WorldWideScience

Sample records for normal bone formation

  1. Mice deficient in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lack bone marrow adipocytes, but maintain normal bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jeannette; Mosekilde, Lis; Holmes, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) exert potent, but poorly characterized, effects on the skeleton. The cellular activity of GCs is regulated at a prereceptor level by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11betaHSDs). The type 1 isoform, which predominates in bone, functions as a reductase in intact cells...... and regenerates active cortisol (corticosterone) from circulating inert 11-keto forms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of this intracrine activation of GCs on normal bone physiology in vivo using mice deficient in 11betaHSD1 (HSD1(-/-)). The HSD1(-/-) mice exhibited no significant changes...... in cortical or trabecular bone mass compared with wild-type (Wt) mice. Aged HSD1(-/-) mice showed age-related bone loss similar to that observed in Wt mice. Histomorphometric analysis showed similar bone formation and bone resorption parameters in HSD1(-/-) and Wt mice. However, examination of bone marrow...

  2. Normal tempo of bone formation in Turner syndrome despite signs of accelerated bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line Hartvig; Holm, Kirsten Bagge; Kobbernagel, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate area bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and relations to bone markers and hormones in adolescent women with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods: Cross-sectional study in TS patients (n = 37, 16.7 ± 3.4 years) and control group (n...

  3. Normal Tempo of Bone Formation in Turner Syndrome despite Signs of Accelerated Bone Resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Holm, Kirsten; Kobbernagel, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate area bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and relations to bone markers and hormones in adolescent women with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods: Cross-sectional study in TS patients (n = 37, 16.7 ± 3.4 years) and control group (n...

  4. Normalizing the bone marrow microenvironment with p38 inhibitor reduces multiple myeloma cell proliferation and adhesion and suppresses osteoclast formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Aaron N.; Stebbins, Elizabeth G.; Henson, Margaret; O'Young, Gilbert; Choi, Sun J.; Quon, Diana; Damm, Debby; Reddy, Mamatha; Ma, Jing Y.; Haghnazari, Edwin; Kapoun, Ann M.; Medicherla, Satyanarayana; Protter, Andy; Schreiner, George F.; Kurihara, Noriyoshi; Anderson, Judy; Roodman, G. David; Navas, Tony A.; Higgins, Linda S.

    2006-01-01

    The multiple myeloma (MM) bone marrow (BM) microenvironment plays a critical role in supporting tumor growth and survival as well as in promoting formation of osteolytic lesions. Recent results suggest that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is an important factor in maintaining this activated environment. In this report, we demonstrate that the p38α MAPK inhibitor, SCIO-469, suppresses secretion of the tumor-supportive factors IL-6 and VEGF from BM stromal cells (BMSCs) as well as cocultures of BMSCs with MM cells, resulting in reduction in MM cell proliferation. Additionally, we show that SCIO-469 prevents TNFα-induced adhesion of MM cells to BMSCs through an ICAM-1- and VCAM-1-independent mechanism. Microarray analysis revealed a novel set of TNFα-induced chemokines in BMSCs that is strongly inhibited by SCIO-469. Furthermore, reintroduction of chemokines CXCL10 and CCL8 to BMSCs overcomes the inhibitory effect of SCIO-469 on TNFα-induced MM adhesion. Lastly, we show that SCIO-469 inhibits secretion and expression of the osteoclast-activating factors IL-11, RANKL, and MIP-1α as well as prevents human osteoclast formation in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest that SCIO-469 treatment can suppress factors in the bone marrow microenvironment to inhibit MM cell proliferation and adhesion and also to alleviate osteolytic activation in MM

  5. of the stomach (ID 345), neutralisation of gastric acid (ID 345), contribution to normal formation of collagen and connective tissue (ID 287, 288, 333, 334, 335, 1405, 1652, 1718, 1719, 1945), maintenance of normal bone (ID 287, 335, 1652, 1718, 1945), maintenance of normal joints (ID 1405, 1652, 1945

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to silicon and protection against aluminium accumulation in the brain, cardiovascular health, forming a protective coat on the mucous membrane of the stomach, neutralisation of gastric acid, contribution to normal formation of collagen and connective tissue, maintenance of normal bone...

  6. Osteoclasts secrete non-bone derived signals that induce bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten A; Neutzsky-Wulff, Anita V; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2008-01-01

    Bone turnover is a highly regulated process, where bone resorption in the normal healthy individual always is followed by bone formation in a manner referred to as coupling. Patients with osteopetrosis caused by defective acidification of the resorption lacuna have severely decreased resorption......) from human osteoclasts cultured on either bone or plastic, and tested their effects on bone nodule formation by osteoblasts. Both types of CM were shown to dose-dependently induce bone nodule formation, whereas non-conditioned osteoclast culture medium had no effects. These data show that osteoclasts...

  7. Do vegetarians have a normal bone mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Susan A

    2004-09-01

    Public health strategies targeting the prevention of poor bone health on a population-wide basis are urgently required, with particular emphasis being placed on modifiable factors such as nutrition. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of a vegetarian diet on indices of skeletal integrity to address specifically whether vegetarians have a normal bone mass. Analysis of existing literature, through a combination of observational, clinical and intervention studies were assessed in relation to bone health for the following: lacto-ovo-vegetarian and vegan diets versus omnivorous, predominantly meat diets, consumption of animal versus vegetable protein, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Mechanisms of action for a dietary "component" effect were examined and other potential dietary differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians were also explored. Key findings included: (i) no differences in bone health indices between lacto-ovo-vegetarians and omnivores; (ii) conflicting data for protein effects on bone with high protein consumption (particularly without supporting calcium/alkali intakes) and low protein intake (particularly with respect to vegan diets) being detrimental to the skeleton; (iii) growing support for a beneficial effect of fruit and vegetable intake on bone, with mechanisms of action currently remaining unclarified. The impact of a "vegetarian" diet on bone health is a hugely complex area since: 1) components of the diet (such as calcium, protein, alkali, vitamin K, phytoestrogens) may be varied; 2) key lifestyle factors which are important to bone (such as physical activity) may be different; 3) the tools available for assessing consumption of food are relatively weak. However, from data available and given the limitations stipulated above, "vegetarians" do certainly appear to have "normal" bone mass. What remains our challenge is to determine what components of a vegetarian diet are of particular benefit to bone, at what levels and under

  8. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.A.; Rosen, V.; D'Alessandro, J.S.; Bauduy, M.; Cordes, P.; Harada, T.; Israel, D.I.; Hewick, R.M.; Kerns, K.M.; LaPan, P.; Luxenberg, D.P.; McQuaid, D.; Moutsatsos, I.K.; Nove, J.; Wozney, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  9. Glucocorticoids and inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halloran, B.P.; Bikle, D.D.; Cone, C.M.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1988-01-01

    Skeletal unloading or loss of normal weight bearing in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and reduces bone calcium. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading is a consequence of an increase in plasma glucocorticoids and/or an increase in bone sensitivity to glucocorticoids, the authors measured plasma corticosterone throughout the day in unloaded and normally loaded rats (hindlimb elevation model) and examined the effect of adrenalectomy on the response of bone to skeletal unloading. Plasma corticosterone levels were similar in normally loaded and unloaded rats at all times. Skeletal unloading in sham-adrenalectomized animals reduced tibial and vertebral calcium by 11.5 and 11.1%, respectively, and in adrenalectomized animals by 15.3 and 20.3%, respectively. Uptake of 45 Ca and [ 3 H]proline in the tibia was reduced by 8 and 14%, respectively, in the sham-adrenalectomized animals and by 13 and 19% in the adrenalectomized animals. Bone formation and apposition rates were reduced to the same level in sham- and adrenalectomized animals. These results suggest that the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading is not a consequence of increased plasma glucocorticoids or an increase in bone sensitivity to the glucocorticoids but, rather, point to a local mediator in bone that senses mechanical load and transmits that information to the bone-forming cells directly

  10. High-dose therapy improved the bone remodelling compartment canopy and bone formation in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Maja; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Plesner, Torben

    2015-01-01

    transplantation, and from 20 control patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were histomorphometrically investigated. This investigation confirmed that MM patients exhibited uncoupled bone formation to resorption and reduced canopy coverage. More importantly, this study revealed......Bone loss in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by an uncoupling of bone formation to resorption trigged by malignant plasma cells. Increasing evidence indicates that the bone remodelling compartment (BRC) canopy, which normally covers the remodelling sites, is important for coupled bone remodelling....... Loss of this canopy has been associated with bone loss. This study addresses whether the bone remodelling in MM is improved by high-dose therapy. Bone marrow biopsies obtained from 20 MM patients, before and after first-line treatment with high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell...

  11. Normal human bone marrow and its variations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Schmidt, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Physiology and age dependant changes of human bone marrow are described. The resulting normal distribution patterns of active and inactive bone marrow including the various contrasts on different MR-sequences are discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Formation of blood clot on biomaterial implants influences bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Hoi Ting; Goss, Ben; Lutton, Cameron; Crawford, Ross; Xiao, Yin

    2014-12-01

    The first step in bone healing is forming a blood clot at injured bones. During bone implantation, biomaterials unavoidably come into direct contact with blood, leading to a blood clot formation on its surface prior to bone regeneration. Despite both situations being similar in forming a blood clot at the defect site, most research in bone tissue engineering virtually ignores the important role of a blood clot in supporting healing. Dental implantology has long demonstrated that the fibrin structure and cellular content of a peri-implant clot can greatly affect osteoconduction and de novo bone formation on implant surfaces. This article reviews the formation of a blood clot during bone healing in relation to the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gels. It is implicated that PRP gels are dramatically altered from a normal clot in healing, resulting in conflicting effect on bone regeneration. These results indicate that the effect of clots on bone regeneration depends on how the clots are formed. Factors that influence blood clot structure and properties in relation to bone healing are also highlighted. Such knowledge is essential for developing strategies to optimally control blood clot formation, which ultimately alter the healing microenvironment of bone. Of particular interest are modification of surface chemistry of biomaterials, which displays functional groups at varied composition for the purpose of tailoring blood coagulation activation, resultant clot fibrin architecture, rigidity, susceptibility to lysis, and growth factor release. This opens new scope of in situ blood clot modification as a promising approach in accelerating and controlling bone regeneration.

  13. MR imaging of normal bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajgis, M.; Paprzycki, W.

    1994-01-01

    Principles of MR bone marrow imaging on the basis of retrospective analysis of MR examinations of bone marrow in different anatomic sites in 200 patients have been discussed. Significance of different physiologic factors and processes such as age, steatosis, osteoporosis, conversion and reconversion, which influence on MR bone marrow images, have been emphasized. T1-weighted images obtained with spin-echo sequences give the most of information about bone marrow structure in MR. Thorough knowledge of bone marrow physiology and clinical status of the patient is indispensable in correct interpretation of hypointensive lesions on T1-weighted images. When presence of disseminated bone marrow disease is suspected, authors propose routine imaging of lumbar vertebral column, pelvis and proximal parts of femoral bones. (author)

  14. Local induction of inflammation affects bone formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, M; Kruyt, M C; Loozen, L; Kragten, A H; Yuan, H; Dhert, W J; Öner, F C; Alblas, J

    2017-01-01

    To explore the influence of inflammatory processes on bone formation, we applied a new in vivo screening model. Confined biological pockets were first created in rabbits as a response to implanted bone cement discs. These biomembrane pockets were subsequently used to study the effects of

  15. [Endogenous pyrogen formation by bone marrow cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, O M; Sorokin, A V; El'kina, O A

    1978-01-01

    The cells of the rabbit bone marrow produced endogenous pyrogen in response to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Incubation of the cells in medium No 199 containing a 15% homologous serum is optimal for the release of pyrogen. It is supposed that the cells of the bone marrow take part in the formation of endgenous pyrogen and in the mechanism of pyrexia in the organism.

  16. Extrinsic Mechanisms Involved in Age-Related Defective Bone Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinquier, Anne Marie-Pierre Emilie; Kassem, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    Context: Age-related bone loss is associated with progressive changes in bone remodeling characterized by decreased bone formation relative to bone resorption. Both trabecular and periosteal bone formation decline with age in both sexes, which contributes to bone fragility and increased risk of f...

  17. Heterotopic bone formation following total shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard-Andersen, P.; Frich, Lars Henrik; Sjøbjerg, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    The incidence and location of heterotopic bone formation following total shoulder arthroplasty were evaluated in 58 Neer Mark-II total shoulder replacements. One year after surgery, 45% had developed some ectopic ossification. In six shoulders (10%) the ossifications roentgenographically bridged...... the glenohumeral and/or the glenoacromial space. There was no correlation between shoulder pain and the development of ossification. Shoulders with grade III heterotopic bone formation had a limited range of active elevation compared with shoulders without or with only a milder lesion. Men and patients...... with osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint were significantly disposed to the development of heterotopic bone. Heterotopic bone formation following total shoulder arthroplasty is frequent, but disabling heterotopic ossifications seem to be rare....

  18. Does simvastatin stimulate bone formation in vivo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorev Michael

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins, potent compounds that inhibit cholesterol synthesis in the liver have been reported to induce bone formation, both in tissue culture and in rats and mice. To re-examine potential anabolic effects of statins on bone formation, we compared the activity of simvastatin (SVS to the known anabolic effects of PTH in an established model of ovariectomized (OVX Swiss-Webster mice. Methods Mice were ovariectomized at 12 weeks of age (T0, remained untreated for 5 weeks to allow development of osteopenia (T5, followed by treatment for 8 weeks (T13. Whole, trabecular and cortical femoral bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (micro CT. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS was used to detect the presence of SVS and its active metabolite, simvastatin β-hydroxy acid (SVS-OH in the mouse serum. Results Trabecular BV/TV at T13 was 4.2 fold higher in animals treated with PTH (80 micro-g/kg/day compared to the OVX-vehicle treated group (p in vivo study. Conclusions While PTH demonstrated the expected anabolic effect on bone, SVS failed to stimulate bone formation, despite our verification by LC/MS of the active SVS-OH metabolite in mouse serum. While statins have clear effects on bone formation in vitro, the formulation of existing 'liver-targeted' statins requires further refinement for efficacy in vivo.

  19. A cellular automata model of bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Scoy, Gabrielle K; George, Estee L; Opoku Asantewaa, Flora; Kerns, Lucy; Saunders, Marnie M; Prieto-Langarica, Alicia

    2017-04-01

    Bone remodeling is an elegantly orchestrated process by which osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts function as a syncytium to maintain or modify bone. On the microscopic level, bone consists of cells that create, destroy and monitor the bone matrix. These cells interact in a coordinated manner to maintain a tightly regulated homeostasis. It is this regulation that is responsible for the observed increase in bone gain in the dominant arm of a tennis player and the observed increase in bone loss associated with spaceflight and osteoporosis. The manner in which these cells interact to bring about a change in bone quality and quantity has yet to be fully elucidated. But efforts to understand the multicellular complexity can ultimately lead to eradication of metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and improved implant longevity. Experimentally validated mathematical models that simulate functional activity and offer eventual predictive capabilities offer tremendous potential in understanding multicellular bone remodeling. Here we undertake the initial challenge to develop a mathematical model of bone formation validated with in vitro data obtained from osteoblastic bone cells induced to mineralize and quantified at 26 days of culture. A cellular automata model was constructed to simulate the in vitro characterization. Permutation tests were performed to compare the distribution of the mineralization in the cultures and the distribution of the mineralization in the mathematical models. The results of the permutation test show the distribution of mineralization from the characterization and mathematical model come from the same probability distribution, therefore validating the cellular automata model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Radionuclides and the normal bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Monsein, L.; Rosenberg, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, Eisenhut and co-workers have described development of iodine-131 labeled diphosphonates for palliative treatment of bone metastases. The compound labeled was alpha-amino (4-hydroxybenzylidene) diphosphonate (BDP3). Other beta-emitting radionuclides have been used for treatment of intractable pain secondary to bone metastases. These include strontium-89, which has some difficulties, particularly in terms of disposal of the excretions due to the long physical half-life of the life of the radionuclide. Yttrium-90 has also been used but has a relatively high hepatic uptake. Phosphorus-32 labeled compounds have also been used. Although palliation has been described, bone marrow depression has also occurred. Rhenium-186 also has been suggested, however, high renal uptake is a problem. At present, the iodine-131 labeled BDP3 appears to be the best of the available therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. One of the major disadvantages in use of this compound is the production of gamma photons. While undesirable from a dosimetry viewpoint, gamma photons do, however, permit imaging if desired

  1. Rescuing loading induced bone formation at senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Srinivasan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence of osteoporosis worldwide requires anabolic treatments that are safe, effective, and, critically, inexpensive given the prevailing overburdened health care systems. While vigorous skeletal loading is anabolic and holds promise, deficits in mechanotransduction accrued with age markedly diminish the efficacy of readily complied, exercise-based strategies to combat osteoporosis in the elderly. Our approach to explore and counteract these age-related deficits was guided by cellular signaling patterns across hierarchical scales and by the insight that cell responses initiated during transient, rare events hold potential to exert high-fidelity control over temporally and spatially distant tissue adaptation. Here, we present an agent-based model of real-time Ca(2+/NFAT signaling amongst bone cells that fully described periosteal bone formation induced by a wide variety of loading stimuli in young and aged animals. The model predicted age-related pathway alterations underlying the diminished bone formation at senescence, and hence identified critical deficits that were promising targets for therapy. Based upon model predictions, we implemented an in vivo intervention and show for the first time that supplementing mechanical stimuli with low-dose Cyclosporin A can completely rescue loading induced bone formation in the senescent skeleton. These pre-clinical data provide the rationale to consider this approved pharmaceutical alongside mild physical exercise as an inexpensive, yet potent therapy to augment bone mass in the elderly. Our analyses suggested that real-time cellular signaling strongly influences downstream bone adaptation to mechanical stimuli, and quantification of these otherwise inaccessible, transient events in silico yielded a novel intervention with clinical potential.

  2. Understanding coupling between bone resorption and formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Levin; Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldim; Kristensen, Helene Bjørg

    2013-01-01

    these lacunae for bone formation. These cells, called herein reversal cells, cover >80% of the eroded surfaces, but their nature is not identified, and it is not known whether malfunction of these cells may contribute to bone loss in diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. Herein, we combined...... histomorphometry and IHC on human iliac biopsy specimens, and showed that reversal cells are immunoreactive for factors typically expressed by osteoblasts, but not for monocytic markers. Furthermore, a subpopulation of reversal cells showed several distinctive characteristics suggestive of an arrested...

  3. Osteoclast TGF-β Receptor Signaling Induces Wnt1 Secretion and Couples Bone Resorption to Bone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weivoda, Megan M; Ruan, Ming; Pederson, Larry; Hachfeld, Christine; Davey, Rachel A; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Khosla, Sundeep; Oursler, Merry Jo

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblast-mediated bone formation is coupled to osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. These processes become uncoupled with age, leading to increased risk for debilitating fractures. Therefore, understanding how osteoblasts are recruited to sites of resorption is vital to treating age-related bone loss. Osteoclasts release and activate TGF-β from the bone matrix. Here we show that osteoclastspecific inhibition of TGF-β receptor signaling in mice results in osteopenia due to reduced osteoblast numbers with no significant impact on osteoclast numbers or activity. TGF-β induced osteoclast expression of Wnt1, a protein crucial to normal bone formation, and this response was blocked by impaired TGF-β receptor signaling. Osteoclasts in aged murine bones had lower TGF-β signaling and Wnt1 expression in vivo. Ex vivo stimulation of osteoclasts derived from young or old mouse bone marrow macrophages showed no difference in TGF-β–induced Wnt1 expression. However, young osteoclasts expressed reduced Wnt1 when cultured on aged mouse bone chips compared to young mouse bone chips, consistent with decreased skeletal TGF-β availability with age. Therefore, osteoclast responses to TGF-β are essential for coupling bone resorption to bone formation, and modulating this pathway may provide opportunities to treat age-related bone loss. PMID:26108893

  4. Repeated oral administration of a cathepsin K inhibitor significantly suppresses bone resorption in exercising horses with evidence of increased bone formation and maintained bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H; Dulin, J; Smanik, L; Drost, W T; Russell, D; Wellman, M; Bertone, A

    2017-08-01

    Our investigations evaluated the effect of VEL-0230, a highly specific irreversible inhibitor of cathepsin K (CatK). The objectives of our study were to determine whether repeated dosing of a CatK inhibitor (CatKI) produced a desired inhibition of the bone resorption biomarker (CTX-1), and document the effect of repeated dosing on bone homeostasis, structure, and dynamics of bone resorption and formation in horses. Twelve young exercising horses were randomized in a prospective, controlled clinical trial and received 4 weekly doses of a CatKI or vehicle. Baseline and poststudy nuclear scintigraphy, blood sampling and analysis of plasma bone biomarkers (CTX-1 and osteocalcin), poststudy bone fluorescent labeling, and bone biopsy were performed. Bone specimens were further processed for microcomputed tomography and bone histomorphometry. Each dose of this CatKI transiently inhibited plasma CTX-1 (reflecting inhibition of bone collagen resorption) and increased bone plasma osteocalcin concentrations, with no detectable adverse effect on normal bone turnover in the face of exercise. Bone morphology, density, and formation rate were not different between control and treated group. Further investigation of CatK inhibition in abnormal bone turnover is required in animals with bone diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Impact of bone graft harvesting techniques on bone formation and graft resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saulacic, Nikola; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Harvesting techniques can affect cellular parameters of autogenous bone grafts in vitro. Whether these differences translate to in vivo bone formation, however, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of different harvesting techniques on bone fo......: Transplantation of autogenous bone particles harvested with four techniques in the present model resulted in moderate differences in terms of bone formation and graft resorption.......BACKGROUND: Harvesting techniques can affect cellular parameters of autogenous bone grafts in vitro. Whether these differences translate to in vivo bone formation, however, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of different harvesting techniques on bone...... formation and graft resorption in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four harvesting techniques were used: (i) corticocancellous blocks particulated by a bone mill; (ii) bone scraper; (iii) piezosurgery; and (iv) bone slurry collected from a filter device upon drilling. The grafts were placed into bone defects...

  6. Bone formation within a breast abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Mannu, Gurdeep Singh; Ahmed, Farid; Cunnick, Giles; Mungalsingh, Naren

    2014-01-01

    We present a rare case of osseous metaplasia in a poorly healing breast abscess. An 87-year-old woman was referred to the breast surgery clinic with a painful lump in her right breast. Initial imaging and core biopsy suggested a breast abscess. Despite several courses of antibiotics and repeated attempts at aspiration the painful lesion persisted. It was eventually surgically excised in its entirety and final histopathology showed the presence of bone formation within the abscess. The patient...

  7. Marginal zinc deficiency in pregnant rats impairs bone matrix formation and bone mineralization in their neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Masashi; Kayanoma, Megumu; Takahashi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Hara, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency during pregnancy may result in a variety of defects in the offspring. We evaluated the influence of marginal Zn deficiency during pregnancy on neonatal bone status. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups and fed AIN-93G-based experimental diets containing 35 mg Zn/kg (Zn adequately supplied, N) or 7 mg Zn/kg (low level of Zn, L) from 14-day preconception to 20 days of gestation, that is, 1 day before normal delivery. Neonates were delivered by cesarean section. Litter size and neonate weight were not different between the two groups. However, in the L-diet-fed dam group, bone matrix formation in isolated neonatal calvaria culture was clearly impaired and was not recovered by the addition of Zn into the culture media. Additionally, serum concentration of osteocalcin, as a bone formation parameter, was lower in neonates from the L-diet-fed dam group. Impaired bone mineralization was observed with a significantly lower content of phosphorus in neonate femurs from L-diet-fed dams compared with those from N-diet-fed dams. Moreover, Zn content in the femur and calvaria of neonates from the L-diet group was lower than that of the N-diet-fed group. In the marginally Zn-deficient dams, femoral Zn content, serum concentrations of Zn, and osteocalcin were reduced when compared with control dams. We conclude that maternal Zn deficiency causes impairment of bone matrix formation and bone mineralization in neonates, implying the importance of Zn intake during pregnancy for proper bone development of offspring.

  8. Diffusely increased uptake in the skull in normal bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suematsu, Toru; Yoshida, Shoji; Motohara, Tomofumi; Fujiwara, Hirofumi; Nishii, Hironori; Komiyama, Toyozo; Yanase, Masakazu; Mizutani, Masahiro

    1992-01-01

    Diffusely increased skull uptake (a hot skull) is often seen in patients with bone metastases and metabolic disease. This finding is also, however, noticed in normal bone scans of aged women. To determine whether the hot skull could be considered a normal variant in elderly women and is associated to menopause, we studied 282 normal bone scans (166 women and 116 men without metabolic and hormonal disease; age range 11 to 84 yr). We divided the patients into eight age groups--ages 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and 80-89 yrs. Measurements of skull uptake were obtained from anterior total body views using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). CNR for the skull was calculated using an equation. The sex dependent difference in skull uptake began to develop in the age group 30-39 yrs (p<0.05). The skull showed greater activity in women than in men for age groups from 30-39 to 80-89 yrs. In the age groups 50-59 and 60-69, the difference was particularly large (p<0.001). For women, the 50-59 yr age group had a significantly higher CNR than the 40-49 yr (p<0.01), 30-39 yr (p<0.05), and 20-29 yr age group (p<0.05). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the 20-29 yr, 30-39 yr and 40-49 yr age groups. For men, the skull uptake was virtually unchanged with age. Our data strongly suggested that the hot skull in normal bone scan is related to menopausal estrogen deficiency. One should not necessarily regard it abnormal that elderly women suffer hot skull. (J.P.N.)

  9. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  10. Roles of Chondrocytes in Endochondral Bone Formation and Fracture Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, R.J.; Jing, Y.; Jing, J.; Feng, J.Q.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) and its subchondral bone is an important but understudied topic in dental research. The current concept regarding endochondral bone formation postulates that most hypertrophic chondrocytes undergo programmed cell death prior to bone formation. Under this paradigm, the MCC and its underlying bone are thought to result from 2 closely linked but separate processes: chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. However, recent investigations using cell lineage tracing techniques have demonstrated that many, perhaps the majority, of bone cells are derived via direct transformation from chondrocytes. In this review, the authors will briefly discuss the history of this idea and describe recent studies that clearly demonstrate that the direct transformation of chondrocytes into bone cells is common in both long bone and mandibular condyle development and during bone fracture repair. The authors will also provide new evidence of a distinct difference in ossification orientation in the condylar ramus (1 ossification center) versus long bone ossification formation (2 ossification centers). Based on our recent findings and those of other laboratories, we propose a new model that contrasts the mode of bone formation in much of the mandibular ramus (chondrocyte-derived) with intramembranous bone formation of the mandibular body (non-chondrocyte-derived). PMID:27664203

  11. Histological study on the new bone formation of the implanted bone allograft in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Youchen; Sun Guiying; Shi Zhancheng

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the formation of new bone in the implanted frozen irradiated bone allograft with the fresh bone autograft. The work on animal model included resection and implantation of sheep's tibial diaphysis and intramedullary nail fixation, with total number 20. Tibias were harvested at 6, 12, and 24 months after operation. Sheep were fed with tetracycline I week before bone harvesting. Bones were examined with usual and fluorescence microscopes. The results showed that the progress of graft incorporation in allografts were generally similar to that of autografts. Capillaries penetration and callus formation extended from the host end to surround the host-graft junction in 6 months. Incorporation of new bone was nearly completed in 12 months; then the speed of new bone formation was decreased, and the implanted bone graft was almost completely substituted with non-nal bone structure in 24 months

  12. Bone formation in cranial, mandibular, tibial and iliac bone grafts in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Talsnes, O

    1995-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that grafts from membranous derived bone (e.g., calvarial grafts) retain their volume better than those from endochondral derived bone (e.g., iliac bone grafts). Increased osteogenesis in grafts of the former type has been offered as the explanation. However, simple...... volume measurements of the recovered grafts do not differentiate between viable and dead bone. We studied fresh syngeneic full-thickness bone grafts from calvaria, mandibula, tibia diaphysis, and iliac bone implanted in the back muscles of young Lewis rats. Bone formation in grafts recovered 3 weeks...... that the anatomical area of harvest is important regarding new bone formation in syngeneic bone grafts. However, the results do not support the contention that better maintenance of volume of calvarial grafts compared with iliac bone grafts is due to enhanced osteogenesis in the former....

  13. Bone formation within a breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannu, Gurdeep Singh; Ahmed, Farid; Cunnick, Giles; Mungalsingh, Naren

    2014-09-22

    We present a rare case of osseous metaplasia in a poorly healing breast abscess. An 87-year-old woman was referred to the breast surgery clinic with a painful lump in her right breast. Initial imaging and core biopsy suggested a breast abscess. Despite several courses of antibiotics and repeated attempts at aspiration the painful lesion persisted. It was eventually surgically excised in its entirety and final histopathology showed the presence of bone formation within the abscess. The patient's symptoms subsequently resolved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature, of osseous metaplasia within a breast abscess in the absence of malignancy. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Age-related changes in bone biochemical markers and their relationship with bone mineral density in normal Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Yin-Zhen; Wu, Xian-Ping; Liu, Shi-Ping; Luo, Xiang-Hang; Cao, Xing-Zhi; Xie, Hui; Liao, Er-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of bone biochemical markers are increasingly being used to evaluate the state of bone turnover in the management of bone metabolic diseases, especially osteoporosis. However, changes in the bone turnover rate vary with age. The aim of this study was to establish the laboratory reference range of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), serum type I collagen cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide (sCTx), and urine CTx (uCTx), based on values from 665 healthy Chinese women aged 20-80 years. We measured the levels of sBAP, sCTx, serum alkaline phosphatase (sALP), and uCTx and evaluated the age-related changes and their relationship with bone mineral density (BMD) in the anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine, hip, and left forearm. We found significant correlations between biochemical markers and age, with coefficients of determination (R (2)) of 0.358 for sBAP, 0.126 for sCTx, 0.125 for uCTx, and 0.336 for sALP. The net changes in different biochemical markers were inversely correlated with the rates of BMD loss in the AP lumbar spine. After correction for age, body weight, and height, the levels of the markers had significant negative correlations with the BMD of the AP lumbar spine, femoral neck, and ultradistal forearm. All four biochemical markers had the highest negative correlation with BMD of the AP lumbar spine (partial correlation coefficients of -0.366, -0.296, -0.290, and -0.258 for sBAP, sCTx, uCTx, and sALP, respectively). The mean and SD values of these markers in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with normal BMD values were used as the normal reference ranges. The reference ranges of sBAP, sCTx, and uCTx for pre- vs postmenopausal women were 17.3 +/- 6.23 vs 18.9 +/- 7.52 U/l, 3.18 +/- 1.49 vs 3.23 +/- 1.57 nmol/l, and 15.5 +/- 11.4 vs 16.2 +/- 12.4 nM bone collagen equivalents/mM urinary creatinine, respectively. Levels of the bone formation marker (sBAP) and bone resorption markers (sCTx, uCTx) increased rapidly in women with

  15. Bone marrow blood vessels: normal and neoplastic niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Shahrabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are among the most important factors in the transport of materials such as nutrients and oxygen. This study will review the role of blood vessels in normal bone marrow hematopoiesis as well as pathological conditions like leukemia and metastasis. Relevant literature was identified by a Pubmed search (1992-2016 of English-language papers using the terms bone marrow, leukemia, metastasis, and vessel. Given that blood vessels are conduits for the transfer of nutrients, they create a favorable situation for cancer cells and cause their growth and development. On the other hand, blood vessels protect leukemia cells against chemotherapy drugs. Finally, it may be concluded that the vessels are an important factor in the development of malignant diseases.

  16. Impaired bone formation in Pdia3 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    Full Text Available 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH2D3] is crucial for normal skeletal development and bone homeostasis. Protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (PDIA3 mediates 1α,25(OH2D3 initiated-rapid membrane signaling in several cell types. To understand its role in regulating skeletal development, we generated Pdia3-deficient mice and examined the physiologic consequence of Pdia3-disruption in embryos and Pdia3+/- heterozygotes at different ages. No mice homozygous for the Pdia3-deletion were found at birth nor were there embryos after E12.5, indicating that targeted disruption of the Pdia3 gene resulted in early embryonic lethality. Pdia3-deficiency also resulted in skeletal manifestations as revealed by µCT analysis of the tibias. In comparison to wild type mice, Pdia3 heterozygous mice displayed expanded growth plates associated with decreased tether formation. Histomorphometry also showed that the hypertrophic zone in Pdia3+/- mice was more cellular than seen in wild type growth plates. Metaphyseal trabecular bone in Pdia3+/- mice exhibited an age-dependent phenotype with lower BV/TV and trabecular numbers, which was most pronounced at 15 weeks of age. Bone marrow cells from Pdia3+/- mice exhibited impaired osteoblastic differentiation, based on reduced expression of osteoblast markers and mineral deposition compared to cells from wild type animals. Collectively, our findings provide in vivo evidence that PDIA3 is essential for normal skeletal development. The fact that the Pdia3+/- heterozygous mice share a similar growth plate and bone phenotype to nVdr knockout mice, suggests that PDIA3-mediated rapid membrane signaling might be an alternative mechanism responsible for 1α,25(OH2D3's actions in regulating skeletal development.

  17. Identification of mechanosensitive genes during embryonic bone formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh C Nowlan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that mechanical forces are needed for normal bone development, the current understanding of how biophysical stimuli are interpreted by and integrated with genetic regulatory mechanisms is limited. Mechanical forces are thought to be mediated in cells by "mechanosensitive" genes, but it is a challenge to demonstrate that the genetic regulation of the biological system is dependant on particular mechanical forces in vivo. We propose a new means of selecting candidate mechanosensitive genes by comparing in vivo gene expression patterns with patterns of biophysical stimuli, computed using finite element analysis. In this study, finite element analyses of the avian embryonic limb were performed using anatomically realistic rudiment and muscle morphologies, and patterns of biophysical stimuli were compared with the expression patterns of four candidate mechanosensitive genes integral to bone development. The expression patterns of two genes, Collagen X (ColX and Indian hedgehog (Ihh, were shown to colocalise with biophysical stimuli induced by embryonic muscle contractions, identifying them as potentially being involved in the mechanoregulation of bone formation. An altered mechanical environment was induced in the embryonic chick, where a neuromuscular blocking agent was administered in ovo to modify skeletal muscle contractions. Finite element analyses predicted dramatic changes in levels and patterns of biophysical stimuli, and a number of immobilised specimens exhibited differences in ColX and Ihh expression. The results obtained indicate that computationally derived patterns of biophysical stimuli can be used to inform a directed search for genes that may play a mechanoregulatory role in particular in vivo events or processes. Furthermore, the experimental data demonstrate that ColX and Ihh are involved in mechanoregulatory pathways and may be key mediators in translating information from the mechanical environment to the

  18. Impact of skeletal unloading on bone formation: Role of systemic and local factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Halloran, Bernard P.; Morey-Holton, Emily

    We have developed a model of skeletal unloading using growing rats whose hindlimbs are unweighted by tail suspension. The bones in the hindlimbs undergo a transient cessation of bone growth; when reloaded bone formation is accelerated until bone mass is restored. These changes do not occur in the normally loaded bones of the forelimbs. Associated with the fall in bone formation is a fall in 1,25(OH) 2D 3 production and osteocalcin levels. In contrast, no changes in parathyroid hormone, calcium, or corticosterone levels are seen. To examine the role of locally produced growth factors, we have measured the mRNA and protein levels of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in bone during tail suspension. Surprisingly, both the mRNA and protein levels of IGF-1 increase during tail suspension as bone formation is reduced. Furthermore, the bones in the hindlimbs of the suspended animals develop a resistance to the growth promoting effects of both growth hormone and IGF-1 when given parenterally. Thus, the cessation of bone growth with skeletal unloading is apparently associated with a resistance to rather than failure to produce local growth factors. The cause of this resistance remains under active investigation.

  19. Enhancement of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenesis and New Bone Formation in Rats by Obtusilactone A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsiung Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural pure compound obtusilactone A (OA was identified in Cinnamomum kotoense Kanehira & Sasaki, and shows effective anti-cancer activity. We studied the effect of OA on osteogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs. OA possesses biocompatibility, stimulates Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP activity and facilitates mineralization of BMSCs. Expression of osteogenesis markers BMP2, Runx2, Collagen I, and Osteocalcin was enhanced in OA-treated BMSCs. An in vivo rat model with local administration of OA via needle implantation to bone marrow-residing BMSCs revealed that OA increased the new bone formation and trabecular bone volume in tibias. Micro-CT images and H&E staining showed more trabecular bone at the needle-implanted site in the OA group than the normal saline group. Thus, OA confers an osteoinductive effect on BMSCs via induction of osteogenic marker gene expression, such as BMP2 and Runx2 expression and subsequently elevates ALP activity and mineralization, followed by enhanced trabecular bone formation in rat tibias. Therefore, OA is a potential osteoinductive drug to stimulate new bone formation by BMSCs.

  20. Observation of microscopic bone structure during bone formation. Application of micro-computed tomography for evaluation of bone quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Mizukawa, Nobuyoshi; Mishima, Katsuaki; Takagi, Shin; Sugahara, Toshio

    1998-01-01

    Bone formation in the autogenous periosteum of the tibia grafted to the floor of the mouth to bridge the mandible was studied by micro-CT to assess its efficacy in evaluating bone formation in rabbits. On soft radiographs, bone formation was observed from both ends of the periosteum on day 14. The bone increased in width and extended medially; contact was made in the center on day 28. The time course of the development of bone trabeculae was well demonstrated three-dimensionally on micro-CT. Indices of bone quality such as Tb-Th, Tb.N, and BV, which reflect the growth of trabeculae, increased gradually from days 14 to 21 and more rapidly from days 21 to 28, whereas Tb. S decreased gradually after grafting. The results suggest that micro-CT is useful in evaluating bone formation three-dimensionally. (author)

  1. Rac1 Dosage Is Crucial for Normal Endochondral Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Dai; Bush, Jason R; Bryce, Dawn-Marie; Kamijo, Ryutaro; Beier, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Rac1, a member of the small Rho GTPase family, plays multiple cellular roles. Studies of mice conditionally lacking Rac1 have revealed essential roles for Rac1 in various tissues, including cartilage and limb mesenchyme, where Rac1 loss produces dwarfism and long bone shortening. To gain further insight into the role of Rac1 in skeletal development, we have used transgenic mouse lines to express a constitutively active (ca) Rac1 mutant protein in a Cre recombinase-dependent manner. Overexpression of caRac1 in limb bud mesenchyme or chondrocytes leads to reduced body weight and shorter bones compared with control mice. Histological analysis of growth plates showed that caRac1;Col2-Cre mice displayed ectopic hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferative zone and enlarged hypertrophic zones. These mice also displayed a reduced proportion of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells in the proliferative zone and nuclear β-catenin localization in the ectopic hypertrophic chondrocytes. Importantly, overexpression of caRac1 partially rescued the phenotypes of Rac1fl/fl;Col2-Cre and Rac1fl/fl;Prx1-Cre conditional knockout mice, including body weight, bone length, and growth plate disorganization. These results suggest that tight regulation of Rac1 activity is necessary for normal cartilage development. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  2. Leptin regulates bone formation via the sympathetic nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Levasseur, Regis; Liu, Xiuyun; Zhao, Liping; Parker, Keith L.; Armstrong, Dawna; Ducy, Patricia; Karsenty, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    We previously showed that leptin inhibits bone formation by an undefined mechanism. Here, we show that hypothalamic leptin-dependent antiosteogenic and anorexigenic networks differ, and that the peripheral mediators of leptin antiosteogenic function appear to be neuronal. Neuropeptides mediating leptin anorexigenic function do not affect bone formation. Leptin deficiency results in low sympathetic tone, and genetic or pharmacological ablation of adrenergic signaling leads to a leptin-resistant high bone mass. beta-adrenergic receptors on osteoblasts regulate their proliferation, and a beta-adrenergic agonist decreases bone mass in leptin-deficient and wild-type mice while a beta-adrenergic antagonist increases bone mass in wild-type and ovariectomized mice. None of these manipulations affects body weight. This study demonstrates a leptin-dependent neuronal regulation of bone formation with potential therapeutic implications for osteoporosis.

  3. Normal epidermal growth factor receptor signaling is dispensable for bone anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Marlon R; Dahlhoff, Maik; Andrukhova, Olena; Grill, Jessica; Glösmann, Martin; Schüler, Christiane; Weber, Karin; Wolf, Eckhard; Erben, Reinhold G

    2012-01-01

    Although the bone anabolic properties of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) have long been employed in the treatment of osteoporosis, the molecular mechanisms behind this action remain largely unknown. Previous studies showed that PTH increases the expression and the activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in osteoblasts, and activation of ERK1/2 by PTH in osteoblasts was demonstrated to induce the proteolytical release of EGFR ligands and EGFR transactivation. However, conclusive evidence for an important role of the EGFR system in mediating the anabolic actions of intermittent PTH on bone in vivo is lacking. Here, we evaluated the effects of intermittent PTH on bone in Waved-5 (Wa5) mice which carry an antimorphic Egfr allele whose product acts as a dominant negative receptor. Heterozygous Wa5 females and control littermates received a subcutaneous injection of PTH (80 μg/kg) or buffer on 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Wa5 mice had slightly lower total bone mineral density (BMD), but normal cancellous bone volume and turnover in the distal femoral metaphysis. The presence of the antimorphic Egfr allele neither influenced the PTH-induced increase in serum osteocalcin nor the increases in distal femoral BMD, cortical thickness, cancellous bone volume, and cancellous bone formation rate. Similarly, the PTH-induced rise in lumbar vertebral BMD was unchanged in Wa5 relative to wild-type mice. Wa5-derived osteoblasts showed considerably lower basal extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation as compared to control osteoblasts. Whereas activation of ERK1/2 by the EGFR ligand amphiregulin was largely blocked in Wa5 osteoblasts, treatment with PTH induced ERK1/2 activation comparable to that observed in control osteoblasts, relative to baseline levels. Our data indicate that impairment of EGFR signaling does not affect the anabolic action of intermittent PTH on cancellous and cortical bone. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Normal variants and artifacts in bone scan: potential for errors in interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee

    2004-01-01

    Bone scan is one of the most frequently performed studies in nuclear medicine. In bone scan, the amount of radioisotope taken up by lesion depends primarily on the local rate of bone turnover rather than on the bone mass. Bone scan is extremely sensitive for detecting bony abnormalities. However, abnormalities that appear on bone scan may not always represent disease. The normal scan appearances may be affected not only by skeletal physiology and anatomy but also by a variety of technical factors which can influence image quality. Many normal variants and artifacts may appear on bone scan. They could simulate a pathologic process and could mislead into the wrong diagnostic interpretation. Therefore, their recognition is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis. A nuclear medicine physician should be aware of variable appearance of the normal variants and artifacts on bone scan. In this article, a variety of normal variants and artifacts mimicking real pathologic lesion in bone scan interpretation are discussed and illustrated

  5. Heterotopic new bone formation causes resorption of the inductive bone matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, O.S.; Persson, P.E.; Ekelund, A.

    1990-01-01

    The bone matrix of growing rats was labeled by multiple injections of 3H-proline, and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was prepared. The DBM was allotransplanted heterotopically into growing rats. New bone formation was induced in and around the implants. The new bone formation was accompanied by a decrease in the content of 3H; 20 and 30 days after implantation, 72% and 46%, respectively, of the activity remained in the implants. Daily injections of indomethacin (2 mg/kg) inhibited calcium uptake by about 20% at 20 and 30 days and inhibited the release of 3H from the DBM to a similar degree. Heterotopic bone induction by DBM is accompanied by matrix resorption, and inhibition of the new bone formation decreases the resorption of DBM

  6. Characteristics of bone turnover in the long bone metaphysis fractured patients with normal or low Bone Mineral Density (BMD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wölfl

    Full Text Available The incidence of osteoporotic fractures increases as our population ages. Until now, the exact biochemical processes that occur during the healing of metaphyseal fractures remain unclear. Diagnostic instruments that allow a dynamic insight into the fracture healing process are as yet unavailable. In the present matched pair analysis, we study the time course of the osteoanabolic markers bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1, as well as the osteocatabolic markers crosslinked C-telopeptide of type-I-collagen (β-CTX and serum band 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b, during the healing of fractures that have a low level of bone mineral density (BMD compared with fractures that have a normal BMD. Between March 2007 and February 2009, 30 patients aged older than 50 years who suffered a metaphyseal fracture were included in our study. BMDs were verified by dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXEA scans. The levels of BTMs were examined over an 8-week period. Osteoanabolic BAP levels in those with low levels of BMD were significantly different from the BAP levels in those with normal BMD. BAP levels in the former group increased constantly, whereas the latter group showed an initial strong decrease in BAP followed by slowly rising values. Osteocatabolic β-CTX increased in the bone of the normal BMD group constantly, whereas these levels decreased significantly in the bone of the group with low BMD from the first week. TRAP5b was significantly reduced in the low level BMD group. With this work, we conduct first insights into the molecular biology of the fracture healing process in patients with low levels of BMD that explains the mechanism of its fracture healing. The results may be one reason for the reduced healing qualities in bones with low BMD.

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein-induced heterotopic bone formation: What have we learned from the history of a half century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenobu Katagiri, PhD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP was originally discovered by Marshall Urist a half century ago following the observation of a unique activity that induced heterotopic bone formation in skeletal muscle tissue. The molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of heterotopic bone formation in skeletal muscle by BMPs were elucidated through the purification and molecular cloning of BMPs and identification of their functional receptors and downstream effectors, as well as from genetic disorders related to BMP activity. BMPs are important regulators of not only skeletal development and regeneration but also the homeostasis of normal skeletal muscle mass. There is still much to learn about the physiology and pathology at the interface of BMPs and skeletal muscle.

  8. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmio, Mirja; Joki, Henna; Kallio, Jenny; Maeaettae, Jorma A.; Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo; Toppari, Jorma; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered) ). Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research highlights: → 3-Day imatinib treatment. → Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. → Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. → Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

  9. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal osteoporosis and normal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi, Akram; Saba, Elias; Smoom, Riham; Bader, Khaldoun; Darwish, Hisham

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the association of vitamin D and bone markers with the development osteoporosis in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Even though vitamin D deficiency was very high for the recruited subjects, it was not associated with osteoporosis except for bones of the hip. Age and obesity were the strongest determining factors of the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of bone mineral density (BMD) with serum vitamin D levels, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, obesity, and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Three hundred eighty-two postmenopausal women (≥45 years) were recruited from various women clinics for BMD assessment (131 women had osteoporosis and 251 were normal and served as controls). Blood samples were obtained for serum calcium, PTH, 25(OH)D, bone formation (N-terminal propeptide (PINP)), and bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX1)) markers. Women with osteoporosis had statistically significant lower mean weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and serum calcium (p osteoporosis decreased with increasing BMI (overweight OR = 0.11, p = 0.053; obese OR = 0.05, p = 0.007). There was no direct correlation between BMD and PTH, bone turnover markers, and vitamin D except at the lumbar spine. A negative correlation between BMD and age and a positive correlation with BMI were observed. The protective effect of obesity on osteoporosis was complicated by the effect of obesity on vitamin D and PTH.

  10. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, T.S.; Nilsson, O.S.; Lindholm, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45 Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  11. Functional Diversity of Fibroblast Growth Factors in Bone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Takei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional significance of fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling in bone formation has been demonstrated through genetic loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches. FGFs, comprising 22 family members, are classified into three subfamilies: canonical, hormone-like, and intracellular. The former two subfamilies activate their signaling pathways through FGF receptors (FGFRs. Currently, intracellular FGFs appear to be primarily involved in the nervous system. Canonical FGFs such as FGF2 play significant roles in bone formation, and precise spatiotemporal control of FGFs and FGFRs at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels may allow for the functional diversity of FGFs during bone formation. Recently, several research groups, including ours, have shown that FGF23, a member of the hormone-like FGF subfamily, is primarily expressed in osteocytes/osteoblasts. This polypeptide decreases serum phosphate levels by inhibiting renal phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D3 activation, resulting in mineralization defects in the bone. Thus, FGFs are involved in the positive and negative regulation of bone formation. In this review, we focus on the reciprocal roles of FGFs in bone formation in relation to their local versus systemic effects.

  12. Rethinking the nature of fibrolamellar bone: an integrative biological revision of sauropod plexiform bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Koen; Prondvai, Edina

    2014-02-01

    We present novel findings on sauropod bone histology that cast doubt on general palaeohistological concepts concerning the true nature of woven bone in primary cortical bone and its role in the rapid growth and giant body sizes of sauropod dinosaurs. By preparing and investigating longitudinal thin sections of sauropod long bones, of which transverse thin sections were published previously, we found that the amount of woven bone in the primary complex has been largely overestimated. Using comparative cellular and light-extinction characteristics in the two section planes, we revealed that the majority of the bony lamina consists of longitudinally organized primary bone, whereas woven bone is usually represented only by a layer a few cells thin in the laminae. Previous arguments on sauropod biology, which have been based on the overestimated amount, misinterpreted formation process and misjudged role of woven bone in the plexiform bone formation of sauropod dinosaurs, are thereby rejected. To explain the observed pattern in fossil bones, we review the most recent advances in bone biology concerning bone formation processes at the cellular and tissue levels. Differentiation between static and dynamic osteogenesis (SO and DO) and the revealed characteristics of SO- versus DO-derived bone tissues shed light on several questions raised by our palaeohistological results and permit identification of these bone tissues in fossils with high confidence. By presenting the methods generally used for investigating fossil bones, we show that the major cause of overestimation of the amount of woven bone in previous palaeohistological studies is the almost exclusive usage of transverse sections. In these sections, cells and crystallites of the longitudinally organized primary bone are cut transversely, thus cells appear rounded and crystallites remain dark under crossed plane polarizers, thereby giving the false impression of woven bone. In order to avoid further confusion in

  13. Heterotopic bone formation (myositis ossificans) and lower-extremity swelling mimicking deep-venous disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzel, J.A.; Rudd, T.G.; Nelp, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    A quadriplegic patient with a swollen leg was suspected of having deep-venous thrombosis, and was studied with radionuclide venography (RNV) and contrast venography. Focal narrowing of the femoral vein, seen on RNV, was due to extrinsic compression. Although soft-tissue radiographs were normal, Tc-99m diphosphonate imaging established the diagnosis of early heterotopic bone formation (myositis ossificans), which was responsible for the venous compression. Clinically this inflammatory process can mimic deep-venous thrombosis, and should be considered in evaluating patients at risk for both heterotopic bone formation and deep-venous thrombosis

  14. Interleukin 17 enhances bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced ectopic bone formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, M.; Kruyt, M. C.; Groen, W. M.; Van Dorenmalen, K. M.A.; Dhert, W. J.A.; Öner, F. C.; Alblas, J.

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17) stimulates the osteogenic differentiation of progenitor cells in vitro through a synergy with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. This study investigates whether the diverse responses mediated by IL-17 in vivo also lead to enhanced BMP-2-induced bone formation. Since IL-17 is

  15. MR imaging of the bone marrow using short TI IR, 1. Normal and pathological intensity distribution of the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Mikiko; Tomioka, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Kanako; Sato, Noriko; Nagai, Teruo; Heshiki, Atsuko; Amanuma, Makoto; Mizuno, Hitomi.

    1989-02-01

    Normal vertebral bone marrow intensity distribution and its alteration in various anemias were evaluated on short TI IR sequences. Material consists of 73 individuals, 48 normals and 25 anemic patients excluding neoplastic conditions. All normal and reactive hypercellular bone marrow revealed characteristic intensity distribution; marginal high intensity and central low intensity, corresponding well to normal distribution of red and yellow marrows and their physiological or reactive conversion between red and yellow marrows. Aplastic anemia did not reveal normal intensity distribution, presumably due to autonomous condition.

  16. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Normal Human Temporal Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first simultaneous sound pressure measurements in scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea in human cadaveric temporal bones. Micro-scale fiberoptic pressure sensors enabled the study of differential sound pressure at the cochlear base. This differential pressure is the input to the cochlear partition, driving cochlear waves and auditory transduction. Results showed that: pressure of scala vestibuli was much greater than scala tympani except at low and high frequencies where scala tympani pressure affects the input to the cochlea; the differential pressure proved to be an excellent measure of normal ossicular transduction of sound (shown to decrease 30-50 dB with ossicular disarticulation, whereas the individual scala pressures were significantly affected by non-ossicular conduction of sound at high frequencies); the middle-ear gain and differential pressure were generally bandpass in frequency dependence; and the middle-ear delay in the human was over twice that of the gerbil. Concurrent stapes velocity measurements allowed determination of the differential impedance across the partition and round-window impedance. The differential impedance was generally resistive, while the round-window impedance was consistent with a compliance in conjunction with distributed inertia and damping. Our techniques can be used to study inner-ear conductive pathologies (e.g., semicircular dehiscence), as well as non-ossicular cochlear stimulation (e.g., round-window stimulation) - situations that cannot be completely quantified by measurements of stapes velocity or scala-vestibuli pressure by themselves.

  17. Clay-Enriched Silk Biomaterials for Bone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Llamas, Jabier Gallego; Vaiana, Christopher A.; Kadakia, Madhavi P.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of silk protein/clay composite biomaterials for bone tissue formation is described. Silk fibroin serves as an organic scaffolding material offering mechanical stability suitable for bone specific uses. Clay montmorillonite (Cloisite ® Na+) and sodium silicate are sources of osteoinductive silica-rich inorganic species, analogous to bioactive bioglass-like bone repair biomaterial systems. Different clay particle-silk composite biomaterial films were compared to silk films doped with sodium silicate as controls for support of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in osteogenic culture. The cells adhered and proliferated on the silk/clay composites over two weeks. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed increased transcript levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and collagen type 1 (Col I) osteogenic markers in the cells cultured on the silk/clay films in comparison to the controls. Early evidence for bone formation based on collagen deposition at the cell-biomaterial interface was also found, with more collagen observed for the silk films with higher contents of clay particles. The data suggest that the silk/clay composite systems may be useful for further study toward bone regenerative needs. PMID:21549864

  18. Coupling of Bone Resorption and Formation in Real Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Nicolai Ernlund; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pløen, Gro Grunnet

    2017-01-01

    measurements show that the latter contribute the most to overall resorption. Of note, the density of osteoprogenitors continuously grew along the "reversal/resorption" surface, reaching at least 39 cells/mm on initiation of bone formation. This value was independent of the length of the reversal......It is well known that bone remodeling starts with a resorption event and ends with bone formation. However, what happens in between and how resorption and formation are coupled remains mostly unknown. Remodeling is achieved by so-called basic multicellular units (BMUs), which are local teams...... of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and reversal cells recently proven identical with osteoprogenitors. Their organization within a BMU cannot be appropriately analyzed in common histology. The originality of the present study is to capture the events ranging from initiation of resorption to onset of formation...

  19. The Effect of Aloe, Gelfoam, Plaster on Bone Formation in applying to the bone defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Su Gwan

    1999-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the effects of Aloe, Gelfoam, and Plaster of Paris on bone healing. Four experimental defects were created for placement of the three materials in the right femur of dogs. One defect served as an empty control site. The evaluation was performed at 1-, 6-, and 12-weeks by light microscopy and NIH image program. Radiographic and Histologic examinations showed new bone formation in the presence of Aloe, Gelfoam, and Plaster of Paris and similar bone healing reactions. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that Aloe, Gelfoam, and Plaster of Paris may be adequate agents for use in bone procurement.

  20. Lining cells on normal human vertebral bone surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.B.; Lloyd, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    Thoracic vertebrae from two individuals with no bone disease were studied with the electron microscope to determine cell morphology in relation to bone mineral. The work was undertaken to determine if cell morphology or spatial relationships between the bone lining cells and bone mineral could account for the relative infrequency of bone tumors which arise at this site following radium intake, when compared with other sites, such as the head of the femur. Cells lining the vertebral mineral were found to be generally rounded in appearance with varied numbers of cytoplasmic granules, and they appeared to have a high density per unit of surface area. These features contrasted with the single layer of flattened cells characteristic of the bone lining cells of the femur. A tentative discussion of the reasons for the relative infrequency of tumors in the vertebrae following radium acquisition is presented

  1. Normal bone density in male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5a- reductase 2 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Elaine Maria Frade

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone is an androgen-dependent tissue, but it is not clear whether the androgen action in bone depends on testosterone or on dihydrotestosterone. Patients with 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency present normal levels of testosterone and low levels of dihydrotestosterone, providing an in vivo human model for the analysis of the effect of testosterone on bone. OBJECTIVE: To analyze bone mineral density in 4 adult patients with male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency. RESULTS: Three patients presented normal bone mineral density of the lumbar column (L1-L4 and femur neck, and the other patient presented a slight osteopenia in the lumbar column. CONCLUSION: Patients with dihydrotestosterone deficiency present normal bone mineral density, suggesting that dihydrotestosterone is not the main androgen acting in bone.

  2. [Bone metabolism, biochemical markers of bone resorption and formation processes and interleukine 6 cytokin level during coeliac disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekih, Monia; Sahli, Hela; Ben Mustapha, Nadia; Mestiri, Imen; Fekih, Moncef; Boubaker, Jalel; Kaabachi, Naziha; Sellami, Mohamed; Kallel, Lamia; Filali, Azza

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is characterized by a malabsorption syndrom. The bone anomalies are one of the principal complications of this disease. The osteoporosis frequency is high: 3.4% among patients having with CD versus 0.2% in the general population. To study the bone mineral density during the CD, to compare it to a control group and to determine the anomalies of biochemical markers of bone turn over and level of interleukin 6 cytokin (IL6) in these patients. All patients with CD have a measurement of bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a biological exam with dosing calcemia, vitamin D, parathormone (PTH), the osteoblastic bone formation markers (serum osteocalcin, ALP phosphates alkaline), bone osteoclastic activity (C Télopeptide: CTX) and of the IL6. 42 patients were included, with a median age of 33.6 years. 52. 8% of the patients had a low level of D vitamine associated to a high level of PTH. An osteoporosis was noted in 21.5% of patients. No case of osteoporosis was detected in the control group. The mean level of the CTX, ostéocalcine and the IL6 was higher among patients having an osteoporosis or ostéopenia compared to patients with normal bone (p = 0,017). The factors associated with an bone loss (osteopenia or osteoporosis) were: an age > 30 years, a weight 90 UI/ml, an hypo albuminemia < 40 g/l and a level of CTX higher than 1.2. Our study confirms the impact of the CD on the bone mineral statute. The relative risk to have an osteopenia or an osteoporosis was 5 in our series. The measurement of the osseous mineral density would be indicated among patients having a CD.

  3. Influence of short-term aluminum exposure on demineralized bone matrix induced bone formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severson, A.R. (Minnesota Univ., Duluth, MN (United States). Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology); Haut, C.F.; Firling, C.E. (Minnesota Univ., Duluth, MN (United States). Dept. of Biology); Huntley, T.E. (Minnesota Univ., Duluth, MN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)

    1992-12-01

    The effects of aluminum exposure on bone formation employing the demineralized bone matrix (DBM) induced bone development model were studied using 4-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats injected with a saline (control) or an aluminum chloride (experimental) solution. After 2 weeks of aluminum treatment, 20-mg portions of rat DBM were implanted subcutaneously on each side in the thoracic region of the control and experimental rats. Animals were killed 7, 12, or 21 days after implantation of the DBM and the developing plaques removed. No morphological, histochemical, or biochemical differences were apparent between plaques from day 7 control and experimental rats. Plaques from day 12 control and experimental rats exhibited cartilage formation and alkaline phosphatase activity localized in osteochondrogenic cells, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and extracellular matrix. Unlike the plaques from control rats that contained many osteoblastic mineralizing fronts, the plaques from the 12-day experimental group had a preponderance of cartilaginous tissue, no evidence of mineralization, increased levels of alkaline phosphatase activity, and a reduced calcium content. Plaques developing for 21 days in control animals demonstrated extensive new bone formation and bone marrow development, while those in the experimental rats demonstrated unmineralized osteoid-like matrix with poorly developed bone marrow. Alkaline phosphatase activity of the plaques continued to remain high on day 21 for the control and experimental groups. Calcium levels were significantly reduced in the experimental group. These biochemical changes correlated with histochemical reductions in bone calcification. Thus, aluminum administration to rats appears to alter the differentiation and calcification of developing cartilage and bone in the DBM-induced bone formation model and suggests that aluminum by some mechanism alters the matrix calcification in growing bones. (orig.).

  4. Nonlinear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil eSalmon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3D morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatio-temporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here – chaotic nonlinear pattern formation (NPF – which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of group intelligence exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called particle swarm optimization (PSO. This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts osteoclasts and osteocytes, seeing them operating socially in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in-silico simulation of bone modeling.What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder Juvenile Pagets Disease (JPD or Idiopathic Hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here coupling or feedback between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element.This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent consequence of the

  5. Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent

  6. Influence of demineralized bone matrix's embryonic origin on bone formation: an experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Andreas; Kostopoulos, Lambros; Mardas, Nicolaos; Karring, Thorkild

    2003-01-01

    There are results suggesting that differences regarding bone-inducing potential, in terms of amount and/or rate of bone formation, exist between demineralized bone matrices (DBMs) of different embryonic origins. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the embryonic origin of DBM affects bone formation when used as an adjunct to guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Endomembranous (EM) and endochondral (ECH) DBMs were produced from calvarial and long bones of rats, respectively. Prior to the study the osteoinductive properties of the DBMs were confirmed in six rats following intramuscular implantation. Following surgical exposure of the mandibular ramus, a rigid hemispheric Teflon capsule loosely packed with a standardized quantity of DBM was placed with its open part facing the lateral surface of the ramus in both sides of the jaw in 30 rats. In one side of the jaw, chosen at random, the capsule was filled with EM-DBM, whereas in the other side ECH-DBM was used. Groups of 10 animals were sacrificed after healing periods of 1, 2, and 4 months, and undecalcified sections of the capsules were produced and subjected to histologic analysis and computer-assisted planimetric measurements. During the experiment increasing amounts of newly formed bone were observed inside the capsules in both sides of the animals' jaws. Limited bone formation was observed in the 1- and 2-month specimens, but after 4 months of healing, the newly formed bone in the ECH-DBM grafted sides occupied 59.1% (range 45.6-74.7%) of the area created by the capsule versus 46.9% (range 23.0-64.0%) in the EM-DBM grafted sides (p =.01). It is concluded that the embryonic origin of DBM influences bone formation by GTR and that ECH-DBM is superior to EM-DBM.

