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Sample records for normal bmi individuals

  1. A comparison of chewing rate between overweight and normal BMI individuals.

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    White, Amy Kristin; Venn, Bernard; Lu, Louise Weiwei; Rush, Elaine; Gallo, Luigi Maria; Yong, Janet Lee Ching; Farella, Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Previous attempts to identify an 'obese eating style' have led to conflicting findings. This observational study compared the chewing features of overweight or obese young adults with those of normal range BMI. We hypothesised that chewing features are individual-specific and differ between participants of a normal BMI and high BMI. Fourteen overweight to obese participants (BMI≥25.0) were pairwise matched with 14 normal range BMI participants (18.5chewing episodes, including rate, duration, and power. Masticatory performance was assessed by a sieve test and was expressed as the percentage of particles ≤2mm after a standardised chewing test. Regardless of the meal, chewing rate was remarkably consistent among participants (ICC=0.89; 95% CI=0.79-0.94). Chewing rate did not differ between high and normal BMI participants (p>0.05), whereas chewing power was significantly higher in high BMI participants (pchewing characteristics were found between BMI groups. Participants chewed at similar rate in the natural environment (pizza) and in the laboratory (rice) setting (p>0.05). Masticatory performance did not differ significantly (p>0.05) between the high (55.9%) and normal (52.4%) BMI groups. Within the limitations of the present study, chewing characteristics appear to be individual-specific with wide variability. Overweight participants chew at a similar rate to control participants, albeit slightly stronger. Our preliminary findings need to be replicated in larger samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Desirable factors for maintaining normal BMI of urban affluent women of Delhi.

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    Gupta, Anu Taneja; Siddhu, Anupa

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify desirable social, familial, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle factors for maintaining normal body mass index (BMI) of urban affluent women (25-45 years) in Delhi, India. A total of 387 urban affluent women with at least one living child participated in this cross-sectional study conducted from March 2008 to April 2010. Women were classified into four BMI categories on the basis of World Health Organization (WHO; 2004) classification for Asians. Significant factors for maintaining normal BMI were: Younger age, less parity, nuclear family, normal weight status of parents, postpartum weight gain between 2 and 3 kg, regularity in taking meals, fixed meal size, self-perceived normal weight, and shorter sitting time and television viewing time. Multivariate regression analysis identified five determining factors for maintaining BMI, which are normal weight of father, self-perceived normal weight, fixed meal size, sitting time less than 6 h/day, and television viewing time less than 1 h/day. By small lifestyle modifications, normal BMI can be maintained.

  3. Desirable factors for maintaining normal BMI of urban affluent women of Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Anu Taneja Gupta; Anupa Siddhu

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify desirable social, familial, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle factors for maintaining normal body mass index (BMI) of urban affluent women (25-45 years) in Delhi, India. A total of 387 urban affluent women with at least one living child participated in this cross-sectional study conducted from March 2008 to April 2010. Women were classified into four BMI categories on the basis of World Health Organization (WHO; 2004) classification for Asians. Significant facto...

  4. BMI and breast cancer prognosis benefit: mammography screening reveals differences between normal weight and overweight women.

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    Crispo, Anna; Grimaldi, Maria; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Capasso, Immacolata; Amore, Alfonso; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Giudice, Aldo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Montella, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    Few studies are available on the potential impact of body weight on breast cancer prognosis in screen-detected patients. Moreover, it is not known whether body mass index (BMI) could have a different prognostic impact in screen-detected versus symptomatic breast cancer patients. To investigate these unsolved issues, we carried out a retrospective study evaluating the effect of BMI on breast cancer prognosis in screen-detected vs symptomatic breast cancer patients. We conducted a follow-up study on 448 women diagnosed with incident, histologically-confirmed breast cancer. Patients were categorized according to their BMI as normal weight, overweight and obese. Disease free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and BMI curves were compared according to mode of cancer detection. Among screen-detected patients, higher BMI was associated with a significant lower DFS, whereas no significant difference was observed among symptomatic patients. OS showed similar results. In the multivariate analysis adjusting for age, education, tumor size, nodal status, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and menopausal status, the risk for high level of BMI among screen-detected patients did not reach the statistical significance for either recurrence or survival. Our study highlights the potential impact of high bodyweight in breast cancer prognosis, the findings confirm that obesity plays a role in women breast cancer prognosis independently from diagnosis mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inter-individual inequality in BMI: An analysis of Indonesian Family Life Surveys (1993–2007

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    Masoud Vaezghasemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Widening inequalities in mean Body Mass Index (BMI between social and economic groups are well documented. However, whether changes in mean BMI are followed by changes in dispersion (or variance and whether these inequalities are also occurring within social groups or across individuals remain understudied. In addition, a substantial body of literature exists on the global increase in mean BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity. However, whether this weight gain is shared proportionately across the whole spectrum of BMI distribution, also remains understudied. We examined changes in the distribution of BMI at the population level over time to understand how changes in the dispersion reflect between-group compared to within-group inequalities in weight gain. Moreover, we investigated the entire distribution of BMI to determine in which percentiles the most weight gain is occurring over time. Utilizing four waves (from 1993 to 2007 of Indonesian Family Life Surveys (IFLS, we estimated changes in the mean and the variance of BMI over time and across various socioeconomic groups based on education and households’ expenditure per capita in 53,648 men and women aged 20–50 years. An increase in mean and standard deviation was observed among men (by 4.3% and 25%, respectively and women (by 7.3% and 20%, respectively over time. Quantile-Quantile plots showed that higher percentiles had greater increases in BMI compared to the segment of the population at lower percentiles. While between socioeconomic group differences decreased over time, within-group differences increased and were more prominent among individuals with poor education and lower per capita expenditures. Population changes in BMI cannot be fully described by average trends or single parameters such as the mean BMI. Moreover, greater increases in within-group dispersion compared with between-group differences imply that growing inequalities are not merely driven by these

  6. Plasma progranulin and relaxin levels in PCOS women with normal BMI compared to control healthy subjects

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    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is the most commonly encountered endocrine gland disease affecting 5-10 present of women at their reproductive age. This syndrome is associated with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Progranulin and relaxin are adipokins that are related with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Due to limited data about progranulin and relaxin plasma levels´ in women with PCOS and normal BMI, this study was conducted. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional. During the study 39 women with PCOS and BMI< 25 on the basis of Rotterdam criteria were chosen as the patient group and 38 healthy women were selected as the control group. The concentration of progranulin and relaxin were measured by ELISA technique. Results: The difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin, and also some of the biochemical parameters in the patient group versus to the control group was not significant, but there was significant difference in the concentrations of VLDL, triglyceride (p=0.046, insulin (p=0.016, HOMA-IR (p=0.015, testosterone (p=0.01, and DHEAS (p=0.034 in the patients group compared to the control group. Conclusion: In this study, the difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin in the patient group compared to the control group was not significant. It could be inferred that lack of change in plasma level of progranulin and relaxin in women with PCOS is related to BMI<25 and FBS<110. Moreoverestosterones, insulin, DHEAS and HOMA-IR changes could be better predictors of PCOS and its associated diabetes.

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRUNK MUSCLES ENDURANCE AND NORMAL BMI AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS WITH SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE

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    Karthikeyan Selvaganapathy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important trunk stabilizers are the trunk flexors and extensors. The isometric endurance of the trunk muscles is an essential element for mechanical support of the spine in all positions. The study objectives were to find out the trunk flexors and extensors endurance, its relationship with normal BMI and to find out the ratio of trunk flexors to extensors endurance. Methods: In this correlation study, 50 subjects were selected by convenience sampling method on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria from Asia metropolitan university, Malaysia. The trunk flexors and extensors endurance were assessed by Kraus- Weber and Sorenson test respectively. Paired 't' test and Spearman correlation test were used for data analysis. Results: There was a significant difference (p 0.01 and TEE, rs (50 = -0.162, p >0.01 but there was a significant strong positive relationship between TFE and TEE, rs (50 = 0.68, p < 0.01. The ratio of trunk flexors to extensors was 0.61. Conclusion: The trunk extensors endurance is higher than trunk flexors endurance and BMI has no relationship with trunk flexors and extensors muscle endurance. The ratio of trunk flexors to extensors endurance value is low

  8. Does more education cause lower BMI, or do lower-BMI individuals become more educated? Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979.

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    Benson, Rebecca; von Hippel, Paul T; Lynch, Jamie L

    2017-03-21

    More educated adults have lower average body mass index (BMI). This may be due to selection, if adolescents with lower BMI attain higher levels of education, or it may be due to causation, if higher educational attainment reduces BMI gain in adulthood. We test for selection and causation in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, which has followed a representative US cohort from age 14-22 in 1979 through age 47-55 in 2012. Using ordinal logistic regression, we test the selection hypothesis that overweight and obese adolescents were less likely to earn high school diplomas and bachelor's degrees. Then, controlling for selection with individual fixed effects, we estimate the causal effect of degree completion on BMI and obesity status. Among 18-year-old women, but not among men, being overweight or obese predicts lower odds of attaining higher levels of education. At age 47-48, higher education is associated with lower BMI, but 70-90% of the association is due to selection. Net of selection, a bachelor's degree predicts less than a 1 kg reduction in body weight, and a high school credential does not reduce BMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. BMI Development of Normal Weight and Overweight Children in the PIAMA Study

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    Willers, Saskia M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; van der Beek, Eline M.; Gehring, Ulrike; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that rapid weight gain during the first year of life is associated with overweight later in life. However, results from studies exploring other critical periods for the development of overweight are inconsistent. Objective: The objective was to investigate BMI

  10. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josee; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R.; Murakami, Takamichi; O'Connor, George T.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  11. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josee [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R. [Harvard Medical School, The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O' Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Boston University School of Medicine, Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  12. Prediction intervals for future BMI values of individual children - a non-parametric approach by quantile boosting

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    Mayr Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The construction of prediction intervals (PIs for future body mass index (BMI values of individual children based on a recent German birth cohort study with n = 2007 children is problematic for standard parametric approaches, as the BMI distribution in childhood is typically skewed depending on age. Methods We avoid distributional assumptions by directly modelling the borders of PIs by additive quantile regression, estimated by boosting. We point out the concept of conditional coverage to prove the accuracy of PIs. As conditional coverage can hardly be evaluated in practical applications, we conduct a simulation study before fitting child- and covariate-specific PIs for future BMI values and BMI patterns for the present data. Results The results of our simulation study suggest that PIs fitted by quantile boosting cover future observations with the predefined coverage probability and outperform the benchmark approach. For the prediction of future BMI values, quantile boosting automatically selects informative covariates and adapts to the age-specific skewness of the BMI distribution. The lengths of the estimated PIs are child-specific and increase, as expected, with the age of the child. Conclusions Quantile boosting is a promising approach to construct PIs with correct conditional coverage in a non-parametric way. It is in particular suitable for the prediction of BMI patterns depending on covariates, since it provides an interpretable predictor structure, inherent variable selection properties and can even account for longitudinal data structures.

  13. BMI and Body Fat Mass Is Inversely Associated with Vitamin D Levels in Older Individuals

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    Oliai Araghi, S.; van Dijk, S. C.; Ham, A. C.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E. M.; Enneman, A. W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K. M. A.; van der Zwaluw, N. L.; van Wijngaarden, J. P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; van Schoor, N. M.; Zillikens, M. C.; Lips, P.; de Groot, L.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; van der Velde, N.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Cross-sectional analysis of data from 'the B-PROOF study' (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). 2842 participants aged 65 years and older.

  14. BMI and body fat mass is inversely associated with vitamin D levels in older individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghi, S.O.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Brouwer, E.M.; Enneman, A.W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K.M.A.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from ‘the B-PROOF study’ (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). Participants: 2842

  15. MtDNA genomes reveal a relaxation of selective constraints in low-BMI individuals in a Uyghur population.

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    Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Li, Lei; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Yan, Shi; Qin, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jin, Li

    2017-10-01

    Considerable attention has been focused on the effect of deleterious mutations caused by the recent relaxation of selective constraints on human health, including the prevalence of obesity, which might represent an adaptive response of energy-conserving metabolism under the conditions of modern society. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoding 13 core subunits of oxidative phosphorylation plays an important role in metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized that a relaxation of selection constraints on mtDNA and an increase in the proportion of deleterious mutations have played a role in obesity prevalence. In this study, we collected and sequenced the mtDNA genomes of 722 Uyghurs, a typical population with a high prevalence of obesity. We identified the variants that occurred in the Uyghur population for each sample and found that the number of nonsynonymous mutations carried by Uyghur individuals declined with elevation of their BMI (P = 0.015). We further calculated the nonsynonymous and synonymous ratio (N/S) of the high-BMI and low-BMI haplogroups, and the results showed that a significantly higher N/S occurred in the whole mtDNA genomes of the low-BMI haplogroups (0.64) than in that of the high-BMI haplogroups (0.35, P = 0.030) and ancestor haplotypes (0.41, P = 0.032); these findings indicated that low-BMI individuals showed a recent relaxation of selective constraints. In addition, we investigated six clinical characteristics and found that fasting plasma glucose might be correlated with the N/S and selective pressures. We hypothesized that a higher proportion of deleterious mutations led to mild mitochondrial dysfunction, which helps to drive glucose consumption and thereby prevents obesity. Our results provide new insights into the relationship between obesity predisposition and mitochondrial genome evolution.

  16. Potential for waist-to-height ratio to detect overfat adolescents from a Pacific Island, even those within the normal BMI range.

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    Frayon, Stéphane; Cavaloc, Yolande; Wattelez, Guillaume; Cherrier, Sophie; Lerrant, Yannick; Ashwell, Margaret; Galy, Olivier

    2017-12-15

    Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is a simple anthropometric proxy for central body fat; it is easy to use from a health education perspective. A WHtR value >0.5 has been proposed as a first level indicator of health risk. The first aim of this study was to compare WHtR with values based on body mass index (BMI) in their prediction of the percentage of body fat (%BF) in a multi-ethnic population of adolescents from New-Caledonia (age 11-16year). Secondly, to see whether WHtR >0.5 could be used to detect overfat subjects whose BMI was in the normal range. Body fat percentage (%BF, based on skinfold measurements), BMI and WHtR were calculated for New Caledonian adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds. The relationship between %BF, BMI and WHtR was determined using quadratic models and from linear regression equations. The sensitivity and specificity of WHtR for detecting overfat adolescents (%BF >25% in boys and >30% in girls) were assessed and compared with those from the BMI-based classification. WHtR showed better correlation with %BF than BMI-based measurements. WHtR >0.5 was also more accurate than BMI in detecting overfat adolescents. Moreover, using this boundary value, 8% of adolescents in the normal BMI range were shown to be over-fat. WHtR is a good anthropometric proxy to detect overfat adolescents. Detecting overfat adolescents within the normal BMI range is particularly important for preventing non communicable diseases. We therefore recommend using WHtR for health education programs in the Pacific area and more generally. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Eating frequency is higher in weight loss maintainers and normal-weight individuals than in overweight individuals.

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    Bachman, Jessica L; Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R; Raynor, Hollie A

    2011-11-01

    Eating frequency has been negatively related to body mass index (BMI). The relationship between eating frequency and weight loss maintenance is unknown. This secondary analysis examined eating frequency (self-reported meals and snacks consumed per day) in weight loss maintainers (WLM) who had reduced from overweight/obese to normal weight, normal weight (NW) individuals, and overweight (OW) individuals. Data collected July 2006 to March 2007 in Providence, RI, included three 24-hour dietary recalls (2 weekdays, 1 weekend day) analyzed using Nutrient Data System for Research software from 257 adults (WLM n=96, 83.3% women aged 50.0±11.8 years with BMI 22.1±1.7; NW n=80, 95.0% women aged 46.1±11.5 years with BMI 21.1±1.4; OW n=81, 53.1% women aged 51.4±9.0 years with BMI 34.2±4.1) with plausible intakes. Participant-defined meals and snacks were ≥50 kcal and separated by more than 1 hour. Self-reported physical activity was highest in WLM followed by NW, and then OW (3,097±2,572 kcal/week, 2,062±1,286 kcal/week, and 785±901 kcal/week, respectively; Pmeals consumed (2.7±0.4 meals/day). Eating frequency, particularly in regard to a pattern of three meals and two snacks per day, may be important in weight loss maintenance. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of national wealth on BMI: An analysis of 206,266 individuals in 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries.

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    Mohd Masood

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between BMI and national-wealth and the cross-level interaction effect of national-wealth and individual household-wealth using multilevel analysis.Data from the World Health Survey conducted in 2002-2004, across 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries was used. Participants aged 18 years and over were selected using multistage, stratified cluster sampling. BMI was used as outcome variable. The potential determinants of individual-level BMI were participants' sex, age, marital-status, education, occupation, household-wealth and location(rural/urban at the individual-level. The country-level factors used were average national income (GNI-PPP and income inequality (Gini-index. A two-level random-intercepts and fixed-slopes model structure with individuals nested within countries was fitted, treating BMI as a continuous outcome.The weighted mean BMI and standard-error of the 206,266 people from 70-countries was 23.90 (4.84. All the low-income countries were below the 25.0 mean BMI level and most of the high-income countries were above. All wealthier quintiles of household-wealth had higher scores in BMI than lowest quintile. Each USD10000 increase in GNI-PPP was associated with a 0.4 unit increase in BMI. The Gini-index was not associated with BMI. All these variables explained 28.1% of country-level, 4.9% of individual-level and 7.7% of total variance in BMI. The cross-level interaction effect between GNI-PPP and household-wealth was significant. BMI increased as the GNI-PPP increased in first four quintiles of household-wealth. However, the BMI of the wealthiest people decreased as the GNI-PPP increased.Both individual-level and country-level factors made an independent contribution to the BMI of the people. Household-wealth and national-income had significant interaction effects.

  19. Effect of national wealth on BMI: An analysis of 206,266 individuals in 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries

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    Reidpath, Daniel D.

