. The standard error of measurement (SEM) was calculated. For each subject and muscle, the COT-to-WAX maximum activity increment was computed. Participant preference between tasks was also recorded. WAX MVC tasks had larger maximum EMG amplitude than COT MVC tasks (P0.391) and its coefficient of variation were unchanged (P>0.180). The WAX task was the more comfortable for 18/23 subjects (P=0.007). WAX normalization ensures the same stability level of maximum EMG amplitude as COT normalization, but it is more repeatable, elicits larger maximum muscular contraction, and is felt to be more comfortable by subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Comparison of Hardiness and Coping Styles with Psychological Stress in Addicted and Normal People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Molazadeh, E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the hardiness and coping styles with stress in addicted and normal people in the city of Rasht. Method: The method of this study was causal comparative research. In sampling one hundred addicts were selected by multistage cluster sampling and one hundred normal ones selected by available sampling, then the Kobasa personal views survey and Moos and Billings coping styles questionnaires were administered among both groups. The Pearson correlation coefficients, independent samples t-test and regression analysis were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences between the mean scores of hardiness and emotion focused coping style in addicted and normal people, but there was no significant difference on problem focused coping style. Regression analysis also showed that hardiness can be a significant predictor for emotion focused coping style. Conclusion: The findings of this research show the important role of some of the personality characteristics such as hardiness and coping styles with stress that may correlate with the tendency to addiction and substance abuse in people.

  18. On the Comparison of Cognitive Function in Substance Abusers and Addicts under Methadone Treatment with Normal Individuals

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    reza mohammadzadeghan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to compare cognitive functioning in substance abusers and addicts under methadone treatment with normal individuals. Method: The current study was a causal-comparative one. The statistical population of this research consisted of all male substance abusers who had referred to addiction treatment centers of Khoy city in 2013. The total of 40 addicts under methadone treatment, 40 active drug users, and 40 non-addicts were selected as the participants of this study via convenience sampling method. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Wechsler Memory Scale were administered to the three groups for data collection purposes. Results: The results showed that the substance abusers’ scores in Wisconsin card sorting test and Wechsler memory scale were significantly different from those of addicts under methadone treatment and normal individuals. In the same way, there was a significant difference between addicts under methadone treatment and normal individuals in terms of cognitive function however, there was no significant difference between these two groups in terms of perseveration error. Conclusion: It can be concluded that chronic use of psychoactive substances causes damage to multiple brain regions such as prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and, thereby, it leads to cognitive malfunctioning in these areas.

  19. Comparison of Coping Strategies, Perfectionism and Self-Efficacy in Individuals with Substance Use Disorder and Normal Individuals

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    Farzeneh Ranjbar, N

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the coping strategies, perfectionism (positive and negative and self-efficacy in individuals with substance use disorder and normal individuals. Method: In this casual-comparative study, 200 persons (100 individuals with substance use disorder and 100 normal individuals were selected by cluster random sampling. The groups were matched with consideration of demographic characteristics (age, gender, marital status and education and they completed the Lazarus and Folkman coping strategies inventory (1984, Terry-Short perfectionism scale (1995 and Schwartz and Jerusalem general self-efficacy questionnaire (1981. Results: Findings of the study showed that the two groups had significant differences on subscales of coping strategies namely: avoidance, self-control, responsibility, avoidance-escape and problem solving. In addition, substance abuse group had also lower scores on the positive perfectionism in comparison of normal group. A significant difference on the level of self-efficacy was observed between the two groups, in this regard, self-efficacy in normal group was more than substance abuse group. Conclusion: The selection of improper coping style, unrealistic and excessive expectations about the abilities and low levels of self-efficacy are factors that can lead to more substance abuse and finally addiction.

  20. Comparison between Ribbed Slab Structure using Lightweight Foam Concrete and Solid Slab Structure using Normal Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zailan Sulieman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Normal" style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this study is to demonstrate that one-way ribbed slab with lightweight foam concrete can be used to reduce the dead load on slab concrete structure. This would allow the structural designer to reduce the size of column, footing and other load

  1. Fresh frozen plasma resuscitation provides neuroprotection compared to normal saline in a large animal model of traumatic brain injury and polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Ayesha; Jin, Guang; Sillesen, Martin; Dekker, Simone E; Bambakidis, Ted; Hwabejire, John O; Jepsen, Cecilie H; Halaweish, Ihab; Alam, Hasan B

    2015-03-01

    We have previously shown that early treatment with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is neuroprotective in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock (HS) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it remains unknown whether this strategy would be beneficial in a more clinical polytrauma model. Yorkshire swine (42-50 kg) were instrumented to measure hemodynamic parameters, brain oxygenation, and intracranial pressure (ICP) and subjected to computer-controlled TBI and multi-system trauma (rib fracture, soft-tissue damage, and liver injury) as well as combined free and controlled hemorrhage (40% blood volume). After 2 h of shock (mean arterial pressure, 30-35 mm Hg), animals were resuscitated with normal saline (NS; 3×volume) or FFP (1×volume; n=6/group). Six hours postresuscitation, brains were harvested and lesion size and swelling were evaluated. Levels of endothelial-derived vasodilator endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) were also measured. FFP resuscitation was associated with reduced brain lesion size (1005.8 vs. 2081.9 mm(3); p=0.01) as well as swelling (11.5% vs. 19.4%; p=0.02). Further, FFP-resuscitated animals had higher brain oxygenation as well as cerebral perfusion pressures. Levels of cerebral eNOS were higher in the FFP-treated group (852.9 vs. 816.4 ng/mL; p=0.03), but no differences in brain levels of ET-1 were observed. Early administration of FFP is neuroprotective in a complex, large animal model of polytrauma, hemorrhage, and TBI. This is associated with a favorable brain oxygenation and cerebral perfusion pressure profile as well as higher levels of endothelial-derived vasodilator eNOS, compared to normal saline resuscitation.

  2. In normal rat, intraventricularly administered insulin-like growth factor-1 is rapidly cleared from CSF with limited distribution into brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorevic Peter D

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Putatively active drugs are often intraventricularly administered to gain direct access to brain and circumvent the blood-brain barrier. A few studies on the normal central nervous system (CNS have shown, however, that the distribution of materials after intraventricular injections is much more limited than presumed and their exit from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is more rapid than generally believed. In this study, we report the intracranial distribution and the clearance from CSF and adjacent CNS tissue of radiolabeled insulin-like growth factor-1 after injection into one lateral ventricle of the normal rat brain. Methods Under barbiturate anesthesia, 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 was injected into one lateral ventricle of normal Sprague-Dawley rats. The subsequent distribution of IGF-1 through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF system and into brain, cerebral blood vessels, and systemic blood was measured over time by gamma counting and quantitative autoradiography (QAR. Results Within 5 min of infusion, IGF-1 had spread from the infused lateral ventricle into and through the third and fourth ventricles. At this time, 25% of the infused IGF-1 had disappeared from the CSF-brain-meningeal system; the half time of this loss was 12 min. The plasma concentration of cleared IGF-1 was, however, very low from 2 to 9 min and only began to rise markedly after 20 min. This delay between loss and gain plus the lack of radiotracer in the cortical subarachnoid space suggested that much of the IGF-1 was cleared into blood via the cranial and/or spinal nerve roots and their associated lymphatic systems rather than periventricular tissue and arachnoid villi. Less than 10% of the injected radioactivity remained in the CSF-brain system after 180 min. The CSF and arteries and arterioles within the subarachnoid cisterns were labeled with IGF-1 within 10 min. Between 60 and 180 min, most of the radioactivity within the cranium was

  3. Comparison of Biomedical Variables in PCOS Patients with Normal Iranian Women.

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    Maryam Bagheri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To compared serum CRP levels and biochemical relation in PCOS patients with normal Iranian women.This case-control study was performed on 52 individuals with PCOS (Rotterdam 2003 criteria. The cases were compared to 104 healthy non-PCOS, 20 to 35-year-old female subjects with no history of diabetes or renal diseases. Blood samples were taken on the 2(nd to the 5(th day of menstrual cycle for the evaluation of CRP levels, triglyceride, insulin, androstronedion, testestrone and total cholesterol.The mean CRP was 1.38 (± 0.43 mg /dl in the PCOS group, and 1.08 (± 0.49 mg /dl (p= 0.240 in control group.High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (HS-CRP was positively correlated with the Body Mass Index (BMI (r = 0.36, p= 0. 001. Before adjusting for age and BMI, CRP was correlated with LDL (r= 0.16, p= 0.03, total cholesterol (TC (r= 0.17, p= 0. 03, Triglycerid (TG (r= 0.23, p= 0.003, and the insulin (r= 0.20, p= 0. 01 notably in PCOS group. However, after adjustment was made for age and BMI, the correlation was attenuated in PCOS. The regression analyses depicted that CRP level was not under the influence of other medical parameters Conclusion:The results showed that mean CRP level was not significantly different between PCOs and normal women. After adjustment for age and BMI, CRP was not associated with any biochemical marker evaluated in this study. It seems that studied biochemical serum levels were mostly associated with obesity. So reduction of BMI may normalize the serum levels of CRP and other biochemical parameters.

  4. [Comparison of 51 element contents in normal human lung tissue over twenty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jing; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Xie, Qing; Chu, Hong-Da; Wu, Quan; Fan, Ti-Qiang; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2008-05-01

    Changes in content and distribution of elements in human tissues may reflect changes in environmental backgrounds, and are closely related to human health. To investigate the change in element background in normal lung tissue in different stage, we used ICP-MS, ICP-AES and GFAAS to determine 51 element contents in normal human lung samples of 1982-83 year (n = 7) and compare with those of 2004-05 year (n = 16). Samples were from healthy male adults who died suddenly, and were treated with microwave digestion and wet digestion method. The results show that the contents of 23 elements (Na, Mg, P, K, As, Mo, Ag, Ba, Bi, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) are significantly higher, and 6 elements (Zn, Ga, Ge, Se, Au and Zr) are significantly lower in the 2004-05 samples than those in the 1982-83 samples. This difference would be related to the changes in environmental backgrounds and people's living habit during twenty years. The distinctive decrease in contents of the 2004-05 samples for most measured rare earth elements (REEs) may be due to more rational usage of REEs in present, while were the soil and corps were largely abused in 1980s in China. The significant increase in contents of some useful micro-elements (Zn and Se ) in the present samples maybe because of the increased intake of these elements as people own more health consciousness. Besides, the increased contents of heavy metal Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in the present samples may be related to the deterioration of air quality as industrialization course. More than half of measured elements have been significantly changed over twenty years, indicating that some normal value ranges of element contents should be adjusted according to the difference.

  5. Comparison of serum lipid profiles between normal controls and breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikul Laisupasin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers have reported association of plasma/serum lipids and lipoproteins with different cancers. Increase levels of circulating lipids and lipoproteins have been associated with breast cancer risk. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare serum lipid profiles: total-cholesterol (T-CHOL, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C between breast cancer patients and normal participants. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 women in this study were divided into two groups in the period during May 2006-April 2007. Blood samples were collected from 249 patients with early stage breast cancer and 154 normal controls for serum lipid profiles (T-CHOL, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C analysis using Hitachi 717 Autoanalyzer (Roche Diagnostic GmbH, Germany. TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C levels in breast cancer group were significantly increased as compared with normal controls group (P < 0.001, whereas HDL-C and T-CHOL levels were not. Results: The results of this study suggest that increased serum lipid profiles may associate with breast cancer risk in Thai women. Further studies to group important factors including, cancer stages, types of cancer, parity, and menopausal status that may affect to lipid profiles in breast cancer patients along with an investigation of new lipid profiles to clarify most lipid factors that may involve in breast cancer development are needed.

  6. Comparison of keratometric and pachymetric parameters with Scheimpflug imaging in normal and keratoconic Asian eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim HB

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hou-Boon Lim,1 Gavin Tan,1 Li Lim,1 Hla Myint Htoon2 1Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore Purpose: To evaluate the keratometric and pachymetric parameters of keratoconic corneas of Asian eyes with the Scheimpflug imaging camera. Patients and methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 22 eyes with Amsler-Krumeich stage 1 keratoconus and 48 eyes from normal subjects conducted in a tertiary eye hospital. A rotating Scheimpflug imaging system, the Pentacam, was used to evaluate all eyes for tomographic parameters, as well as pachymetric progression indices (PPI and Ambrósio relational thickness (ART. Results: All PPI and ART parameter values were significantly different between study and control groups. Cornea minimum radius of curvature, absolute distance from corneal apex to thinnest location, as well as the distance from corneal apex to thinnest location in Y-axis also demonstrated statistically significant differences. The mean ART values for keratoconus eyes were 241 µm (ART-maximum and 352 µm (ART-average, falling within previously reported best cutoff values for detecting keratoconus. On receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, the area under the curve values were highest for PPI and ART parameters. Conclusion: There are significant differences in tomographic parameters between stage 1 keratoconic and normal Asian eyes. Pachymetric indices such as the PPI and the ART index can serve as additional tools in differentiating keratoconic from normal eyes. The findings validate the usefulness of the ART in identifying keratoconic eyes in Asians. Keywords: keratoconus, pentacam, corneal tomography, Ambrósio relational thickness

  7. Comparison of Novel Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors between Obese and Normal Adolescent

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    Samaneh Kouzehgaran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease is considered as the most common cause of death in all societies including Iran. This study seeks to compare the new risk factors of coronary-artery diseases in obese adolescents and control group. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, amongst the obese adolescents registered in the nutrition clinic of Ghaem Hospital, 80 individuals were selected. As the control group, additional 80 adolescent students having the same gender and age as the obese group, but with normal weight were selected. These two groups were selected randomly and their serum level of vitamin D, anti-heat shock protein27 (HSP27, balance of oxidants and antioxidants, and homocysteine were determined and compared. Results: In this study, 42 (53.2% and 37 (46.8% of the obese and normal weight groups were male, respectively. The mean value of triglyceride, cholesterol, and LDL in the obese group was higher than the normal group, but the mean value for HDL, vitamin D, homocysteine, PAB (Preoxidant and Antioxidants Balance, and anti-HSP27 was not significantly different between the groups. In the base of homocysteine >15 µmol/l, 26.6% of the obese group had hyperhomocysteinemia, therefore homocysteine may be a new risk factor for coronary artery disease in obese adolescents (χ2=4.072; P value=0.091. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that despite the presence of obesity in adolescence and adolescents, new risk factors are not present among them more than the control group. This was in contrast to what was seen in adults.