  7. Alterations to the subchondral bone architecture during osteoarthritis : bone adaptation versus endochondral bone formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, L.G.E.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Rietbergen, van B.; Emans, P.J.; Ito, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by loss of cartilage and alterations in subchondral bone architecture. Changes in cartilage and bone tissue occur simultaneously and are spatially correlated, indicating that they are probably related. We investigated two hypotheses regarding this

  8. Vibration acceleration promotes bone formation in rodent models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Uchida

    Full Text Available All living tissues and cells on Earth are subject to gravitational acceleration, but no reports have verified whether acceleration mode influences bone formation and healing. Therefore, this study was to compare the effects of two acceleration modes, vibration and constant (centrifugal accelerations, on bone formation and healing in the trunk using BMP 2-induced ectopic bone formation (EBF mouse model and a rib fracture healing (RFH rat model. Additionally, we tried to verify the difference in mechanism of effect on bone formation by accelerations between these two models. Three groups (low- and high-magnitude vibration and control-VA groups were evaluated in the vibration acceleration study, and two groups (centrifuge acceleration and control-CA groups were used in the constant acceleration study. In each model, the intervention was applied for ten minutes per day from three days after surgery for eleven days (EBF model or nine days (RFH model. All animals were sacrificed the day after the intervention ended. In the EBF model, ectopic bone was evaluated by macroscopic and histological observations, wet weight, radiography and microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT. In the RFH model, whole fracture-repaired ribs were excised with removal of soft tissue, and evaluated radiologically and histologically. Ectopic bones in the low-magnitude group (EBF model had significantly greater wet weight and were significantly larger (macroscopically and radiographically than those in the other two groups, whereas the size and wet weight of ectopic bones in the centrifuge acceleration group showed no significant difference compared those in control-CA group. All ectopic bones showed calcified trabeculae and maturated bone marrow. Micro-CT showed that bone volume (BV in the low-magnitude group of EBF model was significantly higher than those in the other two groups (3.1±1.2mm3 v.s. 1.8±1.2mm3 in high-magnitude group and 1.3±0.9mm3 in control-VA group, but

  9. Effect of estrogen/gestagen and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 therapy on bone formation in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.; Riis, B.; Christiansen, C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of two different estrogen/gestagen regimens and 24R,25-(OH)2-cholecalciferol on bone formation was studied in a randomized trial with 144 healthy postmenopausal women. Urinary excretion (UE) of /sup 99m/technetium-diphosphonate and serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) was determined before and then once a year for 2 years of treatment. Both estimates of bone formation showed highly significant decreases (p less than .001) to normal premenopausal levels in women receiving unopposed 17 beta-estradiol or in a sequential combination with progestagen, whereas unchanged high values were found in the groups receiving 24R,25-(OH)2D3 and placebo. The data show that bone turnover increases in early postmenopausal women concomitantly with the loss of bone mass, and that hormonal substitutional therapy normalizes the total skeletal turnover as well as preventing bone loss

  10. Effects of calcium phosphate/chitosan composite on bone healing in rats: calcium phosphate induces osteon formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Tulio; Olave, Gilberto; Valencia, Carlos H; Arce, Sandra; Quinn, Julian M W; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qi-Zhi

    2014-07-01

    Vascularization of an artificial graft represents one of the most significant challenges facing the field of bone tissue engineering. Over the past decade, strategies to vascularize artificial scaffolds have been intensively evaluated using osteoinductive calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials in animal models. In this work, we observed that CaP-based biomaterials implanted into rat calvarial defects showed remarkably accelerated formation and mineralization of new woven bone in defects in the initial stages, at a rate of ∼60 μm/day (0.8 mg/day), which was considerably higher than normal bone growth rates (several μm/day, 0.1 mg/day) in implant-free controls of the same age. Surprisingly, we also observed histological evidence of primary osteon formation, indicated by blood vessels in early-region fibrous tissue, which was encapsulated by lamellar osteocyte structures. These were later fully replaced by compact bone, indicating complete regeneration of calvarial bone. Thus, the CaP biomaterial used here is not only osteoinductive, but vasculogenic, and it may have contributed to the bone regeneration, despite an absence of osteons in normal rat calvaria. Further investigation will involve how this strategy can regulate formation of vascularized cortical bone such as by control of degradation rate, and use of models of long, dense bones, to more closely approximate repair of human cortical bone.

  11. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Adult bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargos, P.; Mamou, N.; Dejean, C.; Henriques de Figueiredo, B.; Kantor, G.; Huchet, A.; Italiano, A.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation tolerance for bone tissue has been mostly evaluated with regard to bone fracture. Main circumstances are mandibula osteoradionecrosis, hip and costal fracture, and patent or radiologic fractures in the treated volume. After radiation therapy of bone metastasis, the analysis of related radiation fracture is difficult to individualize from a pathologic fracture. Frequency of clinical fracture is less than 5% in the large series or cohorts and is probably under-evaluated for the asymptomatic lesions. Women older than 50 years and with osteoporosis are probably the main population at risk. Dose-effect relations are difficult to qualify in older series. Recent models evaluating radiations toxicity on diaphysa suggest an important risk after 60 Gy, for high dose-fraction and for a large volume. (authors)

  12. Sintered porous hydroxyapatites with intrinsic osteoinductive activity: geometric induction of bone formation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ripamonti, U

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Sintered hydroxyapatites induce bone formation in adult baboons via intrinsic osteoinductivity regulated by the geometry of the substratum. Bone is thereby formed without exogenous bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), well-characterized inducers...

  13. Tridax procumbens flavonoids promote osteoblast differentiation and bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdullah Al Mamun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tridaxprocumbens flavonoids (TPFs are well known for their medicinal properties among local natives. Besides traditionally used for dropsy, anemia, arthritis, gout, asthma, ulcer, piles, and urinary problems, it is also used in treating gastric problems, body pain, and rheumatic pains of joints. TPFs have been reported to increase osteogenic functioning in mesenchymal stem cells. Our previous study showed that TPFs were significantly suppressed the RANKL-induced differentiation of osteoclasts and bone resorption. However, the effects of TPFs to promote osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation remain unclear. TPFs were isolated from Tridax procumbens and investigated for their effects on osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation by using primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts RESULTS: TPFs promoted osteoblast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner demonstrated by up-regulation of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. TPFs also upregulated osteoblast differentiation related genes, including osteocalcin, osterix, and Runx2 in primary osteoblasts. TPFs treated primary osteoblast cells showed significant upregulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs including Bmp-2, Bmp-4, and Bmp-7. Addition of noggin, a BMP specific-antagonist, inhibited TPFs induced upregulation of the osteocalcin, osterix, and Runx2 CONCLUSION: Our findings point towards the induction of osteoblast differentiation by TPFs and suggested that TPFs could be a potential anabolic agent to treat patients with bone loss-associated diseases such as osteoporosis

  14. Mechanical properties of the normal human cartilage-bone complex in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Linde, F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the age-related variations in the mechanical properties of the normal human tibial cartilage-bone complex and the relationships between cartilage and bone. DESIGN: A novel technique was applied to assess the mechanical properties of the cartilage and bone by mea...... that are of importance for the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of degenerative joint diseases, such as arthrosis....

  15. Normal cranial bone marrow MR imaging pattern with age-related ADC value distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Pan Shinong; Yin Yuming; Li Wei; Chen Zhian; Liu Yunhui; Wu Zhenhua; Guo Qiyong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine MRI appearances of normal age-related cranial bone marrow and the relationship between MRI patterns and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Methods: Five hundred subjects were divided into seven groups based on ages. Cranial bone marrow MRI patterns were performed based on different thickness of the diploe and signal intensity distribution characteristics. ADC values of the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal bones on DWI were measured and calculated. Correlations between ages and ADC values, between patterns and ADC values, as well as the distribution of ADC values were analyzed. Results: Normal cranial bone marrow was divided into four types and six subtypes, Type I, II, III and IV, which had positive correlation with age increasing (χ 2 = 266.36, P 0.05). In addition, there was significant negative correlation between the ADC values and MRI patterns in the normal parietal and occipital bones (r = -0.691 and -0.750, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The combination of MRI features and ADC values changes in different cranial bones showed significant correlation with age increasing. Familiar with the MRI appearance of the normal bone marrow conversion pattern in different age group and their ADC value will aid the diagnosis and differential of the cranial bone pathology.

  16. Quantitative MR imaging of normal and leukemic bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinks, R.S.; Dunlap, H.J.; Poon, P.Y.; Curtis, J.; Henkelman, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed and tested a protocol that allows extraction of reliable T1 and T2 relaxation times from imaging data. They have used these methods to study in vivo the bone marrow of healthy volunteers and patients with acute leukemia. Examinations were performed at 6.25 MHz using an interleaved ISE/SE sequence to calculate T1 and an eight echo (TE = 25) sequence to calculate T2. The results are summarized as follows: In leukemic patients, T1 = 476 +- 115 msec; in leukemic patients in remission, T1 = 290 +- 31 msec; in healthy volunteers, T1 = 329 +- 32 msec. The T2 values were not significantly different for the three groups (105 +- 10 msec). Work is underway to evaluate whether T1 values of bone marrow may be used to monitor patients in remission and to detect the onset of relapse

  17. Serum albumin coating of demineralized bone matrix results in stronger new bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthy, Dénes B; Vácz, Gabriella; Szabó, Tamás; Szigyártó, Imola C; Toró, Ildikó; Vámos, Boglárka; Hornyák, István; Renner, Károly; Klára, Tamás; Szabó, Bence T; Dobó-Nagy, Csaba; Doros, Attila; Lacza, Zsombor

    2016-01-01

    Blood serum fractions are hotly debated adjuvants in bone replacement therapies. In the present experiment, we coated demineralized bone matrices (DBM) with serum albumin and investigated stem cell attachment in vitro and bone formation in a rat calvaria defect model. In the in vitro experiments, we observed that significantly more cells adhere to the serum albumin coated DBMs at every time point. In vivo bone formation with albumin coated and uncoated DBM was monitored biweekly by computed tomography until 11 weeks postoperatively while empty defects served as controls. By the seventh week, the bone defect in the albumin group was almost completely closed (remaining defect 3.0 ± 2.3%), while uncoated DBM and unfilled control groups still had significant defects (uncoated: 40.2 ± 9.1%, control: 52.4 ± 8.9%). Higher density values were also observed in the albumin coated DBM group. In addition, the serum albumin enhanced group showed significantly higher volume of newly formed bone in the microCT analysis and produced significantly higher breaking force and stiffness compared to the uncoated grafts (peak breaking force: uncoated: 15.7 ± 4 N, albumin 46.1 ± 11 N). In conclusion, this investigation shows that implanting serum albumin coated DBM significantly reduces healing period in nonhealing defects and results in mechanically stronger bone. These results also support the idea that serum albumin coating provides a convenient milieu for stem cell function, and a much improved bone grafting success can be achieved without the use of exogenous stem cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Eldecalcitol normalizes bone turnover markers regardless of their pre-treatment levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Masataka; Saito, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Three-year treatment with eldecalcitol has been shown to improve lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD), decrease bone turnover markers, and lower the incidences of vertebral and wrist fractures in patients with osteoporosis more than with treatment with alfacalcidol under vitamin D repletion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a risk of eldecalcitol causing severely suppressed bone turnover in osteoporosis patients with low pre-treatment levels of bone turnover markers. Post-hoc analysis was conducted on the data from a 3-year, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, clinical trial of eldecalcitol versus alfacalcidol under vitamin D repletion conducted in Japan. Enrolled patients with baseline measurements of bone turnover markers were stratified into tertiles according to their pre-treatment levels of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide, or urinary collagen-N-telopeptide. Eldecalcitol treatment rapidly reduced bone turnover markers, and kept them within the normal range. However, in the patients whose baseline values for bone turnover were low, eldecalcitol treatment did not further reduce bone turnover markers during the 3-year treatment period. Further long-term observation may be required to reach the conclusion. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV NUMBER: NCT00144456. Eldecalcitol normalizes, but does not overly suppress, bone turnover regardless of baseline levels of bone turnover markers. Thus, it is unlikely that eldecalcitol treatment will increase the risk of severely suppressed bone turnover and therefore deterioration of bone quality, at least for a treatment duration of 3 years.

  19. Multi-protein delivery by nanodiamonds promotes bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L; Gatica, M; Kim, H; Osawa, E; Ho, D

    2013-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-studied regulators of cartilage and bone development that have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the promotion of bone formation in certain procedures. BMPs are seeing more use in oral and maxillofacial surgeries because of recent FDA approval of InFUSE(®) for sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. However, the utility of BMPs in medical and dental applications is limited by the delivery method. Currently, BMPs are delivered to the surgical site by the implantation of bulky collagen sponges. Here we evaluate the potential of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nanodiamonds are biocompatible, 4- to 5-nm carbon nanoparticles that have previously been used to deliver a wide variety of molecules, including proteins and peptides. We find that both BMP-2 and bFGF are readily loaded onto NDs by physisorption, forming a stable colloidal solution, and are triggered to release in slightly acidic conditions. Simultaneous delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF by ND induces differentiation and proliferation in osteoblast progenitor cells. Overall, we find that NDs provide an effective injectable alternative for the delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF to promote bone formation.

  20. Regulation of heme metabolism in normal and sideroblastic bone marrow cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraham, N.G.; Lutton, J.D.; Hoffman, R.; Levere, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Heme metabolism was examined in developing in vitro erythroid colonies (CFUE) and in bone marrow samples taken directly from four normal donors and four patients with sideroblastic anemia. Maximum activities of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), ALA dehydratase (ALAD), and 14 C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in normal marrow CFUE after 8 days of culture, whereas heme oxygenase progressively decreased to low levels of activity during the same period. Assays on nucleated bone marrow cells taken directly from patients revealed that ALAS activity was considerably reduced in idiopathic sideroblastic anemia (IASA) and X-linked sideroblastic anemia (X-SA) bone marrow specimens, whereas the activity increased more than twofold (normal levels) when cells were assayed from 8-day CFUE. In all cases, ALAD activity appeared to be within normal levels. Measurement of heme synthesis revealed that normal levels of 14 C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in IASA cells but were reduced in X-SA cells. In marked contrast to levels in normal cells, heme oxygenase was found to be significantly elevated (two- to fourfold) in bone marrow cells taken directly from patients with IASA and X-SA. Results from this study demonstrate that IASA and X-SA bone marrow cells have disturbances in ALAS and heme metabolism, and that erythropoiesis (CFUE) can be restored to normal levels when cells are cultured in methylcellulose

  1. Fate of bone marrow stromal cells in a syngenic model of bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhechba, Florian; Balaguer, Thierry; Bouvet-Gerbettaz, Sébastien; Michiels, Jean-François; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Carle, Georges F; Scimeca, Jean-Claude; Rochet, Nathalie

    2011-09-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been demonstrated to induce bone formation when associated to osteoconductive biomaterials and implanted in vivo. Nevertheless, their role in bone reconstruction is not fully understood and rare studies have been conducted to follow their destiny after implantation in syngenic models. The aim of the present work was to use sensitive and quantitative methods to track donor and recipient cells after implantation of BMSCs in a syngenic model of ectopic bone formation. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the Sex determining Region Y (Sry) gene and in situ hybridization of the Y chromosome in parallel to histological analysis, we have quantified within the implants the survival of the donor cells and the colonization by the recipient cells. The putative migration of the BMSCs in peripheral organs was also analyzed. We show here that grafted cells do not survive more than 3 weeks after implantation and might migrate in peripheral lymphoid organs. These cells are responsible for the attraction of host cells within the implants, leading to the centripetal colonization of the biomaterial by new bone.

  2. Apparently normal accumulation in the patellae on bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Masanori; Yoshida, Kiyo; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influences of gender and ages on accumulation in the patellae on scintigram. The subjects were 828 patients who underwent bone scintigraphy during the past one and half years at the Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Hospital. Patients younger than 20 years old and those with abnormality of the patellae were excluded. The degree of accumulation in the patellae was evaluated using the A-P whole body scintigraphy in comparison with accumulation at the diaphysis of the femur and classified to two categories, ''Positive'' (higher accumulation than that of the diaphysis of the femur) and ''Negative'' (equal or lower than that of the diaphysis of the femur). In general, the degree of accumulation was higher in females than in males. In both males and females, the degree of accumulation increased with age. A difference between the two sides in the degree of accumulation in the patellae was observed in 32% of subjects. The results of this study may serve as basic data for the interpretation of bone scintigrams. (author)

  3. MRI ``road-map`` of normal age-related bone marrow. Pt. 1. Cranial bone and spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taccone, A. [Radiology Dept., G. Gaslini Children`s Hospital, Genova (Italy); Oddone, M. [Radiology Dept., G. Gaslini Children`s Hospital, Genova (Italy); Occhi, M. [Radiology Dept., G. Gaslini Children`s Hospital, Genova (Italy); Dell`Acqua, A. [Radiology Dept., G. Gaslini Children`s Hospital, Genova (Italy); Ciccone, M.A. [Radiology Dept., G. Gaslini Children`s Hospital, Genova (Italy)

    1995-11-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 733 cranial and 250 spinal T1-weighted MR images of patients younger than 24 years to evaluate the bone marrow changes. The signal intensity of the bone marrow on short-TR/TE images was compared with that of fat and normal muscles in the contiguous region and graded. The signal intensity of all anatomic segments was as low as that of muscle, or inferior, in all patients younger than 3 months because of hematopoietic tissue and probably greater amounts of trabecular bone. The first anatomic segments of cranial bone to become hyperintense were the zygomatic bone and mandibular symphysis, followed by the presphenoid bone, basisphenoid, basiocciput, calvaria, and the petrous apex. After 3 years of age, most patients demonstrated pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus. We describe the most interesting changes in the developing spine, which occur in the first 2 years of life. The morphology of the vertebral bodies was evaluated. The variability of the signal and the morphology of the disks were also evaluated. Regional patterns of bone marrow signal intensity and age-related differences should not be misinterpreted as a pathologic condition. (orig.). With 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. MRI ''road-map'' of normal age-related bone marrow. Pt. 1. Cranial bone and spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccone, A.; Oddone, M.; Occhi, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Ciccone, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 733 cranial and 250 spinal T1-weighted MR images of patients younger than 24 years to evaluate the bone marrow changes. The signal intensity of the bone marrow on short-TR/TE images was compared with that of fat and normal muscles in the contiguous region and graded. The signal intensity of all anatomic segments was as low as that of muscle, or inferior, in all patients younger than 3 months because of hematopoietic tissue and probably greater amounts of trabecular bone. The first anatomic segments of cranial bone to become hyperintense were the zygomatic bone and mandibular symphysis, followed by the presphenoid bone, basisphenoid, basiocciput, calvaria, and the petrous apex. After 3 years of age, most patients demonstrated pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus. We describe the most interesting changes in the developing spine, which occur in the first 2 years of life. The morphology of the vertebral bodies was evaluated. The variability of the signal and the morphology of the disks were also evaluated. Regional patterns of bone marrow signal intensity and age-related differences should not be misinterpreted as a pathologic condition. (orig.). With 14 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Effects of epidermal growth factor on bone formation and resorption in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, P.J.; Hott, M.; Perheentupa, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) on bone formation and resorption were examined in male mice. EGF administration (2-200 ng.g-1.day-1 ip for 7 days) induced a dose-dependent rise in plasma EGF levels that remained within physiological range. Histomorphometric analysis of caudal vertebrae showed that EGF (20 and 200 ng.g-1.day-1) reduced the endosteal matrix and mineral appositional rates after 5 days of treatment as measured by double [3H]proline labeling and double tetracycline labeling, respectively. This effect was transitory and was not observed after 7 days of EGF administration. EGF administered for 7 days induced a dose-dependent increase in the periosteal osteoblastic and tetracycline double-labeled surfaces. At high dosage (200 ng.g-1.day-1) EGF administration increased the osteoclastic surface and the number of acid phosphatase-stained osteoclasts, although plasma calcium remained normal. The results show that EGF administration at physiological doses induces distinct effects on endosteal and periosteal bone formation and that the effects are dependent on EGF dosage and duration of treatment. This study indicates that EGF at physiological dosage stimulates periosteal bone formation and increases endosteal bone resorption in the growing mouse

  6. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the water fraction of normal bone marrow and diffuse bone marrow disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuya, Tomoo; Inoue, Tomio; Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Aoki, Jun; Endo, Keigo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    To clarify the contrast-enhancement pattern of the normal hematopoietic element by isolating the signal of the water fraction in vertebral bone marrow and to investigate whether this approach can be used to characterize bone marrow pathology in several diffuse bone marrow diseases. Two groups were examined: 30 normal healthy volunteers and 19 patients with primary diffuse bone marrow disease (aplastic anemia [n=8], myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) [n=5], chronic myelogenic leukemia (CML) [n=4], polycythemia vera [n=2]). Isolation of the signal of hematopoietic tissue was done by the chemical-shift misregistration effect. Twenty consecutive T1-weighted midsagittal lumber vertebral images were obtained immediately after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, and the pattern of the time-intensity curve, the peak contrast-enhancement (CE) ratio, and the washout rate (%/min) of bone marrow in normal volunteers were compared with those in patients suffering from primary diffuse bone marrow disease. The pattern of the time-intensity curve of patients with aplastic anemia showed a low peak value followed by a slow washout. However, the pattern of time-intensity curves in patients with MDS, CML, and polycythemia vera was similar to that of normal volunteers. The peak CE ratio of the water fraction in normal marrow ranged from 0.45 to 1.26 (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.87{+-}0.18). Patients with aplastic anemia showed an abnormally lower peak CE ratio of the water fraction (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.34{+-}0.19, p<0.0001). On the other hand, the peak CE ratio of the water fraction in patients with MDS was significantly higher than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D. 1.35{+-}0.39, p<0.05). In contrast, the peak CE ratio of patients with CML or polycythemia vera did not differ significantly from that of normal volunteers. The mean washout rate of patients with aplastic anemia was significantly lower than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D.: 3.50{+-}2.51 %/min

  7. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the water fraction of normal bone marrow and diffuse bone marrow disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuya, Tomoo; Inoue, Tomio; Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Aoki, Jun; Endo, Keigo

    2000-01-01

    To clarify the contrast-enhancement pattern of the normal hematopoietic element by isolating the signal of the water fraction in vertebral bone marrow and to investigate whether this approach can be used to characterize bone marrow pathology in several diffuse bone marrow diseases. Two groups were examined: 30 normal healthy volunteers and 19 patients with primary diffuse bone marrow disease (aplastic anemia [n=8], myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) [n=5], chronic myelogenic leukemia (CML) [n=4], polycythemia vera [n=2]). Isolation of the signal of hematopoietic tissue was done by the chemical-shift misregistration effect. Twenty consecutive T1-weighted midsagittal lumber vertebral images were obtained immediately after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, and the pattern of the time-intensity curve, the peak contrast-enhancement (CE) ratio, and the washout rate (%/min) of bone marrow in normal volunteers were compared with those in patients suffering from primary diffuse bone marrow disease. The pattern of the time-intensity curve of patients with aplastic anemia showed a low peak value followed by a slow washout. However, the pattern of time-intensity curves in patients with MDS, CML, and polycythemia vera was similar to that of normal volunteers. The peak CE ratio of the water fraction in normal marrow ranged from 0.45 to 1.26 (mean ±S.D.: 0.87±0.18). Patients with aplastic anemia showed an abnormally lower peak CE ratio of the water fraction (mean ±S.D.: 0.34±0.19, p<0.0001). On the other hand, the peak CE ratio of the water fraction in patients with MDS was significantly higher than that of normal volunteers (mean ±S.D. 1.35±0.39, p<0.05). In contrast, the peak CE ratio of patients with CML or polycythemia vera did not differ significantly from that of normal volunteers. The mean washout rate of patients with aplastic anemia was significantly lower than that of normal volunteers (mean ±S.D.: 3.50±2.51 %/min vs. 7.13±1

  8. The homing of bone marrow MSCs to non-osseous sites for ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive calcium phosphate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, G.; Habibovic, Pamela; Bao, Chongyun; Hu, J.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Yuan, Huipin; Chen, W.; Xu, H.H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoinductive biomaterials are promising for bone repair. There is no direct proof that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) home to non-osseous sites and participate in ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive bioceramics. The objective of this study was to use a sex-mismatched

  9. Connexin 43 Channels are Essential for Normal Bone Structure and Osteocyte Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huiyun; Gu, Sumin; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Burra, Sirisha; Callaway, Danielle; Cheng, Hongyun; Guda, Teja; Schmitz, James; Fajardo, Roberto J.; Werner, Sherry L.; Zhao, Hong; Shang, Peng; Johnson, Mark L.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Jiang, Jean X.

    2014-01-01

    Connexin (Cx) 43 serves important roles in bone function and development. Targeted deletion of Cx43 in osteoblasts or osteocytes leads to increased osteocyte apoptosis, osteoclast recruitment, and reduced biomechanical properties. Cx43 forms both gap junction channels and hemichannels, which mediate the communication between adjacent cells or between cell and extracellular environments, respectively. Two transgenic mouse models driven by a DMP1 promoter with the overexpression of dominant negative Cx43 mutants were generated to dissect the functional contribution of Cx43 gap junction channels and hemichannels in osteocytes. The R76W mutant blocks gap junction channel, but not hemichannel function, and the Δ130-136 mutant inhibits activity of both types of channels. Δ130-136 mice showed a significant increase in bone mineral density compared to WT and R76W mice. MicroCT analyses revealed a significant increase in total tissue and bone area in midshaft cortical bone of Δ130-136 mice. The bone marrow cavity was expanded, whereas the cortical thickness was increased and associated with increased bone formation along the periosteal area. However, there is no significant alteration in the structure of trabecular bone. Histologic sections of the midshaft showed increased apoptotic osteocytes in Δ130-136, but not in WT and R76W, mice which correlated with altered biomechanical and estimated bone material properties. Osteoclasts were increased along the endocortical surface in both transgenic mice with a greater effect in Δ130-136 mice which likely contributed to the increased marrow cavity. Interestingly, the overall expression of serum bone formation and resorption markers were higher in R76W mice. These findings suggest that osteocytic Cx43 channels play distinctive roles in the bone; hemichannels play a dominant role in regulating osteocyte survival, endocortical bone resorption and periosteal apposition, and gap junction communication is involved in the process of

  10. Atlas of Bone Scintigraphy in the Developing Paediatric Skeleton: The Normal Skeleton, Variants and Pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of 99m technetium polyphosphate in 1972 by Dr. M. Subramanian, bone scintigraphy has become an integral part of the evaluation of paediatric musculoskeletal disorders. Using the current high resolution gamma cameras and 99m technetium-methylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-MDP) or 99m Tc 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1,1-diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-DPD), the quality of images available for interpretation is high. From the very earliest days, there has been a certain confusion over normal bone physiology, as depicted by the bone scintigram in paediatric patients. This has resulted in a number of difficulties in detecting subtle abnormalities, especially near the dynamically changing scintigraphic presentation of the physes (growth zones). Examples of abnormalities that might be confused with normal bone activity are osteomyelitis, bucket handle fractures of the long bones, as well as neuroblastoma and leukaemic metastases. The aim of this publication is to provide structured information about the maturation and normal appearance of the skeleton from infancy to adulthood. As such, it reflects the current status of bone scintigraphy. It is hoped that this work will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the dynamic process of naturally occurring metabolic bone changes, which will, in turn, improve the quality of reporting of paediatric bone scans. As the majority of paediatric bone scintigrams are interpreted by non-paediatric nuclear physicians, the availability of this reference atlas should improve the care of children. This atlas is intended to address the needs of nuclear medicine physicians, both residents and specialists. It is intended to serve as an illustrative reference to those not having sufficient exposure to paediatric bone scan investigations, to enable them to maintain adequate competency in this particular application. Experts in paediatric nuclear medicine are often consulted for their opinion on bone scans obtained in their respective

  11. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for enchondral bone growth and its disorders. I. Normal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, Alan E.

    2003-01-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the common effects on normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' is proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the non-physeal ends of small tubular bones. The last layer of development of both physes and acrophysis is the cartilaginous zone of provisional calcification (ZPC). The enchondral bone abutting the ZPC shares similar properties at physes and acrophyses, including the relatively lucent metaphyseal bands of many normal infants at several weeks of age. The bone-in-bone pattern of the normal vertebral bodies and bands of demineralization of the tarsal bones just under the ZPC are the equivalent of those bands. The growth arrest/recovery lines of metaphyses similarly have equivalent lines in growth centers and other acrophyseal sites. Nearly the same effects can also be anticipated from the relatively similar growth plate at the cartilaginous cap of benign exostoses (''paraphysis''). The companion article will explore abnormalities at acrophyseal sites, including metabolic bone disease and dysplasias. (orig.)

  12. Age-related contrast enhancement study of normal bone marrow in lumbar spinal MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young A; Ha, Doo Hoe

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of contrast enhancement of normal bone marrow in L-spine relating to aging and to determine the range of contrast enhancement in normal bone marrow. We analyzed a total of 120 patients (20 per decade) who had undergone lumbar spinal MRI and who ranged in age from the 2nd decade to more than the 7th. Bone marrow revealed no abnormal pathology. Sagittal T1-weighted spin echo sequences were obtained before and after gadolinium administration. For each sequence, a region of interest was drawn within the L1 vertebral body from the midsagittal slice. Signal intensity (SI) values of each sequence were ascertained and the percentage increase in SI was calculated. After contrast enhancement, lumbar MRI revealed no statistically significant in the percentage increase in SI of normal bone marrow in relation to aging. Most patients (99%) however showed an SI increase of between 10% and 49%. In only four, none of whom were aged over 40, was this increase above 50%. Lumbar MRI, revealed no statistically significant difference in percentage increase in SI in normal bone marrow relating to aging, but when the increase is above 50% in a patient aged over 40, bone marrow pathology should be further investigated

  13. Mechanical Vibration Mitigates the Decrease of Bone Quantity and Bone Quality of Leptin Receptor-Deficient Db/Db Mice by Promoting Bone Formation and Inhibiting Bone Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Da; Luo, Erping; Cai, Jing; Tong, Shichao; Zhai, Mingming; Shen, Guanghao; Wang, Xin; Luo, Zhuojing

    2016-09-01

    Leptin, a major hormonal product of adipocytes, is involved in regulating appetite and energy metabolism. Substantial studies have revealed the anabolic actions of leptin on skeletons and bone cells both in vivo and in vitro. Growing evidence has substantiated that leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice exhibit decreased bone mass and impaired bone microstructure despite several conflicting results previously reported. We herein systematically investigated bone microarchitecture, mechanical strength, bone turnover and its potential molecular mechanisms in db/db mice. More importantly, we also explored an effective approach for increasing bone mass in leptin receptor-deficient animals in an easy and noninvasive manner. Our results show that deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture and decreases of skeletal mechanical strength-including maximum load, yield load, stiffness, energy, tissue-level modulus and hardness-in db/db mice were significantly ameliorated by 12-week, whole-body vibration (WBV) with 0.5 g, 45 Hz via micro-computed tomography (μCT), three-point bending, and nanoindentation examinations. Serum biochemical analysis shows that WBV significantly decreased serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) and CTx-1 levels and also mitigated the reduction of serum osteocalcin (OCN) in db/db mice. Bone histomorphometric analysis confirmed that decreased bone formation-lower mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and osteoblast numbers in cancellous bone-in db/db mice were suppressed by WBV. Real-time PCR assays show that WBV mitigated the reductions of tibial alkaline phosphatase (ALP), OCN, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), type I collagen (COL1), BMP2, Wnt3a, Lrp6, and β-catenin mRNA expression, and prevented the increases of tibial sclerostin (SOST), RANK, RANKL, RANL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene levels in db/db mice. Our results show that WBV promoted bone quantity and quality in db/db mice with obvious

  14. Noninvasive markers of bone metabolism in the rhesus monkey: normal effects of age and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, S.; Boden, S. D.; Gould, K. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of bone turnover in conditions such as osteoporosis has been limited by the need for invasive iliac bone biopsy to reliably determine parameters of bone metabolism. Recent advances in the area of serum and urinary markers of bone metabolism have raised the possibility for noninvasive measurements; however, little nonhuman primate data exist for these parameters. The purpose of this experiment was to define the normal range and variability of several of the newer noninvasive bone markers which are currently under investigation in humans. The primary intent was to determine age and gender variability, as well as provide some normative data for future experiments in nonhuman primates. Twenty-four rhesus macaques were divided into equal groups of male and female according to the following age groupings: 3 years, 5-10 years, 15-20 years, and > 25 years. Urine was collected three times daily for a four-day period and measured for several markers of bone turnoverm including pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyrodinoline (DPD), hydroxyproline, and creatinine. Bone mineral density measurements of the lumbar spine were performed at the beginning and end of the study period. Serum was also obtained at the time of bone densitometry for measurement of osteocalcin levels by radioimmunoassay. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density, urine PYD, or urine DPD based on gender. Bone density was lowest in the youngest animals, peaked in the 15-20-year group, but again decreased in the oldest animals. The osteocalcin, PYD, and DPD levels followed an inversely related pattern to bone density. The most important result was the relative age insensitivity of the ratio of PYD:DPD in monkeys up to age 20 years. Since bone density changes take months or years to become measurable and iliac biopsies are invasive, the PYD/DPD marker ratio may have important implications for rapid noninvasive measurement of the effects of potential treatments for osteoporosis in the non

  15. Functionalized Surface Geometries Induce: “Bone: Formation by Autoinduction”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Ripamonti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The induction of tissue formation, and the allied disciplines of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, have flooded the twenty-first century tissue biology scenario and morphed into high expectations of a fulfilling regenerative dream of molecularly generated tissues and organs in assembling human tissue factories. The grand conceptualization of deploying soluble molecular signals, first defined by Turing as forms generating substances, or morphogens, stemmed from classic last century studies that hypothesized the presence of morphogens in several mineralized and non-mineralized mammalian matrices. The realization of morphogens within mammalian matrices devised dissociative extractions and chromatographic procedures to isolate, purify, and finally reconstitute the cloned morphogens, found to be members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β supergene family, with insoluble signals or substrata to induce de novo tissue induction and morphogenesis. Can we however construct macroporous bioreactors per se capable of inducing bone formation even without the exogenous applications of the osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the TGF-β supergene family? This review describes original research on coral-derived calcium phosphate-based macroporous constructs showing that the formation of bone is independent of the exogenous application of the osteogenic soluble signals of the TGF-β supergene family. Such signals are the molecular bases of the induction of bone formation. The aim of this review is to primarily describe today's hottest topic of biomaterials' science, i.e., to construct and define osteogenetic biomaterials' surfaces that per se, in its own right, do initiate the induction of bone formation. Biomaterials are often used to reconstruct osseous defects particularly in the craniofacial skeleton. Edentulism did spring titanium implants as tooth replacement strategies. No were else that titanium surfaces require functionalized

  16. Defective bone formation and anabolic response to exogenous estrogen in mice with targeted disruption of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K E; Armour, K J; Gallagher, M E; Gödecke, A; Helfrich, M H; Reid, D M; Ralston, S H

    2001-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a pleiotropic signaling molecule that is produced by bone cells constitutively and in response to diverse stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines, mechanical strain, and sex hormones. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is the predominant NOS isoform expressed in bone, but its physiological role in regulating bone metabolism remains unclear. Here we studied various aspects of bone metabolism in female mice with targeted disruption of the eNOS gene. Mice with eNOS deficiency (eNOS KO) had reduced bone mineral density, and cortical thinning when compared with WT controls and histomorphometric analysis of bone revealed profound abnormalities of bone formation, with reduced osteoblast numbers, surfaces and mineral apposition rate. Studies in vitro showed that osteoblasts derived from eNOS KO mice had reduced rates of growth when compared with WT and were less well differentiated as reflected by lower levels of alkaline phosphatase activity. Mice with eNOS deficiency lost bone normally following ovariectomy but exhibited a significantly blunted anabolic response to high dose exogenous estrogen. We conclude that the eNOS pathway plays an essential role in regulating bone mass and bone turnover by modulating osteoblast function.

  17. Constitutive activation of Gli2 impairs bone formation in postnatal growing mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Sang Joeng

    Full Text Available Indian hedgehog (Ihh signaling is indispensable for osteoblast differentiation during endochondral bone development in the mouse embryo. We have previously shown that the Gli2 transcription activator critically mediates Ihh function in osteoblastogenesis. To explore the possibility that activation of Hedgehog (Hh signaling may enhance bone formation, we generated mice that expressed a constitutively active form of Gli2 in the Osx-lineage cells. Unexpectedly, these mice exhibited severe osteopenia due to a marked decrease in osteoblast number and function, although bone resorption was not affected. Quantitative analyses of the molecular markers indicated that osteoblast differentiation was impaired in the mutant mouse. However, the osteoblast-lineage cells isolated from these mice exhibited more robust osteoblast differentiation than normal in vitro. Similarly, pharmacological stimulation of Hh signaling enhanced osteoblast differentiation from Osx-expressing cells isolated from the wild-type mouse. Thus, even though Hh signaling directly promotes osteoblast differentiation in vitro, constitutive activation of this pathway impairs bone formation in vivo, perhaps through an indirect mechanism.

  18. Trauma-induced heterotopic bone formation and the role of the immune system: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Casey T; Agarwal, Shailesh; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Wong, Victor W; Loder, Shawn; Li, John; Delano, Matthew J; Levi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Extremity trauma, spinal cord injuries, head injuries, and burn injuries place patients at high risk of pathologic extraskeletal bone formation. This heterotopic bone causes severe pain, deformities, and joint contractures. The immune system has been increasingly implicated in this debilitating condition. This review summarizes the various roles immune cells and inflammation play in the formation of ectopic bone and highlights potential areas of future investigation and treatment. Cell types in both the innate and adaptive immune system such as neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, B cells, and T cells have all been implicated as having a role in ectopic bone formation through various mechanisms. Many of these cell types are promising areas of therapeutic investigation for potential treatment. The immune system has also been known to also influence osteoclastogenesis, which is heavily involved in ectopic bone formation. Chronic inflammation is also known to have an inhibitory role in the formation of ectopic bone, whereas acute inflammation is necessary for ectopic bone formation.

  19. Heterotopic bone formation as a result of abdominal polytrauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, G.; Penev, B.; Kirova, G.; Ruskova, E.; Karagiozov, P.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Heterotopic bone formation within the abdominal cavity is a rare complication of the posttraumatic abdominal surgery. There are only few cases reported in the medical literature and most of them involve the mesentery or the abdominal wall. A case of 49y-old men is presented who developed intraabdominal heterotopic ossifications as a consequence of numeral exploratory laparotomies performed after a blunt abdominal trauma. The condition was detected during the follow-up MDCT 11 months later. The case is of interest because of the rarity of the condition and the diffuse character of the calcifications in the abdominal structures, which could pose some differential diagnostic difficulties

  20. Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Contribute to Bone Formation Following Infusion into Femoral Cavities of a Mouse Model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Xujun; Niyibizi, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there are conflicting data in literature regarding contribution of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to bone formation when the cells are systemically delivered in recipient animals. To understand if BMSCs contribute to bone cell phenotype and bone formation in osteogenesis imperfecta bones (OI), MSCs marked with GFP were directly infused into the femurs of a mouse model of OI (oim). The contribution of the cells to the cell phenotype and bone formation was assessed by histology, immunohistochemistry and biomechanical loading of recipient bones. Two weeks following infusion of BMSCs, histological examination of the recipient femurs demonstrated presence of new bone when compared to femurs injected with saline which showed little or no bone formation. The new bone contained few donor cells as demonstrated by GFP fluorescence. At six weeks following cell injection, new bone was still detectable in the recipient femurs but was enhanced by injection of the cells suspended in pepsin solublized type I collagen. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining showed that donor GFP positive cells in the new bone were localized with osteocalcin expressing cells suggesting that the cells differentiated into osteoblasts in vivo. Biomechanical loading to failure in thee point bending, revealed that, femurs infused with BMSCs in PBS or in soluble type I collagen were biomechanically stronger than those injected with PBS or type I collagen alone. Taken together, the results indicate that transplanted cells differentiated into osteoblasts in vivo and contributed to bone formation in vivo; we also speculate that donor cells induced differentiation or recruitment of endogenous cells to initiate reparative process at early stages following transplantation. PMID:20570757

  1. Radiologic study of the experimentally produced bone destruction and bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chei, Soon Chul; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1988-01-01

    Bone destruction was induced experimentally by the insertion of a bit of the arsenic compound into the pulp chambers of the right premolars and the artificial bone defects were produced in the periapical regions of the left premolars in 7 dogs. The serial standardized periapical radiographs using aluminum stepwedge attached to the XCP instruments and resin bite blocks were taken following insertion of arsenic compound and at 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24 and 28 days in case of bone destruction and following bone injury and weekly thereafter for a total of 14 weeks in case of bone formation . The errors of the method were determined with error estimators described by the Duinkerke. All radiographs were evaluated by the visual examination after joint evaluation by three dental radiologists and analysed with densitometer. The following results were obtained; 1. Analysis of the bone destruction process 1) The error of the method in estimating two distances proved to be small (S.D. for the measuring error; 0.04 mm, S.D. for the over-all error; 0.06 mm, S.D. for the positioning error; 0.05 mm) 2) The radiographic changes were observed after 7 days in 6 cases, 4 days in 1 case and 10 days in 1 case by the visual examination. 3) Aluminum equivalent values were diminished after 2 days and the diminution of 0.58 ± 0.19 mm was demanded to be detected by the visual examination. 2. Analysis of the bone formation process 1) The error of the method in estimating two distances proved to be small (S.D. for the measuring error; 0.03 mm, S.D. for the over-all error; 0.04 mm, S.D. for the positioning error; 0.04 mm) 2) The radiographic changes were observed after 2 weeks in 5 cases and 3 weeks in 2 cases by the visual examination. 3) Aluminum equivalent values were increased after 1 week and the increase of 0.45 ± 0.15 mm was demanded to be detected by the visual examination. 4) Aluminum equivalent values were increased continuously for 7 or 9 weeks but there was only extremely small

  2. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-01-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life

  3. Normal values for bone mineral content measured by dual photon absorptiometry in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, F.; Lecouffe, P.; Rousseau, J.; Marchandise, X.; Ythier, H.

    1990-01-01

    The results of dual photon absorptiometry measurements in 43 normal children are analyzed. Results were correlated with age, body weight, and stature. Reference stature-specific values for bone mineral content in children are proposed. Furthermore, the results show that mineralization continues beyond the end of statural growth [fr

  4. High-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone. Part 1.: normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzegorzewski, M.; Boron, Z.; Burzynska-Makuch, M.

    1995-01-01

    Normal anatomy of the temporal bone in transverse and coronal sections was presented. CT studies were performed using high-resolution program. The images of an asymptomatic ear of 2 patients were selected from 68 cases examined on account of various otological diseases. All the sections showed as many as 68 anatomic structures. (author)

  5. Hardness of the subchondral bone of the patella in the normal state, in chondromalacia, and in osteoarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkström, S; Goldie, I F

    1982-06-01

    The hardness of bone is its property of withstanding the impact of a penetrating agent. It has been found that articular degenerative changes in, for example, the tibia (knee) are combined with a decrease in the hardness of the subchondral bone. In this investigation the hardness of subchondral bone in chondromalacia and osteoarthrosis of the patella has been analysed and compared with normal subchondral bone. Using an indentation method originally described by Brinell the hardness of the subchondral bone was evaluated in 7 normal patellae, in 20 with chondromalacia and in 33 with osteoarthrosis. A microscopic and microradiographic study of the subchondral bone was carried out simultaneously. Hardness was lowest in the normal material. The mean hardness value beneath the degenerated cartilage differed only slightly from that of the normal material, but the variation of values was increased. The hardness in bone in the chondromalacia area was lower than the hardness in bone covered by surrounding normal cartilage. The mean hardness value in bone beneath normal parts of cartilage in specimens with chondromalacia was higher than the mean hardness value of the normal material. In the microscopic and microradiographic examination it became evident that there was a relationship between trabecular structure and subchondral bone hardness; high values: coarse and solid structure; low values: slender and less regular structure.

  6. The homing of bone marrow MSCs to non-osseous sites for ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive calcium phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guodong; Habibovic, Pamela; Bao, Chongyun; Hu, Jing; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Yuan, Huipin; Chen, Wenchuan; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoinductive biomaterials are promising for bone repair. There is no direct proof that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) home to non-osseous sites and participate in ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive bioceramics. The objective of this study was to use a sex-mismatched beagle dog model to investigate BMSC homing via blood circulation to participate in ectopic bone formation via osteoinductive biomaterial. BMSCs of male dogs were injected into female femoral marrow cavity. The survival and stable chimerism of donor BMSCs in recipients were confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) granules were implanted in dorsal muscles of female dogs. Y chromosomes were detected in samples harvested from female dogs which had received male BMSCs. At 4 weeks, cells with Y-chromosomes were distributed in the new bone matrix throughout the BCP granule implant. At 6 weeks, cells with Y chromosomes were present in newly mineralized woven bone. TRAP positive osteoclast-like cells were observed in 4-week implants, and the number of such cells decreased from 4 to 6 weeks. These results show that osteoprogenitors were recruited from bone marrow and homed to ectopic site to serve as a cell source for calcium phosphate-induced bone formation. In conclusion, BMSCs were demonstrated to migrate from bone marrow through blood circulation to non-osseous bioceramic implant site to contribute to ectopic bone formation in a canine model. BCP induced new bone in muscles without growth factor delivery, showing excellent osteoinductivity that could be useful for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23298780

  7. Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation Gene Expression in Strontium-inducing Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell

    OpenAIRE

    SILA-ASNA, MONNIPHA; BUNYARATVEJ, AHNOND; Maeda, Sakan; Kitaguchi, Hiromichi; BUNYARATAVEJ, NARONG

    2007-01-01

    Osteoblastic differentiation from human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) is animportant step of bone formation. We studied the in vitro induction of hMSCs byusing strontium ranelate, a natural trace amount in water, food and human skeleton.The mRNA synthesis of various osteoblast specific genes was assessed by means ofreverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the hMSCs culture,strontium ranelate could enhance the induction of hMSCs to differentiate intoosteoblasts. Cbfa1 gene ...

  8. Inflammation Intensity-dependent Expression of Osteoinductive Wnt Proteins is Critical for Ectopic New Bone Formation in Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Jianru; Zhan, Zhongping; Li, Sibei; Zheng, Zhaomin; Wang, Taiping; Zhang, Kuibo; Pan, Hehai; Li, Zemin; Zhang, Nu; Liu, Hui

    2018-02-26

    To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the inflammation- related ectopic new bone formation in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Spinal tissues and sera were collected from patients or normal volunteers to detect the expression of Wnt proteins. An in vitro cell culture system mimicking the local inflammatory microenvironment of bone-forming sites was established to study the relationship between inflammation and Wnt expression, the regulatory mechanism of inflammation-induced Wnt expression and the role of Wnt signaling in new bone formation. A modified collagen-induced arthritis (mCIA) and a proteoglycan -induced spondylitis (PGIS) animal model were used to confirm the key findings in vivo. The levels of osteoinductive Wnt proteins were obviously increased in the sera and spinal ligament tissues of patients with AS. Only constitutive low-intensity TNF-α stimulation, but not short-term or high-intensity TNF-α stimulation, induced persistent expression of osteoinductive Wnt proteins and subsequent bone formation through NF-κB (p65) and JNK/AP-1 (c-Jun) signaling pathways. Furthermore, inhibition of either Wnt/β-catenin or Wnt/PKCδ pathway significantly suppressed new bone formation. The increased expression of Wnt proteins was confirmed in both mCIA and PGIS models. A kyphotic and ankylosing phenotype of the spine was observed during long-term observation in mCIA model. Inhibition of either Wnt/β-catenin or Wnt/PKCδ signaling pathway significantly reduced the incidence and severity of this phenotype. Inflammation intensity-dependent expression of osteoinductive Wnt proteins is a key link between inflammation and ectopic new bone formation in AS. Activation of both canonical Wnt/β-catenin and noncanonical Wnt/PKCδ pathways is required for inflammation-induced new bone formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. The chloride channel inhibitor NS3736 [corrected] prevents bone resorption in ovariectomized rats without changing bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaller, Sophie; Henriksen, Kim; Sveigaard, Christina

    2004-01-01

    , appearing mainly in osteoclasts, ovaries, appendix, and Purkinje cells. This highly selective distribution predicts that inhibition of ClC-7 should specifically target osteoclasts in vivo. We suggest that NS3736 is inhibiting ClC-7, leading to a bone-specific effect in vivo. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION......Chloride channel activity is essential for osteoclast function. Consequently, inhibition of the osteoclastic chloride channel should prevent bone resorption. Accordingly, we tested a chloride channel inhibitor on bone turnover and found that it inhibits bone resorption without affecting bone...... for osteoporosis, daily treatment with 30 mg/kg orally protected bone strength and BMD by approximately 50% 6 weeks after surgery. Most interestingly, bone formation assessed by osteocalcin, mineral apposition rate, and mineralized surface index was not inhibited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of chloride...

  10. Synergistic effect of parathyroid hormone and growth hormone on trabecular and cortical bone formation in hypophysectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevarra, Maria Sarah N; Yeh, James K; Castro Magana, Mariano; Aloia, John F

    2010-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency in pediatric patients results in short stature and osteopenia. We postulated that the GH and parathyroid hormone (PTH) combination would result in improvement in bone growth and bone formation. Forty hypophysectomized female rats at age 8 weeks were divided into hypophysectomy (HX), HX + PTH (62.5 microg/kg, s.c. daily), HX + GH (3.33 mg/kg, s.c. daily), and HX + PTH + GH for a 4-week study. GH increased body weight, bone growth, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), whereas PTH increased BMC and BMD without a significant effect on bone size. GH increased both periosteal and endocortical bone formation and cortical size, while PTH increased only endocortical bone formation. GH mitigated the trabecular bone loss by increasing bone formation, while PTH increased bone mass by increasing bone formation and suppressing osteoclast number per bone area. The result of combined intervention shows an increase in trabecular, periosteal and endocortical bone formation and suppression of bone resorption resulting in a synergistic effect on increasing trabecular and cortical bone volume and BMD. The combination treatment of PTH and GH increases bone growth, bone formation, decreases bone resorption and has a synergistic effect on increasing bone density and bone mass. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis)

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Meghan E.; Maki, Aaron J.; Johnson, Steven E.; Lynne Nelson, O.; Robbins, Charles T.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2007-01-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. ...

  12. Bisphosphonates enhance bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on bone hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Marcin; Junka, Adam; Smutnicka, Danuta; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Gluza, Karolina; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna

    2015-07-01

    Because of the suspicion that bisphosphonates enhance bacterial colonization, this study evaluated adhesion and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans 25175, Staphylococcus aureus 6538, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 14454 reference strains on hydroxyapatite coated with clodronate, pamidronate, or zoledronate. Bacterial strains were cultured on bisphosphonate-coated and noncoated hydroxyapatite discs. After incubation, nonadhered bacteria were removed by centrifugation. Biofilm formation was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Bacterial colonization was estimated using quantitative cultures compared by means with Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls tests. Modeling of the interactions between bisphosphonates and hydroxyapatite was performed using the Density Functional Theory method. Bacterial colonization of the hydroxyapatite discs was significantly higher for all tested strains in the presence of bisphosphonates vs. Adherence in the presence of pamidronate was higher than with other bisphosphonates. Density Functional Theory analysis showed that the protonated amine group of pamidronate, which are not present in clodronate or zoledronate, forms two additional hydrogen bonds with hydroxyapatite. Moreover, the reactive cationic amino group of pamidronate may attract bacteria by direct electrostatic interaction. Increased bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation can promote osteomyelitis, cause failure of dental implants or bisphosphonate-coated joint prostheses, and complicate bone surgery in patients on bisphosphonates. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acidification of the osteoclastic resorption compartment provides insight into the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, M.A.; Henriksen, K.; Sorensen, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with defective osteoclastic acidification have increased numbers of osteoclasts, with decreased resorption, but bone formation that remains unchanged. We demonstrate that osteoclast survival is increased when acidification is impaired, and that impairment of acidification results in inhi...

  14. Bone densitometry in normal women of reproductive age: Correlation with reference values and anthropometric variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.; Palma, T.; Ladron de Guevara, D.

    2002-01-01

    Bone mass density measurements using X rays is considered to be the non-invasive reference method to measure bone mineral density. Even though the technology has reached a high level of development, precision and reproducibility must be optimised to assure that the observed variations are due solely to the variations in bone mineral content, and not to other associated variables, either technical or biological. The main factors affecting bone density measurements are those that depend on the technique used and those which depend on characteristics of the individuals. The variability associated with the technique can be minimised by an adequate standardisation and quality control. Among those characteristics of the individuals, which have been mentioned as a source of variability, the most important are related to the anthropomorphic characteristics such as size and depth of osseous structures, and thickness and characteristics of soft tissues. These factors may be especially important because the interpretation of bone mass density measurements depends on values obtained for reference normal populations, which are incorporated into the bone mass densitometers as reference value databases. Usually the anthropomorphic characteristics of this reference population are unknown and can be different from those of the local population, independently of genetic or ethnic factors. This situation leads to error both in the definition of basic concepts such as osteopenia and osteoporosis, and in the interpretation of individual results for population studies. The purpose of this study is to correlate bone density measurements of normal Chilean women with reference value databases and with parameters, which depend on body size

  15. Identification and Characterization of Plasma Cells in Normal Human Bone Marrow by High-Resolution Flow Cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Johnsen, Steen; Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.; Loken, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    The low frequency of plasma cells and the lack of specific cell surface markers has been a major obstacle for a detailed characterization of plasma cells in normal human bone marrow. Multiparameter flow cytometry enabled the identification of plasma cells in normal bone marrow aspirates. The plasma

  16. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with fibroblast growth factor accelerate proliferation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells and bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Eri; Takita, Hiroko; Watari, Fumio; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Venturelli, Enrica; Bianco, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and the advantages of their use as scaffolds for bone augmentation were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The activity of FGF was assessed by measuring the effect on the proliferation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (RBMSCs). The presence of FGF enhanced the proliferation of RBMSCs and the FGF covalently conjugated to the nanotubes (FGF–CNT) showed the same effect as FGF alone. In addition, FGF–CNT coated sponges were implanted between the parietal bone and the periosteum of rats and the formation of new bone was investigated. At day 14 after implantation, a larger amount of newly formed bone was clearly observed in most pores of FGF–CNT coated sponges. These findings indicated that MWCNTs accelerated new bone formation in response to FGF, as well as the integration of particles into new bone during its formation. Scaffolds coated with FGF–CNT could be considered as promising novel substituting materials for bone regeneration in future tissue engineering applications. (paper)

  17. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with fibroblast growth factor accelerate proliferation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells and bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Eri; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Venturelli, Enrica; Takita, Hiroko; Watari, Fumio; Bianco, Alberto; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2013-11-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and the advantages of their use as scaffolds for bone augmentation were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The activity of FGF was assessed by measuring the effect on the proliferation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (RBMSCs). The presence of FGF enhanced the proliferation of RBMSCs and the FGF covalently conjugated to the nanotubes (FGF-CNT) showed the same effect as FGF alone. In addition, FGF-CNT coated sponges were implanted between the parietal bone and the periosteum of rats and the formation of new bone was investigated. At day 14 after implantation, a larger amount of newly formed bone was clearly observed in most pores of FGF-CNT coated sponges. These findings indicated that MWCNTs accelerated new bone formation in response to FGF, as well as the integration of particles into new bone during its formation. Scaffolds coated with FGF-CNT could be considered as promising novel substituting materials for bone regeneration in future tissue engineering applications.

  18. Ewing sarcoma of the rib with normal blood flow and blood pool imagings on a 3-phase bone scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfeeli, Mahmoud A; Naddaf, Sleiman Y; Syed, Ghulam M S

    2005-09-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric malignant bone tumor. It usually presents as a hot spot on a 3-phase bone scan as a result of increased vascularity of the tumor and new bone formation. However, aggressive Ewing sarcoma can also appear as a cold lesion. We present the features of a Ewing sarcoma of the rib on a 3-phase bone scan in a child who was being investigated for rib fracture after trauma.

  19. Mechanisms in endocrinology: micro-RNAs: targets for enhancing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipaleenmäki, Hanna; Bjerre Hokland, Lea; Chen, Li; Kauppinen, Sakari; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-03-01

    Osteoblast differentiation and bone formation (osteogenesis) are regulated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Recently, a novel class of regulatory factors termed micro-RNAs (miRNAs) has been identified as playing an important role in the regulation of many aspects of osteoblast biology including proliferation, differentiation, metabolism and apoptosis. Also, preliminary data from animal disease models suggest that targeting miRNAs in bone can be a novel approach to increase bone mass. This review highlights the current knowledge of miRNA biology and their role in bone formation and discusses their potential use in future therapeutic applications for metabolic bone diseases.

  20. Ectopic bone formation in bone marrow stem cell seeded calcium phosphate scaffolds as compared to autograft and (cell seeded allograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J O Eniwumide

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvements to current therapeutic strategies are needed for the treatment of skeletal defects. Bone tissue engineering offers potential advantages to these strategies. In this study, ectopic bone formation in a range of scaffolds was assessed. Vital autograft and devitalised allograft served as controls and the experimental groups comprised autologous bone marrow derived stem cell seeded allograft, biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP and tricalcium phosphate (TCP, respectively. All implants were implanted in the back muscle of adult Dutch milk goats for 12 weeks. Micro-computed tomography (µCT analysis and histomorphometry was performed to evaluate and quantify ectopic bone formation. In good agreement, both µCT and histomorphometric analysis demonstrated a significant increase in bone formation by cell-seeded calcium phosphate scaffolds as compared to the autograft, allograft and cell-seeded allograft implants. An extensive resorption of the autograft, allograft and cell-seeded allograft implants was observed by histology and confirmed by histomorphometry. Cell-seeded TCP implants also showed distinct signs of degradation with histomorphometry and µCT, while the degradation of the cell-seeded BCP implants was negligible. These results indicate that cell-seeded calcium phosphate scaffolds are superior to autograft, allograft or cell-seeded allograft in terms of bone formation at ectopic implantation sites. In addition, the usefulness of µCT for the efficient and non-destructive analysis of mineralised bone and calcium phosphate scaffold was demonstrated.

  1. Adenoviral Mediated Expression of BMP2 by Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Cultured in 3D Copolymer Scaffolds Enhances Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Sapkota, Dipak; Xue, Ying; Sun, Yang; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Bruland, Ove; Mustafa, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Selection of appropriate osteoinductive growth factors, suitable delivery method and proper supportive scaffold are critical for a successful outcome in bone tissue engineering using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). This study examined the molecular and functional effect of a combination of adenoviral mediated expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) in BMSC and recently developed and characterized, biodegradable Poly(L-lactide-co-є-caprolactone){poly(LLA-co-CL)}scaffolds in osteogenic molecular changes and ectopic bone formation by using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Pathway-focused custom PCR array, validation using TaqMan based quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and ALP staining showed significant up-regulation of several osteogenic and angiogenic molecules, including ALPL and RUNX2 in ad-BMP2 BMSC group grown in poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds both at 3 and 14 days. Micro CT and histological analyses of the subcutaneously implanted scaffolds in NOD/SCID mice revealed significantly increased radiopaque areas, percentage bone volume and formation of vital bone in ad-BMP2 scaffolds as compared to the control groups both at 2 and 8 weeks. The increased bone formation in the ad-BMP2 group in vivo was paralleled at the molecular level with concomitant over-expression of a number of osteogenic and angiogenic genes including ALPL, RUNX2, SPP1, ANGPT1. The increased bone formation in ad-BMP2 explants was not found to be associated with enhanced endochondral activity as evidenced by qRT-PCR (SOX9 and FGF2) and Safranin O staining. Taken together, combination of adenoviral mediated BMP-2 expression in BMSC grown in the newly developed poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds induced expression of osteogenic markers and enhanced bone formation in vivo.

  2. Age-related pattern of normal cranial bone marrow: MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Shinong; Li Qi; Li Wei; Chen Zhian; Wu Zhenhua; Guo Qiyong; Liu Yunhui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the age-related pattern of normal skull bone marrow with 3.0 T MR T 1 WI. Methods: Cranial MR T 1 WI images which were defined to be normal were retrospectively reviewed in 360 cases. Patients with known diffuse bone marrow disease, focal lesions, history of radiation treatment or steroid therapy were excluded, while patients whose cranial MRI and follow-up visits were all normal were included in this study. All the subjects were divided into 7 groups according to the age: 50 years group. Mid- and para- sagittal T 1 WI images were used to be analyzed and the type of cranial bone marrow was classified according to the thickness of diploe and the pattern of the signal characteristics. Statistical analysis was conducted to reveal the relationship between the age and the type. Results: The normal skull bone marrow could be divided into four types as follows: (1) Type-I: 115 cases, 47 of which appeared type- Ia and the mean thickness was (1.24±0.31) mm; 68 of which appeared type-Ib and the mean thickness was (1.76±0.37) mm. Type-II: 57 cases and the mean thickness was (2.78 ± 0.69) mm. Type-III: 148 cases, 18 of which appeared type-IIIa and the mean thickness was (2.33 ± 0.65) mm; 88 of which appeared type-IIIb and the mean thickness was (4.01± 0.86) mm; 42 of which appeared type-IIIc and the mean thickness was (4.31±0.73) mm. Type-IV: 40 cases, 25 of which appeared type-IVa and the mean thickness was (5.17±1.02) mm; 15 of which appeared type-IVb and the mean thickness was (5.85±1.45) mm. (2) 2 =266.36, P<0.01). Conclusion: There is characteristic in the distribution of normal skull bone marrow with age growing. And skull bone marrow transforms gradually from type-I to IV with aging. (authors)

  3. Effects of recombinant human interleukin-8 (rhIL-8) on the bone marrow cells of normal BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yulong; Zhou Jianying; Wang Guoquan; Dai Hong; Duan Yingying; Guo Xiaokui

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the colony formation ability of recombinant human interleukin-8 (rhIL-8) on bone marrow cells (BMCs) of normal mice in vivo. Methods: By means of cells culture and flow cytometry (FCM), the colony-stimulating activity of rhIL-8 on BMCs of normal mice was studied. Results: The experimental studies in vivo demonstrated that rhIL-8 could not changed the counts of CFU-GM and distribution of cell cycle in BMCs. Conclusion: rhIL-8 has no colony-stimulating activity to BMCs of normal mice

  4. Assessment of activated porous granules on implant fixation and early bone formation in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ding

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, despite nice bone formation and implant fixation in all groups, bioreactor activated graft material did not convincingly induce early implant fixation similar to allograft, and neither bioreactor nor by adding BMA credited additional benefit for bone formation in this model.

  5. Assessment of bone formation capacity using in vivo transplantation assays: procedure and tissue analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Ditzel, Nicholas; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    In vivo assessment of bone formation (osteogenesis) potential by isolated cells is an important method for analysis of cells and factors control ling bone formation. Currently, cell implantation mixed with hydroxyapa-tite/tricalcium phosphate in an open system (subcutaneous implantation) in immun...