    2017-01-01

    Background This study explores the relationship between BMI and national-wealth and the cross-level interaction effect of national-wealth and individual household-wealth using multilevel analysis. Methods Data from the World Health Survey conducted in 2002–2004, across 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries was used. Participants aged 18 years and over were selected using multistage, stratified cluster sampling. BMI was used as outcome variable. The potential determinants of individual-level BMI were participants’ sex, age, marital-status, education, occupation, household-wealth and location(rural/urban) at the individual-level. The country-level factors used were average national income (GNI-PPP) and income inequality (Gini-index). A two-level random-intercepts and fixed-slopes model structure with individuals nested within countries was fitted, treating BMI as a continuous outcome. Results The weighted mean BMI and standard-error of the 206,266 people from 70-countries was 23.90 (4.84). All the low-income countries were below the 25.0 mean BMI level and most of the high-income countries were above. All wealthier quintiles of household-wealth had higher scores in BMI than lowest quintile. Each USD10000 increase in GNI-PPP was associated with a 0.4 unit increase in BMI. The Gini-index was not associated with BMI. All these variables explained 28.1% of country-level, 4.9% of individual-level and 7.7% of total variance in BMI. The cross-level interaction effect between GNI-PPP and household-wealth was significant. BMI increased as the GNI-PPP increased in first four quintiles of household-wealth. However, the BMI of the wealthiest people decreased as the GNI-PPP increased. Conclusion Both individual-level and country-level factors made an independent contribution to the BMI of the people. Household-wealth and national-income had significant interaction effects. PMID:28662041

  20. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Liraglutide 3.0 mg in Individuals with BMI above and below 35 kg/m²: A Post-hoc Analysis.

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    le Roux, Carel; Aroda, Vanita; Hemmingsson, Joanna; Cancino, Ana Paula; Christensen, Rune; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg differed between two subgroups, BMI 27 to 3.0 mg were evaluated by testing the interaction between treatment group and baseline BMI subgroup. Significantly greater weight loss (0-56 weeks) was observed with liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo in all patient groups while on treatment. There was no evidence that the weight-lowering effect of liraglutide 3.0 mg differed between BMI subgroups (interaction p > 0.05). Similarly, for most secondary endpoints significantly greater improvements were observed with liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo, with no indication treatment effects differing between subgroups. The safety profile of liraglutide 3.0 mg was broadly similar across BMI subgroups. This post-hoc analysis did not indicate any differences in the treatment effects, or safety profile, of liraglutide 3.0 mg for individuals with BMI 27 to 3.0 mg can therefore be considered for individuals with a BMI of ≥35 as well as for those with a BMI of 27 to <35 kg/m². © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  1. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Liraglutide 3.0 mg in Individuals with BMI above and below 35 kg/m²: A Post-hoc Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, Carel; Aroda, Vanita; Hemmingsson, Joanna; Cancino, Ana Paula; Christensen, Rune; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg differed between two subgroups, BMI 27 to 3.0 mg were evaluated by testing the interaction between treatment group and baseline BMI subgroup. Results Significantly greater weight loss (0–56 weeks) was observed with liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo in all patient groups while on treatment. There was no evidence that the weight-lowering effect of liraglutide 3.0 mg differed between BMI subgroups (interaction p > 0.05). Similarly, for most secondary endpoints significantly greater improvements were observed with liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo, with no indication treatment effects differing between subgroups. The safety profile of liraglutide 3.0 mg was broadly similar across BMI subgroups. Conclusion This post-hoc analysis did not indicate any differences in the treatment effects, or safety profile, of liraglutide 3.0 mg for individuals with BMI 27 to 3.0 mg can therefore be considered for individuals with a BMI of ≥35 as well as for those with a BMI of 27 to <35 kg/m². PMID:29145215

  2. Characteristics of the tinnitus and hyperacusis in normal hearing individuals

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    Daila Urnau1,

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tinnitus has become a common otological complaint. Another complaint is found in bearers of the tinnitus is the hyperacusis. Objective: Analyze the characteristics of tinnitus and hyperacusis in normal hearing individuals with associated complaints of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Method: 25 normal hearing individuals who complained of hyperacusis and tinnitus were surveyed in this form of cross-sectional study. They were questioned about the location and type of the tinnitus. The evaluation of the tinnitus was made using the Brazilian Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and acuphenometry. A questionnaire was made about the hyperacusis covering aspects such as: sounds considered uncomfortable, sensations in the presence of such sounds, and difficulty understanding speech in noise. Results: Of the 25 individuals, 64% were women and 36% men. Regarding tinnitus, 84% referred to bilateral location and 80% high pitch. The most common degree found was light (44%. The women presented tinnitus degree statistically superior to those of men. The strong intensity sounds and the reactions of irritation, anxiety and the need to move away from the sound were the most mentioned. From the analyzed individuals, 68% referred to difficulty understanding speech in noise and 12% reported using hearing protection. The most found frequencies at the acuphenometry were 6 and 8 KHz. Conclusion: Normal hearing individuals who complain of tinnitus and hyperacusis present mainly high pitch tinnitus, located bilaterally and light degree. The sounds considered uncomfortable were the high intensity ones and the most cited reaction to sound was irritation. The difficulty to understand speech in noise was reported by most of the individuals.

  3. N-Back auditory test performance in normal individuals

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    Vanessa Tomé Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract The working memory construct refers to the capacity to maintain information for a limited time. Objectives: To devise stimuli and adapt the 5-back test and to verify the effect of age in normal Brazilian individuals. Methods: 31 healthy adults (15 young adults and 16 older adults were evaluated by batteries of auditory stimuli to verify the inter-group differences (age effect in working memory span, total correct answers and intrusions, and the intra-group effect of type of stimulus. Results: There was no intra-group stimulus effect. Individuals from both groups processed di and tri-syllables similarly. No difference between groups (no age effect was observed for any N-Back parameters: total score, span, number of intrusions, in either di or tri-syllable presentation. Conclusion: the processing capacity of 5 elements in phonological working memory was not affected by age.

  4. Assessment of Working Memory in Individuals With Stuttering in Comparison With Individuals With Normal Fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswarya Liz Varghese

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is common in literature to relate stuttering with some other deficit that interferes with communicative functions. Working memory comprises the system of human memory dedicated to both temporary storages of phonological detail and allocation of cognitive resources necessary for forming lasting memories. In this study we have analyzed the performance of individuals with stuttering on various working memory tasks. The aim of study is to compare the working memory abilities in individuals with stuttering and individuals with normal fluency on various working memory tasks. A total of 30 individuals with stuttering and 30 individuals with normal fluency in the age range of 18 – 40 years participated in the study. The Working Memory domain will be assessed using The Manipal Manual for Cognitive Linguistic Abilities (MMCLA which consists of auditory word retrieval, auditory letter and number recall, auditory word list recall, auditory delayed sentence recall, visual practice recall, visual letter and number recall, visual word list recall and visual delayed sentence recall. Results revealed that the individuals with normal fluency had superior performance compared to the individuals with stuttering. Hence, it’s helpful to understand the involvement of working memory in stuttering and incorporate working memory training along with the conventional fluency therapy.

  5. A Comparison of Early Maladaptive Schemas in Crystal Addicted Individuals and Normal Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Asadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present research was to compare early maladaptive schemas in crystal addicted individuals and normal individuals. Method: In this ex post facto research, two groups of subjects (normal adolescent=30 and addicted adolescent=30 were selected via cluster sampling and convenience sampling respectively. Yang early maladaptive schemas questionnaire were conducted, then data were analyzed using multiple analysis of variance. Results: The results revealed that there was significant difference between both groups in early maladaptive schemas. Conclusion: The findings provided empirical support for the proposition that early maladaptive schemas may influence on tendency of adolescent toward substance abuse.

  6. BMI, HOMA-IR, and Fasting Blood Glucose Are Significant Predictors of Peripheral Nerve Dysfunction in Adult Overweight and Obese Nondiabetic Nepalese Individuals: A Study from Central Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Lekhjung; Rana, P V S

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Nondiabetic obese individuals have subclinical involvement of peripheral nerves. We report the factors predicting peripheral nerve function in overweight and obese nondiabetic Nepalese individuals. Methodology. In this cross-sectional study, we included 50 adult overweight and obese nondiabetic volunteers without features of peripheral neuropathy and 50 healthy volunteers to determine the normative nerve conduction data. In cases of abnormal function, the study population was classified on the basis of the number of nerves involved, namely, "HOMA-IR) was the significant predictor (P = 0.019, 96% CI = 1.420-49.322) of sensory nerve dysfunction. Body mass index (BMI) was the significant predictor (P = 0.034, 95% CI = 1.018-1.577) in case of ≥2 mixed nerves' involvement. Conclusion. FBG, HOMA-IR, and BMI were significant predictors of peripheral nerve dysfunction in overweight and obese Nepalese individuals.

  7. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI) in elderly individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, Maria Dida Silva; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Pestana, Manuella Castro Silva; Pestana, Vitor Silva; Schinoni, Maria Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP), in the abdominal circumference (AC) and the body mass index (BMI) in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years). The active in...

  8. Can nitric oxide induce migraine in normal individuals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: For many years, scientists have debated the possibility that an individual "migraine threshold" determines the likelihood with which individuals may express migraine attacks. DISCUSSION: Recent discoveries provided evidence for both genetic and environmental influences on individual...

  9. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI in elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adesilda Silva Pestana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference (AC and the body mass index (BMI in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years. The active independent variable investigated was nature of treatment intervention (Pilates mat based exercises vs resistance exercise, and the dependent variables were hs-CRP level, AC and BMI. The statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests. The correlation between the continuous variables was assessed using Spearman’s coefficient of correlation. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 17.0, and probability values lower than 5% (p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mat Pilates based exercises exhibited reductions in serum hs-CPR level (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -2.466, p = 0.01, BMI (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.295, p = 0.001 and AC (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.398, p = 0.01. Mat Pilates based exercises promoted a significant reduction of the serum hs-CRP levels and anthropometric measurements in elderly individuals.

  10. Morning cortisol is lower in obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen EP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Edavan P Praveen1, Jaya Prakash Sahoo1, Bindu Kulshreshtha2, Madan L Khurana3, Nandita Gupta1, Sada Nand Dwivedi3, Guresh Kumar3, Ariachery C Ammini11Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, 3Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaBackground: There is no consensus on the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the relationship of morning plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels with body mass index (BMI and glucose tolerance.Subjects and methods: The sample frame was the “Offspring of individuals with diabetes study” database. A total of 358 offspring of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 287 individuals without a known family history of T2DM were recruited for the study. Subjects who were ≥10 years of age were selected from the database for analysis. Subjects with T2DM were excluded. All participants underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes for glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Plasma cortisol, ACTH, and lipid profile were estimated from the fasting sample.Results: Four hundred and ninety-five participants (305 males [62%] and 190 females [38%] were included in the analysis. ACTH and cortisol levels were higher in normal-weight subjects than in overweight/obese subjects. Both ACTH and cortisol increased as fasting plasma glucose increased. Cortisol levels were significantly lower in offspring of T2DM subjects with MS than in offspring of T2DM subjects without MS. When adjusted for BMI, the significance was marginal. In males, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with early insulin secretion during OGTT (insulinogenic index [0–30] and positively with waist circumference and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In females, fasting

  11. Age Effects on Cortical Thickness in Cognitively Normal Elderly Individuals

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    Sona Hurtz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Atrophy in both grey and white matter is found in normal aging. The prefrontal cortex and the frontal lobe white matter are thought to be the most affected regions. Our aim was to examine the effects of normal aging on cortical grey matter using a 3D quantitative cortical mapping method. Methods: We analyzed 1.5-tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 44 cognitively normal elderly subjects using cortical pattern matching and cortical thickness analyses. Linear regression analysis was used to study the effect of age on cortical thickness. 3D map-wide correction for multiple comparisons was conducted with permutation analyses using a threshold of p Results: We found a significant negative association between age and cortical thickness in the right hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.009 and a trend level association in the left hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.081. Age-related changes were greatest in the sensorimotor, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortices, and the right posterior middle and inferior frontal gyri. Age effects greater in the medial than lateral visual association cortices were also seen bilaterally. Conclusion: Our novel method further validates that normal aging results in diffuse cortical thinning that is most pronounced in the frontal and visual association cortices.

  12. Association between individual fat depots and cardio-metabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, M; Geisler, C; Plachta-Danielzik, S; Müller, M J

    2017-05-08

    To determine age-related associations between fat mass (FM), regional fat depots and cardiometabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults. Detailed body composition (regional subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue; SAT, VAT) by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), FM and fat-free mass by air-displacement plethysmography, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), plasma glucose and plasma insulin were measured in 433 subjects (BMI: 23.6 (21.0-27.7); 151 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, 150 young adults, aged 18-30 years and 132 adults, aged 30-60 years). Data were derived from pooled data of the 'Reference Center for Body Composition' in Kiel, Germany. Insulin resistance was determined by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Partial correlations and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between body composition and cardiometabolic traits. A descriptive approach was used to demonstrate age-dependent differences in associations between body fat depots and insulin resistance, independent of BMI. FM, SAT, and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood with low VAT in children and adolescents. When compared to children, TG was higher in adults. HDL and DBP did not differ between age groups. Insulin resistance was highest in male adolescents and female young adults. Associations between body fat depots and cardiometabolic traits were seen after puberty with no associations in pre- and intrapubertal children. When compared to FM, SAT and VAT had the strongest association with insulin resistance in adults. This association was independent of BMI. Associations between individual body fat depots and most cardiometabolic traits became evident after puberty only. The strongest associations were observed between insulin resistance and abdominal fat in adults. The impact of VAT was independent

  13. Individual loss reserving with the Multivariate Skew Normal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pigeon, M.; Antonio, K.; Denuit, M.

    2011-01-01

    In general insurance, the evaluation of future cash ows and solvency capital has become increasingly important. To assist in this process, the present paper proposes an individual discrete-time loss re- serving model describing the occurrence, the reporting delay, the timeto the first payment, and

  14. Individual loss reserving with the Multivariate Skew Normal distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pigeon, M.; Antonio, K.; Denuit, M.

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of future cash flows and solvency capital recently gained importance in general insurance. To assist in this process, our paper proposes a novel loss reserving model, designed for individual claims in discrete time. We model the occurrence of claims, as well as their reporting delay,

  15. Individual loss reserving with the multivariate skew normal framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pigeon, M.; Antonio, K.; Denuit, M.

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of future cash flows and solvency capital recently gained importance in general insurance. To assist in this process, our paper proposes a novel loss reserving model, designed for individual claims developing in discrete time. We model the occurrence of claims, as well as their

  16. Body Dissatisfaction in Individuals with Obesity Compared to Normal-Weight Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha-Alexandra Weinberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body dissatisfaction has been identified as a psychological correlate of obesity that is related to disordered eating, poor self-esteem, and depression. However, not all individuals with obesity are equally vulnerable to these correlates, and ‘normative discontent' is present in individuals with normal weight, too. In this light, the complex relationship of body image and individual weight status seems like a worthwhile direction of research inquiry. As such, this review aims to systematically explore the degree of body dissatisfaction in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight individuals. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted. All quantitative studies of adult samples reporting results regarding differences in body dissatisfaction between individuals with normal weight and obesity were included. Results: 17 articles were found. Across studies, individuals with obesity reported higher body dissatisfaction than normal-weight individuals (questionnaires: d = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.63-1.16, p Conclusion: The findings underline the severity of body dissatisfaction among individuals with obesity and especially among women. Future research recommendations are discussed.

  17. Remnant Cholesterol and Myocardial Infarction in Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese Individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested whether high remnant cholesterol is associated with high myocardial infarction risk, independent of whether an individual is normal weight, overweight, or obese. METHODS: A total of 106216 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study were followed for up to 11......) of obese). RESULTS: Median calculated remnant cholesterol was 0.40 mmol/L [interquartile range (IQR), 0.30-0.55 mmol/L] [15 mg/dL (12-21 mg/dL)] for underweight, 0.50 mmol/L (IQR, 0.37-0.71 mmol....../L) [19 mg/dL (14-27 mg/dL)] for normal weight, 0.70 mmol/L (IQR, 0.49-1.00 mmol/L) [27 mg/dL (19-39 mg/dL)] for overweight, and 0.85 mmol/L (IQR, 0.61-1.20 mmol/L) [(33 mg/dL (24-46 mg/dL)] for obese individuals. On continuous scales, remnant cholesterol was positively correlated with BMI until reaching...

  18. BMI and BMI SDS in childhood: annual increments and conditional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannsether, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Júlíusson, Pétur Benedikt

    2017-02-01

    Background Early detection of abnormal weight gain in childhood may be important for preventive purposes. It is still debated which annual changes in BMI should warrant attention. Aim To analyse 1-year increments of Body Mass Index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI SDS) in childhood and explore conditional change in BMI SDS as an alternative method to evaluate 1-year changes in BMI. Subjects and methods The distributions of 1-year increments of BMI (kg/m 2 ) and BMI SDS are summarised by percentiles. Differences according to sex, age, height, weight, initial BMI and weight status on the BMI and BMI SDS increments were assessed with multiple linear regression. Conditional change in BMI SDS was based on the correlation between annual BMI measurements converted to SDS. Results BMI increments depended significantly on sex, height, weight and initial BMI. Changes in BMI SDS depended significantly only on the initial BMI SDS. The distribution of conditional change in BMI SDS using a two-correlation model was close to normal (mean = 0.11, SD = 1.02, n = 1167), with 3.2% (2.3-4.4%) of the observations below -2 SD and 2.8% (2.0-4.0%) above +2 SD. Conclusion Conditional change in BMI SDS can be used to detect unexpected large changes in BMI SDS. Although this method requires the use of a computer, it may be clinically useful to detect aberrant weight development.

  19. Fedmerelatererede sundhedsomkostninger vurderet ud fra måling af enten BMI eller taljeomkreds--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Olsen, Kim Rose; Søgaard, Jes

    2009-01-01

    circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). The analyses show that the combination of BMI and WC does not improve the identification of high-risk individuals compared with the use of WC alone. The health service costs increase by 1.24% in women and 2.08% in men pr. cm increase in WC above the normal range....

  20. Fedmerelatererede sundhedsomkostninger vurderet ud fra måling af enten BMI eller taljeomkreds--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Olsen, Kim Rose; Søgaard, Jes

    2009-01-01

    circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). The analyses show that the combination of BMI and WC does not improve the identification of high-risk individuals compared with the use of WC alone. The health service costs increase by 1.24% in women and 2.08% in men pr. cm increase in WC above the normal range...