  8. Comparison of Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Selenium Levels in Low and Normal Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyly Nazemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare the maternal and umbilical cord serum selenium concentrations in Low and normal birth weight neonates.Materials and methods:A case-control study was carried out in Vali-Asr and Akbarabadi Hospitals (Jan. to Dec. 2013. Two groups; case group; 91 mothers who delivered a low birth weight (LBW neonate and control group; 86 subjects who delivered a normal birth weight neonate were selected. Immediately after birth, 5 ml of maternal blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, and sent to laboratory to assay Se concentrations. To compare both groups' blood Se concentration, data were analyzed in SPSS 16.0.Results:Eighty six (48.6% mothers with normal birth weight neonates and 91 (51.4% mothers with low birth weight infants entered the study. Mean maternal mothers' age and mean maternal blood Se were 28.55+5.90 years and 79.3756+26.46915. A significant association was seen between maternal blood and cord blood Se level in control and case group (P value<0.0001, r = 0.69 and(P value<0.001, r = 0.79. On the other hand no differences were seen between 2 groups' maternal blood Se level (P Value = 0.65. Umbilical Cord blood Se concentration was not also different between case and control group (P value = 0.46.Conclusion:We found that maternal and umbilical cord blood Se concentrations were not different in low and adequate birth weight infants, however; umbilical cord Se concentrations were positively correlated with maternal blood Se concentrations.

  9. Comparison between MRI-based attenuation correction methods for brain PET in dementia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabello, Jorge; Lukas, Mathias; Pyka, Thomas; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Ziegler, Sibylle I. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Rota Kops, Elena; Shah, N. Jon [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, Medical Imaging Physics, Juelich (Germany); Ribeiro, Andre [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, Medical Imaging Physics, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Lisbon (Portugal); Yakushev, Igor [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Institute TUM Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Munich (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    The combination of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in hybrid PET/MRI scanners offers a number of advantages in investigating brain structure and function. A critical step of PET data reconstruction is attenuation correction (AC). Accounting for bone in attenuation maps (μ-map) was shown to be important in brain PET studies. While there are a number of MRI-based AC methods, no systematic comparison between them has been performed so far. The aim of this work was to study the different performance obtained by some of the recent methods presented in the literature. To perform such a comparison, we focused on [{sup 18}F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/MRI neurodegenerative dementing disorders, which are known to exhibit reduced levels of glucose metabolism in certain brain regions. Four novel methods were used to calculate μ-maps from MRI data of 15 patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The methods cover two atlas-based methods, a segmentation method, and a hybrid template/segmentation method. Additionally, the Dixon-based and a UTE-based method, offered by a vendor, were included in the comparison. Performance was assessed at three levels: tissue identification accuracy in the μ-map, quantitative accuracy of reconstructed PET data in specific brain regions, and precision in diagnostic images at identifying hypometabolic areas. Quantitative regional errors of -20-10 % were obtained using the vendor's AC methods, whereas the novel methods produced errors in a margin of ±5 %. The obtained precision at identifying areas with abnormally low levels of glucose uptake, potentially regions affected by AD, were 62.9 and 79.5 % for the two vendor AC methods, the former ignoring bone and the latter including bone information. The precision increased to 87.5-93.3 % in average for the four new methods, exhibiting similar performances. We confirm that the AC methods based on the Dixon and UTE sequences provided by the vendor are

  10. Comparison between MRI-based attenuation correction methods for brain PET in dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Jorge; Lukas, Mathias; Rota Kops, Elena; Ribeiro, André; Shah, N Jon; Yakushev, Igor; Pyka, Thomas; Nekolla, Stephan G; Ziegler, Sibylle I

    2016-11-01

    The combination of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in hybrid PET/MRI scanners offers a number of advantages in investigating brain structure and function. A critical step of PET data reconstruction is attenuation correction (AC). Accounting for bone in attenuation maps (μ-map) was shown to be important in brain PET studies. While there are a number of MRI-based AC methods, no systematic comparison between them has been performed so far. The aim of this work was to study the different performance obtained by some of the recent methods presented in the literature. To perform such a comparison, we focused on [(18)F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/MRI neurodegenerative dementing disorders, which are known to exhibit reduced levels of glucose metabolism in certain brain regions. Four novel methods were used to calculate μ-maps from MRI data of 15 patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The methods cover two atlas-based methods, a segmentation method, and a hybrid template/segmentation method. Additionally, the Dixon-based and a UTE-based method, offered by a vendor, were included in the comparison. Performance was assessed at three levels: tissue identification accuracy in the μ-map, quantitative accuracy of reconstructed PET data in specific brain regions, and precision in diagnostic images at identifying hypometabolic areas. Quantitative regional errors of -20--10 % were obtained using the vendor's AC methods, whereas the novel methods produced errors in a margin of ±5 %. The obtained precision at identifying areas with abnormally low levels of glucose uptake, potentially regions affected by AD, were 62.9 and 79.5 % for the two vendor AC methods, the former ignoring bone and the latter including bone information. The precision increased to 87.5-93.3 % in average for the four new methods, exhibiting similar performances. We confirm that the AC methods based on the Dixon and UTE sequences provided by the vendor are inferior to

  11. Structural alterations of the social brain: a comparison between schizophrenia and autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Radeloff

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia share a substantial number of etiologic and phenotypic characteristics. Still, no direct comparison of both disorders has been performed to identify differences and commonalities in brain structure. In this voxel based morphometry study, 34 patients with autism spectrum disorder, 21 patients with schizophrenia and 26 typically developed control subjects were included to identify global and regional brain volume alterations. No global gray matter or white matter differences were found between groups. In regional data, patients with autism spectrum disorder compared to typically developed control subjects showed smaller gray matter volume in the amygdala, insula, and anterior medial prefrontal cortex. Compared to patients with schizophrenia, patients with autism spectrum disorder displayed smaller gray matter volume in the left insula. Disorder specific positive correlations were found between mentalizing ability and left amygdala volume in autism spectrum disorder, and hallucinatory behavior and insula volume in schizophrenia. Results suggest the involvement of social brain areas in both disorders. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings and to quantify the amount of distinct and overlapping neural correlates in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia.

  12. Comparison of template registration methods for multi-site meta-analysis of brain morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faskowitz, Joshua; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; McMahon, Katie L.; Wright, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul M.; Jahanshad, Neda

    2016-03-01

    Neuroimaging consortia such as ENIGMA can significantly improve power to discover factors that affect the human brain by pooling statistical inferences across cohorts to draw generalized conclusions from populations around the world. Voxelwise analyses such as tensor-based morphometry also allow an unbiased search for effects throughout the brain. Even so, such consortium-based analyses are limited by a lack of high-powered methods to harmonize voxelwise information across study populations and scanners. While the simplest approach may be to map all images to a single standard space, the benefits of cohort-specific templates have long been established. Here we studied methods to pool voxel-wise data across sites using templates customized for each cohort but providing a meaningful common space across all studies for voxelwise comparisons. As non-linear 3D MRI registrations represent mappings between images at millimeter resolution, we need to consider the reliability of these mappings. To evaluate these mappings, we calculated test-retest statistics on the volumetric maps of expansion and contraction. Further, we created study-specific brain templates for ten T1-weighted MRI datasets, and a common space from four study-specific templates. We evaluated the efficacy of using a two-step registration framework versus a single standard space. We found that the two-step framework more reliably mapped subjects to a common space.

  13. Hypercapnic normalization of BOLD fMRI: comparison across field strengths and pulse sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Eric R.; Rostrup, Egill; Sidaros, Karam;

    2004-01-01

    The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal response to neural stimulation is influenced by many factors that are unrelated to the stimulus. These factors are physiological, such as the resting venous cerebral blood volume (CBV(v)) and vessel...... for global stimulation, subjects breathed a 5% CO(2) gas mixture. Under all conditions, voxels containing primarily large veins and those containing primarily active tissue (i.e., capillaries and small veins) showed distinguishable behavior after hypercapnic normalization. This allowed functional activity...

  14. Comparison of brain volume abnormalities between ADHD and conduct disorder in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael C; Haney-Caron, Emily

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies of brain structure abnormalities in conduct disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) samples have been limited owing to cross-comorbidity, preventing clear understanding of which structural brain abnormalities might be specific to or shared by each disorder. To our knowledge, this study was the first direct comparison of grey and white matter volumes in diagnostically "pure" (i.e., no comorbidities) conduct disorder and ADHD samples. Groups of adolescents with noncormobid conduct disorder and with noncomorbid, combined-subtype ADHD were compared with age- and sex-matched controls using DARTEL voxel-based analysis of T1-weighted brain structure images. Analysis of variance with post hoc analyses compared whole brain grey and white matter volumes among the groups. We included 24 adolescents in each study group. There was an overall 13% reduction in grey matter volume in adolescents with conduct disorder, reflecting numerous frontal, temporal, parietal and subcortical deficits. The same grey matter regions typically were not abnormal in those with ADHD. Deficits in frontal lobe regions previously identified in studies of patients with ADHD either were not detected, or group differences from controls were not as strong as those between the conduct disorder and control groups. White matter volume measurements did not differentiate conduct disorder and ADHD. Our modest sample sizes prevented meaningful examination of individual features of ADHD or conduct disorder, such as aggression, callousness, or hyperactive versus inattentive symptom subtypes. The evidence supports theories of frontotemporal abnormalities in adolescents with conduct disorder, but raises questions about the prominence of frontal lobe and striatal structural abnormalities in those with noncomorbid, combined-subtype ADHD. The latter point is clinically important, given the widely held belief that ADHD is associated with numerous frontal lobe structural deficits, a

  15. Cognition in anxious children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a comparison with clinical and normal children

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    Young Arlene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition in children with anxiety disorders (ANX and comorbid Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD has received little attention, potentially impacting clinical and academic interventions in this highly disabled group. This study examined several cognitive features relative to children with either pure condition and to normal controls. Methods One hundred and eight children ages 8–12 and parents were diagnosed by semi-structured parent interview and teacher report as having: ANX (any anxiety disorder except OCD or PTSD; n = 52, ADHD (n = 21, or ANX + ADHD (n = 35. All completed measures of academic ability, emotional perception, and working memory. Clinical subjects were compared to 35 normal controls from local schools. Results Groups did not differ significantly on age, gender, or estimated IQ. On analyses of variance, groups differed on academic functioning (Wide Range Achievement Test, p Conclusion Though requiring replication, findings suggest that ANX + ADHD relates to greater cognitive and academic vulnerability than ANX, but may relate to reduced perception of anger.

  16. Plasma protein concentrations in hypertriglyceridaemic subjects. Effect of clofibrate and comparison with normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, F C; Morrison, B A; Ballantyne, D; Dryburgh, F J; Epenetos, A A

    1978-07-01

    Clofibrate, a widely used hypolipidaemic agent was given for twelve weeks to ten subjects with hypertriglyceridaemia. Its effect on lipoprotein-lipids and caeruloplasmin, IgA, IgM, alpha2-microglobulin and transferrin was assessed by comparing analyses at 4, 8 and 12 weeks on therapy with the means of values at two weeks before and at the start of treatment. The normal variation in plasma proteins was assessed in six healthy volunteers during the same period of time. On clofibrate, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations fell, but the concentrations of cholesterol in low density (LDL) and high density (HDL) lipoproteins showed no consistent change. Caeruloplasmin and IgM concentrations decreased significantly, IgA showed a limited falls (significant only at 8 weeks) and alpha2-macroglobulin did not change. The concentration of transferrin increased on therapy. No relationships were found between the falls in VLDL-lipid concentrations and the alterations in other plasma proteins. No significant variation occurred in the concentrations of lipids or proteins in the normal subjects during the period of study. The results indicate that clofibrate exerts general effects on protein metabolism.

  17. Comparison of doses received by the hippocampus in patients treated with single isocenter– vs multiple isocenter–based stereotactic radiation therapy to the brain for multiple brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algan, Ozer, E-mail: oalgan@ouhsc.edu; Giem, Jared; Young, Julie; Ali, Imad; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Hossain, Sabbir

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the doses received by the hippocampus and normal brain tissue during a course of stereotactic radiation therapy using a single isocenter (SI)–based or multiple isocenter (MI)–based treatment planning in patients with less than 4 brain metastases. In total, 10 patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating 2-3 brain metastases were included in this retrospective study, and 2 sets of stereotactic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans (SI vs MI) were generated. The hippocampus was contoured on SPGR sequences, and doses received by the hippocampus and the brain were calculated and compared between the 2 treatment techniques. A total of 23 lesions in 10 patients were evaluated. The median tumor volume, the right hippocampus volume, and the left hippocampus volume were 3.15, 3.24, and 2.63 mL, respectively. In comparing the 2 treatment plans, there was no difference in the planning target volume (PTV) coverage except in the tail for the dose-volume histogram (DVH) curve. The only statistically significant dosimetric parameter was the V{sub 100}. All of the other measured dosimetric parameters including the V{sub 95}, V{sub 99}, and D{sub 100} were not significantly different between the 2 treatment planning techniques. None of the dosimetric parameters evaluated for the hippocampus revealed any statistically significant difference between the MI and SI plans. The total brain doses were slightly higher in the SI plans, especially in the lower dose region, although this difference was not statistically different. The use of SI-based treatment plan resulted in a 35% reduction in beam-on time. The use of SI treatments for patients with up to 3 brain metastases produces similar PTV coverage and similar normal tissue doses to the hippocampus and the brain when compared with MI plans. SI treatment planning should be considered in patients with multiple brain metastases undergoing stereotactic treatment.