  6. Can Spatiotemporal Fluoride (18F-) Uptake be Used to Assess Bone Formation in the Tibia? A Longitudinal Study Using PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Henrik; Karlsson-Thur, Charlotte; Maguire, Gerald Q; Jonsson, Cathrine; Noz, Marilyn E; Zeleznik, Michael P; Weidenhielm, Lars

    2017-05-01

    When a bone is broken for any reason, it is important for the orthopaedic surgeon to know how bone healing is progressing. There has been resurgence in the use of the fluoride ( 18 F - ) ion to evaluate various bone conditions. This has been made possible by availability of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT hybrid scanners together with cyclotrons. Absorbed on the bone surface from blood flow, 18 F - attaches to the osteoblasts in cancellous bone and acts as a pharmacokinetic agent, which reflects the local physiologic activity of bone. This is important because it shows bone formation indicating that the bone is healing or no bone formation indicating no healing. As 18 F - is extracted from blood in proportion to blood flow and bone formation, it thus enables determination of bone healing progress. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether videos showing the spatiotemporal uptake of 18 F - via PET bone scans could show problematic bone healing in patients with complex tibia conditions. A secondary objective was to determine if semiquantification of radionuclide uptake was consistent with bone healing. This study investigated measurements of tibia bone formation in patients with complex fractures, osteomyelitis, and osteotomies treated with a Taylor Spatial Frame TM (TSF) by comparing clinical healing progress with spatiotemporal fluoride ( 18 F - ) uptake and the semiquantitative standardized uptake value (SUV). This procedure included static and dynamic image acquisition. For intrapatient volumes acquired at different times, the CT and PET data were spatially registered to bring the ends of the bones that were supposed to heal into alignment. To qualitatively observe how and where bone formation was occurring, time-sequenced volumes were reconstructed and viewed as a video. To semiquantify the uptake, the mean and maximum SUVs (SUVmean, SUVmax) were calculated for the ends of the bones that were supposed to heal and for normal bone, using a

  7. Comparison of Hyoid Bone Position Among Cleft Lip Palate and Normal Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahaj, A.; Erum, G.; Ahmed, I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the hyoid bone position between cleft lip/palate and normal patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences (DIEKIOHS), Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, from March 2012 to February 2013. Methodology: The sample for this study consisted of total 68 subjects among which Group 1 consisted of 34 nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (both unilateral and bilateral) and Group 2 included 34 subjects with normal facial morphology. Both groups included males and females with mean age 14.3 +- 0.1 year. Analysis was done on lateral cephalometric radiographs of patients including angulations taken as Hp-Mp, Hp-Ol, Hp-Sn, Cvt-Evt, Opt-Cvt, Nke, Sn-Vert, Cvt-Vert, Sn-Vert and linear distance of hyoid bone measured as C3-H, C3-RGN, and H-RGN. Results: Statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) in C3-H, C3-Rgn, H-Rgn, and Sn-Cvt were found between cleft lip/palate group and normal group. Conclusion: Hyoid bone is located anteriorly and caudally in cleft lip and palate group. (author)

  8. Premature loss of bone remodeling compartment canopies is associated with deficient bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Søe, Kent

    2011-01-01

    A remarkable property of bone remodeling is that osteoblasts form bone matrix exactly where and when osteoclasts have removed it. The bone remodeling compartment (BRC) canopies that cover bone surfaces undergoing remodeling, were proposed to be critical players in this mechanism. Here, we provide...

  9. DESCRIPTION OF BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSES (AIR AND BONE CONDUCTION IN CHILDREN WITH NORMAL HEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pashkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hearing level in small children with conductive hearing loss associated with congenital craniofacial abnormalities, particularly with agenesis of external ear and external auditory meatus is a pressing issue. Conventional methods of assessing hearing in the first years of life, i. e. registration of brainstem auditory evoked responses to acoustic stimuli in the event of air conduction, does not give an indication of the auditory analyzer’s condition due to potential conductive hearing loss in these patients. This study was aimed at assessing potential of diagnosing the auditory analyzer’s function with registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs to acoustic stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator. The study involved 17 children aged 3–10 years with normal hearing. We compared parameters of registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (peak V depending on the type of stimulus transmission (air/bone in children with normal hearing. The data on thresholds of the BAERs registered to acoustic stimuli in the event of air and bone conduction obtained in this study are comparable; hearing thresholds in the event of acoustic stimulation by means of a bone vibrator correlates with the results of the BAERs registered to the stimuli transmitted by means of air conduction earphones (r = 0.9. High correlation of thresholds of BAERs to the stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator with thresholds of BAERs registered when air conduction earphones were used helps to assess auditory analyzer’s condition in patients with any form of conductive hearing loss.  

  10. A comparison of osteoclast-rich and osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis in adult mice sheds light on the role of the osteoclast in coupling bone resorption and bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thudium, Christian S; Moscatelli, Ilana; Flores, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    that osteoclasts are important for regulating osteoblast activity. To illuminate the role of the osteoclast in controlling bone remodeling, we transplanted irradiated skeletally mature 3-month old wild-type mice with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to generate either an osteoclast-rich or osteoclast-poor adult......Osteopetrosis due to lack of acid secretion by osteoclasts is characterized by abolished bone resorption, increased osteoclast numbers, but normal or even increased bone formation. In contrast, osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis appears to have less osteoblasts and reduced bone formation, indicating...... osteopetrosis model. We used fetal liver HSCs from (1) oc/oc mice, (2) RANK KO mice, and (3) compared these to wt control cells. TRAP5b activity, a marker of osteoclast number and size, was increased in the oc/oc recipients, while a significant reduction was seen in the RANK KO recipients. In contrast, the bone...

  11. Radiostrontium clearance and bone formation in response to simulated internal screw fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daum, W.J.; Simmons, D.J.; Fenster, R.; Shively, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in radiostrontium clearance (SrC) and bone formation (tetracycline labeling) were observed in the femurs of skeletally mature dogs following the various operative steps involved in bone screw fixation. Drilling, but not periosteal stripping, produced a small but statistically significant increase in SrC and endosteal bone formation in the distal third of the bone. Strontium clearance values equivalent to those produced by drilling alone were recorded after screw fixation at low or high torque (5 versus 20 inch pounds), as well as by the insertion of loosely fitting stainless steel implants. Bone formation (equals the percentage tetracycline-labeled trabecular bone surfaces) was increased by 30% when SrC values exceeded 3.5 ml/100 g bone/min, and the relationship was linear when SrC values ranged between 1.0 and 7.0 ml/100 g bone/min. The changes in SrC and bone formation one-week after bone screw application are primarily those associated with a response to local trauma caused by drilling

  12. Function of Matrix IGF-1 in Coupling Bone Resorption and Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Janet L.; Cao, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Balancing bone resorption and formation is the quintessential component for the prevention of osteoporosis. Signals that determine the recruitment, replication, differentiation, function, and apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteoclasts direct bone remodeling and determine whether bone tissue is gained, lost, or balanced. Therefore understanding the signaling pathways involved in the coupling process will help develop further targets for osteoporosis therapy, by blocking bone resorption or enhancing bone formation in a space and time dependent manner. Insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) has long been known to play a role in bone strength. It is one of the most abundant substances in the bone matrix, circulates systemically and is secreted locally, and has a direct relationship with bone mineral density. Recent data has helped further our understanding of the direct role of IGF-1 signaling in coupling bone remodeling which will be discussed in this review. The bone marrow microenvironment plays a critical role in the fate of MSCs and HSCs and thus how IGF-1 interacts with other factors in the microenvironment are equally important. While previous clinical trials with IGF-1 administration have been unsuccessful at enhancing bone formation, advances in basic science studies have provided insight into further mechanisms that should be considered for future trials. Additional basic science studies dissecting the regulation and the function of matrix IGF-1 in modeling and remodeling will continue to provide further insight for future directions for anabolic therapies for osteoporosis. PMID:24068256

  13. Function of matrix IGF-1 in coupling bone resorption and formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Janet L; Cao, Xu

    2014-02-01

    Balancing bone resorption and formation is the quintessential component for the prevention of osteoporosis. Signals that determine the recruitment, replication, differentiation, function, and apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteoclasts direct bone remodeling and determine whether bone tissue is gained, lost, or balanced. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathways involved in the coupling process will help develop further targets for osteoporosis therapy, by blocking bone resorption or enhancing bone formation in a space- and time-dependent manner. Insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) has long been known to play a role in bone strength. It is one of the most abundant substances in the bone matrix, circulates systemically and is secreted locally, and has a direct relationship with bone mineral density. Recent data has helped further our understanding of the direct role of IGF-1 signaling in coupling bone remodeling which will be discussed in this review. The bone marrow microenvironment plays a critical role in the fate of mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells and thus how IGF-1 interacts with other factors in the microenvironment are equally important. While previous clinical trials with IGF-1 administration have been unsuccessful at enhancing bone formation, advances in basic science studies have provided insight into further mechanisms that should be considered for future trials. Additional basic science studies dissecting the regulation and the function of matrix IGF-1 in modeling and remodeling will continue to provide further insight for future directions for anabolic therapies for osteoporosis.

  14. BMP9-Induced Osteogenetic Differentiation and Bone Formation of Muscle-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient osteogenetic differentiation and bone formation from muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs should have potential clinical applications in treating nonunion fracture healing or bone defects. Here, we investigate osteogenetic differentiation ability of MDSCs induced by bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9 in vitro and bone formation ability in rabbit radius defects repairing model. Rabbit's MDSCs were extracted by type I collagenase and trypsin methods, and BMP9 was introduced into MDSCs by infection with recombinant adenovirus. Effects of BMP9-induced osteogenetic differentiation of MDSCs were identified with alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and expression of later marker. In stem-cell implantation assay, MDSCs have also shown valuable potential bone formation ability induced by BMP9 in rabbit radius defects repairing test. Taken together, our findings suggest that MDSCs are potentiated osteogenetic stem cells which can be induced by BMP9 to treat large segmental bone defects, nonunion fracture, and/or osteoporotic fracture.

  15. Normal age-related conversion of bone marrow in the skull base. Assessment with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Koki; Tomura, Noriaki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Izumi, Junichi; Kurosawa, Ryo; Sashi, Ryuji; Watarai, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the normal age-related sequence of conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base by means of MR imaging. We retrospectively reviewed T1-weighted MR images of the skull base for the distribution of hematopoietic and fatty marrow. The subjects consisted of 169 MR examinations that were performed with the spin-echo technique. The age of the subjects ranged from 0 months to 20 years old. Patients with known marrow abnormalities were excluded from this study. Marrow conversion was assessed in the presphenoid, postsphenoid, basiocciput, petrous apex, clivus, zygomatic bone, and condyle of the mandible. The signal intensity was visually graded, and the signal intensity ratio was determined on the basis of the intensities of the subcutaneous fat and air. The signal intensity of all observed regions was as low as that of muscles until 3 months of age. Conversion of hematopoietic to fatty marrow first occurred in the zygomatic bone until 6 months of age. The presphenoid increased in signal intensity from 5 months to 2 years of age, and the sphenoid sinus began to be pneumatic at this age. Marrow conversion of the postsphenoid and basiocciput was later than that of the presphenoid. Most of the bone marrow of the skull base appeared as fatty conversion until 3 years of age, although some mandibular condyles appeared hematopoietic at 3 years of age. The normal age-related conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base followed a well-defined sequence. Knowledge of the normal bone marrow conversion by MR imaging is essential for the recognition of pathologic marrow processes. (author)

  16. Heterotopic bone formation in the musculus latissimus dorsi of sheep using β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds: evaluation of an extended prefabrication time on bone formation and matrix degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalthoff, S; Jehn, P; Zimmerer, R; Möllmann, U; Gellrich, N-C; Kokemueller, H

    2015-06-01

    We previously generated viable heterotopic bone in living animals and found that 3 months of intrinsic vascularization improved bone formation and matrix degeneration. In this study, we varied the pre-vascularization time to determine its effects on the kinetics of bone formation and ceramic degradation. Two 25-mm-long cylindrical β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds were filled intraoperatively with autogenous iliac crest bone marrow and implanted in the latissimus dorsi muscle in six sheep. To examine the effect of axial perfusion, one scaffold was surgically implanted with (group C) or without (group D) a central vascular bundle. All animals were sacrificed 6 months postoperatively and histomorphometric measurements were compared to previous results. All implanted scaffolds exhibited ectopic bone growth. However, bone growth was not significantly different between the 3-month (group A, 0.191±0.097 vs. group C, 0.237±0.075; P=0.345) and 6-month (group B, 0.303±0.105 vs. group D, 0.365±0.258; P=0.549) pre-vascularization durations, regardless of vessel supply; early differences between surgically and extrinsically vascularized constructs disappeared after 6 months. Here, we describe a reliable procedure for generating ectopic bone in vivo. A 3-month pre-vascularization duration appears sufficient and ceramic degradation proceeds in accordance with bone generation, supporting the hypothesis of cell-mediated resorption. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Crack formation and fracture energy of normal and high strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. The crack path through composite materials such as concrete depends on the mechanical interaction of inclusions with the cement-based matrix. Fracture energy depends on the deviations of a real crack from an idealized crack plane. Fracture energy and strain softening of normal, high strength, and self- ...

  18. Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice promotes bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie Bakr

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statin can induce the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2. Red yeast rice (RYR, Hongqu, i.e. rice fermented with Monascus purpureus, contains a natural form of statin. This study demonstrates the effects of RYR extract on bone formation. Methods Bone defects were created in the parietal bones of two New Zealand white rabbits. In the test animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix mixed with RYR extract. In the control animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix alone. UMR 106 cell line was used to test RYR extract in vitro. In the control group, cells were cultured for three durations (24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours without any intervention. In the RYR group, cells were cultured for the same durations with various concentrations of RYR extract (0.001 g/ml, 0.005 g/ml and 0.01 g/ml. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA assay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP assay were performed to measure total protein, mitochondrial activity and bone cell formation respectively. Results The test animal showed more formation of new bone in the defects than the control animal. RYR significantly increased the optical density in the MTT assay and ALP activity in vitro. Conclusion RYR extract stimulated new bone formation in bone defects in vivo and increased bone cell formation in vitro.

  19. Thyroid Sporadic Goiter with Adult Heterotopic Bone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Handra-Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid heterotopic bone formation (HBF in goiter is a rare finding. Five thyroid resection specimens were analyzed for HBF. The results were correlated with clinicomorphological features. All patients were women (33–82 years. The preoperative diagnosis was thyroid goiter or nodule. Treatment consisted in thyroidectomy and lobectomy (3 and 2, resp.. Microscopy showed sporadic nodular goiter. Malformative blood vessels and vascular calcifications were seen in intra- and extrathyroid location (5 and 3, resp.. The number and size of HBFs (total: 28 ranged between 1 and 23/thyroid gland (one bilateral and 1 and 10 mm, respectively. Twelve HBFs were in contact with the thyroid capsule. Most were extranodular (21, versus 6 intranodular. The medical history was positive for dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, renal dysfunction, and hyperuricemia (2, 3, and 3 cases and 1 case, resp. without any parathyroid abnormality. In conclusion, thyroid HBF may be characterized by subcapsular or extranodular location, various size (usually ≥2 mm, and vascular calcifications and malformations. Features of metabolic syndrome and renal dysfunction may be present, but their exact role in the pathogenesis of HBFs remains to be elucidated.

  20. Spaceflight-induced vertebral bone loss in ovariectomized rats is associated with increased bone marrow adiposity and no change in bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Jessica A; Philbrick, Kenneth A; Branscum, Adam J; Iwaniec, Urszula T; Turner, Russell T

    2016-01-01

    There is often a reciprocal relationship between bone marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts, suggesting that marrow adipose tissue (MAT) antagonizes osteoblast differentiation. MAT is increased in rodents during spaceflight but a causal relationship between MAT and bone loss remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a 14-day spaceflight on bone mass, bone resorption, bone formation, and MAT in lumbar vertebrae of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Twelve-week-old OVX Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to a ground control or flight group. Following flight, histological sections of the second lumbar vertebrae (n=11/group) were stained using a technique that allowed simultaneous quantification of cells and preflight fluorochrome label. Compared with ground controls, rats flown in space had 32% lower cancellous bone area and 306% higher MAT. The increased adiposity was due to an increase in adipocyte number (224%) and size (26%). Mineral apposition rate and osteoblast turnover were unchanged during spaceflight. In contrast, resorption of a preflight fluorochrome and osteoclast-lined bone perimeter were increased (16% and 229%, respectively). The present findings indicate that cancellous bone loss in rat lumbar vertebrae during spaceflight is accompanied by increased bone resorption and MAT but no change in bone formation. These findings do not support the hypothesis that increased MAT during spaceflight reduces osteoblast activity or lifespan. However, in the context of ovarian hormone deficiency, bone formation during spaceflight was insufficient to balance increased resorption, indicating defective coupling. The results are therefore consistent with the hypothesis that during spaceflight mesenchymal stem cells are diverted to adipocytes at the expense of forming osteoblasts. PMID:28725730

  1. The relationship between inflammation and new bone formation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    OpenAIRE

    Baraliakos, Xenofon; Listing, Joachim; Rudwaleit, Martin; Sieper, Joachim; Braun, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Spinal inflammation as detected by magnetic resonance imaging and new bone formation as identified by conventional radiographs are characteristic of ankylosing spondylitis. Whether and how spondylitis and syndesmophyte formation are linked are unclear. Our objective was to investigate whether and how spinal inflammation are associated with new bone formation in ankylosing spondylitis. Methods Spinal magnetic resonance images and conventional radiographs from 39 ankylosing spondyl...

  2. Correlation between absence of bone remodeling compartment canopies, reversal phase arrest, and deficient bone formation in post-menopausal osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Levin; Hauge, Ellen Margrethe; Rolighed, Lars

    2014-01-01

    on the bone surface from the marrow cavity. The present study on human iliac crest biopsy specimens reveals that BRC canopies appear frequently absent above both eroded and formative surfaces in post-menopausal osteoporosis patients, and that this absence was associated with bone loss in these patients...... surfaces was associated with a shift in the osteoblast morphological characteristics, from cuboidal to flattened. Collectively, this study shows that the BRCs are unique anatomical structures implicated in bone remodeling in a widespread disease, such as post-menopausal osteoporosis. Furthermore...

  3. Bone formation induced in an infant by systemic prostaglandin-E2 administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H R; Svanholm, H; Høst, A

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of long-term systemic administration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to a newborn infant with ductus-dependent congenital heart disease. After 46 days of treatment, radiography showed cortical hyperostosis of the long bones. The child died 62 days after discontinuation of prostaglandin...... treatment. Histologic examination of tubular bones showed hyperostosis presumably due to prostaglandin-induced rapid formation of primitive bone. The additional finding of extensive resorption of the outer cortical surface and bone formation at the inner surface suggested a reversible phase after...

  4. Bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells in circulating blood contribute to ectopic bone formation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuru, Satoru; Tamai, Katsuto; Yamazaki, Takehiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating blood

  5. Piezoelectricity could predict sites of formation/resorption in bone remodelling and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J R; García-Aznar, J M; Martínez, R

    2012-01-07

    We have developed a mathematical approach for modelling the piezoelectric behaviour of bone tissue in order to evaluate the electrical surface charges in bone under different mechanical conditions. This model is able to explain how bones change their curvature, where osteoblasts or osteoclasts could detect in the periosteal/endosteal surfaces the different electrical charges promoting bone formation or resorption. This mechanism also allows to understand the BMU progression in function of the electro-mechanical bone behaviour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancement of bone formation in rabbits by recombinant human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrnberg, A.; Brosjoe, O.; Laaftman, P.; Nilsson, O.; Stroemberg, L.

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of human recombinant growth hormone on diaphyseal bone in 40 adult rabbits. The diaphyseal periosteum of one femur in each animal was mechanically stimulated by a nylon cerclage band. The bands induced an increase in bone formation, bone mineral content, and maximum torque capacity of the diaphyseal bone at 1 and 2 months. Growth hormone enhanced the anabolic effect of the cerclage bands on bone metabolism, evidenced by a further increase in torsional strength of the femurs. (au) (32 refs.)

  7. Pediatric and adult MRI atlas of bone marrow. Normal appearances, variants and diffuse disease states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic Department of Radiology, OH (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive atlas is unique in being devoted to the MRI appearances of bone marrow in the axial and appendicular skeleton of adults and children. Normal MRI findings, including common variants and degenerative changes, are first documented. MRI appearances in the entire spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic infiltrative marrow disorders are then presented, with accompanying explanatory text. Among the conditions considered are multiple myeloma, the acute and chronic leukemias, diffuse metastases, diffuse lymphomas, the anemias, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, storage disorders, and infections. Characteristic changes to bone marrow following various forms of treatment are also displayed and discussed. The selected images reflect the use of a variety of sequences and techniques, such as fat suppression, and contrast-enhanced imaging.

  8. Evaluation of Bone Metastasis from Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using 18F FDG PET/CT and 99mTc HDP Bone Scintigraphy: Characteristics of Soft Tissue Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hyo Jung; Choi, Yun Jung; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Jeong, Youg Hyu; Cho, Arthur; Lee, Jae Hoon; Yun, Mijin; Choi, Hye Jin; Lee, Jong Doo; Kang, Won Jun

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can present with soft tissue formation, resulting in oncologic emergency. Contrast enhanced FDG PET/CT and bone scintigraphy were compared to evaluate characteristics of bone metastases with of without soft tissue formation from HCC. of 4,151 patients with HCC, 263 patients had bone metastases. Eighty five patients with bone metastasis from HCC underwent contrast enhanced FDG PET/CT. Fifty four of the enrolled subjects had recent 99mT c HDP bone scintigraphy available for comparison. Metastatic bone lesions were identified with visual inspection on FDG PET/CT, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was used for the quantitative analysis. Confirmation of bone metastasis was based on histopathology, combined imaging modalities, or serial follow up studies. Forty seven patients (55%) presented with soft tissue formation, while the remaining 38 patients presented without soft tissue formation. Frequent sites of bone metastases from HCC were the spine (39%), pelvis (19%), and rib cage (14%). The soft tissue formation group had more frequent bone pain (77 vs. 37%, p<0.0001), higher SUVmax (6.02 vs. 3.52, p<0.007), and higher incidence of photon defect in bone scintigraphy (75 vs. 0%) compared to the non soft tissue formation group. FDG PET/CT had higher detection rate for bone metastasis than bone scintigraphy both in lesion based analysis (98 vs. 53%, p=0.0015) and in patient based analysis (100 vs. 80%, p<0.001). Bone metastasis from HCC showed a high incidence of soft tissue formation requiring emergency treatment. Although the characteristic findings for soft tissue formation such as photon defect in bone scintigraphy are helpful in detection, overall detectability of bone metastasis is higher in FDG PET/CT. Contrast enhanced PET/CT will be useful in finding and delineating soft tissue forming bone metastasis from HCC.

  9. Excessive Vitamin E Intake Does Not Cause Bone Loss in Male or Ovariectomized Female Mice Fed Normal or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hiroko; Kawawa, Rie; Ichi, Ikuyo; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Koike, Taisuke; Aoki, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Yoko

    2017-10-01

    Background: Animal studies on the effects of vitamin E on bone health have yielded conflicting and inconclusive results, and to our knowledge, no studies have addressed the effect of vitamin E on bone in animals consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of excessive vitamin E on bone metabolism in normal male mice and ovariectomized female mice fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD. Methods: In the first 2 experiments, 7-wk-old male mice were fed an ND (16% energy from fat) containing 75 (control), 0 (vitamin E-free), or 1000 (high vitamin E) mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 1) or an HFD (46% energy from fat) containing 0, 200, 500, or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 2) for 18 wk. In the third experiment, 7-wk-old sham-operated or ovariectomized female mice were fed the ND (75 mg vitamin E/kg) or HFD containing 0 or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg for 8 wk. At the end of the feeding period, blood and femurs were collected to measure bone turnover markers and analyze histology and microcomputed tomography. Results: In experiments 1 and 2, vitamin E intake had no effect on plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, or bone formation, resorption, or volume in femurs in mice fed the ND or HFDs. In experiment 3, bone volume was significantly reduced (85%) in ovariectomized mice compared with that in sham-operated mice ( P vitamin E/kg. Conclusions: The results suggest that excess vitamin E intake does not cause bone loss in normal male mice or in ovariectomized or sham-operated female mice, regardless of dietary fat content. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Cellular Therapy to Obtain Rapid Endochondral Bone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    length from the tibial fusion site, and then stop which would be consistent with the resorption being associated with the lack of weight bearing load. In...Defect in the Rat Femur with Use of a Vascularized Periosteal Flap, a Biodegradable Matric, and Bone Morphogenetic Protein. J Bone Joint Surg 87-A(6

  11. In Vivo Bone Formation Within Engineered Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds in a Sheep Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovati, A B; Lopa, S; Recordati, C; Talò, G; Turrisi, C; Bottagisio, M; Losa, M; Scanziani, E; Moretti, M

    2016-08-01

    Large bone defects still represent a major burden in orthopedics, requiring bone-graft implantation to promote the bone repair. Along with autografts that currently represent the gold standard for complicated fracture repair, the bone tissue engineering offers a promising alternative strategy combining bone-graft substitutes with osteoprogenitor cells able to support the bone tissue ingrowth within the implant. Hence, the optimization of cell loading and distribution within osteoconductive scaffolds is mandatory to support a successful bone formation within the scaffold pores. With this purpose, we engineered constructs by seeding and culturing autologous, osteodifferentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells within hydroxyapatite (HA)-based grafts by means of a perfusion bioreactor to enhance the in vivo implant-bone osseointegration in an ovine model. Specifically, we compared the engineered constructs in two different anatomical bone sites, tibia, and femur, compared with cell-free or static cell-loaded scaffolds. After 2 and 4 months, the bone formation and the scaffold osseointegration were assessed by micro-CT and histological analyses. The results demonstrated the capability of the acellular HA-based grafts to determine an implant-bone osseointegration similar to that of statically or dynamically cultured grafts. Our study demonstrated that the tibia is characterized by a lower bone repair capability compared to femur, in which the contribution of transplanted cells is not crucial to enhance the bone-implant osseointegration. Indeed, only in tibia, the dynamic cell-loaded implants performed slightly better than the cell-free or static cell-loaded grafts, indicating that this is a valid approach to sustain the bone deposition and osseointegration in disadvantaged anatomical sites.

  12. Hypermineralization and High Osteocyte Lacunar Density in Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type V Bone Indicate Exuberant Primary Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Stéphane; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Glorieux, Francis H; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Marini, Joan C; Rauch, Frank

    2017-09-01

    lamellation points to an exuberant primary bone formation and an alteration of the bone remodeling process in OI type V. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Palmitic Acid Reduces Circulating Bone Formation Markers in Obese Animals and Impairs Osteoblast Activity via C16-Ceramide Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahli, Ahmad; Kiefhaber, Kathryn; Gold, Tziporah; Muluke, Munira; Jiang, Hongfeng; Cremers, Serge; Schulze-Späte, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and impaired lipid metabolism increase circulating and local fatty acid (FA) levels. Our previous studies showed that a high high-saturated -fat diet induced greater bone loss in mice than a high high-unsaturated-fat diet due to increased osteoclast numbers and activity. The impact of elevated FA levels on osteoblasts is not yet clear. We induced obesity in 4 week old male mice using a palmitic acid (PA)- or oleic acid (OA)-enriched high fat high-fat diet (HFD) (20 % of calories from FA), and compared them to mice on a normal (R) caloric diet (10 % of calories from FA). We collected serum to determine FA and bone metabolism marker levels. Primary osteoblasts were isolated; cultured in PA, OA, or control (C) medium; and assessed for mineralization activity, gene expression, and ceramide levels. Obese animals in the PA and OA groups had significantly lower serum levels of bone formation markers P1NP and OC compared to normal weight animals (*p < 0.001), with the lowest marker levels in animals on an PA-enriched HFD (*p < 0.001). Accordingly, elevated levels of PA significantly reduced osteoblast mineralization activity in vitro (*p < 0.05). Elevated PA intake significantly increased C16 ceramide accumulation. This accumulation was preventable through inhibition of SPT2 (serine palmitoyl transferase 2) using myriocin. Elevated levels of PA reduce osteoblast function in vitro and bone formation markers in vivo. Our findings suggest that saturated PA can compromise bone health by affecting osteoblasts, and identify a potential mechanism through which obesity promotes bone loss.

  14. Tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP-HA) bone scaffold as potential candidate for the formation of tissue engineered bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Shamsul Bin; Keong, Tan Kok; Cheng, Chen Hui; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2013-06-01

    Various materials have been used as scaffolds to suit different demands in tissue engineering. One of the most important criteria is that the scaffold must be biocompatible. This study was carried out to investigate the potential of HA or TCP/HA scaffold seeded with osteogenic induced sheep marrow cells (SMCs) for bone tissue engineering. HA-SMC and TCP/HA-SMC constructs were induced in the osteogenic medium for three weeks prior to implantation in nude mice. The HA-SMC and TCP/HA-SMC constructs were implanted subcutaneously on the dorsum of nude mice on each side of the midline. These constructs were harvested after 8 wk of implantation. Constructs before and after implantation were analyzed through histological staining, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and gene expression analysis. The HA-SMC constructs demonstrated minimal bone formation. TCP/HA-SMC construct showed bone formation eight weeks after implantation. The bone formation started on the surface of the ceramic and proceeded to the centre of the pores. H&E and Alizarin Red staining demonstrated new bone tissue. Gene expression of collagen type 1 increased significantly for both constructs, but more superior for TCP/HA-SMC. SEM results showed the formation of thick collagen fibers encapsulating TCP/HA-SMC more than HA-SMC. Cells attached to both constructs surface proliferated and secreted collagen fibers. The findings suggest that TCP/HA-SMC constructs with better osteogenic potential compared to HA-SMC constructs can be a potential candidate for the formation of tissue engineered bone.

  15. Id1 represses osteoclast-dependent transcription and affects bone formation and hematopoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April S Chan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The bone-bone marrow interface is an area of the bone marrow microenvironment in which both bone remodeling cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and hematopoietic cells are anatomically juxtaposed. The close proximity of these cells naturally suggests that they interact with one another, but these interactions are just beginning to be characterized.An Id1(-/- mouse model was used to assess the role of Id1 in the bone marrow microenvironment. Micro-computed tomography and fracture tests showed that Id1(-/- mice have reduced bone mass and increased bone fragility, consistent with an osteoporotic phenotype. Osteoclastogenesis and pit formation assays revealed that loss of Id1 increased osteoclast differentiation and resorption activity, both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a cell autonomous role for Id1 as a negative regulator of osteoclast differentiation. Examination by flow cytometry of the hematopoietic compartment of Id1(-/- mice showed an increase in myeloid differentiation. Additionally, we found increased expression of osteoclast genes, TRAP, Oscar, and CTSK in the Id1(-/- bone marrow microenvironment. Lastly, transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into Id1(-/- mice repressed TRAP, Oscar, and CTSK expression and activity and rescued the hematopoietic and bone phenotype in these mice.In conclusion, we demonstrate an osteoporotic phenotype in Id1(-/- mice and a mechanism for Id1 transcriptional control of osteoclast-associated genes. Our results identify Id1 as a principal player responsible for the dynamic cross-talk between bone and bone marrow hematopoietic cells.

  16. The anabolic activity of bone tissue, suppressed by disuse, is normalized by brief exposure to extremely low-magnitude mechanical stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, C.; Xu, G.; Judex, S.

    2001-01-01

    It is generally believed that mechanical signals must be large in order to be anabolic to bone tissue. Recent evidence indicates, however, that extremely low-magnitude (bone formation if induced at a high frequency. We examined the ability of extremely low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical signals to restore anabolic bone cell activity inhibited by disuse. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to six groups: baseline control, age-matched control, mechanically stimulated for 10 min/day, disuse (hind limb suspension), disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of weight bearing, and disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of mechanical stimulation. After a 28 day protocol, bone formation rates (BFR) in the proximal tibia of mechanically stimulated rats increased compared with age-matched control (+97%). Disuse alone reduced BFR (-92%), a suppression only slightly curbed when disuse was interrupted by 10 min of weight bearing (-61%). In contrast, disuse interrupted by 10 min per day of low-level mechanical intervention normalized BFR to values seen in age-matched controls. This work indicates that this noninvasive, extremely low-level stimulus may provide an effective biomechanical intervention for the bone loss that plagues long-term space flight, bed rest, or immobilization caused by paralysis.

  17. μCT-based, in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry allows 3D evaluation of the early responses of bone resorption and formation to PTH and alendronate combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Chantal M J; Altman, Allison R; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Tribble, Mary Beth; Li, Connie; Chandra, Abhishek; Qin, Ling; Liu, X Sherry

    2015-04-01

    Current osteoporosis treatments improve bone mass by increasing net bone formation: anti-resorptive drugs such as bisphosphonates block osteoclast activity, while anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) increase bone remodeling, with a greater effect on formation. Although these drugs are widely used, their role in modulating formation and resorption is not fully understood, due in part to technical limitations in the ability to longitudinally assess bone remodeling. Importantly, it is not known whether or not PTH-induced bone formation is independent of resorption, resulting in controversy over the effectiveness of combination therapies that use both PTH and an anti-resorptive. In this study, we developed a μCT-based, in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry technique for rat tibiae, and applied this method to longitudinally track changes in bone resorption and formation as a result of treatment with alendronate (ALN), PTH, or combination therapy of both PTH and ALN (PTH+ALN). Correlations between our μCT-based measures of bone formation and measures of bone formation based on calcein-labeled histology (r=0.72-0.83) confirm the accuracy of this method. Bone remodeling parameters measured through μCT-based in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry indicate an increased rate of bone formation in rats treated with PTH and PTH+ALN, together with a decrease in bone resorption measures in rats treated with ALN and PTH+ALN. These results were further supported by traditional histology-based measurements, suggesting that PTH was able to induce bone formation while bone resorption was suppressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expansion of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Perfused 3D Ceramic Scaffolds Enhances In Vivo Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Allison I; Duhr, Ralph; Di Maggio, Nunzia; Mehrkens, Arne; Jakob, Marcel; Wendt, David

    2017-12-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSC), when expanded directly within 3D ceramic scaffolds in perfusion bioreactors, more reproducibly form bone when implanted in vivo as compared to conventional expansion on 2D polystyrene dishes/flasks. Since the bioreactor-based expansion on 3D ceramic scaffolds encompasses multiple aspects that are inherently different from expansion on 2D polystyrene, we aimed to decouple the effects of specific parameters among these two model systems. We assessed the effects of the: 1) 3D scaffold vs. 2D surface; 2) ceramic vs. polystyrene materials; and 3) BMSC niche established within the ceramic pores during in vitro culture, on subsequent in vivo bone formation. While BMSC expanded on 3D polystyrene scaffolds in the bioreactor could maintain their in vivo osteogenic potential, results were similar as BMSC expanded in monolayer on 2D polystyrene, suggesting little influence of the scaffold 3D environment. Bone formation was most reproducible when BMSC are expanded on 3D ceramic, highlighting the influence of the ceramic substrate. The presence of a pre-formed niche within the scaffold pores had negligible effects on the in vivo bone formation. The results of this study allow a greater understanding of the parameters required for perfusion bioreactor-based manufacturing of osteogenic grafts for clinical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. [Experimental study of the effect of new bone formation on new type artificial bone composed of bioactive ceramics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minghua; Zeng, Yi; Sun, Tao; Peng, Qiang

    2005-03-15

    To investigate the osteogenic potential of four kinds of new bioactive ceramics combined with bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and to explore the feasibility of using compounds as bone substitute material. Ninety-six rats were divided into 4 groups (24 in each group). BMP was combined with hydroxyapatite (HA), tricalcium phosphate (TCP), fluoridated-HA (FHA), and collagen-HA(CHA) respectively. The left thighs of the rats implanted with HA/BMP, TCP/BMP, FHA/BMP, and CHA/BMP were used as experimental groups. The right thighs of the rats implanted with HA, TCP, CHA, and decalcified dentin matrix (DDM) were used as control groups. The rats were sacrificed 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks after implantation and bone induction was estimated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), phosphorus (P), and total protein (TP) measurement. The histological observation and electronic microscope scanning of the implants were also made. The cartilage growth in the 4 experimental groups and the control group implanted with DDM was observed 1 week after operation and fibrous connective tissues were observed in the other 3 control groups. 3 weeks after implantation, lamellar bone with bone marrow and positive reaction in ALP stain were observed in the 4 experimental groups. No bone formation or positive reaction in ALP stain were observed in the control groups. The amount of ALP activity, P value, and new bone formation in the experimental groups were higher than those in the control group(P < 0.05). The amount of ALP activity, P value, and new bone formation in TCP/BMP group were higher than those in HA/BMP, CHA/BMP and FHA/BMP groups (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in TP between the BMP treatment group and the control groups. From 5th to 7th week, new bone formation, histochemistry evaluation, and the level of ALP, P, TP value were as high as those in the 3rd week. New composite artificial bone of TCP/BMP, HA/BMP, CHA/BMP, and FHA/BMP all prove to be effective, but TCP/BMP is the

  20. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances bone formation around miniscrew implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzorig, Khaliunaa; Kuroda, Shingo; Maeda, Yuichi; Mansjur, Karima; Sato, Minami; Nagata, Kumiko; Tanaka, Eiji

    2015-06-01

    Miniscrew implants (MSIs) are currently used to provide absolute anchorage in orthodontics; however, their initial stability is an issue of concern. Application of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) can promote bone healing. Therefore, LIPUS application may stimulate bone formation around MSIs and enhance their initial stability. To investigate the effect of LIPUS exposure on bone formation after implantation of titanium (Ti) and stainless steel (SS) MSIs. MSIs made of Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS were placed on rat tibiae and treated with LIPUS. The bone morphology around MSIs was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and three-dimensional micro-computed tomography. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on Ti and SS discs were treated with LIPUS, and the temporary expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was examined. Bone-implant contact increased gradually from day 3 to day 14 after MSI insertion. LIPUS application increased the cortical bone density, cortical bone thickness, and cortical bone rate after implantation of Ti and SS MSIs (P<0.05). LIPUS exposure induced ALP upregulation in MC3T3-E1 cells at day 3 (P<0.05). LIPUS enhanced bone formation around Ti and SS MSIs, enhancing the initial stability of MSIs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Functionalization of PCL-3D Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Improved BMP2-Induced Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszuk, Jacob M; Xu, Tao; Yao, Qingqing; Fang, Fang; Childs, Josh D; Hong, Zhongkui; Tao, Jianning; Fong, Hao; Sun, Hongli

    2018-03-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) is a key growth factor for bone regeneration, possessing FDA approval for orthopedic applications. BMP2 is often required in supratherapeutic doses clinically, yielding adverse side effects and substantial treatment costs. Considering the crucial role of materials for BMPs delivery and cell osteogenic differentiation, we devote to engineering an innovative bone-matrix mimicking niche to improve low dose of BMP2-induced bone formation. Our previous work describes a novel technique, named thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA), for generating 3D electrospun nanofibrous (NF) polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. TISA process could readily blend PCL with PLA, leading to increased osteogenic capabilities in vitro , however, these bio-inert synthetic polymers produced limited BMP2-induced bone formation in vivo. We therefore hypothesize that functionalization of NF 3D PCL scaffolds with bone-like hydroxyapatite (HA) and BMP2 signaling activator phenamil will provide a favorable osteogenic niche for bone formation at low doses of BMP2. Compared to PCL-3D scaffolds, PCL/HA-3D scaffolds demonstrated synergistically enhanced osteogenic differentiation capabilities of C2C12 cells with phenamil. Importantly, in vivo studies showed this synergism was able to generate significantly increased new bone in an ectopic mouse model, suggesting PCL/HA-3D scaffolds act as a favorable synthetic extracellular matrix for bone regeneration.

  2. Oxytocin promotes bone formation during the alveolar healing process in old acyclic female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Vilma Clemi; Okamoto, Roberta; Spritzer, Poli Mara; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2012-09-01

    OT was reported to be a direct regulator of bone mass in young rodents, and this anabolic effect on bone is a peripheral action of OT. The goal of this study was to investigate the peripheral action of oxytocin (OT) in the alveolar healing process in old female rats. Females Wistar rats (24-month-old) in permanent diestrus phase, received two ip (12h apart) injections of saline (NaCl 0.15M - control group) or OT (45μg/rat - treated group). Seven days later, the right maxillary incisor was extracted and analyses were performed up to 28 days of the alveolar healing process (35 days after saline or OT administration). Calcium and phosphorus plasma concentrations did not differ between the groups. The plasma biochemical bone formations markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin were significantly higher in the treated group. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed bone formation as the treated group presented the highest mean value of post-extraction bone formation. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was significantly reduced in the treated group indicating an anti-resorptive effect of OT. Immunohistochemistry reactions performed in order to identify the presence of osteocalcin and TRAP in the bone cells of the dental socket confirmed these outcomes. OT was found to promote bone formation and to inhibit bone resorption in old acyclic female rats during the alveolar healing process. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Energy expenditure and bone formation share a common sensitivity to AP-1 transcription in the hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowe, Glenn C; Vialou, Vincent; Sato, Kazusa

    2012-01-01

    ) whether these effects were due to antagonism to AP1. Our results show that stereotactic injection of an adeno-associated virus vector to restrict overexpression of ¿FosB to the ventral hypothalamus of wildtype mice induced a profound increase in both energy expenditure and bone formation and bone mass...

  4. Effects of low‑level laser therapy on osteoblastic bone formation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were compared. Conclusion: Histologically, LLLT stimulated bone formation, as revealed by analysis after the retention period. LLLT during expansion may accelerate bone healing. Key words: Bio‑stimulation, laser, rapid maxillary expansion. Date of Acceptance: 12‑Jan‑2015. Address for correspondence: Dr. M Demirkol,.

  5. Normal Collagen and Bone Production by Gene-targeted Human Osteogenesis Imperfecta iPSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyle, David R; Khan, Iram F; Ren, Gaoying; Wang, Pei-Rong; Kho, Jordan; Schwarze, Ulrike; Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by dominant mutations in the type I collagen genes. In principle, the skeletal abnormalities of OI could be treated by transplantation of patient-specific, bone-forming cells that no longer express the mutant gene. Here, we develop this approach by isolating mesenchymal cells from OI patients, inactivating their mutant collagen genes by adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene targeting, and deriving induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that were expanded and differentiated into mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs). Gene-targeted iMSCs produced normal collagen and formed bone in vivo, but were less senescent and proliferated more than bone-derived MSCs. To generate iPSCs that would be more appropriate for clinical use, the reprogramming and selectable marker transgenes were removed by Cre recombinase. These results demonstrate that the combination of gene targeting and iPSC derivation can be used to produce potentially therapeutic cells from patients with genetic disease. PMID:22031238

  6. Thymidine phosphorylase exerts complex effects on bone resorption and formation in myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Du, Juan; He, Jin; Lin, Pei; Amini, Behrang; Starbuck, Michael W; Novane, Nora; Shah, Jatin J; Davis, Richard E; Hou, Jian; Gagel, Robert F; Yang, Jing

    2016-08-24

    Myelomatous bone disease is characterized by the development of lytic bone lesions and a concomitant reduction in bone formation, leading to chronic bone pain and fractures. To understand the underlying mechanism, we investigated the contribution of myeloma-expressed thymidine phosphorylase (TP) to bone lesions. In osteoblast progenitors, TP up-regulated the methylation of RUNX2 and osterix, leading to decreased bone formation. In osteoclast progenitors, TP up-regulated the methylation of IRF8 and thereby enhanced expression of NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 protein), leading to increased bone resorption. TP reversibly catalyzes thymidine into thymine and 2-deoxy-d-ribose (2DDR). Myeloma-secreted 2DDR bound to integrin αVβ3/α5β1 in the progenitors, activated PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt signaling, and increased DNMT3A (DNA methyltransferase 3A) expression, resulting in hypermethylation of RUNX2, osterix, and IRF8 This study elucidates an important mechanism for myeloma-induced bone lesions, suggesting that targeting TP may be a viable approach to healing resorbed bone in patients. Because TP overexpression is common in bone-metastatic tumors, our findings could have additional mechanistic implications. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. [Bone homeostasis and Mechano biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    The weight-bearing exercises help to build bones and to maintain them strength. Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. During bone remodeling, resorption by osteoclasts precedes bone formation by osteoblasts. Based on the osteocyte location within the bone matrix and the cellular morphology, it is proposed that osteocytes potentially contribute to the regulation of bone remodeling in response to mechanical and endocrine stimuli.

  8. Binaural Hearing Ability With Bilateral Bone Conduction Stimulation in Subjects With Normal Hearing: Implications for Bone Conduction Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitooni, Mehrnaz; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Stenfelt, Stefan

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate binaural hearing ability in adults with normal hearing when bone conduction (BC) stimulation is bilaterally applied at the bone conduction hearing aid (BCHA) implant position as well as at the audiometric position on the mastoid. The results with BC stimulation are compared with bilateral air conduction (AC) stimulation through earphones. Binaural hearing ability is investigated with tests of spatial release from masking and binaural intelligibility level difference using sentence material, binaural masking level difference with tonal chirp stimulation, and precedence effect using noise stimulus. In all tests, results with bilateral BC stimulation at the BCHA position illustrate an ability to extract binaural cues similar to BC stimulation at the mastoid position. The binaural benefit is overall greater with AC stimulation than BC stimulation at both positions. The binaural benefit for BC stimulation at the mastoid and BCHA position is approximately half in terms of decibels compared with AC stimulation in the speech based tests (spatial release from masking and binaural intelligibility level difference). For binaural masking level difference, the binaural benefit for the two BC positions with chirp signal phase inversion is approximately twice the benefit with inverted phase of the noise. The precedence effect results with BC stimulation at the mastoid and BCHA position are similar for low frequency noise stimulation but differ with high-frequency noise stimulation. The results confirm that binaural hearing processing with bilateral BC stimulation at the mastoid position is also present at the BCHA implant position. This indicates the ability for binaural hearing in patients with good cochlear function when using bilateral BCHAs.

  9. The effect of semelil (angipars® on bone resorption and bone formation markers in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani-Ranjbar Shirin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as a major risk factor for osteoporosis in which bone turnover is affected by different mechanisms. As the morbidity, mortality and financial cost related to osteoporosis are expected to rise in Iran in coming years, and considering the efficacy of Angipars® for improvement of different ulcers which made it a new herbal drug in diabetic foot ulcer, there is a need to evaluate the effect of this new drug on different organs including bone resorption and bone formation markers. Methods In this randomized, double- blind clinical trial, 61 diabetic patients were included. The subjects were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Subjects of intervention group received 100 mg of Angipars® twice a day. Laboratory tests including bone resorption and bone formation markers were performed at baseline and after 3 months. Result 31 patients in study group and 30 patients in control group finished the study. The mean age of the study population and the mean disease duration was respectively 51.8 ± 6.2 and 7.5 ± 4.7 years with no significant differences between intervention and control patients. No statistically significant differences between patients and controls were observed in pyridinoline, osteocalcin, urine calcium, bone alkaline phosphatase and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. Only urine creatinine level significantly changed between two groups after 3 month of treatment (p-value: 0.029 Conclusion In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate that Semelil (Angipars® had no beneficial or harmful effects on bone. It might be other effects of this new component on bone turnover process which need more studies and more time to be discovered.

  10. Requirement of alveolar bone formation for eruption of rat molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Gary E.; He, Hongzhi; Gutierrez, Dina L.; Ring, Sherry; Yao, Shaomian

    2011-01-01

    Tooth eruption is a localized event that requires a dental follicle (DF) to regulate the resorption of alveolar bone to form an eruption pathway. During the intra-osseous phase of eruption, the tooth moves through this pathway. The mechanism or motive force that propels the tooth through this pathway is controversial but many studies have shown that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt occurs during eruption. To determine if this bone growth (osteogenesis) was causal, experiments were designed in which the expression of an osteogenic gene in the DF, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP6), was inhibited by injection of the 1st mandibular molar of the rat with an siRNA targeted against BMP6. The injection was followed by electroporation to promote uptake of the siRNA. In 45 first molars injected, eruption either was delayed or completely inhibited (7 molars). In the impacted molars, an eruption pathway formed but bone growth at the base of the crypt was greatly reduced as compared to the erupted first molar controls. These studies show that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt is required for tooth eruption and that BMP6 may be an essential gene for promoting this growth. PMID:21896048

  11. Dual photon absorptiometry measurement of the lumbar bone mineral content. Methodology - Reproductibility - Normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillon, P.; Duboeuf, F.; Delmas, P.D.; Meunier, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made with a DPA apparatus (Novo Lab 22a) on different phantoms and on volunteers in an attempt to evaluate the system precision. The reproductibility was found in the range of 0.98 to 4.10 % in the case of in vitro measurements, depending on the geometry of the phantoms used, and in the range of 1.6 to 2.94 % for volunteers after repositioning. Secondly, the BMD in the lumbar spine of normal women and normal men was estimated. In control females, the BMD is well fitted to the age by a cubic regression. The maximum value of the BMD is found in this case at the age of 31.5 and the maximum rate of bone loss takes place at 57. Total bone loss between 31.5 and the elderly is about 32 %. In control males, results are more scattered and are represented by a simple linear regression. The average mineral loss between 30 and 80 years is 11.5 % in this area of measurement [fr

  12. HSP10 selective preference for myeloid and megakaryocytic precursors in normal human bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cappello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs constitute a heterogeneous family of proteins involved in cell homeostasis. During cell life they are involved in harmful insults, as well as in immune and inflammatory reactions. It is known that they regulate gene expression, and cell proliferation, differentiation and death. HSP60 is a mitochondrial chaperonin, highly preserved during evolution, responsible of protein folding. Its function is strictly dependent on HSP10 in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements. We investigated the presence and the expression of HSP60 and HSP10 in a series of 20 normal human bone marrow specimens (NHBM by the means of immunohistochemistry. NHBM showed no expression of HSP60, probably due to its being below the detectable threshold, as already demonstrated in other normal human tissues. By contrast, HSP10 showed a selective positivity for myeloid and megakaryocytic lineages. The positivity was restricted to precursor cells, while mature elements were constantly negative.We postulate that HSP10 plays a role in bone marrow cell differentiation other than being a mitochondrial co-chaperonin. The present data emphasize the role of HSP10 during cellular homeostasis and encourage further investigations in this field.

  13. Effect of adiponectin and sex steroid hormones on bone mineral density and bone formation markers in postmenopausal women with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki Hoon; Lee, Seung Hyeun; Park, Hyun Tae; Kim, Tak; Hur, Jun Young; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sun Haeng

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between adiponectin and sex hormones with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone formation markers was investigated in postmenopausal women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH). Seventy-five postmenopausal women were selected among the patients who participated in a health screening program in 2007. Thirty-seven control women with normal thyroid function were matched to 38 women with SCH by age, body mass index (BMI), and years since menopause (YSM). The associations between adiponectin and sex hormones with lumbar spine BMD and bone turnover markers were investigated. Adiponectin, testosterone (T; total and free forms), and thyroid-stimulating hormone were significantly different between the women with SCH and euthyroid. After adjusting for age, BMI, and YSM, free T (r = 0.351; P = 0.029) and estradiol (E2; r = -0.368; P = 0.024) had significant associations with bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP). Total T (r = 0.388; P = 0.021) and E2 (r = -0.376; P = 0.026) had significant associations with osteocalcin. However, there were no significant associations between adiponectin and sex hormones with the BMD levels in the SCH subjects. There were correlations between sex hormones with B-ALP and osteocalcin, but no associations between adiponectin and sex hormones with the lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal SCH patients.

  14. Operative findings of conductive hearing loss with intact tympanic membrane and normal temporal bone computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Despite recent technological advances in diagnostic methods including imaging technology, it is often difficult to establish a preoperative diagnosis of conductive hearing loss (CHL) in patients with an intact tympanic membrane (TM). Especially, in patients with a normal temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT), preoperative diagnosis is more difficult. We investigated middle ear disorders encountered in patients with CHL involving an intact TM and normal TBCT. We also analyzed the surgical results with special reference to the pathology. We reviewed the medical records of 365 patients with intact TM, who underwent exploratory tympanotomy for CHL. Fifty nine patients (67 ears, eight bilateral surgeries) had a normal preoperative TBCT findings reported by neuro-radiologists. Demographic data, otologic history, TM findings, preoperative imaging findings, intraoperative findings, and pre- and postoperative audiologic data were obtained and analyzed. Exploration was performed most frequently in the second and fifth decades. The most common postoperative diagnosis was stapedial fixation with non-progressive hearing loss. The most commonly performed hearing-restoring procedure was stapedotomy with piston wire prosthesis insertion. Various types of hearing-restoring procedures during exploration resulted in effective hearing improvement, especially with better outcome in the ossicular chain fixation group. In patients with CHL who have intact TM and normal TBCT, we should consider an exploratory tympanotomy for exact diagnosis and hearing improvement. Information of the common operative findings from this study may help in preoperative counseling.

  15. Strontium-Doped Calcium Phosphate and Hydroxyapatite Granules Promote Different Inflammatory and Bone Remodelling Responses in Normal and Ovariectomised Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Emanuelsson, Lena; Norlindh, Birgitta; Omar, Omar; Thomsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The healing of bone defects may be hindered by systemic conditions such as osteoporosis. Calcium phosphates, with or without ion substitutions, may provide advantages for bone augmentation. However, the mechanism of bone formation with these materials is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing process in bone defects implanted with hydroxyapatite (HA) or strontium-doped calcium phosphate (SCP) granules, in non-ovariectomised (non-OVX) and ovariectomised (OVX) rats. After 0 (baseline), six and 28d, bone samples were harvested for gene expression analysis, histology and histomorphometry. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), at six days, was higher in the HA, in non-OVX and OVX, whereas interleukin-6 (IL-6), at six and 28d, was higher in SCP, but only in non-OVX. Both materials produced a similar expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). Higher expression of osteoclastic markers, calcitonin receptor (CR) and cathepsin K (CatK), were detected in the HA group, irrespective of non-OVX or OVX. The overall bone formation was comparable between HA and SCP, but with topological differences. The bone area was higher in the defect centre of the HA group, mainly in the OVX, and in the defect periphery of the SCP group, in both non-OVX and OVX. It is concluded that HA and SCP granules result in comparable bone formation in trabecular bone defects. As judged by gene expression and histological analyses, the two materials induced different inflammatory and bone remodelling responses. The modulatory effects are associated with differences in the spatial distribution of the newly formed bone. PMID:24376855

  16. Local effect of zoledronic acid on new bone formation in posterolateral spinal fusion with demineralized bone matrix in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Pawel; Farei-Campagna, Jan; Jentzsch, Thorsten; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Werner, Clément M

    2018-01-01

    Posterolateral spinal fusion is a common orthopaedic surgery performed to treat degenerative and traumatic deformities of the spinal column. In posteriolateral spinal fusion, different osteoinductive demineralized bone matrix products have been previously investigated. We evaluated the effect of locally applied zoledronic acid in combination with commercially available demineralized bone matrix putty on new bone formation in posterolateral spinal fusion in a murine in vivo model. A posterolateral sacral spine fusion in murine model was used to evaluate the new bone formation. We used the sacral spine fusion model to model the clinical situation in which a bone graft or demineralized bone matrix is applied after dorsal instrumentation of the spine. In our study, group 1 received decortications only (n = 10), group 2 received decortication, and absorbable collagen sponge carrier, group 3 received decortication and absorbable collagen sponge carrier with zoledronic acid in dose 10 µg, group 4 received demineralized bone matrix putty (DBM putty) plus decortication (n = 10), and group 5 received DBM putty, decortication and locally applied zoledronic acid in dose 10 µg. Imaging was performed using MicroCT for new bone formation assessment. Also, murine spines were harvested for histopathological analysis 10 weeks after surgery. The surgery performed through midline posterior approach was reproducible. In group with decortication alone there was no new bone formation. Application of demineralized bone matrix putty alone produced new bone formation which bridged the S1-S4 laminae. Local application of zoledronic acid to demineralized bone matrix putty resulted in significant increase of new bone formation as compared to demineralized bone matrix putty group alone. A single local application of zoledronic acid with DBM putty during posterolateral fusion in sacral murine spine model increased significantly new bone formation in situ in our model. Therefore, our

  17. Gut microbiota induce IGF-1 and promote bone formation and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Herzog, Jeremy W.; Tsang, Kelly; Brennan, Caitlin A.; Bower, Maureen A.; Garrett, Wendy S.; Sartor, Balfour R.; Charles, Julia F.

    2016-01-01

    Appreciation of the role of the gut microbiome in regulating vertebrate metabolism has exploded recently. However, the effects of gut microbiota on skeletal growth and homeostasis have only recently begun to be explored. Here, we report that colonization of sexually mature germ-free (GF) mice with conventional specific pathogen-free (SPF) gut microbiota increases both bone formation and resorption, with the net effect of colonization varying with the duration of colonization. Although colonization of adult mice acutely reduces bone mass, in long-term colonized mice, an increase in bone formation and growth plate activity predominates, resulting in equalization of bone mass and increased longitudinal and radial bone growth. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a hormone with known actions on skeletal growth, are substantially increased in response to microbial colonization, with significant increases in liver and adipose tissue IGF-1 production. Antibiotic treatment of conventional mice, in contrast, decreases serum IGF-1 and inhibits bone formation. Supplementation of antibiotic-treated mice with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), products of microbial metabolism, restores IGF-1 and bone mass to levels seen in nonantibiotic-treated mice. Thus, SCFA production may be one mechanism by which microbiota increase serum IGF-1. Our study demonstrates that gut microbiota provide a net anabolic stimulus to the skeleton, which is likely mediated by IGF-1. Manipulation of the microbiome or its metabolites may afford opportunities to optimize bone health and growth. PMID:27821775

  18. Identification of Chloride Intracellular Channel Protein 3 as a Novel Gene Affecting Human Bone Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brum, A M; Leije, M; J, Schreuders-Koedam

    2017-01-01

    is diminished and more adipocytes are seen in the bone marrow, suggesting a shift in MSC lineage commitment. Identification of specific factors that stimulate osteoblast differentiation from human MSCs may deliver therapeutic targets to treat osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to identify novel genes...... an in vivo human bone formation model in which hMSCs lentivirally transduced with the CLIC3 overexpression construct were loaded onto a scaffold (hydroxyapatite-tricalcium-phosphate), implanted under the skin of NOD-SCID mice, and analyzed for bone formation 8 weeks later. CLIC3 overexpression led to a 15...

  19. Pegvisomant-induced serum insulin-like growth factor-I normalization in patients with acromegaly returns elevated markers of bone turnover to normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkinson, C; Kassem, M; Heickendorff, Lene

    2003-01-01

    Active acromegaly is associated with increased biochemical markers of bone turnover. Pegvisomant is a GH receptor antagonist that normalizes serum IGF-I in 97% of patients with active acromegaly. We evaluated the effects of pegvisomant-induced serum IGF-I normalization on biochemical markers...... of bone and soft tissue turnover, as well as levels of PTH and vitamin D metabolites, in 16 patients (nine males; median age, 52 yr; range, 28-78 yr) with active acromegaly (serum IGF-I at least 30% above upper limit of an age-related reference range). Serum procollagen III amino-terminal propeptide...... (PIIINP) and type I procollagen amino-terminal propeptide, osteocalcin (OC), bone-related alkaline phosphatase, C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), albumin-corrected calcium, intact PTH, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25-(OH)(2) vit D], urinary type 1 collagen...

  20. Novel Resorbable and Osteoconductive Calcium Silicophosphate Scaffold Induced Bone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ros-Tárraga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this research was to develop a novel ceramic scaffold to evaluate the response of bone after ceramic implantation in New Zealand (NZ rabbits. Ceramics were prepared by the polymer replication method and inserted into NZ rabbits. Macroporous scaffolds with interconnected round-shaped pores (0.5–1.5 mm = were prepared. The scaffold acted as a physical support where cells with osteoblastic capability were found to migrate, develop processes, and newly immature and mature bone tissue colonized on the surface (initially and in the material’s interior. The new ceramic induced about 62.18% ± 2.28% of new bone and almost complete degradation after six healing months. An elemental analysis showed that the gradual diffusion of Ca and Si ions from scaffolds into newly formed bone formed part of the biomaterial’s resorption process. Histological and radiological studies demonstrated that this porous ceramic scaffold showed biocompatibility and excellent osteointegration and osteoinductive capacity, with no interposition of fibrous tissue between the implanted material and the hematopoietic bone marrow interphase, nor any immune response after six months of implantation. No histological changes were observed in the various organs studied (para-aortic lymph nodes, liver, kidney and lung as a result of degradation products being released.