  1. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region: an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Tomizawa, Rie; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Rissanen, Aila; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Piirtola, Maarit; Aaltonen, Sari; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Rebato, Esther; Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Cutler, Tessa L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Busjahn, Andreas; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik Ke; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Spector, Timothy D; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina Em; Willemsen, Gonneke; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth Jf; Hopper, John L; Sung, Joohon; Maes, Hermine H; Turkheimer, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2017-08-01

    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m 2 )], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age from the 1940s to the 2000s and between cultural-geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low (East Asia) prevalence of obesity. Design: We used genetic structural equation modeling to analyze BMI in twins ≥20 y of age from 40 cohorts representing 20 countries (140,379 complete twin pairs). Results: The heritability of BMI decreased from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.78) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.75) in men and women 20-29 y of age to 0.57 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.60) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.65) in men 70-79 y of age and women 80 y of age, respectively. The relative influence of unique environmental factors correspondingly increased. Differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from 20-29 to 60-69 y of age. Mean BMI and variances in BMI increased from the 1940s to the 2000s and were greatest in North America and Australia, followed by Europe and East Asia. However, heritability estimates were largely similar over measurement years and between regions. There was no evidence of environmental factors shared by co-twins affecting BMI. Conclusions: The heritability of BMI decreased and differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from young adulthood to old age. The heritability of BMI was largely similar between cultural-geographic regions and measurement years, despite large differences in mean BMI and variances in BMI. Our results show a strong influence of genetic factors on BMI, especially in early adulthood, regardless of the obesity level in the population. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Beliefs and motives related to eating and body size: a comparison of high-BMI and normal-weight young adult women from rural and urban areas in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Caamaño

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective treatment and prevention of obesity and its co-morbidities requires the recognition and understanding of cultural and social aspects of eating practices. The objective of the present study was to identify social factors and beliefs that may explain undesirable eating practices among women with high body mass index (HBMI compared with normal-weight (NW women from rural and urban areas classified as middle-low socioeconomic status (SES in the State of Querétaro, Mexico. Methods A qualitative technique with individual in-depth interviews was used. Fifty-five women with either NW or HBMI from rural and urban areas participated in the study. The responses were analyzed by coding and grouping text fragments into categories in a data matrix, in order to make comparisons between BMI groups and between rural and urban women. Results The habit of skipping breakfast prevailed among women with HBMI who also reported childhood food deprivation. Feelings related to eating seemed to be more important than losing weight among women with HBMI from urban and rural areas. Thus, overweight might be interpreted as a social symbol of the enjoyment of a good life, primarily in rural areas. Overweight was socially accepted when it occurred in children and in married woman, mainly because it is a symbol of the good life that the head of the household provides, and also because women may feel more relaxed about their weight when they already have a partner. The study also revealed that women with HBMI were not sufficiently motivated to lose weight unless they experience a physical indication of poor health. Conclusion The findings from this study are helpful in the understanding of the reasons why strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity may not be as effective as expected. The belief system of particular social groups within different SESs should be considered in order to understand the etiology of obesity and develop

  3. Implicit and Explicit Memory Bias in Opiate Dependent, Abstinent and Normal Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hasani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of current research was to assess implicit and explicit memory bias to drug related stimuli in opiate Dependent, abstinent and normal Individuals. Method: Three groups including opiate Dependent, abstinent and normal Individuals (n=25 were selected by available sampling method. After matching on the base of age, education level and type of substance use all participants assessed by recognition task (explicit memory bias and stem completion task (implicit memory bias. Results: The analysis of data showed that opiate dependent and abstinent groups in comparison with normal individual had implicit memory bias, whereas in explicit memory only opiate dependent individuals showed bias. Conclusion: The identification of explicit and implicit memory governing addiction may have practical implications in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of substance abuse.

  4. Symptoms and signs in individuals with serology positive for celiac disease but normal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Lena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody serology is an important tool in the investigation of celiac disease (CD, but does not always correlate with mucosal appearance in the small intestine. Patients with positive CD serology but normal mucosa (Marsh 0 are at increased risk of future CD. In this study we describe a model for identifying and characterizing individuals with normal mucosa but positive CD serology. Such individuals are sometimes referred to as having latent CD. Methods The records of ten Swedish pathology departments were used to identify individuals with biopsies indicating normal duodenal/jejunal mucosa. Using the national personal identification number, these data were linked with CD serology data (antigliadin, antiendomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies; and we thereby identified 3,736 individuals with normal mucosa but positive CD serology. Two independent reviewers then manually reviewed their biopsy reports to estimate comorbidity. We also randomly selected 112 individuals for validation through patient chart review. Results The majority of the 3,736 individuals were females (62%. Children (0–15 years made up 21.4%. The median number of biopsy specimen was 3. Our review of biopsy reports found that other gastrointestinal comorbidity was rare (inflammatory bowel disease: 0.4%; helicobacter pylori infection: 0.2%. Some 22% individuals selected for patient chart review had a relative with CD. The most common symptoms among these individuals were diarrhea (46% and abdominal pain (45%, while 26% had anemia. Although 27% of the individuals selected for validation had been informed about gluten-free diet, only 13% were adhering to a gluten-free diet at the end of follow-up. Conclusion Individuals with positive CD serology but normal mucosa often have CD-like symptoms and a family history of CD.

  5. About BMI for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... between the BMI and body fatness is fairly strong 1,2,3,7 , but even if 2 people have the same BMI, their level of body fatness may differ 12 . In general, At the same BMI, women tend to have more body fat than men. At the same BMI, Blacks have less body ...

  6. Radioimmunologic determination of the concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum of normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkov, V.; Milanov, S.

    1982-01-01

    The serum concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was determined by radioimmunoassay in 95 normal individuals (41 women and 54 men), 20 to 65 years of age. Depending on sex and age, the tested individuals were divided in four groups: gr. I - 27 women, 20 to 40 years of age; gr. II - 14 women, 4O to 65 years of age; gr. III -35 men, 20 to 40 years of age, and group IV - 19 men, 40 to 65 years of age. The following mean serum CEA levels were obtained in normal individuals: Group I -6.8 +- 1.07 ng/ml; group II - 9.71 +- 1.46 ng/ml; group III - 4.9 +- 0.73 ng/ml; group IV - 7.5 +- 1.5 ng/ml. The CEA levels in the serum of normal individuals varied with age and sex, but the differences were statistically insignificant (p> 0.10). Normal values fo serum CEA concentrations in normal individuals were determined. These values are meant to be used for comparison with serum CEA values in patients with malignant diseases. (author)

  7. Social phobia and sexual problems: A comparison of social phobic, sexually dysfunctional and normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Valentina; Stravynski, Ariel

    2010-03-01

    This study sought to test the putative link between social phobia and sexual functioning. Three groups consisting of 106 social phobic, 164 sexually dysfunctional and 111 normal participants were assessed in terms of sexual functioning, social anxiety, social functioning and general psychopathology. Although social phobic men were less sexually active than normal men, they were as sexually satisfied. Social phobic women were alike their normal counterparts in all respects. Overall, social phobic individuals were not more prone to report sexual problems than normal individuals despite reporting the severest levels of social anxiety. Theoretically, our results are best understood as supporting an interpersonal conception of social phobia and a related socio-cultural perspective regarding sexual roles.

  8. Higher Intake of Fruit, but Not Vegetables or Fiber, at Baseline Is Associated with Lower Risk of Becoming Overweight or Obese in Middle-Aged and Older Women of Normal BMI at Baseline123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Wang, Lu; Lee, I-Min; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Sesso, Howard D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intake have been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, little is known about their role in obesity prevention. Objective: Our goal was to investigate whether intake of fruits, vegetables, and dietary fiber is associated with weight change and the risk of becoming overweight and obese. Methods: We studied 18,146 women aged ≥45 y from the Women’s Health Study free of CVD and cancer with an initial body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intakes were assessed at baseline through a 131-item food-frequency questionnaire, along with obesity-related risk factors. Women self-reported body weight on annual questionnaires. Results: During a mean follow-up of 15.9 y, 8125 women became overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2). Intakes of total fruits and vegetables, fruits, and dietary fiber were not associated with the longitudinal changes in body weight, whereas higher vegetable intake was associated with greater weight gain (P-trend: 0.02). In multivariable analyses, controlling for total energy intake and physical activity along with other lifestyle, clinical, and dietary factors, women in the highest vs. lowest quintile of fruit intake had an HR of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.94; P-trend: 0.01) of becoming overweight or obese. No association was observed for vegetable or dietary fiber intake. The association between fruit intake and risk of becoming overweight or obese was modified by baseline BMI (P-interaction: fruit, but not vegetables or fiber, by middle-aged and older women with a normal BMI at baseline is associated with lower risk of becoming overweight or obese. PMID:25934663

  9. Higher Intake of Fruit, but Not Vegetables or Fiber, at Baseline Is Associated with Lower Risk of Becoming Overweight or Obese in Middle-Aged and Older Women of Normal BMI at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Wang, Lu; Lee, I-Min; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Sesso, Howard D

    2015-05-01

    Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intake have been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, little is known about their role in obesity prevention. Our goal was to investigate whether intake of fruits, vegetables, and dietary fiber is associated with weight change and the risk of becoming overweight and obese. We studied 18,146 women aged ≥45 y from the Women's Health Study free of CVD and cancer with an initial body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intakes were assessed at baseline through a 131-item food-frequency questionnaire, along with obesity-related risk factors. Women self-reported body weight on annual questionnaires. During a mean follow-up of 15.9 y, 8125 women became overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m²). Intakes of total fruits and vegetables, fruits, and dietary fiber were not associated with the longitudinal changes in body weight, whereas higher vegetable intake was associated with greater weight gain (P-trend: 0.02). In multivariable analyses, controlling for total energy intake and physical activity along with other lifestyle, clinical, and dietary factors, women in the highest vs. lowest quintile of fruit intake had an HR of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.94; P-trend: 0.01) of becoming overweight or obese. No association was observed for vegetable or dietary fiber intake. The association between fruit intake and risk of becoming overweight or obese was modified by baseline BMI (P-interaction: fruit, but not vegetables or fiber, by middle-aged and older women with a normal BMI at baseline is associated with lower risk of becoming overweight or obese. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Evaluation of Postprandial Total Antioxidant Activity in Normal and Overweight Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Arslan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Postprandial changes acutely alter some mechanisms in body. There are many studies showing blood oxidative status changes after food intake, and supplementation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized meal on serum total antioxidant activity (TAA in normal weight and overweight individuals. Material and Method: Fourteen normal weight and twelve overweight individuals were given a standardized meal in the morning after an overnight fast. Serum TAA, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were measured at baseline, 3rd hour, and 6th hour after the meal in both groups.Results: In both normal and overweight groups, the difference between baseline and 3rd hour was significant for TAA. The TAA of the overweight group was also significantly lower than the TAA of the normal weight group at 3rd hour. However, there was no significant correlation between lipid parameters and TAA levels. Discussion: The present study shows that postprandial oxidative damage occurs more prominently in overweight individuals than in normal weight individuals. Postprandial changes acutely induce oxidative stress and impair the natural antioxidant defense mechanism. It should be noted that consuming foods with antioxidants in order to avoid various diseases and complications is useful, particularly in obese subjects.

  11. Eating Disorder Symptomatology in Normal-Weight vs. Obese Individuals With Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J.; Hill, Laura L.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, Jim E.

    2011-01-01

    Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and χ2 analyses. After con...

  12. Which markers of subclinical organ damage to measure in individuals with high normal blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W

    2009-01-01

    plaques or urine albumin/creatinine ratio of at least the 90th percentile did not produce significantly worse results. Seventy-five percent of individuals with three or more traditional risk factors had SOD. CONCLUSION: In healthy individuals with high normal BP, measuring two of pulse wave velocities......OBJECTIVE: Medical treatment of healthy individuals with high normal blood pressure (BP) is recommended if there is subclinical organ damage (SOD). We examined which markers of SOD to use based on their supplementary prognostic value. METHODS: In a population sample of 1968 individuals, aged 41, 51......, 61 and 71 years, without diabetes, prior stroke or myocardial infarction, not receiving any cardiovascular, antidiabetic or lipid-lowering medications, we measured urine albumin/creatinine ratio, carotid atherosclerotic plaques, carotid/femoral pulse wave velocity and left ventricular mass index...

  13. Reference intervals of spinal mobility measures in normal individuals: the mobility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramiro, Sofia; van Tubergen, Astrid; Stolwijk, Carmen; van der Heijde, Desiree; Royston, Patrick; Landewe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To establish reference intervals (RIs) for spinal mobility measures as recommended for patients with axial spondyloarthritis, and to determine the effect of age, height and gender on spinal mobility, in normal individuals. Methods A cross-sectional study (MOBILITY) was conducted among

  14. The Best and the Rest: Revisiting the Norm of Normality of Individual Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Ernest, Jr.; Aguinis, Herman

    2012-01-01

    We revisit a long-held assumption in human resource management, organizational behavior, and industrial and organizational psychology that individual performance follows a Gaussian (normal) distribution. We conducted 5 studies involving 198 samples including 633,263 researchers, entertainers, politicians, and amateur and professional athletes.…

  15. Recognition of Speech of Normal-hearing Individuals with Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig, Tais Regina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tinnitus and hyperacusis are increasingly frequent audiological symptoms that may occur in the absence of the hearing involvement, but it does not offer a lower impact or bothering to the affected individuals. The Medial Olivocochlear System helps in the speech recognition in noise and may be connected to the presence of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Objective: To evaluate the speech recognition of normal-hearing individual with and without complaints of tinnitus and hyperacusis, and to compare their results. Method: Descriptive, prospective and cross-study in which 19 normal-hearing individuals were evaluated with complaint of tinnitus and hyperacusis of the Study Group (SG, and 23 normal-hearing individuals without audiological complaints of the Control Group (CG. The individuals of both groups were submitted to the test List of Sentences in Portuguese, prepared by Costa (1998 to determine the Sentences Recognition Threshold in Silence (LRSS and the signal to noise ratio (S/N. The SG also answered the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory for tinnitus analysis, and to characterize hyperacusis the discomfort thresholds were set. Results: The CG and SG presented with average LRSS and S/N ratio of 7.34 dB NA and -6.77 dB, and of 7.20 dB NA and -4.89 dB, respectively. Conclusion: The normal-hearing individuals with or without audiological complaints of tinnitus and hyperacusis had a similar performance in the speech recognition in silence, which was not the case when evaluated in the presence of competitive noise, since the SG had a lower performance in this communication scenario, with a statistically significant difference.

  16. Survival of human diploid skin fibroblasts from normal individuals after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.B.; Nove, J.; Strong, L.C.; Nichols, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    The cytotoxic effect of X-rays was measured by a colony formation assay in multiple experiments with fibroblast cell strains derived from 24 presumably normal individuals, received as 65 different coded and blinded samples. Each strain was received on two or more occasions at different times and bearing different codes. The means and standard deviations of the survival curve parameters for the 24 strains were: D 0 = 123 +- 23; D 10 = 273 +- 42 cGy. The D 0 ranged from 89 to 175 and the D 10 from 196 to 372 cGy. The degree of interexperimental variation, though generally minimal, differed considerably among cell strains. There was no systematic effect of passage level, cloning efficiency, serum lot, age or sex of the donor on X-ray survival. These results confirm that the intrinsic radiosensitivity varies significantly among skin fibroblasts isolated from clinically normal individuals, apparently owing to as yet unidentified genetic factors. (Author)

  17. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by tartrazine and a pyrazolone analogue in normal and allergic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J S; Splansky, G L; Bernstein, I L

    1980-11-01

    The effect of tartrazine (T) (yellow dye No. 5) and one of its metabolites an aminopyrazolone analogue (1-sulphophenyl-3-carboxy-5-hydroxypyrazole, SCHP) upon collagen-induced platelet aggregation (C-PA) was investigated in fourteen atopic patients and fourteen normal subjects. Both T and SCHP inhibited C-PA in atopic patients at significantly lower doses than in normal volunteers. The mean inhibitory concentrations of SCHP were similar to aspirin in both atopic and normal individuals. Although the precise mechanism by which these chemicals block C-PA has not been elucidated, this in vitro system may be a useful method of assessing non-immune mechanisms involved in reactions to tartrazine.

  18. A comparision of Brain-Behavioral Systems in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kobra Moradi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare   Brain-Behavioral Systems in patient with multiple sclerocis (MS and normal individuals. Materials and Methods: This research was a post facto comparative study, subjects included  healthy persons and all patients with MS, which in summer and autumn 2013 referred to neurologists in the Lorestan province. Of the population using as samples, 117 cases (75 patients and 42 normal subjects were selected, then Gray- Wilson Personality Questionnaire was completed for them. To analyze the data, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA test  was used to compare the two groups. Results: The results showed, in BAS scales, people with MS had significantly lower scores than normal subjects Conclusion: What comes from findings indicates that a low score in behavioral activation as a pathological factors in chronic diseases such as MS is concerned and is in need of psychological treatment.

  19. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

    2008-01-01

    This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

  20. Comparison between β-thalassemia minor and normal individuals using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangiabadi, Nasser; Yarahmadi, Fahimeh; Darekordi, Ali; Shabani, Mohammad; Dadgar, Mehrak Memaran

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating and comparing patients suffering from β-thalassemia (β-thal) minor with normal individuals in regard to their performances in the short version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) test. Patients with β-thal minor are carriers of β-thal genes. They have mild microcytic and hypochromic anemia and are usually asymptomatic. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 60 individuals were divided into two equal groups of β-thal minor and normal subjects; they were then studied by the WAIS subscales. The mean performance scores of the normal group in the subtests of arithmetic and vocabulary (p <0.01) and picture completion (p <0.05) were higher than those of the thalassemia group. The mean performance score and ability of the normal group on the verbal scale was higher in comparison to the thalassemia group (p <0.05), while on the non verbal scale, there was no significant difference between the two groups. It can be concluded that β-thal minor negatively influences verbal fluency, reasoning and conceptualization, and sequencing tasks, perceptual skill, prediction of social situations and abstract thinking.