  18. A Comparison of Adaptive Behaviors among Mentally Retarded and Normal Individuals: A guide to Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrossadat, Leyla; Moghaddami, Alireza; Sadrossadat, Seyyed Jalal

    2010-01-01

    Because of the importance of adaptive behaviors in social and domestic lives, this study aimed at a comparison of various domains of adaptive behaviors, between mentally retarded and normal individuals. A number of 246 normal and 74 mentally retarded individuals (7-18 years of age, mean: 12±3.5 years), participated this study in Tehran, Iran. Their adaptive behaviors scores, were obtained using "Adaptive Behavioral Scale, Residential & Community" (ABS-RC: 2), consisting of 18 domains of behavior. The scale was first translated into Persian by the professionals and then retranslated into English by another translator, to ensure content non-distortion. THE FOLLOWING DOMAINS WERE SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER IN MENTALLY RETARDED THAN IN NORMAL INDIVIDUALS: independent functioning, economic activity, language development, number & time, prevocational/vocational activity, self-direction, responsibility, socialization, disturbing interpersonal behavior, domestic activity, social engagement, conformity and trustworthiness. No significant difference was documented in the physical development, stereotype & hyperactive behaviors, sexual behavior as well as self abuse behavior domains, between the two groups. As mentally deficient subjects did worse than normal ones in terms of many adaptive behavioral domains, it implies that the adaptive behavioral issues in such people might need a great deal of attention and intervention. For these retarded people to function better in their social and residential environment, it would be necessary to develop their adaptive behaviors. This study may shed light on the importance of attention to the adaptive behavioral domains of mentally retarded people and also indicates the necessity of preventive measures, even for normal individuals.

  19. Comparison of dyslipidemia among the normal-BMI and high-BMI group of people of rural Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetharaman Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity are considered major epidemic health problems in both developed and underdeveloped countries, as many studies showed a remarkable rise. One of the causes of dyslipidemia is obesity. Body mass index (BMI correlates reasonably well with laboratory-based measures of adiposity for population studies, and is extremely practical in most clinical settings. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the lipid profile of patients with normal BMI and high BMI. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 400 subjects attended the medical outpatient department (OPD of a private medical college hospital at Salem from March 2010 to August 2011. The subjects were divided into two groups (200 in each group: (1 high BMI (BMI 25 and above and (2 normal BMI (BMI less than 25. The laboratory parameters; cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride (TG were determined directly by using an automated chemistry analyzer. Statistical Analysis: The Student′s t-test was used for comparison between categorical variables, i.e. lipid profile, high-BMI and normal-BMI subjects at P ≤0.05. Results: The total cholesterol, LDL and very LDL cholesterol and the TGs are found to be relatively high among the subjects with high BMI when compared with normal BMI persons, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05. Conclusion: By analyzing the results of the study conducted, it was concluded that there was an increased risk of dyslipidemia among the high-BMI group compared with the normal-BMI people. Hence, a community-based education in this regard is of utmost importance.

  20. A comparison of adaptive behaviors among mentally retarded and normal individuals: A guide to prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Sadrossadat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the importance of adaptive behaviors in social and domestic lives, this study aimed at a comparison of various domains of adaptive behaviors, between mentally retarded and normal individuals. Methods: A number of 246 normal and 74 mentally retarded in-dividuals (7-18 years of age, mean: 12±3.5 years, participated this study in Tehran, Iran. Their adaptive behaviors scores, were ob-tained using "Adaptive Behavioral Scale, Residential & Commu-nity" (ABS-RC: 2, consisting of 18 domains of behavior. The scale was first translated into Persian by the professionals and then re-translated into English by another translator, to ensure content non-distortion. Results: The following domains were significantly lower in men-tally retarded than in normal individuals: independent function-ing, economic activity, language development, number & time, prevocational/vocational activity, self direction, responsibility, socialization, disturbing interpersonal behavior, domestic activity, social engagement, conformity and trustworthiness. No significant difference was documented in the physical development, stereo-type & hyperactive behaviors, sexual behavior as well as self abuse behavior domains, between the two groups. Conclusions: As mentally deficient subjects did worse than nor-mal ones in terms of many adaptive behavioral domains, it implies that the adaptive behavioral issues in such people might need a great deal of attention and intervention. For these retarded people to function better in their social and residential environment, it would be necessary to develop their adaptive behaviors. This study may shed light on the importance of attention to the adap-tive behavioral domains of mentally retarded people and also indi-cates the necessity of preventive measures, even for normal indi-viduals.

  1. Comparison of adaptive statistical iterative and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques in brain CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Qingguo, E-mail: renqg83@163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Dewan, Sheilesh Kumar, E-mail: sheilesh_d1@hotmail.com [Department of Geriatrics, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Li, Ming, E-mail: minli77@163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Li, Jianying, E-mail: Jianying.Li@med.ge.com [CT Imaging Research Center, GE Healthcare China, Beijing (China); Mao, Dingbiao, E-mail: maodingbiao74@163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Wang, Zhenglei, E-mail: Williswang_doc@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Electricity Hospital, Shanghai 200050 (China); Hua, Yanqing, E-mail: cjr.huayanqing@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare image quality and visualization of normal structures and lesions in brain computed tomography (CT) with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction techniques in different X-ray tube current–time products. Materials and methods: In this IRB-approved prospective study, forty patients (nineteen men, twenty-one women; mean age 69.5 ± 11.2 years) received brain scan at different tube current–time products (300 and 200 mAs) in 64-section multi-detector CT (GE, Discovery CT750 HD). Images were reconstructed with FBP and four levels of ASIR-FBP blending. Two radiologists (please note that our hospital is renowned for its geriatric medicine department, and these two radiologists are more experienced in chronic cerebral vascular disease than in neoplastic disease, so this research did not contain cerebral tumors but as a discussion) assessed all the reconstructed images for visibility of normal structures, lesion conspicuity, image contrast and diagnostic confidence in a blinded and randomized manner. Volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded. All the data were analyzed by using SPSS 13.0 statistical analysis software. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the image qualities at 200 mAs with 50% ASIR blending technique and 300 mAs with FBP technique (p > .05). While between the image qualities at 200 mAs with FBP and 300 mAs with FBP technique a statistically significant difference (p < .05) was found. Conclusion: ASIR provided same image quality and diagnostic ability in brain imaging with greater than 30% dose reduction compared with FBP reconstruction technique.

  2. The serotonin transporter in rhesus monkey brain: comparison of DASB and citalopram binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Zhizhen [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)]. E-mail: zhizhen_zeng@merck.com; Chen, T.-B. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Miller, Patricia J. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Dean, Dennis [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Tang, Y.S. [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Sur, Cyrille [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Williams, David L. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We have characterized the interaction of the serotonin transporter ligand [{sup 3}H]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine (DASB) with rhesus monkey brain in vitro using tissue homogenate binding and autoradiographic mapping. [{sup 3}H]-DASB, a tritiated version of the widely used [{sup 11}C] positron emission tomography tracer, was found to selectively bind to a single population of sites with high affinity (K {sub d}=0.20{+-}0.04 nM). The serotonin transporter density (B {sub max}) obtained for rhesus frontal cortex was found to be 66{+-}8 fmol/mg protein using [{sup 3}H]-DASB, similar to the B {sub max} value obtained using the reference radioligand [{sup 3}H]-citalopram, a well-characterized and highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (83{+-}22 fmol/mg protein). Specific binding sites of both [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram were similarly and nonuniformly distributed throughout the rhesus central nervous system, in a pattern consistent with serotonin transporter localization reported for human brain. Regional serotonin transporter densities, estimated from optical densities of the autoradiographic images, were well correlated between the two radioligands. Finally, DASB and fluoxetine showed dose-dependent full inhibition of [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding in a competition autoradiographic study, with K {sub i} values in close agreement with those obtained from rhesus brain homogenates. This side-by-side comparison of [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding sites in rhesus tissue homogenates and in adjacent rhesus brain slices provides additional support for the use of [{sup 11}C]-DASB to assess the availability and distribution of serotonin transporters in nonhuman primates.

  3. Comparison of methods of estimating body fat in normal subjects and cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Sawitsky, A.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Vaswani, A.N.

    1981-12-01

    Total body fat can be indirectly estimated by the following noninvasive techniques: determination of lean body mass by measurement of body potassium or body water, and determination of density by underwater weighing or by skinfold measurements. The measurement of total body nitrogen by neutron activation provides another technique for estimating lean body mass and hence body fat. The nitrogen measurement can also be combined with the measurement of total body potassium in a two compartment model of the lean body mass from which another estimate of body fat can be derived. All of the above techniques are subject to various errors and are based on a number of assumptions, some of which are incompletely validated. These techniques were applied to a population of normal subjects and to a group of cancer patients. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in terms of their ability to estimate total body fat.

  4. Comparison of methods of estimating body fat in normal subjects and cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, S H; Ellis, K J; Vartsky, D; Sawitsky, A; Gartenhaus, W; Yasumura, S; Vaswani, A N

    1981-12-01

    Total body fat can be indirectly estimated by the following noninvasive techniques: determination of lean body mass by measurement of body potassium or body water, and determination of density by underwater weighing or by skinfold measurements. The measurement of total body nitrogen by neutron activation provides another technique for estimating lean body mass and hence body fat. The nitrogen measurement can also be combined with the measurement of total body potassium in a two compartment model of the lean body mass from which another estimate of body fat can be derived. All of the above techniques are subject to various errors and are based on a number of assumptions, some of which are incompletely validated. These techniques were applied to a population of normal subjects and to a group of cancer patients. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in terms of their ability to estimate total body fat.

  5. Comparison of music perception in bilateral and unilateral cochlear implant users and normal-hearing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veekmans, K; Ressel, L; Mueller, J; Vischer, M; Brockmeier, S J

    2009-01-01

    Music plays an important role in the daily life of cochlear implant (CI) users, but electrical hearing and speech processing pose challenges for enjoying music. Studies of unilateral CI (UCI) users' music perception have found that these subjects have little difficulty recognizing tempo and rhythm but great difficulty with pitch, interval and melody. The present study is an initial step towards understanding music perception in bilateral CI (BCI) users. The Munich Music Questionnaire was used to investigate music listening habits and enjoyment in 23 BCI users compared to 2 control groups: 23 UCI users and 23 normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Bilateral users appeared to have a number of advantages over unilateral users, though their enjoyment of music did not reach the level of NH listeners.

  6. Elastin distribution in the normal uterus, uterine leiomyomas, adenomyosis and adenomyomas: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei-Qiang; Ma, Rong; Zheng, Jian-Ming; Gong, Zhi-Jing

    2006-04-01

    To describe the histologic distribution of elastin in the nonpregnant human uterus, uterine leiomyomas, adenomyosis and adenomyomas. Uteri were obtained from women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions, including 26 cases of uterine leiomyomas, 24 cases of adenomyosis, 18 adenomyomas and 6 cases of autopsy specimens. Specific histochemical staining techniques were employed in order to demonstrate the distribution of elastin. The distribution of elastin components in the uterus was markedly uneven and showed a decreasing gradient from outer to inner myometrium. No elastin was present within leiomyomas, adenomyomas or adenomyosis. The distribution of elastin may help explain the normal function of the myometrium in labor. It implies that the uneven distribution of elastin components and absence of elastin within leiomyomas, adenomyomas and adenomyosis could be of some clinical significance. The altered elastin distribution in disease states may help explain such symptoms as dysmenorrhea in uterine endometriosis.

  7. Comparison of growth factor signalling pathway utilisation in cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ji Eun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K-PKB, mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK-ERK and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR- p70S6K, are thought to regulate many aspects of tumour cell proliferation and survival. We have examined the utilisation of these three signalling pathways in a number of cell lines derived from patients with metastatic malignant melanoma of known PIK3CA, PTEN, NRAS and BRAF mutational status. Methods Western blotting was used to compare the phosphorylation status of components of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways, as indices of pathway utilisation. Results Normal melanocytes could not be distinguished from melanoma cells on the basis of pathway utilisation when grown in the presence of serum, but could be distinguished upon serum starvation, where signalling protein phosphorylation was generally abrogated. Surprisingly, the differential utilisation of individual pathways was not consistently associated with the presence of an oncogenic or tumour suppressor mutation of genes in these pathways. Conclusion Utilisation of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways in melanoma, as determined by phosphorylation of signalling components, varies widely across a series of cell lines, and does not directly reflect mutation of genes coding these components. The main difference between cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cells is not the pathway utilisation itself, but rather in the serum dependence of pathway utilisation.