  1. Bmp2 in osteoblasts of periosteum and trabecular bone links bone formation to vascularization and mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuchen; Guo, Dayong; Harris, Marie A.; Cui, Yong; Gluhak-Heinrich, Jelica; Wu, Junjie; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Skinner, Charles; Nyman, Jeffry S.; Edwards, James R.; Mundy, Gregory R.; Lichtler, Alex; Kream, Barbara E.; Rowe, David W.; Kalajzic, Ivo; David, Val; Quarles, Darryl L.; Villareal, Demetri; Scott, Greg; Ray, Manas; Liu, S.; Martin, James F.; Mishina, Yuji; Harris, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We generated a new Bmp2 conditional-knockout allele without a neo cassette that removes the Bmp2 gene from osteoblasts (Bmp2-cKOob) using the 3.6Col1a1-Cre transgenic model. Bones of Bmp2-cKOob mice are thinner, with increased brittleness. Osteoblast activity is reduced as reflected in a reduced bone formation rate and failure to differentiate to a mature mineralizing stage. Bmp2 in osteoblasts also indirectly controls angiogenesis in the periosteum and bone marrow. VegfA production is reduced in Bmp2-cKOob osteoblasts. Deletion of Bmp2 in osteoblasts also leads to defective mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which correlates with the reduced microvascular bed in the periosteum and trabecular bones. Expression of several MSC marker genes (α-SMA, CD146 and Angiopoietin-1) in vivo, in vitro CFU assays and deletion of Bmp2 in vitro in α-SMA+ MSCs support our conclusions. Critical roles of Bmp2 in osteoblasts and MSCs are a vital link between bone formation, vascularization and mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:23843612

  2. Tissue-engineered bone formation using human bone marrow stromal cells and novel β-tricalcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangpeng; Zhao Li; Cui Lei; Liu Wei; Cao Yilin

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated not only the cellular proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) on the novel β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds in vitro but also bone formation by ectopic implantation in athymic mice in vivo. The interconnected porous β-TCP scaffolds with pores of 300-500 μm in size were prepared by the polymeric sponge method. β-TCP scaffolds with the dimension of 3 mm x 3 mm x 3 mm were combined with hBMSCs, and incubated with (+) or without (-) osteogenic medium in vitro. Cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on the scaffolds were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, MTT assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OCN) content measurement. SEM observation showed that hBMSCs attached well on the scaffolds and proliferated rapidly. No significant difference in the MTT assay could be detected between the two groups, but the ALP activity and OCN content of scaffolds (+) were much higher than those of the scaffolds (-) (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the novel porous β-TCP scaffolds can support the proliferation and subsequent osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in vitro. After being cultured in vitro for 14 days, the scaffolds (+) and (-) were implanted into subcutaneous sites of athymic mice. In β-TCP scaffolds (+), woven bone formed after 4 weeks of implantation and osteogenesis progressed with time. Furthermore, tissue-engineered bone could be found at 8 weeks, and remodeled lamellar bone was also observed at 12 weeks. However, no bone formation could be found in β-TCP scaffolds (-) at each time point checked. The above findings illustrate that the novel porous β-TCP scaffolds developed in this work have prominent osteoconductive activity and the potential for applications in bone tissue engineering

  3. Tissue-engineered bone formation using human bone marrow stromal cells and novel {beta}-tricalcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Guangpeng [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Zhao Li [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Cui Lei [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Liu Wei [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Cao Yilin [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China)

    2007-06-01

    In this study we investigated not only the cellular proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) on the novel {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) scaffolds in vitro but also bone formation by ectopic implantation in athymic mice in vivo. The interconnected porous {beta}-TCP scaffolds with pores of 300-500 {mu}m in size were prepared by the polymeric sponge method. {beta}-TCP scaffolds with the dimension of 3 mm x 3 mm x 3 mm were combined with hBMSCs, and incubated with (+) or without (-) osteogenic medium in vitro. Cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on the scaffolds were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, MTT assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OCN) content measurement. SEM observation showed that hBMSCs attached well on the scaffolds and proliferated rapidly. No significant difference in the MTT assay could be detected between the two groups, but the ALP activity and OCN content of scaffolds (+) were much higher than those of the scaffolds (-) (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the novel porous {beta}-TCP scaffolds can support the proliferation and subsequent osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in vitro. After being cultured in vitro for 14 days, the scaffolds (+) and (-) were implanted into subcutaneous sites of athymic mice. In {beta}-TCP scaffolds (+), woven bone formed after 4 weeks of implantation and osteogenesis progressed with time. Furthermore, tissue-engineered bone could be found at 8 weeks, and remodeled lamellar bone was also observed at 12 weeks. However, no bone formation could be found in {beta}-TCP scaffolds (-) at each time point checked. The above findings illustrate that the novel porous {beta}-TCP scaffolds developed in this work have prominent osteoconductive activity and the potential for applications in bone tissue engineering.

  4. Does PEEK/HA Enhance Bone Formation Compared With PEEK in a Sheep Cervical Fusion Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, William R; Pelletier, Matthew H; Bertollo, Nicky; Christou, Chris; Tan, Chris

    2016-11-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has a wide range of clinical applications but does not directly bond to bone. Bulk incorporation of osteoconductive materials including hydroxyapatite (HA) into the PEEK matrix is a potential solution to address the formation of a fibrous tissue layer between PEEK and bone and has not been tested. Using in vivo ovine animal models, we asked: (1) Does PEEK-HA improve cortical and cancellous bone ongrowth compared with PEEK? (2) Does PEEK-HA improve bone ongrowth and fusion outcome in a more challenging functional ovine cervical fusion model? The in vivo responses of PEEK-HA Enhanced and PEEK-OPTIMA ® Natural were evaluated for bone ongrowth in the form of dowels implanted in the cancellous and cortical bone of adult sheep and examined at 4 and 12 weeks as well as interbody cervical fusion at 6, 12, and 26 weeks. The bone-implant interface was evaluated with radiographic and histologic endpoints for a qualitative assessment of direct bone contact of an intervening fibrous tissue later. Gamma-irradiated cortical allograft cages were evaluated as well. Incorporating HA into the PEEK matrix resulted in more direct bone apposition as opposed to the fibrous tissue interface with PEEK alone in the bone ongrowth as well as interbody cervical fusions. No adverse reactions were found at the implant-bone interface for either material. Radiography and histology revealed resorption and fracture of the allograft devices in vivo. Incorporating HA into PEEK provides a more favorable environment than PEEK alone for bone ongrowth. Cervical fusion was improved with PEEK-HA compared with PEEK alone as well as allograft bone interbody devices. Improving the bone-implant interface with a PEEK device by incorporating HA may improve interbody fusion results and requires further clinical studies.

  5. The effect of patient age on bone formation using a fully synthetic nanocrystalline bone augmentation material in maxillary sinus grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Wurm, Alexander; Heinemann, Friedhelm; Gerber, Thomas; Reichert, Christoph; Jäger, Andreas; Götz, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary sinus floor augmentation is a treatment that has been proposed for patients in whom the alveolar bone height is insufficient. This procedure is commonly used in patients aged 40 to 70 years and older. However, little information exists whether the factor of age might influence the outcome of augmentation procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the patient's age has an effect on bone formation and incorporation in maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedures. A fully synthetic nanocrystalline bone augmentation material (NanoBone, Artoss) was used for sinus floor augmentation in patients with a subantral vertical bone height of at least 3 mm and maximum of 7 mm. After 7 months healing time, biopsy specimens were taken and were divided into two groups according to the patient's age. Exclusion criteria were poor general health (eg, severe renal/and or liver disease), history of a radiotherapy in the head region, chemotherapy at the time of surgical procedure, noncompensated diabetes mellitus, symptoms of a maxillary sinus disease, active periodontal or systemic diseases, smoking, and poor oral hygiene. Histologic analyses with hematoxylin-eosin stain were performed. Multinucleated osteoclast-like cells were identified by histochemical staining (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase [TRAP]). Quantitative and age-dependent assessment of bone formation, residual bone grafting material, and soft tissue formation following sinus augmentation was performed using histomorphometric analysis and the Bonferroni adjustment of the Student t test. Twenty biopsy specimens from 17 patients were taken and divided into two groups according to age (group 1: 41 to 52 years; group 2: 66 to 71 years) containing 10 specimens each, which were analyzed in triplicate resulting in a total of 30 specimens per group. A regeneration process with varying amounts of newly formed bone surrounded by marrow-like tissue was present in all augmented regions. No signs of

  6. Normal bone and soft tissue distribution of fluorine-18-sodium fluoride and artifacts on 18F-NaF PET/CT bone scan: a pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Ismet; Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H; Sarikaya, Ali; Alfeeli, Mahmoud

    2017-10-01

    Fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) PET/CT is a relatively new and high-resolution bone imaging modality. Since the use of F-NaF PET/CT has been increasing, it is important to accurately assess the images and be aware of normal distribution and major artifacts. In this pictorial review article, we will describe the normal uptake patterns of F-NaF in the bone tissues, particularly in complex structures, as well as its physiologic soft tissue distribution and certain artifacts seen on F-NaF PET/CT images.

  7. New bone formation and trabecular bone microarchitecture of highly porous tantalum compared to titanium implant threads: A pilot canine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Whan; Wen, Hai Bo; Gubbi, Prabhu; Romanos, Georgios E

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated new bone formation activities and trabecular bone microarchitecture within the highly porous region of Trabecular Metal™ Dental Implants (TM) and between the threads of Tapered Screw-Vent® Dental Implants (TSV) in fresh canine extraction sockets. Eight partially edentulated dogs received four implants (4.1 mmD × 13 mmL) bilaterally in mandibular fresh extraction sockets (32 TM, 32 TSV implants), and allowed to heal for 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Calcein was administered to label mineralizing bone at 11 and 4 days before euthanasia for dogs undergoing all four healing periods. Biopsies taken at each time interval were examined histologically. Histomorphometric assay was conducted for 64 unstained and 64 stained slides at the region of interest (ROI) (6 mm long × 0.35 mm deep) in the midsections of the implants. Topographical and chemical analyses were also performed. Histomorphometry revealed significantly more new bone in the TM than in the TSV implants at each healing time (p = .0014, .0084, .0218, and .0251). Calcein-labeled data showed more newly mineralized bone in the TM group than in the TSV group at 2, 8, and 12 weeks (p = .045, .028, .002, respectively) but not at 4 weeks (p = .081). Histologically TM implants exhibited more bone growth and dominant new immature woven bone at an earlier time point than TSV implants. The parameters representing trabecular bone microarchitecture corroborated faster new bone formation in the TM implants when compared to the TSV implants. TM exhibited an irregular faceted topography compared to a relatively uniform microtextured surface for TSV. Chemical analysis showed peaks associated with each implant's composition material, and TSV also showed peaks reflecting the elements of the calcium phosphate blasting media. Results suggest that the healing pathway associated with the highly porous midsection of TM dental implant could enable faster and stronger secondary implant stability than

  8. Endurance exercise and growth hormone improve bone formation in young and growth-retarded chronic kidney disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troib, Ariel; Guterman, Mayan; Rabkin, Ralph; Landau, Daniel; Segev, Yael

    2016-08-01

    Childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with both short stature and abnormal bone mineralization. Normal longitudinal growth depends on proper maturation of epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) chondrocytes, leading to the formation of trabecular bone in the primary ossification centre. We have recently shown that linear growth impairment in CKD is associated with impaired EGP growth hormone (GH) receptor signalling and that exercise improved insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signalling in CKD-related muscle atrophy. In this study, 20-day-old rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy (CKD) or sham surgery (C) and were exercised with treadmill, with or without GH supplementation. CKD-related growth retardation was associated with a widened EGP hypertrophic zone. This was not fully corrected by exercise (except for tibial length). Exercise in CKD improved the expression of EGP key factors of endochondral ossification such as IGF-I, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteocalcin. Combining GH treatment with treadmill exercise for 2 weeks improved the decreased trabecular bone volume in CKD, as well as the expression of growth plate runt-related transcription factor 2, RANKL, metalloproteinase 13 and VEGF, while GH treatment alone could not do that. Treadmill exercise improves tibial bone linear growth, as well as growth plate local IGF-I. When combined with GH treatment, running exercise shows beneficial effects on trabecular bone formation, suggesting the potential benefit of this combination for CKD-related short stature and bone disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  9. Normal Parathyroid Function with Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Treated Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lemieux

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreased bone mineral density (BMD has been reported in patients with celiac disease in association with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The present study investigated whether basal parathyroid hormone (PTH remained elevated and whether abnormalities of parathyroid function were still present in celiac disease patients treated with a gluten-free diet. Basal seric measurements of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and BMD were obtained in 17 biopsy-proven patients under treatment for a mean period of 5.7±3.7 years (range 1.1 to 15.9. In addition, parathyroid function was studied with calcium chloride and sodium citrate infusions in seven patients. Basal measurements of patients were compared with those of 26 normal individuals, while parathyroid function results were compared with those of seven sex- and age-matched controls. Basal results were similar in patients and controls except for intact PTH (I-PTH (3.77±0.88 pmol/L versus 2.28±0.63 pmol/L, P<0.001, which was higher in the former group but still within normal limits. Mean 25-hydroxy vitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D values were normal in patients. Parathyroid function results were also found to be similar in both groups. Compared with a reference population of the same age (Z score, patients had significantly lower BMDs of the hip (-0.60±0.96 SDs, P<0.05 and lumbar spine (-0.76±1.15 SDs, P<0.05. T scores were also decreased for the hip (-1.3±0.9 SDs, P<0.0001 and lumbar spine (-1.4±1.35 SDs, P<0.0001, with two to three patients being osteoporotic (T score less than -2.5 SDs and seven to eight osteopenic (T score less than -1 SDs but greater than or equal to -2.5 SDs in at least one site. Height and weight were the only important determinants of BMD values by multivariate or logistical regression analysis in these patients. The results show higher basal I-PTH values with normal parathyroid function in treated celiac disease. Height and weight values are, but I-PTH values are not

  10. Effect of the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and bone formation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Song; De Veirman, Kim; Evans, Holly; Santini, Gaia Cecilia; Vande Broek, Isabelle; Leleu, Xavier; De Becker, Ann; Van Camp, Ben; Croucher, Peter; Vanderkerken, Karin; Van Riet, Ivan

    2013-05-01

    Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor currently in a clinical phase III trial for multiple myeloma (MM) patients, has been reported to cause bone loss. The purpose of this study was to test whether, and to what extent, vorinostat influences the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were prepared from both normal donors and MM patients. The MSCs were cultured in an osteogenic differentiation induction medium to induce osteogenic differentiation, which was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, Alizarin Red S staining and the mRNA expression of osteogenic markers. Naïve mice were administered vorinostat (100 mg/kg, ip) every other day for 3 weeks. After the mice were sacrificed, bone formation was assessed based on serum osteocalcin level and histomorphometric analysis. Vorinostat inhibited the viability of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner (the IC50 value was 15.57 μmol/L). The low concentration of vorinostat (1 μmol/L) did not significantly increase apoptosis in hMSCs, whereas pronounced apoptosis was observed following exposure to higher concentrations of vorinostat (10 and 50 μmol/L). In bone marrow-derived hMSCs from both normal donors and MM patients, vorinostat (1 μmol/L) significantly increased ALP activity, mRNA expression of osteogenic markers, and matrix mineralization. These effects were associated with upregulation of the bone-specifying transcription factor Runx2 and with the epigenetic alterations during normal hMSCs osteogenic differentiation. Importantly, the mice treated with vorinostat did not show any bone loss in response to the optimized treatment regimen. Vorinostat, known as a potent anti-myeloma drug, stimulates MSC osteogenesis in vitro. With the optimized treatment regimen, any decrease in bone formation was not observed in vivo.

  11. Ectopic bone formation and chondrodysplasia in transgenic mice carrying the rat C3(1)/T{sub AG} fusion gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.E.; Maroulakou, I.G.; Anver, M. [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the SV40 large T-antigen (T{sup AG}) under the regultory control of the hormone-responsive rat C3(1) prostatein promoter develop unusual bone and cartilage lesions, as well as ectopic bone and cartilage formation. Two lines of transgenic animals have been propagated in which the expression of the transgene in chondrocytes results in a mild to moderate generalized disorganization of cartilage growth which appears to affect multiple tissues, including the trachea, ear pinna and articular cartilage. The epiphyseal plates are also affected with normal architecture of the zones of proliferation and maturation, but marked elongation of the zone of hypertrophy. Immunocytochemistry demonstrates that expression of T{sup AG} is limited to the zone of hypertropny in the epiphyseal plates, suggesting that the chondrocytes become hormone-responsive at this particular stage of differentiation. Normal mineralization and trabecular formation in long bone appears to occur. Ectopic bone and cartilage formation occurs in the foot pads of the fore- and hind- feet over the course of several months. This is preceded by proliferation of sweat gland epithelial cells followed by the appearance of nodules of cartilage and bone. The nodules are closely associated with proliferating epithelium but are not contiguous with bony structures normally found in the feet. The roles of BMP`s, growth factors, oncogenes and hormones in the development of these lesions will be presented. These transgenic animals may provide new insights into hormone-responsiveness of chondrocytes, as well as factors involved in the processes of bone and cartilage differentiation and growth. These transgenic animals may serve as a useful model for human heterotopic bone formation.

  12. A histomorphometric study of the effect of doxycycline and erythromycin on bone formation in dental alveolar socket of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shahabooei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether subantimicrobial doses of doxycycline (DOX and erythromycin (EM used for the treatment of peri-implant osteolysis due to their anti-osteoclastogenesis can interfere with the osseous wound healing process in rat alveolar socket. Materials and Methods: Forty-five male Wistar rats had their first maxillary right molar extracted and were divided into three groups. DOX and EM at the doses of 5 mg/kg/day orally (p.o. and 2 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally (i.p. were administered respectively to two separate groups for 7 days after operation. In the control group the animals received normal saline (5 ml/kg. Five rats were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 days post-extraction in each study group. A histomorphometric analysis was used to evaluate new bone formation inside the alveolar socket. Significant level was set at 0.05. Results: The findings showed that the percentage of new bone formation (NBF enhanced significantly on days 7 and 14. There was no significant difference in the NBF between DOX and EM groups. Conclusion: Short-term treatment with both DOX and EM enhanced new bone formation without any advances in favor of each drug.

  13. Beyond the functional matrix hypothesis: a network null model of human skull growth for the formation of bone articulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2014-09-01

    Craniofacial sutures and synchondroses form the boundaries among bones in the human skull, providing functional, developmental and evolutionary information. Bone articulations in the skull arise due to interactions between genetic regulatory mechanisms and epigenetic factors such as functional matrices (soft tissues and cranial cavities), which mediate bone growth. These matrices are largely acknowledged for their influence on shaping the bones of the skull; however, it is not fully understood to what extent functional matrices mediate the formation of bone articulations. Aiming to identify whether or not functional matrices are key developmental factors guiding the formation of bone articulations, we have built a network null model of the skull that simulates unconstrained bone growth. This null model predicts bone articulations that arise due to a process of bone growth that is uniform in rate, direction and timing. By comparing predicted articulations with the actual bone articulations of the human skull, we have identified which boundaries specifically need the presence of functional matrices for their formation. We show that functional matrices are necessary to connect facial bones, whereas an unconstrained bone growth is sufficient to connect non-facial bones. This finding challenges the role of the brain in the formation of boundaries between bones in the braincase without neglecting its effect on skull shape. Ultimately, our null model suggests where to look for modified developmental mechanisms promoting changes in bone growth patterns that could affect the development and evolution of the head skeleton. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  14. Glycosaminoglycan-sac formation in vitro. Interactions between normal and malignant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Logothetou-Rella, H.

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of monolayer normal human or normal rat cells with suspension Walker rat tumor cells was demonstrated cytologically, during a cocultivation period of thirty days. At ten days, Walker rat tumor cells were interiorized in the cytoplasm of the normal monolayer host cells. At twenty days, degeneration of the interiorized tumor cells followed by mucification led to glycosaminoglycan-sac formation. At thirty days, tumor nodules and protease (a,- c...

  15. Ectopic osteoid and bone formation by three calcium-phosphate ceramics in rats, rabbits and dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Wang

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate ceramics with specific physicochemical properties have been shown to induce de novo bone formation upon ectopic implantation in a number of animal models. In this study we explored the influence of physicochemical properties as well as the animal species on material-induced ectopic bone formation. Three bioceramics were used for the study: phase-pure hydroxyapatite (HA sintered at 1200°C and two biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP ceramics, consisting of 60 wt.% HA and 40 wt.% TCP (β-Tricalcium phosphate, sintered at either 1100°C or 1200°C. 108 samples of each ceramic were intramuscularly implanted in dogs, rabbits, and rats for 6, 12, and 24 weeks respectively. Histological and histomorphometrical analyses illustrated that ectopic bone and/or osteoid tissue formation was most pronounced in BCP sintered at 1100°C and most limited in HA, independent of the animal model. Concerning the effect of animal species, ectopic bone formation reproducibly occurred in dogs, while in rabbits and rats, new tissue formation was mainly limited to osteoid. The results of this study confirmed that the incidence and the extent of material-induced bone formation are related to both the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate ceramics and the animal model.

  16. Decreased Bone Formation and Osteopenia in Lamin A/C-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Christopher; McCorquodale, Thomas; Herrmann, Markus; Fatkin, Diane; Duque, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Age-related bone loss is associated with changes in bone cellularity with characteristically low levels of osteoblastogenesis. The mechanisms that explain these changes remain unclear. Although recent in vitro evidence has suggested a new role for proteins of the nuclear envelope in osteoblastogenesis, the role of these proteins in bone cells differentiation and bone metabolism in vivo remains unknown. In this study, we used the lamin A/C null (Lmna −/−) mice to identify the role of lamin A/C in bone turnover and bone structure in vivo. At three weeks of age, histological and micro computed tomography measurements of femurs in Lmna −/− mice revealed a significant decrease in bone mass and microarchitecture in Lmna −/− mice as compared with their wild type littermates. Furthermore, quantification of cell numbers after normalization with bone surface revealed a significant reduction in osteoblast and osteocyte numbers in Lmna −/− mice compared with their WT littermates. In addition, Lmna −/− mice have significantly lower osteoclast number, which show aberrant changes in their shape and size. Finally, mechanistic analysis demonstrated that absence of lamin A/C is associated with increase expression of MAN-1 a protein of the nuclear envelope closely regulated by lamin A/C, which also colocalizes with Runx2 thus affecting its capacity as osteogenic transcription factor. In summary, these data clearly indicate that the presence of lamin A/C is necessary for normal bone turnover in vivo and that absence of lamin A/C induces low bone turnover osteopenia resembling the cellular changes of age-related bone loss. PMID:21547077

  17. In vivo cyclic loading as a potent stimulatory signal for bone formation inside tissue engineering scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roshan-Ghias

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In clinical situations, bone defects are often located at load bearing sites. Tissue engineering scaffolds are future bone substitutes and hence they will be subjected to mechanical stimulation. The goal of this study was to test if cyclic loading can be used as stimulatory signal for bone formation in a bone scaffold. Poly(L-lactic acid (PLA/ 5% beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP scaffolds were implanted in both distal femoral epiphyses of eight rats. Right knees were stimulated (10N, 4Hz, 5 min five times, every two days, starting from the third day after surgery while left knees served as control. Finite element study of the in vivo model showed that the strain applied to the scaffold is similar to physiological strains. Using micro-computed tomography (CT, all knees were scanned five times after the surgery and the related bone parameters of the newly formed bone were quantified. Statistical modeling was used to estimate the evolution of these parameters as a function of time and loading. The results showed that mechanical stimulation had two effects on bone volume (BV: an initial decrease in BV at week 2, and a long-term increase in the rate of bone formation by 28%. At week 13, the BV was then significantly higher in the loaded scaffolds.

  18. Decreased Bone Formation Explains Osteoporosis in a Genetic Mouse Model of Hemochromatosiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Doyard

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis may complicate iron overload diseases such as genetic hemochromatosis. However, molecular mechanisms involved in the iron-related osteoporosis remains poorly understood. Recent in vitro studies support a role of osteoblast impairment in iron-related osteoporosis. Our aim was to analyse the impact of excess iron in Hfe-/- mice on osteoblast activity and on bone microarchitecture. We studied the bone formation rate, a dynamic parameter reflecting osteoblast activity, and the bone phenotype of Hfe-/- male mice, a mouse model of human hemochromatosis, by using histomorphometry. Hfe-/- animals were sacrificed at 6 months and compared to controls. We found that bone contains excess iron associated with increased hepatic iron concentration in Hfe-/- mice. We have shown that animals with iron overload have decreased bone formation rate, suggesting a direct impact of iron excess on active osteoblasts number. For bone mass parameters, we showed that iron deposition was associated with bone loss by producing microarchitectural impairment with a decreased tendency in bone trabecular volume and trabecular number. A disorganization of trabecular network was found with marrow spaces increased, which was confirmed by enhanced trabecular separation and star volume of marrow spaces. These microarchitectural changes led to a loss of connectivity and complexity in the trabecular network, which was confirmed by decreased interconnectivity index and increased Minkowski's fractal dimension. Our results suggest for the first time in a genetic hemochromatosis mouse model, that iron overload decreases bone formation and leads to alterations in bone mass and microarchitecture. These observations support a negative effect of iron on osteoblast recruitment and/or function, which may contribute to iron-related osteoporosis.

  19. Callus formation in bone fractures combined with brain injury in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the speed of bony union and the serum levels of biomarkers in the setting of bone fractures combined with brain injury. Materials and Methods: In this study, Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: sham, brain injury, bone fracture, and bone fracture plus brain injury groups. The serum levels of biochemical markers, namely, nerve growth factor (NGF, Wnt-3a, Dickkopf-related protein-1, receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, were measured on the days 1, 3, 7, and 14 following injury. Bony union was evaluated using radiographs every week for 6 weeks. Results: Compared with the brain injury group and bone fracture group, the radiographs of the bone fracture plus brain injury group revealed enhanced callus formations in week 2. From week 3, the callus formation did not differ significantly among the groups. The serum levels of the biomarkers varied at different time points. The serum levels of NGF on days 1 and 3, Wnt-3a on days 3 and 14, and ACTH on days 1, 3, and 7 were significantly higher in the bone fracture plus brain injury group than in the bone fracture group. Conclusions: Brain injury increases callus formation in simultaneous bone fracture. Considering the time point, early NGF, Wnt-3a, and ACTH elevation might be associated with early callus formation enhancement. The results indicate that these brain injury-induced biomarkers might play crucial role in accelerating bone healing.

  20. Selective effect of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on osteoporotic and healthy bone formation correlates with intracellular calcium homeostasis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Xie, Pengfei; Zhang, Kun; Tang, Zhurong; Chen, Xuening; Zhu, Xiangdong; Fan, Yujiang; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Xingdong

    2017-09-01

    Adequate bone substitutes osseointegration has been difficult to achieve in osteoporosis. Hydroxyapatite of the osteoporotic bone, secreted by pathologic osteoblasts, had a smaller crystal size and lower crystallinity than that of the normal. To date, little is known regarding the interaction of synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) with osteoblasts born in bone rarefaction. The present study investigated the biological effects of HANPs on osteoblastic cells derived from osteoporotic rat bone (OVX-OB), in comparison with the healthy ones (SHM-OB). A selective effect of different concentrations of HANPs on the two cell lines was observed that the osteoporotic osteoblasts had a higher tolerance. Reductions in cell proliferation, ALP activity, collagen secretion and osteoblastic gene expressions were found in the SHM-OB when administered with HANPs concentration higher than 25µg/ml. In contrast, those of the OVX-OB suffered no depression but benefited from 25 to 250µg/ml HANPs in a dose-dependent manner. We demonstrated that the different effects of HANPs on osteoblasts were associated with the intracellular calcium influx into the endoplasmic reticulum. The in vivo bone defect model further confirmed that, with a critical HANPs concentration administration, the osteoporotic rats had more and mechanically matured new bone formation than the non-treated ones, whilst the sham rats healed no better than the natural healing control. Collectively, the observed epigenetic regulation of osteoblastic cell function by HANPs has significant implication on defining design parameters for a potential therapeutic use of nanomaterials. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) on osteoporotic rat bone and the derived osteoblast. Our findings revealed a previously unrecognized phenomenon that the osteoporotic individuals could benefit from higher concentrations of HANPs, as compared with the healthy individuals. The in

  1. Directly auto-transplanted mesenchymal stem cells induce bone formation in a ceramic bone substitute in an ectopic sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Anja M; Loew, Johanna S; Deschler, Gloria; Arkudas, Andreas; Bleiziffer, Oliver; Gulle, Heinz; Dragu, Adrian; Kneser, Ulrich; Horch, Raymund E; Beier, Justus P

    2011-06-01

    Bone tissue engineering approaches increasingly focus on the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). In most animal transplantation models MSC are isolated and expanded before auto cell transplantation which might be critical for clinical application in the future. Hence this study compares the potential of directly auto-transplanted versus in vitro expanded MSC with or without bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to induce bone formation in a large volume ceramic bone substitute in the sheep model. MSC were isolated from bone marrow aspirates and directly auto-transplanted or expanded in vitro and characterized using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and RT-PCR analysis before subcutaneous implantation in combination with BMP-2 and β-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (β-TCP/HA) granules. Constructs were explanted after 1 to 12 weeks followed by histological and RT-PCR evaluation. Sheep MSC were CD29(+), CD44(+) and CD166(+) after selection by Ficoll gradient centrifugation, while directly auto-transplanted MSC-populations expressed CD29 and CD166 at lower levels. Both, directly auto-transplanted and expanded MSC, were constantly proliferating and had a decreasing apoptosis over time in vivo. Directly auto-transplanted MSC led to de novo bone formation in a heterotopic sheep model using a β-TCP/HA matrix comparable to the application of 60 μg/ml BMP-2 only or implantation of expanded MSC. Bone matrix proteins were up-regulated in constructs following direct auto-transplantation and in expanded MSC as well as in BMP-2 constructs. Up-regulation was detected using immunohistology methods and RT-PCR. Dense vascularization was demonstrated by CD31 immunohistology staining in all three groups. Ectopic bone could be generated using directly auto-transplanted or expanded MSC with β-TCP/HA granules alone. Hence BMP-2 stimulation might become dispensable in the future, thus providing an attractive, clinically feasible approach to bone tissue engineering. © 2011

  2. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmour, Peter S.; O'Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder; Pilling, James E.; Sanganee, Hitesh; Wada, Hiroki; Courtney, Paul F.; Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A.; Escott, K. Jane

    2013-01-01

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH 1–34 or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis and

  3. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, Peter S., E-mail: Peter.Gilmour@astrazeneca.com [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); O' Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Pilling, James E. [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Sanganee, Hitesh [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Wada, Hiroki [R and I IMed, AstraZeneca R and D, Molndal (Sweden); Courtney, Paul F. [DMPK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A. [Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Escott, K. Jane [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 1–34} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis

  4. Beneath the Minerals, a Layer of Round Lipid Particles Was Identified to Mediate Collagen Calcification in Compact Bone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shaohua; Yu, Jianqing J.

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts lose 1–2% of their bone minerals per month during space flights. A systematic search for a countermeasure relies on a good understanding of the mechanism of bone formation at the molecular level. How collagen fibers, the dominant matrix protein in bones, are mineralized remains mysterious. Atomic force microscopy was carried out, in combination with immunostaining and Western blotting, on bovine tibia to identify unrecognized building blocks involved in bone formation and for an el...

  5. Suppression Effect of Astaxanthin on Osteoclast Formation In Vitro and Bone Loss In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ho Hwang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduction of the bone mineral density (BMD and microarchitectural deterioration of the bone, which lead to bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Astaxanthin (AST has a variety of biological activities, such as a protective effect against asthma or neuroinflammation, antioxidant effect, and decrease of the osteoclast number in the right mandibles in the periodontitis model. Although treatment with AST is known to have an effect on inflammation, no studies on the effect of AST exposure on bone loss have been performed. Thus, in the present study, we examined the antiosteoporotic effect of AST on bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX mice and its possible mechanism of action. The administration of AST (5, 10 mg/kg for 6 weeks suppressed the enhancement of serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity. The bone mineral density (BMD and bone microarchitecture of the trabecular bone in the tibia and femur were recovered by AST exposure. Moreover, in the in vitro experiment, we demonstrated that AST inhibits osteoclast formation through the expression of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT c1, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP, TRAP, and cathepsin K without any cytotoxic effects on bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs. Therefore, we suggest that AST may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  6. Spatial relationship between bone formation and mechanical stimulus within cortical bone: Combining 3D fluorochrome mapping and poroelastic finite element modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieroa, A; Pereirab, A F; Wilson, A J; Castagno, S; Javaheri, B; Pitsillides, A A; Marenzana, M; Shefelbine, S J

    2018-06-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue and adapts its architecture in response to biological and mechanical factors. Here we investigate how cortical bone formation is spatially controlled by the local mechanical environment in the murine tibia axial loading model (C57BL/6). We obtained 3D locations of new bone formation by performing 'slice and view' 3D fluorochrome mapping of the entire bone and compared these sites with the regions of high fluid velocity or strain energy density estimated using a finite element model, validated with ex-vivo bone surface strain map acquired ex-vivo using digital image correlation. For the comparison, 2D maps of the average bone formation and peak mechanical stimulus on the tibial endosteal and periosteal surface across the entire cortical surface were created. Results showed that bone formed on the periosteal and endosteal surface in regions of high fluid flow. Peak strain energy density predicted only the formation of bone periosteally. Understanding how the mechanical stimuli spatially relates with regions of cortical bone formation in response to loading will eventually guide loading regime therapies to maintain or restore bone mass in specific sites in skeletal pathologies.

  7. In vitro bone formation using muscle-derived cells: a new paradigm for bone tissue engineering using polymer-bone morphogenetic protein matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Helen H; Kofron, Michelle D; El-Amin, Saadiq F; Attawia, Mohammed A; Laurencin, Cato T

    2003-06-13

    Over 800,000 bone grafting procedures are performed in the United States annually, creating a demand for viable alternatives to autogenous bone, the grafting standard in osseous repair. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of a BMP-polymer matrix in inducing the expression of the osteoblastic phenotype and in vitro bone formation by muscle-derived cells. Specifically, we evaluated the ability of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7), delivered from a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) matrix, to induce the differentiation of cells derived from rabbit skeletal muscle into osteoblast-like cells and subsequently form mineralized tissue. Results confirmed that muscle-derived cells attached and proliferated on the PLAGA substrates. BMP-7 released from PLAGA induced the muscle-derived cells to increase bone marker expression and form mineralized cultures. These results demonstrate the efficacy of a BMP-polymer matrix in inducing the expression of the osteoblastic phenotype by muscle-derived cells and present a new paradigm for bone tissue engineering.

  8. Dystrophic Cutaneous Calcification and Metaplastic Bone Formation due to Long Term Bisphosphonate Use in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murat Tatlı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastases. We report a case of a female with breast cancer presented with a rash around a previous mastectomy site and a discharge lesion on her right chest wall in August 2010. Biopsy of the lesion showed dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation. The patient’s history revealed a long term use of zoledronic acid for the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastasis. We stopped the treatment since we believed that the cutaneous dystrophic calcification could be associated with her long term bisphosphonate therapy. Adverse cutaneous events with bisphosphonates are very rare, and dystrophic calcification has not been reported previously. The dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation in this patient are thought to be due to long term bisphosphonate usage.

  9. Geochemical and mineralogical studies of dinosaur bone from the Morrison Formation at Dinosaur Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modreski, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dinosaur bones first discovered in 1877 in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation at Morrison, Colorado were the first major find of dinosaur skeletons in the western U.S. and led to the recognition of four new dinosaur genera (Apatosaurus, Allosaurus, Diplodocus, and Stegosaurus). Eight articles dealing with these bones which appeared as research reports in the annual reports of the Friends of Dinosaur Ridge from 1990-1999 are condensed and summarized with some additional comments. Two of the articles are about the mineralogy and preservation of the bones; two are about the physical description of the bone occurrence; two are about the history of the site, and two are about use of novel instrumental methods (ground-penetrating radar and a directional scintillometer) to search for new bones.

  10. Canola and hydrogenated soybean oils accelerate ectopic bone formation induced by implantation of bone morphogenetic protein in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hashimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canola oil (Can and hydrogenated soybean oil (H2-Soy are commonly used edible oils. However, in contrast to soybean oil (Soy, they shorten the survival of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP rats. It has been proposed that the adverse effects of these oils on the kidney and testis are caused at least in part by dihydro-vitamin K (VK 1 in H2-Soy and unidentified component(s in Can. Increased intake of dihydro-VK1 is associated with decreased tissue VK2 levels and bone mineral density in rats and humans, respectively. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of these oils on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-induced ectopic bone formation, which is promoted by VK2 deficiency, in relation to the role of VK in the γ-carboxylation of osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein. A crude extract of BMPs was implanted into a gap in the fascia of the femoral muscle in 5-week-old mice maintained on a Soy, Can, or H2-Soy diet. Newly formed bone volume, assessed by three-dimensional X-ray micro-computed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction imaging for bone, was 4-fold greater in the Can and H2-Soy groups than in the Soy group. The plasma carboxylated osteocalcin (Gla-OC and total OC (Gla-OC plus undercarboxylated osteocalcin [Glu-OC] levels were significantly lower in the Can group than in the Soy group (p < 0.05. However, these levels did not significantly differ between the H2-Soy and Soy groups. The plasma Gla-OC/Glu-OC ratio in the Can and H2-Soy groups was significantly lower (in Can; p = 0.044 or was almost significantly lower (in H2-Soy; p = 0.053 than that in the Soy group. In conclusion, Can and H2-Soy accelerated BMP-induced bone formation in mice to a greater extent than Soy. Further research is required to evaluate whether the difference in accelerated ectopic bone formation is associated with altered levels of VK2 and VK-dependent protein(s among the three dietary groups.

  11. A Bile Duct Stone Formation around a Fish Bone as a Nidus after Pancreatoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Sakakida

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of bile duct stone formation around an ingested fish bone as a nidus after pancreatoduodenectomy. A 78-year-old woman was admitted to our department for fever and epigastric pain. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an elongated bile duct stone containing a linearly shaped foreign body of bone density. Enteroscopic lithotomy was performed using single balloon enteroscopy to safely remove the stone and foreign body from the bile duct. The foreign body was determined to be a fish bone by pathological examination and component analysis.

  12. Exercise-induced bone formation is poorly linked to local strain magnitude in the sheep tibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J Wallace

    Full Text Available Functional interpretations of limb bone structure frequently assume that diaphyses adjust their shape by adding bone primarily across the plane in which they are habitually loaded in order to minimize loading-induced strains. Here, to test this hypothesis, we characterize the in vivo strain environment of the sheep tibial midshaft during treadmill exercise and examine whether this activity promotes bone formation disproportionately in the direction of loading in diaphyseal regions that experience the highest strains. It is shown that during treadmill exercise, sheep tibiae were bent in an anteroposterior direction, generating maximal tensile and compressive strains on the anterior and posterior shaft surfaces, respectively. Exercise led to significantly increased periosteal bone formation; however, rather than being biased toward areas of maximal strains across the anteroposterior axis, exercise-related osteogenesis occurred primarily around the medial half of the shaft circumference, in both high and low strain regions. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that loading-induced bone growth is not closely linked to local strain magnitude in every instance. Therefore, caution is necessary when bone shaft shape is used to infer functional loading history in the absence of in vivo data on how bones are loaded and how they actually respond to loading.

  13. Disassociation of bone resorption and formation by GLP-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dennis B; Alexandersen, Peter; Hartmann, Bolette

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that a single subcutaneous injection of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) at 10 p.m. in postmenopausal women results in a dose-dependent decrease in the nocturnal serum and urine concentrations of fragments derived from the degradation of the C-terminal telopeptide region....... The aim was to demonstrate that a parenteral formulation of GLP-2 is safe and well tolerated after repeated dosing in healthy postmenopausal women for 14 days. It was further investigated whether the effects on bone turnover markers were sustained throughout the study period. The study was a double...

  14. Kartogenin with PRP promotes the formation of fibrocartilage zone in the tendon-bone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiqin; Zhang, Jianying; Yang, Jinsong; Narava, Manoj; Zhao, Guangyi; Yuan, Ting; Wu, Haishan; Zheng, Nigel; Hogan, MaCalus V; Wang, James H-C

    2017-12-01

    Treatment of tendon-bone junction injuries is a challenge because tendon-bone interface often heals poorly and the fibrocartilage zone, which reduces stress concentration, at the interface is not formed. In this study, we used a compound called kartogenin (KGN) with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to induce the formation of fibrocartilage zone in a rat tendon graft-bone tunnel model. The experimental rats received KGN-PRP or PRP injections in the tendon graft-bone tunnel interface. The control group received saline. After 4, 8 and 12 weeks, Safranin O staining of the tendon graft-bone tunnels revealed abundant proteoglycans in the KGN-PRP group indicating the formation of cartilage-like transition zone. Immunohistochemical and immuno-fluorescence staining revealed collagen types I (Col-I) and II (Col-II) in the newly formed fibrocartilage zone. Both fibrocartilage zone formation and maturation were healing time dependent. In contrast, the PRP and saline control groups had no cartilage-like tissues and minimal Col-I and Col-II staining. Some gaps were also present in the saline control group. Finally, pull-out strength in the KGN-PRP-treated group at 8 weeks was 1.4-fold higher than the PRP-treated group and 1.6-fold higher than the saline control group. These findings indicate that KGN, with PRP as a carrier, promotes the formation of fibrocartilage zone between the tendon graft and bone interface. Thus, KGN-PRP may be used as a convenient cell-free therapy in clinics to promote fibrocartilage zone formation in rotator calf repair and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, thereby enhancing the mechanical strength of the tendon-bone interface and hence the clinical outcome of these procedures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones (radius) by photon-absorption technique in normals as well as in patients with various types of bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, H.; Fengler, F.; Franke, J.; Koall, W.

    1980-10-01

    The evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones by measuring the photon absorption of the radius has proven to be a valuable method for routine clinical work: for diagnosis, follow-up and control of therapy. While there was a significant difference in the findings of normal persons compared with those of patients suffering from osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta and skeletal fluorosis, there was no difference between normals and these patients suffering from Bechterew, Scheuermann, coxarthrosis, spondylosis, skoliosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Normal values for the mineral content and the width of the radius at the junction of the middle and lower third - based on 8000 examinations - are mentioned.

  16. Evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones (radius) by photon-absorption technique in normals as well as in patients with various types of bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, H.; Fengler, F.; Franke, J.; Koall, W.

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones by measuring the photon absorption of the radius has proven to be a valuable method for routine clinical work: for diagnosis, follow-up and control of therapy. While there was a significant difference in the findings of normal persons compared with those of patients suffering from osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta and skeletal fluorosis, there was no difference between normals and these patients suffering from Bechterew, Scheuermann, coxarthrosis, spondylosis, skoliosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Normal values for the mineral content and the width of the radius at the junction of the middle and lower third - based on 8000 examinations - are mentioned. (orig.) [de

  17. Osteogenic protein 1 device increases bone formation and bone graft resorption around cementless implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas B; Overgaard, Søren; Lind, Martin

    2002-01-01

    In each femoral condyle of 8 Labrador dogs, a non weight-bearing hydroxyapatite-coated implant was inserted surrounded by a 3 mm gap. Each gap was filled with bone allograft or ProOsteon with or without OP-1 delivered in a bovine collagen type I carrier (OP-1 device). 300 microg OP-1 was used...

  18. Nanosized Hydroxyapatite Coating on PEEK Implants Enhances Early Bone Formation: A Histological and Three-Dimensional Investigation in Rabbit Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Johansson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyether ether ketone (PEEK has been frequently used in spinal surgery with good clinical results. The material has a low elastic modulus and is radiolucent. However, in oral implantology PEEK has displayed inferior ability to osseointegrate compared to titanium materials. One idea to reinforce PEEK would be to coat it with hydroxyapatite (HA, a ceramic material of good biocompatibility. In the present study we analyzed HA-coated PEEK tibial implants via histology and radiography when following up at 3 and 12 weeks. Of the 48 implants, 24 were HA-coated PEEK screws (test and another 24 implants served as uncoated PEEK controls. HA-coated PEEK implants were always osseointegrated. The total bone area (BA was higher for test compared to control implants at 3 (p < 0.05 and 12 weeks (p < 0.05. Mean bone implant contact (BIC percentage was significantly higher (p = 0.024 for the test compared to control implants at 3 weeks and higher without statistical significance at 12 weeks. The effect of HA-coating was concluded to be significant with respect to early bone formation, and HA-coated PEEK implants may represent a good material to serve as bone anchored clinical devices.

  19. Special proliferative sites are not needed for seeding and proliferation of transfused bone marrow cells in normal syngeneic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.; Ansell, J.D.; Micklem, H.S.; Tjio, J.H.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    The widely held view that transfused bone marrow cells will not proliferate in normal mice, not exposed to irradiation or other forms of bone marrow ablation, was reinvestigated. Forty million bone marrow cells from male donors were given to female recipients on each of 5 consecutive days, 5 to 10 times the number customarily used in the past. When the recipients were examined 2-13 weeks after the last transfusion, donor cells were found to average 16-25% of total marrow cells. Similar percentages of donor cells were found when variants of the enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase determined electrophoretically were used for identification of donor and recipient cells. Evidence is presented that the proportion of donor cells is compatible with a nonlinear dependence on the number of cells transfused over the range tested - i.e., 20-200 million bone marrow cells injected intravenously. Special proliferative sites thus do not appear to be required

  20. [The role of Smads and related transcription factors in the signal transduction of bone morphogenetic protein inducing bone formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-liang; Dai, Ke-rong; Tang, Ting-ting

    2003-09-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of the signal transduction of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) inducing bone formation and to provide theoretical basis for basic and applying research of BMPs. We looked up the literature of the role of Smads and related transcription factors in the signal transduction of BMPs inducing bone formation. The signal transduction processes of BMPs included: 1. BMPs combined with type II and type I receptors; 2. the type I receptor phosphorylated Smads; and 3. Smads entered the cell nucleus, interacted with transcription factors and influenced the transcription of related proteins. Smads could be divided into receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, Smad8 and Smad9), common-mediator Smad (co-Smad: Smad4), and inhibitory Smads (I-Smads: Smad6 and Smad7). Smad1, Smad5, Smad8, and probable Smad9 were involved in the signal transduction of BMPs. Multiple kinases, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt serine/threonine kinase were related to Smads signal transduction. Smad1 and Smad5 related with transcription factors included core binding factor A1 (CBFA1), smad-interacting protein 1 (SIP1), ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAZ), activating protein-1 (AP-1), xenopus ventralizing homeobox protein-2 (Xvent-2), sandostatin (Ski), antiproliferative proteins (Tob), and homeodomain-containing transcriptian factor-8 (Hoxc-8), et al. CBFA1 could interact with Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, and Smad5, so it was involved in TGF-beta and BMP-2 signal transduction, and played an important role in the bone formation. Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) was thought to be caused by heterozygous mutations in CBFA1. The CBFA1 knockout mice showed no osteogenesis and had maturational disturbance of chondrocytes. Smads and related transcription factors, especially Smad1, Smad5, Smad8 and CBFA1, play an important role in the signal transduction of BMPs inducing bone

  1. Improving Bone Formation in a Rat Femur Segmental Defect by Controlling Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    of rhBMP-2 in patients.8 Both the physical properties and pharmacokinetics of the FR +BMP scaffold are believed to contribute to its superior...scaffolds investigated in this study exhibit these key physical properties.28 Further, the observation of re- generated bone grown in direct contact with...Amit, Y., Arbel, R., Aro, H., Atar , D., Bishay, M., Borner, M.G., Chiron, P., Choong, P., Cinats, J., Courtenay, B., Fei- bel, R., Geulette, B., Gravel

  2. MR imaging of normal bone marrow; Obraz MR prawidlowego szpiku kostnego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stajgis, M.; Paprzycki, W. [Osrodek Diagnostyki Obrazowej IR, Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Principles of MR bone marrow imaging on the basis of retrospective analysis of MR examinations of bone marrow in different anatomic sites in 200 patients have been discussed. Significance of different physiologic factors and processes such as age, steatosis, osteoporosis, conversion and reconversion, which influence on MR bone marrow images, have been emphasized. T1-weighted images obtained with spin-echo sequences give the most of information about bone marrow structure in MR. Thorough knowledge of bone marrow physiology and clinical status of the patient is indispensable in correct interpretation of hypointensive lesions on T1-weighted images. When presence of disseminated bone marrow disease is suspected, authors propose routine imaging of lumbar vertebral column, pelvis and proximal parts of femoral bones. (author) 7 refs, 7 figs

  3. Bisphosphonate-adsorbed ceramic nanoparticles increase bone formation in an injectable carrier for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegan L Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB is a sugar-based carrier. We have previously applied SAIB as a minimally invasive system for the co-delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 and found synergy when co-delivering zoledronic acid (ZA and hydroxyapatite (HA nanoparticles. Alternative bioceramics were investigated in a murine SAIB/rhBMP-2 injection model. Neither beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP nor Bioglass (BG 45S5 had a significant effect on bone volume (BV alone or in combination with the ZA. 14C-labelled ZA binding assays showed particle size and ceramic composition affected binding with nano-HA > micro-HA > TCP > BG. Micro-HA and nano-HA increased BV in a rat model of rhBMP-2/SAIB injection (+278% and +337%, and BV was further increased with ZA–adsorbed micro-HA and nano-HA (+530% and +889%. These data support the use of ZA–adsorbed nanoparticle-sized HA as an optimal additive for the SAIB/rhBMP-2 injectable system for bone tissue engineering.

  4. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute leads to sufficient bone tissue formation already after 3 months: histological and histomorphometrical analysis 3 and 6 months following human sinus cavity augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Barbeck, Mike; Willershausen, Ines; Thimm, Benjamin; Stuebinger, Stefan; Korzinskas, Tadas; Obreja, Karina; Landes, Constantin; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Sader, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    In this study the de novo bone formation capacity of a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute was assessed 3 and 6 months after its insertion into the human sinus cavity. Sinus cavity augmentation was performed in a total of 14 patients (n = 7 implantation after 3 months; n = 7 implantation after 6 months) with severely atrophic maxillary bone. The specimens obtained after 3 and 6 months were analyzed histologically and histomorphometrically with special focus on bone metabolism within the residual bone and the augmented region. This study revealed that bone tissue formation started from the bone-biomaterial-interface and was directed into the most cranial parts of the augmented region. There was no statistically significant difference in new bone formation after 3 and 6 months (24.89 ± 10.22% vs 31.29 ± 2.29%), respectively. Within the limits of the present study and according to previously published data, implant insertion in regions augmented with this bone substitute material could be considered already after 3 months. Further clinical studies with bone substitute materials are necessary to validate these findings. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Site specific measurements of bone formation using [18F] sodium fluoride PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Glen M; Puri, Tanuj; Siddique, Musib; Frost, Michelle L; Moore, Amelia E B; Fogelman, Ignac

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with fluorine-18 labelled sodium fluoride ([ 18 F]NaF) allows the quantitative assessment of regional bone formation by measuring the plasma clearance of fluoride to bone at any site in the skeleton. Today, hybrid PET and computed tomography (CT) dual-modality systems (PET/CT) are widely available, and [ 18 F]NaF PET/CT offers a convenient non-invasive method of studying bone formation at the important osteoporotic fracture sites at the hip and spine, as well as sites of pure cortical or trabecular bone. The technique complements conventional measurements of bone turnover using biochemical markers or bone biopsy as a tool to investigate new therapies for osteoporosis, and has a potential role as an early biomarker of treatment efficacy in clinical trials. This article reviews methods of acquiring and analyzing dynamic [ 18 F]NaF PET/CT scan data, and outlines a simplified approach combining venous blood sampling with a series of short (3- to 5-minute) static PET/CT scans acquired at different bed positions to estimate [ 18 F]NaF plasma clearance at multiple sites in the skeleton with just a single injection of tracer.

  6. Calcium citrate: a new biomaterial that can enhance bone formation in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Li-ming

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To investigate the effect of a new biomaterial combining calcium citrate and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 on bone regeneration in a bone defect rabbit model. Methods: Totally 30 male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly and equally divided into calcium citrate-rhBMP-2 (CC-rhBMP-2 group and rhBMP-2 only group. Two 10 mm-long and 5 mm-deep bone defects were respec-tively created in the left and right femoral condyles of the rabbits. Subsequently 5 pellets of calcium citrate (10 mg combined with rhBMP-2 (2 mg or rhBMP-2 alone were im-planted into the bone defects and compressed with cotton swab. Bone granules were obtained at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after procedure and received histological analysis. LSD t-test and a subsequent t-test were adopted for statistical analysis. Results: Histomorphometric analysis revealed newly formed bones, and calcium citrate has been absorbed in the treatment group. The percent of newly formed bone area in femoral condyle in control group and CC-rhBMP-2 group was respectively 31.73%±1.26% vs 48.21%±2.37% at 2 weeks; 43.40%±1.65% vs 57.32%±1.47% at 4 weeks, and 51.32%±7.80% vs 66.74%±4.05% at 6 weeks (P<0.05 for all. At 2 weeks, mature cancellous bone was observed to be already formed in the treatment group. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that calcium citrate combined with rhBMP-2 signifcantly en-hances bone regeneration in bone defects. This synthetic gelatin matrix stimulates formation of new bone and bone marrow in the defect areas by releasing calcium ions. Key words: Bone morphogenetic protein-2; Biocompatible materials; Calcium citrate; Gelatin

  7. In vitro formation of osteoclasts from long-term cultures of bone marrow mononuclear phagocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, E.H.; Van der Meer, J.W.; van de Gevel, J.S.; Gribnau, J.C.; Thesingh, G.W.; van Furth, R.

    1982-01-01

    The origin of osteoclasts was studied in an in vitro model using organ cultures of periosteum-free embryonic mouse long-bone primordia, which were co-cultured with various cell populations. The bone rudiments were freed of their periosteum-perichondrium by collagenase treatment in a stage before cartilage erosion and osteoclast formation, and co-cultured for 7 d with either embryonic liver or mononuclear phagocytes from various sources. Light and electron microscopic examination of the cultures showed that mineralized matrix-resorbing osteoclasts developed only in bones co-cultured with embryonic liver or with cultured bone marrow mononuclear phagocytes but not when co-cultured with blood monocytes or resident or exudate peritoneal macrophages. Osteoclasts developed from the weakly adherent, but not from the strongly adherent cells of bone marrow cultures, whereas 1,000 rad irradiation destroyed the capacity of such cultures to form osteoclasts. In bone cultures to which no other cells were added, osteoclasts were virtually absent. Bone-resorbing activity of in vitro formed osteoclasts was demonstrated by 45 Ca release studies. These studies demonstrate that osteoclasts develop from cells present in cultures of proliferating mononuclear phagocytes and that, at least in our system, monocytes and macrophages are unable to form osteoclasts. The most likely candidates for osteoclast precursor cells seem to be monoblasts and promonocytes

  8. Evaluation of bone formation in calcium phosphate scaffolds with μCT-method validation using SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, S; Barba, A; Persson, C; Franch, J; Ginebra, M-P; Öhman-Mägi, C

    2017-10-05

    There is a plethora of calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds used as synthetic substitutes to bone grafts. The scaffold performance is often evaluated from the quantity of bone formed within or in direct contact with the scaffold. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) allows three-dimensional evaluation of bone formation inside scaffolds. However, the almost identical x-ray attenuation of CaP and bone obtrude the separation of these phases in μCT images. Commonly, segmentation of bone in μCT images is based on gray scale intensity, with manually determined global thresholds. However, image analysis methods, and methods for manual thresholding in particular, lack standardization and may consequently suffer from subjectivity. The aim of the present study was to provide a methodological framework for addressing these issues. Bone formation in two types of CaP scaffold architectures (foamed and robocast), obtained from a larger animal study (a 12 week canine animal model) was evaluated by μCT. In addition, cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were acquired as references to determine thresholds and to validate the result. μCT datasets were registered to the corresponding SEM reference. Global thresholds were then determined by quantitatively correlating the different area fractions in the μCT image, towards the area fractions in the corresponding SEM image. For comparison, area fractions were also quantified using global thresholds determined manually by two different approaches. In the validation the manually determined thresholds resulted in large average errors in area fraction (up to 17%), whereas for the evaluation using SEM references, the errors were estimated to be less than 3%. Furthermore, it was found that basing the thresholds on one single SEM reference gave lower errors than determining them manually. This study provides an objective, robust and less error prone method to determine global thresholds for the evaluation of bone formation in

  9. SIRT3/SOD2 maintains osteoblast differentiation and bone formation by regulating mitochondrial stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jing; Feng, Zhihui; Wang, Xueqiang; Zeng, Mengqi; Liu, Jing; Han, Shujun; Xu, Jie; Chen, Lei; Cao, Ke; Long, Jiangang; Li, Zongfang; Shen, Weili; Liu, Jiankang

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed robust metabolic changes during cell differentiation. Mitochondria, the organelles where many vital metabolic reactions occur, may play an important role. Here, we report the involvement of SIRT3-regulated mitochondrial stress in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. In both the osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 and primary calvarial osteoblasts, robust mitochondrial biogenesis and supercomplex formation were observed during differentiation, accompanied by in...

  10. The effects of prostaglandin E2 in growing rats - Increased metaphyseal hard tissue and cortico-endosteal bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, W. S. S.; Ueno, K.; Deng, Y. P.; Woodbury, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The role of in vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in bone formation is investigated. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 223-267 g were injected subcutaneously with 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg of PGE2-kg daily for 21 days. The processing of the tibiae for observation is described. Radiographs and histomorphometric analyses are also utilized to study bone formation. Body weight, weights of soft tissues and bones morphometry are evaluated. It is observed that PGE2 depressed longitudinal bone growth, increased growth cartilage thickness, decreased degenerative cartilage cell size and cartilage cell production, and significantly increased proximal tibial metaphyseal hard tissue mass. The data reveal that periosteal bone formation is slowed down at higher doses of PGE2 and endosteal bone formation is slightly depressed less than 10 days post injection; however, here is a late increase (10 days after post injection) in endosteal bone formation and in the formation of trabecular bone in the marrow cavity of the tibial shaft. It is noted that the effects of PGE2 on bone formation are similar to the responses of weaning rats to PGE2.

  11. In vitro radiation response studies on bone marrow fibroblasts (CFU-F) obtained from normal and chronically irradiated dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.K.; Stitzel, K.A.; Greenberg, B.; Woo, L.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation resistance of bone marrow fibroblasts as measured by their proliferative potential was evaluated in chronically irradiated dogs. Bone marrows were obtained from eight dogs that had been chronically irradiated beginning at 21 days of gestation or after birth and eight age-matched controls. Of these irradiated dogs, four were either preleukemic or exhibited frank acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. The other four were clinically normal but demonstrated abnormalities in their marrow that could be attributed to radiation effects and/or other pathologic changes. Fibroblasts from six of the irradiated dogs were significantly more radioresistant than those of their controls. Five of these six dogs subsequently succumbed to hematopathologic disease, while the two irradiated dogs with normal fibroblasts remained clinically normal, suggesting that this observed radioresistance may be linked to the disease process. (author)

  12. Ectopic osteoid and bone formation by three calcium-phosphate ceramics in rats, rabbits and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Liao; Zhang, B.; Bao, Chongyun; Habibovic, Pamela; Hu, J.; Zhang, Xingdong

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics with specific physicochemical properties have been shown to induce de novo bone formation upon ectopic implantation in a number of animal models. In this study we explored the influence of physicochemical properties as well as the animal species on material-induced ectopic

  13. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on different gentamicin-loaded polymethylmethacrylate bone cements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Belt, H; Neut, D; Schenk, W; van Horn, [No Value; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    In this in vitro study, the formation of a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on six gentamicin-loaded bone cements (CMW1, CMW3, CMW Endurance, CMW2000, Palacos. and Palamed) was determined in a modified Robbins device over a 3 days time span and related with previously (Van de Belt et al., Biomaterials

  14. 3D perfusion bioreactor-activated porous granules on implant fixation and early bone formation in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Snoek Henriksen, Susan; Martinetti, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    allograft, granules, granules with bone marrow aspirate or bioreactor-activated graft material. Following an observation time of 6 weeks, early implant fixation and bone formation were assessed by micro-CT scanning, mechanical testing, and histomorphometry. Bone formations were seen in all groups, while......, bone formation was observed in all groups, while the bioreactor-activated graft material did not reveal additional effects on early implant fixation comparable to allograft in this model. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016....

  15. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  16. Bone mass in schizophrenia and normal populations across different decades of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chueh Ching-Mo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic schizophrenic patients have been reported as having higher osteoporosis prevalence. Survey the bone mass among schizophrenic patients and compare with that of the local community population and reported data of the same country to figure out the distribution of bone mass among schizophrenic patients. Methods 965 schizophrenic patients aged 20 years and over in Yuli Veterans Hospital and 405 members aged 20 and over of the community living in the same town as the institute received bone mass examination by a heel qualitative ultrasound (QUS device. Bone mass distribution was stratified to analyzed and compared with community population. Results Schizophrenic patients have lower bone mass while they are young. But aging effect on bone mass cannot be seen. Accelerated bone mass loss during menopausal transition was not observed in the female schizophrenic patients as in the subjects of the community female population. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients have lower bone mass than community population since they are young. Further study to investigate the pathophysiological process is necessary to delay or avoid the lower bone mass in schizophrenia patients.

  17. Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Matrix Formation In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Harry C; Larrouture, Quitterie C; Li, Yanan; Lin, Hang; Beer-Stoltz, Donna; Liu, Li; Tuan, Rocky S; Robinson, Lisa J; Schlesinger, Paul H; Nelson, Deborah J

    2017-06-01

    We review the characteristics of osteoblast differentiation and bone matrix synthesis. Bone in air breathing vertebrates is a specialized tissue that developmentally replaces simpler solid tissues, usually cartilage. Bone is a living organ bounded by a layer of osteoblasts that, because of transport and compartmentalization requirements, produce bone matrix exclusively as an organized tight epithelium. With matrix growth, osteoblasts are reorganized and incorporated into the matrix as living cells, osteocytes, which communicate with each other and surface epithelium by cell processes within canaliculi in the matrix. The osteoblasts secrete the organic matrix, which are dense collagen layers that alternate parallel and orthogonal to the axis of stress loading. Into this matrix is deposited extremely dense hydroxyapatite-based mineral driven by both active and passive transport and pH control. As the matrix matures, hydroxyapatite microcrystals are organized into a sophisticated composite in the collagen layer by nucleation in the protein lattice. Recent studies on differentiating osteoblast precursors revealed a sophisticated proton export network driving mineralization, a gene expression program organized with the compartmentalization of the osteoblast epithelium that produces the mature bone matrix composite, despite varying serum calcium and phosphate. Key issues not well defined include how new osteoblasts are incorporated in the epithelial layer, replacing those incorporated in the accumulating matrix. Development of bone in vitro is the subject of numerous projects using various matrices and mesenchymal stem cell-derived preparations in bioreactors. These preparations reflect the structure of bone to variable extents, and include cells at many different stages of differentiation. Major challenges are production of bone matrix approaching the in vivo density and support for trabecular bone formation. In vitro differentiation is limited by the organization and

  18. Effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on bone formation in the expanded inter-premaxillary suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazancioglu HO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hakki Oguz Kazancioglu,1 Sertac Aksakalli,2 Seref Ezirganli,1 Muhammet Birlik,2 Mukaddes Esrefoglu,3 Ahmet Hüseyin Acar1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, 3Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Narrow maxilla is a common problem in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. To solve this problem, a procedure called rapid maxillary expansion (RME has been used. However, relapse tendency is a major problem of RME. Although relapse tendency is not clearly understood, various treatment procedures and new application has been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the possible effectiveness of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE on new bone formation in rat midpalatal suture after RME.Materials and methods: Twenty male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into two groups as control and CAPE group. In CAPE group, CAPE was administered systemically via intraperitoneal injection. RME procedure was performed on all animals. For this purpose, the springs were placed on the maxillary incisors of rats and activated for 5 days. After then, the springs were removed and replaced with short lengths of rectangular retaining wire for consolidation period of 15 days. At the end of the study, histomorphometric analysis was carried out to assess of new bone formation.Results: New bone formation was significantly greater in CAPE group than the control group (P<0.05. CAPE enhances new bone formation in midpalatal suture after RME.Conclusion: These results show that CAPE may decrease the time needed for retention. Keywords: rapid maxillary expansion, bone formation, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, midpalatal suture, histopathology

  19. Inhibition of GSK-3β Rescues the Impairments in Bone Formation and Mechanical Properties Associated with Fracture Healing in Osteoblast Selective Connexin 43 Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, Alayna E.; Lloyd, Shane A. J.; Paul, Emmanuel M.; Lewis, Gregory S.; Donahue, Henry J.