  1. Effects of low dose irradiation on NK activity of normal individuals and patients with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hailin; Su Liaoyuan

    1994-10-01

    Effects of low dose irradiation on NK activity of lymphocytes and on K 562 cells were studied. The NK activity was determined by means of 3 H-TdR release assay. While 3 H-TdR incorporation was used to reflect functional changes of K 562 cells after low dose irradiation. 21 patients with cancer and 10 normal individuals were detected. The results indicated that the NK activity of lymphocytes in normal individuals increased significantly after 10 and 50 cGy γ-ray irradiation, while in patients with cancer the NK activity of lymphocytes increased only at the dose of 50 cGy irradiation. The increase of NK activity in normal individuals was higher than that in patients with cancer after same doses of irradiation. When K 562 cells were irradiated by 10 cGy γ-rays, the 3 H-TdR incorporation value increased. After exposed to over 50 cGy the stimulating effect disappeared

  2. Distribution of Different Sized Ocular Surface Vessels in Diabetics and Normal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaee, Touka; Pourreza, Hamidreza; Doosti, Hassan; Abrishami, Mojtaba; Ehsaei, Asieh; Basiry, Mohsen; Pourreza, Reza

    2017-01-01

    To compare the distribution of different sized vessels using digital photographs of the ocular surface of diabetic and normal individuals. In this cross-sectional study, red-free conjunctival photographs of diabetic and normal individuals, aged 30-60 years, were taken under defined conditions and analyzed using a Radon transform-based algorithm for vascular segmentation. The image areas occupied by vessels (AOV) of different diameters were calculated. The main outcome measure was the distribution curve of mean AOV of different sized vessels. Secondary outcome measures included total AOV and standard deviation (SD) of AOV of different sized vessels. Two hundred and sixty-eight diabetic patients and 297 normal (control) individuals were included, differing in age (45.50 ± 5.19 vs. 40.38 ± 6.19 years, P distribution curves of mean AOV differed between patients and controls (smaller AOV for larger vessels in patients; P distribution curve of vessels compared to controls. Presence of diabetes mellitus is associated with contraction of larger vessels in the conjunctiva. Smaller vessels dilate with diabetic retinopathy. These findings may be useful in the photographic screening of diabetes mellitus and retinopathy.

  3. Normalized patellofemoral joint reaction force is greater in individuals with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Lucas T; Sheehan, Frances T; Jackson, Jennifer N

    2017-07-26

    Patellofemoral pain is a disabling, highly prevalent pathology. Altered patellofemoral contact forces are theorized to contribute to this pain. Musculoskeletal modeling has been employed to better understand the etiology of patellofemoral pain. Currently, there are no data on the effective quadriceps moment arm for individuals with patellofemoral pain, forcing researchers to apply normative values when modeling such individuals. In addition, the ratio of patellofemoral reaction force to quadriceps force is often used as a surrogate for patellofemoral joint contact force, ignoring the fact that the quadriceps efficiency can vary with pathology and intervention. Thus, the purposes of this study were to: (1) quantify the effective quadriceps moment arm in individuals with patellofemoral pain and compare this value to a control cohort and (2) develop a novel methodology for quantifying the normalized patellofemoral joint reaction force in vivo during dynamic activities. Dynamic MR data were captured as subjects with patellofemoral pain (30F/3M) cyclically flexed their knee from 10° to 40°. Data for control subjects (29F/9M) were taken from a previous study. The moment arm data acquired across a large cohort of individuals with patellofemoral pain should help advance musculoskeletal modeling. The primary finding of this study was an increased mean normalized patellofemoral reaction force of 14.9% (maximum values at a knee angle of 10°) in individuals with patellofemoral pain. Understanding changes in the normalized patellofemoral reaction force with pathology may lead to improvements in clinical decision making, and consequently treatments, by providing a more direct measure of altered patellofemoral joint forces. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Eating disorder symptomatology in normal-weight vs. obese individuals with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J; Hill, Laura L; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, Jim E

    2011-07-01

    Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and χ(2) analyses. After controlling for age and sex, normal-weight participants reported more frequent use of a range of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers, including eating fewer meals and snacks per day; exercising and skipping meals more frequently in the past month; and avoiding certain foods for weight control. They also endorsed more frequent attempts at dieting in the past year, and feeling more frequently distressed about their binge eating, at a trend level. There were no group differences in binge eating frequency in the past month, age at onset of binge eating, overvaluation of shape/weight, or likelihood of having used certain weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting, laxative use) or having sought treatment for an eating disorder in the past. Based on our findings, normal-weight individuals appear to be a behaviorally distinct subset of the BED population with significantly greater usage of both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers. These results refute the notion that distress and impairment in BED are simply a result of comorbid obesity.

  5. Does low-dose CCK-8 injection produce abdominal pain in 'truly normal' individuals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, S.; Webb, B.; Hille, N.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The development of abdominal pain following cholecystokinin (CCK) injection is not specific for biliary disease. Patients can develop abdominal pain with CCK during hepatobiliary studies and have normal gallbladder function. Does this non-biliary pain indicate pathology? High doses of CCK induce pain in functional bowel syndromes, but may also produce pain in normals. Pain is less common at lower CCK doses, and hence may be more significant. This study aimed to determine the rate at which the low dose of CCK used in hepatobiliary scans causes abdominal pain and other side-effects in 'truly normal' individuals. Some preliminary results of CCK-induced pain in gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) patients are also discussed. Six 'truly normal' subjects were studied. 'Truly normal' was defined as: no current history of abdominal pain; no biliary or gallbladder disease; no significant GIT pathology; not currently on medication designed to be pharmacologically active in the GIT. Each patient was given an intravenous dose of 0.01 μg-kg -1 of CCK8 over 3 min, and side-effects were recorded for 30 min. No subject had abdominal pain. Two developed nausea, 1 moderate and 1 mild. An identical dose of CCK was given to 2 patients with endoscopically proven GOR. Anti-reflux medication had been ceased for 12 h. After CCK, 1 patient developed typical 'reflux' pain and 1 was asymptomatic. In conclusion, none of our 'truly normal' patients had abdominal pain with low-dose CCK. This suggests that patients developing pain following injection of this dose of CCK are indeed abnormal. The literature infers these patients may have irritable bowel syndrome; however, this hypothesis is complicated by our preliminary results indicating that CCK can reproduce pain in some patients with GOR

  6. Age-Related Change in Vestibular Ganglion Cell Populations in Individuals With Presbycusis and Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Michael B; Nelson, Erik G

    2017-04-01

    We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis. The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood. Vestibular ganglion cells, spiral ganglion cells, and cochlear hair cells were counted in specimens from individuals with presbycusis and normal hearing. These were taken from within a large collection of processed human temporal bones. Correlations between histopathology and hearing phenotype were investigated. Vestibular ganglion cell counts were positively correlated with spiral ganglion cell counts and cochlear hair cell counts and were negatively correlated with hearing phenotype. There was no statistical evidence on linear regression to suggest that the relationship between age and cell populations differed significantly according to whether presbycusis was present or not. Superior vestibular ganglion cells were more negatively correlated with age than inferior ganglion cells. No difference in vestibular ganglion cells was noted based on sex. Vestibular ganglion cell counts progressively deteriorate with age, and this loss correlates closely with changes in the cochlea, as well as hearing phenotype. However, these correlations do not appear to be unique in individuals with presbycusis as compared with those with normal hearing.

  7. Recreational football practice attenuates postprandial lipaemia in normal and overweight individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Darren J; Bangsbo, Jens; Nassis, George P

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of playing football on postprandial lipaemia in normal and overweight individuals. METHODS: Fifteen (7 normal weight, age = 32.3 ± 6.0 years, BMI = 22.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2 and 8 overweight, age = 33.3 ± 5.5 years, BMI = 29.2 ± 3.2 kg/m2......, mean ± SD) recreational football players were recruited. On the evening of day 1, participants played a 60-min 9-a-side football match (FOOT) or rested (control; CON) in a randomised counterbalanced cross-over design. Activity profile, heart rate and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. The next...

  8. Trajectories of BMI change impact glucose and insulin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E I; Shaw, J; Cherbuin, N

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine, in a community setting, whether trajectory of weight change over twelve years is associated with glucose and insulin metabolism at twelve years. Participants were 532 community-living middle-aged and elderly adults from the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life study. They spanned the full weight range (underweight/normal/overweight/obese). Latent class analysis and multivariate generalised linear models were used to investigate the association of Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) trajectory over twelve years with plasma insulin (μlU/ml), plasma glucose (mmol/L), and HOMA2 insulin resistance and beta cell function at follow-up. All models were adjusted for age, gender, hypertension, pre-clinical diabetes status (normal fasting glucose or impaired fasting glucose) and physical activity. Four weight trajectories were extracted; constant normal (mean baseline BMI = 25; follow-up BMI = 25), constant high (mean baseline BMI = 36; follow-up BMI = 37), increase (mean baseline BMI = 26; follow-up BMI = 32) and decrease (mean baseline BMI = 34; follow-up BMI = 28). At any given current BMI, individuals in the constant high and increase trajectories had significantly higher plasma insulin, greater insulin resistance, and higher beta cell function than those in the constant normal trajectory. Individuals in the decrease trajectory did not differ from the constant normal trajectory. Current BMI significantly interacted with preceding BMI trajectory in its association with plasma insulin, insulin resistance, and beta cell function. The trajectory of preceding weight has an independent effect on blood glucose metabolism beyond body weight measured at any given point in time. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier

  9. Normal human gait patterns in Peruvian individuals: an exploratory assessment using VICON motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, R.; Moscoso, M.; Callupe, R.; Pajaya, J.; Elías, D.

    2017-11-01

    Gait analysis is of clinical relevance for clinicians. However, normal gait patterns used in foreign literature could be different from local individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the normal gait patterns and parameters of Peruvian individuals in order to have a local referent for clinical assessments and making diagnosis and treatment Peruvian people with lower motor neuron injuries. A descriptive study with 34 subjects was conducted to assess their gait cycle. VICON® cameras were used to capture body movements. For the analyses, we calculated spatiotemporal gait parameters and average angles of displacement of the hip, knee, and ankle joints with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The results showed gait speed was 0.58m/s, cadence was 102.1steps/min, and the angular displacement of the hip, knee and ankle joints were all lower than those described in the literature. In the graphs, gait cycles were close to those reported in previous studies, but the parameters of speed, cadence and angles of displacements are lower than the ones shown in the literature. These results could be used as a better reference pattern in the clinical setting.

  10. Effect of anaerobic bout using wingate cycle ergometer on pressure pain threshold in normal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Dabholkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Published studies reveal that incremental graded and short term anaerobic exercise lead to an increase in beta-endorphin levels, the extent correlating with the lactate concentration. Beta- endorphin can be released into the circulation from the pituitary gland or can project into areas of the brain through nerve fibers. Exercise of sufficient intensity and duration has been demonstrated to increase circulating Beta-endorphin levels. Thus, our study investigates the effect of anaerobic activity on pressure pain threshold (PPT in normal individuals. Materials and Methods: Normal individuals (N = 30 between the age group of 20-30 years were recruited for this study. The subjects performed an anaerobic bout on Monark Wingate cycle egometer. A pre and post assessment of PPT was evaluated. Data Analysis: Graphpad Instat 3 software program was used for statistical analysis. A paired't' test was done to analyse the level of statistical significance between the pre and post PPT. Results: Study revealed that post anaerobic bout there was statistical significant difference between pre and post PPT in quadriceps, Mean 14.41,95% CI[12.95,15.87], Mean 16.73,95% CI[15.06,18.40] & (P value 0.0411 and gastrocnemius,Mean 13.56, 95% CI[12.18,14.93], Mean 15.55,95% CI[13.94,17.16] & (P value <0.0001. Conclusion: The study emphasizes the influence of pain modulation after an anaerobic bout.

  11. Raman Spectroscopy of DNA Packaging in Individual Human Sperm Cells distinguishes Normal from Abnormal Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huser, T; Orme, C; Hollars, C; Corzett, M; Balhorn, R

    2009-03-09

    Healthy human males produce sperm cells of which about 25-40% have abnormal head shapes. Increases in the percentage of sperm exhibiting aberrant sperm head morphologies have been correlated with male infertility, and biochemical studies of pooled sperm have suggested that sperm with abnormal shape may contain DNA that has not been properly repackaged by protamine during spermatid development. We have used micro-Raman spectroscopy to obtain Raman spectra from individual human sperm cells and examined how differences in the Raman spectra of sperm chromatin correlate with cell shape. We show that Raman spectra of individual sperm cells contain vibrational marker modes that can be used to assess the efficiency of DNA-packaging for each cell. Raman spectra obtained from sperm cells with normal shape provide evidence that DNA in these sperm is very efficiently packaged. We find, however, that the relative protein content per cell and DNA packaging efficiencies are distributed over a relatively wide range for sperm cells with both normal and abnormal shape. These findings indicate that single cell Raman spectroscopy should be a valuable tool in assessing the quality of sperm cells for in-vitro fertilization.

  12. Association Between Thyroid Hormones, Thyroid Antibodies, and Cardiometabolic Factors in Non-Obese Individuals With Normal Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHypothyroidism is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT is the leading cause of hypothyroidism. Recent studies showed that even AIT patients with euthyroidism still had an increased number of early atherosclerotic lesions. However, the precise mechanism is not yet known. This study aimed to investigate the association of thyroid function, thyroid autoimmunity, and cardiometabolic risk factors in non-obese AIT patients with euthyroidism.MethodsA total of 5,608 non-obese individuals including 1,402 AIT patient and 4,206 sex-, age-, and body mass index (BMI-matched healthy controls were recruited.ResultsThe AIT patients had significantly lower free T3 and free T4 levels, and higher TSH, antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb and TgAb levels. The elevated levels of high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were observed in the AIT patients than the controls [hsCRP: 0.65 (0.27–1.33 vs. 0.20 (0.03–0.74 mg/L; HOMA-IR: 2.78 ± 1.60 vs. 2.33 ± 1.49; all P < 0.05]. Thyroid function was not associated with metabolic parameters and inflammatory makers, while the TPOAb titer was positively associated with the HOMA-IR and hsCRP levels after adjustment for confounding factors (all P < 0.05. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the TPOAb level was an independent influencing factor for the HOMA-IR and hsCRP levels (HOMA-IR: β = 0.058, P < 0.05; hsCRP: β = 0.108, P < 0.05.ConclusionThe TPOAb level is associated with HOMA-IR and hsCRP levels independently of thyroid function in non-obese individuals. Mild deviation of thyroid function within the normal range, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance may be the links between AIT and atherosclerosis in the non-obese population.

  13. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Korzyukov, Oleg; Roth, Thomas; Bowyer, Susan M; Drake, Christopher L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP)--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS) (habitual total sleep time (TST) 7 h 32 m) vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS) (habitual TST ≤6 h). To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m) corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS), and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m) in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS), were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep), and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively). The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  14. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Gumenyuk

    Full Text Available Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS (habitual total sleep time (TST 7 h 32 m vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS (habitual TST ≤6 h. To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS, and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS, were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep, and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively. The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  15. Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Samra, Jasmeet K; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2017-12-13

    To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. Observational cohort study. Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors. Baseline temperatures were correlated with demographics, medical comorbidities, vital signs, and subsequent one year mortality. In a diverse cohort of 35 488 patients (mean age 52.9 years, 64% women, 41% non-white race) with 243 506 temperature measurements, mean temperature was 36.6°C (95% range 35.7-37.3°C, 99% range 35.3-37.7°C). Several demographic factors were linked to individual level temperature, with older people the coolest (-0.021°C for every decade, Pdata) was linked to 8.4% higher one year mortality (P=0.014). Individuals' baseline temperatures showed meaningful variation that was not due solely to measurement error or environmental factors. Baseline temperatures correlated with demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiology, but these factors explained only a small part of individual temperature variation. Unexplained variation in baseline temperature, however, strongly predicted mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Jasmeet K; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. Participants 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. Main outcome measures Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors. Baseline temperatures were correlated with demographics, medical comorbidities, vital signs, and subsequent one year mortality. Results In a diverse cohort of 35 488 patients (mean age 52.9 years, 64% women, 41% non-white race) with 243 506 temperature measurements, mean temperature was 36.6°C (95% range 35.7-37.3°C, 99% range 35.3-37.7°C). Several demographic factors were linked to individual level temperature, with older people the coolest (–0.021°C for every decade, Ptemperature (eg, hypothyroidism: –0.013°C, P=0.01) or higher temperature (eg, cancer: 0.020, Pbody mass index: 0.002 per m/kg2, Ptemperature variation. Despite this, unexplained temperature variation was a significant predictor of subsequent mortality: controlling for all measured factors, an increase of 0.149°C (1 SD of individual temperature in the data) was linked to 8.4% higher one year mortality (P=0.014). Conclusions Individuals’ baseline temperatures showed meaningful variation that was not due solely to measurement error or environmental factors. Baseline temperatures correlated with demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiology, but these factors explained only a small part of individual temperature variation. Unexplained variation in baseline temperature, however, strongly predicted mortality. PMID:29237616

  17. Visual determinants of reduced performance on the Stroop color-word test in normal aging individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, M P; ten Tusscher, M P; Metsemakers, J F; Willems, B; Jolles, J

    2001-10-01

    It is unknown to what extent the performance on the Stroop color-word test is affected by reduced visual function in older individuals. We tested the impact of common deficiencies in visual function (reduced distant and close acuity, reduced contrast sensitivity, and color weakness) on Stroop performance among 821 normal individuals aged 53 and older. After adjustment for age, sex, and educational level, low contrast sensitivity was associated with more time needed on card I (word naming), red/green color weakness with slower card 2 performance (color naming), and reduced distant acuity with slower performance on card 3 (interference). Half of the age-related variance in speed performance was shared with visual function. The actual impact of reduced visual function may be underestimated in this study when some of this age-related variance in Stroop performance is mediated by visual function decrements. It is suggested that reduced visual function has differential effects on Stroop performance which need to be accounted for when the Stroop test is used both in research and in clinical settings. Stroop performance measured from older individuals with unknown visual status should be interpreted with caution.