  8. Hyaline cartilage thickness in radiographically normal cadaveric hips: comparison of spiral CT arthrographic and macroscopic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyler, Annabelle; Bousson, Valérie; Bergot, Catherine; Polivka, Marc; Leveque, Eric; Vicaut, Eric; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2007-02-01

    To assess spiral multidetector computed tomographic (CT) arthrography for the depiction of cartilage thickness in hips without cartilage loss, with evaluation of anatomic slices as the reference standard. Permission to perform imaging studies in cadaveric specimens of individuals who had willed their bodies to science was obtained from the institutional review board. Two independent observers measured the femoral and acetabular hyaline cartilage thickness of 12 radiographically normal cadaveric hips (from six women and five men; age range at death, 52-98 years; mean, 76.5 years) on spiral multidetector CT arthrographic reformations and on coronal anatomic slices. Regions of cartilage loss at gross or histologic examination were excluded. CT arthrographic and anatomic measurements in the coronal plane were compared by using Bland-Altman representation and a paired t test. Differences between mean cartilage thicknesses at the points of measurement were tested by means of analysis of variance. Interobserver and intraobserver reproducibilities were determined. At CT arthrography, mean cartilage thickness ranged from 0.32 to 2.53 mm on the femoral head and from 0.95 to 3.13 mm on the acetabulum. Observers underestimated cartilage thickness in the coronal plane by 0.30 mm +/- 0.52 (mean +/- standard error) at CT arthrography (P cartilage thicknesses at the different measurement points was significant for coronal spiral multidetector CT arthrography and anatomic measurement of the femoral head and acetabulum and for sagittal and transverse CT arthrography of the femoral head (P cartilage thickness from the periphery to the center of the joint ("gradients") were found by means of spiral multidetector CT arthrography and anatomic measurement. Spiral multidetector CT arthrography depicts cartilage thickness gradients in radiographically normal cadaveric hips. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  9. Comparison of Tooth Size Discrepancy in Cl II Malocclusion Patients with Normal Occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There must be a proper mesiodistal tooth size ratio (Bolton analysis between maxillary and mandibular teeth for good occlusal interdigitation. Therefore the Bolton analysis should be considered during diagnosis, treatment planning and predication of ultimate results.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to appraise tooth size ratios in Cl II malocclusion group and compare them with normal individuals. Materials and Method: This study was carried out on 60 pre-treatment orthodontic casts of class II malocclusion patients and 60 diagnostic casts of normal occlusion individuals which were selected through cluster sampling in accordance with the selective criteria. Each group consisted of 30 men and 30 women. The greatest mesiodistal diameters of all the teeth on each cast were measured by a digital calliper with 0.01mm accuracy except the second and third molars. Then tooth size ratios were analyzed as Bolton described. The statistical analysis were performed by chi-square and t-tests using SPSS. Results: The prevalence of anterior and overall tooth size discrepancy was rela-tively high (28.3%, 20%, showing no significant difference between men and women (p> 0.05. The mean of anterior and overall tooth- size ratios in Cl II malocclusion group were 79.18 and 92.39 respectively, which were statistically different from the Bolton study (ideal occlusion ratios (p 0.05.Conclusion: Considering the high frequency of tooth size discrepancy among CLII patients and the significant difference in Bolton ratios between this malocclusion and ideal occlusions; it seems that tooth size discrepancy can be considered as a possible etiologic factor and Bolton analysis should be performed as a pre-treatment diagnostic tool for this type of malocclusion.

  10. Computed tomography of the dog's brain: normal aspects and anatomical correlation; Tomografia computadorizada do encefalo do cao: aspectos da normalidade e correlacao anatomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorigados, C.A.B., E-mail: clorigados@usp.br [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (UniFMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pinto, A.C.B.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2013-06-15

    Normal tomographic images of dog's heads were obtained, aimed to familiarize them with the normal aspects of the brain and correlate these findings with the relevant anatomy of the region studied. Several anatomical structures, such as the parenchyma of the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, the longitudinal fissure, the ventricular system, the cerebellum, the olfactory bulb, the corpus callosum, diencephalon, the pons, the medulla oblongata and the chiasmatic sulcus were directly identified or were related to neighboring structures which helped in their identification. (author)

  11. A Comparison of Adaptive Behaviors among Mentally Retarded and Normal Individuals: A guide to Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Sadros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the importance of adaptive behaviors in socialand domestic lives, this study aimed at a comparison of various domainsof adaptive behaviors, between mentally retarded and normalindividuals.Methods: A number of 246 normal and 74 mentally retarded individuals(7-18 years of age, mean: 12±3.5 years, participated this study inTehran, Iran. Their adaptive behaviors scores, were obtained using"Adaptive Behavioral Scale, Residential & Community" (ABS-RC: 2,consisting of 18 domains of behavior. The scale was first translatedinto Persian by the professionals and then retranslated into English byanother translator, to ensure content non-distortion.Results: The following domains were significantly lower in mentallyretarded than in normal individuals: independent functioning, economicactivity, language development, number & time, prevocational/vocational activity, self direction, responsibility, socialization,disturbing interpersonal behavior, domestic activity, social engagement,conformity and trustworthiness. No significant difference was documentedin the physical development, stereotype & hyperactive behaviors,sexual behavior as well as self abuse behavior domains, betweenthe two groups.Conclusions: As mentally deficient subjects did worse than normalones in terms of many adaptive behavioral domains, it implies that theadaptive behavioral issues in such people might need a great deal ofattention and intervention. For these retarded people to function betterin their social and residential environment, it would be necessary todevelop their adaptive behaviors. This study may shed light on theimportance of attention to the adaptive behavioral domains of mentallyretarded people and also indicates the necessity of preventive measures,even for normal individuals.

  12. Effect of brain-derived neurotropic factor released from hypoxic astrocytes on gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function in normal hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongliang Liu; Tijun Dai

    2011-01-01

    Astrocytes can release increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor during cerebral ischemia, but it is unclear whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor affects γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function in normal neurons. Results from this study demonstrated that γ-aminobutyric acid at 100 μmol/L concentration raised the intracellular calcium level in neurons treated with medium from cultured hypoxic astrocytes, and the rise in calcium level could be inhibited by γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor antagonist bicuculline or brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor antagonist k252a. Γ-aminobutyric acid type A-gated current induced by 100 μmol/L γ-aminobutyric acid was in an inward direction in physiological conditions, but shifted to the outward direction in neurons when treated with the medium from cultured hypoxic astrocytes, and this effect could be inhibited by k252a. The reverse potential was shifted leftward to -93 Mv, which could be inhibited by k252a and Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter inhibitor bumetanide. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was released from hypoxic astrocytes at a high level. It shifted the reverse potential of γ-aminobutyric acid type A-gated currents leftward in normal neurons by enhancing the function of Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter, and caused γ-aminobutyric acid to exert an excitatory effect by activating γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor.

  13. Does kainic acid induce partial brain lesion in an invertebrate model: sepia officinalis? Comparison with electrolytic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graindorge, Nicolas; Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Chichery, Raymond; Dickel, Ludovic; Bellanger, Cécile

    2008-10-31

    The present study investigates the feasibility of excitotoxic lesions in the cuttlefish in the mapping of brain functions in Cephalopods. Adult animals were injected locally with a neurotoxin, kainic acid. The brain region receiving the neurotoxin was the vertical lobe, a key brain structure for learning and memory processes. Brain damage induced by these injections was evaluated using different histological stainings: hematoxilin-eosin, Fink-Heimer and DAPI. The results were compared with histological changes after electrolytic lesion of the vertical lobe. Neurodegeneration was revealed in and around the injection site: an intense area of proliferative cells, degenerating terminal axon ramifications and cell death. In comparison with electrolytic lesion, excitotoxic lesion displays important advantages, since fibres of passage are not destroyed by kainic acid injection, which induces only a restricted lesion and so is an appropriate method of investigating the role of the vertical lobe or other brain regions in a Cephalopod model, Sepia officinalis.

  14. Long term observations of PM2.5-associated PAHs: Comparisons between normal and episode days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Wenkai; Zhang, Ruiqin; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-03-01

    The pollution characteristic of fine particular matter (PM2.5) and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are currently drawing a great deal of interest because of their influence on environment and health. In this study, PM2.5 was collected from 2011 to 2013 (n = 188) in a suburban area of Zhengzhou, China. 16-PAHs were analyzed to determine the concentration, seasonal variation and potential sources during normal days and episode events. The total mass of 16 PAHs and PM2.5 were in the range of 7-961 ng m-3 and 55-697 μg m-3, with a 3-year average of 174 ng m-3 and 194 μg m-3 respectively. Winter is most polluted for both PM2.5 and PAHs. Average PAH and PM2.5 concentrations during three episode events are 454 ng m-3 and 453 μg m-3, respectively, much higher than values during normal days (299 ng m-3 and 180 μg m-3, respectively). Ratios of Σ16PAH/PM2.5 varied with seasons and concentrations of PM2.5, but showed a negative correlation with PM2.5 concentrations during episode events. The dominant components of PAHs are Benzo[b]fluoranthene, Chrysene, Fluoranthene, and Benzo[k]fluoranthene, Benz[a]anthracene, Pyrene, Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and their total concentrations vary from 27 to 342 ng m-3, accounting for 58-82% (average = 73%) of 16 PAHs. The Benzo[a]pyrene (Bap) concentration obtained was 9.4 ng m-3 (3-year average), exceeding nearly one order of magnitude of ambient air BaP standard (annual average: 1.0 ng m-3) in China. Diagnose ratios and Positive Matrix Factorization results show that coal combustion, vehicles, coking plant, and biomass burning are main sources for PAHs in this area. The high concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs, especially during episode events, reflected a potential health problem for nearby public and the necessity of air pollution control for both stationary and mobile sources.

  15. Comparison of self-esteem level of adolescents with cochlear implant and normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Sanem; Belgin, Erol

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the levels of self-esteem of adolescents with cochlear implants (before and after cochlear implantation) and the ones who have normal hearing. For this purpose, Rosenberg self-esteem scale is applied upon the study group which consists of 30 adolescents with cochlear implant between the ages of 12-19 and upon the control group which consists of 60 adolescents having the similar characteristics. The scale is used to evaluate the level of self-esteem of adolescents with cochlear implant and with normal hearing. At the end of the application, the scores of these two groups which they got according to their answers were compared statistically. When the results were examined, there seemed to be no significant difference statistically between the self-esteem values of the cochlear implant group and the control group. Apart from this, there seemed to be significant difference statistically between the self-esteem values of the before cochlear implantation and control group. In this study, we examined changes in the level of self-esteem according to different variables. As a result, it was found out that in both groups levels of self-esteem was higher for adolescents who had had preschool education, had brothers/sisters, high level of income, whose mother was working and whose father and mother had higher levels of education. On the other hand, the birth sequence and the child's father's profession did not seem to have any effect on the child's level of self-esteem. As a result of these findings, it was thought that cochlear implantation had a positive effect on life quality and it was suggested that the adolescents and their families should get assistance from experts about the characteristics and principles of approaching the child in this period. The adolescent should be directed towards social activities and courses, their positive sides should be supported and further studies should be carried out with different case groups on

  16. Progressive Disintegration of Brain Networking from Normal Aging to Alzheimer Disease: Analysis of Independent Components of (18)F-FDG PET Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Marco; Giuliani, Alessandro; Öberg, Johanna; De Carli, Fabrizio; Morbelli, Silvia; Girtler, Nicola; Arnaldi, Dario; Accardo, Jennifer; Bauckneht, Matteo; Bongioanni, Francesca; Chincarini, Andrea; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Jonsson, Cathrine; Nobili, Flavio

    2017-07-01

    Brain connectivity has been assessed in several neurodegenerative disorders investigating the mutual correlations between predetermined regions or nodes. Selective breakdown of brain networks during progression from normal aging to Alzheimer disease dementia (AD) has also been observed. Methods: We implemented independent-component analysis of (18)F-FDG PET data in 5 groups of subjects with cognitive states ranging from normal aging to AD-including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) not converting or converting to AD-to disclose the spatial distribution of the independent components in each cognitive state and their accuracy in discriminating the groups. Results: We could identify spatially distinct independent components in each group, with generation of local circuits increasing proportionally to the severity of the disease. AD-specific independent components first appeared in the late-MCI stage and could discriminate converting MCI and AD from nonconverting MCI with an accuracy of 83.5%. Progressive disintegration of the intrinsic networks from normal aging to MCI to AD was inversely proportional to the conversion time. Conclusion: Independent-component analysis of (18)F-FDG PET data showed a gradual disruption of functional brain connectivity with progression of cognitive decline in AD. This information might be useful as a prognostic aid for individual patients and as a surrogate biomarker in intervention trials. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  17. Comparison of corneal topographic measurements and high order aberrations in keratoconus and normal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Hatice Nur; Kantarci, Feride Aylin; Yildirim, Aydin; Tatar, Mehmet Gurkan; Goker, Hasan; Uslu, Hasim; Gurler, Bulent

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this report was to compare corneal topographic measurements and anterior high order corneal aberrations in eyes with keratoconus and normal eyes by using Scheimpflug-Placido topography. Eighty cases diagnosed with mild (group 1), moderate (group 2), and advanced (group 3) stage keratoconus (KC) according to Amsler-Krumeich Classification and 81 healthy (control group) cases were retrospectively examined. The mean keratometric measurements (as both diopters (Kavg) and mm values (mmavg)), central corneal thickness values (CCT), high order aberration (HOA), total wavefront aberration (TWA), coma, trefoil, and spherical aberration measurements were performed using Sirius topography equipment. The topographic values were compared between the groups. There were 25 cases in group 1 KC (15.5%), 34 cases in group 2 KC (21.1%), 21 cases in group 3 KC (13.1%), and 81 cases (50.3%) in the control group. In terms of mean age and gender distributions, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). However, there was significant difference between the groups in terms of Kavg, CCT, HOA, TWA, coma, trefoil, and spherical aberration values (pkeratoconus. Anterior high order corneal aberration measurements are a useful tool to guide the physician in diagnosis and classification of keratoconus. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of plantar pressures and contact area between normal and cavus foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes M; Diaz Mancha, Juan Antonio; Sánchez Rodríguez, Raquel; Escamilla Martínez, Elena; Gómez Martín, Beatriz; Ramos Ortega, Javier

    2014-02-01

    In pes cavus, the medial longitudinal arch elevation reduces the contact surface area and consequently increases the corresponding plantar pressure measurements. This poor distribution of loads may produce associated pathology and pain in this or other areas of the body. Normal reference values need to be established in order to determine which patterns are prone to pathology. To compare the plantar pressures and weight-bearing surface in a population with pes cavus to a population with neutral feet. The sample comprised 68 adults, 34 with pes cavus and 34 with neutral feet. The Footscan USB Gait Clinical System(®) was used as a platform to measure the total contact area and plantar pressure under the forefoot, midfoot, hindfoot, each metatarsal head, and the overall metatarsal area. A statistical analysis of the data was performed using Student's t-test for independent samples. The pes cavus subjects showed a significant reduction in their weight-bearing area [neutral feet: 165.04 ( ± 20.68) cm(2); pes cavus: 118.26 ( ± 30.31) cm(2); p pressures under all zones of the forefoot except the fifth metatarsal [metatarsal pressure: in neutral feet 503,797 ( ± 9.32) kPa; in pes cavus 656.12 ( ± 22.39) kPa; p relative distribution of this load is similar in both groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparison between genetic portraits of normal osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri Annalisa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteosarcoma (OS is the most frequent malignant bone tumor occurring in young patients in the first two decades of life. Metastases are the cause of 90% of cancer deaths for patients with OS. OS of the jaw is rare and aggressive malignancy constitutes approximately 5-13% of all cases of skeletal OS. Chemotherapy plus surgery are the first choice for treatment. Aims : Because OS cell lines (OCLs should share a common pathway with primary OS and new drugs are screened in in vitro systems, new insight about the genetic profiling of OCLs is of paramount importance to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of this rare tumor and detecting a potential target for specific therapy. Materials and Methods : The SAOS2 and TE85 cell lines were analysed using DNA microarrays containing 19,000 genes. Several genes in which expression was significantly differentially expressed in OCLs vs. normal osteoblast (NO were detected. Results : The differentially expressed genes cover a broad range of functional activities: (a cell cycle regulation, (b cell differentiation, (c apoptosis, and (d immunity. Conclusion: The reported data can be relevant to a better understanding of the biology of OS and as a model for comparing the effect of drugs used in OS treatment.