    2013-01-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most abundant gap junction protein in bone and is required for osteoblastic differentiation and bone homeostasis. During fracture healing, Cx43 is abundantly expressed in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while Cx43 deficiency impairs bone formation and healing. In the present study we selectively deleted Cx43 in the osteoblastic lineage from immature osteoblasts through osteocytes and tested the hypothesis that Cx43 deficiency results in delayed osteoblastic differentiation and impaired restoration of biomechanical properties due to attenuated β-catenin expression relative to wild type littermates. Here we show that Cx43 deficiency results in alterations in the mineralization and remodeling phases of healing. In Cx43 deficient fractures the mineralization phase is marked by delayed expression of osteogenic genes. Additionally, the decrease in the RankL/ Opg ratio, osteoclast number and osteoclast size suggest decreased osteoclast bone resorption and remodeling. These changes in healing result in functional deficits as shown by a decrease in ultimate torque at failure. Consistent with these impairments in healing, β-catenin expression is attenuated in Cx43 deficient fractures at 14 and 21 days, while Sclerostin (Sost) expression, a negative regulator of bone formation is increased in Cx43cKO fractures at 21 days, as is GSK-3β, a key component of the β-catenin proteasomal degradation complex. Furthermore, we show that alterations in healing in Cx43 deficient fractures can be rescued by inhibiting GSK-3β activity using Lithium Chloride (LiCl). Treatment of Cx43 deficient mice with LiCl restores both normal bone formation and mechanical properties relative to LiCl treated WT fractures. This study suggests that Cx43 is a potential therapeutic target to enhance fracture healing and identifies a previously unknown role for Cx43 in regulating β-catenin expression and thus bone formation during fracture repair. PMID:24260576

  20. Assessment of regeneration of bone in the extracted third molar sockets augmented using xenograft (CollaPlugTN Zimmer in comparison with the normal healing on the contralateral side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan Ranganathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alveolar bone resorption is a significant clinical problem. Bone loss in third molar region following extraction or surgical removal not only leads to periodontal problems in second molar region but also it may lead to some serious problems like increased incidence of angle fractures. In order to reduce the risks following third molar surgery, the socket should be augmented with bone grafts. In recent days guided tissue regeneration is the most accepted and successful technique followed many authors and its efficacy has been proved. Materials and Methods: Based upon our clinical experience, the use of bio absorbable collagen wound dressing such as CollaPlugTN has achieved quick healing and more primary wound coverage. Amongst the graft materials collagen is preferable due to its high biocompatibility and hemostatic ability. This study was done to assess the regeneration of bone in the extracted third molar sockets using xenograft (CollaPlugTN-Zimmer which was compared with the normal healing on the contra lateral side. The assessment was done to analyze post-operative healing complications and to compare the bone density formed between control site and implant site radiologically. Conclusion: On this basis of this study, the use of collaplugTN appears to be beneficial to the patient in postoperative wound healing and also for better bone formation. The use of this material was advantageous because of its simplicity of application cost effectiveness and availability. There is enhanced wound healing and early bone formation.

  1. Assessment of Regeneration of Bone in the Extracted Third Molar Sockets Augmented Using Xenograft (CollaPlugTN Zimmer) in Comparison with the Normal Healing on the Contralateral Side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Murugan; Balaji, M; Krishnaraj, R; Narayanan, Vivek; Thangavelu, Annamalai

    2017-11-01

    Alveolar bone resorption is a significant clinical problem. Bone loss in third molar region following extraction or surgical removal not only leads to periodontal problems in second molar region but also it may lead to some serious problems like increased incidence of angle fractures. In order to reduce the risks following third molar surgery, the socket should be augmented with bone grafts. In recent days guided tissue regeneration is the most accepted and successful technique followed many authors and its efficacy has been proved. Based upon our clinical experience, the use of bio absorbable collagen wound dressing such as CollaPlug TN has achieved quick healing and more primary wound coverage. Amongst the graft materials collagen is preferable due to its high biocompatibility and hemostatic ability. This study was done to assess the regeneration of bone in the extracted third molar sockets using xenograft (CollaPlug TN -Zimmer) which was compared with the normal healing on the contra lateral side. The assessment was done to analyze post-operative healing complications and to compare the bone density formed between control site and implant site radiologically. On this basis of this study, the use of collaplugTN appears to be beneficial to the patient in postoperative wound healing and also for better bone formation. The use of this material was advantageous because of its simplicity of application cost effectiveness and availability. There is enhanced wound healing and early bone formation.

  2. Bio-composites composed of a solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone and alginate-releasing bone morphogenic protein and bone formation peptide for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinSung; Jung, Won-Kyo; Kim, GeunHyung

    2013-11-01

    Biomedical scaffolds should be designed with highly porous three-dimensional (3D) structures that have mechanical properties similar to the replaced tissue, biocompatible properties, and biodegradability. Here, we propose a new composite composed of solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone (PCL), bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) or bone formation peptide (BFP-1), and alginate for bone tissue regeneration. In this study, PCL was used as a mechanical supporting component to enhance the mechanical properties of the final biocomposite and alginate was used as the deterring material to control the release of BMP-2 and BFP-1. A release test revealed that alginate can act as a good release control material. The in vitro biocompatibilities of the composites were examined using osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were assessed. The in vitro test results revealed that PCL/BFP-1/Alginate had significantly higher ALP activity and calcium deposition than the PCL/BMP-2/Alginate composite. Based on these findings, release-controlled BFP-1 could be a good growth factor for enhancement of bone tissue growth and the simple-alginate coating method will be a useful tool for fabrication of highly functional biomaterials through release-control supplementation.

  3. Impaired bone formation in ovariectomized mice reduces implant integration as indicated by longitudinal in vivo micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zihui; Kuhn, Gisela; Schirmer, Michael; Müller, Ralph; Ruffoni, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Although osteoporotic bone, with low bone mass and deteriorated bone architecture, provides a less favorable mechanical environment than healthy bone for implant fixation, there is no general agreement on the impact of osteoporosis on peri-implant bone (re)modeling, which is ultimately responsible for the long term stability of the bone-implant system. Here, we inserted an implant in a mouse model mimicking estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and we monitored with longitudinal in vivo micro-computed tomography the spatio-temporal changes in bone (re)modeling and architecture, considering the separate contributions of trabecular, endocortical and periosteal surfaces. Specifically, 12 week-old C57BL/6J mice underwent OVX/SHM surgery; 9 weeks after we inserted special metal-ceramics implants into the 6th caudal vertebra and we measured bone response with in vivo micro-CT weekly for the following 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ovariectomized mice showed a reduced ability to increase the thickness of the cortical shell close to the implant because of impaired peri-implant bone formation, especially at the periosteal surface. Moreover, we observed that healthy mice had a significantly higher loss of trabecular bone far from the implant than estrogen depleted animals. Such behavior suggests that, in healthy mice, the substantial increase in peri-implant bone formation which rapidly thickened the cortex to secure the implant may raise bone resorption elsewhere and, specifically, in the trabecular network of the same bone but far from the implant. Considering the already deteriorated bone structure of estrogen depleted mice, further bone loss seemed to be hindered. The obtained knowledge on the dynamic response of diseased bone following implant insertion should provide useful guidelines to develop advanced treatments for osteoporotic fracture fixation based on local and selective manipulation of bone turnover in the peri-implant region.

  4. Impaired bone formation in ovariectomized mice reduces implant integration as indicated by longitudinal in vivo micro-computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihui Li

    Full Text Available Although osteoporotic bone, with low bone mass and deteriorated bone architecture, provides a less favorable mechanical environment than healthy bone for implant fixation, there is no general agreement on the impact of osteoporosis on peri-implant bone (remodeling, which is ultimately responsible for the long term stability of the bone-implant system. Here, we inserted an implant in a mouse model mimicking estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and we monitored with longitudinal in vivo micro-computed tomography the spatio-temporal changes in bone (remodeling and architecture, considering the separate contributions of trabecular, endocortical and periosteal surfaces. Specifically, 12 week-old C57BL/6J mice underwent OVX/SHM surgery; 9 weeks after we inserted special metal-ceramics implants into the 6th caudal vertebra and we measured bone response with in vivo micro-CT weekly for the following 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ovariectomized mice showed a reduced ability to increase the thickness of the cortical shell close to the implant because of impaired peri-implant bone formation, especially at the periosteal surface. Moreover, we observed that healthy mice had a significantly higher loss of trabecular bone far from the implant than estrogen depleted animals. Such behavior suggests that, in healthy mice, the substantial increase in peri-implant bone formation which rapidly thickened the cortex to secure the implant may raise bone resorption elsewhere and, specifically, in the trabecular network of the same bone but far from the implant. Considering the already deteriorated bone structure of estrogen depleted mice, further bone loss seemed to be hindered. The obtained knowledge on the dynamic response of diseased bone following implant insertion should provide useful guidelines to develop advanced treatments for osteoporotic fracture fixation based on local and selective manipulation of bone turnover in the peri-implant region.

  5. Influence of controlled immediate loading and implant design on peri-implant bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Katleen; Naert, Ignace; Geris, Liesbet; Vander Sloten, Jozef; Puers, Robert; Duyck, Joke

    2007-02-01

    Tissue formation at the implant interface is known to be sensitive to mechanical stimuli. The aim of the study was to compare the bone formation around immediately loaded versus unloaded implants in two different implant macro-designs. A repeated sampling bone chamber with a central implant was installed in the tibia of 10 rabbits. Highly controlled loading experiments were designed for a cylindrical (CL) and screw-shaped (SL) implant, while the unloaded screw-shaped (SU) implant served as a control. An F-statistic model with alpha=5% determined statistical significance. A significantly higher bone area fraction was observed for SL compared with SU (pimplant contact occurred was the highest for SL and significantly different from SU (pimplant contact was observed, a loading (SL versus SU: p=0.0049) as well as an implant geometry effect (SL versus CL: p=0.01) was found, in favour of the SL condition. Well-controlled immediate implant loading accelerates tissue mineralization at the interface. Adequate bone stimulation via mechanical coupling may account for the larger bone response around the screw-type implant compared with the cylindrical implant.

  6. Multi-axial fatigue of trabecular bone with respect to normal walking

    CERN Document Server

    Mostakhdemin, Mohammad; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the analysis and treatment of osteoporotic bone based on drug administration, tracking fatigue behavior and taking into consideration the mechanical interaction of implants with trabecular bone. Weak trabeculae are one of the most important clinical features that need to be addressed in order to prevent hip joint fractures.

  7. Spatial distribution of osteoblast-specific transcription factor Cbfa1 and bone formation in atherosclerotic arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lord, Reginald S A

    2008-08-01

    The mechanisms of ectopic bone formation in arteries are poorly understood. Osteoblasts might originate either from stem cells that penetrate atherosclerotic plaques from the blood stream or from pluripotent mesenchymal cells that have remained in the arterial wall from embryonic stages of the development. We have examined the frequency of the expression and spatial distribution of osteoblast-specific factor-2/core binding factor-1 (Osf2/Cbfa1) in carotid and coronary arteries. Cbfa1-expressing cells were rarely observed but were found in all tissue specimens in the deep portions of atherosclerotic plaques under the necrotic cores. The deep portions of atherosclerotic plaques under the necrotic cores were characterized by the lack of capillaries of neovascularization. In contrast, plaque shoulders, which were enriched by plexuses of neovascularization, lacked Cbfa1-expressing cells. No bone formation was found in any of the 21 carotid plaques examined and ectopic bone was observed in only two of 12 coronary plaques. We speculate that the sparse invasion of sprouts of neovascularization into areas underlying the necrotic cores, where Cbfa1-expressing cells reside, might explain the rarity of events of ectopic bone formation in the arterial wall. This study has also revealed that Cbfa1-expressing cells contain alpha-smooth muscle actin and myofilaments, indicating their relationship with arterial smooth muscle cells.

  8. Radiographic evaluation and unusual bone formations in different genetic patterns in synpolydactyly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucel, Aylin; Acar, Murat; Kuru, Ilhami; Bozan, M. Eray; Solak, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    To compare the radiological findings of heterozygous and homozygous subjects with synpolydactyly (SPD) and to discuss their unusual bone formations. Families with hand and foot SPD were examined. Genetic analysis was performed with blood samples and the pedigree was constructed. The affected individuals, especially those with distinctive phenotypic features, were invited to our orthopaedics clinic for further diagnostic studies. All participants underwent detailed clinical and X-ray examinations. Of the invited patients, 16 (five female and 11 male; age range 4-37 years, mean age 10.75 years) were included in our study, and hand and foot radiographs were obtained. All subjects had bilateral hand radiographs (32 hands), and 14 had bilateral foot radiographs (28 feet). Genetic analysis revealed 12 heterozygote (75%) and four (25%) homozygote phenotypes. Among patients enrolled into the study nine (three homozygotes, six heterozygotes) had SPD of both hands and feet bilaterally (tetrasynpolydactyly). Six unusual bone formations were observed in the hands and feet: delta phalanx, delta metacarpal/metatarsal, kissing delta phalanx, true double epiphysis, pseudoepiphysis and cone-shaped epiphysis. There were major differences in radiological and clinical manifestations of homozygote and heterozygote phenotypes. The homozygous SPD presented with very distinctive unusual bone formations. The existence and variety of unusual bones may indicate the severity of penetrance and expressivity of SPD. (orig.)

  9. Local delivery of FTY720 accelerates cranial allograft incorporation and bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cynthia; Das, Anusuya; Barker, Daniel; Tholpady, Sunil; Wang, Tiffany; Cui, Quanjun; Ogle, Roy; Botchwey, Edward

    2012-03-01

    Endogenous stem cell recruitment to the site of skeletal injury is key to enhanced osseous remodeling and neovascularization. To this end, this study utilized a novel bone allograft coating of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) to sustain the release of FTY720, a selective agonist for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, from calvarial allografts. Uncoated allografts, vehicle-coated, low dose FTY720 in PLAGA (1:200 w:w) and high dose FTY720 in PLAGA (1:40) were implanted into critical size calvarial bone defects. The ability of local FTY720 delivery to promote angiogenesis, maximize osteoinductivity and improve allograft incorporation by recruitment of bone progenitor cells from surrounding soft tissues and microcirculation was evaluated. FTY720 bioactivity after encapsulation and release was confirmed with sphingosine kinase 2 assays. HPLC-MS quantified about 50% loaded FTY720 release of the total encapsulated drug (4.5 μg) after 5 days. Following 2 weeks of defect healing, FTY720 delivery led to statistically significant increases in bone volumes compared to controls, with total bone volume increases for uncoated, coated, low FTY720 and high FTY720 of 5.98, 3.38, 7.2 and 8.9 mm(3), respectively. The rate and extent of enhanced bone growth persisted through week 4 but, by week 8, increases in bone formation in FTY720 groups were no longer statistically significant. However, micro-computed tomography (microCT) of contrast enhanced vascular ingrowth (MICROFIL®) and histological analysis showed enhanced integration as well as directed bone growth in both high and low dose FTY720 groups compared to controls.

  10. Insulin-like growth factor I has independent effects on bone matrix formation and cell replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, J.M.; Centrella, M.; Canalis, E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on bone matrix synthesis and bone cell replication were studied in cultured 21-day-old fetal rat calvariae. Histomorphometry techniques were developed to measure the incorporation of [2,3- 3 H]proline and [methyl- 3 H]thymidine into bone matrix and bone cell nuclei, respectively, using autoradiographs of sagittal sections of calvariae cultured with IGF-I, insulin, or vehicle for up to 96 h. To confirm an effect on bone formation, IGF-I was also studied for its effects on [ 3 H]proline incorporation into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and noncollagen protein and on [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into acid-precipitable material (DNA). IGF-I at 10(-9)-10(-7) M significantly increased the rate of bone matrix apposition and CDP after 24 h by 45-50% and increased cell labeling by 8-fold in the osteoprogenitor cell zone, by 4-fold in the osteoblast cell zone, and by 2-fold in the periosteal fibroblast zone. Insulin at 10(-9)-10(-6) M also increased matrix apposition rate and CDP by 40-50%, but increased cell labeling by 2-fold only at a concentration of 10(-7) M or higher and then only in the osteoprogenitor cell zone. When hydroxyurea was added to IGF-I-treated bones, the effects of IGF-I on DNA synthesis were abolished, but the increase in bone matrix apposition induced by IGF-I was only partly diminished. In conclusion, IGF-I stimulates matrix synthesis in calvariae, an effect that is partly, although not completely, dependent on its stimulatory effect on DNA synthesis

  11. Normal murine bone morphometry: a comparison of magnetic resonance microscopy with micro X-ray and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Michael H.; Sharp, Jonathan C.; Hassard, Thomas H.; Orr, William F.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The authors have devised a means to assess subtle changes in the structure of bone using magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy. MR microscopy was compared with micro X-ray and histology to analyze the structure of normal bone. Design: Femurs of C57Bl/6 mice were examined ex vivo using differently orientated slices and pulse sequences on both a 9.4 and 11.7 T MR scanner, followed by micro X-ray and histology. A thresholding analysis technique was applied to MR images, to generate contour lines delineating the boundaries between bone and marrow. Results: By MR microscopy, optimal correlation with histological ''gold standards'' was obtained using a longitudinal sectional versus a cross-sectional slice profile, a short echo time gradient-echo sequence versus a long echo time spin-echo sequence, and a higher field strength, 11.7 T versus 9.4 T. Gradient-echo images at 11.7 T were acquired with a maximum in-plane resolution of 35 μm. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the percent area of marrow increases and percent area of trabecular bone and cortical bone thickness decreases on moving from the epiphyseal growth plate to the diaphysis. These changes observed with MR microscopy correlate with the histological data, but did not correlate with micro X-ray data, which showed no trends. Our quantitative evaluation using MR microscopy was found to be an effective means to visualize the normal variation in bone microanatomy compared with a histological ''gold standard'', and was a superior means of quantification in comparison with micro X-ray. (orig.)

  12. Addition of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets Improves Bone Formation at an Ectopic Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifa Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs added to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC sheets on bone formation at an ectopic site. We isolated MSCs and ADSCs from the same rabbits. We then prepared MSC sheets for implantation with or without ADSCs subcutaneously in the backs of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice. We assessed bone formation at eight weeks after implantation by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. In osteogenic medium, MSCs grew to form multilayer sheets containing many calcium nodules. MSC sheets without ADSCs formed bone-like tissue; although neo-bone and cartilage-like tissues were sparse and unevenly distributed by eight weeks after implantation. In comparison, MSC sheets with ADSCs promoted better bone regeneration as evidenced by the greater density of bone, increased mineral deposition, obvious formation of blood vessels, large number of interconnected ossified trabeculae and woven bone structures, and greater bone volume/total volume within the composite constructs. Our results indicate that although sheets of only MSCs have the potential to form tissue engineered bone at an ectopic site, the addition of ADSCs can significantly increase the osteogenic potential of MSC sheets. Thus, the combination of MSC sheets with ADSCs may be regarded as a promising therapeutic strategy to stimulate bone regeneration.

  13. Bi-iliac distance and iliac bone position compared to the vertebral column in normal fetal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, U B; Fischer Hansen, B; Skovgaard, L T

    2001-01-01

    Prenatal standards of bi-iliac width were not found in the literature based on autopsy investigations, nor was the caudo-cranial position of the ilia compared to the vertebral column. The first purpose of the present study was to establish normal standard values for the bi-iliac distance in fetal...... life, the second to evaluate the level of the iliac bones proportional to the ossified vertebral column. Whole body radiographs in antero-posterior projections from 98 human fetuses (36 female and 44 male fetuses, as well as 18 fetuses on which the sex had not been determined) were analyzed...... caliper. The caudo-cranial position of the iliac bones was evaluated. The present study shows that in normal fetal development there is a continuous linear enlargement of the pelvic region in the transverse and vertical planes. The upper iliac contour stays at the level of the first sacral vertebral body...

  14. Characteristics and function of bone marrow stromal adherent cells in normal and irradiated mice and guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changyu, Zheng; Ji, Liu; Xiaoying, Bi

    1986-04-01

    It has been shown from cytochemical and other characteristic studies of bone marrow stromal cells in CFU-F that there are seven types of stromal cells in the stromal adherent cell layer of normal and irradiated C/sub 57/ mice whereas there are only six types in guinea pigs. On the other hand, a radioresistant cell subtype appears in adherent layer after irradiation of both C/sub 57/ mice and guinea pig since the supernatant of cultured CFU-F of the normal and irradiated C/sub 57/ mice can stimulate production of CFU-Gm. It is justifiable that the bone marrow stromal adherent cells of the C/sub 57/ mice could produce CSF.

  15. Age-related new bone formation following the use of cancellous bone-block allografts for reconstruction of atrophic alveolar ridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Joseph; Kolerman, Roni; Chaushu, Liat; Vered, Marilena; Naishlos, Sarit; Chaushu, Gavriel

    2018-02-01

    An age-related decrease in the number of osteogenic progenitor cells may compromise bone augmentation. Histomorphometrical assessment of age-related new bone formation, following atrophic alveolar ridge reconstruction, using cancellous bone-block allografts. Ninety-three consecutive patients (58 females and 35 males) were referred for implant-supported restoration of 122 severe atrophic alveolar ridges. Alveolar ridge deficiency locations were classified as anterior maxilla (n = 58), posterior maxilla (n= 32), and posterior mandible (n = 32). A bony deficiency of at least 3 mm horizontally and up to 3 mm vertically according to computerized tomography (CT) in the posterior mandible and anterior maxilla, served as inclusion criteria. In the posterior maxilla, a residual alveolar ridge up to 4 mm vertically according to CT served as inclusion criteria. Augmentation was performed by the use of cancellous bone-block allografts. Bone biopsies (9-month posterior maxilla, 4 months anterior maxilla and posterior mandible) of young (≤40 years) versus older (>40 years) patients were histomorphometrically evaluated. In the posterior maxilla, no statistically significant histomorphometric differences were noted. While at the anterior maxilla and posterior mandible, statistically significant more newly formed bone was found in young versus older individuals, respectively (38.6% vs 19.8%, P = 0.04 and 69% vs 31%, P = .05). New bone formation following residual alveolar ridge bone grafting is age-related. Longer bone consolidation and healing time may be recommended for older individuals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. METHODS USED FOR THE VIRTUAL HUMAN BONES AND JOINTS RECONSTRUCTION. NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL HUMAN JOINTS VIRTUAL SIMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Laurentiu Dragos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the problems, which appear in every human joint, it is very important to know the anatomy and morphology of the human bones and the way in which the components are working together to realize a normal functionality. For this purpose was used a CAD parametric software which permits to define models with a high degree of difficulty. First, it was used a CT or MRI device to obtain the parallel sections to study each component of the bone. A 3D scanner can be used only for the outer geometry. In the second step the images were transferred to a 2D CAD software, like AutoCAD, where the outer and inner contours of the bone were approximate to polygonal lines composed by many segments. After this, the contours were transferred to a 3D CAD software, like SolidWorks, where, step by step, and section by section, was defined the virtual bone component. Additionally to the main shape can be attached other Loft, Round or Dome shapes. For some components, as vertebrae, mandible or skull bones, can be used a preliminary model obtained by parallel sections. Starting from this, the model can be defined using the main 3D curves and we can get the final virtual solid model. In some simulations, the soft components, as muscles or ligaments, were included in simulations using non-linear virtual springs. Also, sometimes were used implants or prosthetic elements. In the final of the paper, were extracted important conclusions.

  17. Axial compressive strength of human vertebrae trabecular bones classified as normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic by quantitative ultrasonometry of calcaneus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cesar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Biomechanical assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture contributes to the evaluation of fractures risk associated with osteoporosis and plays a crucial role in planning preventive strategies. One of the most widely clinical technics used for osteoporosis diagnosis by health professionals is bone dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. However, doubts about its accuracy motivate the introduction of congruent technical analysis such as calcaneal ultrasonometry (Quantitative Ultrasonometry - QUS. Methods Correlations between Bone Quality Index (BQI, determined by calcaneal ultrasonometry of thirty (30 individuals classified as normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic, and elastic modulus (E and ultimate compressive strength (UCS from axial compression tests of ninety (90 proof bodies from human vertebrae trabecular bone, which were extracted from cadavers in the twelfth thoracic region (T12, first and fourth lumbar (L1 and L4. Results Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed significant differences for E (p = 0.001, for UCS (p = 0.0001 and BQI. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (rho between BQI and E (r = 0.499 and BQI and UCS (r = 0.508 were moderate. Discussion Calcaneal ultrasonometry technique allowed a moderate estimate of bone mechanical strength and fracture risk associated with osteoporosis in human vertebrae.

  18. Currents and voltages in the MFTF coils during the formation of a normal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.

    1980-08-01

    Expressions are obtained for the currents and voltages in a pair of inductively coupled superconducting coils under two conditions: formation of a normal zone and during a change in the level of the current in one coil. A dump resistor of low resistance and a detector bridge is connected across each coil. Calculated results are given for the MFTF coils. The circuit equations during formation of a normal zone are nonlinear and time-varying, consequently, only a series solution is possible. The conditions during a change in current are more easily found. After the transient has died away, the voltages in the coil associated with the changing source are all self-inductive, while the voltages in the other coil are all mutually inductive

  19. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in mature osteoblasts is required for periosteal bone formation induced by reloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Elalieh, Hashem Z.; Saless, Neema; Fong, Chak; Wang, Yongmei; Babey, Muriel; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Bikle, Daniel D.

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal loading and unloading has a pronounced impact on bone remodeling, a process also regulated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling. Skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic effect of IGF-1, while reloading after unloading restores responsiveness to IGF-1. However, a direct study of the importance of IGF-1 signaling in the skeletal response to mechanical loading remains to be tested. In this study, we assessed the skeletal response of osteoblast-specific Igf-1 receptor deficient (Igf-1r-/-) mice to unloading and reloading. The mice were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days and then reloaded for 16 days. Igf-1r-/- mice displayed smaller cortical bone and diminished periosteal and endosteal bone formation at baseline. Periosteal and endosteal bone formation decreased with unloading in Igf-1r+/+ mice. However, the recovery of periosteal bone formation with reloading was completely inhibited in Igf-1r-/- mice, although reloading-induced endosteal bone formation was not hampered. These changes in bone formation resulted in the abolishment of the expected increase in total cross-sectional area with reloading in Igf-1r-/- mice compared to the control mice. These results suggest that the Igf-1r in mature osteoblasts has a critical role in periosteal bone formation in the skeletal response to mechanical loading.

  20. Antibody formation in mouse bone marrow. II. Evidence for a memory-dependent phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, R.; Meima, F.; Meulen, G.M. van der

    1974-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow is barely capable of plaque-forming cell (PFC) activity in a primary response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), while PFC activity in the secondary response to SRBC can be clearly demonstrated. This phenomenon was studied by means of cell transfer experiments. T cells, which are involved in an anti-SRBC PFC response, were shown to be very scarce in normal mouse bone marrow. This is considered to be the cause of the low PFC activity in the marrow during the primary response to SRBC. In normal mouse bone marrow precursors of IgM-PFC but not of IgG- and IgA-PFC could be found. Priming with SRBC induced the appearance of IgM-, IgG-, IgA- and T-memory cells in the marrow. These B- and T-memory cells were shown to be specific for the antigen which induced their appearance. It is thought that after a second injection of SRBC the IgM-, IgG- and IgA-memory cells can differentiate with the help of the T-memory cells within the bone marrow into IgM-, IgG- and IgA-PFC respectively. The sequence of appearance of the B-memory cells in the bone marrow was shown to be IgM--IgG--IgA. Six months after the intravenous injection of SRBC, the presence of B-memory cells could be demonstrated not only in spleen and bone marrow, but also in peripheral lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus and blood. The increase in amount of B-memory cells was most prominent in the spleen

  1. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of soft tissue with metaplastic bone and cartilage formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfman, H.D.; Bhagavan, B.S.

    1982-01-01

    The presence of bone and cartilage in some cases of malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the soft tissue as a microscopic finding has been reported previously but little note has been taken of the radiologic manifestations of these tumor elements. A series of five such cases with sufficient metaplastic osseous and cartilaginous elements to produce roentgenographic evidence of their presence is reported here. An additional two cases showed only histologic evidence of bone or cartilage formation. The reactive ossification tends to be peripheral in location, involving the pseudocapsule of the sarcoma or its fibrous septa. In three there was a zoning pattern with peripheral or polar orientation, strongly suggesting the diagnosis of myositis ossificans. The latter was the diagnosis considered radiologically in four of the five cases. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma with reactive bone and cartilage must be considered in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue masses with calcific densities, particularly when these occur in tumors of the extremities. (orig.)

  2. Normal bone mineral content but unfavourable muscle/fat ratio in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Mølgaard, Christian; Skakkebaek, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) in children and adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary endocrine clinic at the University Hospital, Copenhagen. PATIENTS: Eighteen untreated boys with KS...

  3. Microstructural, densitometric and metabolic variations in bones from rats with normal or altered skeletal states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N Luu

    Full Text Available High resolution μCT, and combined μPET/CT have emerged as non-invasive techniques to enhance or even replace dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the current preferred approach for fragility fracture risk assessment. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of µPET/CT imaging to differentiate changes in rat bone tissue density and microstructure induced by metabolic bone diseases more accurately than current available methods.Thirty three rats were divided into three groups of control, ovariectomy and vitamin-D deficiency. At the conclusion of the study, animals were subjected to glucose ((18FDG and sodium fluoride (Na(18F PET/CT scanning. Then, specimens were subjected to µCT imaging and tensile mechanical testing.Compared to control, those allocated to ovariectomy and vitamin D deficiency groups showed 4% and 22% (significant increase in (18FDG uptake values, respectively. DXA-based bone mineral density was higher in the vitamin D deficiency group when compared to the other groups (cortical bone, yet μCT-based apparent and mineral density results were not different between groups. DXA-based bone mineral density was lower in the ovariectomy group when compared to the other groups (cancellous bone; yet μCT-based mineral density results were not different between groups, and the μCT-based apparent density results were lower in the ovariectomy group compared to the other groups.PET and micro-CT provide an accurate three-dimensional measurement of the changes in bone tissue mineral density, as well as microstructure for cortical and cancellous bone and metabolic activity. As osteomalacia is characterized by impaired bone mineralization, the use of densitometric analyses may lead to misinterpretation of the condition as osteoporosis. In contrast, µCT alone and in combination with the PET component certainly provides an accurate three-dimensional measurement of the changes in both bone tissue mineral density, as well as

  4. Free Radicals Formation of Irradiated Lyophilized Can-Cellous Human and Bovine Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Basril; Sudiro, Sutjipto; Hilmy, Nazly

    2000-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of lyophilized human and bovine bone as allograft and xenograft have been produced and used in orthopaedic practice in Indonesia routinely. It is well known from radio biologic studies that one of the most pronounce effects of ionizing radiation on biologic species produced the free radicals that influence the physico-chemical as well as the mechanical properties of irradiated bone. The aim of our study is to investigate the free radicals formation of irradiated lyophilized cancellous triple A bone (Autolyzed Antigen-Extracted Allograft) produced by Batan Research Tissue Bank in Jakarta. The cancellous triple A were prepared according to AATB (American Association of Tissue Bank) method. Gamma Irradiations was done at doses of 10, 20 and 30 kGy with a dose rate of 7,5 kGy/h at room temperature (30 o C± 2 o C). Measurements of free radicals was done at 24 o C ±1 o C within 30 minutes after irradiational and measurement were continued up to 9 months of storage using a JES-REIX ESR Spectrophotometer (JEOL) with Mn exp. ++ standard. Parameters measured, were the effects of mechanical grinding, water immersion and irradiation dose on free radicals formation in the bone. Results show that the signal area of ESR spectra from irradiated bovine bone of 30 kGy was higher than those of human bone I.e. 1,4 x 10 exp. 7 dan 6,4 x 10 exp. 6 Au (arbitrary unit)/g samples respectively. The signal of ESR spectra increased linearly with increasing dose in the range of 10-30 kGy and it will reduce about 30% caused by water immersion. The ESR signal reduced sharply after 2 days and gradually decreased up to 14 days and then became constant up to 9 months of storage at room temperature. A certain method of crushing can produce free radicals. Key Words: free radical, irradiation, allograft, xenograft, mechanical-grinding

  5. Hematopoietic stem cell mobilizing agents G-CSF, cyclophosphamide or AMD3100 have distinct mechanisms of action on bone marrow HSC niches and bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, I G; Pettit, A R; Raggatt, L J; Jacobsen, R N; Forristal, C E; Barbier, V; Nowlan, B; Cisterne, A; Bendall, L J; Sims, N A; Lévesque, J-P

    2012-07-01

    The CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 is progressively replacing cyclophosphamide (CYP) as adjuvant to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for autologous transplants in patients who failed prior mobilization with G-CSF alone. It has recently emerged that G-CSF mediates HSC mobilization and inhibits bone formation via specific bone marrow (BM) macrophages. We compared the effect of these three mobilizing agents on BM macrophages, bone formation, osteoblasts, HSC niches and HSC reconstitution potential. Both G-CSF and CYP suppressed niche-supportive macrophages and osteoblasts, and inhibited expression of endosteal cytokines resulting in major impairment of HSC reconstitution potential remaining in the mobilized BM. In sharp contrast, although AMD3100 was effective at mobilizing HSC, it did not suppress osteoblasts, endosteal cytokine expression or reconstitution potential of HSC remaining in the mobilized BM. In conclusion, although G-CSF, CYP and AMD3100 efficiently mobilize HSC into the blood, their effects on HSC niches and bone formation are distinct with both G-CSF and CYP targeting HSC niche function and bone formation, whereas AMD3100 directly targets HSC without altering niche function or bone formation.

  6. Anti-osteoporotic activity of harpagide by regulation of bone formation in osteoblast cell culture and ovariectomy-induced bone loss mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwa-Jin; Kyung Kim, Won; Joo Park, Hyen; Cho, Lan; Kim, Me-Riong; Kim, Min Jeong; Shin, Joon-Shik; Ho Lee, Jin; Ha, In-Hyuk; Kook Lee, Sang

    2016-02-17

    Harpagide, an iridoid glucoside, is a constituent of the root of Harpagophytum procumbens var. sublobatum (Engl.) Stapf, Devil's claw which has been used in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). In the present study, we investigated the anti-osteoporotic potential of harpagide and its underlying mechanism of action in in vitro cell culture and in vivo bone loss animal models. Harpagide was obtained from the alkalic hydrolysis of harpagoside, a major constituent of H. procumbens var. sublobatum Analysis of biomarkers for bone formation in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone resorption in osteoclast cells derived from mouse bone marrow cells was performed to evaluate the mechanism of action. The protective activity of harpagide against bone loss was also evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model. Harpagide improved bone properties by stimulating the process of differentiation and maturation of osteoblast cells and suppressing the process of RANKL-induced differentiation of osteoclast cells. In OVX-induced bone loss mouse model, oral administration of harpagide significantly improved recovery of bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular number in the femur. Harpagide also prevented increase of trabecular separation and structure model index induced by OVX. Harpagide effectively inhibited the serum levels of biochemical markers of bone loss, including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that harpagide has a potential for prevention of bone loss in OVX mice by regulating the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and the suppression of osteoclast formation. Therefore, these findings suggest that harpagide might serve as a bioactive compound derived from H. procumbens var. sublobatum for improvement of age-dependent bone destruction disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of estrogen in bone growth and formation: changes at puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Divya Singh1, Sabyasachi Sanyal2, Naibedya Chattopadhyay11Division of Endocrinology, 2Division of Drug Target Discovery and Development, Central Drug Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: A high peak bone mass (PBM at skeletal maturity is a good predictor for lower rate of fracture risks in later life. Growth during puberty contributes significantly to PBM achievement in women and men. The growth hormone (GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 axis has a critical role in pubertal bone growth. There is an increase in GH and IGF-1 levels during puberty; thus, it is assumed that sex steroids contribute to higher GH/IGF-1 action during growth. Recent studies indicate that estrogen increases GH secretion in boys and girls, and the major effect of testosterone on GH secretion is via aromatization to estrogen. Estrogen is pivotal for epiphyseal fusion in young men and women. From studies of individuals with a mutated aromatase gene and a case study of male patient with defective estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α, it is clear that estrogen is indispensable for normal pubertal growth and growth plate fusion. ER-α and estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β have been localized in growth plate and bone. ER knockout studies have shown that ER-α-/- female mice have reduced linear appendicular growth, while ER-β-/- mice have increased appendicular growth. No such effect is seen in ER-β-/- males; however, repressed growth is seen in ER-α-/- males, resulting in shorter long bones. Thus, ER-β represses longitudinal bone growth in female mice, while it has no function in the regulation of longitudinal bone growth in male mice. These findings indicate that estrogen plays a critical role in skeletal physiology of males as well as females.Keywords: peak bone mass, puberty, estrogen, growth plate

  8. Matrix elasticity of void-forming hydrogels controls transplanted-stem-cell-mediated bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebsch, Nathaniel; Lippens, Evi; Lee, Kangwon; Mehta, Manav; Koshy, Sandeep T.; Darnell, Max C.; Desai, Rajiv M.; Madl, Christopher M.; Xu, Maria; Zhao, Xuanhe; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Verbeke, Catia; Kim, Woo Seob; Alim, Karen; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E.; Duda, Georg N.; Mooney, David J.

    2015-12-01

    The effectiveness of stem cell therapies has been hampered by cell death and limited control over fate. These problems can be partially circumvented by using macroporous biomaterials that improve the survival of transplanted stem cells and provide molecular cues to direct cell phenotype. Stem cell behaviour can also be controlled in vitro by manipulating the elasticity of both porous and non-porous materials, yet translation to therapeutic processes in vivo remains elusive. Here, by developing injectable, void-forming hydrogels that decouple pore formation from elasticity, we show that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenesis in vitro, and cell deployment in vitro and in vivo, can be controlled by modifying, respectively, the hydrogel’s elastic modulus or its chemistry. When the hydrogels were used to transplant MSCs, the hydrogel’s elasticity regulated bone regeneration, with optimal bone formation at 60 kPa. Our findings show that biophysical cues can be harnessed to direct therapeutic stem cell behaviours in situ.

  9. Three-dimensional analysis of tarsal bone response to axial loading in patients with hallux valgus and normal feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Ikeda, Yasutoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Teramoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takuma; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2017-02-01

    Patients with hallux valgus present a variety of symptoms that may be related to the type of deformity. Weightbearing affects the deformities, and the evaluation of the load response of tarsal bones has been mainly performed using two-dimensional plane radiography. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare structural changes in the medial foot arch between patients with hallux valgus and normal controls using a computer image analysis technique and weightbearing computed tomography data. Eleven patients with hallux valgus and eleven normal controls were included. Computed tomograms were obtained with and without simulated weightbearing using a compression device. Computed tomography data were transferred into a personal computer, and a three-dimensional bone model was created using image analysis software. The load responses of each tarsal bone in the medial foot arch were measured three-dimensionally and statistically compared between the two groups. Displacement of each tarsal bone under two weightbearing conditions was visually observed by creating three-dimensional bone models. At the first metatarsophalangeal joint, the proximal phalanges of the hallux valgus group showed significantly different displacements in multiple directions. Moreover, opposite responses to axial loading were also observed in both translation and rotation between the two groups. Weightbearing caused deterioration of the hallux valgus deformity three-dimensionally at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Information from the computer image analysis was useful for understanding details of the pathology of foot disorders related to the deformities or instability and may contribute to the development of effective conservative and surgical treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of polygonimitin C on bone formation and resorption in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of polygonimitin C (PC) on bone formation and resorption in human osteoblast-like MG63 cells. Methods: MG63 cells were treated with PC at doses of 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/mL for 48 h, with an untreated group as control. The effect of PC on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in MG63 cells ...

  11. Dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells expressing the BMP2 gene enhance bone formation in a critical-sized defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Hwa; Shin, Seung-Yun; Koo, Ki-Tae; Lee, Yong-Moo; Seol, Yang-Jo

    2013-11-01

    Bone tissue healing is a dynamic, orchestrated process that relies on multiple growth factors and cell types. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is released from platelets at wound sites and induces cellular migration and proliferation necessary for bone regeneration in the early healing process. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), the most potent osteogenic differentiation inducer, directs new bone formation at the sites of bone defects. This study evaluated a combinatorial treatment protocol of PDGF-BB and BMP-2 on bone healing in a critical-sized defect model. To mimic the bone tissue healing process, a dual delivery approach was designed to deliver the rhPDGF-BB protein transiently during the early healing phase, whereas BMP-2 was supplied by rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transfected with an adenoviral vector containing the BMP2 gene (AdBMP2) for prolonged release throughout the healing process. In in vitro experiments, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and BMP2 significantly enhanced cell proliferation. However, the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was significantly suppressed even though the amount of BMP-2 secreted by the AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs was not significantly affected by the rhPDGF-BB treatment. In addition, dual delivery inhibited the mRNA expression of BMP receptor type II and Noggin in BMSCs. In in vivo experiments, critical-sized calvarial defects in rats showed enhanced bone regeneration by dual delivery of autologous AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs and rhPDGF-BB in both the amount of new bone formed and the bone mineral density. These enhancements in bone regeneration were greater than those observed in the group treated with AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs alone. In conclusion, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs improved the quality of the regenerated bone, possibly due to the modulation of PDGF-BB on BMP-2-induced osteogenesis.

  12. LRP5 coding polymorphisms influence the variation of peak bone mass in a normal population of French-Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Sylvie; Elfassihi, Latifa; Cardinal, Guy; Laflamme, Nathalie; Rousseau, François

    2007-05-01

    Bone mineral density has a strong genetic component but it is also influenced by environmental factors making it a complex trait to study. LRP5 gene was previously shown to be involved in rare diseases affecting bone mass. Mutations associated with gain-of-function were described as well as loss-of-function mutations. Following this discovery, many frequent LRP5 polymorphisms were tested against the variation of BMD in the normal population. Heel bone parameters (SOS, BUA) were measured by right calcaneal QUS in 5021 healthy French-Canadian women and for 2104 women, BMD evaluated by DXA at two sites was available (femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS)). Among women with QUS measures and those with DXA measures, 26.5% and 32.8% respectively were premenopausal, 9.2% and 10.7% were perimenopausal and 64.2% and 56.5% were postmenopausal. About a third of the peri- and postmenopausal women never received hormone therapy. Two single nucleotide coding polymorphisms (Val667Met and Ala1330Val) in LRP5 gene were genotyped by allele-specific PCR. All bone measures were tested individually for associations with each polymorphism by analysis of covariance with adjustment for non genetic risk factors. Furthermore, haplotype analysis was performed to take into account the strong linkage disequilibrium between the two polymorphisms. The two LRP5 polymorphisms were found to be associated with all five bone measures (L2L4 and femoral neck DXA as well as heel SOS, BUA and stiffness index) in the whole sample. Premenopausal women drove the association as expected from the proposed role of LRP5 in peak bone mass. Our results suggest that the Val667Met polymorphism is the causative variant but this remains to be functionally proven.

  13. Eldecalcitol improves mechanical strength of cortical bones by stimulating the periosteal bone formation in the senescence-accelerated SAM/P6 mice - a comparison with alfacalcidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Ayako; Sakai, Sadaoki; Saito, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2014-10-01

    Eldecalcitol (ELD), a 2β-hydroxypropyloxy derivative of 1α,25(OH)2D3, is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption that has demonstrated a greater effect at reducing the risk of fracture in osteoporotic patients than alfacalcidol (ALF). In the present study, we used the senescence-accelerated mouse strain P6 (SAM/P6), which has low bone mass caused by osteoblast dysfunction, to evaluate the effect of ELD on cortical bone in comparison with ALF. Four-month-old SAM/P6 mice were given either ELD (0.025 or 0.05μg/kg) or ALF (0.2 or 0.4μg/kg) by oral gavage 5 times/week for 6 weeks. Both ELD and ALF increased serum calcium (Ca) in a dose-dependent manner. Serum Ca levels in the ELD 0.05μg/kg group were comparable to those of the ALF 0.2μg/kg group. ELD 0.05μg/kg significantly improved the bone biomechanical properties of the femur compared with the vehicle control group (pBone histomorphometry revealed that in the femoral endocortical surface, the suppression of bone resorption parameters (N.Oc/BS) and bone formation parameters (MS/BS) by ELD (0.05μg/kg) was greater than that by ALF (0.2μg/kg). In contrast, in the femoral periosteal surface, ELD 0.05μg/kg significantly increased bone formation parameters (BFR/BS, MS/BS) compared with the vehicle control group (pbone not only by inhibiting endocortical bone resorption but also by stimulating the periosteal bone formation in SAM/P6 mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tetraspanin 7 regulates sealing zone formation and the bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jun-Oh; Lee, Yong Deok; Kim, Haemin; Kim, Min Kyung; Song, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Zang Hee; Kim, Hong-Hee, E-mail: hhbkim@snu.ac.kr

    2016-09-02

    Tetraspanin family proteins regulate morphology, motility, fusion, and signaling in various cell types. We investigated the role of the tetraspanin 7 (Tspan7) isoform in the differentiation and function of osteoclasts. Tspan7 was up-regulated during osteoclastogenesis. When Tspan7 expression was reduced in primary precursor cells by siRNA-mediated gene knock-down, the generation of multinuclear osteoclasts was not affected. However, a striking cytoskeletal abnormality was observed: the formation of the podosome belt structure was inhibited and the microtubular network were disrupted by Tspan7 knock-down. Decreases in acetylated microtubules and levels of phosphorylated Src and Pyk2 in Tspan7 knock-down cells supported the involvement of Tspan7 in cytoskeletal rearrangement signaling in osteoclasts. This cytoskeletal defect interfered with sealing zone formation and subsequently the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts on dentin surfaces. Our results suggest that Tspan7 plays an important role in cytoskeletal organization required for the bone-resorbing function of osteoclasts by regulating signaling to Src, Pyk2, and microtubules. - Highlights: • Tspan7 expression is up-regulated during osteoclastogenesis. • Tspan7 regulates podosome belt organization in osteoclasts. • Tspan7 is crucial for sealing zone formation and bone-resorption by osteoclasts. • Src and Pyk2 phosphorylation and microtubule acetylation mediate Tspan7 function.

  15. The effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone formation and growth factors in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Mølgaard, C.; Gyldenløve, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    NTRODUCTION: Animal studies indicate that n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) increase bone formation. To our knowledge, no studies have examined this in growing humans. This study investigated whether bone mass and markers of bone formation and growth were (i) associated...... with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status and (ii) affected by fish oil supplementation, in adolescent boys. METHODS: Seventy-eight healthy, slightly overweight 13- to 15-y-old boys were randomly assigned to breads with DHA-rich fish oil (1.1 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or control for 16 wk. Whole-body bone mineral content (BMC......), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD), plasma osteocalcin, and growth factors were measured at wk 0 and wk 16, as well as diet, physical activity, and n-3 LCPUFA status in erythrocytes. RESULTS: Fish oil strongly increased DHA status (P = 0.0001). No associations were found between DHA status...

  16. The Use of Injectable Chitosan/Nanohydroxyapatite/Collagen Composites with Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Promote Ectopic Bone Formation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate ectopic in vivo bone formation with or without rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs of an injectable Chitosan/Nanohydroxyapatite/Collagen (CS/nHAC composite. The CS/nHAC composites were injected subcutaneously into the backs of Wistar rats with freshly loaded rBMSCs at a density of 10×106 cells/mL, and the CS/nHAC composites without cells were used as negative controls. New bone formation, degradation of composites, and degree of calcification were evaluated by Computed Tomography (CT and three-dimensional (3D CT reconstruction. Histological evaluations were performed to further assess bone structure and extracellular matrix by HE and Masson staining. The inflammatory reactions related to osteogenesis were also investigated in the present study. In comparison with the CS/nHAC composites, this study revealed that CS/nHAC/rBMSCs composites showed relatively higher percentage of calcification, better establishment of ECM, and less degradation rate. Meanwhile, different extents of inflammatory reactions were also observed in the CS/nHAC and CS/nHAC/rBMSCs explants at 2 and 4 weeks after implantation. Altogether, CS/nHAC/rBMSCs composites are superior to CS/nHAC composites in ectopic bone formation. In conclusion, the rBMSCs-seeded CS/nHAC composites may be beneficial to enhancing ectopic bone formation in vivo.

  17. Changes in markers of bone formation and resorption in a bed rest model of weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, S. A.; Arnaud, S. B.; Taylor, A. K.; Baylink, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    To study the mechanism of bone loss in physical unloading, we examined indices of bone formation and bone resorption in the serum and urine of eight healthy men during a 7 day -6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest. Prompt increases in markers of resorption--pyridinoline (PD), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and hydroxyproline (Hyp)/g creatinine--during the first few days of inactivity were paralleled by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) with significant increases in all these markers by day 4 of bed rest. An index of formation, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (SALP), did not change during bed rest and showed a moderate 15% increase 1 week after reambulation. In contrast to SALP, serum osteocalcin (OC) began increasing the day preceding the increase in Hyp, remained elevated for the duration of the bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest values within 5 days of reambulation. Similarly, DPD increased significantly at the onset of bed rest, remained elevated for the duration of bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest levels upon reambulation. On the other hand, the other three indices of resorption, Hyp, PD, and TRAP, remained elevated for 2 weeks after reambulation. The most sensitive indices of the levels of physical activity proved to be the noncollagenous protein, OC, and the collagen crosslinker, DPD. The bed rest values of both these markers were significantly elevated compared to both the pre-bed rest values and the post-bed rest values. The sequence of changes in the circulating markers of bone metabolism indicated that increases in serum OC are the earliest responses of bone to head-down tilt bed rest.

  18. Plasma rich in growth factors and bone formation: a radiological and histomorphometric study in New Zealand rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Molina-Miñano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A radiographic and histomorphometric study was conducted on the influence of autologous plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF upon bone healing in surgically created defects in rabbits. Radiographically, bone regeneration was significantly greater with the use of PRGF after one month (p = 0.005, though no differences were recorded after the second month. In the histomorphometric analysis one month after surgery, the defects filled with autologous bone plus PRGF showed a greater percentage of neoformed bone (35.01 ± 5.31 than the control defects (22.90 ± 12.23, though the differences were not significant. Two months after surgery, the defects filled with autologous bone showed greater regeneration (46.04 ± 10.36% than the control defects (30.59 ± 5.69%, though the differences were not significant. The application of PRGF in the bone defects produced in New Zealand rabbits exerted a limited effect on local bone formation.

  19. Differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J; Koes, B W; Paulis, W D; van Middelkoop, M

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight or obesity. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies (published up to 22 June 2016) on the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and overweight and obese children was performed. Results were pooled when possible and mean differences (MDs) were calculated between normal-weight and overweight and normal-weight and obese children for bone content and density measures at different body sites. Twenty-seven studies, with a total of 5,958 children, were included. There was moderate and high quality of evidence that overweight (MD 213 g; 95% confidence interval [CI] 166, 261) and obese children (MD 329 g; 95%CI [229, 430]) have a significantly higher whole body bone mineral content than normal-weight children. Similar results were found for whole body bone mineral density. Sensitivity analysis showed that the association was stronger in girls. Overweight and obese children have a significantly higher bone mineral density compared with normal-weight children. Because there was only one study included with a longitudinal design, the long-term impact of childhood overweight and obesity on bone health at adulthood is not clear. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Glycation of human cortical and cancellous bone captures differences in the formation of Maillard reaction products between glucose and ribose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna E Sroga

    Full Text Available To better understand some aspects of bone matrix glycation, we used an in vitro glycation approach. Within two weeks, our glycation procedures led to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs at the levels that corresponded to approx. 25-30 years of the natural in vivo glycation. Cortical and cancellous bones from human tibias were glycated in vitro using either glucose (glucosylation or ribose (ribosylation. Both glucosylation and ribosylation led to the formation of higher levels of AGEs and pentosidine (PEN in cancellous than cortical bone dissected from all tested donors (young, middle-age and elderly men and women. More efficient glycation of bone matrix proteins in cancellous bone most likely depended on the higher porosity of this tissue, which facilitated better accessibility of the sugars to the matrix proteins. Notably, glycation of cortical bone from older donors led to much higher AGEs levels as compared to young donors. Such efficient in vitro glycation of older cortical bone could result from aging-related increase in porosity caused by the loss of mineral content. In addition, more pronounced glycation in vivo would be driven by elevated oxidation processes. Interestingly, the levels of PEN formation differed pronouncedly between glucosylation and ribosylation. Ribosylation generated very high levels of PEN (approx. 6- vs. 2.5-fold higher PEN level than in glucosylated samples. Kinetic studies of AGEs and PEN formation in human cortical and cancellous bone matrix confirmed higher accumulation of fluorescent crosslinks for ribosylation. Our results suggest that in vitro glycation of bone using glucose leads to the formation of lower levels of AGEs including PEN, whereas ribosylation appears to support a pathway toward PEN formation. Our studies may help to understand differences in the progression of bone pathologies related to protein glycation by different sugars, and raise awareness for excessive sugar

  1. Increased resistance during jump exercise does not enhance cortical bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Ramon D; Swift, Joshua M; Gasier, Heath G; Wiggs, Michael P; Hogan, Harry A; Fluckey, James D; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to elucidate the effects of a low- and high-load jump resistance exercise (RE) training protocol on cortical bone of the tibia and femur mid-diaphyses. Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 6 months old) were randomly assigned to high-load RE (HRE; n = 16), low-load RE (LRE; n = 15), or cage control (CC; n = 11) groups. Animals in the HRE and LRE groups performed 15 sessions of jump RE for 5 wk. Load in the HRE group was progressively increased from 80 g added to a weighted vest (50 repetitions) to 410 g (16 repetitions). The LRE rats completed the same protocol as the HRE group (same number of repetitions), with only a 30-g vest applied. Low- and high-load jump RE resulted in 6%-11% higher cortical bone mineral content and cortical bone area compared with controls, as determined by in vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography measurements. In the femur, however, only LRE demonstrated improvements in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (+11%) and cross-sectional moment of inertia (+20%) versus the CC group. The three-point bending to failure revealed a marked increase in tibial maximum force (25%-29%), stiffness (19%-22%), and energy to maximum force (35%-55%) and a reduction in elastic modulus (-11% to 14%) in both LRE and HRE compared with controls. Dynamic histomorphometry assessed at the tibia mid-diaphysis determined that both LRE and HRE resulted in 20%-30% higher periosteal mineralizing surface versus the CC group. Mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate were significantly greater in animals in the LRE group (27%, 39%) than those in the HRE group. These data demonstrate that jump training with minimal loading is equally, and sometimes more, effective at augmenting cortical bone integrity compared with overload training in skeletally mature rats.

  2. Normal lumbar spine bone mineral densities with single-energy CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrick, R.E.; Ritenour, E.R.; Geis, J.R.; Thickman, D.; Freeman, K.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report trabecular spine densities determined by single-energy CT in 267 healthy women, aged 22 to 75 years. Volunteers were scanned at eight sites with use of identical fourth-generation CT scanners, postpatient calibration phantoms, and analysis software that accounts for beam hardening as a function of patient size. Results indicate that a cubic polynomial best represents the decrease in bone density (in milligrams per milliliter of K 2 HPO 4 ) with age (in years): Bone Density = 140.9 + 4.44(Age) - 0.133(Age) 2 + 0.0008(Age) 3 , with statistical significance over the best linear and quadratic polynomial fits (P < .001). The mean bone densities of healthy women above age 30 years are found to be lower by an average of 8 mg/mL than reported by Cann et al, whose data indicate that the greatest loss in trabecular bone density in healthy women occurs in the 50-59-year group, while out data indicate greatest loss in the 60-75 year age group

  3. Subchondral bone density distribution of the talus in clinically normal Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemanse, W; Müller-Gerbl, M; Jonkers, I; Vander Sloten, J; van Bree, H; Gielen, I

    2016-03-15

    Bones continually adapt their morphology to their load bearing function. At the level of the subchondral bone, the density distribution is highly correlated with the loading distribution of the joint. Therefore, subchondral bone density distribution can be used to study joint biomechanics non-invasively. In addition physiological and pathological joint loading is an important aspect of orthopaedic disease, and research focusing on joint biomechanics will benefit veterinary orthopaedics. This study was conducted to evaluate density distribution in the subchondral bone of the canine talus, as a parameter reflecting the long-term joint loading in the tarsocrural joint. Two main density maxima were found, one proximally on the medial trochlear ridge and one distally on the lateral trochlear ridge. All joints showed very similar density distribution patterns and no significant differences were found in the localisation of the density maxima between left and right limbs and between dogs. Based on the density distribution the lateral trochlear ridge is most likely subjected to highest loads within the tarsocrural joint. The joint loading distribution is very similar between dogs of the same breed. In addition, the joint loading distribution supports previous suggestions of the important role of biomechanics in the development of OC lesions in the tarsus. Important benefits of computed tomographic osteoabsorptiometry (CTOAM), i.e. the possibility of in vivo imaging and temporal evaluation, make this technique a valuable addition to the field of veterinary orthopaedic research.

  4. Bone Resorption Is Increased in Pheochromocytoma Patients and Normalizes following Adrenalectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis-Vlug, A.G.; El Mahdiui, M.; Endert, E.; Heijboer, A.C.; Fliers, E.; Bisschop, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) controls bone turnover in rodents, but it is uncertain whether a similar role for the SNS exists in humans. Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumors. Because catecholamines are the neurotransmitters of the SNS, we hypothesized

  5. Efficacy of a small cell-binding peptide coated hydroxyapatite substitute on bone formation and implant fixation in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Andreasen, Christina Møller; Dencker, Mads L.

    2015-01-01

    hydroxyapatite (ABM/P-15); hydroxyapatite + βtricalciumphosphate+ Poly-Lactic-Acid (HA/βTCP-PDLLA); or ABM/P-15+HA/βTCP-PDLLA. After nine weeks, bone-implant blocks were harvested and sectioned for micro-CT scanning, push-out test, and histomorphometry. Significant bone formation and implant fixation could...

  6. Formation of Cell-To-Cell Connection between Bone Marrow Cells and Isolated Rat Cardiomyocytes in a Cocultivation Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skopalík, J.; Pásek, Michal; Rychtárik, M.; Koristek, Z.; Gabrielová, E.; Sheer, P.; Matejovič, P.; Modrianský, M.; Klabusay, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), s. 1000185 ISSN 2157-7013 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : bone marrow * mononuclear cells * isolated cardiomyocytes * cocultivation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics http://omicsonline.org/ open - access /formation-of-celltocell-connection-between-bone-marrow-cells- and -isolated-rat-cardiomyocytes-2157-7013.1000185.php?aid=33364

  7. Bone marrow stromal elements in murine leukemia; Decreased CSF-producing fibroblasts and normal IL-1 expression by macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Ishay, Z [Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School (Israel); Barak, V [Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital (Israel); Shoshan, S [Faculty of Dental Medicine, Connective Tissue Research Laboratory, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel); Prindull, G [Department of Pediatrics, University of Gottingen, Gottingen (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-01-01

    A study of bone marrow stromal elements in murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was carried out. Our previous studies had indicated marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML. In the current investigation, separate stromal cells were cultured and the results obtained have shown that, while marrow stromal macrophages are normal in leukemia and express adequate amounts of IL-1, the fibroblasts are markedly reduced. However, if sufficient fibroblasts are pooled in vitro, they produce adequate amounts of CSF. Test of TNF{alpha} in leukemic cells CM, as possible cause of marrow stromal inhibition in leukemia, had not disclosed this cytokine. Further, it was observed that total body lethal irradiation of leukemic mice aggravates the stromal deficiency, confirming results of our previous investigations. It is concluded that bone marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML is due to decreased fibroblasts and, implicity, reduced CSF production. (author).

  8. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis in normals and osteoporotic populations: a discriminator of significant bone mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.M.; Murano, R.; Lewellen, T.K.; Nelp, W.B.; Chesnut, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of total body calcium by neutron activation (TBC) in 94 normal individuals and 86 osteoporotic patients are reported. The ability of TBC to discriminate normal from osteoporotic females was evaluated with decision analysis. Bone mineral content (BMC) by single-photon absorptiometry was also measured. TBC was higher in males (range 826 to 1363 gm vs 537 to 1054 in females) and correlated with height in all normals. In females over age 55 there was a negative correlation with age. Thus, for normals an algorithm was derived to allow comparison between measured TBC and that predicted by sex, age, and height (TBCp). In the 28 normal females over age 55, the TBC was 764 +/- 115 gm vs. 616 +/- 90 in the osteoporotics. In 63 of the osteoporotic females an estimated height, from tibial length, was used to predict TBC. In normals the TBC/TBCp ratio was 1.00 +/- 0.12, whereas in osteoporotic females it was 0.80 +/- 0.12. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed better discrimination of osteoporosis with TBC/TBCp than with wrist BMC. By using Bayes' theorem, with a 25% prevalence of osteoporosis (estimate for postmenopausal women), the posttest probability of disease was 90% when the TBC/TBCp ratio was less than 0.84. The authors conclude that a low TBC/TBCp ratio is very helpful in determining osteoporosis

  9. Bone marrow cellularity in normal and polycythemic mice estimated by DNA incorporation of /sup 3/H-TdR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, L.H.; Ledney, G.D.

    1982-07-01

    Nucleated bone marrow cell numbers in normal and polycythemic mice were determined using /sup 3/H-thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR). The cellularities were estimated by extrapolating the exponential disappearance of labeled cells after a single injection of /sup 3/H-TdR to the time of injection. Dermestid beetles (Anthrenus piceus) were used to prepare tissue-free skeletons labeled with /sup 3/H-TdR. The correlation between tritium activity in bone marrow DNA and tritium derived from the combusted skeleton was determined. The total skeletal cellularity determined by isotope dilution analysis in both normal and polycythemic mice was 2.6 x 10(8) cells/mouse or 17.6 x 10(9) cells/kg body weight. Although the red cell component of the marrow was reduced in the polycythemic mouse, the total numbers of nucleated cells in both types of animals were similar. The differential distribution of cells in the polycythemic animal showed a twofold increase in granulocytic cells, which may explain the identical nucleated cell count in normal and in polycythemic mice.