  18. Assessment of retinal sensitivity using a time-saving strategy in normal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzumura H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hirotaka Suzumura,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Shiro Mizoue,3 Ryoko Hyodo,4 Tairo Kimura5 1Eye Department, Nakano General Hospital, Tokyo, 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University, Ehime, 4Eye Department, Minami Matsuyama Hospital, Ehime, 5Ueno Eye Clinic, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare retinal sensitivities in normal individuals obtained using the Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm Standard (SITA-S on the Humphrey field analyzer with those obtained using the Dynamic strategy on the Octopus.Methods: Prior to visual field examinations, the background luminance, stimulus size, and exposure time with the Octopus 101 were conformed to the Humphrey field analyzer II settings. Volunteers over 20 years of age without apparent ophthalmic abnormalities were examined with the SITA-S central 30-2 program followed by the Dynamic 32 program. Eye with corrected visual acuity ≥0.8, refraction ≥ −6.0 diopters, and fields with satisfactory levels of reliability in SITA-S and Dynamic were selected.Results: Sixty-seven eyes from 67 normal individuals of mean age 51.3 ± 16.3 (range 22–76 years satisfied the selection criteria and were analyzed. Mean retinal sensitivity was significantly (P < 0.0001 higher with SITA-S (29.0 ± 2.4 dB than with Dynamic (26.8 ± 2.1 dB. Changes in retinal sensitivity with increasing age were significantly (P = 0.0003 greater with Dynamic (−0.09 ± 0.04 dB/year; 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.10 to −0.08 dB/year than with SITA-S (−0.07 ± 0.04 dB/year, 95% CI −0.08 to −0.06 dB/year. When classifying the visual field into three areas (central, mid-peripheral, and peripheral, retinal sensitivities with SITA-S were significantly higher in all areas than with Dynamic (P < 0.0001 for all three areas.Conclusion: Differences in Dynamic and SITA-S strategies may contribute to the differences in retinal sensitivities observed in normal individuals

  19. Effect of AGE and Sex on thyroid hormone levels in normal egyptian individuals using RIA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; El-Seify, S.; Megahed, Y.M.; El-Arab, A.

    1993-01-01

    This work aims to estimate total serum levels of thyroid hormones, namely triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) as well as the pituitary thyrotropin (TSH) in different categories of normal egyptian individuals classified according to age and sex. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometritassay (IRMA) techniques were used. Results of this study indicate that T 3 and T 4 concentrations decreased significantly with advancing age. This decrement was statistically significant in both sexes and could be attributed to the decline in TBG concentration in the elderly. TSH level was not influenced by sex, however, a slight decrease was observed in the elderly perhaps due to decreased TSH receptors and or cyclic AMP activity. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. The importance of body image concerns in overweight and normal weight individuals with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Angelina; Murray, Susan M; Arlt, Jean M; Eneva, Kalina T; Chen, Eunice Y

    2017-09-01

    Body image concerns in binge eating disorder (BED) have been examined almost exclusively in overweight individuals with BED. The current study extends past research by including overweight and normal weight BED and non-BED groups to assess the multifactorial construct of body image using subscales of the Eating Disorder Examination 16.0 (EDE-16.0) and a Body Comparison Task. Independent of weight status and when controlling for age and race, women with BED are distinguished from those without BED by significantly greater overvaluation of shape and weight on the EDE-16.0 and significantly reduced weight satisfaction after a Body Comparison Task. Both BED diagnosis and weight status were independently associated with Weight Concern and Shape Concern subscales on the EDE-16.0. Taken together, these data provide further support for the consideration of body image concerns in the diagnostic criteria for BED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced interhemispheric interaction in non-autistic individuals with normal but high levels of autism traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Natalie; Lindell, Annukka K

    2013-11-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show superior performance for tasks requiring detail-focused processing. Atypical neural connectivity and reduced interhemispheric communication are posited to underlie this cognitive advantage. Given recent conceptualization of autism as a continuum, we sought to investigate whether people with normal but high levels of autism like traits (AQ) also exhibit reduced hemispheric interaction. Sixty right-handed participants completed the AQ questionnaire (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, Martin, & Clubley, 2001) and a lateralised letter matching task that assessed unilateral and bilateral performance in response to simple (physical) and complex (identity) matches. Whereas people with low self-rated AQ scores showed a bilateral advantage for the more complex task, indicating normal interhemispheric interaction, people in the high AQ group failed to show a bilateral gain for the computationally demanding stimuli. This finding of disrupted interhemispheric interaction converges with a dimensional conceptualisation of ASD, suggesting that the structural anomalies of ASD extend to non-autistic individuals with high levels of autism traits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Exogenous Cues on Covert Spatial Orienting in Deaf and Normal Hearing Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Seema Gorur; Patil, Gouri Shanker; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Deaf individuals have been known to process visual stimuli better at the periphery compared to the normal hearing population. However, very few studies have examined attention orienting in the oculomotor domain in the deaf, particularly when targets appear at variable eccentricity. In this study, we examined if the visual perceptual processing advantage reported in the deaf people also modulates spatial attentional orienting with eye movement responses. We used a spatial cueing task with cued and uncued targets that appeared at two different eccentricities and explored attentional facilitation and inhibition. We elicited both a saccadic and a manual response. The deaf showed a higher cueing effect for the ocular responses than the normal hearing participants. However, there was no group difference for the manual responses. There was also higher facilitation at the periphery for both saccadic and manual responses, irrespective of groups. These results suggest that, owing to their superior visual processing ability, the deaf may orient attention faster to targets. We discuss the results in terms of previous studies on cueing and attentional orienting in deaf.

  3. Maternal BMI during Pregnancy: Effect on trace elements Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal BMI was significantly positively related to age, parity and socioeconomic status. While a negative relationship was found between plasma copper and maternal BMI, significantly (p < 0.05) lower zinc levels were found in underweight and obese women when compared to women with normal BMI. Maternal anaemia ...

  4. An individual urinary proteome analysis in normal human beings to define the minimal sample number to represent the normal urinary proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xuejiao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The urinary proteome has been widely used for biomarker discovery. A urinary proteome database from normal humans can provide a background for discovery proteomics and candidate proteins/peptides for targeted proteomics. Therefore, it is necessary to define the minimum number of individuals required for sampling to represent the normal urinary proteome. Methods In this study, inter-individual and inter-gender variations of urinary proteome were taken into consideration to achieve a representative database. An individual analysis was performed on overnight urine samples from 20 normal volunteers (10 males and 10 females by 1DLC/MS/MS. To obtain a representative result of each sample, a replicate 1DLCMS/MS analysis was performed. The minimal sample number was estimated by statistical analysis. Results For qualitative analysis, less than 5% of new proteins/peptides were identified in a male/female normal group by adding a new sample when the sample number exceeded nine. In addition, in a normal group, the percentage of newly identified proteins/peptides was less than 5% upon adding a new sample when the sample number reached 10. Furthermore, a statistical analysis indicated that urinary proteomes from normal males and females showed different patterns. For quantitative analysis, the variation of protein abundance was defined by spectrum count and western blotting methods. And then the minimal sample number for quantitative proteomic analysis was identified. Conclusions For qualitative analysis, when considering the inter-individual and inter-gender variations, the minimum sample number is 10 and requires a balanced number of males and females in order to obtain a representative normal human urinary proteome. For quantitative analysis, the minimal sample number is much greater than that for qualitative analysis and depends on the experimental methods used for quantification.

  5. Temporal and speech processing skills in normal hearing individuals exposed to occupational noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, U Ajith; Ameenudin, Syed; Sangamanatha, A V

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea and result in permanent noise-induced cochlear hearing loss. Consequences of cochlear hearing loss on speech perception and psychophysical abilities have been well documented. Primary goal of this research was to explore temporal processing and speech perception Skills in individuals who are exposed to occupational noise of more than 80 dBA and not yet incurred clinically significant threshold shifts. Contribution of temporal processing skills to speech perception in adverse listening situation was also evaluated. A total of 118 participants took part in this research. Participants comprised three groups of train drivers in the age range of 30-40 (n= 13), 41 50 ( = 13), 41-50 (n = 9), and 51-60 (n = 6) years and their non-noise-exposed counterparts (n = 30 in each age group). Participants of all the groups including the train drivers had hearing sensitivity within 25 dB HL in the octave frequencies between 250 and 8 kHz. Temporal processing was evaluated using gap detection, modulation detection, and duration pattern tests. Speech recognition was tested in presence multi-talker babble at -5dB SNR. Differences between experimental and control groups were analyzed using ANOVA and independent sample t-tests. Results showed a trend of reduced temporal processing skills in individuals with noise exposure. These deficits were observed despite normal peripheral hearing sensitivity. Speech recognition scores in the presence of noise were also significantly poor in noise-exposed group. Furthermore, poor temporal processing skills partially accounted for the speech recognition difficulties exhibited by the noise-exposed individuals. These results suggest that noise can cause significant distortions in the processing of suprathreshold temporal cues which may add to difficulties in hearing in adverse listening conditions.

  6. Temporal and speech processing skills in normal hearing individuals exposed to occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Ajith Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea and result in permanent noise-induced cochlear hearing loss. Consequences of cochlear hearing loss on speech perception and psychophysical abilities have been well documented. Primary goal of this research was to explore temporal processing and speech perception Skills in individuals who are exposed to occupational noise of more than 80 dBA and not yet incurred clinically significant threshold shifts. Contribution of temporal processing skills to speech perception in adverse listening situation was also evaluated. A total of 118 participants took part in this research. Participants comprised three groups of train drivers in the age range of 30-40 (n= 13, 41 50 ( = 13, 41-50 (n = 9, and 51-60 (n = 6 years and their non-noise-exposed counterparts (n = 30 in each age group. Participants of all the groups including the train drivers had hearing sensitivity within 25 dB HL in the octave frequencies between 250 and 8 kHz. Temporal processing was evaluated using gap detection, modulation detection, and duration pattern tests. Speech recognition was tested in presence multi-talker babble at -5dB SNR. Differences between experimental and control groups were analyzed using ANOVA and independent sample t-tests. Results showed a trend of reduced temporal processing skills in individuals with noise exposure. These deficits were observed despite normal peripheral hearing sensitivity. Speech recognition scores in the presence of noise were also significantly poor in noise-exposed group. Furthermore, poor temporal processing skills partially accounted for the speech recognition difficulties exhibited by the noise-exposed individuals. These results suggest that noise can cause significant distortions in the processing of suprathreshold temporal cues which may add to difficulties in hearing in adverse listening conditions.

  7. Alveolus-capillary permeability on both normal and HIV seroreactive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Carriel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the alveolus-capillary permeability by the lung clearance rate of 99mTc-DTPA(Technetium99m-diethylene triamine penta-acetate, (LCR-DTPA, both in normal and in asymptomatic HIV seroreactive patients. Thirty individuals were studied, 21 seronegative normal volunteers and 9 HIV seroreactive patients presenting normal chest radiography and no respiratory infection symptoms. LCR-DTPA was determined by inhaling 99mTc-DTPA and obtaining images in a gamma camera. The 99mTc-DTPA clearance rate in normal individuals was 0.99±0.15%.min-1 and in patients 2.31±1.25%.min-1. There was a significant statistical difference between the two groups (pA integridade funcional da barreira alvéolo-capilar pode ser alterada por diversas condições patológicas e por outros fatores como a irritação do epitélio alveolar, provocada pelo fumo etc, levando a um aumento da permeabilidade alvéolo-capilar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a permeabilidade do epitélio pulmonar através da determinação da taxa de depuração pulmonar do aerossol de 99mTc-DTPA (LCR-DTPA em indivíduos normais e em pacientes assintomáticos HIV sororreativos. Foram estudados 30 indivíduos, sendo 21 voluntários normais e 9 HIV sororreativos sem sintomas de infecção oportunista, com radiografias de tórax normais ou sem sinais sugestivos de infecção pulmonar. A LCR-DTPA foi determinada após inalação de 99mTc-DTPA sob a forma de aerossóis e contagem externa da radiação, em função do tempo, em gama câmara. A LCR-DTPA dos controles foi de 0.99±0.15 %.min-1 e nos pacientes sororreativos,de 2.31±1.15%.min-1 houve diferença significativa entre os dois grupos (p< 0.05. Dois pacientes tiveram LCR-DTPA acima de 4,3%.min-1, estes desenvolveram um mês após o exame. Observou-se que os pacientes sororreativos por Imunodeficiência Adquirida (SIDA, sem sintomas específicos para pneumocistose que posteriormente desenvolveram a doença, a

  8. Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"? The Epidemiology and Cognitive Neuroscience of Prescription Stimulant Use by Normal Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience…

  9. Evaluation of four methods for separation of lymphocytes from normal individuals and patients with cancer and tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, C C; Graber, C D; Loadholt, C B

    1976-01-01

    An optimal technique was sought for lymphocyte recovery from normal and chronic diseased individuals. Lymphocytes were separated by four techniques: Plasmagel, Ficoll--Hypaque, a commercial semiautomatic method, and simple centrifugation using blood drawn from ten normal individuals, ten cancer patients, and ten tuberculosis patients. The lymphocyte mixture obtained after using each method was analyzed for percent recovery, amount if contamination by erythrocytes and neutrophils, and percent viability. The results show that the semiautomatic method yielded the best percent recovery of lymphocytes for normal individuals, while the simple centrifugation method contributed the highest percent recovery for cancer and tuberculosis patients. The Ficoll-Hypaque method gave the lowest erythrocyte contamination for all three types of individuals tested, while the Plasmagel method gave the lowest neutrophil contamination for all three types of individuals. The simple centrifugation method yielded all viable lymphocytes and thus gave the highest percent viability.

  10. Support for physical activity policies and perceptions of work and neighborhood environments: variance by BMI and activity status at the county and individual levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; O'Malley, Keelia; Hu, Tian; Tabak, Rachel G; Goins, Karin Valentine; Valko, Cheryl; Litt, Jill; Eyler, Amy

    2014-01-01

    To examine support for local policies encouraging physical activity and perceived neighborhood environment characteristics by physical activity and weight status of respondents across U.S. counties. We used a random-digit-dial, computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) to conduct a cross-sectional telephone questionnaire in selected U.S. counties in 2011. Counties with high prevalences of obesity and sedentary behavior (HH; n = 884) and counties with low prevalences of obesity and sedentary behavior (LL; n = 171) were selected nationally. Adult respondents from HH (n = 642) and LL (n = 566) counties. Questions were asked of respondents, pertaining to support for physical activity policies in various settings, neighborhood features, time spent in physical activity and sedentary behaviors, self-reported weight and height, and personal demographic information. Means and frequencies were calculated; bivariable and multivariable linear and logistic regression models, developed. Models were adjusted for individual characteristics and county HH/LL status. Respondents in LL counties perceived their neighborhood and work environments to be more supportive of healthy behaviors and were more supportive of local physical activity policies than respondents in HH counties (p physical activity, and decreased sedentary behavior. Policy support and neighborhood environments are associated with behaviors. Results can inform targeting policy agendas to facilitate the improvement of environments (community, work, and school) to be more supportive of physical activity.

  11. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H Marike; Schouten, Jan P; Schröder, Carolien P; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Vonk, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and

  12. The effect of acute maximal exercise on postexercise hemodynamics and central arterial stiffness in obese and normal-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Yan, Huimin; Kappus, Rebecca M; Fernhall, Bo; Baynard, Tracy

    2017-04-01

    Central arterial stiffness is associated with incident hypertension and negative cardiovascular outcomes. Obese individuals have higher central blood pressure (BP) and central arterial stiffness than their normal-weight counterparts, but it is unclear whether obesity also affects hemodynamics and central arterial stiffness after maximal exercise. We evaluated central hemodynamics and arterial stiffness during recovery from acute maximal aerobic exercise in obese and normal-weight individuals. Forty-six normal-weight and twenty-one obese individuals underwent measurements of central BP and central arterial stiffness at rest and 15 and 30 min following acute maximal exercise. Central BP and normalized augmentation index (AIx@75) were derived from radial artery applanation tonometry, and central arterial stiffness was obtained via carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cPWV) and corrected for central mean arterial pressure (cPWV/cMAP). Central arterial stiffness increased in obese individuals but decreased in normal-weight individuals following acute maximal exercise, after adjusting for fitness. Obese individuals also exhibited an overall higher central BP ( P  <   0.05), with no exercise effect. The increase in heart rate was greater in obese versus normal-weight individuals following exercise ( P  <   0.05), but there was no group differences or exercise effect for AIx@75 In conclusion, obese (but not normal-weight) individuals increased central arterial stiffness following acute maximal exercise. An assessment of arterial stiffness response to acute exercise may serve as a useful detection tool for subclinical vascular dysfunction. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  13. Variability of individual normal tissue radiation sensitivity. An international empirical evaluation of endogenous and exogenous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.S.; Kumpf, L.; Kimmig, B.

    1998-01-01

    Background: The variability of normal-tissue response is of major concern for radiation therapy. Multiple endogenous and exogenous factors are qualitatively known to alter the acute and late tissue response. Which of them are regarded most important by the European radiation oncologists and what is, empirically, their quantitative influence on the acute or late tissue tolerance? Methods: In August 1997, we sent a questionnaire to 255 European radiation oncology departments. Among others, the questionnaire asked for endogenous and exogenous factors modifying the tissue response to radiation therapy and their quantitative influence on the acute and late radiation morbidity (TD5/5). Fifty-five questionnaires (21.5%) were answered. Results: Empirically, the most important endogenous factors to modify the acute tissue tolerance are (a) metabolic/other diseases with macro- or microangiopathia (17 answers [a]/32% mean decrease of tissue tolerance), (b) collagen diseases (9 a/37%) and (c) immune diseases (5 a/53%). As endogenous response modifiers for the TD5/5 are recognized (a) metabolic or other diseases leading to marcro- or microangiopathia (15 a/31%), (b) collagen diseases (11 a/38%) and (c) immune diseases (2 a/50%). Inflammations from any reason are assumed to alter the acute tissue tolerance by (6 a/26%) and the TD5/5 by (10 a/24%). Exogenous modifiers of the acute tissue response mentioned are (a) smoking (34 a/44%), (b) alcohol (23 a/45%), (c) nutrition/diets (16 a/45%), (d) hygiene (9 a/26%) and (e) medical therapies (10 a/37%). Exogenous factors assumed to influence the TD5/5 are (a) smoking (22 a/40%), (b) alcohol (15 a/38%), (c) nutrition/diets (9 a/48%), (d) hygiene (5 a/34%) and (e) medical therapies (10 a/30%). Conclusions: Exogenous factors are regarded more important by number and extent on the acute and late tissue response than endogenous modifiers. Both may have an important influence on the individual expression of normal tissue response. (orig

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy can detect differences in vascular responsiveness to a hyperglycaemic challenge in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rogério Nogueira; Reimer, Raylene A; Alenezi, Zaid; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K; Murias, Juan Manuel

    2018-01-01

    To examine whether the near-infrared spectroscopy combined with vascular occlusion test technique could detect differences in vascular responsiveness during hyperglycaemia between normal-weight individuals and individuals with obesity. A total of 16 normal-weight individuals (body mass index, 21.3 ± 1.7 kg/m 2 ) and 13 individuals with obesity (body mass index, 34.4 ± 2.0 kg/m 2 ) were submitted to five vascular occlusion tests (Pre, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after glucose challenge). Vascular responsiveness was determined by the Slope 2 (Slope 2 StO 2 ) and the area under the curve (StO 2AUC ) of oxygen saturation derived from near-infrared spectroscopy-vascular occlusion test. The Slope 2 StO 2 increased from 1.07 ± 0.16%/s (Pre) to 1.53 ± 0.21%/s at 90 min ( p obese it increased from 0.71 ± 0.09%/s (Pre) to 0.92 ± 0.14%/s at 60 min ( p obesity. Near-infrared spectroscopy-vascular occlusion test technique was capable of detecting differences in vascular responsiveness during hyperglycaemia between normal-weight individuals and individuals with obesity.