  20. Variability in the results of inr (international normalized ratio: a comparison of six commercial thromboplastin brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Daniela Serralvo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The efficacy and safety in treatment with oral anticoagulants are dependent on the monitoring of the effect of anticoagulants by the prothrombin time (PT. The system INR (International Normalized Ratio was developed to minimize the variability in the PT, mainly because of the thromboplastin reagent used. Objective: Compare the results of INR employing six thromboplastins and plasmas of patients using oral anticoagulants. Materials and Methods: For this study, 96 patients using oral anticoagulants and that had TP collected for monitoring anticoagulants were selected randomly. INR values were determined using six commercially available thromboplastin brands. Results and Discussion: Of the 96 patients, 29 were with the INR between 2 and 3 when used reagents Dade-Behring®, Human do Brasil® and Diagnostica Stago®. Regardless of the range of INR, the results obtained with the reagent Labtest® were statistically different from the Dade-Behring®, from Diagnostica Stago®, Trinity Biotech and Bios Diagnostica®. With INR between 2 and 3 only differences were observed between the results of brands and Bios Diagnostica® Labtest®. With INR above 3, the results of Labtest® were different from the Dade-Behring®, from Diagnostica Stago®, Trinity Biotech® and Bios Diagnostica®. Conclusion: Despite the establishment of INR, there are still significant differences in INR results depending on the thromboplastin brand used, which can interfere with the therapeutic approach in relation to oral anticoagulants.

  1. [COMPARISON OF PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PRESCHOOL CHILEAN NORMAL WEIGHT VERSUS OVERWEIGHT/OBESITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez Ruíz, Mariela; Estay Carvajal, Jessica; Calzadilla Nuñez, Aracelis; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Díaz-Narváez, Víctor Patricio

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: comparar cómo se distribuye el Desarrollo Psicomotor (DSM) en tres estados nutricionales: normal, sobrepeso y obeso. Material y métodos: se aplicó el Test de DSM “TEPSI” a 58 niños (muestra intencionada) de un total de 150, de 4 a 4,5 años, los cuales se dividieron en 3 grupos: normopeso (n = 28); sobrepeso (n = 18) y obeso (n = 12). El peso y la talla se midieron utilizando una balanza SECA y un cartabón de pared (metodología de Frankfurt). La evaluación nutricional se realizó por IMC/edad según la propuesta del Center for Disease Control de Estados Unidos (CDC). Las comparaciones se realizaron mediante un análisis de varianza, prueba Tukey y prueba de Kruskal- Wallis. Se emplearon gráficos de cajas. El nivel de significación empleado fue de ≤ 0,05 en todos los casos. Resultados: los preescolares con obesidad y sobrepeso estudiados mostraron un perfil motriz clasificado como inferior y muy inferior, respectivamente, cuando eran comparados con el grupo de preescolares normopeso. Conclusiones: el sobrepeso/obesidad es un factor que influye en el desarrollo de la psicomotricidad de forma negativa en preescolares de 4 años de edad.

  2. Comparison of antibody array substrates and the use of glycerol to normalize spot morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olle, Eric W; Messamore, James; Deogracias, Michael P; McClintock, Shannon D; Anderson, Timothy D; Johnson, Kent J

    2005-12-01

    Antibody microarrays are a high-throughput proteomic technology used to examine the expression of multiple proteins in complex solutions. Antibody microarrays can be manufactured on a variety of commercially available activated glass or coated slides. The goal of this study was to compare Hydrogeltrade mark, nitrocellulose, aldehyde-silane and epoxy-silane slides to determine the amount of antibody bound. The optimal substrate was defined as one that bound the greatest amount of antibody with minimal background. Our studies found that epoxy-silane enhanced surface (ES) slides gave the greatest degree of binding along with a minimal background. However, larger antibody microarrays showed variability in spot size, high intra-spot coefficient of variation and drying artifacts. Increasing the amount of glycerol in the spotting buffer caused a dose-dependent improvement in overall spot morphology. Glycerol was tested on 128 different antibodies and showed decreased: mean spot diameter, intra-spot coefficient of variation and drying artifacts. These studies revealed that the optimal slide substrate was epoxy-silane ES microarray slides. Furthermore, glycerol could normalize spot size, decrease intra-spot coefficient of variability, decrease drying artifacts and increase antibody-spotting density.

  3. Comparison of Gap in Noise Test Results Between Congenital Blind and Sighted Subjects With Normal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Main feature of auditory processing abilities is temporal processing including temporal resolution, temporal ordering, temporal integration and temporal masking. Many studies have shown the superiority of blinds in temporal discrimination over sighted subjects. In this study, temporal processing was compared in congenital blind subjects with sighted controls via gap in noise test (GIN.Methods: This analytic-prescriptive non-invasive cohort study was conducted on 22 congenital blinds (11 males and 11 females with a mean age of 26.22 years and 22 sighted control subjects (11 males and 11 females with a mean age of 24.04 years with normal hearing in faculty of Rehabilitation Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Gap in noise test results, approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers, were obtained and then, were analyzed by Mann-Whitney non-parametric statistical test.Results: There was a significant difference in the approximate threshold and the percent of corrected answers between congenital blinds and sighted control subjects (p<0.05. However, there was no significant difference between males and females in this regard (p>0.05.Conclusion: Auditory temporal resolution ability, the lower approximate threshold and the more corrected answers in gap in noise, in blind subjects is better than the sighted control group and it might be related to the compensative neuroplasticity after visual deprivation.

  4. Comparison of the Speech Syntactic Features between Hearing-Impaired and Normal Hearing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza PahlavanNezhad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study seeks to describe and analyze the syntactic features of children with severely hearing loss who had access to the hearing aids compared with children with normal hearing, assigning them to the same separate gender classes.   Materials and Methods: In the present study, eight children with severe hearing impairment who used a hearing aid and eight hearing children matched for age and gender were selected using an available sampling method based on the principles of auditory-verbal approach. Hearing children had an average age of 5.45 ±1.9 years and subjects had a mean age of 5.43±2.17 years and their rehabilitation had begun before they were 18 months old. The assessment instrument of the study included the language development test, TOLDP-3. The syntactic skills of these children were analyzed and compared with the hearing children of the same age based on gender.   Results: There was a significant difference between the syntactic scores of the hearing-impaired children and the scores of the hearing children of the same age in the “sentence imitation” (t=−2/90, P

  5. Serum testosterone and gonadotropins levels in patients with premature ejaculation: A comparison with normal men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Mohammad G.; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Alizadeh, Farshid; Rangzan, Nazir

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the role of testosterone (T) in the pathogenesis of ejaculatory symptoms, particularly premature ejaculation (PE). Materials and Methods: A total of 41 male patients with PE as well as 41 controls with no sexual dysfunction were recruited in this cross-sectional study. We used the stopwatch measurement to monitor the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Patients with mean IELT values lower than 60 s were considered to have PE. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in patients as well as controls. Patients with thyroid dysfunction, hypogonadism, hypertension and dyslipidemia were excluded from the study. Results: The serum levels of FT and FSH were significantly higher in cases (P = 0.036 and 0.003, respectively). There was no significant difference between TT, LH and PRL levels of the two groups. Conclusion: Patients with PE have higher FT and FSH levels compared with normal men. The causative relationship between these entities and also the clinical importance of this finding has to be determined by more comprehensive studies. PMID:24592360

  6. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-05-05

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth information. Performance tests on modeled tumor genomes revealed that COSMOS outperformed existing methods in terms of F-measure. We also applied COSMOS to an experimental mouse cell-based model, in which SVs were induced by genome engineering and gamma-ray irradiation, followed by polymerase chain reaction-based confirmation. The precision of COSMOS was 84.5%, while the next best existing method was 70.4%. Moreover, the sensitivity of COSMOS was the highest, indicating that COSMOS has great potential for cancer genome analysis.

  7. Axial lower-limb alignment: comparison of knee geometry in normal volunteers and osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D; Scudamore, A; Li, J; Wyss, U; Bryant, T; Costigan, P

    1997-01-01

    Osteoarthritis of the knee is associated with deformities of the lower limb and malalignment of the limb segments. Pathogenetic relationships between the two are poorly understood. Alignment was studied by standardized radiography in 167 symptomatic Canadian osteoarthritis patients, and compared with 119 healthy adult volunteers. In healthy adults overall alignment (hip-knee-ankle angle) was principally determined by distal femoral valgus (condylar hip angle) and proximal tibial-plateau varus (plateau-ankle angle): the angle between the joint surfaces (condylar plateau) was relatively constant. In osteoarthritis, disease-associated differences included condylar-plateau angles that were divergent: accentuated medial convergence in varus osteoarthritis and lateral convergence in valgus osteoarthritis. This was interpreted as change arising from focal loss of cartilage in the medial (varus osteoarthritis) or lateral (valgus osteoarthritis) compartments of the knee. The changes would contribute to increasing limb malalignment during disease progression. But differences of limb geometry also contributed to malalignment. These were the average trends: in varus osteoarthritis there was abnormal femoral geometry (lesser femoral condylar valgus), but tibial surface geometry was the same. In valgus osteoarthritis, the opposite was true: abnormal tibial geometry (lesser plateau varus), but normal femoral geometry. A possible explanation is that these abnormal knee geometries pre-exist and predispose to osteoarthritis, although it is not impossible that they (like condylar-plateau angle) change as disease progresses. Further approaches to population studies are discussed based on these findings, along with their implications for knee surgery.

  8. High-resolution three-dimensional quantitative map of the macromolecular proton fraction distribution in the normal rat brain

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    Anna V. Naumova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The presented dataset provides a normative high-resolution three-dimensional (3D macromolecular proton fraction (MPF map of the healthy rat brain in vivo and source images used for its reconstruction. The images were acquired using the protocol described elsewhere (Naumova, et al. High-resolution three-dimensional macromolecular proton fraction mapping for quantitative neuroanatomical imaging of the rodent brain in ultra-high magnetic fields. Neuroimage (2016 doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.09.036. The map was reconstructed from three source images with different contrast weightings (proton density, T1, and magnetization transfer using the single-point algorithm with a synthetic reference image. Source images were acquired from a living animal on an 11.7 T small animal MRI scanner with isotropic spatial resolution of 170 µm3 and total acquisition time about 1.5 h. The 3D dataset can be used for multiple purposes including interactive viewing of rat brain anatomy, measurements of reference MPF values in various brain structures, and development of image processing techniques for the rodent brain segmentation. It also can serve as a gold standard image for implementation and optimization of rodent brain MRI protocols.

  9. Variation in Brain Morphology of Intertidal Gobies: A Comparison of Methodologies Used to Quantitatively Assess Brain Volumes in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gemma E; Brown, Culum

    2015-01-01

    When correlating brain size and structure with behavioural and environmental characteristics, a range of techniques can be utilised. This study used gobiid fishes to quantitatively compare brain volumes obtained via three different methods; these included the commonly used techniques of histology and approximating brain volume to an idealised ellipsoid, and the recently established technique of X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). It was found that all three methods differed significantly from one another in their volume estimates for most brain lobes. The ellipsoid method was prone to over- or under-estimation of lobe size, histology caused shrinkage in the telencephalon, and although micro-CT methods generated the most reliable results, they were also the most expensive. Despite these differences, all methods depicted quantitatively similar relationships among the four different species for each brain lobe. Thus, all methods support the same conclusions that fishes inhabiting rock pool and sandy habitats have different patterns of brain organisation. In particular, fishes from spatially complex rock pool habitats were found to have larger telencephalons, while those from simple homogenous sandy shores had a larger optic tectum. Where possible we recommend that micro-CT be used in brain volume analyses, as it allows for measurements without destruction of the brain and fast identification and quantification of individual brain lobes, and minimises many of the biases resulting from the histology and ellipsoid methods. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The neural substrates of natural reading: A comparison of normal and nonword text using eyetracking and fMRI

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    Wonil eChoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most previous studies investigating the neural correlates of reading have presented text using serial visual presentation (SVP, which may not fully reflect the underlying processes of natural reading. In the present study, eye movements and BOLD data were collected while subjects either read normal paragraphs naturally or moved their eyes through paragraphs of pseudo-text (pronounceable pseudowords or consonant letter strings in two pseudo-reading conditions. Eye movement data established that subjects were reading and scanning the stimuli normally. A conjunction fMRI analysis across natural- and pseudo-reading showed that a common eye-movement network including frontal eye fields, supplementary eye fields, and intraparietal sulci was activated, consistent with previous studies using simpler eye movement tasks. In addition, natural reading versus pseudo-reading showed different patterns of brain activation: normal reading produced activation in a well-established language network that included superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, middle temporal gyrus, angular gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus, whereas pseudo-reading produced activation in an attentional network that included anterior/posterior cingulate and parietal cortex. These results are consistent with results found in previous single-saccade eye movement tasks and SVP reading studies, suggesting that component processes of eye-movement control and language processing observed in past fMRI research generalize to natural reading. The results also suggest that combining eyetracking and fMRI is a suitable method for investigating the component processes of natural reading in fMRI research.