  10. Combined VEGF and LMP-1 delivery enhances osteoprogenitor cell differentiation and ectopic bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuli; Cui, Fuai; Madhu, Vedavathi; Dighe, Abhijit S; Balian, Gary; Cui, Quanjun

    2011-02-01

    A novel strategy to enhance bone repair is to combine angiogenic factors and osteogenic factors. We combined vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) by using an internal ribosome entry site to link the genes within a single plasmid. We then evaluated the effects on osteoblastic differentiation in vitro and ectopic bone formation in vivo with a subcutaneously placed PLAGA scaffold loaded with a cloned mouse osteoprogenitor cell line, D1, transfected with plasmids containing VEGF and LMP-1 genes. The cells expressing both genes elevated mRNA expression of RunX2 and β-catenin and alkaline phosphatase activity compared to cells from other groups. In vivo, X-ray and micro-CT analysis of the retrieved implants revealed more ectopic bone formation at 2 and 3 weeks but not at 4 weeks compared to other groups. The results indicate that the combination of the therapeutic growth factors potentiates cell differentiation and may promote osteogenesis.

  11. The pulmonary pseudonodule: Characteristic features of a normal variant due to a bone thickening at the junction of the laminae and posterior spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The normal thickening of bone at the junction of the laminae and posterior spine should not be confused with a patholigc process. Its appearance on the plain radiograph and computed tomography is pathognomonic. (orig.)

  12. Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Han; Zhang, Kai; Qiao, Chunyan; Yuan, Anliang; Li, Daowei; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Ce; Xu, Xiaowei; Ni, Shilei; Zheng, Changyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate (PEI–al) nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(c)DNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI–al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI–al nanocomposites efficiently deliver the BMP-2 gene to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and that BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet is an effective way for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:24855355

  13. Deceptive appearance of normal variant of scaphoid bone in a teenage patient: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad N. Bhatti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Scaphoid fractures are a common injury in late teens and mid twenties with a peak period in skeletally immature children at about 15 years of age, although considered to be rare in first decade of life, its exact incidence in early teen age remains to be a subject of debate. We report an unusual case of anatomical variation of scaphoid bone at the level of waist which could potentially cause diagnostic confusion. A 14-years-old boy presented in the fracture clinic 2 weeks after injury to his Right wrist which was managed in a scaphoid cast. X-ray examinations, both at the time of injury and later on in the fracture clinic revealed features suspicious of a fracture at the level of waist of the scaphoid bone, however the clinical examination did not correlate with imaging, in view of that radiological imaging of the unaffected side was performed for comparison, which revealed it to be an anatomical variant of scaphoid at this age. To our knowledge there are very few cases of such variation reported in literature in this age group of patients. This case highlights the importance of anatomical variants in scaphoid bone in this age group, which might pose a diagnostic challenge and the need for appropriate management plan and reassurance to avoid unnecessary anxiety.

  14. Maturation disparity between hand-wrist bones in a Chinese sample of normal children: An analysis based on automatic boneXpert and manual Greulich and Pyle atlas assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ji; Dig, Xiao Yi [Dept. of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Lin, Fang Qin [Dept. of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    To assess the maturation disparity of hand-wrist bones using the BoneXpert system and Greulich and Pyle (GP) atlas in a sample of normal children from China. Our study included 229 boys and 168 girls aged 2 - 14 years. The bones in the hand and wrist were divided into five groups: distal radius and ulna, metacarpals, proximal phalanges, middle phalanges and distal phalanges. Bone age (BA) was assessed separately using the automatic BoneXpert and GP atlas by two raters. Differences in the BA between the most advanced and retarded individual bones and bone groups were analyzed. In 75.8% of children assessed with the BoneXpert and 59.4% of children assessed with the GP atlas, the BA difference between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones exceeded 2.0 years. The BA mean differences between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones were 2.58 and 2.25 years for the BoneXpert and GP atlas methods, respectively. Furthermore, for both methods, the middle phalanges were the most advanced group. The most retarded group was metacarpals for BoneXpert, while metacarpals and the distal radius and ulna were the most retarded groups according to the GP atlas. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges were closer to the chronological ages than those of the other bone groups. Obvious and regular maturation disparities are common in normal children. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges are more useful for BA estimation than those of the other bone groups.

  15. Runx2 is required for early stages of endochondral bone formation but delays final stages of bone repair in Axin2-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Carpio, Lomeli R.; Bradley, Elizabeth W.; Dudakovic, Amel; Lian, Jane B.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Kakar, Sanjeev; Hsu, Wei; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Runx2 and Axin2 regulate skeletal development. We recently determined that Axin2 and Runx2 molecularly interact in differentiating osteoblasts to regulate intramembranous bone formation, but the relationship between these factors in endochondral bone formation was unresolved. To address this, we examined the effects of Axin2 deficiency on the cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) phenotype of Runx2+/− mice, focusing on skeletal defects attributed to improper endochondral bone formation. Axin2 deficiency unexpectedly exacerbated calvarial components of the CCD phenotype in the Runx2+/− mice; the endocranial layer of the frontal suture, which develops by endochondral bone formation, failed to mineralize in the Axin2−/−:Runx2+/− mice, resulting in a cartilaginous, fibrotic and larger fontanel than observed in Runx2+/− mice. Transcripts associated with cartilage development (e.g., Acan, miR140) were expressed at higher levels, whereas blood vessel morphogenesis transcripts (e.g., Slit2) were suppressed in Axin2−/−:Runx2+/− calvaria. Cartilage maturation was impaired, as primary chondrocytes from double mutant mice demonstrated delayed differentiation and produced less calcified matrix in vitro. The genetic dominance of Runx2 was also reflected during endochondral fracture repair, as both Runx2+/− and double mutant Axin2−/−:Runx2+/− mice had enlarged fracture calluses at early stages of healing. However, by the end stages of fracture healing, double mutant animals diverged from the Runx2+/− mice, showing smaller calluses and increased torsional strength indicative of more rapid end stage bone formation as seen in the Axin2−/− mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate a dominant role for Runx2 in chondrocyte maturation, but implicate Axin2 as an important modulator of the terminal stages of endochondral bone formation. PMID:24973690

  16. Evaluation of Bone Metastasis from Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT and {sup 99mT}c HDP Bone Scintigraphy: Characteristics of Soft Tissue Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyo Jung; Choi, Yun Jung; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Jeong, Youg Hyu; Cho, Arthur; Lee, Jae Hoon; Yun, Mijin; Choi, Hye Jin; Lee, Jong Doo; Kang, Won Jun [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Bone metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can present with soft tissue formation, resulting in oncologic emergency. Contrast enhanced FDG PET/CT and bone scintigraphy were compared to evaluate characteristics of bone metastases with of without soft tissue formation from HCC. of 4,151 patients with HCC, 263 patients had bone metastases. Eighty five patients with bone metastasis from HCC underwent contrast enhanced FDG PET/CT. Fifty four of the enrolled subjects had recent {sup 99mT}c HDP bone scintigraphy available for comparison. Metastatic bone lesions were identified with visual inspection on FDG PET/CT, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was used for the quantitative analysis. Confirmation of bone metastasis was based on histopathology, combined imaging modalities, or serial follow up studies. Forty seven patients (55%) presented with soft tissue formation, while the remaining 38 patients presented without soft tissue formation. Frequent sites of bone metastases from HCC were the spine (39%), pelvis (19%), and rib cage (14%). The soft tissue formation group had more frequent bone pain (77 vs. 37%, p<0.0001), higher SUVmax (6.02 vs. 3.52, p<0.007), and higher incidence of photon defect in bone scintigraphy (75 vs. 0%) compared to the non soft tissue formation group. FDG PET/CT had higher detection rate for bone metastasis than bone scintigraphy both in lesion based analysis (98 vs. 53%, p=0.0015) and in patient based analysis (100 vs. 80%, p<0.001). Bone metastasis from HCC showed a high incidence of soft tissue formation requiring emergency treatment. Although the characteristic findings for soft tissue formation such as photon defect in bone scintigraphy are helpful in detection, overall detectability of bone metastasis is higher in FDG PET/CT. Contrast enhanced PET/CT will be useful in finding and delineating soft tissue forming bone metastasis from HCC.

  17. Antiosteoporotic Activity of Dioscorea alata L. cv. Phyto through Driving Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation for Bone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Yung Peng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Dioscorea alata L. cv. Phyto, Dispo85E, on bone formation and to investigate the mechanisms involved. Our results showed that Dispo85E increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bone nodule formation in primary bone marrow cultures. In addition, Dispo85E stimulated pluripotent C3H10T1/2 stem cells to differentiate into osteoblasts rather than adipocytes. Our in vivo data indicated that Dispo85E promotes osteoblastogenesis by increasing ALP activity and bone nodule formation in both intact and ovariectomized (OVX mice. Microcomputed tomography (μCT analysis also showed that Dispo85E ameliorates the deterioration of trabecular bone mineral density (tBMD, trabecular bone volume/total volume (BV/TV, and trabecular bone number (Tb.N in OVX mice. Our results suggested that Dispo85E is a botanical drug with a novel mechanism that drives the lineage-specific differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells and is a candidate drug for osteoporosis therapy.

  18. Clonal distribution of osteoprogenitor cells in cultured chick periostea: Functional relationship to bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, C.A.; Fair, C.A.; Tenenbaum, H.C.; Limeback, H.; Homareau, R.

    1990-01-01

    Folded explants of periosteum from embryonic chick calvaria form bone-like tissue when grown in the presence of ascorbic acid, organic phosphate, and dexamethasone. All osteoblast-like cells in these cultures arise de novo by differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells present in the periosteum. To study the spatial and functional relationships between bone formation and osteoprogenitor cells, cultures were continuously labeled with [3H]thymidine for periods of 1-5 days. Radioautographs of serial 2-microns plastic sections stained for alkaline phosphatase (AP) showed maximal labeling of 30% of fibroblastic (AP-negative) cells by 3 days while osteogenic cells (AP-positive) exhibited over 95% labeling by 5 days. No differential shifts in labeling indices, grain count histograms of fibroblastic and osteogenic cells or numbers of AP-positive cells were observed, indicating no significant recruitment of cells from the fibroblastic to the osteogenic compartment. Despite the continuous presence of [3H]thymidine, less than 35% of both osteoblasts and osteocytes were labeled at 5 days, indicating that only one-third of the osteoprogenitor cells had cycled prior to differentiation. Spatial clustering of [3H]thymidine-labeled cells was measured by computer-assisted morphometry and application of the Poisson distribution to assess contagion. Cluster size and number of labeled cells per cluster did not vary between 1-3 days, but the number of clusters increased 20-fold between Day 1 and Day 3. Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections showed that clusters formed long, tubular arrays of osteogenic cells up to eight cells in length and located within 2-3 cell layers from the bone surface. Selective killing of S-phase cells with two pulse labels of high specific activity [3H]thymidine at 1 and 2 days of culture completely blocked bone formation

  19. Osteoblastic mesenchymal stem cell sheet combined with Choukroun platelet-rich fibrin induces bone formation at an ectopic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifa; Weng, Yanming; Lu, Shengjun; Zong, Chunlin; Qiu, Jianyong; Liu, Yanpu; Liu, Bin

    2015-08-01

    To analyze the effects of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and investigate in vivo bone formation by MSC sheets with PRF. Cell proliferation and expression of osteogenesis-related genes within MSC sheets were assessed upon exposure to PRF from the same donors. We then injected MSC sheet fragments with or without PRF subcutaneously in nude mice and assessed bone formation by micro-computed tomography and histological analyses. PRF significantly stimulated MSC proliferation and osteogenesis in vitro. MSC sheets injected with or without PRF formed new bone, but those with PRF produced significantly more and denser bone. MSC sheets can be used to generate tissue engineered bone upon injection, and PRF increases the osteogenic capacity of MSC sheets in vitro and in vivo. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dietary emu oil supplementation suppresses 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy-induced inflammation, osteoclast formation, and bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu Nadhanan, Rethi; Abimosleh, Suzanne M; Su, Yu-Wen; Scherer, Michaela A; Howarth, Gordon S; Xian, Cory J

    2012-06-01

    Cancer chemotherapy can cause osteopenia or osteoporosis, and yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, and currently, no preventative treatments are available. This study investigated damaging effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on histological, cellular, and molecular changes in the tibial metaphysis and potential protective benefits of emu oil (EO), which is known to possess a potent anti-inflammatory property. Female dark agouti rats were gavaged orally with EO or water (1 ml·day(-1)·rat(-1)) for 1 wk before a single ip injection of 5-FU (150 mg/kg) or saline (Sal) was given. The treatment groups were H(2)O + Sal, H(2)O + 5-FU, EO + 5-FU, and EO + Sal. Oral gavage was given throughout the whole period up to 1 day before euthanasia (days 3, 4, and 5 post-5-FU). Histological analysis showed that H(2)O + 5-FU significantly reduced heights of primary spongiosa on days 3 and 5 and trabecular bone volume of secondary spongiosa on days 3 and 4. It reduced density of osteoblasts slightly and caused an increase in the density of osteoclasts on trabecular bone surface on day 4. EO supplementation prevented reduction of osteoblasts and induction of osteoclasts and bone loss caused by 5-FU. Gene expression studies confirmed an inhibitory effect of EO on osteoclasts since it suppressed 5-FU-induced expression of proinflammatory and osteoclastogenic cytokine TNFα, osteoclast marker receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB, and osteoclast-associated receptor. Therefore, this study demonstrated that EO can counter 5-FU chemotherapy-induced inflammation in bone, preserve osteoblasts, suppress osteoclast formation, and potentially be useful in preventing 5-FU chemotherapy-induced bone loss.

  1. Kaempferol-immobilized titanium dioxide promotes formation of new bone: effects of loading methods on bone marrow stromal cell differentiation in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Shuhei; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Kamio, Hisanobu; Okabe, Kazuto; Kuroda, Kensuke; Okido, Masazumi; Hibi, Hideharu

    2018-01-01

    Surface modification of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) implants promotes bone formation and shortens the osseointegration period. Kaempferol is a flavonoid that has the capacity to promote osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow stromal cells. The aim of this study was to promote bone formation around kaempferol immobilized on TiO 2 implants. There were four experimental groups. Alkali-treated TiO 2 samples (implants and discs) were used as a control and immersed in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) (Al-Ti). For the coprecipitation sample (Al-cK), the control samples were immersed in DPBS containing 50 µg kaempferol/100% ethanol. For the adsorption sample (Al-aK), 50 µg kaempferol/100% ethanol was dropped onto control samples. The surface topography of the TiO 2 implants was observed by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and a release assay was performed. For in vitro experiments, rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) were cultured on each of the TiO 2 samples to analyze cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition, and osteogenic differentiation. For in vivo experiments, TiO 2 implants placed on rat femur bones were analyzed for bone-implant contact by histological methods. Kaempferol was detected on the surface of Al-cK and Al-aK. The results of the in vitro study showed that rBMSCs cultured on Al-cK and Al-aK promoted alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition, and osteogenic differentiation. The in vivo histological analysis revealed that Al-cK and Al-aK stimulated new bone formation around implants. TiO 2 implant-immobilized kaempferol may be an effective tool for bone regeneration around dental implants.

  2. Bone Formation Following Sinus Augmentation with an Equine-Derived Bone Graft: A Retrospective Histologic and Histomorphometric Study with 36-Month Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Vinci, Raffaele; Polizzi, Elisabetta Maria; Cinci, Lorenzo; Pieri, Laura; Gherlone, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bone formation over time following maxillary sinus augmentation with an enzyme-deantigenic, bone collagen-preserving equine bone graft by retrospective assessment of histomorphometric data. Records of patients with atrophic ridges who underwent maxillary sinus augmentation with the enzyme-deantigenic equine bone graft and two-step implant placement between 3 and 12 months after the sinus-augmentation surgery were assessed retrospectively. The histomorphometric data were clustered in three classes according to time of collection from the augmentation surgery and analyzed to assess newly formed bone deposition and residual biomaterial degradation rates. Data concerning the 36-month clinical follow-up were also assessed. Records of 77 patients and 115 biopsy specimens were retrieved, and histomorphometric data were clustered (3 to 5 months, n = 33; 6 to 8 months, n = 57; 9 to 12 months, n = 25). Mean minimum atrophic ridge thickness was 4.9 ± 0.5 mm (range, 4.0 to 7.1 mm). The amount of newly formed bone and residual biomaterial did not significantly differ among the three clusters. Qualitative analysis showed a denser trabecular structure in late (> 8 months) samples. At the 36-month clinical follow-up, no differences were found among the implant success rates in the three groups, according to the Albrektsson and Zarb criteria for success. The overall implant success rate was 98.3%. Based upon this retrospective human study of 77 patients with 4 to 7 mm of residual bone, when enzyme-deantigenic equine bone is used for sinus augmentation, new bone formation occurs at an early time (augmentation surgery.

  3. Bone formation in mono cortical mandibular critical size defects after augmentation with two synthetic nanostructured and one xenogenous hydroxyapatite bone substitute - in vivo animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Michael; Kämmerer, Peer W; Henkel, Kai-Olaf; Gerber, Thomas; Frerich, Bernhard; Gundlach, Karsten K H

    2016-05-01

    Healing characteristics as well as level of tissue integration and degradation of two different nanostructured hydroxyapatite bone substitute materials (BSM) in comparison with a deproteinized hydroxyapatite bovine BSM were evaluated in an in vivo animal experiment. In the posterior mandible of 18 minipigs, bilateral mono cortical critical size bone defects were created. Randomized augmentation procedures with NanoBone(®) (NHA1), Ostim(®) (NHA2) or Bio-Oss(®) (DBBM) were conducted (each material n = 12). Samples were analyzed after five (each material n = 6) and 8 months (each material n = 6). Defect healing, formation of soft tissue and bone as well as the amount of remaining respective BSM were quantified both macro- and microscopically. For NHA2, the residual bone defect after 5 weeks was significantly less compared to NHA1 or DBBM. There was no difference in residual BSM between NHA1 and DBBM, but the amount in NHA2 was significantly lower. NHA2 also showed the least amount of soft tissue and the highest amount of new bone after 5 weeks. Eight months after implantation, no significant differences in the amount of residual bone defects, in soft tissue or in bone formation were detected between the groups. Again, NHA2 showed significant less residual material than NHA1 and DBBM. We observed non-significant differences in the biological hard tissue response of NHA1 and DBBM. The water-soluble NHA2 initially induced an increased amount of new bone but was highly compressed which may have a negative effect in less stable augmentations of the jaw. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Abnormal bone formation induced by implantation of osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance in the X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.; Masuhara, K.; Takaoka, K.; Ono, K.; Tanaka, H.; Seino, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse (Hyp) has been proposed as a model for the human familial hypophosphatemia (the most common form of vitamin D-resistant rickets). An osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance was subcutaneously implanted into the Hyp mouse. The implant was consistently replaced by cartilage tissue at 2 weeks after implantation. The cartilage matrix seemed to be normal, according to the histological examination, and 35sulphur ( 35 S) uptake was also normal. Up to 4 weeks after implantation the cartilage matrix was completely replaced by unmineralized bone matrix and hematopoietic bone marrow. Osteoid tissue arising from the implantation of bone inducing substance in the Hyp mouse showed no radiologic or histologic sign of calcification. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of endochondral ossification in the Hyp mouse might be characterized by the failure of mineralization in cartilage and bone matrix. Analysis of the effects of bone-inducing substance on the Hyp mouse may help to give greater insight into the mechanism and treatment of human familial hypophosphatemia

  5. The normal human chondro-osseous junctional region: evidence for contact of uncalcified cartilage with subchondral bone and marrow spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoddart Robert W

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chondro-osseous junctional region of diarthrodial joints is peculiarly complex and may be considered to consist of the deepest layer of non-calcified cartilage, the tidemark, the layer of calcified cartilage, a thin cement line (between the calcified cartilage and the subchondral bone and the subchondral bone. A detailed knowledge of the structure, function and pathophysiology of the normal chondro-osseous junction is essential for an understanding of the pathogenesis of osteoarthrosis. Methods Full thickness samples from human knee joints were processed and embedded in paraffin wax. One hundred serial sections (10 μm thick were taken from the chondro-osseous junctional region of a block from the medial tibial plateau of a normal joint. They were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and photographed. For a simple physical reconstruction images of each 10th sequential tissue section were printed and the areas of the photomicrographs containing the chondro-osseous junctional region were cut out and then overlaid so as to create a three-dimensional (3D model of this region. A 3D reconstruction was also made using computer modelling. Results Histochemical staining revealed some instances where prolongations of uncalcified cartilage, delineated by the tidemark, dipped into the calcified cartilage and, in places, abutted onto subchondral bone and marrow spaces. Small areas of uncalcified cartilage containing chondrocytes (virtual islands were seen, in two-dimensional (2D sections, to be apparently entombed in calcified matrix. The simple physical 3D reconstruction confirmed that these prolongations of uncalcified cartilage were continuous with the cartilage of zone IV and demonstrated that the virtual islands of uncalcified cartilage were cross-sections of these prolongations. The computer-generated 3D reconstructions clearly demonstrated that the uncalcified prolongations ran through the calcified cartilage to touch bone and

  6. [The reference of normal values of the sacroiliac joint index in bone scintigraphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastjanowicz, Przemysław; Iwanowski, Jacek; Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Elbl, Bogumiła; Birkenfeld, Bożena

    Scintigraphy of sacroiliac joints as functional imaging provides unique information on the existing disease process. By using radiopharmaceuticals that allow imaging of the metabolic activity within the joint, it is possible to assess the stage of the disease, even when there are no lesions in radiological images. Quantitative analysis of scintigrams of sacroiliac joints is performed by comparing the uptake in both of them in relation to the uptake in the sacral bone area. The values of sacroiliac (SI/S) indices are influenced by the age of the patient, sex, state of health, and a range of individual biological features. Therefore, reference values of SI/S ratios are very important for medical specialists who describe and diagnose locomotor system diseases. The aim of this paper is to develop a reference range of sacroiliac ratios. The innovativeness of this paper involves examining sacroiliac ratios for various age groups, in children and adult patients, taking their sex into consideration. The study comprised a group of 335 people with proper bone scintigraphy. These people were divided into children and patients aged ≥21. Children were divided into 4 age groups (1–5; 6–10; 11–15; 16–20) and adults into 6 age groups (21–30; 31–40; 41–50; 51–60; 61–70; ≥71). Sacroiliac ratios were calculated using the method of three rectangular region of interests located on the left and right sacroiliac joint and on the sacral bone. The sacroiliac ratio was calculated for both joints by dividing the average number of counts within a selected sacroiliac joint by the average number of counts within the sacral bone. SI/S borderline reference values covered the range of 1.18÷2.28 that was obtained for children aged ≤5 and for the group of 11–15-year-olds. Considerable discrepancies in the values of the coefficient for women and men were seen among 31–50-year-olds. Borderline reference results for the entire control group cover the range of 1.18 ±2

  7. Bone formation rather than inflammation reflects Ankylosing Spondylitis activity on PET-CT: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Bruijnen, Stefan TG; van der Weijden, Mignon AC; Klein, Joannes P; Hoekstra, Otto S; Boellaard, Ronald; van Denderen, J Christiaan; Dijkmans, Ben AC; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E; van der Laken, Conny J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Positron Emission Tomography - Computer Tomography (PET-CT) is an interesting imaging technique to visualize Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) activity using specific PET tracers. Previous studies have shown that the PET tracers [18F]FDG and [11C](R)PK11195 can target inflammation (synovitis) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and may therefore be useful in AS. Another interesting tracer for AS is [18F]Fluoride, which targets bone formation. In a pilot setting, the potential of PET-CT in ima...

  8. The relationship between inflammation and new bone formation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraliakos, Xenofon; Listing, Joachim; Rudwaleit, Martin; Sieper, Joachim; Braun, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    Spinal inflammation as detected by magnetic resonance imaging and new bone formation as identified by conventional radiographs are characteristic of ankylosing spondylitis. Whether and how spondylitis and syndesmophyte formation are linked are unclear. Our objective was to investigate whether and how spinal inflammation are associated with new bone formation in ankylosing spondylitis. Spinal magnetic resonance images and conventional radiographs from 39 ankylosing spondylitis patients treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents at baseline and after 2 years were analysed for syndesmophyte formation at vertebral edges with or without inflammatory lesions at baseline. Overall, 922 vertebral edges at the cervical and lumbar spine were analysed. At baseline, the proportion of vertebral edges with and without inflammation (magnetic resonance imaging) that showed structural changes (conventional radiographs) was similar (in total, 16.6% of all vertebral edges in 71.4% of patients). From the perspective of syndesmophyte formation (n = 26, 2.9%) after 2 years, there were more vertebral edges without (62%) than with (38%) inflammation at baseline (P = 0.03). From the perspective of spinal inflammation at baseline (n = 153 vertebral edges), more syndesmophytes developed at vertebral edges with (6.5%) than without (2.1%) inflammation (P = 0.002, odds ratio 3.3, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 7.4). Inflammation persisted in 31% of the initially inflamed vertebral edges (n = 132), and new lesions developed in 8% of the vertebral edges without inflammation at baseline (n = 410). From the perspective of spinal inflammation after 2 years (n = 72 vertebral edges), 5.6% of the vertebral edges showed syndesmophyte development in contrast to 1.9% of the vertebral edges with new syndesmophytes without inflammation (P = 0.06). These findings obtained in patients treated with anti-TNF agents suggest linkage and some dissociation of inflammation and new bone formation in

  9. Redundancy and molecular evolution: the rapid Induction of bone formation by the mammalian transforming growth factor-β3 isoform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Ripamonti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The soluble osteogenic molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β supergene family are the molecular bases of the induction of bone formation and postnatal bone tissue morphogenesis with translation into clinical contexts. The mammalian TGF-β3 isoform, a pleiotropic member of the family, controls a vast array of biological processes including the induction of bone formation. Recombinant hTGF-β3 induces substantial bone formation when implanted with either collagenous bone matrices or coral-derived macroporous bioreactors in the rectus abdominis muscle of the non-human primate Papio ursinus. In marked contrast, the three mammalian TGF-βs do not initiate the induction of bone formation in rodents and lagomorphs. The induction of bone by hTGF-β3/preloaded bioreactors is orchestrated by inducing fibrin-fibronectin rings that structurally organize tissue patterning and morphogenesis within the macroporous spaces. Induced advancing extracellular matrix rings provide the structural anchorage for hyper chromatic cells, interpreted as differentiating osteoblasts re-programmed by hTGF-β3 from invading myoblastic and/or pericytic differentiated cells. Runx2 and Osteocalcin expression are significantly up-regulated correlating to multiple invading cells differentiating into the osteoblastic phenotype. Bioreactors pre-loaded with recombinant human Noggin (hNoggin, a BMPs antagonist, show down-regulation of BMP-2 and other profiled osteogenic proteins’ genes resulting in minimal bone formation. Coral-derived macroporous constructs preloaded with binary applications of hTGF-β3 and hNoggin also show down-regulation of BMP-2 with the induction of limited bone formation. The induction of bone formation by hTGF-β3 is via the BMPs pathway and it is thus blocked by hNoggin. Our systematic studies in Papio ursinus with translational hTGF-β3 in large cranio-mandibulo-facial defects in humans are now requesting the re-evaluation of Bone

  10. Thymectomized, irradiated, and bone marrow-reconstituted chimeras have normal cytolytic T lymphocyte precursors but a defect in lymphokine production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprez, V.; Maziarz, R.; Weinberger, O.; Burakoff, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    A model system has been developed to study extrathymic T cell differentiation; mice have been thymectomized, lethally irradiated, and reconstituted with bone marrow cells depleted of Thy-1 + cells. After 8 wk, the spleen cells of these athymic, bone marrow-reconstituted chimeras contain Thy-1 + precytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) that are able to respond to antigen only if supernatant from Con A-activated T cells is added to culture. The phenotype of these pre-CTL is similar to that of thymocytes, suggesting that they may be immature T cells. Initial evaluation of the CTL repertoire of these athymic mice demonstrated that the CTL generated to trinitrophenyl-modified syngeneic cells are H-2-restricted, and that the CTL generated to alloantigens have many of the cross-reactivities observed in normal mice but not in nude mice. In this report, the authors demonstrate a helper T cell defect in these thymectomized chimeras. These chimeras lack an Ly-1 + helper cell required for thymocytes to differentiate to CTL. Further studies revealed that when spleen cells from these thymectomized chimeras were stimulated with Con A, they produced normal levels of interleukin 2. However, these splenocytes were defective in the production of another factor needed for CTL differentiation

  11. Body composition and bone mineral mass in normal and obese female population using dual X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massardo, T.; Gonzalez, P.; Coll, C.; Rodriguez, J.L.; Solis, I.; Oviedo, S.

    2002-01-01

    It has been observed that a greater percentage of body fat is associated with augmented bone mineral mass. Objective: The goal of this work was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD in g/cm 2 ) and content (BMC in g) and soft tissue components, fat and lean mass (in g) in whole body of adult female population in Chile. Method: We studied 185 volunteers, asymptomatic, excluding those using estrogens, regular medication, tobacco (>10 cigarettes/day), excessive alcohol intake or with prior oophorectomy. They were separated in 111 pre and 74 post menopausal and according to body mass index (BMI) they were 37 women > 30 kg/m 2 and 148 2 . A Lunar Dual X-Ray absorptiometer was used to determine whole BMD and BMC. Results: Post menopausal women were older and smaller [p:0.0001], with higher body mass index [p:0.0007] and with lower BMD and BMC and higher fat mass than the pre menopausal group; In the whole group, women with BMI ≥ 30 (obese) were compared with normal weight observing no difference in BMD. The fat mass incremented significantly with age. Obese women > 50 years presented greater BMC than the non-obese. The percentage of fat corresponded to 48% in the obese group and to 39% in the non-obese [p<0.0001]. Conclusion: Fat mass somehow protect bone mineral loss in older normal population, probably associated to multifactorial causes including extra ovaric estrogen production. Postmenopausal women presented lower mineral content than premenopausal, as it was expected

  12. 99mTechnetium-methylene diphosphonate bone imaging using low-intensity pulsed ultrasound: promotion of bone formation during mandibular distraction osteogenesis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuxiang; Li, Guoquan; Ao, Jianhua; Zhou, Libin; Ma, Qin; Liu, Yanpu

    2010-03-01

    Our objective was to assess the value of (99m)technetium-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone imaging in the use of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound to promote bony formation during mandibular distraction osteogenesis in dogs. The body of the mandibles in 7 dogs were cut between the first and the second premolar and were lengthened at the rate of 1mm/day, twice a day, for 20 days. During the period of distraction one lateral distraction gap was irradiated with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for 10min twice a day, and the other side was used as control. Serial radiographic inspections were made at different periods (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks) during the consolidation phase, followed by a plain radiograph and histological examination. The (99m)Tc-MDP imaging showed that the ratio of bone formation on the LIPUS-treated side was significantly higher than that on the control side during the early period of consolidation (before the 4th week), but later this was reversed and there were no significant differences between the two sides by the 12th week. Plain radiographs and histological examination showed that the new bone on the experimental side had matured earlier than that on the control side. Radionuclide bone imaging is a good way to assess the formation of bone after distraction osteogenesis.

  13. Evaluation of the normal values of bone densitometry in brazilian women population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.; Martins, L.R.F.; Alonso, C.R.; Blomer, E.

    1992-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) can vary according with color, sex, feed and knowing the miscegenation and nutritional state of the Brazilian people; it is obvious that the fixed values of Caucasian females BMD cannot be employed to the Brazilian women. We have studied 158 Brazilian women with average age of 42 ± 14 years in whom it was settled the BMD over the lumbar vertebral column (L2, L3 and L4) and the femoral neck with a gadolinium-153 source double-photon densitometer and analyzed images in a IBM/PC/AT 286 processor computer. It was determined the linear regression equation corresponding to the variation of the bone mineral density as a function of age. The results were: BMD-lumbar column = 1.405 - 0.0086 x age ± 0.013 g/cm 2 and BMD-femoral neck = 0.909 - 0.0034 x age ± 0.11 g/cm 2 preferred to the age group between 25 to 80 years old. The results analysis shows that the Brazilian women BMD is lesser than the Caucasian. (author)

  14. Pediatric spinal bone marrow: assessment of normal age-related changes in the MRI appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebag, G.H.; Dubois, J.; Tabet, M.; Bonato, A.; Lallemand, D.

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study of 100 children (0-15 years) without known bone marrow abnormality, was performed to elucidate the spectrum of the MRI appearance of spinal bone marrow with age on T1-weighted images at 0.5 T. Fatty marrow distribution and vertebral signal intensity (SI) relative to disk SI were noted in each subject, and allowed the identification of distinctive patterns. The spinal marrow patterns and their relative frequency for different age groupps were consistent with the known physiologic conversion from cellular to fatty marrow with age. Between the ages of 0 and 1 year, SI of corporeal ossification centers was similar or lower than SI of adjacent cartilage and disk in 87% of cases. Between the ages of 5 and 15 years, vertebral SI was higher than SI of adjacent disks in 90% of cases. A central or basivertebral zone of high SI consistent with focal fatty marrow was found in 16% and 31% of cases respectively. In conclusion, knowledge of these conversion patterns should serve as a practical aid in the interpretation of MRI examinations of the spine in children. (orig.)

  15. Nuclei pulposi formation from the embryonic notochord occurs normally in GDF-5-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Jennifer A; Harfe, Brian D

    2011-11-15

    The transition of the mouse embryonic notochord into nuclei pulposi was determined ("fate mapped") in vivo in growth and differentiating factor-5 (GDF-5)-null mice using the Shhcre and R26R alleles. To determine whether abnormal nuclei pulposi formation from the embryonic notochord was responsible for defects present in adult nuclei pulposi of Gdf-5-null mice. The development, maintenance, and degeneration of the intervertebral disc are not understood. Previously, we demonstrated that all cells in the adult nucleus pulposus of normal mice are derived from the embryonic notochord. Gdf-5-null mice have been reported to contain intervertebral discs in which the nucleus pulposus is abnormal. It is currently unclear if disc defects in Gdf-5-null mice arise during the formation of nuclei pulposi from the notochord during embryogenesis or result from progressive postnatal degeneration of nuclei pulposi. Gdf-5 messenger RNA expression was examined in the discs of wild-type embryos by RNA in situ hybridization to determine when and where this gene was expressed. To examine nucleus pulposus formation in Gdf-5-null mice, intervertebral discs in which embryonic notochord cells were marked were analyzed in newborn and 24-week-old mice. Our Gdf-5 messenger RNA in situ experiments determined that this gene is localized to the annulus fibrosus and not the nucleus pulposus in mouse embryos. Notochord fate-mapping experiments revealed that notochord cells in Gdf-5-null mice correctly form nuclei pulposi. Our data suggest that the defects reported in the nucleus pulposus of adult Gdf-5-null mice do not result from abnormal patterning of the embryonic notochord. The use of mouse alleles to mark cells that produce all cell types that reside in the adult nucleus pulposus will allow for a detailed examination of disc formation in other mouse mutants that have been reported to contain disc defects.

  16. Promoted new bone formation in maxillary distraction osteogenesis using a tissue-engineered osteogenic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kazuhiko; Hibi, Hideharu; Yamada, Yoichi; Ueda, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    Bilateral maxillary distraction was performed at a higher rate in rabbits to determine whether locally applied tissue-engineered osteogenic material (TEOM) enhances bone regeneration. The material was an injectable gel composed of autologous mesenchymal stem cells, which were cultured then induced to be osteogenic in character, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). After a 5-day latency period, distraction devices were activated at a rate of 2.0 mm once daily for 4 days. Twelve rabbits were divided into 2 groups. At the end of distraction, the experimental group of rabbits received an injection of TEOM into the distracted tissue on one side, whereas, saline solution was injected into the distracted tissue on the contralateral side as the internal control. An additional control group received an injection of PRP or saline solution into the distracted tissue in the same way as the experimental group. The distraction regenerates were assessed by radiological and histomorphometric analyses. The radiodensity of the distraction gap injected with TEOM was significantly higher than that injected with PRP or saline solution at 2, 3, and 4 weeks postdistraction. The histomorphometric analysis also showed that both new bone zone and bony content in the distraction gap injected with TEOM were significantly increased when compared with PRP or saline solution. Our results demonstrated that the distraction gap injected with TEOM showed significant new bone formation. Therefore, injections of TEOM may be able to compensate for insufficient distraction gaps.

  17. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, J S; Nyengaard, J R; Duruox, M; Brüel, A

    2014-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind limb. Sixty female Wistar rats, 14 weeks old, were divided into the following groups: baseline, controls, BTX, BTX+GH, and GH. GH was given at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. Compared with controls, BTX resulted in lower periosteal bone formation rate (BFR/BS,-79%, Pbone mineral density (aBMD, -13%, Pbone volume (BV/TV, -26%, Pbone strength (-12%, Pbone strength was found. In addition, GH partly prevented loss of muscle mass (+29% vs. BTX, P<0.001), and tended to prevent loss of muscle CSA (+11%, P=0.064). In conclusion, GH mitigates disuse-induced loss of periosteal BFR/BS at the mid-femur and rectus femoris muscle mass.

  18. Additive Effects of Mechanical Marrow Ablation and PTH Treatment on de Novo Bone Formation in Mature Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi A. Carlson Scholz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ablation of bone marrow in young rats induces rapid but transient bone growth, which can be enhanced and maintained for three weeks by the administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH. Additionally, marrow ablation, followed by PTH treatment for three months leads to increased cortical thickness. In this study, we sought to determine whether PTH enhances bone formation after marrow ablation in aged rats. Aged rats underwent unilateral femoral marrow ablation and treatment with PTH or vehicle for four weeks. Both femurs from each rat were analyzed by X-ray and pQCT, then analyzed either by microCT, histology or biomechanical testing. Marrow ablation alone induced transient bone formation of low abundance that persisted over four weeks, while marrow ablation followed by PTH induced bone formation of high abundance that also persisted over four weeks. Our data confirms that the osteo-inducive effect of marrow ablation and the additive effect of marrow ablation, followed by PTH, occurs in aged rats. Our observations open new avenues of investigations in the field of tissue regeneration. Local marrow ablation, in conjunction with an anabolic agent, might provide a new platform for rapid site-directed bone growth in areas of high bone loss, such as in the hip and wrist, which are subject to fracture.

  19. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density in normal postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Kamineni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted with the objective of assessing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD in postmenopausal women (PMW, to detect osteopenia or osteoporosis in PMW and to establish a correlation between serum 25(OHD levels and bone mineral density (BMD. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 healthy PMW were selected, and a prospective observational study was conducted to correlate the BMD with serum 25(OHD levels. Their laboratory investigations along with serum 25(OHD levels were done. Their BMD was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine and neck of femur; T-scores were derived. Correlation analysis was done to investigate the relationship between serum 25(OHD levels and BMD. Results: The proportion of osteoporosis at the hip was 31.9% in deficient group, 16.1% in insufficient, and 18.2% in sufficient group and at lumbar spine, it was 27.7%, 16.1%, and 22.7%, respectively. Forty-seven percent of PMW had deficient (<20 ng/ml serum 25(OHD levels and 31% had insufficiency. T-score at hip in deficient group was −2.05 ± 0.25, and in an insufficient group, it was −1.79 ± 0.13; T-score at lumbar spine was −1.92 ± 0.12 and −1.79 ± 0.12, respectively, but both were not statistically significant. Osteoporosis was seen in 24%, osteopenia in 55% at hip level and 23% and 59% respectively at lumbar spine. There was no association between serum 25(OHD levels and BMD neither at hip nor at lumbar spine ( P = 0.51 and P = 0.79 respectively. Conclusion: In this study, among our cohort of patients there was no correlation between serum 25(OHD levels and BMD. However, Vitamin D deficiency coexists with low BMD. Vitamin D insufficiency is a common risk factor for osteoporosis associated with increased bone remodeling and low bone mass.

  20. Role of HTRA1 in bone formation and regeneration: In vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Filliat

    Full Text Available The role of mammalian high temperature requirement protease A1 (HTRA1 in somatic stem cell differentiation and mineralized matrix formation remains controversial, having been demonstrated to impart either anti- or pro-osteogenic effects, depending on the in vitro cell model used. The aim of this study was therefore to further evaluate the role of HTRA1 in regulating the differentiation potential and lineage commitment of murine mesenchymal stem cells in vitro, and to assess its influence on bone structure and regeneration in vivo. Our results demonstrated that short hairpin RNA-mediated ablation of Htra1 in the murine mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 increased the expression of several osteogenic gene markers, and significantly enhanced matrix mineralization in response to BMP-2 stimulation. These effects were concomitant with decreases in the expression of chondrogenic gene markers, and increases in adipogenic gene expression and lipid accrual. Despite the profound effects of loss-of-function of HTRA1 on this in vitro osteochondral model, these were not reproduced in vivo, where bone microarchitecture and regeneration in 16-week-old Htra1-knockout mice remained unaltered as compared to wild-type controls. By comparison, analysis of femurs from 52-week-old mice revealed that bone structure was better preserved in Htra1-knockout mice than age-matched wild-type controls. These findings therefore provide additional insights into the role played by HTRA1 in regulating mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, and offer opportunities for improving our understanding of how this multifunctional protease may act to influence bone quality.

  1. Assessment of age-related bone loss in normal South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The range encompasses the mean and 2. SO to either side of the mean per decade. Subjects are regarded as being at high risk for fracture if the BMO falls below 2 SO of the mean (or the lowest quartile) relative to young normals (aged 30 - 39 years) (t-score). Both sets of graphs confirm the relatively steep fall in BMO after.

  2. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Does Not Drive New Bone Formation in Experimental Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa N van Tok

    Full Text Available Insulin like growth factor (IGF-I can act on a variety of cells involved in cartilage and bone repair, yet IGF-I has not been studied extensively in the context of inflammatory arthritis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether IGF-I overexpression in the osteoblast lineage could lead to increased reparative or pathological bone formation in rheumatoid arthritis and/or spondyloarthritis respectively.Mice overexpressing IGF-I in the osteoblast lineage (Ob-IGF-I+/- line 324-7 were studied during collagen induced arthritis and in the DBA/1 aging model for ankylosing enthesitis. Mice were scored clinically and peripheral joints were analysed histologically for the presence of hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteocalcin positive osteoblasts.90-100% of the mice developed CIA with no differences between the Ob-IGF-I+/- and non-transgenic littermates. Histological analysis revealed similar levels of hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteocalcin positive osteoblasts in the ankle joints. In the DBA/1 aging model for ankylosing enthesitis 60% of the mice in both groups had a clinical score 1<. Severity was similar between both groups. Histological analysis revealed the presence of hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteocalcin positive osteoblasts in the toes in equal levels.Overexpression of IGF-I in the osteoblast lineage does not contribute to an increase in repair of erosions or syndesmophyte formation in mouse models for destructive and remodeling arthritis.

  3. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes enhance electrochemical properties of titanium to determine in situ bone formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Webster, Thomas J [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)], E-mail: Thomas_Webster@Brown.edu

    2008-07-23

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) enhance osteoblast (bone-forming cell) calcium deposition compared to currently implanted materials (such as titanium). In this study, MWCNTs were grown out of nanopores anodized on titanium (MWCNT-Ti). The electrochemical responses of MWCNT-Ti were investigated in an attempt to ascertain if MWCNT-Ti can serve as novel in situ sensors of bone formation. For this purpose, MWCNT-Ti was subjected to a ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple and its electrochemical behavior measured. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed an enhanced redox potential for the MWCNT-Ti. These redox signals were superior to that obtained with bare unmodified Ti, which did not sense either oxidation or reduction peaks in the CVs. A further objective of this study was to investigate the redox reactions of MWCNT-Ti in a solution of extracellular components secreted by osteoblasts in vitro. It was found that MWCNT-Ti exhibited well-defined and persistent CVs, similar to the ferri/ferrocyanide redox reaction. The higher electrodic performance and electrocatalytic activity of the MWCNT-Ti compared to the bare titanium observed in this study were likely due to the fact that MWCNTs enhanced direct electron transfer and facilitated double-layer effects, leading to a strong redox signal. Thus these results encourage the further study and modification of MWCNT-Ti to sense new bone growth in situ next to orthopedic implants and perhaps monitor other events (such as infection and/or harmful scar tissue formation) to improve the current clinical diagnosis of orthopedic implants.

  4. Histone deacetylase 3 supports endochondral bone formation by controlling cytokine signaling and matrix remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpio, Lomeli R.; Bradley, Elizabeth W.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Weivoda, Megan M.; Poston, Daniel D.; Dudakovic, Amel; Xu, Ming; Tchkonia, Tamar; Kirkland, James L.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Oursler, Merry Jo; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are efficacious epigenetic-based therapies for some cancers and neurological disorders; however, each of these drugs inhibits multiple HDACs and has detrimental effects on the skeleton. To better understand how HDAC inhibitors affect endochondral bone formation, we conditionally deleted one of their targets, Hdac3, pre- and postnatally in type II collagen α1 (Col2α1)–expressing chondrocytes. Embryonic deletion was lethal, but postnatal deletion of Hdac3 delayed secondary ossification center formation, altered maturation of growth plate chondrocytes, and increased osteoclast activity in the primary spongiosa. HDAC3-deficient chondrocytes exhibited increased expression of cytokine and matrix-degrading genes (Il-6, Mmp3, Mmp13, and Saa3) and a reduced abundance of genes related to extracellular matrix production, bone development, and ossification (Acan, Col2a1, Ihh, and Col10a1). Histone acetylation increased at and near genes that had increased expression. The acetylation and activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were also increased in HDAC3-deficient chondrocytes. Increased cytokine signaling promoted autocrine activation of Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and NF-κB pathways to suppress chondrocyte maturation, as well as paracrine activation of osteoclasts and bone resorption. Blockade of interleukin-6 (IL-6)–JAK–STAT signaling, NF-κB signaling, and bromodomain extraterminal proteins, which recognize acetylated lysines and promote transcriptional elongation, significantly reduced Il-6 and Mmp13 expression in HDAC3-deficient chondrocytes and secondary activation in osteoclasts. The JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib also reduced osteoclast activity in Hdac3 conditional knockout mice. Thus, HDAC3 controls the temporal and spatial expression of tissue-remodeling genes and inflammatory responses in chondrocytes to ensure proper endochondral ossification during development. PMID

  5. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes enhance electrochemical properties of titanium to determine in situ bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Webster, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) enhance osteoblast (bone-forming cell) calcium deposition compared to currently implanted materials (such as titanium). In this study, MWCNTs were grown out of nanopores anodized on titanium (MWCNT-Ti). The electrochemical responses of MWCNT-Ti were investigated in an attempt to ascertain if MWCNT-Ti can serve as novel in situ sensors of bone formation. For this purpose, MWCNT-Ti was subjected to a ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple and its electrochemical behavior measured. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed an enhanced redox potential for the MWCNT-Ti. These redox signals were superior to that obtained with bare unmodified Ti, which did not sense either oxidation or reduction peaks in the CVs. A further objective of this study was to investigate the redox reactions of MWCNT-Ti in a solution of extracellular components secreted by osteoblasts in vitro. It was found that MWCNT-Ti exhibited well-defined and persistent CVs, similar to the ferri/ferrocyanide redox reaction. The higher electrodic performance and electrocatalytic activity of the MWCNT-Ti compared to the bare titanium observed in this study were likely due to the fact that MWCNTs enhanced direct electron transfer and facilitated double-layer effects, leading to a strong redox signal. Thus these results encourage the further study and modification of MWCNT-Ti to sense new bone growth in situ next to orthopedic implants and perhaps monitor other events (such as infection and/or harmful scar tissue formation) to improve the current clinical diagnosis of orthopedic implants

  6. Cyst-Like Osteolytic Formations in Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) Augmented Sheep Spinal Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hsin Chuan; Lee, Soonchul; Ting, Kang; Shen, Jia; Wang, Chenchao; Nguyen, Alan; Berthiaume, Emily A; Zara, Janette N; Turner, A Simon; Seim, Howard B; Kwak, Jin Hee; Zhang, Xinli; Soo, Chia

    2017-07-01

    Multiple case reports using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) have reported complications. However, the local adverse effects of rhBMP-2 application are not well documented. In this report we show that, in addition to promoting lumbar spinal fusion through potent osteogenic effects, rhBMP-2 augmentation promotes local cyst-like osteolytic formations in sheep trabecular bones that have undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Three months after operation, conventional computed tomography showed that the trabecular bones of the rhBMP-2 application groups could fuse, whereas no fusion was observed in the control group. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that the core implant area's bone volume fraction and bone mineral density increased proportionately with rhBMP-2 dose. Multiple cyst-like bone voids were observed in peri-implant areas when using rhBMP-2 applications, and these sites showed significant bone mineral density decreases in relation to the unaffected regions. Biomechanically, these areas decreased in strength by 32% in comparison with noncystic areas. Histologically, rhBMP-2-affected void sites had an increased amount of fatty marrow, thinner trabecular bones, and significantly more adiponectin- and cathepsin K-positive cells. Despite promoting successful fusion, rhBMP-2 use in clinical applications may result in local adverse structural alterations and compromised biomechanical changes to the bone. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. TU-F-12A-02: Quantitative Characterization of Normal Bone Marrow Proliferative Activity with FLT PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisse, N; Jeraj, R [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: [F-18]FLT PET is a tool for assessing health of bone marrow by evaluating its proliferative activity. This study establishes a baseline quantitative characterization of healthy marrow proliferation to aid in diagnosis of hematological disease. Methods: 31 patients (20 male, 11 female, 41–76 years) being treated for solid cancers with no history of hematological disease, osseous metastatic disease, or radiation therapy received pre-treatment FLT PET/CT scans. Total bone marrow was isolated from whole body FLT PET images by manually removing organs and applying a standardize uptake value (SUV) threshold of 1.0. Because adult marrow is concentrated in the axial skeleton, quantitative total bone marrow analysis (QTBMA) was used to isolate marrow in the lumbar spine, thoracic spine, sacrum, and pelvis for analysis. SUVmean, SUVmax, and SUVCV were used to quantify bone marrow proliferation. Correlations were explored between SUV and patient characteristics including age, weight, height, and BMI using the Spearman coefficient (ρ). Results: The population-averaged whole-skeleton SUVmean, SUVmax, and SUVCV were 3.0±0.6, 18.4±5.7, and 0.6±0.1, respectively. Uptake values in the axial skeleton were similar to the whole-skeleton demonstrated by SUVmean in the thoracic spine (3.6±0.6), lumbar spine (3.3±0.5), sacrum (3.0±0.6), and pelvis regions (2.8±0.5). Whole-skeleton SUVmax correlated with patient weight (ρ=0.47, p<0.01) and BMI (ρ=0.60, p<0.01), suggesting marrow activity is related to the body's burden. SUV measures in the thoracic spine, lumbar spine, sacrum, and pelvis were negatively correlated with age (ρ:−0.41 to −0.46, p≤0.02). These negative correlations reflect the fact that active marrow in the adult skeleton is localized in the axial skeleton and decreases with age. Conclusions: Normal bone marrow characterizations were determined using FLT

  8. Near surface silicide formation after off-normal Fe-implantation of Si(001) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanbabaee, B., E-mail: khanbabaee@physik.uni-siegen.de; Pietsch, U. [Solid State Physics, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D. [Fachbereich C - Physik, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Hübner, R.; Grenzer, J.; Facsko, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-14

    We report on formation of non-crystalline Fe-silicides of various stoichiometries below the amorphized surface of crystalline Si(001) after irradiation with 5 keV Fe{sup +} ions under off-normal incidence. We examined samples prepared with ion fluences of 0.1 × 10{sup 17} and 5 × 10{sup 17} ions cm{sup −2} exhibiting a flat and patterned surface morphology, respectively. Whereas the iron silicides are found across the whole surface of the flat sample, they are concentrated at the top of ridges at the rippled surface. A depth resolved analysis of the chemical states of Si and Fe atoms in the near surface region was performed by combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) using synchrotron radiation. The chemical shift and the line shape of the Si 2p core levels and valence bands were measured and associated with the formation of silicide bonds of different stoichiometric composition changing from an Fe-rich silicides (Fe{sub 3}Si) close to the surface into a Si-rich silicide (FeSi{sub 2}) towards the inner interface to the Si(001) substrate. This finding is supported by XAS analysis at the Fe K-edge which shows changes of the chemical environment and the near order atomic coordination of the Fe atoms in the region close to surface. Because a similar Fe depth profile has been found for samples co-sputtered with Fe during Kr{sup +} ion irradiation, our results suggest the importance of chemically bonded Fe in the surface region for the process of ripple formation.

  9. Postoperative radiation therapy after hip replacement in high-risk patients for development of heterotopic bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashem, R.; Rene, N.; Souhami, L.; Tanzer, M.; Evans, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. - To report the results of postoperative radiation therapy in preventing the development of heterotopic bone formation after hip replacement surgery in high-risk patients. Patients and methods. - Between 1991 and 2007, 44 patients were preventively treated with postoperative RT after total hip replacement. In total, 47 hips were treated. All patients were considered at high risk for developing heterotopic bone formation. Most patients (63.5%) were treated because of a history of severe osteoarthritis or ankylosing spondylitis. All patients were treated with shaped parallel-opposed fields with a single fraction of 7 Gy using 6 or 18 MV photons. Most patients (94%) received radiation therapy within 72 hours postoperative and in only three patients radiation therapy was delivered after 72 hours post-surgery (5-8 days). Results. - Minimum follow-up was 1 year. There were 18 females and 26 males. Median age was 63 years (range: 18-80). Treatments were well tolerated and no acute toxicity was seen post-radiation therapy. Only one of the 47 hips (2%) developed heterotopic bone formation. This patient received postoperative radiation therapy to both hips but only developed heterotopic bone formation in one of them. None of the three patients treated beyond 72 hours failed. To date no late toxicity has been observed. Conclusion. - The use of postoperative radiation therapy was an effective and safe treatment in the prevention of heterotopic bone formation in a high-risk group of patients undergoing total hip replacement. (authors)

  10. Association between in vivo bone formation and ex vivo migratory capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K.; Zaher, Walid; Larsen, Kenneth Hauberg

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a clinical need for developing systemic transplantation protocols for use of human skeletal stem cells (also known bone marrow stromal stem cells) (hBMSC) in tissue regeneration. In systemic transplantation studies, only a limited number of hBMSC home to injured tissues...... populations derived from telomerized hBMSC (hBMSC-TERT) with variable ability to form heterotopic bone when implanted subcutaneously in immune deficient mice. In vitro transwell migration assay was used and the in vivo homing ability of transplanted hBMSC to bone fractures in mice was visualized...... suggesting that only a subpopulation of hBMSC possesses "homing" capacity. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that a subpopulation of hBMSC defined by ability to form heterotopic bone in vivo, is capable of homing to injured bone. METHODS: We tested ex vivo and in vivo homing capacity of a number of clonal cell...

  11. Recombinant human IGF-1 produced by transgenic plant cell suspension culture enhances new bone formation in calvarial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Sher Bahadur; Bhattarai, Govinda; Kook, Sung-Ho; Shin, Yun-Ji; Kwon, Tae-Ho; Lee, Seung-Youp; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2017-10-01

    Transgenic plant cell suspension culture systems have been utilized extensively as convenient and efficient expression systems for the production of recombinant human growth factors. We produced insulin-like growth factor-1 using a plant suspension culture system (p-IGF-1) and explored its effect on new bone formation in calvarial defects. We also compared the bone regenerating potential of p-IGF-1 with commercial IGF-1 derived from Escherichia coli (e-IGF-1). Male C57BL/6 mice underwent calvarial defect surgery, and the defects were loaded with absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) only (ACS group) or ACS impregnated with 13μg of p-IGF-1 (p-IGF-1 group) or e-IGF-1 (e-IGF-1 group). The sham group did not receive any treatment with ACS or IGFs after surgery. Live μCT and histological analyses showed critical-sized bone defects in the sham group, whereas greater bone formation was observed in the p-IGF-1 and e-IGF-1 groups than the ACS group both 5 and 10weeks after surgery. Bone mineral density, bone volume, and bone surface values were also higher in the IGF groups than in the ACS group. Local delivery of p-IGF-1 or e-IGF-1 more greatly enhanced the expression of osteoblast-specific markers, but inhibited osteoclast formation, in newly formed bone compared with ACS control group. Specifically, p-IGF-1 treatment induced higher expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and osteopontin in the defect site than did e-IGF-1. Furthermore, treatment with p-IGF-1, but not e-IGF-1, increased mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells, with the attendant upregulation of osteogenic marker genes. Collectively, our findings suggest the potential of p-IGF-1 in promoting the processes required for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal body mass index, overweight, or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Juan Pablo; Rojano-Mejía, David; Pedraza, Javier; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Soriano, Ruth; García-García, Eduardo; Aguirre-García, María Del Carmen; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2013-05-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two important public health problems that greatly impact mortality and morbidity. Several similarities between these complex diseases have been identified. The aim of this study was to analyze if different body mass indexes (BMIs) are associated with variations in bone mineral density (BMD) among postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal weight, overweight, or different degrees of obesity. We studied 813 postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied. Height and weight were used to calculate BMI, whereas BMD in the lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We used ANCOVA to examine the relationship between BMI and BMDs of the LS, TH, and femoral neck (FN), adjusting for confounding factors. Based on World Health Organization criteria, 15.13% of women had normal BMI, 39.11% were overweight, 25.96% had grade 1 obesity, 11.81% had grade 2 obesity, and 7.99% had grade 3 obesity. The higher the BMI, the higher was the BMD at the LS, TH, and FN. The greatest differences in size variations in BMD at these three sites were observed when comparing women with normal BMI versus women with grade 3 obesity. A higher BMI is associated significantly and positively with a higher BMD at the LS, TH, and FN.

  13. Reduced bone formation markers, and altered trabecular and cortical bone mineral densities of non-paretic femurs observed in rats with ischemic stroke: A randomized controlled pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen N Borschmann

    Full Text Available Immobility and neural damage likely contribute to accelerated bone loss after stroke, and subsequent heightened fracture risk in humans.To investigate the skeletal effect of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo stroke in rats and examine its utility as a model of human post-stroke bone loss.Twenty 15-week old spontaneously hypertensive male rats were randomized to MCAo or sham surgery controls. Primary outcome: group differences in trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV measured by Micro-CT (10.5 micron istropic voxel size at the ultra-distal femur of stroke affected left legs at day 28. Neurological impairments (stroke behavior and foot-faults and physical activity (cage monitoring were assessed at baseline, and days 1 and 27. Serum bone turnover markers (formation: N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen, PINP; resorption: C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen, CTX were assessed at baseline, and days 7 and 27.No effect of stroke was observed on BV/TV or physical activity, but PINP decreased by -24.5% (IQR -34.1, -10.5, p = 0.046 at day 27. In controls, cortical bone volume (5.2%, IQR 3.2, 6.9 and total volume (6.4%, IQR 1.2, 7.6 were higher in right legs compared to left legs, but these side-to-side differences were not evident in stroke animals.MCAo may negatively affect bone formation. Further investigation of limb use and physical activity patterns after MCAo is required to determine the utility of this current model as a representation of human post-stroke bone loss.

  14. Bone formation rather than inflammation reflects ankylosing spondylitis activity on PET-CT: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnen, Stefan T G; van der Weijden, Mignon A C; Klein, Joannes P; Hoekstra, Otto S; Boellaard, Ronald; van Denderen, J Christiaan; Dijkmans, Ben A C; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E; van der Laken, Conny J

    2012-04-02

    Positron Emission Tomography - Computer Tomography (PET-CT) is an interesting imaging technique to visualize Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) activity using specific PET tracers. Previous studies have shown that the PET tracers [18F]FDG and [11C](R)PK11195 can target inflammation (synovitis) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and may therefore be useful in AS. Another interesting tracer for AS is [18F]Fluoride, which targets bone formation. In a pilot setting, the potential of PET-CT in imaging AS activity was tested using different tracers, with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and conventional radiographs as reference. In a stepwise approach different PET tracers were investigated. First, whole body [18F]FDG and [11C](R)PK11195 PET-CT scans were obtained of ten AS patients fulfilling the modified New York criteria. According to the BASDAI five of these patients had low and five had high disease activity. Secondly, an extra PET-CT scan using [18F]Fluoride was made of two additional AS patients with high disease activity. MRI scans of the total spine and sacroiliac joints were performed, and conventional radiographs of the total spine and sacroiliac joints were available for all patients. Scans and radiographs were visually scored by two observers blinded for clinical data. No increased [18F]FDG and [11C](R)PK11195 uptake was noticed on PET-CT scans of the first 10 patients. In contrast, MRI demonstrated a total of five bone edema lesions in three out of 10 patients. In the two additional AS patients scanned with [18F]Fluoride PET-CT, [18F]Fluoride depicted 17 regions with increased uptake in both vertebral column and sacroiliac joints. In contrast, [18F]FDG depicted only three lesions, with an uptake of five times lower compared to [18F]Fluoride, and again no [11C](R)PK11195 positive lesions were found. In these two patients, MRI detected nine lesions and six out of nine matched with the anatomical position of [18F]Fluoride uptake. Conventional radiographs showed structural

  15. The carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen in serum as a marker of bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, C; Jensen, L T; Johansen, J S

    1991-01-01

    injection every 3 weeks for 1 year; and (2) 40 women received either 2 mg 17 beta-estradiol plus 1 mg norethisterone acetate or placebo tablets daily for 1 year. Sixty-seven (85%) completed the 1 year of treatment. Serum concentration of type I procollagen carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP) was measured...... before and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of therapy. In addition, 32 of the women had an iliac bone biopsy taken after double tetracycline labeling. Initial serum PICP correlated significantly with histomorphometrically measured rate of bone formation (r = .4; P less than .05) and plasma bone Gla protein (r...

  16. Effect of Daily Exposure to an Isolated Soy Protein Supplement on Body Composition, Energy and Macronutrient Intake, Bone Formation Markers, and Lipid Profile in Children in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Wilson; Córdoba, Diana; Durán, Paola; Chacón, Yersson; Rosselli, Diego

    2018-01-16

    A soy protein-based supplement may optimize bone health, support physical growth, and stimulate bone formation. This study aimed to assess the effect of a daily soy protein supplement (SPS) on nutritional status, bone formation markers, lipid profile, and daily energy and macronutrient intake in children. One hundred seven participants (62 girls), ages 2 to 9, started the study and were randomly assigned to lunch fruit juice with (n = 57, intervention group) or without (n = 50, control group) addition of 45 g (230 Kcal) of a commercial SPS during 12 months; 84 children (51 girls, 33 boys) completed the study (45 and 39 intervention and control, respectively). Nutritional assessment included anthropometry and nutrient intakes; initial and final blood samples were taken; insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), osteocalcin, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were analyzed. Statistically significant changes (p < .05) in body mass index and weight for age Z scores were observed between groups while changes in body composition were not. Changes in energy, total protein, and carbohydrate intakes were significantly higher in the intervention group (p < .01). Calorie intake changes were statistically significant between groups (p < .001), and BAP decreased in both groups, with values within normal ranges. Osteocalcin, IGFBP-3, and lipid profile were not different between groups. IGF-I levels and IGF/IGFBP-3 ratio increased significantly in both groups. In conclusion, changes in macronutrient and energy intake and nutritional status in the intervention group compared to control group may ensure harmonious and adequate bone health and development.