  15. Excessive gestational weight gain is associated with long-term body fat and weight retention at 7 y postpartum in African American and Dominican mothers with underweight, normal, and overweight prepregnancy BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Elizabeth M; Whyatt, Robin M; Hoepner, Lori A; Ramirez-Carvey, Judyth; Oberfield, Sharon E; Hassoun, Abeer; Perera, Frederica P; Gallagher, Dympna; Rundle, Andrew G

    2015-12-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with postpartum weight retention (PPWR) and abdominal adiposity, but long-term effects are understudied in low-income and minority populations at high risk of obesity and associated sequelae. We examined associations between GWG and long-term PPWR and adiposity in a prospective cohort of African American and Dominican mothers in the Bronx and Northern Manhattan. Women (n = 302) were enrolled during pregnancy and were followed for 7 y postpartum. Linear regression was used to relate excessive GWG [greater than 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines] to outcomes [percentage body fat and long-term PPWR (change in weight from prepregnancy to 7 y postpartum)], adjusting for covariates and included an interaction term between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) and GWG. Mean ± SD prepregnancy BMI and total GWG were 25.6 ± 5.8 (42% of women had BMI ≥25) and 16.6 ± 7.8 kg (64% of women had total GWG greater than IOM guidelines), respectively. Associations between GWG and long-term PPWR and the percentage body fat varied by prepregnancy BMI (P-interaction ≤ 0.06); excessive GWG was associated with a higher percentage body fat and greater long-term PPWR in mothers with lower prepregnancy BMI. To illustrate the interaction, a predicted covariate-adjusted model, which was used to derive estimates for the percentage body fat and PPWR associated with excessive GWG, was estimated for 2 prepregnancy BMI examples. For a woman with prepregnancy BMI of 22, excessive GWG was associated with 3.0% higher body fat (P mothers were predicted by interacting effects of prepregnancy BMI and excessive GWG. The provision of support for mothers to begin pregnancy at a healthy weight and to gain weight appropriately during pregnancy may have important lasting implications for weight-related health in this population. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00043498. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Expert and crowd-sourced validation of an individualized sleep spindle detection method employing complex demodulation and individualized normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eRay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A spindle detection method was developed that: 1 extracts the signal of interest (i.e., spindle-related phasic changes in sigma relative to ongoing background sigma activity using complex demodulation, 2 accounts for variations of spindle characteristics across the night, scalp derivations and between individuals, and 3 employs a minimum number of sometimes arbitrary, user-defined parameters. Complex demodulation was used to extract instantaneous power in the spindle band. To account for intra- and inter-individual differences, the signal was z-score transformed using a 60s sliding window, per channel, over the course of the recording. Spindle events were detected with a z-score threshold corresponding to a low probability (e.g., 99th percentile. Spindle characteristics, such as amplitude, duration and oscillatory frequency, were derived for each individual spindle following detection, which permits spindles to be subsequently and flexibly categorized as slow or fast spindles from a single detection pass. Spindles were automatically detected in 15 young healthy subjects. Two experts manually identified spindles from C3 during Stage 2 sleep, from each recording; one employing conventional guidelines, and the other, identifying spindles with the aid of a sigma (11-16 Hz filtered channel. These spindles were then compared between raters and to the automated detection to identify the presence of true positives, true negatives, false positives and false negatives. This method of automated spindle detection resolves or avoids many of the limitations that complicate automated spindle detection, and performs well compared to a group of non-experts, and importantly, has good external validity with respect to the extant literature in terms of the characteristics of automatically detected spindles.

  17. Predictors of BMI Vary along the BMI Range of German Adults – Results of the German National Nutrition Survey II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kilson; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Roth, Alexander; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to identify predictors of BMI in German adults by considering the BMI distribution and to determine whether the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Methods The sample included 9,214 adults aged 18–80 years from the German National Nutrition Survey II (NVS II). Quantile regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between BMI and the following predictors: age, sports activities, socio-economic status (SES), healthy eating index-NVS II (HEI-NVS II), dietary knowledge, sleeping duration and energy intake as well as status of smoking, partner relationship and self-reported health. Results Age, SES, self-reported health status, sports activities and energy intake were the strongest predictors of BMI. The important outcome of this study is that the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Especially, energy intake, health status and SES were marginally associated with BMI in normal-weight subjects; this relationships became stronger in the range of overweight, and were strongest in the range of obesity. Conclusions Predictors of BMI and the strength of these associations vary across the BMI distribution in German adults. Consequently, to identify predictors of BMI, the entire BMI distribution should be considered. PMID:28219069

  18. Effect of Clopidogrel on Platelet CD Markers in Normal Individuals and in Patients with Untreated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboor, M.; Moinuddin, M.; Ilyas, S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of clopidogrel response in patients with untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus as compared with normal individuals. One hundred and seven subjects i.e. 32 normal and 75 patients with untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in this study. In the first step, normal subjects as well as diabetic patients were selected and tested for various laboratory parameters and platelets flow cytometry. In the second step, an antiplatelet drug (clopidogrel) was administered for 10 days to each individual enrolled in the study. After 10 days blood samples were collected for platelets flow cytometry. CD41 and CD61 did not show any change after the administration of clopidogrel in resting and activated platelets. CD63 and CD62p positivity was increased in normal and in diabetic patients' platelets after activation with ADP before clopidogrel. It was decreased in normal resting and ADP stimulated platelets after clopidogrel treatment. CD63 and CD62p positivity in resting and ADP stimulated patients platelets was also decreased after clopidogrel treatment. The change was, however, not as marked as in normal subjects. (author)

  19. BMI modulates calorie-dependent dopamine changes in accumbens from glucose intake.

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    Gene-Jack Wang

    Full Text Available Dopamine mediates the rewarding effects of food that can lead to overeating and obesity, which then trigger metabolic neuroadaptations that further perpetuate excessive food consumption. We tested the hypothesis that the dopamine response to calorie intake (independent of palatability in striatal brain regions is attenuated with increases in weight.We used positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine changes triggered by calorie intake by contrasting the effects of an artificial sweetener (sucralose devoid of calories to that of glucose to assess their association with body mass index (BMI in nineteen healthy participants (BMI range 21-35.Neither the measured blood glucose concentrations prior to the sucralose and the glucose challenge days, nor the glucose concentrations following the glucose challenge vary as a function of BMI. In contrast the dopamine changes in ventral striatum (assessed as changes in non-displaceable binding potential of [11C]raclopride triggered by calorie intake (contrast glucose - sucralose were significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.68 indicating opposite responses in lean than in obese individuals. Specifically whereas in normal weight individuals (BMI <25 consumption of calories was associated with increases in dopamine in the ventral striatum in obese individuals it was associated with decreases in dopamine.These findings show reduced dopamine release in ventral striatum with calorie consumption in obese subjects, which might contribute to their excessive food intake to compensate for the deficit between the expected and the actual response to food consumption.

  20. Studying the effect of different elements in gastric emptying that produce normal variations in `healthy` individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, L. [Sydney University, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-06-01

    Maintaining the rate of emptying solids and liquids at normal levels, is an essential component for the correct functioning of the entire gastro-intestinal tract. There is no single-test available which provides a `baseline` for all gastric emptying studies. This problem arises due to many elements which normally effect the rate of gastric emptying, such as those dealing with patient factors, the composition of the liquid/solid meal used and also which radiopharmaceutical is chosen. It is therefore recommended that each Nuclear Medicine practice needs to set-up guidelines which are able to be consistently reproduced. One such guideline may be in the form of a `liquid glucose meal` which provides consistent and accurate results for gastric emptying studies 18 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Normal male childhood and adolescent sexual interactions: implications for sexual orientation of the individual with intersex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P

    2005-03-01

    Data provided by 24 adult men, 20 heterosexual and four homosexual, concerning parental, religious, geographic and explicit sexual innuendos, comments and childhood experiences are presented and discussed in an attempt to consider some of the multiple factors impacting the development of sexual orientation. All of the study subjects were normally developed males and were presumed to have been exposed to normal male levels of androgens prenatally. Since the experiences and perceptions reported are conditioned by a unique social environment that has been superimposed on a normal male typical prenatal CNS differentiation, the experiences of these men suggest that affirmation of masculinity, and openness in the realm of social and sexual interaction, may enhance the formation of a heterosexual orientation. Conversely, sexually explicit feedback with critical implications occurred commonly among the homosexual men, which they interpreted as implying an insufficient masculinity. Both innate factors and social influences impact sexual orientation; in some instances males appear to have been homosexual from early childhood onward, while in other cases there appears to have been some degree of conditioning and choice in sexual orientation. Regarding the intersexed male, this suggests that social interactions, particularly those provided by parents, have a major influence on the development of sexual orientation in the child, while all persons involved in these children's lives and particularly those who nurture must be prepared for any sexual orientation that develops.

  2. Decreased Serum Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF in Individuals with Bipolar Disorder Normalizes after Zinc and Anti-oxidant Therapy

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    A.J. Russo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim To assess serum HGF concentration in individuals with bipolar disorder and investigate the efficacy of zinc therapy on these levels. Subjects and Methods Serum from 35 individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 19 age and gender similar controls were tested for HGF concentration using ELISAs, and copper and zinc plasma levels using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results HGF serum levels of individuals with bipolar disorder were significantly lower than age and gender similar controls ( P = 0.0021. HGF serum concentration was significantly lower in Bipolar patients pre-therapy ( P = 0.0009 and HGF levels normalized post-therapy. Zinc levels in these same individuals also normalized ( P = 0.0046 and patient's perceived severity of Bipolar symptoms significantly decreased after therapy ( P = 0.0003. We also found a significant direct correlation between Zinc and HGF serum concentration in the bipolar patients ( P = 0.04. Discussion These results suggest an association between low HGF levels and bipolar disorder and also demonstrate that zinc therapy may be associated with the normalization of HGF levels and decrease in severity of disease.

  3. Comparison of Spiritual Intelligence and Mental Health in Addicts and Normal Individuals

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    M Raghibi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Substance abuse is a chronic phenomenon that affects mental and physical health and results in a lot of social, domestic and economic trauma. Methods: The samples included 80 addicts and 80 healthy individuals. The addicts were selected randomly from private and state remedy and rehabilitation centers of Zahedan city. Healthy individuals were matched with addicts in respect to age and sex and also selected randomly. Then, participants were assessed with The Spiritual Intelligence Self‐Report Inventory-24(SISI and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. The data was analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient and t test for independent groups. Results: There were significant differences in SISI scores and GHQ scores. Addicts scored lower in two scales. There was a significant positive correlation between SISI scores and GHQ scores and subscales of GHQ (P< 0.01 in two groups. Substance abuse affects mental and physical health. Individuals with lesser spiritual intelligence levels are more prone to addiction and maybe with higher levels of spiritual intelligence, we can prevent individuals from addiction.

  4. Trace element determinations in brain tissues from normal and clinically demented individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Leite, Renata E.P.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Ferretti, Renata E.L.; Suemoto, Claudia; Pasqualucci, Carlos A.; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Studies on trace element levels in human brains under normal and pathological conditions have indicated a possible correlation between some trace element concentrations and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, analysis of brain tissues was carried out to investigate if there are any differences in elemental concentrations between brain tissues from a normal population above 50 years of age presenting Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) equal to zero (CDR=0) and that cognitively affected population ( CDR=3). The tissues were dissected, ground, freeze-dried and then analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated in a neutron flux at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for Br, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma ray activities were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The one-way ANOVA test (p< 0.05) was used to compare the results. All the elements determined in the hippocampus brain region presented differences between the groups presenting CDR=0 and CDR=3. In the case of frontal region only the elements Na, Rb and Zn showed differences between these two groups. These findings proved the correlation between elemental levels present in brain tissues neurodegenerative diseases. Biological standard reference materials SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue and SRM 1577b Bovine Liver analyzed for quality control indicated good accuracy and precision of the results. (author)

  5. The diurnal variation in urine acidification differs between normal individuals and uric acid stone formers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Mary Ann; Maalouf, Naim M.; Poindexter, John; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Moe, Orson W.

    2012-01-01

    Many biologic functions follow circadian rhythms driven by internal and external cues that synchronize and coordinate organ physiology to diurnal changes in the environment and behavior. Urinary acid-base parameters follow diurnal patterns and it is thought these changes are due to periodic surges in gastric acid secretion. Abnormal urine pH is a risk factor for specific types of nephrolithiasis and uric acid stones are typical of excessively low urine pH. Here we placed 9 healthy volunteers and 10 uric acid stone formers on fixed metabolic diets to study the diurnal pattern of urinary acidification. All showed clear diurnal trends in urinary acidification but none of the patterns were affected by inhibitors of the gastric proton pump. Uric acid stone formers had similar patterns of change through the day but their urine pH was always lower compared to healthy volunteers. Uric acid stone formers excreted more acid (normalized to acid ingestion) with the excess excreted primarily as titratable acid rather than ammonium. Urine base excretion was also lower in uric acid stone formers (normalized to base ingestion) along with lower plasma bicarbonate concentrations during part of the day. Thus, increased net acid presentation to the kidney and the preferential use of buffers, other than ammonium, result in much higher concentrations of un-dissociated uric acid throughout the day and consequently an increased risk of uric acid stones. PMID:22297671

  6. Determination of indices of the corpus callosum associated with normal aging in Japanese individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, S.; Hirashima, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Endo, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sugitani 2630, Toyama-shi, 930-0194, Toyama (Japan); Sugino, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Sugino Hospital, Sengoku-cho 6-3-3, 930-0066, Toyama (Japan)

    2003-08-01

    Indices of the corpus callosum with normal aging and their sex differences were elucidated using quantitative MRI. We studied 94 Japanese men (mean{+-}SD 57.3{+-}20.8 years, range 6-90 years) and 111 Japanese women (mean{+-}SD 61.2{+-}17.6 years, range 9-86 years) who had no intracranial lesions on MRI and no history of neurological illness. The widths of the rostrum, body and splenium, the anterior to posterior length, and the maximum height in the midsagittal image were selected for measurement. The Evans index, which is the relative ratio of lateral ventricle expansion, and the maximum width of the third ventricle in the axial image were also estimated for comparison. The widths of rostrum, body and splenium of the corpus callosum became thinner with age. Conversely, the anterior to posterior length and the maximum height of the corpus callosum increased with age. The ratio of the width of the body to the length of the corpus callosum and the ratio of the width of the body to the height of the corpus callosum are best correlated with age. No sex differences in regional size of corpus callosum, including these two ratios, were observed in any raw measures, although ventricular indices were larger in men than women. Evaluation of the ratio of the width of the body to its length and the ratio of the width of the body to its height may enable accurate estimation of normal or pathological changes of the corpus callosum. Aging and pathological atrophy of corpus callosum can be evaluated without any adjustment for gender. (orig.)

  7. Determination of indices of the corpus callosum associated with normal aging in Japanese individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, S.; Hirashima, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Endo, S.; Sugino, M.

    2003-01-01

    Indices of the corpus callosum with normal aging and their sex differences were elucidated using quantitative MRI. We studied 94 Japanese men (mean±SD 57.3±20.8 years, range 6-90 years) and 111 Japanese women (mean±SD 61.2±17.6 years, range 9-86 years) who had no intracranial lesions on MRI and no history of neurological illness. The widths of the rostrum, body and splenium, the anterior to posterior length, and the maximum height in the midsagittal image were selected for measurement. The Evans index, which is the relative ratio of lateral ventricle expansion, and the maximum width of the third ventricle in the axial image were also estimated for comparison. The widths of rostrum, body and splenium of the corpus callosum became thinner with age. Conversely, the anterior to posterior length and the maximum height of the corpus callosum increased with age. The ratio of the width of the body to the length of the corpus callosum and the ratio of the width of the body to the height of the corpus callosum are best correlated with age. No sex differences in regional size of corpus callosum, including these two ratios, were observed in any raw measures, although ventricular indices were larger in men than women. Evaluation of the ratio of the width of the body to its length and the ratio of the width of the body to its height may enable accurate estimation of normal or pathological changes of the corpus callosum. Aging and pathological atrophy of corpus callosum can be evaluated without any adjustment for gender. (orig.)