  11. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GAB2 HAPLOTYPE AND HIGHER GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE-AFFECTED BRAIN REGIONS IN COGNITIVELY NORMAL APOEε4 CARRIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Winnie S.; Chen, Kewei; Lee, Wendy; Sidhar, Kunal; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Allen, April N.; Myers, Amanda; Villa, Stephen; Meechoovet, Bessie; Pruzin, Jeremy; Bandy, Daniel; Fleisher, Adam S.; Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Jensen, Kendall; Dunckley, Travis; Caselli, Richard J.; Kaib, Susan; Reiman, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), we found an association between common haplotypes of the GAB2 gene and AD risk in carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele, the major late-onset AD susceptibility gene. We previously proposed the use of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) measurements as a quantitative presymptomatic endophenotype, more closely related to disease risk than the clinical syndrome itself, to help evaluate putative genetic and non-genetic modifiers of AD risk. In this study, we examined the relationship between the presence or absence of the relatively protective GAB2 haplotype and PET measurements of regional-to-whole brain FDG uptake in several AD-affected brain regions in 158 cognitively normal late-middle-aged APOEε4 homozygotes, heterozygotes, and non-carriers. GAB2 haplotypes were characterized using Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP 6.0 Array data from each of these subjects. As predicted, the possibly protective GAB2 haplotype was associated with higher regional-to-whole brain FDG uptake in AD-affected brain regions in APOEε4 carriers. While additional studies are needed, this study supports the association between the possibly protective GAB2 haplotype and the risk of late-onset AD in APOEε4 carriers. It also supports the use of brain-imaging endophenotypes to help assess possible modifiers of AD risk. PMID:20888920

  12. Comparison of Ethnic-specific Databases in Heidelberg Retina Tomography-3 to Discriminate Between Early Glaucoma and Normal Chinese Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiu Ling; Yap, Sae Cheong; Li, Xiang; Yip, Leonard W

    2017-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of the 3 race-specific normative databases in Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT)-3, in differentiating between early glaucomatous and healthy normal Chinese eyes. 52 healthy volunteers and 25 glaucoma patients were recruited for this prospective cross-sectional study. All underwent standardized interviews, ophthalmic examination, perimetry and HRT optic disc imaging. Area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristics, sensitivity and specificity were derived to assess the discriminating abilities of the 3 normative databases, for both Moorfields Regression Analysis (MRA) and Glaucoma Probability Score (GPS). A significantly higher percentage (65%) of patients were classified as "within normal limits" using the MRA-Indian database, as compared to the MRA-Caucasian and MRA-African-American databases. However, for GPS, this was observed using the African-American database. For MRA, the highest sensitivity was obtained with both Caucasian and African-American databases (68%), while the highest specificity was from the Indian database (94%). The AUC for discrimination between glaucomatous and normal eyes by MRA-Caucasian, MRA-African-American and MRA-Indian databases were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.88), 0.79 (0.69-0.89) and 0.73 (0.63-0.84) respectively. For GPS, the highest sensitivity was obtained using either Caucasian or Indian databases (68%). The highest specificity was seen with the African-American database (98%). The AUC for GPS-Caucasian, GPS-African-American and GPS-Indian databases were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.66-0.87), 0.77 (0.67-0.87) and 0.76 (0.66-0.87) respectively. Comparison of the 3 ethnic databases did not reveal significant differences to differentiate early glaucomatous from normal Chinese eyes.

  13. Comparison of different normalization strategies for the analysis of glomerular microRNAs in IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockmeyer, Clemens L; Säuberlich, Karen; Wittig, Juliane; Eßer, Marc; Roeder, Sebastian S; Vester, Udo; Hoyer, Peter F; Agustian, Putri A; Zeuschner, Philip; Amann, Kerstin; Daniel, Christoph; Becker, Jan U

    2016-08-24

    Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) have been used for normalization in glomerular microRNA (miRNA) quantification without confirmation of validity. Our aim was to identify glomerular reference miRNAs in IgA nephropathy. We compared miRNAs in human paraffin-embedded renal biopsies from patients with cellular-crescentic IgA-GN (n = 5; crescentic IgA-GN) and non-crescentic IgA-GN (n = 5; IgA-GN) to mild interstitial nephritis without glomerular abnormalities (controls, n = 5). Laser-microdissected glomeruli were used for expression profiling of 762 miRNAs by low-density TaqMan arrays (cards A and B). The comparison of different normalization methods (GeNormPlus, NormFinder, global mean and snoRNAs) in crescentic IgA-GN, IgA-GN and controls yielded similar results. However, levels of significance and the range of relative expression differed. In median, two normalization methods demonstrated similar results. GeNormPlus and NormFinder gave different top ranked reference miRNAs. Stability ranking for snoRNAs varied between cards A and B. In conclusion, we suggest the geometric mean of the most stable reference miRNAs found in GeNormPlus (miR-26b-5p), NormFinder (miR-28-5p) and snoRNAs (RNU44) as reference. It should be considered that significant differences could be missed using one particular normalization method. As a starting point for glomerular miRNA studies in IgA nephropathy we provide a library of miRNAs.

  14. Histopathological Comparison of the Effect of Normal Saline and Silver Sulfadiazine on Scorch Healing in Rats

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    Daryoush Mohajeri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin burn is one of the most common complications throughout the world. Silver sulfadiazine (SSD is used as a choice treatment in many superficial burn wounds. But, some studies have questioned its efficacy. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of Normal Saline (NS and SSD on healing of superficial skin burn wounds in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned in two different groups including treatment and control, with 20 animals each. After sedation, a type II skin burn wound in the shape of a 1-cm diameter circle was created in the dorsum of the rats with boiled water contact. In treatment group, NS and in control group, SSD was used topically for care. Diameter of the wound as well as the hair growing grade was determined on days 3, 7 and 14 post-intervention. In each step of the experiment, histopathological sections were prepared; thereafter reepithelialization and alleviation of inflammation at the healing site of burn wound were assessed. Statistically, the data obtained were compared between the groups. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the mean diameter of the wound on days 3 and 14 (p = 0.089, p = 0.495. The mean diameter of the wound was significantly lower in treatment (NS group on day 7 (p<0.001. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the mean hair growth score in different stages of the experiment (p = 1, p = 0.647, p = 0.805. Histopathologically, there were no significant difference between these two experimental groups from the view point of reepithelialization and alleviation of inflammation at the healing site of burn wound. The results of this study showed that NS equals with SSD in improvement of superficial skin burn wounds healing in the rats; and after the randomized clinical trials, it can be used in treatment of superficial skin burn wounds in human bodies.

  15. Intraindividual variability in neurocognitive speed: a comparison of Parkinson's disease and normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A; Fisher, Nancy; Camicioli, Richard

    2007-06-18

    We examined whether intraindividual variability of neurocognitive speed, or inconsistency, is greater in stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to a matched group of normal older adults. Intraindividual variability was assessed using four reaction time (RT) (simple and complex) tasks. We examined three sets of correlates: executive functioning (Stroop (interference index), Trail Making Test (Part B), and Digit Ordering Test), finger tapping speed, and gait speed. The participants were matched on age, sex, and education, and did not differ in global cognitive functioning. There were 50 patients with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic PD (29 men and 21 women) who ranged from 65 to 84 years (M=71.5, S.D.=4.7) and 48 matched healthy older adults who ranged from 65 to 84 years (M=71.5, S.D.=4.9). Multiple analyses of variance showed that the PD patients were slower on all three complex RT tasks, and more inconsistent than healthy older adults on the most complex (eight-choice) RT task. Individuals with advanced disease had slower neurocognitive speed and more inconsistency than patients with earlier stage PD. Poorer executive functioning was associated with slower neurocognitive performance in healthy older adults, mild PD patients, and especially severe PD patients. Greater inconsistency in speed was related to poorer executive functioning in late stage PD (for the most complex task) and in healthy older adults (for the simplest task), indicating that motor and cognitive domains have functional coupling (i.e., as one becomes compromised so does the other). Intraindividual variability was not correlated with tapping speed and gait speed in any group. Executive functioning and neurocognitive speed may be valid and distinct clinical markers of disease progression in PD.

  16. Comparison of gene regulatory networks of benign and malignant breast cancer samples with normal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D B; Yang, H J

    2014-11-11

    The aim of this study was to explain the pathogenesis and deterioration process of breast cancer. Breast cancer expression profile data GSE27567 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and breast cancer-related genes were extracted from databases, including Cancer-Resource and Online Mendelian Inheritance In Man (OMIM). Next, h17 transcription factor data were obtained from the University of California, Santa Cruz. Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID)-enrichment analysis was applied and gene-regulatory networks were constructed by double-two-way t-tests in 3 states, including normal, benign, and malignant. Furthermore, network topological properties were compared between 2 states, and breast cancer-related bub genes were ranked according to their different degrees between each of the two states. A total of 2380 breast cancer-related genes and 215 transcription factors were screened by exploring databases; the genes were mainly enriched in their functions, such as cell apoptosis and proliferation, and pathways, such as p53 signaling and apoptosis, which were related with carcinogenesis. In addition, gene-regulatory networks in the 3 conditions were constructed. By comparing their network topological properties, we found that there is a larger transition of differences between malignant and benign breast cancer. Moreover, 8 hub genes (YBX1, ZFP36, YY1, XRCC5, XRCC4, ZFHX3, ZMAT3, and XPC) were identified in the top 10 genes ranked by different degrees. Through comparative analysis of gene-regulation networks, we identified the link between related genes and the pathogenesis of breast cancer. However, further experiments are needed to confirm our results.

  17. Prevalence of dural ectasia in Loeys-Dietz syndrome: comparison with Marfan syndrome and normal controls.

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    Atsushi K Kono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dural ectasia is well recognized in Marfan syndrome (MFS as one of the major diagnostic criteria, but the exact prevalence of dural ectasia is still unknown in Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS, which is a recently discovered connective tissue disease. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of dural ectasia in LDS according by using qualitative and quantitative methods and compared our findings with those for with MFS and normal controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied 10 LDS (6 males, 4 females, mean age 36.3 years and 20 MFS cases (12 males, 8 females, mean age 37.1 years and 20 controls (12 males, 8 females, mean age 36.1 years both qualitatively and quantitatively using axial CT images and sagittal multi-planar reconstruction images of the lumbosacral region. For quantitative examination, we adopted two methods: method-1 (anteroposterior dural diameter of S1> L4 and method-2 (ratio of anteroposterior dural diameter/vertebral body diameter>cutoff values. The prevalence of dural ectasia among groups was compared by using Fisher's exact test and the Tukey-Kramer test. RESULTS: In LDS patients, the qualitative method showed 40% of dural ectasia, the quantitative method-1 50%, and the method-2 70%. In MFS patients, the corresponding prevalences were 50%, 75%, and 85%, and in controls, 0%, 0%, and 5%. Both LDS and MFS had a significantly wider dura than controls. CONCLUSIONS: While the prevalence of dural ectasia varied depending on differences in qualitative and quantitative methods, LDS as well as MFS, showed, regardless of method, a higher prevalence of dural ectasia than controls. This finding should help the differentiation of LDS from controls.