  17. Quantifying the degradation of degradable implants and bone formation in the femoral condyle using micro-CT 3D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yichi; Meng, Haoye; Yin, Heyong; Sun, Zhen; Peng, Jiang; Xu, Xiaolong; Guo, Quanyi; Xu, Wenjing; Yu, Xiaoming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shuyun; Lu, Shibi; Wang, Zhaoxu; Wang, Aiyuan

    2018-01-01

    Degradation limits the application of magnesium alloys, and evaluation methods for non-traumatic in vivo quantification of implant degradation and bone formation are imperfect. In the present study, a micro-arc-oxidized AZ31 magnesium alloy was used to evaluate the degradation of implants and new bone formation in 60 male New Zealand white rabbits. Degradation was monitored by weighing the implants prior to and following implantation, and by performing micro-computed tomography (CT) scans and histological analysis after 1, 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks of implantation. The results indicated that the implants underwent slow degradation in the first 4 weeks, with negligible degradation in the first week, followed by significantly increased degradation during weeks 12-24 (Pformation increased as the implant degraded. The findings concluded that micro-CT, which is useful for providing non-traumatic, in vivo , quantitative and precise data, has great value for exploring the degradation of implants and novel bone formation.

  18. Evidence for Ongoing Modeling-Based Bone Formation in Human Femoral Head Trabeculae via Forming Minimodeling Structures: A Study in Patients with Fractures and Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hiroshige; Kondo, Naoki; Shimakura, Taketoshi; Fujisawa, Junichi; Kijima, Yasufumi; Kanai, Tomotake; Poole, Kenneth E S; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Takahashi, Hideaki E; Endo, Naoto

    2018-01-01

    Bone modeling is a biological process of bone formation that adapts bone size and shape to mechanical loads, especially during childhood and adolescence. Bone modeling in cortical bone can be easily detected using sequential radiographic images, while its assessment in trabecular bone is challenging. Here, we performed histomorphometric analysis in 21 bone specimens from biopsies collected during hip arthroplasty, and we proposed the criteria for histologically identifying an active modeling-based bone formation, which we call a "forming minimodeling structure" (FMiS). Evidence of FMiSs was found in 9 of 20 specimens (45%). In histomorphometric analysis, bone volume was significant higher in specimens displaying FMiSs compared with the specimens without these structures (BV/TV, 31.7 ± 10.2 vs. 23.1 ± 3.9%; p  modeling-based bone formation on trabecular bone surfaces occurs even during adulthood. As FMiSs can represent histological evidence of modeling-based bone formation, understanding of this physiology in relation to bone homeostasis is crucial.

  19. LLAMA: normal star formation efficiencies of molecular gas in the centres of luminous Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, D. J.; Burtscher, L.; Davies, R. I.; Koss, M.; Ricci, C.; Lutz, D.; Riffel, R.; Alexander, D. M.; Genzel, R.; Hicks, E. H.; Lin, M.-Y.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Riffel, R. A.; Schartmann, M.; Schawinski, K.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Saintonge, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L.; Treister, E.; Veilleux, S.

    2018-02-01

    Using new Atacama Pathfinder Experiment and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope spectroscopy of the CO 2→1 line, we undertake a controlled study of cold molecular gas in moderately luminous (Lbol = 1043-44.5 erg s-1) active galactic nuclei (AGN) and inactive galaxies from the Luminous Local AGN with Matched Analogs (LLAMA) survey. We use spatially resolved infrared photometry of the LLAMA galaxies from 2MASS, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel), corrected for nuclear emission using multicomponent spectral energy distribution fits, to examine the dust-reprocessed star formation rates, molecular gas fractions and star formation efficiencies (SFEs) over their central 1-3 kpc. We find that the gas fractions and central SFEs of both active and inactive galaxies are similar when controlling for host stellar mass and morphology (Hubble type). The equivalent central molecular gas depletion times are consistent with the discs of normal spiral galaxies in the local Universe. Despite energetic arguments that the AGN in LLAMA should be capable of disrupting the observable cold molecular gas in their central environments, our results indicate that nuclear radiation only couples weakly with this phase. We find a mild preference for obscured AGN to contain higher amounts of central molecular gas, which suggests connection between AGN obscuration and the gaseous environment of the nucleus. Systems with depressed SFEs are not found among the LLAMA AGN. We speculate that the processes that sustain the collapse of molecular gas into dense pre-stellar cores may also be a prerequisite for the inflow of material on to AGN accretion discs.

  20. A relationship between spinal new bone formation in ankylosing spondylitis and the sonographically determined Achilles tendon enthesophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sibel Zehra; Can, Meryem; Alibaz-Oner, Fatma; Keser, Gokhan; Kurum, Esra; Inal, Vedat; Yazisiz, Veli; Birlik, Merih; Emmungil, Hakan; Atagunduz, Pamir; Direskeneli, Haner; McGonagle, Dennis; Pay, Salih

    2016-03-01

    Spinal new bone formation is a major but incompletely understood manifestation of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We explored the relationship between spinal new bone formation and ultrasound (US)-determined Achilles enthesophytes to test the hypothesis that spinal new bone formation is part of a generalized enthesis bone-forming phenotype. A multicenter, case control study of 225 consecutive AS patients and 95 age/body mass index (BMI) matched healthy controls (HC) was performed. US scans of Achilles tendons and cervical and lumbar spine radiographs were obtained. All images were centrally scored by one investigator for US and one for radiographs, blinded to medical data. The relation between syndesmophytes (by modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score (mSASSS) and the number of syndesmophytes) and enthesophytes (with a semi-quantitative scoring of the US findings) was investigated. AS patients had significantly higher US enthesophyte scores than HCs (2.1(1.6) vs. 1.6(1.6); p = 0.004). The difference was significant in males (p = 0.001) but not in females (p = 0.5). The enthesophyte scores significantly correlated with mSASSS scores (ρ = 0.274, p gender-specific phenotype that could be a useful marker predicting of new bone formation.

  1. Effect of Cytokines on Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption during Mechanical Force Loading of the Periodontal Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kitaura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical force loading exerts important effects on the skeleton by controlling bone mass and strength. Several in vivo experimental models evaluating the effects of mechanical loading on bone metabolism have been reported. Orthodontic tooth movement is a useful model for understanding the mechanism of bone remodeling induced by mechanical loading. In a mouse model of orthodontic tooth movement, TNF-α was expressed and osteoclasts appeared on the compressed side of the periodontal ligament. In TNF-receptor-deficient mice, there was less tooth movement and osteoclast numbers were lower than in wild-type mice. These results suggest that osteoclast formation and bone resorption caused by loading forces on the periodontal ligament depend on TNF-α. Several cytokines are expressed in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement. Studies have found that inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 and IFN-γ strongly inhibit osteoclast formation and tooth movement. Blocking macrophage colony-stimulating factor by using anti-c-Fms antibody also inhibited osteoclast formation and tooth movement. In this review we describe and discuss the effect of cytokines in the periodontal ligament on osteoclast formation and bone resorption during mechanical force loading.

  2. Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin H

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Han Jin,1 Kai Zhang,2 Chunyan Qiao,1 Anliang Yuan,1 Daowei Li,1 Liang Zhao,1 Ce Shi,1 Xiaowei Xu,1 Shilei Ni,1 Changyu Zheng,3 Xiaohua Liu,4 Bai Yang,2 Hongchen Sun11Department of Pathology, School of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China; 3Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate (PEI–al nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(cDNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI–al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI

  3. Hyaluronic Acid Improves Bone Formation in Extraction Sockets With Chronic Pathology: A Pilot Study in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ju; Song, Hyun Young; Ben Amara, Heithem; Kyung-Rim, Kang; Koo, Ki-Tae

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies on ridge preservation focusing on fresh extraction sockets using graft materials for ridge preservation procedures have reported a delay in the tissue modeling and remodeling phases. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of hyaluronic acid (HA) on healing of infected sockets. Six beagle dogs were used in this study. Both mandibular third premolars were hemisected, and the distal roots were extracted. Subsequently, periodontal and endodontic lesions were induced at the remaining mesial root. After communication of the periodontal lesion, an endodontic periapical lesion was observed at 4 months, and the mesial roots of both the right and left sides were extracted. HA was applied into the socket of the test group, and no treatment was administered to the other group (control group). Three months after extraction of the mesial roots, the dogs were sacrificed, and histologic evaluations were performed. The sockets were filled by mineralized bone (47.80% ± 6.60%) and bone marrow (50.47% ± 6.38%) in the control group, whereas corresponding values were 63.29% ± 9.78% and 34.73% ± 8.97% for the test group, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups. Reversal lines and a copious lineup of osteoblasts were observed in the middle and apical parts of the sockets in the test group. An infected socket shows delayed healing of the socket wound, and HA, because of its osteoinductive, bacteriostatic, and anti-inflammatory properties, may improve bone formation and accelerate wound healing in infected sockets.

  4. Exercise enhance the ectopic bone formation of calcium phosphate biomaterials in muscles of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lijia; Yan, Shuo; Zhu, Jiang; Cai, Peiling; Wang, Ting; Shi, Zheng

    2017-08-01

    To investigate whether exercise can enhance ectopic bone formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) biomaterials in muscles of mice. Firstly, ten transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) knockout mice (group KO) and ten C57BL/6 mice (group WT) were randomly chosen, 10μg Ca-P biomaterials were implanted into the thigh muscle pouch of each mouse which was far away from femur; after that, all animals were kept in open field for free exploration 5min, and the movement time and distance were automatically analyzed. Ten weeks later, the Ca-P samples were harvested for histological staining and immunochemistry. Secondly, the Ca-P biomaterials were implanted into the thigh muscle pouch of C57BL/6 mice the same as previous operation, and then randomly divided into two groups: running group and non-running group (n=10); in running group, all mice run 1h as a speed of 6m/h in a treadmill for 10weeks. Ten weeks later, the blood was collected to detect the interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-12 levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the samples were harvested for histological staining. In groups KO and WT, both the movement time and distance were significant higher in group KO than that in group WT (Pstronger athletic ability of mice, causing better osteoinductivity of Ca-P biomaterials both in TRPV1 -/- mice and running mice; according to this, we want to offer a proposal to patients who suffer from bone defects and artificial bone transplantation: do moderate exercise, don't convalesce all the time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 3D perfusion bioreactor-activated porous granules on implant fixation and early bone formation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Henriksen, Susan S; Martinetti, Roberta; Overgaard, Søren

    2017-11-01

    Early fixation of total joint arthroplasties is crucial for ensuring implant survival. An alternative bone graft material in revision surgery is needed to replace the current gold standard, allograft, seeing that the latter is associated with several disadvantages. The incubation of such a construct in a perfusion bioreactor has been shown to produce viable bone graft materials. This study aimed at producing larger amounts of viable bone graft material (hydroxyapatite 70% and β-tricalcium-phosphate 30%) in a novel perfusion bioreactor. The abilities of the bioreactor-activated graft material to induce early implant fixation were tested in a bilateral implant defect model in sheep, with allograft as the control group. Defects were bilaterally created in the distal femurs of the animals, and titanium implants were inserted. The concentric gaps around the implants were randomly filled with either allograft, granules, granules with bone marrow aspirate or bioreactor-activated graft material. Following an observation time of 6 weeks, early implant fixation and bone formation were assessed by micro-CT scanning, mechanical testing, and histomorphometry. Bone formations were seen in all groups, while no significant differences between groups were found regarding early implant fixation. The microarchitecture of the bone formed by the synthetic graft materials resembled that of allograft. Histomorphometry revealed that allograft induced significantly more bone and less fibrous tissue (p formation was observed in all groups, while the bioreactor-activated graft material did not reveal additional effects on early implant fixation comparable to allograft in this model. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2465-2476, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Spectroscopic investigation on formation and growth of mineralized nanohydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Nithiya, S.; Shinyjoy, E.; Kavitha, L.

    Synthetic calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP,Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is a well-known bioceramic material used in orthopaedic and dental applications because of its excellent biocompatibility and bone-bonding ability. Substitution of trace elements, such as Sr, Mg and Zn ions into the structure of calcium phosphates is the subject of widespread investigation. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of Sr, Mg and Zn co-substituted nanohydroxyapatite by soft solution freezing method. The effect of pH on the morphology of bioceramic nanomaterial was also discussed. The in vitro bioactivity of the as-synthesized bioceramic nanomaterial was determined by soaking it in SBF for various days. The as-synthesized bioceramic nanomaterial was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X- ray diffraction analysis, Scanning electron microscopy and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis and Transmission electron microscopic techniques respectively. The results obtained in our study have revealed that pH 10 was identified to induce the formation of mineralized nanohydroxyapatite. It is observed that the synthesis of bioceramic nanomaterial not only support the growth of apatite layer on its surface but also accelerate the growth which is evident from the in vitro studies. Therefore, mineralized nanohydroxyapatite is a potential candidate in bone tissue engineering.

  7. Smurf1 Inhibits Osteoblast Differentiation, Bone Formation, and Glucose Homeostasis through Serine 148

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Shimazu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf1 targets the master regulator of osteoblast differentiation, Runx2, for degradation, yet the function of Smurf1, if any, during osteoblast differentiation in vivo is ill defined. Here, we show that Smurf1 prevents osteoblast differentiation by decreasing Runx2 accumulation in osteoblasts. Remarkably, mice harboring a substitution mutation at serine 148 (S148 in Smurf1 that prevents its phosphorylation by AMPK (Smurf1ki/ki display a premature osteoblast differentiation phenotype that is equally severe as that of Smurf1−/− mice, as well as a high bone mass, and are also hyperinsulinemic and hypoglycemic. Consistent with the fact that Smurf1 targets the insulin receptor for degradation, there is, in Smurf1ki/ki mice, an increase in insulin signaling in osteoblasts that triggers a rise in the circulating levels of osteocalcin, a hormone that favors insulin secretion. These results identify Smurf1 as a determinant of osteoblast differentiation during the development of bone formation and glucose homeostasis post-natally and demonstrate the necessity of S148 for these functions.

  8. In vitro study on bone formation and surface topography from the standpoint of biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, H; Soeda, Y; Niwa, K; Takahashi, M; Kawahara, D; Araki, N

    2004-12-01

    Effect of surface topography upon cell-adhesion, -orientation and -differentiation was investigated by in vitro study on cellular responses to titanium substratum with different surface roughness. Cell-shape, -function and -differentiation depending upon the surface topography were clarified by use of bone formative group cells (BFGCs) derived from bone marrow of beagle's femur. BFGCs consisted of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and osteogenetic stem cells (OSC). Cell differentiation of BFGCs was expressed and promoted by structural changes of cytoskeleton, and cell-organella, which was caused by mechanical stress with cytoplasmic stretching of cell adhesions to the substratum. Phagocytic monocytes of HSC differentiated to osteomediator cells (OMC) by cytoplasmic stretching with cell adhesion to the substratum. The OMC mediated and promoted cell differentiation from OSC to osteoblast through osteoblastic phenotype cell (OBC) by cell-aggregation of nodules with "pile up" phenomenon of OBC onto OMC. The osteogenesis might be performed by coupling work of both cells, OMC originated from monocyte of HSC and OBC originated from OSC, which were explained by SEM, TEM and fluorescent probe investigation on BFGCs on the test plate of cp titanium plates with different topographies. This osteogenetic process was proved by investigating cell proliferation, DNA contents, cell-adhesion, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcine productivity for cells on the titanium plates with different topographies. The study showed increased osteogenic effects for cells cultured on Ti with increased surface roughness. Possible mechanisms were discussed from a biomechanical perspective.

  9. Role of cellular oxalate in oxalate clearance of patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate stone formation and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlschläger, Sven; Fuessel, Susanne; Meye, Axel; Herrmann, Jana; Froehner, Michael; Albrecht, Steffen; Wirth, Manfred P

    2009-03-01

    To examine the cellular, plasma, and urinary oxalate and erythrocyte oxalate flux in patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stone formation vs normal controls. Pathologic oxalate clearance in humans is mostly integrated in calcium oxalate stone formation. An underlying cause of deficient oxalate clearance could be defective transmembrane oxalate transport, which, in many tissues, is regulated by an anion exchanger (SLC26). We studied 2 groups: 40 normal controls and 41 patients with COM stone formation. Red blood cells were divided for cellular oxalate measurement and for resuspension in a buffered solution (pH 7.40); 0.1 mmol/L oxalate was added. The supernatant was measured for oxalate immediately and 1 hour after incubation. The plasma and urinary oxalate were analyzed in parallel. The mean cellular oxalate concentrations were significantly greater in the normal controls (5.25 +/- 0.47 micromol/L) than in those with COM stone formation (2.36 +/- 0.28 micromol/L; P stone formation (0.31 +/- 0.02 mmol/L) than in the controls (0.24 +/- 0.02 mmol/L; P r = 0.49-0.63; P r = -0.29-0.41; P r = -0.30; P r = 0.25; P stone formation. Our data implicate the presence of a cellular oxalate buffer to stabilize plasma and urinary oxalate concentrations in normal controls.

  10. Adjustment technique without explicit formation of normal equations /conjugate gradient method/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, N. K.

    1974-01-01

    For a simultaneous adjustment of a large geodetic triangulation system, a semiiterative technique is modified and used successfully. In this semiiterative technique, known as the conjugate gradient (CG) method, original observation equations are used, and thus the explicit formation of normal equations is avoided, 'huge' computer storage space being saved in the case of triangulation systems. This method is suitable even for very poorly conditioned systems where solution is obtained only after more iterations. A detailed study of the CG method for its application to large geodetic triangulation systems was done that also considered constraint equations with observation equations. It was programmed and tested on systems as small as two unknowns and three equations up to those as large as 804 unknowns and 1397 equations. When real data (573 unknowns, 965 equations) from a 1858-km-long triangulation system were used, a solution vector accurate to four decimal places was obtained in 2.96 min after 1171 iterations (i.e., 2.0 times the number of unknowns).

  11. Inhibiting actin depolymerization enhances osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in human stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Shi, Kaikai; Frary, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton through actin dynamics is involved in a number of biological processes, but its role in human stromal (skeletal) stem cells (hMSCs) differentiation is poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that stabilizing actin filaments by inhibiting gene...... expression of the two main actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs): Cofilin 1 (CFL1) and Destrin (DSTN) in hMSCs, enhanced cell viability and differentiation into osteoblastic cells (OB) in vitro, as well as heterotopic bone formation in vivo. Similarly, treating hMSC with Phalloidin, which is known to stabilize...... polymerized actin filaments, increased hMSCs viability and OB differentiation. Conversely, Cytocholasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, reduced cell viability and inhibited OB differentiation of hMSC. At a molecular level, preventing Cofilin phosphorylation through inhibition of LIM domain kinase 1...

  12. Frequency of Osteoporosis and Osteopenia According To Bone Mineral Density of Proximal Femur Subregions in Normal and Osteopenic Postmenopausal Women With Respect to Total Hip Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ersöz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study 29 normal (mean age: 65.6 ± 5.1 years and 33 osteopenic (mean age: 67.6 ± 4.9 years postmenopausal women according to total bone mineral density (BMD of the hip were evaluated for BMD values of subregions of proximal femur. The percentages for osteoporosis and osteopenia with respect to subregions were 13.8% and 58.6% for femoral neck and 20.7% and 41.4% for Ward’s triangle in normal group. In trochanteric and intertrochanteric measurements there were no T scores below –2.5 but 17.2% of the subjects were osteopenic with regard to trochanteric and 6.9% were osteopenic due to intertrochanteric BMD values. The percentages for osteoporosis and osteopenia with respect to subregion measurements were 57.6% and 42.4% for femoral neck, 60.6% and 36.4% for Ward’s triangle, 3% and 78.8% for trochanteric, 9.1% and 87.9% for intertrochanteric regions in osteopenic group according to total hip values. Knowing that hip fracture risk is increasing 2-3 fold for 1 standart deviation decrease from the young adult mean value for all subregions and knowing the relation between cervical hip fractures and BMD values of Ward’s triangle and femoral neck and the relation between intertrochanteric fractures and trochanteric BMD values, it is recommended to evaluate the BMD values of subregions of the hip besides the total hip values in daily practice.

  13. The synergistic induction of bone formation by the osteogenic proteins of the TGF-β supergene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Ugo; Parak, Ruqayya; Klar, Roland M; Dickens, Caroline; Dix-Peek, Thérèse; Duarte, Raquel

    2016-10-01

    The momentum to compose this Leading Opinion on the synergistic induction of bone formation suddenly arose when a simple question was formulated during a discussion session on how to boost the often limited induction of bone formation seen in clinical contexts. Re-examination of morphological and molecular data available on the rapid induction of bone formation by the recombinant human transforming growth factor-β3 (hTGF-β3) shows that hTGF-β3 replicates the synergistic induction of bone formation as invocated by binary applications of hOP-1:hTGF-β1 at 20:1 by weight when implanted in heterotopic sites of the rectus abdominis muscle of the Chacma baboon, Papio ursinus. The rapid induction of bone formation in primates by hTGF-β3 may stem from bursts of cladistic evolution, now redundant in lower animal species but still activated in primates by relatively high doses of hTGF-β3. Contrary to rodents, lagomorphs and canines, the three mammalian TGF-β isoforms induce rapid and substantial bone formation when implanted in heterotopic rectus abdominis muscle sites of P. ursinus, with unprecedented regeneration of full thickness mandibular defects with rapid mineralization and corticalization. Provocatively, thus providing potential molecular and biological rationales for the apparent redundancy of osteogenic molecular signals in primates, binary applications of recombinant human osteogenic protein-1 (hOP-1) with low doses of hTGF-β1 and -β3, synergize to induce massive ossicles in heterotopic rectus abdominis, orthotopic calvarial and mandibular sites of P. ursinus. The synergistic binary application of homologous but molecularly different soluble molecular signals has indicated that per force several secreted molecular signals are required singly, synchronously and synergistically to induce optimal osteogenesis. The morphological hallmark of the synergistic induction of bone formation is the rapid differentiation of large osteoid seams enveloping

  14. Implantation of silicon dioxide-based nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and pure phase beta-tricalciumphosphate bone substitute granules in caprine muscle tissue does not induce new bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanaati Shahram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoinductive bone substitutes are defined by their ability to induce new bone formation even at heterotopic implantation sites. The present study was designed to analyze the potential osteoinductivity of two different bone substitute materials in caprine muscle tissue. Materials and methods One gram each of either a porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP or an hydroxyapatite/silicon dioxide (HA/SiO2-based nanocrystalline bone substitute material was implanted in several muscle pouches of goats. The biomaterials were explanted at 29, 91 and 181 days after implantation. Conventional histology and special histochemical stains were performed to detect osteoblast precursor cells as well as mineralized and unmineralized bone matrix. Results Both materials underwent cellular degradation in which tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive osteoclast-like cells and TRAP-negative multinucleated giant cells were involved. The ß-TCP was completely resorbed within the observation period, whereas some granules of the HA-groups were still detectable after 180 days. Neither osteoblasts, osteoblast precursor cells nor extracellular bone matrix were found within the implantation bed of any of the analyzed biomaterials at any of the observed time points. Conclusions This study showed that ß-TCP underwent a faster degradation than the HA-based material. The lack of osteoinductivity for both materials might be due to their granular shape, as osteoinductivity in goat muscle has been mainly attributed to cylindrical or disc-shaped bone substitute materials. This hypothesis however requires further investigation to systematically analyze various materials with comparable characteristics in the same experimental setting.

  15. Overexpression of BMP3 in the developing skeleton alters endochondral bone formation resulting in spontaneous rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Laura W; Cox, Karen; Carlo, Joelle M; Rosen, Vicki

    2009-09-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP) has been identified as a negative regulator in the skeleton as mice lacking BMP3 have increased bone mass. To further understand how BMP3 mediates bone formation, we created transgenic mice overexpressing BMP3 using the type I collagen promoter. BMP3 transgenic mice displayed spontaneous rib fractures that were first detected at E17.0. The fractures were due to defects in differentiation of the periosteum and late hypertrophic chondrocytes resulting in thinner cortical bone with decreased mineralization. As BMP3 modulates BMP and activin signaling through ActRIIB, we examined the ribs of ActRIIB receptor knockout mice and found they had defects in late chondrogenesis and mineralization similar to BMP3 transgenic mice. These data suggest that BMP3 exerts its effects in the skeleton by altering signaling through ActRIIB in chondrocytes and the periosteum, and this results in defects in bone collar formation and late hypertrophic chondrocyte maturation leading to decreased mineralization and less bone. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Immunological Reaction in TNF-α-Mediated Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kitaura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α is a cytokine produced by monocytes, macrophages, and T cells and is induced by pathogens, endotoxins, or related substances. TNF-α may play a key role in bone metabolism and is important in inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Cells directly involved in osteoclastogenesis include macrophages, which are osteoclast precursor cells, osteoblasts, or stromal cells. These cells express receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL to induce osteoclastogenesis, and T cells, which secrete RANKL, promote osteoclastogenesis during inflammation. Elucidating the detailed effects of TNF-α on bone metabolism may enable the identification of therapeutic targets that can efficiently suppress bone destruction in inflammatory bone diseases. TNF-α is considered to act by directly increasing RANK expression in macrophages and by increasing RANKL in stromal cells. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin- (IL- 12, IL-18, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ strongly inhibit osteoclast formation. IL-12, IL-18, and IFN-γ induce apoptosis in bone marrow cells treated with TNF-α  in vitro, and osteoclastogenesis is inhibited by the interactions of TNF-α-induced Fas and Fas ligand induced by IL-12, IL-18, and IFN-γ. This review describes and discusses the role of cells concerned with osteoclast formation and immunological reactions in TNF-α-mediated osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Generation of an rhBMP-2-loaded beta-tricalcium phosphate/hydrogel composite and evaluation of its efficacy on peri-implant bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Baek, Hae-Ri; Lee, Ji-Ho; Ryu, Mi Young; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Mee

    2014-01-01

    Dental implant insertion on a site with low bone quality or bone defect should be preceded by a bone graft or artificial bone graft insertion to heal the defect. We generated a beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and poloxamer 407-based hydrogel composite and penetration of the β-TCP/hydrogel composite into the peri-implant area of bone was evaluated by porous bone block experiments. The maximum penetration depth for porous bone blocks and dense bone blocks were 524 μm and 464 μm, respectively. We report the in-vivo performance of a composite of β-TCP/hydrogel composite as a carrier of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2), implanted into a rabbit tibial defect model. Three holes drilled into each tibia of eight male rabbits were (1) grafted with dental implant fixtures; (2) filled with β-TCP/hydrogel composite (containing 5 μg of rhBMP-2), followed by grafting of the dental implant fixtures. Four weeks later, bone-implant contact ratio and peri-implant bone formation were analyzed by radiography, micro-CT and histology of undecalcified specimens. The micro-CT results showed a significantly higher level of trabecular thickness and new bone and peri-implant new bone formation in the experimental treatment compared to the control treatment. Histomorphometry revealed a significantly higher bone-implant contact ratio and peri-implant bone formation with the experimental treatment. The use of β-TCP/poloxamer 407 hydrogel composite as a carrier of rhBMP-2 significantly promoted new bone formation around the dental implant fixture and it also improved the quality of the new bone formed in the tibial marrow space. (paper)

  18. De-novo Collateral Formation Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: Dependence on CCR2+ Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Faber, James E

    2015-01-01

    Wide variation exists in the extent (number and diameter) of native pre-existing collaterals in tissues of different strains of mice, with supportive indirect evidence recently appearing for humans. This variation is a major determinant of the wide variation in severity of tissue injury in occlusive vascular disease. Whether such genetic-dependent variation also exists in the heart is unknown because no model exists for study of mouse coronary collaterals. Also owing to methodological limitations, it is not known if ischemia can induce new coronary collaterals to form (“neo-collaterals”) versus remodeling of pre-existing ones. The present study sought to develop a model to study coronary collaterals in mice, determine whether neo-collateral formation occurs, and investigate the responsible mechanisms. Four strains with known rank-ordered differences in collateral extent in brain and skeletal muscle were studied: C57BLKS>C57BL/6>A/J>BALB/c. Unexpectedly, these and 5 additional strains lacked native coronary collaterals. However after ligation, neo-collaterals formed rapidly within 1-to-2 days, reaching their maximum extent in ≤ 7 days. Rank-order for neo-collateral formation differed from the above: C57BL/6>BALB/c>C57BLKS>A/J. Collateral network conductance, infarct volume−1, and contractile function followed this same rank-order. Neo-collateral formation and collateral conductance were reduced and infarct volume increased in MCP1−/− and CCR2−/− mice. Bone-marrow transplant rescued collateral formation in CCR2−/− mice. Involvement of fractalkine→CX3CR1 signaling and endothelial cell proliferation were also identified. This study introduces a model for investigating the coronary collateral circulation in mice, demonstrates that neocollaterals form rapidly after coronary occlusion, and finds that MCP→CCR2-mediated recruitment of myeloid cells is required for this process. PMID:26254180

  19. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2mg/day) for 52 weeks. In case of weight gain, up to two meals per day could be substituted with a low-calorie diet product in order to maintain the weight loss. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total, pelvic and arm-leg bone mineral content (BMC) and bone...... markers (CTX-1 and P1NP) were investigated before, after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: Change in BMC and bone markers after 52 weeks weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. RESULTS: Total, pelvic and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance...... in the control group (ptotal and arm-leg BMC loss was 4 times greater in the control group compared to the liraglutide group (estimated difference 27g (95% CI 5-48), p=0.01), although the 12% weight loss was maintained in both groups...

  20. Osteocytes, not Osteoblasts or Lining Cells, are the Main Source of the RANKL Required for Osteoclast Formation in Remodeling Bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhu Xiong

    Full Text Available The cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL, encoded by the Tnfsf11 gene, is essential for osteoclastogenesis and previous studies have shown that deletion of the Tnfsf11 gene using a Dmp1-Cre transgene reduces osteoclast formation in cancellous bone by more than 70%. However, the Dmp1-Cre transgene used in those studies leads to recombination in osteocytes, osteoblasts, and lining cells making it unclear whether one or more of these cell types produce the RANKL required for osteoclast formation in cancellous bone. Because osteoblasts, osteocytes, and lining cells have distinct locations and functions, distinguishing which of these cell types are sources of RANKL is essential for understanding the orchestration of bone remodeling. To distinguish between these possibilities, we have now created transgenic mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of regulatory elements of the Sost gene, which is expressed in osteocytes but not osteoblasts or lining cells in murine bone. Activity of the Sost-Cre transgene in osteocytes, but not osteoblast or lining cells, was confirmed by crossing Sost-Cre transgenic mice with tdTomato and R26R Cre-reporter mice, which express tdTomato fluorescent protein or LacZ, respectively, only in cells expressing the Cre recombinase or their descendants. Deletion of the Tnfsf11 gene in Sost-Cre mice led to a threefold decrease in osteoclast number in cancellous bone and increased cancellous bone mass, mimicking the skeletal phenotype of mice in which the Tnfsf11 gene was deleted using the Dmp1-Cre transgene. These results demonstrate that osteocytes, not osteoblasts or lining cells, are the main source of the RANKL required for osteoclast formation in remodeling cancellous bone.

  1. Normal values of bone mineral density of the accessory carpus bone in Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH) horse breed using optical densitometry in radiographic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, C.L.B. de; Vulcano, L.C.; Santos, F.A.M.; Soares, J.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Physiologic values of the bone mineral density (BMD) of the accessory carpal bone in Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH) horse breed were determined by radiographic optic densitometry (ROD), expressed in milimiters of alumminun (mmAl). Lateromedial radiographs of the carpus were taken from 12 intact males and 12 females, from 20 and up to 30 months of age. No significant difference was found in the average mineral bone density of the accessory carpal bone between males (4.7 ± 0.1mmAl) and females (4.,6 ± 0,1mmAl) from 20 to 30 months of age [pt

  2. Use of postoperative irradiation for the prevention of heterotopic bone formation after total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, J.E.; Greenberg, P.; Selch, M.T.; Thomas, B.J.; Amstutz, H.

    1988-01-01

    Formation of heterotopic bone (HTB) following total hip replacement may partially or completely ankylose the joint space, causing pain and/or limiting the range of motion. Patients at high risk for formation of HTB postoperatively include those with previous HTB formation, heterotopic osteoarthritis, and active rheumatoid spondylitis. Patients in these high risk groups have a 63-69% incidence of post-operative HTB formation, usually seen radiographically by 2 months post-operation. From 1980-1986 twenty-nine hips in 28 consecutively treated patients were irradiated post-operatively at the UCLA Center for the Health Sciences. The indication for irradiation was documented HTB formation previously in 26 of the 27 hips presented below. From 1980-1982 patients received 20 Gray (Gy) in 2 Gy fractions; from 1982-1986 the dose was reduced to 10 Gy in 2 Gy fractions. Twenty-seven hips in 26 patients completed therapy and were available for evaluation, with a minimum of 2 month follow-up, and a median follow-up of 12 months. Three of 27 hips developed significant HTB (Brooker grade III or IV) post-operatively, whereas 5 of 27 hips developed minor, nonsymptomatic HTB (Brooker grade I). When irradiation was begun by postoperative day 4, 0 of 17 hips formed significant HTB. If irradiation began after post-operative day 4, 3 of 10 hips formed significant HTB (Brooker grade III or IV). These 3 hips received doses of 10 Gy in one hip and 20 Gy in the other 2 hips. There were no differences in the incidence or severity of side effects in the 10 Gy vs. the 20 Gy treatment groups. Eighteen hips received 10 Gy, 8 hips 20 Gy and, 1 hip 12 Gy. In conclusion, 10 Gy in 5 fractions appears as effective as 20 Gy in 10 fractions at preventing post-operative formation of HTB. For optimal results, treatment should begin as early as possible prior to post-operative day 4

  3. Induction of bone formation by smart biphasic hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate biomimetic matrices in the non-human primate Papio ursinus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ripamonti, U

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies in the non-human primate Chacma baboon Papio ursinus were set to investigate the induction of bone formation by biphasic hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) biomimetic matrices. HA/β-TCP biomimetic matrices in a pre...

  4. Optimizing combination of vascular endothelial growth factor and mesenchymal stem cells on ectopic bone formation in SCID mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Chris H; Kjaergaard, Kristian; Ditzel, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were used in this study to evaluate optimal time points for VEGF stimulation to increase bone formation. METHODS: Twenty-eight SCID (NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J) mice had hydroxyapatite granules seeded with 5 × 105MSCs inserted subcutaneous. Pellets released VEGF on days 1...

  5. Effect of enamel matrix derivative and parathyroid hormone on bone formation in standardized osseous defects: an experimental study in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon S; Chen, B; Bornstein, Michael M

    2011-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have indicated that locally administered enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) may have a stimulatory effect on bone formation. However, it is not clear if the positive effect of EMD is related to its effect on the periodontium as a whole...

  6. Postlaminectomy Bone and Scar Formations in Presence of Ankaferd Blood Stopper and Bitter Melon (Momordica Charantia): An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruoglu, Enis; Onger, Mehmet Emin; Marangoz, Abdullah Hilmi; Kocacan, Suleyman Emre; Cokluk, Cengiz; Kaplan, Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative model of postlaminectomy was designed in rats. The effects of Momordica Charantia (MC) and Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) on the bone and scar formation after laminectomy were concurrently evaluated. Eighteen adult Wistar albino rats underwent lumbar laminectomy at L2-L3 vertebral levels, and were randomly assigned to one of three groups of six rats each. The Treatment group received MC and ABS treatment and the Control group was left untreated. Rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after treatment. Then; the lumbar spine was excised en-block, fixed and decalcified. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson"s trichrome, and evaluated for peridural fibrosis (PF), new bone formation, and vascular proliferation. Total volume of new bone in the MC group was significantly increased in comparison to the Control group (p < 0.05). Also; there was highly significant increase in terms of the total volume of fibrous tissue in the MC and ABS groups when compared with the Control group (p < 0.01). Besides; there was a highly significant difference between the MC and the Control groups (p < 0.01) in point of total volume of vessel. Both MC and ABS are not convenient to prevent the PF formation and MC may promote new bone formation and angiogenesis after lumbar laminectomy in rats.

  7. Telomerase deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells attenuates angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Gizard, Florence; Zhao, Yue; Cohn, Dianne; Heywood, Elizabeth B; Jones, Karrie L; Lovett, David H; Howatt, Deborah A; Daugherty, Alan; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2011-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are an age-related vascular disease and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we sought to determine whether the catalytic component of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), modulates angiotensin (Ang) II-induced AAA formation. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr-/-) mice were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with bone marrow-derived cells from TERT-deficient (TERT-/-) mice or littermate wild-type mice. Mice were placed on a diet enriched in cholesterol, and AAA formation was quantified after 4 weeks of Ang II infusion. Repopulation of LDLr-/- mice with TERT-/- bone marrow-derived cells attenuated Ang II-induced AAA formation. TERT-deficient recipient mice revealed modest telomere attrition in circulating leukocytes at the study end point without any overt effect of the donor genotype on white blood cell counts. In mice repopulated with TERT-/- bone marrow, aortic matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity was reduced, and TERT-/- macrophages exhibited decreased expression and activity of MMP-2 in response to stimulation with Ang II. Finally, we demonstrated in transient transfection studies that TERT overexpression activates the MMP-2 promoter in macrophages. TERT deficiency in bone marrow-derived macrophages attenuates Ang II-induced AAA formation in LDLr-/- mice and decreases MMP-2 expression. These results point to a previously unrecognized role of TERT in the pathogenesis of AAA.

  8. Long-Term Symptoms Onset and Heterotopic Bone Formation around a Total Temporomandibular Joint Prosthesis: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Guarda-Nardini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature on total alloplastic temporomandibular joint (TMJ reconstructions is encouraging, and studies on total alloplastic TMJ replacements outcomes showed acceptable improvements in terms of both pain levels and jaw function. Nevertheless, some adverse events, such as heterotopic bone formation around the implanted prosthesis, may occur. In consideration of that, the present manuscript describes a case of heterotopic bone formation around a total temporomandibular joint prosthesis, which occurred several years after the implant. Methods: The present manuscript describes a case of heterotopic bone formation around a total TMJ prosthesis, which occurred several years after the implant in patients, who previously underwent multiple failed TMJ surgeries. Results: Ten years after the surgical TMJ replacement to solve an ankylotic bone block, the patient came to our attention again referring a progressive limitation in mouth opening. A computerized tomography showed evidence of marked heterotopic bone formation in the medial aspects of the joint, where a new-born ankylotic block occupied most part of the gap created by resecting the coronoid process at the time of the TMJ prosthesis insertion. Conclusions: Despite this adverse event has been sometimes described in the literature, this is the first case in which its occurrence happened several years after the temporomandibular joint replacement. It can be suggested that an accurate assessment of pre-operative risk factors for re-ankylosis (e.g., patients with multiple failed temporomandibular joint surgeries and within-intervention prevention (e.g., strategies to keep the bone interfaces around the implant separated should be better standardized and define in future studies.

  9. A supra-cellular model for coupling of bone resorption to formation during remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pennypacker, Brenda L

    2014-01-01

    The bone matrix is maintained functional through the combined action of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts, in so-called bone remodeling units. The coupling of these two activities is critical for securing bone replenishment and involves osteogenic factors released by the ost......The bone matrix is maintained functional through the combined action of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts, in so-called bone remodeling units. The coupling of these two activities is critical for securing bone replenishment and involves osteogenic factors released...... by the osteoclasts. However, the osteoclasts are separated from the mature bone forming osteoblasts in time and space. Therefore the target cell of these osteoclastic factors has remained unknown. Recent explorations of the physical microenvironment of osteoclasts revealed a cell layer lining the bone marrow...... and forming a canopy over the whole remodeling surface, spanning from the osteoclasts to the bone forming osteoblasts. Several observations show that these canopy cells are a source of osteoblast progenitors, and we hypothesized therefore that they are the likely cells targeted by the osteogenic factors...

  10. Ectopic bone formation cannot occur by hydroxyapatite/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate bioceramics in green fluorescent protein chimeric mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lijia [Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Duan Xin [Department of Orthopaedics, Chengdu Second People' s Hospital, Chengdu (China); Department of Orthopaedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Xiang Zhou [Department of Orthopaedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Shi Yujun; Lu Xiaofeng; Ye Feng [Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Bu Hong, E-mail: hongbu@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Firstly, chimeric mouse model could be established successfully by bone marrow transplantation after irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondly, bone induction can occur in wild-type mice 90 days after implantation, but not occur in chimeric mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thirdly, destruction of immune function will block osteoinduction by calcium phosphate ceramics. - Abstract: Many studies have shown that calcium phosphate ceramics (CP) have osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties; however, the exact mechanism of bone induction has not yet been reported. This study was performed to investigate if destroying immunological function will influence osteogenesis, to explain the mechanism which is unclear. In this study, twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups (n = 10), in group 1, a hydroxyapatite/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate (HA/{beta}-TCP) ceramic was implanted into both the left and right leg muscles of each mouse; in group 2, ten mice experienced lethal irradiation, then were injected bone marrow (BM) cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice by tail veil, after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and muscle were harvested for biological analysis, after the GFP chimera model was established successfully, the same HA/{beta}-TCP ceramic was implanted into both leg muscles of each mouse immediately after irradiation. 45 and 90 days after implantation, the ceramics of the two groups were harvested to perform with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining; the results showed that there was no bone formation in group 2, while new bone tissues were detected in group 1. Our findings suggest that the BM cell from GFP transgenic mice is a good biomarker and it could set a good platform for chimera model; it also shows that BM cell is one of cell resources of bone induction, and destruction of immune function will impede

  11. Preservation and promotion of bone formation in the mandible as a response to a novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial in mineral deficiency induced low bone mass male versus female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Kritika; Naula, Diana P.; Mijares, Dindo Q.; Janal, Malvin N.; LeGeros, Raquel Z.; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and other trace mineral supplements have previously demonstrated to safely improve bone quality. We hypothesize that our novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial (SBM) preserves and promotes mandibular bone formation in male and female rats on mineral deficient diet (MD). Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive one of three diets (n = 10): basic diet (BD), MD or mineral deficient diet with 2% SBM. Rats were sacrificed after 6 months. Micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) was used to evaluate bone volume and 3D-microarchitecture while microradiography (Faxitron) was used to measure bone mineral density from different sections of the mandible. Results showed that bone quality varied with region, gender and diet. MD reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and volume and increased porosity. SBM preserved BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) in the alveolar bone and condyle in both genders. In the alveolar crest and mandibular body, while preserving more bone in males, SBM also significantly supplemented female bone. Results indicate that mineral deficiency leads to low bone mass in skeletally immature rats, comparatively more in males. Furthermore, SBM administered as a dietary supplement was effective in preventing mandibular bone loss in all subjects. This study suggests that the SBM preparation has potential use in minimizing low peak bone mass induced by mineral deficiency and related bone loss irrespective of gender. PMID:26914814

  12. Idiopathic New Bone Formation in the Femoral Shafts of a Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-il; Kim, Young-suk; Kim, Myung-Jin; Hong, Sung-Hyeok

    2008-01-01

    A 6.5-y-old cynomolgus monkey was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at Chungnam National University for suspected bone fracture. The monkey had been reared singly in a cage at a laboratory facility. An animal caretaker incidentally found a bone fragment protruding through the skin of the right leg. Radiographic examination revealed 2 new bone fragments clearly distinguishable from the original femurs; the fragments seemed to be inserted into both femurs. One of the new bone...

  13. Age-predicted values for lumbar spine, proximal femur, and whole-body bone mineral density: results from a population of normal children aged 3 to 18 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca; Beaumont, L.F. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Morrison, J. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Sala, A. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (Italy); Barr, R.D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    We measured areal bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and the proximal femur and for the total body in 179 subjects (91 girls and 88 boys) with no known disorders that might affect calcium metabolism. Results are also reported for lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) and for the derived variable, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). Expected-for-age values for each variable were derived for boys and girls by using an expression that represented the sum of a steady increase due to growth plus a rapid increase associated with puberty. Normal ranges were derived by assuming that at least 95% of children would be included within 1.96 population standard deviations (SD) of the expected-for-age value. The normal range for lumbar spine BMD derived from our population of children was compared with previously published normal ranges based on results obtained from different bone densitometers in diverse geographic locations. The extent of agreement between the various normal ranges indicates that the derived expressions can be used for reporting routine spine, femur, and whole-body BMD measurements in children and adolescents. The greatest difference in expected-for-age values among the various studies was that arising from intermanufacturer variability. The application of published conversion factors derived from DXA measurements in adults did not account fully for these differences, especially in younger children. (author)

  14. Age-predicted values for lumbar spine, proximal femur, and whole-body bone mineral density: results from a population of normal children aged 3 to 18 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, C.E.; Beaumont, L.F.; Morrison, J.; Sala, A.; Barr, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    We measured areal bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and the proximal femur and for the total body in 179 subjects (91 girls and 88 boys) with no known disorders that might affect calcium metabolism. Results are also reported for lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) and for the derived variable, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). Expected-for-age values for each variable were derived for boys and girls by using an expression that represented the sum of a steady increase due to growth plus a rapid increase associated with puberty. Normal ranges were derived by assuming that at least 95% of children would be included within 1.96 population standard deviations (SD) of the expected-for-age value. The normal range for lumbar spine BMD derived from our population of children was compared with previously published normal ranges based on results obtained from different bone densitometers in diverse geographic locations. The extent of agreement between the various normal ranges indicates that the derived expressions can be used for reporting routine spine, femur, and whole-body BMD measurements in children and adolescents. The greatest difference in expected-for-age values among the various studies was that arising from intermanufacturer variability. The application of published conversion factors derived from DXA measurements in adults did not account fully for these differences, especially in younger children. (author)

  15. Normal formation and repair of γ-radiation-induced single and double strand DNA breaks in Down syndrome fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.E.; Woods, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fibroblasts from patients with Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) were examined for repair capability of γ-radiation-induced single strand and double strand DNA breaks. Formation and repair of DNA breaks were determined by DNA alkaline and non-denaturing elution techniques. Down syndrome fibroblasts were found to repair single strand and double strand breaks as well as fibroblasts from normal controls. (orig.)

  16. Adaptive bone formation in acellular vertebrae of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.; Cleynenbreugel, van T.; Schipper, H.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian bone is an active tissue in which osteoblasts and osteoclasts balance bone mass. This process of adaptive modelling and remodelling is probably regulated by strain-sensing osteocytes. Bone of advanced teleosts is acellular yet, despite the lack of osteocytes, it is capable of an adaptive

  17. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  18. Formation times of RbHe exciplexes on the surface of superfluid versus normal fluid helium nanodroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppelmann, G.; Buenermann, O.; Stienkemeier, F.; Schulz, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    Nanodroplets of either superfluid He 4 or normal fluid He 3 are doped with Rb atoms that are bound to the surface of the droplets. The formation of RbHe exciplexes upon 5P 3/2 excitation is monitored in real time by femtosecond pump-probe techniques. We find formation times of 8.5 and 11.6 ps for Rb He 4 and Rb He 3 , respectively. A comparison to calculations based on a tunneling model introduced for these systems by Reho et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 113, 9694 (2000)] shows that the proposed mechanism cannot account for our findings. Apparently, a different relaxation dynamics of the superfluid opposed to the normal fluid surface is responsible for the observed formation times

  19. Controlled Retention of BMP-2-Derived Peptide on Nanofibers Based on Mussel-Inspired Adhesion for Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkyu; Perikamana, Sajeesh Kumar Madhurakkat; Ahmad, Taufiq; Lee, Min Suk; Yang, Hee Seok; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Kim, Kyobum; Kwon, Bosun; Shin, Heungsoo

    2017-04-01

    Although bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has been frequently used to stimulate bone formation, it has several side effects to be addressed, including the difficulty in optimization of clinically relevant doses and unwanted induction of cancerous signaling processes. In this study, an osteogenic peptide (OP) derived from BMP-2 was investigated as a substitute for BMP-2. In vitro studies showed that OP was able to enhance the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The peptides were then conjugated onto biocompatible poly-ι-lactide electrospun nanofibers through polydopamine chemistry. Surface chemical analysis proved that more than 80% of the peptides were stably retained on the nanofiber surface after 8 h of polydopamine coating during at least 28 days, and the amount of peptides that was retained increased depending on the polydopamine coating time. For instance, about 65% of the peptides were retained on nanofibers after 4 h of polydopamine coating. Also, a relatively small dose of peptides could effectively induce bone formation in in vivo critical-sized defects on the calvarial bones of mice. More than 50.4% ± 16.9% of newly formed bone was filled within the defect after treatment with only 10.5 ± 0.6 μg of peptides. Moreover, these groups had similar elastic moduli and contact hardnesses with host bone. Taken together, our results suggest that polydopamine-mediated OP immobilized on nanofibers can modulate the retention of relatively short lengths of peptides, which might make this an effective therapeutic remedy to guide bone regeneration using a relatively small amount of peptides.

  20. Extended flow cytometry characterization of normal bone marrow progenitor cells by simultaneous detection of aldehyde dehydrogenase and early hematopoietic antigens: implication for erythroid differentiation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascariello Caterina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH is a cytosolic enzyme highly expressed in hematopoietic precursors from cord blood and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood, as well as in bone marrow from patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. As regards human normal bone marrow, detailed characterization of ALDH+ cells has been addressed by one single study (Gentry et al, 2007. The goal of our work was to provide new information about the dissection of normal bone marrow progenitor cells based upon the simultaneous detection by flow cytometry of ALDH and early hematopoietic antigens, with particular attention to the expression of ALDH on erythroid precursors. To this aim, we used three kinds of approach: i multidimensional analytical flow cytometry, detecting ALDH and early hematopoietic antigens in normal bone marrow; ii fluorescence activated cell sorting of distinct subpopulations of progenitor cells, followed by in vitro induction of erythroid differentiation; iii detection of ALDH+ cellular subsets in bone marrow from pure red cell aplasia patients. Results In normal bone marrow, we identified three populations of cells, namely ALDH+CD34+, ALDH-CD34+ and ALDH+CD34- (median percentages were 0.52, 0.53 and 0.57, respectively. As compared to ALDH-CD34+ cells, ALDH+CD34+ cells expressed the phenotypic profile of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells, with brighter expression of CD117 and CD133, accompanied by lower display of CD38 and CD45RA. Of interest, ALDH+CD34- population disclosed a straightforward erythroid commitment, on the basis of three orders of evidences. First of all, ALDH+CD34- cells showed a CD71bright, CD105+, CD45- phenotype. Secondly, induction of differentiation experiments evidenced a clear-cut expression of glycophorin A (CD235a. Finally, ALDH+CD34- precursors were not detectable in patients with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA. Conclusion Our study, comparing surface antigen expression of

  1. Ectopic bone formation in nude rats using human osteoblasts seeded poly(3)hydroxybutyrate embroidery and hydroxyapatite-collagen tapes constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ronald; Hagedorn, Manolo Gunnar; Gelinsky, Michael; Werner, Carsten; Turhani, Dritan; Späth, Heike; Gedrange, Tomas; Lauer, Günter

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ectopic bone formation using tissue engineered cell-seeded constructs with two different scaffolds and primary human maxillary osteoblasts in nude rats over an implantation period of up to 96 days. Collagen I-coated Poly(3)hydroxybutyrate (PHB) embroidery and hydroxyapatite (HAP) collagen tapes were seeded with primary human maxillary osteoblasts (hOB) and implanted into athymic rnu/run rats. A total of 72 implants were placed into the back muscles of 18 rats. 24, 48 and 96 days after implantation, histological and histomorphometric analyses were made. The osteoblastic character of the cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR for osteocalcin. Histological analysis demonstrated that all cell-seeded constructs induced ectopic bone formation after 24, 48 and 96 days of implantation. There was more mineralized tissue in PHB constructs than in HAP-collagen tapes (at day 24; p embroidery or HAP-collagen tapes can induce ectopic bone formation. However, the amount of bone formed decreased with increasing length of implantation.

  2. The p27 Pathway Modulates the Regulation of Skeletal Growth and Osteoblastic Bone Formation by Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Zhan; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Rong; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) 1-84 knock-in mice (Pthrp KI) develop skeletal growth retardation and defective osteoblastic bone formation. To further examine the mechanisms underlying this phenotype, microarray analyses of differential gene expression profiles were performed in long bone extracts from Pthrp KI mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. We found that the expression levels of p27, p16, and p53 were significantly upregulated in Pthrp KI mice relative to WT littermates. To determine whether p27 was involved in the regulation by PTHrP of skeletal growth and development in vivo, we generated compound mutant mice, which were homozygous for both p27 deletion and the Pthrp KI mutation (p27(-/-) Pthrp KI). We then compared p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice with p27(-/-), Pthrp KI, and WT littermates. Deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice resulted in a longer lifespan, increased body weight, and improvement in skeletal growth. At 2 weeks of age, skeletal parameters, including length of long bones, size of epiphyses, numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive chondrocytes, bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-, type I collagen-, and osteocalcin-positive bone areas were increased in p27(-/-) mice and reduced in both Pthrp KI and p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with WT mice; however, these parameters were increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. As well, protein expression levels of PTHR, IGF-1, and Bmi-1, and the numbers of total colony-forming unit fibroblastic (CFU-f) and ALP-positive CFU-f were similarly increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. Our results demonstrate that deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice can partially rescue defects in skeletal growth and osteoblastic bone formation by enhancing endochondral bone formation and osteogenesis. These studies, therefore, indicate that the p27 pathway may function downstream in the action

  3. Bone apatite composition of necrotic trabecular bone in the femoral head of immature piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruwajoye, Olumide O; Kim, Harry K W; Aswath, Pranesh B

    2015-04-01

    Ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (IOFH) can lead to excessive resorption of the trabecular bone and collapse of the femoral head as a structure. A well-known mineral component to trabecular bone is hydroxyapatite, which can be present in many forms due to ionic substitution, thus altering chemical composition. Unfortunately, very little is known about the chemical changes to bone apatite following IOFH. We hypothesized that the apatite composition changes in necrotic bone possibly contribute to increased osteoclast resorption and structural collapse of the femoral head. The purpose of this study was to assess the macroscopic and local phosphate composition of actively resorbed necrotic trabecular bone to isolate differences between areas of increased osteoclast resorption and normal bone formation. A piglet model of IOFH was used. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histology, X-ray absorbance near edge structure (XANES), and Raman spectroscopy were performed on femoral heads to characterize normal and necrotic trabecular bone. Backscattered SEM, micro-computed tomography and histology showed deformity and active resorption of necrotic bone compared to normal. XANES and Raman spectroscopy obtained from actively resorbed necrotic bone and normal bone showed increased carbonate-to-phosphate content in the necrotic bone. The changes in the apatite composition due to carbonate substitution may play a role in the increased resorption of necrotic bone due to its increase in solubility. Indeed, a better understanding of the apatite composition of necrotic bone could shed light on osteoclast activity and potentially improve therapeutic treatments that target excessive resorption of bone.

  4. Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins and Msx genes during root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, T; Tummers, M; Thesleff, I

    2003-03-01

    Like crown development, root formation is also regulated by interactions between epithelial and mesenchymml tissues. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), together with the transcription factors Msx1 and Msx2, play important roles in these interactions during early tooth morphogenesis. To investigate the involvement of this signaling pathway in root development, we analyzed the expression patterns of Bmp2, Bmp3, Bmp4, and Bmp7 as well as Msx1 and Msx2 in the roots of mouse molars. Bmp4 was expressed in the apical mesenchyme and Msx2 in the root sheath. However, Bmps were not detected in the root sheath epithelium, and Msx transcripts were absent from the underlying mesenchyme. These findings indicate that this Bmp signaling pathway, required for tooth initiation, does not regulate root development, but we suggest that root shape may be regulated by a mechanism similar to that regulating crown shape in cap-stage tooth germs. Msx2 expression continued in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and the nearby cementoblasts intensely expressed Bmp3, which may regulate some functions of the fragmented epithelium.

  5. Regulation of extracellular matrix vesicles via rapid responses to steroid hormones during endochondral bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmussen, Niels; Lin, Zhao; McClure, Michael J; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2017-12-09

    Endochondral bone formation is a precise and highly ordered process whose exact regulatory framework is still being elucidated. Multiple regulatory pathways are known to be involved. In some cases, regulation impacts gene expression, resulting in changes in chondrocyte phenotypic expression and extracellular matrix synthesis. Rapid regulatory mechanisms are also involved, resulting in release of enzymes, factors and micro RNAs stored in extracellular matrisomes called matrix vesicles. Vitamin D metabolites modulate endochondral development via both genomic and rapid membrane-associated signaling pathways. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and a membrane associated receptor, protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3). 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] affects primarily chondrocytes in the resting zone (RC) of the growth plate, whereas 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 affects cells in the prehypertrophic and upper hypertrophic cell zones (GC). This includes genomically directing the cells to produce matrix vesicles with zone specific characteristics. In addition, vitamin D metabolites produced by the cells interact directly with the matrix vesicle membrane via rapid signal transduction pathways, modulating their activity in the matrix. The matrix vesicle payload is able to rapidly impact the extracellular matrix via matrix processing enzymes as well as providing a feedback mechanism to the cells themselves via the contained micro RNAs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Vorinostat, Reduces Tumor Growth at the Metastatic Bone Site and Associated Osteolysis, but Promotes Normal Bone Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap, Jitesh; Akech, Jacqueline; Wixted, John J.; Szabo, Gabriela; Hussain, Sadiq; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Li, Xiaodong; Bedard, Krystin; Dhillon, Robinder J.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Lian, Jane B.

    2010-01-01

    Vorinostat, an oral histone deacetylase inhibitor with anti-tumor activity, is in clinical trials for hematological and solid tumors that metastasize and compromise bone structure. Consequently, there is a requirement to establish the effects of vorinostat on tumor growth within bone. Breast (MDA-231) and prostate (PC3) cancer cells were injected into tibias of SCID/NCr mice and the effects of vorinostat on tumor growth and osteolytic disease were assessed by radiography, μCT, histological an...

  7. The effect of diabetes on bone formation following application of the GBR principle with the use of titanium domes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Bok; Retzepi, Maria; Petrie, Aviva; Hakimi, Ahmad-Reza; Schwarz, Frank; Donos, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of experimental diabetes and metabolic control on de novo bone formation following the GBR principle under titanium dome with a hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface. Three groups of equal number of randomly allocated Wistar strain rats were created: (a) uncontrolled, streptozotocin-induced diabetes (D); (b) insulin-controlled diabetes (CD); (c) healthy (H). Each group was then further divided into two groups according to either 7 or 42 days of healing period, which received either a hydrophobic (SLA: A) or a hydrophilic (SLActive: B) dome. The undecalcified sections were evaluated by qualitative and quantitative histological analysis and the differences between means for the groups (D, CD, and H) and the type of domes (SLA and SLActive) at each of two observational periods (i.e. 7 and 42 days) were assessed by performing a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). In all experimental groups, significant de novo bone formation under the domes was observed at 42 days of healing. There was a tendency of increased new total bone (TB) formation in H and CD groups compared to D group at 42 days of healing. Also, the SLActive titanium surface showed a trend of promoting superior TB formation at the early observational period among the experimental groups, however these differences did not reach statistical significance. In regards to the bone-to-implant contact (BIC%) under the both dome treatments (SLA and SLActive), there was no statistically significant difference among the H, CD, and D groups at both 7 and 42 days. Despite of the presence of uncontrolled diabetes, substantial de novo bone formation can be achieved in titanium domes with a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic surface. The use of SLActive titanium surface may present a tendency to promote new bone formation in healthy and diabetic conditions at 7 days of healing, however the obtained data do not allow any robust conclusions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Trabecular bone microstructure is impaired in the proximal femur of human immunodeficiency virus-infected men with normal bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakia, Galateia J; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Lai, Andrew; Nardo, Lorenzo; Facchetti, Luca; Pasco, Courtney; Zhang, Chiyuan A; Han, Misung; Parrott, Amanda Hutton; Tien, Phyllis; Krug, Roland

    2018-02-01

    There is evidence that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are independent risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture which is not solely explained by changes in bone mineral density. Thus, we hypothesized that the assessment of trabecular microstructure might play an important role for bone quality in this population and might explain the increased fracture risk. In this study, we have assessed bone microstructure in the proximal femur using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as in the extremities using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in HIV-infected men and healthy controls and compared these findings to those based on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) derived from dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) which is the standard clinical parameter for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Eight HIV-infected men and 11 healthy age-matched controls were recruited and informed consent was obtained before each scan. High-resolution MRI of the proximal femur was performed using fully balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) on a 3T system. Three volumes of interest at corresponding anatomic locations across all subjects were defined based on registrations of a common template. Four MR-based trabecular microstructural parameters were analyzed at each region: fuzzy bone volume fraction (f-BVF), trabecular number (Tb.N), thickness (Tb.Th), and spacing (Tb.Sp). In addition, the distal radius and distal tibia were imaged with HR-pQCT. Four HR-pQCT-based microstructural parameters were analyzed: trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), Tb.N, Tb.Th, and Tb.Sp. Total hip and spine aBMD were determined from DXA. Microstructural bone parameters derived from MRI at the proximal femur and from HR-pQCT at the distal tibia showed significantly lower bone quality in HIV-infected patients compared to healthy controls. In contrast, DXA aBMD data showed no significant differences between HIV

  9. Effects of strontium ranelate on bone formation in the mid-palatal suture after rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao SY

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shuya Zhao,1,* Xuxia Wang,2,* Na Li,3 Yun Chen,1 Yuran Su,1 Jun Zhang1 1Department of Orthodontics, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Stomatology, Shandong University; 3Department of Orthodontics, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of strontium ranelate on bone regeneration in the mid-palatal suture in response to rapid maxillary expansion (RME.Methods: Thirty-six male 6-week-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, ie, an expansion only (EO group, an expansion plus strontium ranelate (SE group, and a control group. An orthodontic appliance was set between the right and left upper molars of rats with an initial expansive force of 0.98 N. Rats in the SE group were administered strontium ranelate (600 mg/kg body weight and then euthanized in batches on days 4, 7, and 10. Morphological changes in the mid-palatal suture were investigated using micro-computed tomography and hematoxylin and eosin staining after RME. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression in the suture was also examined to evaluate bone formation in the mid-palatal suture. Image-Pro Plus software was then used to determine the mean optical density of the immunohistochemical images. Analysis of variance was used for statistical evaluation at the P<0.05 level.Results: With expansive force, the mid-palatal suture was expanded, but there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05 between the SE and EO groups. The bone volume of the suture decreased after RME, but was higher in the SE group than in the EO group on days 7 and 10. Further, expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the SE group was higher than in the other two groups (P<0.05.Conclusion: Strontium ranelate may hasten new bone formation in the expanded mid-palatal suture, which may be therapeutically

  10. Ectopic bone formation cannot occur by hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate bioceramics in green fluorescent protein chimeric mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lijia; Duan, Xin; Xiang, Zhou; Shi, Yujun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have shown that calcium phosphate ceramics (CP) have osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties; however, the exact mechanism of bone induction has not yet been reported. This study was performed to investigate if destroying immunological function will influence osteogenesis, to explain the mechanism which is unclear. In this study, twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups (n = 10), in group 1, a hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) ceramic was implanted into both the left and right leg muscles of each mouse; in group 2, ten mice experienced lethal irradiation, then were injected bone marrow (BM) cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice by tail veil, after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and muscle were harvested for biological analysis, after the GFP chimera model was established successfully, the same HA/β-TCP ceramic was implanted into both leg muscles of each mouse immediately after irradiation. 45 and 90 days after implantation, the ceramics of the two groups were harvested to perform with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining; the results showed that there was no bone formation in group 2, while new bone tissues were detected in group 1. Our findings suggest that the BM cell from GFP transgenic mice is a good biomarker and it could set a good platform for chimera model; it also shows that BM cell is one of cell resources of bone induction, and destruction of immune function will impede osteoinduction by CP. Overall, our results may shed light on clear mechanism study of bone induction in the future.