  8. Evaluating the normal individual cardiac function in different imaging phases post exercise and rest by gated SPECT myocardial perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, W.; Li, S.J.; Liu, J.Z.; Li, X.F.; Jin, C.R.; Hu, G.; Wang, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: To evaluate the normal individual cardiac function in the different imaging phases post-exercise and rest by GSPECT. Methods: 46 normal individuals underwent exercise/rest GSPECT using 99mTc-MIBI by 2- day program. Sequential imaging was started 15, 35 and 120 minutes after exercise and rest imaging was performed the following day. The left ventricular EF and EDV, ESV values were calculated with the Cedars-Sinai program. Results: The EF values of post- exercise at 15, 35, and 120m was 64.48±7.43%, 65.02±7.66%, and 60.98±7.28% respectively, and the rest EF value was 61.46±7.23%. The post exercise EF at 15m and 35m was higher than EF at post- exercise 120m and rest, but there is a significant difference only between post exercise 35m and rest (P< 0.05), and all post exercise EF did not increase at least 5% from EF at-rest. The EDV and ESV values did not have statistically significant differences at 15, 35,120m post-exercise and rest. The heart rate at 15,35m post- exercise was higher significantly than at rest. Conclusions: The different imaging phases after exercise with 99mTc-MIBI GSPECT affects LVEF in normal individuals, the 35m post- exercise EF is highest. (author)

  9. On the Comparison of Cognitive Function in Substance Abusers and Addicts under Methadone Treatment with Normal Individuals

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    reza mohammadzadeghan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to compare cognitive functioning in substance abusers and addicts under methadone treatment with normal individuals. Method: The current study was a causal-comparative one. The statistical population of this research consisted of all male substance abusers who had referred to addiction treatment centers of Khoy city in 2013. The total of 40 addicts under methadone treatment, 40 active drug users, and 40 non-addicts were selected as the participants of this study via convenience sampling method. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Wechsler Memory Scale were administered to the three groups for data collection purposes. Results: The results showed that the substance abusers’ scores in Wisconsin card sorting test and Wechsler memory scale were significantly different from those of addicts under methadone treatment and normal individuals. In the same way, there was a significant difference between addicts under methadone treatment and normal individuals in terms of cognitive function however, there was no significant difference between these two groups in terms of perseveration error. Conclusion: It can be concluded that chronic use of psychoactive substances causes damage to multiple brain regions such as prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and, thereby, it leads to cognitive malfunctioning in these areas.

  10. A Comparison of Adaptive Behaviors among Mentally Retarded and Normal Individuals: A guide to Prevention and Treatment

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    Leyla Sadros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the importance of adaptive behaviors in socialand domestic lives, this study aimed at a comparison of various domainsof adaptive behaviors, between mentally retarded and normalindividuals.Methods: A number of 246 normal and 74 mentally retarded individuals(7-18 years of age, mean: 12±3.5 years, participated this study inTehran, Iran. Their adaptive behaviors scores, were obtained using"Adaptive Behavioral Scale, Residential & Community" (ABS-RC: 2,consisting of 18 domains of behavior. The scale was first translatedinto Persian by the professionals and then retranslated into English byanother translator, to ensure content non-distortion.Results: The following domains were significantly lower in mentallyretarded than in normal individuals: independent functioning, economicactivity, language development, number & time, prevocational/vocational activity, self direction, responsibility, socialization,disturbing interpersonal behavior, domestic activity, social engagement,conformity and trustworthiness. No significant difference was documentedin the physical development, stereotype & hyperactive behaviors,sexual behavior as well as self abuse behavior domains, betweenthe two groups.Conclusions: As mentally deficient subjects did worse than normalones in terms of many adaptive behavioral domains, it implies that theadaptive behavioral issues in such people might need a great deal ofattention and intervention. For these retarded people to function betterin their social and residential environment, it would be necessary todevelop their adaptive behaviors. This study may shed light on theimportance of attention to the adaptive behavioral domains of mentallyretarded people and also indicates the necessity of preventive measures,even for normal individuals.

  11. Absolute quantification of pharmacokinetic distribution of RES colloids in individuals with normal liver function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, H.; Spohr, G.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates of the radiation dose resulting from liver-spleen scintigraphy 99 TCsup(m)-labelled colloids are based on pharmacokinetic data mainly determined in animals. The aim of this study was to check the pharmacokinetic data by direct, absolute in vivo quantification in man. Liver and spleen activities were directly measured using a double-energy window technique. Activities in other organs were quantified by conjugate whole-body scans. All measurement procedures were checked using the whole-body Alderson phantom. Pharmacokinetic data for sulphur colloid, tin colloid, human serum albumin (HSA) millimicrospheres, and phytate were obtained in 13 to 20 normal subjects for each type of colloid. Depending on the colloid type liver uptake was between 54 and 75% of the total administered dose (TAD) and spleen uptake was 3.5 to 21% TAD. Activity measured in blood, urine, lung and thyroid proved to be far from negligible. The results of this work suggest a correction of the animal-based data of colloid distribution and radiation dose on the basis of the direct measurement of absolute uptake in man. (author)

  12. The comparison of quadriceps muscle strength between sprint runner and normal un-trained individuals (Determined by Kin-Com

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    Talebian Moghaddam S "

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is suggested that quadriceps muscle has an important role in stability & mobility of Knee joint in athletics and normal individuals; therefore, the purpose of this study was evaluation of the strength in Power Athletics (PA and Normal Un-trained Individuals (NUI groups. Methods and Materials: 31 Females (20 NUI & 11 PA participated in this study. For measuring the strength, each individual performed 5 continuous concentric-eccentric maximal contraction at angular velocities of 90°/s, 135°/s. Twenty five percent of each individual (Maximum Voluntary Isometric Contraction MVIC was determined and used as Pre-load force. Results: Averages concentric & eccentric torques were greater in PA group in comparison with NUI group. The significant difference (P<0.02 existed between PA and NUI groups. Average concentric torques of quadriceps muscle decreased (with increasing of speed from 90°/s to 135°/s and average eccentric torques increased. Average eccentric torques were greater (P<0.01 in PA & NUI groups in comparison with average concentric torques. Conclusion: PA group strength was greater in comparison with NUI group. This is possibly due to the type of muscle fibers in this group have (greater type II fibers. Accordingly, it is critical to consider the role of eccentric exercise in PA group for preventing sport injury.

  13. Polymorphisms in promoter sequences of MDM2, p53, and p16INK4a genes in normal Japanese individuals

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    Yasuhito Ohsaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has been conducted to identify sequence polymorphisms of gene promoter regions in patients and control subjects, including normal individuals, and to determine the influence of these polymorphisms on transcriptional regulation in cells that express wild-type or mutant p53. In this study we isolated genomic DNA from whole blood of healthy Japanese individuals and sequenced the promoter regions of the MDM2, p53, and p16INK4a genes. We identified polymorphisms comprising 3 nucleotide substitutions at exon 1 and intron 1 regions of the MDM2 gene and 1 nucleotide insertion at a poly(C nucleotide position in the p53 gene. The Japanese individuals also exhibited p16INK4a polymorphisms at several positions, including position -191. Reporter gene analysis by using luciferase revealed that the polymorphisms of MDM2, p53, and p16INK4a differentially altered luciferase activities in several cell lines, including the Colo320DM, U251, and T98G cell lines expressing mutant p53. Our results indicate that the promoter sequences of these genes differ among normal Japanese individuals and that polymorphisms can alter gene transcription activity.

  14. Association Between BMI and Recurrence of Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Juntao; Yang, Yang; Zhong, Jianhong; Zuo, Chuantian; Tang, Huamin; Zhao, Huimin; Zeng, Guang; Zhang, Jianfeng; Guo, Jianji; Yang, Nuo

    2017-05-01

    Whether body mass index (BMI) is a significant risk factor for recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to examine whether BMI and other factors are linked to risk of PSP recurrence. A consecutive cohort of 273 patients was retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into those who experienced recurrence (n = 81) and those who did not (n = 192), as well as into those who had low BMI (n = 75) and those who had normal or elevated BMI (n = 198). The two pairs of groups were compared in terms of baseline data, and Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify predictors of PSP recurrence. Rates of recurrence among all 273 patients were 20.9% at 1 year, 23.8% at 2 years, and 28.7% at 5 years. Univariate analysis identified the following significant predictors of PSP recurrence: height, weight, BMI, size of pneumothorax, and treatment modality. Multivariate analyses identified several risk factors for PSP recurrence: low BMI, pneumothorax size ≥50%, and non-surgical treatment. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that patients with low BMI showed significantly lower recurrence-free survival than patients with normal or elevated BMI (P pneumothorax size ≥50%, and non-surgical treatment were risk factors for PSP recurrence in our cohort. Low BMI may be a clinically useful predictor of PSP recurrence.

  15. Fourier phase analysis on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography: range of phase spread and cut-off limits in normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaiah, Vijayaraghavan L.; Harish, B.; Sunil, H.V.; Selvakumar, Job; Ravi Kishore, A.G.; Nair, Gopinathan

    2011-01-01

    To define the range of phase spread on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV) in normal individuals and derive the cut-off limit for the parameters to detect cardiac dyssynchrony. ERNV was carried out in 30 individuals (age 53±23 years, 25 males and 5 females) who had no history of cardiovascular disease. They all had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 55-70%) as determined by echocardiography, were in sinus rhythm, with normal QRS duration (≤120 msec) and normal coronary angiography. First harmonic phase analysis was performed on scintigraphic data acquired in best septal view. Left and right ventricular standard deviation (LVSD and RVSD, respectively) and interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD), the absolute difference of mean phase angles of right and left ventricle, were computed and expressed in milliseconds. Mean + 3 standard deviation (SD) was used to derive the cut-off limits. Average LVEF and duration of cardiac cycle in the study group were 62.5%±5.44% and 868.9±114.5 msec, respectively. The observations of LVSD, RVSD and right and left ventricular mean phase angles were shown to be normally distributed by Shapiro-Wilk test. Cut-off limits for LVSD, RVSD and IVMD were calculated to be 80 msec, 85 msec and 75 msec, respectively. Fourier phase analysis on ERNV is an effective tool for the evaluation of synchronicity of cardiac contraction. The cut-off limits of parameters of dyssynchrony can be used to separate heart failure patients with cardiac dyssynchrony from those without. ERNV can be used to select patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy. (author)

  16. Value of cine MRI for better visualization of the proximal small bowel in normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkzad, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Lennart; Vargas, Roberto; Tanaka, Chikako

    2007-01-01

    While enteroclysis seems to be the most efficacious method in achieving bowel distension, enterographic methods have become widespread due to the unpleasantness of enteroclysis and the radiation involved with positioning the catheter. Cine images in MRI can be done without radiation. Our aim is to see if and how cine MR imaging can improve visualization of bowel loops by capturing them while distended. Ten healthy individuals were asked to drink up to 2,000 ml of an oral solution made locally over a 60-min period. Then they underwent MRI using coronal balanced fast field echo (b-FFE) covering small bowel loops. If the initial exam revealed collapsed bowel loops an additional 50 mg of erythromycine was given intravenously with the subject still in the scanner and then cine imaging was performed. The degree of distension of different segments of the small bowel was measured before and after cine imaging and compared. The distension score was significantly higher after addition of the cine images as well, being only significant for depiction of the duodenum and jejunum. Our preliminary study suggests that cine MRI can give better image depiction of the proximal small bowel in healthy volunteers, perhaps circumventing the need for enteroclysis in some cases. There is a need for validation of these results in patients with small bowel disease. (orig.)

  17. Morphological analysis of the cervical spinal canal, dural tube and spinal cord in normal individuals using CT myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, H.; Ohmori, K.; Takatsu, T.; Teramoto, T.; Ishida, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    1996-01-01

    To verify the conventional concept of ''developmental stenosis of the cervical spinal canal'', we performed a morphological analysis of the relations of the cervical spinal canal, dural tube and spinal cord in normal individuals. The sagittal diameter, area and circularity of the three structures, and the dispersion of each parameter, were examined on axial sections of CT myelograms of 36 normal subjects. The spinal canal was narrowest at C4, followed by C5, while the spinal cord was largest at C4/5. The area and circularity of the cervical spinal cord were not significantly correlated with any parameter of the spinal canal nor with the sagittal diameter and area of the dural tube at any level examined, and the spinal cord showed less individual variation than the bony canal. Compression of the spinal cord might be expected whenever the sagittal diameter of the spinal canal is below the lower limit of normal, that is about 12 mm on plain radiographs. Thus, we concluded that the concept of ''developmental stenosis of the cervical spinal canal'' was reasonable and acceptable. (orig.). With 2 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals.

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    Mikiko Shimizu

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol.To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies.Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control. Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed.Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics produced changes in total cholesterol (TC (mean difference -0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.07 mmol/L and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (mean difference -0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.13 mmol/L. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (> 4-week probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤ 4-week intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains.In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  19. β-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington dos Santos Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Five restriction site polymorphisms in the β-globin gene cluster (HincII-5'ε, HindIII-Gγ, HindIII-ªγ, HincII-'ψβ1 and HincII-3''ψβ1 were analyzed in three populations (n = 114 from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the "quilombo community", from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+----,3(----+,4(-+--+and6(-++-+onthe βA chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (-++++and 14 (++--+, were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16 had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin and CAR (Central African Republic, with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil.

  20. Reliability of digital photography for assessing lower extremity alignment in individuals with flatfeet and normal feet types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashnagar, Zinat; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Talebian Moghadam, Saeed; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Saeedi, Hassan; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Mahmoodi, Rahimeh

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the intratester reliability of digital photographic method for quantifying static lower extremity alignment in individuals with flatfeet and normal feet types. Thirteen females with flexible flatfeet and nine females with normal feet types were recruited from university communities. Reflective markers were attached over the participant's body landmarks. Frontal and sagittal plane photographs were taken while the participants were in a standardized standing position. The markers were removed and after 30 min the same procedure was repeated. Pelvic angle, quadriceps angle, tibiofemoral angle, genu recurvatum, femur length and tibia length were measured from photographs using the Image j software. All measured variables demonstrated good to excellent intratester reliability using digital photography in both flatfeet (ICC: 0.79-0.93) and normal feet type (ICC: 0.84-0.97) groups. The findings of the current study indicate that digital photography is a highly reliable method of measurement for assessing lower extremity alignment in both flatfeet and normal feet type groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. BMI change during puberty and the risk of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindblom, J M; Bygdell, M; Sondén, A; Célind, J; Rosengren, A; Ohlsson, C

    2018-03-12

    Hospitalization for heart failure amongst younger men has increased. The reason for this is unknown but it coincides with the obesity epidemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between childhood BMI (Body Mass Index) and BMI change during puberty for risk of adult heart failure in men. Using the BMI Epidemiology Study (BEST), a population-based study in Gothenburg, Sweden, we collected information on childhood BMI at age 8 years and BMI change during puberty (BMI at age 20 - BMI at 8) for men born 1945-1961, followed until December 2013 (n = 37 670). BMI was collected from paediatric growth charts and mandatory military conscription tests. Information on heart failure was retrieved from high-quality national registers (342 first hospitalizations for heart failure). BMI change during puberty was independently of childhood BMI associated with risk of heart failure in a nonlinear J-shaped manner. Subjects in the upper quartile of BMI change during puberty (Q4) had more than twofold increased risk of heart failure compared with subjects in Q1 [HR (Hazard Ratio) = 2.29, 95% CI (Confidence Interval) 1.68-3.12]. Childhood BMI was not independently associated with risk of heart failure. Boys developing overweight during puberty (HR 3.14; 95% CI 2.25-4.38) but not boys with childhood overweight that normalized during puberty (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.63-2.00) had increased risk of heart failure compared with boys without childhood or young adult overweight. BMI change during puberty is a novel risk factor for adult heart failure in men. © 2018 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  2. Mediastinal and extrapleural fat hypertrophy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis on high-resolution CT: comparison with normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Kyu Ri; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lim, Kun Young; Lee, Chang Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi

    2004-01-01

    We wished to compare the amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat on high resolution CT for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with that of normal individuals, and we wished to evaluate the correlation between the amount of fat and the degree of pulmonary fibrosis. We selected a group of 25 patients with radiologically and clinically diagnosed IPF and we also selected another group of 25 age and gender-matched patients having no abnormalities on pulmonary function testing as well as HRCT as controls from our radiologic database search (mean age: 59 years, M:F= 11:14). We measured the area of mediastinal and extrapleural fat at the levels of the aortic arch and at the origin of the right pulmonary artery and right inferior pulmonary vein on three sections of HRCT by using software (Rapidia; 3DMED, Seoul, Korea). The total amount of fat was calculated by summing up the areas of the mediastinal and extrapleural fat, which is corrected by the body mass index; we also evaluated statistical differences between the two groups. At same sections of CT, the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area to the total areas of the lung was calculated. We evaluated the relationship between the amount of extrapleural or mediastinal fat with the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area. The total amount of fat in patients with IPF and normal individuals were 67.24±19.03 cm 2 and 32.55±11.91 cm 2 , respectively. The fat amount corrected by body mass index was 280.48±74.43 mm 2 /kg/m 2 in the IPF patients and 137.06±41.76 mm 2 /kg/m 2 in normal individuals. The differences between two groups for the total amount of fat and fat amount, as corrected for by the body mass index, were statistically significant (p<0.0001). The ratio (%) of the honeycombing area and the total amount of fat showed a moderate correlation (rho= 0.43, p=0.032). Patients with IPF have a larger amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat than normal individuals. The hypertrophy of mediastinal and extrapleural

  3. Mediastinal and extrapleural fat hypertrophy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis on high-resolution CT: comparison with normal individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Kyu Ri; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lim, Kun Young; Lee, Chang Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    We wished to compare the amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat on high resolution CT for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with that of normal individuals, and we wished to evaluate the correlation between the amount of fat and the degree of pulmonary fibrosis. We selected a group of 25 patients with radiologically and clinically diagnosed IPF and we also selected another group of 25 age and gender-matched patients having no abnormalities on pulmonary function testing as well as HRCT as controls from our radiologic database search (mean age: 59 years, M:F= 11:14). We measured the area of mediastinal and extrapleural fat at the levels of the aortic arch and at the origin of the right pulmonary artery and right inferior pulmonary vein on three sections of HRCT by using software (Rapidia; 3DMED, Seoul, Korea). The total amount of fat was calculated by summing up the areas of the mediastinal and extrapleural fat, which is corrected by the body mass index; we also evaluated statistical differences between the two groups. At same sections of CT, the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area to the total areas of the lung was calculated. We evaluated the relationship between the amount of extrapleural or mediastinal fat with the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area. The total amount of fat in patients with IPF and normal individuals were 67.24{+-}19.03 cm{sup 2} and 32.55{+-}11.91 cm{sup 2}, respectively. The fat amount corrected by body mass index was 280.48{+-}74.43 mm{sup 2}/kg/m{sup 2} in the IPF patients and 137.06{+-}41.76 mm{sup 2}/kg/m{sup 2} in normal individuals. The differences between two groups for the total amount of fat and fat amount, as corrected for by the body mass index, were statistically significant (p<0.0001). The ratio (%) of the honeycombing area and the total amount of fat showed a moderate correlation (rho= 0.43, p=0.032). Patients with IPF have a larger amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat than normal individuals. The