  18. Dieting practices, weight perceptions, and body composition: A comparison of normal weight, overweight, and obese college females

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    Smith Jean L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of concern to health educators is the suggestion that college females practice diet and health behaviors that contradict the 2005 dietary guidelines for Americans. In this regard, there remain gaps in the research related to dieting among college females. Namely, do normal weight individuals diet differently from those who are overweight or obese, and are there dieting practices used by females that can be adapted to promote a healthy body weight? Since it is well recognized that females diet, this study seeks to determine the dieting practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females (do they diet differently and identify dieting practices that could be pursued to help these females more appropriately achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Methods A total of 185 female college students aged 18 to 24 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured to assess body composition. Surveys included a dieting practices questionnaire and a 30-day physical activity recall. Participants were classified according to body mass index (BMI as normal weight (n = 113, overweight (n = 35, or obese (n = 21. Data were analyzed using JMP IN® software. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and frequency. Subsequent data analysis involved Pearson X2 and one-way analysis of variance with comparison for all pairs that were significantly different using Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference test. Results Outcomes of this study indicate the majority of participants (83% used dieting for weight loss and believed they would be 2% to 6% greater than current weight if they did not diet; normal weight, overweight, and obese groups perceived attractive weight to be 94%, 85%, and 74%, respectively, of current weight; 80% of participants reported using physical activity to control weight, although only 19% exercised at a level that would

  19. Reproducibility of VPCT parameters in the normal pancreas: comparison of two different kinetic calculation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Sascha; Schulze, Maximilian; Horger, Thomas; Oelker, Aenne; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Horger, Marius

    2015-09-01

    To assess the reproducibility of volume computed tomographic perfusion (VPCT) measurements in normal pancreatic tissue using two different kinetic perfusion calculation models at three different time points. Institutional ethical board approval was obtained for retrospective analysis of pancreas perfusion data sets generated by our prospective study for liver response monitoring to local therapy in patients experiencing unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, which was approved by the institutional review board. VPCT of the entire pancreas was performed in 41 patients (mean age, 64.8 years) using 26 consecutive volume measurements and intravenous injection of 50 mL of iodinated contrast at a flow rate of 5 mL/s. Blood volume(BV) and blood flow (BF) were calculated using two mathematical methods: maximum slope + Patlak analysis versus deconvolution method. Pancreas perfusion was calculated using two volume of interests. Median interval between the first and the second VPCT was 2 days and between the second and the third VPCT 82 days. Variability was assessed with within-patient coefficients of variation (CVs) and Bland-Altman analyses. Interobserver agreement for all perfusion parameters was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). BF and BV values varied widely by method of analysis as did within-patient CVs for BF and BV at the second versus the first VPCT by 22.4%/50.4% (method 1) and 24.6%/24.0% (method 2) measured in the pancreatic head and 18.4%/62.6% (method 1) and 23.8%/28.1% (method 2) measured in the pancreatic corpus and at the third versus the first VPCT by 21.7%/61.8% (method 1) and 25.7%/34.5% (method 2) measured also in the pancreatic head and 19.1%/66.1% (method 1) and 22.0%/31.8% (method 2) measured in the pancreatic corpus, respectively. Interobserver agreement measured with ICC shows fair-to-good reproducibility. VPCT performed with the presented examinational protocol is reproducible and can be used for monitoring

  20. COMPARISON OF COSEISMIC IONOSPHERIC DISTURBANCE WAVEFORMS REVISITED: STRIKE-SLIP, NORMAL, AND REVERSE FAULT EARTHQUAKE

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    Mokhamad Nur Cahyadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using Total Electron Content (TEC measurements with Global Positioning System we studied ionospheric responses to three large earthquakes with difference focal mechanism that occurred in the Sumatra Andaman 26 December 2004, North off Sumatra 11 April 2012, and North Japan 7 December 2012. These earthquakes have different focal mechanisms, i.e. high-angle reverse, strike-slip, and normal faulting, respectively. TEC responses to the Sumatra Andaman 2004 and north Japan 2012 events initiated with positive changes. On the other hand, the initial TEC changes in the Sumatra 2012 earthquake showed both positive and negative polarities depending on the azimuth around the focal area. Such a variety may reflect differences in coseismic vertical crustal displacements, which are dominated by uplift and subsidence in the Sumatra 2012 event. This phenomena has same characteristic with 1994 Kuril Arch earthquake. There are three different propagation velocity in the Sumatra 2012 earthquake, within the first 300 km until 430 km, the CID propagation velocity was ~3 km/s, which is equal to the secod sound speed at the height of the ionospheric F-layer. Starting from 380 km until 750 km out from the epicenter, the disturbance seems to divide into two separate perturbations, with each propagating at a different velocity, about 1 km/s for the one and about 0.4 m/s for the other. The apparent velocity in the Sumatra Andaman 2004 and Japan 2012 propagated ~ 1 km/s and ~ 0.3 km/s, consistent with the sound speed at the ionospheric F layer height and internal gravity wave respectively. Resonant oscillation of TEC with a frequency of ~ 3.7 mHZ and ~4.4 mHz have been found in the Sumatra 2012 and Sumatra Andaman 2004 events. Those earthquakes, which occurred during a period of quiet geomagnetic activity, also showed clear preseismic TEC anomalies similar to those before the 2011 Tohoku-Oki and 2007 Bengkulu earthquake.   The positive anomalies started 30-60 minutes

  1. A comparison of cytokine responses during prolonged cycling in normal and hot environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila M Cosio-Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ludmila M Cosio-Lima, Bhargav V Desai, Petra B Schuler, Lesley Keck, Logan ScheelerDepartment of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL, USAPurpose: Components of immune function are affected by physical activity in an adverse environment. The purpose of this study was to compare plasma differences in inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6, in addition to the stress hormone cortisol, during prolonged cycling under normal and hot environmental conditions in elite cyclists.Methods and design: Six trained elite male cyclists (27 ± 8 years; 75.5 ± 4 kg; maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max] = 66 ± 6 mL/kg/min, mean ± SD. The cyclists biked for 2.5 h at their prescribed 60% maximum exercise workload (Wmax or 75% VO2max either in an environmental chamber set at 15°C and 40% relative humidity (NEUTRAL or at 35°C and 40% relative humidity (HOT. The cyclists were given 4 mL of water/kg body weight every 15 min under both conditions.Results: Total cortisol concentrations were elevated (P < 0.05 immediately postexercise and 12 h postexercise in both the NEUTRAL and HOT conditions. TNF-α concentrations were only significantly (P = 0.045 elevated postexercise in HOT conditions. During the HOT conditions, a significant (P = 0.006 and 0.007, respectively difference in IL-6 was seen immediately after and 12 h postexercise. During the NEUTRAL condition, IL-6 was only significantly elevated postexercise (P < 0.05.Conclusions: Heat exposure during a long bout of exercise is sufficient to elicit stress response in elite cyclists. However, the degree of release of anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines might be related to several factors that include the athlete’s fitness level, hydration status, exercise intensity, and length of exposure to hot environments.Keywords: cytokines, inflammation, heat, exercise, performance 

  2. Prevalence of flatfoot and anthropometric comparison between flat and normal feet in the Hausa ethnic group of Nigeria.

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    Umar, Musa B T; Tafida, Rabiu U

    2013-01-01

    Flat arches in children usually become proper arches and high arches as the child progresses through adolescence and into adulthood. Only if the deformity persists or presents in adolescence or adulthood is it considered abnormal. We sought to determine the incidence of flatfoot in schoolchildren and to make an anthropometric comparison between flat and normal feet with respect to age and sex in the Hausa ethnic group of Nigeria. Two hundred 9- to 14-year-old students (100 boys and 100 girls) were studied. Navicular height, medial malleolar height, lateral malleolar height, foot length, and transverse arch length were measured with a ruler, marker, and measuring tape. Statistical analysis was conducted using analysis of variance and independent-samples t tests (P ethnic group, with the incidence decreasing with age. Girls had a higher incidence of flatfoot than boys, and it was also influenced by age.

  3. Quantitative study of MR T1 and T2 relaxation times and 1 HMRS in gray matter of normal adult brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范国光; 吴振华; 潘诗农; 郭启勇

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) Imaging and 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 HMRS) in the study of normal biochemical process of the brain, as well as differentiation of normal senile brain from cerebral diseases related to senility. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy adult volunteers were selected for MR examination and 60 other healthy subjects for 1 HMRS examination. Ages of subjects ranged from 18 to 80 years. They were divided into six age groups. A 0.35 T superconductive MR system was used to perform MR examination. Point resolved spectroscopy sequence was required for 1 HMRS. The metabolites in the spectra included: N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline compounds (CHO), creatine compounds (CR), myo-inositol (MI), glutamate and glutamine (Glu-n). Results In 180 cases of MR, the shortest T2 relaxation time occurred in the deep gray matter within the same age group while the length of T1 relaxation time was ordered from low to high compared to age groups. T2 relaxation time decreased as age increased. The peaks, ordered from high to low, were as follows in 60 cases of 1 HMRS: NAA, CR, CHO, MI, Glu-n. The ratios of NAA/CR and Glu-n/CR were higher in the senile age group, while that of MI/CR was lower. The ratio of CHO/CR was increased as age decreased. The ratio of NAA/CR and MI/CR gradually decreased in relation to movement from the anterior to the posterior part of the brain; the ratio of CHO/CR was highest in the occipital cortex. Correlation of T1 relaxation time and partial metabolite ratios to age were present in gray matter.Conclusions Quantitative studies of MR T1 and T2 relaxation times and 1 HMRS are essential to evaluation of normal myelinization processes, neuronal integrity and age-related biochemical changes in the brain.

  4. The effect of ingested sulfite on visual evoked potentials, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant status of brain in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient aged rats.

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    Ozsoy, Ozlem; Aras, Sinem; Ozkan, Ayse; Parlak, Hande; Aslan, Mutay; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Agar, Aysel

    2016-07-01

    Sulfite, commonly used as a preservative in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals, is a very reactive and potentially toxic molecule which is detoxified by sulfite oxidase (SOX). Changes induced by aging may be exacerbated by exogenous chemicals like sulfite. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ingested sulfite on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and brain antioxidant statuses by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Brain lipid oxidation status was also determined via thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in normal- and SOX-deficient aged rats. Rats do not mimic the sulfite responses seen in humans because of their relatively high SOX activity level. Therefore this study used SOX-deficient rats since they are more appropriate models for studying sulfite toxicity. Forty male Wistar rats aged 24 months were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C), sulfite (S), SOX-deficient (D) and SOX-deficient + sulfite (DS). SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats with low molybdenum (Mo) diet and adding 200 ppm tungsten (W) to their drinking water. Sulfite in the form of sodium metabisulfite (25 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was given by gavage. Treatment continued for 6 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, flash VEPs were recorded. Hepatic SOX activity was measured to confirm SOX deficiency. SOX-deficient rats had an approximately 10-fold decrease in hepatic SOX activity compared with the normal rats. The activity of SOX in deficient rats was thus in the range of humans. There was no significant difference between control and treated groups in either latence or amplitude of VEP components. Brain SOD, CAT, and GPx activities and brain TBARS levels were similar in all experimental groups compared with the control group. Our results indicate that exogenous administration of sulfite does not affect VEP components and the antioxidant/oxidant status of aged rat brains. © The Author

  5. SU-F-R-08: Can Normalization of Brain MRI Texture Features Reduce Scanner-Dependent Effects in Unsupervised Machine Learning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, K; O’Dwyer, R [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Bradford, T [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Cussen, L [Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To reduce differences in features calculated from MRI brain scans acquired at different field strengths with or without Gadolinium contrast. Methods: Brain scans were processed for 111 epilepsy patients to extract hippocampus and thalamus features. Scans were acquired on 1.5 T scanners with Gadolinium contrast (group A), 1.5T scanners without Gd (group B), and 3.0 T scanners without Gd (group C). A total of 72 features were extracted. Features were extracted from original scans and from scans where the image pixel values were rescaled to the mean of the hippocampi and thalami values. For each data set, cluster analysis was performed on the raw feature set and for feature sets with normalization (conversion to Z scores). Two methods of normalization were used: The first was over all values of a given feature, and the second by normalizing within the patient group membership. The clustering software was configured to produce 3 clusters. Group fractions in each cluster were calculated. Results: For features calculated from both the non-rescaled and rescaled data, cluster membership was identical for both the non-normalized and normalized data sets. Cluster 1 was comprised entirely of Group A data, Cluster 2 contained data from all three groups, and Cluster 3 contained data from only groups 1 and 2. For the categorically normalized data sets there was a more uniform distribution of group data in the three Clusters. A less pronounced effect was seen in the rescaled image data features. Conclusion: Image Rescaling and feature renormalization can have a significant effect on the results of clustering analysis. These effects are also likely to influence the results of supervised machine learning algorithms. It may be possible to partly remove the influence of scanner field strength and the presence of Gadolinium based contrast in feature extraction for radiomics applications.

  6. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Joon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Jai Keun; Nam, Ji Eun; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Yoon, Choon Sik; Lee, Jong Doo [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    We evaluated brain perfusion SPECT findings of MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy in correlation with MR imaging in search of specific imaging features. Subjects were five patients (four females and one male; age range, 1 to 25 year) who presented with repeated stroke like episodes, seizures or developmental delay or asymptomatic but had elevated lactic acid in CSF and serum. Conventional non-contrast MR imaging and Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain perfusion SPECT were performed and imaging features were analyzed. MRI demonstrated increased T2 signal intensities in the affected areas of gray and white matters mainly in the parietal (4/5) and occipital lobes (4/5) and in the basal ganglia (1/5), which were not restricted to a specific vascular territory. SPECT demonstrated decreased perfusion in the corresponding regions of MRI lesions. In addition, there were perfusion defects in parietal (1 patient), temporal (2), and frontal (1) lobes and basal ganglia (1) and thalami (2). In a patient with mitochondrial myopathy who had normal MRI, decreased perfusion was noted in left parietal area and bilateral thalami. Tc-99m ECD SPECT imaging in patients with MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy showed hypoperfusion of parieto-occipital cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and temporal cortex, which were not restricted to a specific vascular territory. There were no specific imaging features on SPECT. The significance of abnormal perfusion on SPECT without corresponding MR abnormalities needs to be evaluated further in larger number of patients.

  7. Social Comparison Affects Brain Responses to Fairness in Asset Division: An ERP Study with the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin; Zhou, Yuqin; van Dijk, Eric; Leliveld, Marijke C; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that social comparison influences individual's fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not clear how social comparison affects the brain activity in evaluating fairness during asset distribution. In this study, participants, acting as recipients in the ultimatum game, were informed not only of offers to themselves but also of the average amount of offers in other allocator-recipient dyads. Behavioral results showed that the participants were more likely to reject division schemes when they were offered less than the other recipients, especially when the offers were highly unequal. Event-related brain potentials recorded from the participants showed that highly unequal offers elicited more negative-going medial frontal negativity than moderately unequal offers in an early time window (270-360 ms) and this effect was not significantly modulated by social comparison. In a later time window (450-650 ms), however, the late positive potential (LPP) was more positive for moderately unequal offers than for highly unequal offers when the other recipients were offered less than the participants, whereas this distinction disappeared when the other recipients were offered the same as or more than the participants. These findings suggest that the brain activity in evaluating fairness in asset division entails both an earlier (semi-) automatic process in which the brain responds to fairness at an abstract level and a later appraisal process in which factors related to social comparison and fairness norms come into play.