  11. Pegvisomant-induced serum insulin-like growth factor-I normalization in patients with acromegaly returns elevated markers of bone turnover to normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkinson, C; Kassem, M; Heickendorff, Lene

    2003-01-01

    of bone and soft tissue turnover, as well as levels of PTH and vitamin D metabolites, in 16 patients (nine males; median age, 52 yr; range, 28-78 yr) with active acromegaly (serum IGF-I at least 30% above upper limit of an age-related reference range). Serum procollagen III amino-terminal propeptide...... (PIIINP) and type I procollagen amino-terminal propeptide, osteocalcin (OC), bone-related alkaline phosphatase, C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), albumin-corrected calcium, intact PTH, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25-(OH)(2) vit D], urinary type 1 collagen...... (CTx and urinary type 1 collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide/creatinine ratio). 1,25-(OH)(2) vit D decreased and intact PTH increased significantly, but 25-hydroxy vitamin D was unaffected. A significant decline in calculated calcium clearance was observed. The decrease in serum IGF-I correlated...

  12. A Novel HA/β-TCP-Collagen Composite Enhanced New Bone Formation for Dental Extraction Socket Preservation in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Ning Ho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Past studies in humans have demonstrated horizontal and vertical bone loss after six months following tooth extraction. Many biomaterials have been developed to preserve bone volume after tooth extraction. Type I collagen serves as an excellent delivery system for growth factors and promotes angiogenesis. Calcium phosphate ceramics have also been investigated because their mineral chemistry resembles human bone. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a novel bioresorbable purified fibrillar collagen and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP ceramic composite versus collagen alone and a bovine xenograft-collagen composite in beagles. Collagen plugs, bovine graft-collagen composite and HA/β-TCP-collagen composite were implanted into the left and right first, second and third mandibular premolars, and the fourth molar was left empty for natural healing. In total, 20 male beagle dogs were used, and quantitative and histological analyses of the extraction ridge was done. The smallest width reduction was 19.09% ± 8.81% with the HA/β-TCP-collagen composite at Week 8, accompanied by new bone formation at Weeks 4 and 8. The HA/β-TCP-collagen composite performed well, as a new osteoconductive and biomimetic composite biomaterial, for socket bone preservation after tooth extraction.

  13. Radiographic Assessment of Bone Formation Using rhBMP2 at Maxillary Periapical Surgical Defects: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Siva; Kumar, M Hari; Vishalakshi, K; Sabitha, H

    2016-04-01

    Periapical cysts are the most common inflammatory odontogenic cysts arising from untreated dental caries with pulp necrosis and periapical infection. The choice of treatment is often influenced by various factors like size, extension of the lesion, proximity to vital structures, systemic condition and compliance of the patient too. The treatment protocol for management of periapical cysts is still under discussion and options vary from conservative treatment by means of endodontic technique to surgical treatment like decompression or a marsupialisation or even to enucleation. Large bony defect secondary to periapical surgery compromising the tooth integrity often requires bone graft to enhance bone formation and thus restoring function at the earliest. The present case series included 10 patients who had established periapical pathology secondary to history of trauma on upper anterior teeth as well patients with history of carious teeth with an apparent failure in root canal therapy. All ten patients were treated with cyst enucleation and apiceotomy along with 1.4cc Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 soaked Absorbable Collagen Sponge implantation at surgical defect. Radiographs and clinical examinations were done upto 3 months to evaluate healing. Radiographic and clinical assessments revealed bone regeneration and restoration of the maxillary surgical defects in all 10 patients. No evidence of graft failure was noted. The Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 soaked Absorbable Collagen Sponge carrier is thus proved to be a viable option for the treatment of maxillary periapical surgical defects.

  14. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Rafath; Eady, John L

    2006-09-01

    Since their original description by Virchow, simple bone cysts have been studied repeatedly. Although these defects are not true neoplasms, simple bone cysts may create major structural defects of the humerus, femur, and os calcis. They are commonly discovered incidentally when x-rays are taken for other reasons or on presentation due to a pathologic fracture. Various treatment strategies have been employed, but the only reliable predictor of success of any treatment strategy is the age of the patient; those being older than 10 years of age heal their cysts at a higher rate than those under age 10. The goal of management is the formation of a bone that can withstand the stresses of use by the patient without evidence of continued bone destruction as determined by serial radiographic follow-up. The goal is not a normal-appearing x-ray, but a functionally stable bone.

  15. Comparison of new bone formation, implant integration, and biocompatibility between RGD-hydroxyapatite and pure hydroxyapatite coating for cementless joint prostheses--an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitschnau, Achim; Alt, Volker; Böhner, Felicitas; Heerich, Katharina Elisabeth; Margesin, Erika; Hartmann, Sonja; Sewing, Andreas; Meyer, Christof; Wenisch, Sabine; Schnettler, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    This is the first work to report on additional Arginin-Glycin-Aspartat (RGD) coating on precoated hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces regarding new bone formation, implant bone contact, and biocompatibility compared to pure HA coating and uncoated stainless K-wires. There were 39 rabbits in total with 6 animals for the RGD-HA and HA group for the 4 week time period and 9 animals for each of the 3 implant groups for the 12 week observation. A 2.0 K-wire either with RGD-HA or with pure HA coating or uncoated was placed into the intramedullary canal of the tibia. After 4 and 12 weeks, the tibiae were harvested and three different areas of the tibia were assessed for quantitative and qualitative histology for new bone formation, direct implant bone contact, and formation of multinucleated giant cells. Both RGD-HA and pure HA coating showed statistically higher new bone formation and implant bone contact after 12 weeks than the uncoated K-wire. There were no significant differences between the RGD-HA and the pure HA coating in new bone formation and direct implant bone contact after 4 and 12 weeks. The number of multinucleated giant did not differ significantly between the RGD-HA and HA group after both time points. Overall, no significant effects of an additional RGD coating on HA surfaces were detected in this model after 12 weeks. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. GABA promotes elastin synthesis and elastin fiber formation in normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Eriko; Hokazono, Hideki; Hida, Mariko; Sasaki, Takako; Yoshioka, Hidekatsu; Matsuo, Noritaka

    2017-06-01

    The multiple physiological effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as a functional food component have been recently reported. We previously reported that GABA upregulated the expression of type I collagen in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), and that oral administration of GABA significantly increased skin elasticity. However, details of the regulatory mechanism still remain unknown. In this study, we further examined the effects of GABA on elastin synthesis and elastin fiber formation in HDFs. Real-time PCR indicated that GABA significantly increased the expression of tropoelastin transcript in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the expression of fibrillin-1, fibrillin-2, and fibulin-5/DANCE, but not lysyl oxidase and latent transforming factor-β-binding protein 4, were also significantly increased in HDFs. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that treatment with GABA dramatically increased the formation of elastic fibers in HDFs. Taken together, our results showed that GABA improves skin elasticity in HDFs by upregulating elastin synthesis and elastin fiber formation.

  17. Adipose-derived stem cells transfected with pEGFP-OSX enhance bone formation during distraction osteogenesis*

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Qing-guo; Sun, Shao-long; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Chen-ping; Yuan, Kui-feng; Yang, Zhong-jun; Luo, Sheng-lei; Tang, Xiao-peng; Ci, Jiang-bo

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of local delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transfected with transcription factor osterix (OSX) on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis. New Zealand white rabbits (n=54) were randomly divided into three groups (18 rabbits per group). A directed cloning technique was used for the construction of recombinant plasmid pEGFP-OSX, where EGFP is the enhanced green fluorescence protein. After osteodistraction of the right mandib...

  18. Does stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) have an effect on bone formation in the expanded inter-premaxillary suture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgin, Celal; Çörekçi, Bayram; Ozan, Fatih; Halicioğlu, Koray; Toptaş, Orçun; Birinci Yildirim, Arzu; Türker, Arzu; Yilmaz, Fahri

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether systemically given stinging nettle (SN) has an effect on bone formation in response to expansion of the rat inter-premaxillary suture. A total of 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control (C), only expansion (OE), SN extract given only during the expansion and retention periods (SN group; a total of 17days), and SN extract given during the nursery phase before expansion (a period of 40days) and during the expansion and retention periods (N+SN group; a total of 57days). After the 5-day expansion period was completed, the rats in the OE, SN, and N+SN groups underwent 12days of mechanical retention, after which they were sacrificed, and their premaxilla were dissected and fixed. A histologic evaluation was done to determine the number of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and capillaries, as well as the number and intensity of inflammatory cells and new bone formation. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups in all histologic parameters except the ratio of intensities of inflammatory cells. New bone formation and the number of capillaries were significantly higher in the SN groups than in the other groups. The statistical analysis also showed that the numbers of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and capillaries were highest in the N+SN group. Systemic administration of SN may be effective in accelerating new bone formation and reducing inflammation in the maxillary expansion procedure. It may also be beneficial in preventing relapse after the expansion procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Induced hemocompatibility and bone formation as biological scaffold for cell therapy implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng-Liang Ou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although stem cells can become almost any type of specialized cell in the human body and may have the potential to generate replacement cells for tissues and organs, the transplantation of these cells are hindered by immune rejection and teratoma formation. However, scientists have found a promising solution for these problems-they have discovered the ability to isolate stem cells from a patient’s umbilical cord blood or bone marrow. Even more recently, small stem cells, such as spore-like stem cells, Blastomere-Like Stem Cells (BLSCs, and Very-Small Embryonic-Like stem cells (VSELs isolated directly from the peripheral blood have beeninvestigated as a novel approach to stem cell therapy as they can be isolated directly from the peripheral blood. A newly-discovered population of multipotent stem cells in this class has been dubbed StemBios (SB cells. The potential therapeutic uses of such stem cells have been explored in many ways, one of which includes dental remodeling and construction. Using adult stem cells, scientists have engineered and cultivated teeth in mice that may one day be used for human implantation.It follows that such regeneration may be possible, to a certain degree, in human patients as well. This idea leads to the present study on the effect of SB cell therapy on early osseointegrationof dental implants. Titanium (Ti dental implants have been proven to be a reliable and predictable treatment for restoration of edentulous regions. The osseointegration process can be described in two stages: primary stability (mechanical stability and secondary stability (biological stability. The mechanical stabilization of the implant reflects the interaction between the bone density and the features of the implant designs and can be determined after implant insertion. Alternatively,the biological stabilization of the implant is a physiologic healing process. It is couple to the biological interaction between the external surface of the

  20. P38 MAPK / beta-catenin canonical wnt signaling mediated bone formation effects of blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate nutrition is one of the critical factors that influences bone development. We studied the effects of dietary blueberry supplementation on bone growth in weanling rats. Weanling male and female rats were fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry powder for 14 a...

  1. Milk-Derived Nanoparticle Fraction Promotes the Formation of Small Osteoclasts But Reduces Bone Resorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, M.C.; Di Ceglie, I.; Arntz, O.J.; Berg, W.B. van den; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Ferreira, A.V.; Lent, P.L.E.M. van; Loo, F.A.J. van de

    2017-01-01

    The general consensus is that milk promotes bone growth and density because is a source of calcium and contains components that enhance intestinal calcium uptake or directly affect bone metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effect of bovine-derived milk 100,000 g pellet (P100), which

  2. Castor oil polymer induces bone formation with high matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Wallace Rocha; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9) expression in newly formed bone tissue at the interface between implants derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) polymer and the tibia medullary canal. Forty-four rabbits were assigned to either Group 1 (n = 12; control) or Group 2 (n = 30), which had the tibial medullary canals reamed bilaterally and filled with polymer. CT scans showed no space between the material surface and the bone at the implant/bone marrow interface, and the density of the tissues at this interface was similar to the density measured of other regions of the bone. At 90 days postimplantation, the interface with the polymer presented a thick layer of newly formed bone tissue rich in osteocytes. This tissue exhibited ongoing maturation at 120 and 150 days postimplantation. Overall, bone remodeling process was accompanied by positive modulation of MMP-2 and low MMP-9 expression. Differently, in control group, the internal surface close to the medullary canal was lined by osteoblasts, followed by a bone tissue zone with few lacunae filled with osteocytes. Maturation of the tissue of the medullary internal surface occurred in the inner region, with the bone being nonlamellar. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A New Piezoelectric Actuator Induces Bone Formation In Vivo: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vivo study presents the preliminary results of the use of a novel piezoelectric actuator for orthopedic application. The innovative use of the converse piezoelectric effect to mechanically stimulate bone was achieved with polyvinylidene fluoride actuators implanted in osteotomy cuts in sheep femur and tibia. The biological response around the osteotomies was assessed through histology and histomorphometry in nondecalcified sections and histochemistry and immunohistochemistry in decalcified sections, namely, through Masson's trichrome, and labeling of osteopontin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. After one-month implantation, total bone area and new bone area were significantly higher around actuators when compared to static controls. Bone deposition rate was also significantly higher in the mechanically stimulated areas. In these areas, osteopontin increased expression was observed. The present in vivo study suggests that piezoelectric materials and the converse piezoelectric effect may be used to effectively stimulate bone growth.

  4. 3 Tesla (1) H MR spectroscopy of hip bone marrow in a healthy population, assessment of normal fat content values and influence of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansini, Vittorio; Monnet, Aurélien; Salleron, Julia; Hardouin, Pierre; Cortet, Bernard; Cotten, Anne

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate in a healthy population normal spectroscopic fat content (FC) values of the hip bone marrow and to assess the influence of age and sex on bone marrow conversion. Eighty volunteers (40 men; 40 women; ages: 20-60 years; divided into four consecutive groups) underwent acetabulum, femoral head, femoral neck, greater trochanter, and diaphysis localized (1) H MR spectroscopy. FC values of each anatomical site were obtained according to the following formula: Fat content = CH2 /(CH2  + Water)*100. To assess bone marrow conversion, a spectroscopic conversion index (SCI) was calculated as FC neck/FC greater trochanter. FC values showed a gradient as follows: greater trochanter > femoral head > femoral neck > diaphysis > acetabulum in every age group both in men and in women. SCI increased with age both in men and women, showing lower values in women for every age group. We obtained normal spectroscopic FC values from different areas of the hip, according to age and sex. These values may be used as reference values to evaluate, by the means of (1) H MR spectroscopy, pathological conditions affecting hip bone marrow. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Kinetics of sup(99m)technetium-tin-methylene-diphosphonate in normal subjects and pathological conditions: A simple index of bone metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caniggia, A.; Vattimo, A.

    1980-01-01

    The blood clearance and the urinary excretion of the bone scanning complex technetium-tin-methylene-diphosphonate sup(99m)Tc-Sn-MDP administered intravenously have been measured in 27 normal subjects and 104 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, osteomalacia, primary hyperparathyroidism, Paget's disease, pagetoid metastases of prostatic cancer, osteolyses, chronic renal failure, and liver cirrhosis to quantitative the skeletal uptake of the radiopharmaceutical. Kinetic analysis of the data was performed in terms of a four-compartment model; correspondent rate constants and fitted values were estimated. In normal subjects the whole-body retention (WBR) up to 24 h was 33.3% +- 7.4 SD, whereas significantly more elevated values were observed in several pathological conditions, the highest values being ascertained in patients with pagetoid metastases, primary hyperparathyroidism, and chronic renal failure and whenever large osteoid seams were present. Differences were found between osteoporosis and osteomalacia, monostotic and polyostotic Paget's, pagetoid and osteolytic metastases of bone. (orig./AJ) [de

  6. In-vivo tissue uptake and retention of Sn-117m(4+)DTPA in a human subject with metastatic bone pain and in normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailem, Fayez M.; Krishnamurthy, Gerbail T.; Srivastava, Suresh C.; Aguirre, Maria L.; Ellerson, Dawn L.; Walsh, T. Kent; Simpson, Laura

    1998-01-01

    Organ and tissue uptake and retention of Sn-117m(4+)DTPA were studied in a human subject treated for metastatic bone pain, and the results were compared with the biodistribution studies in five normal mice. The explanted organs from a patient who received a therapy dose of 18.6 mCi (688.2 MBq) Sn-117m(4+)DTPA and who died 47 days later were imaged with a γ-camera, and tissue samples were counted and also autoradiographed. Bone, muscle, liver, fat, lungs, kidneys, spleen, heart and pancreas tissue samples were assayed in a well counter for radioactivity. Regions of interest were drawn over bone and major organs to calculate and quantify clearance times using three in vivo Sn-117m(4+)DTPA whole-body scintigrams acquired at 1, 24 and 168 h after injection. Five normal mice injected with the same batch of Sn-117m(4+)DTPA as used for the human subject were sacrificed at 24 h, and tissue samples were collected and assayed for radioactivity for comparison with the human data. For the human subject, whole-body retention at 47 days postinjection was 81% of the injected dose, and the rest (19%) was excreted in urine. Of the whole-body retained activity at 47 days, 82.4% was in bone, 7.8% in the muscle and 1.5% in the liver, and the rest was distributed among other tissues. γ-Ray scintigrams and electron autoradiographs of coronal slices of the thoracolumbar vertebral body showed heterogenous metastatic involvement with normal bone between metastatic lesions. There was nonuniform distribution of radioactivity even within a single vertebral body, indicating normal bone between metastatic lesions. Lesion-to-nonlesion ratios ranged from 3 to 5. However, the osteoid-to-marrow cavity deposition ratio, from the microautoradiographs, was 11:1. The peak uptake in the human bone was seen at 137 h with no biological clearance. Soft tissues showed peak uptake at 1 h and exhibited three compartmental clearance components. Whole-body retention in normal mice was 38.7% of the injected

  7. Anti-RANKL treatment inhibits erosive joint destruction and lowers inflammation but has no effect on bone formation in the delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis (DTHA) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkinson, Sara Marie; Bleil, Janine; Maier, Rene

    2016-01-01

    . Periarticular bone formation was observed from day 10. Induction of new bone formation indicated by enhanced Runx2, collagen X, osteocalcin, MMP2, MMP9, and MMP13 mRNA expression was observed only between days 8 and 11. Anti-RANKL treatment resulted in a modest reduction in paw and ankle swelling...... and bone formation were analyzed by mRNA deep sequencing. Serum concentrations of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, carboxy-terminal telopeptide I (CTX-I), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), and serum amyloid P component (SAP) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anti......-RANKL monoclonal antibody treatment was initiated at the time of immunization. Results: Bone destruction (MMP3 serum levels, cathepsin B activity, and RANKL mRNA) peaked at day 3 after arthritis induction, followed by a peak in cartilage destruction and bone erosion on day 5 after arthritis induction...

  8. Evaluation of temporal bone pneumatization on high resolution CT (HRCT) measurements of the temporal bone in normal and otitis media group and their correlation to measurements of internal auditory meatus, vestibular or cochlear aqueduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Miyako

    1988-01-01

    High resolution CT axial scans were made at the three levels of the temoral bone 91 cases. These cases consisted of 109 sides of normal pneumatization (NR group) and 73 of poor pneumatization resulted by chronic otitis (OM group). NR group included sensorineural hearing loss cases and/or sudden deafness on the side. Three levels of continuous slicing were chosen at the internal auditory meatus, the vestibular and the cochlear aqueduct, respectively. In each slice two sagittal and two horizontal measurements were done on the outer contour of the temporal bone. At the proper level, diameter as well as length of the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct were measured. Measurements of the temporal bone showed statistically significant difference between NR and OM groups. Correlation of both diameter and length of the internal auditory meatus to the temporal bone measurements were statistically significant. Neither of measurements on the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct showed any significant correlation to that of the temporal bone. (author)

  9. STOCHASTIC PRICING MODEL FOR THE REAL ESTATE MARKET: FORMATION OF LOG-NORMAL GENERAL POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Rusakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a stochastic model of real estate pricing. The method of the pricing construction is based on a sequential comparison of the supply prices. We proof that under standard assumptions imposed upon the comparison coefficients there exists an unique non-degenerated limit in distribution and this limit has the lognormal law of distribution. The accordance of empirical distributions of prices to thetheoretically obtained log-normal distribution we verify by numerous statistical data of real estate prices from Saint-Petersburg (Russia. For establishing this accordance we essentially apply the efficient and sensitive test of fit of Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Basing on “The Russian Federal Estimation Standard N2”, we conclude that the most probable price, i.e. mode of distribution, is correctly and uniquely defined under the log-normal approximation. Since the mean value of log-normal distribution exceeds the mode - most probable value, it follows that the prices valued by the mathematical expectation are systematically overstated.

  10. Lack of Association between Body Weight, Bone Mineral Density and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Normal and Osteoporotic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Poggi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In an ethnically homogeneous population of women living in Tuscany, Italy, the relationships between age, body weight, bone mineral density and the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene polymorphism were studied, with the objective of recognizing patients at risk for osteoporosis. In 275 women bone mineral density was measured by Dual Energy X-rays Absorptiometry (DEXA. In 50 of them the individual genetic pattern for VDR was evaluated by DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification of the VDR gene, and digestion with the restriction enzyme BsmI. Age and bone mineral density were inversely related (R2 = 0.298. Body weight was associated with bone mineral density (R2 = 0.059, but not with age. In osteoporotic women, mean (± SD body weight was 59.9 ± 6.5 Kg, lower than that recorded in non osteoporotic women (64.2 ± 9.4 Kg, even though not significantly different (p = 0.18. No association was found between VDR gene polymorphism, bone density or body weight. The performance of anthropometric and genetic components appear to be poor, and, at least for the time being, bone mineral density measurement by means of MOC-DEXA represents the optimal method to detect women at risk for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  11. Dicer Is Required for Normal Cerebellar Development and to Restrain Medulloblastoma Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Zindy

    Full Text Available Dicer, a ribonuclease III enzyme, is required for the maturation of microRNAs. To assess its role in cerebellar and medulloblastoma development, we genetically deleted Dicer in Nestin-positive neural progenitors and in mice lacking one copy for the Sonic Hedgehog receptor, Patched 1. We found that conditional loss of Dicer in mouse neural progenitors induced massive Trp53-independent apoptosis in all proliferative zones of the brain and decreased proliferation of cerebellar granule progenitors at embryonic day 15.5 leading to abnormal cerebellar development and perinatal lethality. Loss of one copy of Dicer significantly accelerated the formation of mouse medulloblastoma of the Sonic Hedgehog subgroup in Patched1-heterozygous mice. We conclude that Dicer is required for proper cerebellar development, and to restrain medulloblastoma formation.

  12. [Levels of bone mineral matrix organization and the mechanisms determining parameters of its formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrunin, A S; Tikhilov, R M; Abolin, A B; Shcherbak, I G

    2005-01-01

    Authors suggest to regard bone mineral matrix as the four-level structure. The first level is represented by an internal structure of a mineral, the second--by mineral morphological structure, the third--by coplanar association of minerals, and the fourth--by macroassociation of minerals in a single complex inside each bone. The most probable mechanisms determining stability of reproduction of mineral matrix parameters on each of these levels are shown. As a result of their functioning, the variants of bone mineral matrix structures are formed that are the programmed reflection of specificity of the given site of organic structures.

  13. Etanercept Promotes Bone Formation via Suppression of Dickkopf-1 Expression in Rats with Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Atsushi; Kishimoto, Yuji; Okano, Toru; Hagino, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Various clinical reports suggest etanercept (ETN) has some efficacy in bone formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To examine this effect, we investigated the gene expression of cytokines relevant to osteoblast/osteoclast differentiation, and evaluated histomorphometric findings in mature rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods Total RNA was extracted from knee joints with CIA after ETN or placebo administration. Subsequently, realtime-PCR was carried out to quantify the mRNAs encoding Wnt-1, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegelin (OPG) and TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-alpha. In histomorphometric analysis, the infiltrating pannus volume and pannus surface, and the following items in contact with pannus surface were measured: osteoclast number, osteoid surface, osteoid volume and labeling surface. These were evaluated in the distal femur with CIA with or without ETN administration. Results TNF-alpha, RANKL and OPG mRNA expressions, linked to osteoclastogenesis, were not significantly different with or without ETN administration. ETN administration significantly increased Wnt-1 mRNA expression, the osteoblast promoter, and decreased DKK-1 mRNA expression, the Wnt signal inhibitor. In histomorphometric analysis, pannus volume, pannus surface and osteoclast number, parameters of bone destruction, were not significantly different among groups. Osteoid volume, osteoid surface and labeling surface, parameters of bone formation, increased significantly with ETN administration. Conclusion Our results suggest that ETN suppresses DDK-1 expression, and, as a result, Wnt expression is promoted and osteoblastogenesis becomes more active, independent of the regulation of osteoclast activity. Marked bone formation is attributed to the fact that ETN directly promotes osteoblastogenesis, not as a result of suppressing osteoclastogenesis. PMID:24031147

  14. Hand function with touch screen technology in children with normal hand formation, congenital differences, and neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, David H; Bohn, Deborah K; Agel, Julie; Lindstrom, Katy A; Cronquist, Sara M; Van Heest, Ann E

    2015-05-01

    To measure and compare hand function for children with normal hand development, congenital hand differences (CHD), and neuromuscular disease (NMD) using a function test with touch screen technology designed as an iPhone application. We measured touch screen hand function in 201 children including 113 with normal hand formation, 43 with CHD, and 45 with NMD. The touch screen test was developed on the iOS platform using an Apple iPhone 4. We measured 4 tasks: touching dots on a 3 × 4 grid, dragging shapes, use of the touch screen camera, and typing a line of text. The test takes 60 to 120 seconds and includes a pretest to familiarize the subject with the format. Each task is timed independently and the overall time is recorded. Children with normal hand development took less time to complete all 4 subtests with increasing age. When comparing children with normal hand development with those with CHD or NMD, in children aged less than 5 years we saw minimal differences; those aged 5 to 6 years with CHD took significantly longer total time; those aged 7 to 8 years with NMD took significantly longer total time; those aged 9 to 11 years with CHD took significantly longer total time; and those aged 12 years and older with NMD took significantly longer total time. Touch screen technology has becoming increasingly relevant to hand function in modern society. This study provides standardized age norms and shows that our test discriminates between normal hand development and that in children with CHD or NMD. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of oxygen plasma etching on pore size-controlled 3D polycaprolactone scaffolds for enhancing the early new bone formation in rabbit calvaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, Min-Suk; Roh, Hee-Sang; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2018-05-02

    This study was to investigate the effects of O 2 plasma-etching of the 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold surface on preosteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation, and early new bone formation. The PCL scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing technique. After O 2 plasma treatment, surface characterizations were examined by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle. MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation. To investigate the early new bone formation, rabbits were sacrificed at 2 weeks for histological analyses. As the O 2 plasma etching time is increased, roughness and hydrophilicity of the PCL scaffold surface increased. The cell proliferation and differentiation on plasma-etched samples was significantly increased than on untreated samples. At 2 weeks, early new bone formation in O 2 plasma-etched PCL scaffolds was the higher than that of untreated scaffolds. The O 2 plasma-etched PCL scaffolds showed increased preosteoblast differentiation as well as increased new bone formation.

  16. THE STAR FORMATION AND NUCLEAR ACCRETION HISTORIES OF NORMAL GALAXIES IN THE AGES SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Casey R.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Forman, William R.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Jones, Christine J.; Kenter, Almus T.; Murray, Steve S.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Fazio, Giovani G.; Green, Paul J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Brand, Kate; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Rieke, Marcia; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; McNamara, Brian R.; Shields, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    We combine IR, optical, and X-ray data from the overlapping, 9.3 deg 2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey, AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES), and XBooetes Survey to measure the X-ray evolution of 6146 normal galaxies as a function of absolute optical luminosity, redshift, and spectral type over the largely unexplored redshift range 0.1 ∼ 3±1 , in agreement with the trends found for samples of bright, individually detectable starburst galaxies and AGN. Our work also corroborates the results of many previous stacking analyses of faint source populations, with improved statistics.

  17. Reciprocal Interactions between Multiple Myeloma Cells and Osteoprogenitor Cells Affect Bone Formation and Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    to-Prevent-Bone- Cancer-Strengthen-Bones.aspx. June 30, 2014. 2. DFCI’s Magazine : Paths of Progress, Page 18-19. Spring/Summer 2015. See Appendix 3...financial interest in BIND Therapeutics, Se- lecta Biosciences, and Blend Therapeutics, three biotechnology companies developing nanoparticle technologies...Progress Spring/Summer 2015 Dana-Farber Cancer Inst i tute ArouND ThE INSTITuTE Boston magazine named 57 physicians and surgeons affiliated

  18. Effects of Initial Seeding Density and Fluid Perfusion Rate on Formation of Tissue-Engineered Bone

    OpenAIRE

    GRAYSON, WARREN L.; BHUMIRATANA, SARINDR; CANNIZZARO, CHRISTOPHER; CHAO, P.-H. GRACE; LENNON, DONALD P.; CAPLAN, ARNOLD I.; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2008-01-01

    We describe a novel bioreactor system for tissue engineering of bone that enables cultivation of up to six tissue constructs simultaneously, with direct perfusion and imaging capability. The bioreactor was used to investigate the relative effects of initial seeding density and medium perfusion rate on the growth and osteogenic differentiation patterns of bone marrow–derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on three-dimensional scaffolds. Fully decellularized bovine trabecular bon...

  19. Space Maintenance and New Bone Formation with Polyurethane Biocomposites in a Canine Saddle Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 2. Medtronic Spinal and Biologics, Memphis, TN 3. US Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX...and 15% hydroxyapatite (HA) that is similar in mineral content to natural bone.3 45S5 Bioactive glass (BG) is a resorbable material that has been... used effectively in a variety of bone regeneration applications.4 In the present study, we investigated the ability of injectable PUR/MG and PUR/BG

  20. Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) improves bone formation in the alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasilino, Matheus da Silva; Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Pereira, Camila Scacco; Pereira, Ariana Aparecida Ferreira; Stringhetta, Karina; Leopoldino, Andréia Machado; Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo; Ervolino, Edilson; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati; de Melo Stevanato Nakamune, Ana Cláudia; Chaves-Neto, Antonio Hernandes

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mate tea (MT) [Ilex paraguariensis] on alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction. Sixteen male rats were divided into MT and control groups. MT was administered by intragastric gavage at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 28 days before and 28 days after right maxillary incisor extraction. The control group received an equal volume of water. Histopathological and histometric analysis of the neoformed bone area and osteocyte density were performed, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of osteocalcin (OCN), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the alveolar socket. Calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in plasma, whereas TRAP activity was determined in serum. Histometry evidenced an increase in bone area (P alveolar socket healing on day 28 after tooth extraction. Regular MT ingestion improves the antioxidant defenses and bone formation, which is beneficial for alveolar socket bone healing after tooth extraction.

  1. Autologous serum improves bone formation in a primary stable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite bone substitute in combination with mesenchymal stem cells and rhBMP-2 in the sheep model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boos AM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anja M Boos,1,* Annika Weigand,1,* Gloria Deschler,1 Thomas Gerber,2 Andreas Arkudas,1 Ulrich Kneser,1 Raymund E Horch,1 Justus P Beier11Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University Hospital of Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg FAU, Erlangen, 2Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: New therapeutic strategies are required for critical size bone defects, because the gold standard of transplanting autologous bone from an unharmed area of the body often leads to several severe side effects and disadvantages for the patient. For years, tissue engineering approaches have been seeking a stable, axially vascularized transplantable bone replacement suitable for transplantation into the recipient bed with pre-existing insufficient conditions. For this reason, the arteriovenous loop model was developed and various bone substitutes have been vascularized. However, it has not been possible thus far to engineer a primary stable and axially vascularized transplantable bone substitute. For that purpose, a primary stable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite (HA bone substitute in combination with blood, bone marrow, expanded, or directly retransplanted mesenchymal stem cells, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2, and different carrier materials (fibrin, cell culture medium, autologous serum was tested subcutaneously for 4 or 12 weeks in the sheep model. Autologous serum lead to an early matrix change during degradation of the bone substitute and formation of new bone tissue. The best results were achieved in the group combining mesenchymal stem cells expanded with 60 µg/mL rhBMP-2 in autologous serum. Better ingrowth of fibrovascular tissue could be detected in the autologous serum group compared with the control (fibrin. Osteoclastic activity indicating an active bone remodeling process was observed after 4 weeks, particularly

  2. Effects of 1-week head-down tilt bed rest on bone formation and the calcium endocrine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Whalen, Robert T.; Fung, Paul; Sherrard, Donald J.; Maloney, Norma

    1992-01-01

    The -6-deg head-down tilt (HDT) is employed in the study of 8 subjects to determine early responses in human bone and calcium endocrines during spaceflight. The average rates of bone formation in the iliac crest are determined by means of a single-dose labeling schedule and are found to decrease in 6 of the subjects. The decrease varies directly with walking miles, and increased excretion of urinary Ca and Na are observed preceding increased levels of ionized serum calcium on a bed-rest day late in the week. Reduced phosphorous excretions are also followed by increased serum phosphorous on day six, and reductions are noted in parathyroid hormone and vitamin D by the end of the experiment. The data demonstrate the responsiveness of the skeletal system to biomechanical stimuli such as the HDT.

  3. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of a lumbar vertebral body with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst formation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snieders Marieke N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the case of a 25-year-old Caucasian woman with symptomatic monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the fourth lumbar vertebral body. The patient suffered from a five-week history of progressive low back pain, radiating continuously to the left leg. Her medical history and physical and neurological examination did not demonstrate any significant abnormalities. Radiographs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an osteolytic expansive lesion with a cystic component of the fourth lumbar vertebral body. Percutaneous transpedicular biopsy showed histological characteristics of fibrous dysplasia superimposed by the formation of aneurysmal bone cyst components. The patient was treated by subtotal vertebrectomy of the L4 vertebral body with anterior reconstruction and her postoperative course was uncomplicated. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a monostotic fibrous dysplasia with superimposed secondary aneurysmal bone cysts of a lumbar vertebral body.

  4. The fluoride coated AZ31B magnesium alloy improves corrosion resistance and stimulates bone formation in rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Guangdao [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tan, Lili; Yang, Ke [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Ai, Hongjun, E-mail: aihongjuna@sina.com [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of fluorine coated Mg alloy and clarify its mechanism in bone formation. We implanted the fluorine coated AZ31B Mg alloy screw (group F) in rabbit mandibular and femur in vivo. Untreated AZ31B Mg alloy screw (group A) and titanium screw (group T) were used as control. Then, scanning electron microscopy, the spectral energy distribution analysis, hard and decalcified bone tissues staining were performed. Immunohistochemistry was employed to examine the protein expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and collagen type I in the vicinity of the implant. Compared with the group A, the degradation of the alloy was reduced, the rates of Mg corrosion and Mg ion release were slowed down, and the depositions of calcium and phosphate increased in the group F in the early stage of implantation. Histological results showed that fluorine coated Mg alloy had well osteogenic activity and biocompatibility. Moreover, fluoride coating obviously up-regulated the expressions of collagen type I and BMP-2. This study confirmed that the fluorine coating might improve the corrosion resistance of AZ31B Mg alloy and promote bone formation by up-regulated the expressions of collagen type I and BMP-2. - Highlights: • Fluoride coating inhibited the degradation of the alloy in the early implantation. • Fluorine coating could slow down the rate of Mg corrosion and Mg ion release. • Fluorine coating could promote the deposition of Ca and P in vivo. • Fluorine coated Mg alloy had well osteogenic activity and biocompatibility. • Fluorine coating up-regulated the expression of BMP-2 and collagen type I protein.

  5. Si-Wu-tang extract stimulates bone formation through PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathways in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Ming; Chen, Po-Chun; Li, Te-Mao; Fong, Yi-Chin; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-10-24

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula, is widely used for the treatment of gynopathies diseases such as menstrual discomfort, climacteric syndrome, dysmenorrhea, and other estrogen-related diseases. Recent studies have shown that SWT can treat primary dysmenorrhea, have anti-pruritic anti-inflammatory effects, and protect against radiation-induced bone marrow damage in an animal model. It has been reported that anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents have the potential to treat osteoporosis by increasing bone formation and/or suppressing bone resorption. However, the effect of SWT on bone cell function has not yet been reported. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-2, and osteopontin (OPN) mRNA expression was analyzed by qPCR. The mechanism of action of SWT extract was investigated using western blotting. The in vivo anti-osteoporotic effect of SWT extract was assessed in ovariectomized mice. Here, we report that SWT increases ALP, BMP-2, and OPN expression as well as bone mineralization. In addition, we show that the PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathways may be involved in the SWT-mediated increase in gene expression and bone mineralization. Notably, treatment of mice with SWT extract prevented bone loss induced by ovariectomy in vivo. SWT may be used to stimulate bone formation for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  6. The Role of Ultrasound Imaging of Callus Formation in the Treatment of Long Bone Fractures in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawrzyk, Magdalena; Sokal, Jan; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Przewratil, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    In the process of diagnosis and treatment of fractures, an X-ray study is typically performed. In modern medicine very important is the development of new diagnostic methods without adverse effects on the body. One of such techniques is ultrasound imaging. It has a high value in imaging most areas of the body, including the musculoskeletal system. Reports on the use of ultrasound in the evaluation of the callus are rare and this could be a method equivalent to or even better than standard radiographs. The aim of the study was to analyze the correlation of ultrasound with radiographs in imaging of callus formation after fractures of long bones in children and to analyze the correlation of vascular resistance index (RI) and the degree of vascularization of the callus with a subjective radiological assessment of the bone union quality. The prospective study was planned to qualify 50 children treated for long bones fractures of the arm, forearm, thigh and lower leg. Ultrasound diagnosis was carried out using a Philips iU22 camera equipped with a linear probe with 17-5-MHz resolution and MSK Superficial program. During ultrasound examination measurements of the callus were performed. Using the Power Doppler callus vascularity was visualized and vascular resistance index (RI) was measured. The same measurements were made within the corresponding area of the healthy limb. The results obtained by ultrasound were compared with radiograph measurements and with the subjective assessment of the callus quality. Preliminary results were developed on a group of 24 patients, where 28 fractured bones and 28 corresponding healthy bones were examined. Fifteen boys and 9 girls participated in the study. The average age at injury was, respectively, 11 and 9 years. In both groups fractures without displacement were the most frequent. A similar frequency was observed in fractures requiring reposition and subperiosteal fractures. In contrast, fractures with a slight displacement of the

  7. The Role of Ultrasound Imaging of Callus Formation in the Treatment of Long Bone Fractures in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyk, Magdalena; Sokal, Jan; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Przewratil, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    In the process of diagnosis and treatment of fractures, an X-ray study is typically performed. In modern medicine very important is the development of new diagnostic methods without adverse effects on the body. One of such techniques is ultrasound imaging. It has a high value in imaging most areas of the body, including the musculoskeletal system. Reports on the use of ultrasound in the evaluation of the callus are rare and this could be a method equivalent to or even better than standard radiographs. The aim of the study was to analyze the correlation of ultrasound with radiographs in imaging of callus formation after fractures of long bones in children and to analyze the correlation of vascular resistance index (RI) and the degree of vascularization of the callus with a subjective radiological assessment of the bone union quality. The prospective study was planned to qualify 50 children treated for long bones fractures of the arm, forearm, thigh and lower leg. Ultrasound diagnosis was carried out using a Philips iU22 camera equipped with a linear probe with 17-5-MHz resolution and MSK Superficial program. During ultrasound examination measurements of the callus were performed. Using the Power Doppler callus vascularity was visualized and vascular resistance index (RI) was measured. The same measurements were made within the corresponding area of the healthy limb. The results obtained by ultrasound were compared with radiograph measurements and with the subjective assessment of the callus quality. Preliminary results were developed on a group of 24 patients, where 28 fractured bones and 28 corresponding healthy bones were examined. Fifteen boys and 9 girls participated in the study. The average age at injury was, respectively, 11 and 9 years. In both groups fractures without displacement were the most frequent. A similar frequency was observed in fractures requiring reposition and subperiosteal fractures. In contrast, fractures with a slight displacement of the

  8. "Ruffled border" formation on a CaP-free substrate: A first step towards osteoclast-recruiting bone-grafts materials able to re-establish bone turn-over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolli, Antonio; Fung, Stephanie; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Pashuck, E Thomas; Mao, Yong; Wu, Xiaohuan; Steele, Joseph A M; Martin, Daniel; Moghe, Prabhas V; Bromage, Timothy; Kohn, Joachim

    2018-03-21

    Osteoclasts are large multinucleated giant cells that actively resorb bone during the physiological bone turnover (BTO), which is the continuous cycle of bone resorption (by osteoclasts) followed by new bone formation (by osteoblasts). Osteoclasts secrete chemotactic signals to recruit cells for regeneration of vasculature and bone. We hypothesize that a biomaterial that attracts osteoclasts and re-establishes BTO will induce a better healing response than currently used bone graft materials. While the majority of bone regeneration efforts have focused on maximizing bone deposition, the novelty in this approach is the focus on stimulating osteoclastic resorption as the starter for BTO and its concurrent new vascularized bone formation. A biodegradable tyrosine-derived polycarbonate, E1001(1k), was chosen as the polymer base due to its ability to support bone regeneration in vivo. The polymer was functionalized with a RGD peptide or collagen I, or blended with β-tricalcium phosphate. Osteoclast attachment and early stages of active resorption were observed on all substrates. The transparency of E1001(1k) in combination with high resolution confocal imaging enabled visualization of morphological features of osteoclast activation such as the formation of the "actin ring" and the "ruffled border", which previously required destructive forms of imaging such as transmission electron microscopy. The significance of these results is twofold: (1) E1001(1k) is suitable for osteoclast attachment and supports osteoclast maturation, making it a base polymer that can be further modified to optimize stimulation of BTO and (2) the transparency of this polymer makes it a suitable analytical tool for studying osteoclast behavior.

  9. Protoporphyrin IX formation and photobleaching in different layers of normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Idorn, Luise W; Philipsen, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    human skin was tape-stripped and incubated with 20% methylaminolevulinate (MAL) or 20% hexylaminolevulinate (HAL) for 3 h. Fluorescence microscopy quantified PpIX accumulation in epidermis, superficial, mid and deep dermis, down to 2 mm. PpIX photobleaching by light-emitting diode (LED, 632 nm, 18......Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for various skin disorders, and selective targeting of specific skin structures is desirable. The objective was to assess accumulation of PpIX fluorescence and photobleaching within skin layers using different photosensitizers and light sources. Normal...... and 37 J/cm(2)), intense pulsed light (IPL, 500-650 nm, 36 and 72 J/cm(2)) and long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL, 595 nm, 7.5 and 15 J/cm(2)) was measured using fluorescence photography and microscopy. We found higher PpIX fluorescence intensities in epidermis and superficial dermis in HAL-incubated skin than...

  10. Study of formation constant of molybdophosphate and it's application in the product of xenotime sand, tooth and bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samin; Lahagu, F.; Basuki, K. T.; Ernawati, F.

    1996-01-01

    The formation constant of molybdophosphate complex and it's application in the product of xenotime sand, tooth and bone have been studied by spectrophotometric method. The molybdophosphate complex were formed from reaction between phosphate and molybdate on several of pH in the strong acid condition (pH = 0.45 - 0.71) and several of phosphate mole fraction (0.01 - 0.08). The several of complex formation reactions were determined by matrix disintegration technique. Molybdophosphate complex were founded three forms i.e. (P 2 Mo 18 O 62 ) 6- or 9 MPA, (PMo 11 O 39 ) 7- or 11 MPA and (PMo 12 O 40 ) 3- or 12 MPA. The formation constant of (PMo 12 O 40 ) 3- complex was found β = 10 46.95 ± 10 3.7 , while for (P 2 Mo 18 O 62 ) 6- and (PMo 11 O 39 ) 7- were not detected. The application in samples were found the concentration of P in product of xenotime sand : 5.37±0.08 μg/ml, in canine-tooth: 10.40 - 19.49 % in cutting-tooth : 11.08 - 18.05 % and in bone 10.94 - 14.29 %. (author)

  11. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Nyengaard, J R

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind...... of periosteal BFR/BS (2-fold increase vs. BTX, Pmuscle mass (+29% vs. BTX, Pmuscle CSA (+11%, P=0.064). In conclusion, GH mitigates disuse......BMD, -13%, Pmuscle mass (-69%, Pmuscle cell cross sectional area (CSA) (-73%, P

  12. CSA-90 Promotes Bone Formation and Mitigates Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection in a Rat Open Fracture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rebecca; Cheng, Tegan L; Mikulec, Kathy; Peacock, Lauren; Isaacs, David; Genberg, Carl; Savage, Paul B; Little, David G; Schindeler, Aaron

    2018-06-01

    Infection of open fractures remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality to patients worldwide. Early administration of prophylactic antibiotics is known to improve outcomes; however, increasing concern regarding antimicrobial resistance makes finding new compounds for use in such cases a pressing area for further research. CSA-90, a synthetic peptidomimetic compound, has previously demonstrated promising antimicrobial action against Staphylococcus aureus in rat open fractures. However, its efficacy against antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, its potential as a therapeutic agent in addition to its prophylactic effects, and its proosteogenic properties all require further investigation. (1) Does prophylactic treatment with CSA-90 reduce infection rates in a rat open fracture model inoculated with S aureus, methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) as measured by survival, radiographic union, and deep tissue swab cultures? (2) Does CSA-90 reduce infection rates when administered later in the management of an open fracture as measured by survival, radiographic union, and deep tissue swab cultures? (3) Does CSA-90 demonstrate a synergistic proosteogenic effect with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) in a noninfected rat ectopic bone formation assay as assessed by micro-CT bone volume measurement? (4) Can CSA-90 elute and retain its antimicrobial efficacy in vitro when delivered using clinically relevant agents measured using a Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay? All in vivo studies were approved by the local animal ethics committee. In the open fracture studies, 12-week-old male Wistar rats underwent open midshaft femoral fractures stabilized with a 1.1-mm Kirschner wire and 10 µg BMP-2 ± 500 µg CSA-90 was applied to the fracture site using a collagen sponge along with 1 x 10 colony-forming units of bacteria (S aureus/MRSA/MRSE; n = 10 per group). In the delayed treatment study, débridement and

  13. Trpv5/6 is vital for epithelial calcium uptake and bone formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanoevelen, J.; Janssens, A.C.; Huitema, L.F.; Hammond, C.J.; Metz, J.R.; Flik, G.; Voets, T.; Schulte-Merker, S.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium is an essential ion serving a multitude of physiological roles. Aside from its role as a second messenger, it is an essential component of the vertebrate bone matrix. Efficient uptake and storage of calcium are therefore indispensable for all vertebrates. Transient receptor potential family,

  14. Identification and analysis of genes involved in bone formation – a genetic approach in zebrafish –

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorendonk, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    For many years bone research has been mainly performed in mice, chicken, cell culture systems, or human material from the clinic. In this thesis, we make use of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a relatively new model system in this field. This small teleost offers possibilities which makes it a great

  15. Identification and analysis of genes involved in bone formation - a genetic approach in zebrafish -

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorendonk, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    For many years bone research has been mainly performed in mice, chicken, cell culture systems, or human material from the clinic. In this thesis, we make use of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a relatively new model system in this field. This small teleost offers possibilities which makes it a great

  16. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Does Not Drive New Bone Formation in Experimental Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tok, Melissa N.; Yeremenko, Nataliya G.; Teitsma, Christine A.; Kream, Barbara E.; Knaup, Véronique L.; Lories, Rik J.; Baeten, Dominique L.; van Duivenvoorde, Leonie M.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin like growth factor (IGF)-I can act on a variety of cells involved in cartilage and bone repair, yet IGF-I has not been studied extensively in the context of inflammatory arthritis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether IGF-I overexpression in the osteoblast lineage could

  17. [Frontier in bone biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Bone is an active organ in which bone mass is maintained by the balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, i.e., coupling of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent advances in molecular bone biology uncovered the molecular mechanism of the coupling. A fundamental role of osteocyte in the maintenance of bone mass and whole body metabolism has also been revealed recently. Moreover, neurons and neuropeptides have been shown to be intimately involved in bone homeostasis though inter-organ network, in addition to "traditional" regulators of bone metabolism such as soluble factors and cytokines

  18. An insight in to Paget′s disease of bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Sabharwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paget′s disease of bone (PDB is a common disorder which may affect one or many bones. Although many patients are asymptomatic, a variety of symptoms and complications may occur. PDB is a focal disorder of bone turnover characterized by excessive bone resorption coupled with bone formation. PDB begins with a period of increased osteoclastic activity and bone resorption, followed by increased osteoblast production of woven bone that is poorly mineralized. In the final phase of the disease process, dense cortical and trabecular bone deposition predominates, but the bone is sclerotic and poorly organized and lacks the structural integrity and strength of normal bone. This article briefly reviews the etiopathogenesis, clinical radiographic and histological features of Paget′s disease.

  19. Chemical Makeup of Microdamaged Bone Differs from Undamaged Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppel, M.; Burr, D.; Miller, L.

    2006-01-01

    Microdamage naturally occurs in bone tissue as a result of cyclic loading placed on the body from normal daily activities. While it is usually repaired through the bone turnover process, accumulation of microdamage may result in reduced bone quality and increased fracture risk. It is unclear whether certain areas of bone are more susceptible to microdamage than others due to compositional differences. This study examines whether areas of microdamaged bone are chemically different than undamaged areas of bone. Bone samples (L3 vertebrae) were harvested from 15 dogs. Samples were stained with basic fuchsin, embedded in poly-methylmethacrylate, and cut into 5-(micro)m-thick sections. Fuchsin staining was used to identify regions of microdamage, and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging was used to determine the local bone composition. Results showed that microdamaged areas of bone were chemically different than the surrounding undamaged areas. Specifically, the mineral stoichiometry was altered in microdamaged bone, where the carbonate/protein ratio and carbonate/phosphate ratio were significantly lower in areas of microdamage, and the acid phosphate content was higher. No differences were observed in tissue mineralization (phosphate/protein ratio) or crystallinity between the microdamaged and undamaged bone, indicating that the microdamaged regions of bone were not over-mineralized. The collagen cross-linking structure was also significantly different in microdamaged areas of bone, consistent with ruptured cross-links and reduced fracture resistance. All differences in composition had well-defined boundaries in the microcrack region, strongly suggesting that they occurred after microcrack formation. Even so, because microdamage results in an altered bone composition, an accumulation of microdamage might result in a long-term reduction in bone quality

  20. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  1. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone histomorphometry of remodeling, modeling and minimodeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Noriaki; Shimakura, Taketoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2015-10-01

    Bone histomorphometry is defined as a quantitative evaluation of bone remodeling. In bone remodeling, bone resorption and bone formation are coupled with scalloped cement lines. Another mechanism of bone formation is minimodeling which bone formation and resorption are independent. The finding of minimodeling appeared in special condition with metabolic bone disease or anabolic agents. We need further study for minimodeling feature and mechanism.

  2. Application of digital tomosynthesis to radiographic diagnosis of the temporal bone. Studies on visualization in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    To examine the usefulness of digital tomosynthesis for conducting radiographic diagnosis of the temporal bone, visualization of various aural structures such as the semicircular canals, cochlea, vestibular apparatus, ossicles of the ear and facial nerve canal was examined in 18 volunteers. The visualization of temporal bone specimens by digital tomosynthesis and CT images (slice thickness: 1.5 mm) was compared. The results showed that this system (Digital Tomosynthesis) produced clear images of bony labyrinthine structures such as the semicircular canals, cochlea, and vestibular apparatus. Visualization of the ossicles was also clear, and their continuity could be comprehended better than on CT images. This system also provided good visualization of the labyrinthine and tympanic parts of the facial nerve canal, although CT images had greater sharpness. Visualization of the lower half of the mastoid part was poor with this system. (author)

  3. Formation of Frenkel pairs and diffusion of self-interstitial in Si under normal and hydrostatic pressure: Quantumchemical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusakov, Vasilii; Belko, Victor; Dorozhkin, Nikolai

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical modeling of the formation of Frenkel pairs and the diffusion of a self-interstitial atom in silicon crystals at normal and high (hydrostatic) pressures has been performed using quantum-chemical (NDDO-PM5), methods. It is shown that, in a silicon crystal, the most stable configuration of a self-interstitial atom in the neutral charge state (I 0 ) is the split configuration . The tetrahedral configuration is not stable, an interstitial atom being shifted from T position in a new position T 1 on a distance Δd=0.2 A. The hexagonal configuration is not stable in NDDO approximation. The split interstitial configuration remains the more stable configuration under hydrostatic pressure (P a ( →T 1 )=0.59 eV, E a (T 1 →neighboring T 1 )=0.1 eV and E a (T 1 → )=0.23 eV. The hydrostatic pressure (P<80 kbar) increases the activation barrier for diffusion of self-interstitial atoms in silicon crystals. The energies of the formation of a separate Frenkel pair, a self-interstitial atom, and a vacancy are determined. It is demonstrated that the hydrostatic pressure decreases the energy of the formation of Frenkel pairs.

  4. Protein-free formation of bone-like apatite: New insights into the key role of carbonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deymier, Alix C; Nair, Arun K; Depalle, Baptiste; Qin, Zhao; Arcot, Kashyap; Drouet, Christophe; Yoder, Claude H; Buehler, Markus J; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Genin, Guy M; Pasteris, Jill D

    2017-05-01

    The nanometer-sized plate-like morphology of bone mineral is necessary for proper bone mechanics and physiology. However, mechanisms regulating the morphology of these mineral nanocrystals remain unclear. The dominant hypothesis attributes the size and shape regulation to organic-mineral interactions. Here, we present data supporting the hypothesis that physicochemical effects of carbonate integration within the apatite lattice control the morphology, size, and mechanics of bioapatite mineral crystals. Carbonated apatites synthesized in the absence of organic molecules presented plate-like morphologies and nanoscale crystallite dimensions. Experimentally-determined crystallite size, lattice spacing, solubility and atomic order were modified by carbonate concentration. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations predicted changes in surface energy and elastic moduli with carbonate concentration. Combining these results with a scaling law predicted the experimentally observed scaling of size and energetics with carbonate concentration. The experiments and models describe a clear mechanism by which crystal dimensions are controlled by carbonate substitution. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that carbonate substitution is sufficient to drive the formation of bone-like crystallites. This new understanding points to pathways for biomimetic synthesis of novel, nanostructured biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spatial control of bone formation using a porous polymer scaffold co-delivering anabolic rhBMP-2 and anti-resorptive agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NYC Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current clinical delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs utilises freeze-dried collagen. Despite effective new bone generation, rhBMP via collagen can be limited by significant complications due to inflammation and uncontrolled bone formation. This study aimed to produce an alternative rhBMP local delivery system to permit more controllable and superior rhBMP-induced bone formation. Cylindrical porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA scaffolds were manufactured by thermally-induced phase separation. Scaffolds were encapsulated with anabolic rhBMP-2 (20 µg ± anti-resorptive agents: zoledronic acid (5 µg ZA, ZA pre-adsorbed onto hydroxyapatite microparticles, (5 µg ZA/2 % HA or IkappaB kinase (IKK inhibitor (10 µg PS-1145. Scaffolds were inserted in a 6-mm critical-sized femoral defect in Wistar rats, and compared against rhBMP-2 via collagen. The regenerate region was examined at 6 weeks by 3D microCT and descriptive histology. MicroCT and histology revealed rhBMP-induced bone was more restricted in the PLGA scaffolds than collagen scaffolds (-92.3 % TV, p < 0.01. The regenerate formed by PLGA + rhBMP-2/ZA/HA showed comparable bone volume to rhBMP-2 via collagen, and bone mineral density was +9.1 % higher (p < 0.01. Local adjunct ZA/HA or PS-1145 significantly enhanced PLGA + rhBMP-induced bone formation by +78.2 % and +52.0 %, respectively (p ≤ 0.01. Mechanistically, MG-63 human osteoblast-like cells showed cellular invasion and proliferation within PLGA scaffolds. In conclusion, PLGA scaffolds enabled superior spatial control of rhBMP-induced bone formation over clinically-used collagen. The PLGA scaffold has the potential to avoid uncontrollable bone formation-related safety issues and to customise bone shape by scaffold design. Moreover, local treatment with anti-resorptive agents incorporated within the scaffold further augmented rhBMP-induced bone formation.

  6. Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Autry, C. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Patterson-Buckendahl, P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of skeletal weight bearing or physical unloading of bone in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and induces a bone mineral deficit. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading in the growing animal is a consequence of diminished sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) we studied the effects of skeletal unloading in young hypophysectomized rats treated with GH (0, 50, 500 micrograms/100 g body weight/day). Skeletal unloading reduced serum osteocalcin, impaired uptake of 3H-proline into bone, decreased proximal tibial mass, and diminished periosteal bone formation at the tibiofibular junction. When compared with animals receiving excipient alone, GH administration increased bone mass in all animals. The responses in serum osteocalcin, uptake of 3H-proline and 45Ca into the proximal tibia, and proximal tibial mass in non-weight bearing animals were equal to those in weight bearing animals. The responses in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction to GH, however, were reduced significantly by skeletal unloading. Bone unloading prevented completely the increase in metaphyseal trabecular bone normally induced by GH and severely dampened the stimulatory effect (158% vs. 313%, p < 0.002) of GH on periosteal bone formation. These results suggest that while GH can stimulate the overall accumulation of bone mineral in both weight bearing and non-weight bearing animals, skeletal unloading selectively impairs the response of trabecular bone and periosteal bone formation to the anabolic actions of GH.

  7. Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Autry, C. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Patterson-Buckendahl, P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of skeletal weight bearing or physical unloading of bone in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and induces a bone mineral deficit. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading in the growing animal is a consequence of diminished sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) we studied the effects of skeletal unloading in young hypophysectomized rats treated with GH (0, 50, 500 micrograms/100 g body weight/day). Skeletal unloading reduced serum osteocalcin, impaired uptake of 3H-proline into bone, decreased proximal tibial mass, and diminished periosteal bone formation at the tibiofibular junction. When compared with animals receiving excipient alone, GH administration increased bone mass in all animals. The responses in serum osteocalcin, uptake of 3H-proline and 45Ca into the proximal tibia, and proximal tibial mass in non-weight bearing animals were equal to those in weight bearing animals. The responses in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction to GH, however, were reduced significantly by skeletal unloading. Bone unloading prevented completely the increase in metaphyseal trabecular bone normally induced by GH and severely dampened the stimulatory effect (158% vs. 313%, p bone formation. These results suggest that while GH can stimulate the overall accumulation of bone mineral in both weight bearing and non-weight bearing animals, skeletal unloading selectively impairs the response of trabecular bone and periosteal bone formation to the anabolic actions of GH.

  8. Activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway contributes to inflammation-induced osteoporosis by suppressing bone formation and causing osteoblast apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K J; Armour, K E; van't Hof, R J; Reid, D M; Wei, X Q; Liew, F Y; Ralston, S H

    2001-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major clinical problem in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanism of bone loss in this condition remains unclear, but previous studies have indicated that depressed bone formation plays a causal role. Since cytokine-induced nitric oxide (NO) production has been shown to inhibit osteoblast growth and differentiation in vitro, this study was undertaken to investigate the role of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) pathway in the pathogenesis of inflammation-mediated osteoporosis (IMO) by studying mice with targeted inactivation of the iNOS gene (iNOS knockout [iNOS KO] mice). IMO was induced in wild-type (WT) and iNOS KO mice by subcutaneous injections of magnesium silicate. The skeletal response was assessed at the tibial metaphysis by measurements of bone mineral density (BMD), using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, by bone histomorphometry, and by measurements of bone cell apoptosis. NO production increased 2.5-fold (P < 0.005) in WT mice with IMO, but did not change significantly in iNOS KO mice. Total BMD values decreased by a mean +/- SEM of 14.4+/-2.0% in WT mice with IMO, compared with a decrease of 8.6+/-1.2% in iNOS KO mice with IMO (P < 0.01). Histomorphometric analysis confirmed that trabecular bone volume was lower in WT mice with IMO compared with iNOS KO mice with IMO (16.2+/-1.5% versus 23.4+/-2.6%; P < 0.05) and showed that IMO was associated with reduced bone formation and a 320% increase in osteoblast apoptosis (P < 0.005) in WT mice. In contrast, iNOS KO mice with IMO showed less inhibition of bone formation than WT mice and showed no significant increase in osteoblast apoptosis. Inducible NOS-mediated osteoblast apoptosis and depressed bone formation play important roles in the pathogenesis of IMO.

  9. Himalayan gneiss dome formation in the middle crust and exhumation by normal faulting: New geochronology of Gianbul dome, northwestern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Forrest; Lee, Jeffrey; Hacker, Bradley; Bowman-Kamaha'o, Meilani; Cosca, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    A general lack of consensus about the origin of Himalayan gneiss domes hinders accurate thermomechanical modeling of the orogen. To test whether doming resulted from tectonic contraction (e.g., thrust duplex formation, antiformal bending above a thrust ramp, etc.), channel flow, or via the buoyant rise of anatectic melts, this study investigates the depth and timing of doming processes for Gianbul dome in the western Himalaya. The dome is composed of Greater Himalayan Sequence migmatite, Paleozoic orthogneiss, and metasedimentary rock cut by multiple generations of leucogranite dikes. These rocks record a major penetrative D2 deformational event characterized by a domed foliation and associated NE-SW–trending stretching lineation, and they are flanked by the top-down-to-the-SW (normal-sense) Khanjar shear zone and the top-down-to-the-NE (normal sense) Zanskar shear zone (the western equivalent of the South Tibetan detachment system). Monazite U/Th-Pb geochronology records (1) Paleozoic emplacement of the Kade orthogneiss and associated granite dikes; (2) prograde Barrovian metamorphism from 37 to 33 Ma; (3) doming driven by upper-crustal extensio