  8. Comparison of Outcome of Normal and High-Risk Pregnancies Based Upon Cerebroplacental Ratio Assessed by Doppler Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Anita; Seth, Namrata; Rastogi, Deepti

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the cerebroplacental ratio which is the ratio of pulsatility index of fetal middle cerebral and umbilical arteries, in normal and high-risk pregnancies during 30-36 weeks of gestation. In this study, we included 70 patients, who were scanned for Doppler parameters of Middle cerebral artery and Umbilical artery pulsatility index ratio of fetus, between 30 and 36 weeks, and then were followed till delivery. Thirty-five patients with normal pregnancy and 35 patients with high-risk pregnancy were included. Perinatal outcome was evaluated in relation to indices ratio. There was cerebroplacental ratio of <1.00 in eight cases of the study group in comparison with the control group in which there is no case of <1.00 value. It was associated with poor perinatal outcome in terms of need for lower segment cesarean section for fetal distress, Apgar <8 at 5 min, and admission to nursery. Cerebroplacental ratio is highly sensitive in diagnosing hemodynamically compromised fetuses and very useful for the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome in these fetuses.

  9. Comparison of the Deep Optic Nerve Head Structure between Normal-Tension Glaucoma and Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ji Lee

    Full Text Available To compare the deep optic nerve head (ONH structure between normal-tension glaucoma (NTG and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION and also in healthy subjects as a control using enhanced depth imaging (EDI spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.This prospective cross-sectional study included 21 NAION patients who had been diagnosed as NAION at least 6 months prior to study entry, and 42 NTG patients and 42 healthy controls who were matched with NAION patients in terms of age, intraocular pressure (IOP, and optic disc area. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in the affected sector was also matched between NAION and NTG patients. The ONH was imaged using SD-OCT with the EDI technique. The anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (LCD and average prelaminar tissue (PT thickness were measured in a sector of interest in each eye and compared among the three groups.In the sector-matched comparison, LCD was largest in NTG patients, followed by NAION patients, while PT was thinner in NTG patients than in NAION patients (all P < 0.001. NAION patients had a comparable LCD and a thinner PT relative to normal controls (P = 0.170 and < 0.001, respectively.The deep ONH configuration is strikingly different between NTG and NAION. The differing features provide comparative insight into the pathophysiology of the two diseases, and may be useful for differential diagnosis.

  10. Title: The Comparison of Anxiety Sensitivity and Happiness in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients with Normal Matched Group in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The purpose of this study was the comparison of anxiety sensitivity and happiness between patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS and normal matched group. Materials & Methods: The Subjects were 35 (21 females and 14 male IBS patients diagnosed by gastroenterologist and 35 (25 female and 10 males normal matched group all in 14– 63 old age. Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-R, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ, and a checklist applied as measures of anxiety sensitivity, happiness and demographic information. Results: Data analysis indicates that IBS patients significantly are higher than matched group in fear of publicly observable symptoms (P= 0.032, fear of cardiovascular symptoms (P= 0.01, fear of gastrointestinal symptoms (P= 0.001, fear of dissociative and neurological symptoms (P= 0.018, & general anxiety sensitivity (P= 0.003, and lower in joy (P= 0.005, control (P= 0.008, self- esteem (P= 0.001 calm (P= 0.006 and general happiness (P= 0.001. Although no significant differences were found in life satisfaction (P= 0.083 & efficacy (P= 0.09, fear of respiratory symptoms (P= 0.067, and fear of cognitive control deficiency (p= 0.097. Conclusion: As a psychological variable anxiety sensitivity can predict treatment seeking of IBS patient, and happiness negatively influenced by both anxiety sensitivity and IBS.

  11. An in vivo microdialysis study of FLZ penetration through the blood-brain barrier in normal and 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson's disease model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinfeng; Liu, Qian; Li, Yingfei; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Jinlan

    2014-01-01

    FLZ (N-[2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(2,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-acrylamide) is a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative and a potential anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) agent. The objective of the present study was to investigate the penetration of free FLZ across the BBB and the effects of P-gp inhibition on FLZ transport in normal and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced PD model rats. In vivo microdialysis was used to collect FLZ containing brain and blood dialysates following intravenous (i.v.) drug administration either with or without pretreatment with the specific P-gp inhibitor, zosuquidar trihydrochloride (zosuquidar·3HCl). A sensitive, rapid, and reliable ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) technique was developed and validated to quantitate free FLZ levels in the dialysates. No significant differences were observed in the brain/blood FLZ area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio between normal and PD model rats. However, pretreatment with zosuquidar·3HCl markedly increased the AUC ratio in both rat models. In addition, FLZ penetration was similar in zosuquidar·3HCl-pretreated normal and PD rats. These results suggest that P-gp inhibition increases BBB permeability to FLZ, thereby supporting the hypothesis that P-gp normally restricts FLZ transfer to the brain. These findings could provide reference data for future clinical trials and may aid investigation of the BBB permeability of other CNS-active substances.

  12. Electrophysiological dynamic brain connectivity during symbolic magnitude comparison in children with different mathematics achievement levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola R; Vélez-Pérez, Hugo; Espinoza-Valdez, Aurora; Romo-Vazquez, Rebeca; Salido-Ruiz, Ricardo A; Ruiz-Stovel, Vanessa; Gallardo-Moreno, Geisa B; González-Garrido, Andrés A; Berumen, Gustavo

    2017-02-08

    Children with mathematical difficulties usually have an impaired ability to process symbolic representations. Functional MRI methods have suggested that early frontoparietal connectivity can predict mathematic achievements; however, the study of brain connectivity during numerical processing remains unexplored. With the aim of evaluating this in children with different math proficiencies, we selected a sample of 40 children divided into two groups [high achievement (HA) and low achievement (LA)] according to their arithmetic scores in the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th ed.. Participants performed a symbolic magnitude comparison task (i.e. determining which of two numbers is numerically larger), with simultaneous electrophysiological recording. Partial directed coherence and graph theory methods were used to estimate and depict frontoparietal connectivity in both groups. The behavioral measures showed that children with LA performed significantly slower and less accurately than their peers in the HA group. Significantly higher frontocentral connectivity was found in LA compared with HA; however, when the connectivity analysis was restricted to parietal locations, no relevant group differences were observed. These findings seem to support the notion that LA children require greater memory and attentional efforts to meet task demands, probably affecting early stages of symbolic comparison.

  13. 7-Tesla Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging to Assess the Effects of Radiotherapy on Normal-Appearing Brain in Patients With Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, Janine M., E-mail: janine.lupo@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chuang, Cynthia F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chang, Susan M. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Barani, Igor J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jimenez, Bert; Hess, Christopher P. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nelson, Sarah J. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the intermediate- and long-term imaging manifestations of radiotherapy on normal-appearing brain tissue in patients with treated gliomas using 7T susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Methods and Materials: SWI was performed on 25 patients with stable gliomas on a 7 Tesla magnet. Microbleeds were identified as discrete foci of susceptibility that did not correspond to vessels. The number of microbleeds was counted within and outside of the T2-hyperintense lesion. For 3 patients, radiation dosimetry maps were reconstructed and fused with the 7T SWI data. Results: Multiple foci of susceptibility consistent with microhemorrhages were observed in patients 2 years after chemoradiation. These lesions were not present in patients who were not irradiated. The prevalence of microhemorrhages increased with the time since completion of radiotherapy, and these lesions often extended outside the boundaries of the initial high-dose volume and into the contralateral hemisphere. Conclusions: High-field SWI has potential for visualizing the appearance of microbleeds associated with long-term effects of radiotherapy on brain tissue. The ability to visualize these lesions in normal-appearing brain tissue may be important in further understanding the utility of this treatment in patients with longer survival.

  14. A cross-modal, cross-species comparison of connectivity measures in the primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Andrew T; Lewis, John; Bezgin, Gleb; Khundrakpam, Budhachandra; Eickhoff, Simon B; McIntosh, Anthony R; Bellec, Pierre; Evans, Alan C

    2016-01-15

    In systems neuroscience, the term "connectivity" has been defined in numerous ways, according to the particular empirical modality from which it is derived. Due to large differences in the phenomena measured by these modalities, the assumptions necessary to make inferences about axonal connections, and the limitations accompanying each, brain connectivity remains an elusive concept. Despite this, only a handful of studies have directly compared connectivity as inferred from multiple modalities, and there remains much ambiguity over what the term is actually referring to as a biological construct. Here, we perform a direct comparison based on the high-resolution and high-contrast Enhanced Nathan Klein Institute (NKI) Rockland Sample neuroimaging data set, and the CoCoMac database of tract tracing studies. We compare four types of commonly-used primate connectivity analyses: tract tracing experiments, compiled in CoCoMac; group-wise correlation of cortical thickness; tractographic networks computed from diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI); and correlational networks obtained from resting-state BOLD (fMRI). We find generally poor correspondence between all four modalities, in terms of correlated edge weights, binarized comparisons of thresholded networks, and clustering patterns. fMRI and DWI had the best agreement, followed by DWI and CoCoMac, while other comparisons showed striking divergence. Networks had the best correspondence for local ipsilateral and homotopic contralateral connections, and the worst correspondence for long-range and heterotopic contralateral connections. k-Means clustering highlighted the lowest cross-modal and cross-species consensus in lateral and medial temporal lobes, anterior cingulate, and the temporoparietal junction. Comparing the NKI results to those of the lower resolution/contrast International Consortium for Brain Imaging (ICBM) dataset, we find that the relative pattern of intermodal relationships is preserved, but the correspondence

  15. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of health claims related to glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function. The scope of the applications was proposed to fall under health claims based on newly developed scientific evidence. The Panel considers that the food constituent......, glycaemic carbohydrates, which is the subject of the health claims, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. Maintenance of normal brain function is a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function has already been...

  16. Registration of FA and T1-weighted MRI data of healthy human brain based on template matching and normalized cross-correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinsky, Milos; Peter, Roman; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Astri J; Lundervold, Arvid; Jan, Jiri

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we propose a new approach for three-dimensional registration of MR fractional anisotropy images with T1-weighted anatomy images of human brain. From the clinical point of view, this accurate coregistration allows precise detection of nerve fibers that is essential in neuroscience. A template matching algorithm combined with normalized cross-correlation was used for this registration task. To show the suitability of the proposed method, it was compared with the normalized mutual information-based B-spline registration provided by the Elastix software library, considered a reference method. We also propose a general framework for the evaluation of robustness and reliability of both registration methods. Both registration methods were tested by four evaluation criteria on a dataset consisting of 74 healthy subjects. The template matching algorithm has shown more reliable results than the reference method in registration of the MR fractional anisotropy and T1 anatomy image data. Significant differences were observed in the regions splenium of corpus callosum and genu of corpus callosum, considered very important areas of brain connectivity. We demonstrate that, in this registration task, the currently used mutual information-based parametric registration can be replaced by more accurate local template matching utilizing the normalized cross-correlation similarity measure.

  17. Cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects are consistent with frontal cortico-subcortical and fronto-parietal neuropsychological models of brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Natalia; Łojek, Emilia; Kijanowska-Haładyna, Beata; Nestorowicz, Jakub; Harasim, Andrzej; Pluta, Agnieszka; Sobańska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Three neuropsychological theories have been developed according to a possible existence of a similar pattern of cognitive decline in elderly individuals and patients with brain damage. The respective neuropsychological theories attribute age-related deficits to: (a) dysfunction of the frontal lobes, (b) temporo-parietal dysfunction, or (c) decline of right-hemisphere functions. In the present study, we examined which of these theories best explains the cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects older than 80 years of age (old elderly). Thirty normal old elderly subjects, 14 patients with subcortical vascular dementia, 14 with mild Alzheimer's disease, 15 with damage of the right hemisphere of the brain, and 20 young elderly controls participated. A test battery covering the main cognitive domains was administered to all participants. A hierarchical cluster analysis revealed five groups of individuals with different cognitive patterns across the whole sample. Old elderly subjects were assigned to four groups according to: (a) preserved overall cognitive performance, (b) processing speed decline, (c) attention decline, or (d) executive impairment. The results of the study are most congruent with models emphasizing frontal-lobe cortical-subcortical and fronto-parietal changes in old age. The results also indicate considerable heterogeneity in the cognitive patterns of normal old elderly adults.

  18. Initial contact of glioblastoma cells with existing normal brain endothelial cells strengthen the barrier function via fibroblast growth factor 2 secretion: a new in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Nakagawa, Shinsuke; Thuy, Dinh Ha Duy; Ujifuku, Kenta; Kamada, Kensaku; Hayashi, Kentaro; Matsuo, Takayuki; Nagata, Izumi; Niwa, Masami

    2013-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells invade along the existing normal capillaries in brain. Normal capillary endothelial cells function as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that limits permeability of chemicals into the brain. To investigate whether GBM cells modulate the BBB function of normal endothelial cells, we developed a new in vitro BBB model with primary cultures of rat brain endothelial cells (RBECs), pericytes, and astrocytes. Cells were plated on a membrane with 8 μm pores, either as a monolayer or as a BBB model with triple layer culture. The BBB model consisted of RBEC on the luminal side as a bottom, and pericytes and astrocytes on the abluminal side as a top of the chamber. Human GBM cell line, LN-18 cells, or lung cancer cell line, NCI-H1299 cells, placed on either the RBEC monolayer or the BBB model increased the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) values against the model, which peaked within 72 h after the tumor cell application. The TEER value gradually returned to baseline with LN-18 cells, whereas the value quickly dropped to the baseline in 24 h with NCI-H1299 cells. NCI-H1299 cells invaded into the RBEC layer through the membrane, but LN-18 cells did not. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) strengthens the endothelial cell BBB function by increased occludin and ZO-1 expression. In our model, LN-18 and NCI-H1299 cells secreted FGF-2, and a neutralization antibody to FGF-2 inhibited LN-18 cells enhanced BBB function. These results suggest that FGF-2 would be a novel therapeutic target for GBM in the perivascular invasive front.

  19. Comparison of blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy recording during functional brain activation in patients with stroke and brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatani, Kaoru; Murata, Yoshihiro; Fujiwar