  4. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H. Marike; Schouten, Jan P.; Schröder, Carolien P.; de Vries, E. G. Elisabeth; Vonk, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and lifetime changes in BMI (calculated over different time periods (i.e. short time period: annual change in BMI between successive surveys, long time period: annual change in BMI over the entire study period) with mortality from any cancer, and lung, colorectal, prostate and breast cancer in a large cohort study (n=8,645. Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen, 1965-1990) with a follow-up on mortality status on December 31st 2008. We used multivariate Cox regression models with adjustments for age, smoking, sex, and place of residence. Being overweight at baseline was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer mortality (hazard ratio (HR) =2.22; 95% CI 1.19-4.17). Obesity at baseline was associated with a higher risk of any cancer mortality [all subjects (1.23 (1.01-1.50)), and females (1.40 (1.07-1.84))]. Chronically obese females (females who were obese during the entire study-period) had a higher risk of mortality from any cancer (2.16 (1.47-3.18), lung (3.22 (1.06-9.76)), colorectal (4.32 (1.53-12.20)), and breast cancer (2.52 (1.15-5.54)). We found no significant association between long-term annual change in BMI and cancer mortality risk. Both short-term annual increase and decrease in BMI were associated with a lower mortality risk from any cancer [all subjects: (0.67 (0.47-0.94)) and (0.73 (0.55-0.97)), respectively]. In conclusion, a higher BMI is associated with a higher cancer mortality risk. This study is the first to show that short-term annual changes in BMI were associated with lower mortality from any type of cancer. PMID:25881129

  5. Earlier BMI rebound and lower pre-rebound BMI as risk of obesity among Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, N; Isojima, T; Yokoya, S; Tanaka, T; Ono, A; Yokomichi, H; Yamagata, Z; Tanaka, S; Matsubara, H; Ishikuro, M; Kikuya, M; Chida, S; Hosoya, M; Kuriyama, S; Kure, S

    2018-01-01

    Longitudinal growth data of children were analyzed to clarify the relationship between the timing of body mass index (BMI) rebound and obesity risk in later ages. Of 54 558 children born between April 2004 and March 2005 and longitudinally measured in April and October every year in the preschool period, 15 255 children were analyzed wherein no longitudinal measurement is missing after 1 year of age. BMI rebound age was determined as the age with smallest BMI value across longitudinal individual data after 1 year of age. Rebound age was compared between overweight and non-overweight groups. The subjects were divided into groups based on the timing of rebound. The sex- and age-adjusted mean of the BMI, height and weight s.d. scores for age group, along with 6 months weight and height gain, were compared among groups using analysis of covariance. Among those who were overweight at 66-71 months of age, BMI rebound age obtained at approximately 3 years of age was compared with the non-overweight group, whose BMI rebound age was utmost 66 months or later (PBMI age group showed that earlier BMI rebound results in larger BMI (PBMI rebound earlier than 30 months of age, low BMI was observed (PBMI rebound among groups with rebound age earlier than 60 months of age (PBMI rebound timing with pre-rebound low BMI leads to greater childhood obesity risk; hence, early detection and prevention is necessary for such cases.

  6. Acute aerobic exercise differentially alters acylated ghrelin and perceived fullness in normal-weight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Park, Youngmin; Dellsperger, Kevin C; Kanaley, Jill A

    2013-09-01

    Adiposity alters acylated ghrelin concentrations, but it is unknown whether adiposity alters the effect of exercise and feeding on acylated ghrelin responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether adiposity [normal-weight (NW) vs. obese (Ob)] influences the effect of exercise and feeding on acylated ghrelin, hunger, and fullness. Fourteen NW and 14 Ob individuals completed two trials in a randomized counterbalanced fashion, including a prior exercise trial (EX) and a no exercise trial (NoEX). During the EX trial, the participants performed 1 h of treadmill walking (55-60% peak O2 uptake) during the evening, 12 h before a 4-h standardized mixed meal test. Frequent blood samples were taken and analyzed for acylated ghrelin, and a visual analog scale was used to assess perceived hunger and fullness. In NW individuals, EX, compared with NoEX, reduced fasting acylated ghrelin concentrations by 18% (P = 0.03), and, in response to feeding, the change in acylated ghrelin (P = 0.02) was attenuated by 39%, but perceived hunger and fullness were unaltered. In Ob individuals, despite no changes in fasting or postprandial acylated ghrelin concentrations with EX, postprandial fullness was attenuated by 46% compared with NoEX (P = 0.05). In summary, exercise performed the night before a meal suppresses acylated ghrelin concentrations in NW individuals without altering perceived hunger or fullness. In Ob individuals, despite no changes in acylated ghrelin concentrations, EX reduced the fullness response to the test meal. Acylated ghrelin and perceived fullness responses are differently altered by acute aerobic exercise in NW and Ob individuals.

  7. Cortical and Sensory Causes of Individual Differences in Selective Attention Ability Among Listeners With Normal Hearing Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2017-10-17

    This review provides clinicians with an overview of recent findings relevant to understanding why listeners with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs) sometimes suffer from communication difficulties in noisy settings. The results from neuroscience and psychoacoustics are reviewed. In noisy settings, listeners focus their attention by engaging cortical brain networks to suppress unimportant sounds; they then can analyze and understand an important sound, such as speech, amidst competing sounds. Differences in the efficacy of top-down control of attention can affect communication abilities. In addition, subclinical deficits in sensory fidelity can disrupt the ability to perceptually segregate sound sources, interfering with selective attention, even in listeners with NHTs. Studies of variability in control of attention and in sensory coding fidelity may help to isolate and identify some of the causes of communication disorders in individuals presenting at the clinic with "normal hearing." How well an individual with NHTs can understand speech amidst competing sounds depends not only on the sound being audible but also on the integrity of cortical control networks and the fidelity of the representation of suprathreshold sound. Understanding the root cause of difficulties experienced by listeners with NHTs ultimately can lead to new, targeted interventions that address specific deficits affecting communication in noise. http://cred.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=2601617.

  8. Genetic Influences on Growth Traits of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Fagnani, Corrado; Silventoinen, Karri

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the interplay between genetic factors influencing baseline level and changes in BMI in adulthood.Methods and Procedures:A longitudinal twin study of the cohort of Finnish twins (N = 10,556 twin individuals) aged 20-46 years at baseline was conducted and followed up 15 years....... Data on weight and height were obtained from mailed surveys in 1975, 1981, and 1990.Results:Latent growth models revealed a substantial genetic influence on BMI level at baseline in males and females (heritability (h(2)) 80% (95% confidence interval 0.79-0.80) for males and h(2) = 82% (0.81, 0.......84) for females) and a moderate-to-high influence on rate of change in BMI (h(2) = 58% (0.50, 0.69) for males and h(2) = 64% (0.58, 0.69) for females). Only very weak evidence for genetic pleiotropy was observed; the genetic correlation between baseline and rate of change in BMI was very modest (-0.070 (-0.13, -0...

  9. Appropriate slice location to assess maximal cross-sectional area of individual rotator cuff muscles in normal adults and athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Dohi, Michiko; Okuwaki, Toru; Tawara, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Niitsu, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    We investigated appropriate slice locations for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging evaluation of the maximal cross-sectional area (CSA) of individual rotator cuff (RC) muscles in normal adults and athletes. We used a 1.5-tesla MR system with body-array and spine coils to obtain oblique sagittal T 1 -weighted shoulder images of 29 normal adults (16 men, 13 women); 6 national-level competitive swimmers (4 men, 2 women); 10 collegiate-level female badminton players; and 7 collegiate-level male rowers. We calculated the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis CSAs at the 0-1 locations on the scapula (dividing scapula width into 11 locations), 0 representing the medial border of the scapula and 1, the glenoid fossa surface. We evaluated the differences in CSAs at relative locations on the scapula for each muscle in normal adults, swimmers, badminton players, and rowers using a one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test (P<0.05). The supraspinatus CSAs were maximal at 0.7 for all groups. The infraspinatus CSAs were maximal at 0.5 for normal men and women and badminton players, 0.4- and 0.5 locations for swimmers, and 0.4 for rowers. The teres minor CSAs were maximal at 0.9 for all groups except the swimmers (1 location). The subscapularis CSAs were maximal at 0.7 in men, swimmers, and badminton players and 0.6 in women and rowers. The appropriate slice locations for evaluating maximal CSAs are slightly lateral to the center of the scapula for the supraspinatus and subscapularis, at approximately the center of the scapula for the infraspinatus, and near the glenoid fossa for the teres minor. These slice locations should be clinically useful for morphological and/or function-related assessments of shoulder RC muscles. (author)

  10. Spirometry and volumetric capnography in lung function assessment of obese and normal-weight individuals without asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana S; Mendes, Roberto T; Marson, Fernando A L; Zambon, Mariana P; Antonio, Maria A R G M; Paschoal, Ilma A; Toro, Adyléia A D C; Severino, Silvana D; Ribeiro, Maria A G O; Ribeiro, José D

    To analyze and compare lung function of obese and healthy, normal-weight children and adolescents, without asthma, through spirometry and volumetric capnography. Cross-sectional study including 77 subjects (38 obese) aged 5-17 years. All subjects underwent spirometry and volumetric capnography. The evaluations were repeated in obese subjects after the use of a bronchodilator. At the spirometry assessment, obese individuals, when compared with the control group, showed lower values of forced expiratory volume in the first second by forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC) and expiratory flows at 75% and between 25 and 75% of the FVC (p11 years (p<0.05). Even without the diagnosis of asthma by clinical criteria and without response to bronchodilator use, obese individuals showed lower FEV 1 /FVC values and forced expiratory flow, indicating the presence of an obstructive process. Volumetric capnography showed that obese individuals had higher alveolar tidal volume, with no alterations in ventilation homogeneity, suggesting flow alterations, without affecting lung volumes. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Personal monitoring of 218Po and 214Po radionuclide deposition onto individuals under normal environmental exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatough, J.P.; Worley, A.; Moss, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Personal dosemeters have been utilized to monitor the deposition of the radon decay products 218 Po and 214 Po onto individuals under normal environmental exposure conditions. Each detector consists of TASTRAK alpha-sensitive plastic incorporated into an ordinary working wristwatch. Subsequent analysis provides energy discrimination of the detected alpha-particle decays, and allows events from the individual radon decay products 218 Po and 214 Po, attached to the detector surface, to be uniquely identified. Assuming similar deposition onto skin and detector surfaces, the activity per unit area of deposited radionuclides can be determined for exposed skin. Forty-one personal dosemeters were issued to volunteers selected through the hospital medical physics departments at Reading, Northampton, Exeter and Plymouth. Each volunteer was also issued with a personal radon dosemeter to determine their individual radon exposure. The volunteers wore the two dosemeters simultaneously and continuously for a period of around one month. Correlations were observed between the radon exposure of the individual and the activity per unit area of 218 Po and 214 Po on the detector surface. From these correlations it can be estimated that at the UK average radon exposure of 20 Bq m -3 , the number of decays/cm 2 /year on continuously exposed skin surface is between 3500 and 28 000 for 218 Po, and between 7000 and 21 000 for 214 Po. These results can be combined with theoretical modelling of the dose distribution in the skin to yield the alpha-particle radiation dose to any identified target cells. (author)

  12. Incidental white matter lesions identified on magnetic resonance images of normal Japanese individuals; Correlation with age and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki; Iwakoshi, Takanori; Niwa, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Tatsuya [Komaki City Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1994-05-01

    Incidental white matter high-intensity lesions are frequently seen on T[sub 2]-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain in older people. The incidence increases with advancing age or hypertension. Brain MR images of 59 normal individuals were examined to analyze this phenomenon. The total number of white matter high-intensity lesions correlated significantly with age (p=0.004) or systolic blood pressure (p=0.03). The 60- to 69-year-old group demonstrated a very close correlation of white matter lesions with systolic (p=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.01), in contrast to the 50- to 59-year-old group. Hypertensive subjects in their 60s are thought to develop more white matter lesions than subjects in their 50s. (author).

  13. Gut microbiota and glucometabolic alterations in response to recurrent partial sleep deprivation in normal-weight young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Christian; Vogel, Heike; Jonas, Wenke; Woting, Anni; Blaut, Michael; Schürmann, Annette; Cedernaes, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    Changes to the microbial community in the human gut have been proposed to promote metabolic disturbances that also occur after short periods of sleep loss (including insulin resistance). However, whether sleep loss affects the gut microbiota remains unknown. In a randomized within-subject crossover study utilizing a standardized in-lab protocol (with fixed meal times and exercise schedules), we studied nine normal-weight men at two occasions: after two nights of partial sleep deprivation (PSD; sleep opportunity 02:45-07:00 h), and after two nights of normal sleep (NS; sleep opportunity 22:30-07:00 h). Fecal samples were collected within 24 h before, and after two in-lab nights, of either NS or PSD. In addition, participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test following each sleep intervention. Microbiota composition analysis (V4 16S rRNA gene sequencing) revealed that after two days of PSD vs. after two days of NS, individuals exhibited an increased Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, higher abundances of the families Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae, and lower abundance of Tenericutes (all P < 0.05) - previously all associated with metabolic perturbations in animal or human models. However, no PSD vs. NS effect on beta diversity or on fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations was found. Fasting and postprandial insulin sensitivity decreased after PSD vs. NS (all P < 0.05). Our findings demonstrate that short-term sleep loss induces subtle effects on human microbiota. To what extent the observed changes to the microbial community contribute to metabolic consequences of sleep loss warrants further investigations in larger and more prolonged sleep studies, to also assess how sleep loss impacts the microbiota in individuals who already are metabolically compromised.

  14. Assessment of Oral Conditions and Quality of Life in Morbid Obese and Normal Weight Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselene Martinelli Yamashita

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the impact of oral disease on the quality of life of morbid obese and normal weight individuals. Cohort was composed of 100 morbid-obese and 50 normal-weight subjects. Dental caries, community periodontal index, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP, calculus, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, dental wear, stimulated salivary flow, and salivary pH were used to evaluate oral diseases. Socioeconomic and the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP questionnaires showed the quality of life in both groups. Unpaired Student, Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Multiple Regression tests were used (p<0.05. Obese showed lower socio-economic level than control group, but no differences were found considering OIDP. No significant differences were observed between groups considering the number of absent teeth, bruxism, difficult mastication, calculus, initial caries lesion, and caries. However, saliva flow was low, and the salivary pH was changed in the obese group. Enamel wear was lower and dentine wear was higher in obese. More BOP, insertion loss, and periodontal pocket, especially the deeper ones, were found in obese subjects. The regression model showed gender, smoking, salivary pH, socio-economic level, periodontal pocket, and periodontal insertion loss significantly associated to obesity. However, both OIDP and BOP did not show significant contribution to the model. The quality of life of morbid obese was more negatively influenced by oral disease and socio-economic factors than in normal weight subjects.

  15. Serum killing of Ureaplasma parvum shows serovar-determined susceptibility for normal individuals and common variable immuno-deficiency patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Michael L; Daha, Mohamed R; El-Shanawany, Tariq; Jolles, Stephen R; Kotecha, Sailesh; Spiller, O Brad

    2012-02-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria, unlike Gram-positive, are directly lysed by complement. Ureaplasma can cause septic arthritis and meningitis in immunocompromised individuals and induce premature birth. Ureaplasma has no cell wall, cannot be Gram-stain classified and its serum susceptibility is unknown. Survival of Ureaplasma serovars (SV) 1, 3, 6 and 14 (collectively Ureaplasma parvum) were measured following incubation with normal or immunoglobulin-deficient patient serum (relative to heat-inactivated controls). Blocking monoclonal anti-C1q antibody and depletion of calcium, immunoglobulins, or lectins were used to determine the complement pathway responsible for killing. Eighty-three percent of normal sera killed SV1, 67% killed SV6 and 25% killed SV14; greater killing correlating to strong immunoblot identification of anti-Ureaplasma antibodies; killing was abrogated following ProteinA removal of IgG1. All normal sera killed SV3 in a C1q-dependent fashion, irrespective of immunoblot identification of anti-Ureaplasma antibodies; SV3 killing was unaffected by total IgG removal by ProteinG, where complement activity was retained. Only one of four common variable immunodeficient (CVID) patient sera failed to kill SV3, despite profound IgM and IgG deficiency for all; however, killing of SV3 and SV1 was restored with therapeutic intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Only the classical complement pathway mediated Ureaplasma-cidal activity, sometimes in the absence of observable immunoblot reactive bands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Bmi-1: At the crossroads of physiological and pathological biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Resham; Mustafi, Soumyajit Banerjee; Street, Mark; Dey, Anindya; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar Dhar

    2015-01-01

    Bmi-1 is a member of the Polycomb Repressor Complex1 that mediates gene silencing by regulating chromatin structure and is indispensable for self-renewal of both normal and cancer stem cells. Despite three decades of research that have elucidated the transcriptional regulation, post-translational modifications and functions of Bmi-1 in regulating the DNA damage response, cellular bioenergetics, and pathologies, the entire potential of a protein with such varied function remains to be realized. This review attempts to synthesize the current knowledge on Bmi-1 with an emphasis on its role in both normal physiology and cancer. Additionally, since cancer stem cells are emerging as a new paradigm for therapy resistance, the role of Bmi-1 in this perspective is also highlighted. The wide spectrum of malignancies that implicate Bmi-1 as a signature for stemness and oncogenesis also make it a suitable candidate for therapy. Nonetheless new approaches are vitally needed to further characterize physiological roles of Bmi-1 with the long-term goal of using Bmi-1 as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target. PMID:26448339

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF LAND BASED ENDURANCE TRAINING VERSUS AQUATIC BASED ENDURANCE TRAINING ON IMPROVING ENDURANCE IN NORMAL INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Eunice Regima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently the exercises and fitness professionals have adopted water as an alternative medium for delivering programs to improve fitness and health. When exercise on dry land our skeletal muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory and other body systems are greatly affected by the forces of gravity. When exercise in water, the effects created by the gravitational pull on the body are attenuated. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of land based endurance training and aquatic based endurance training for enhancing endurance in normal individuals. Methods: An experimental study design with 30 subjects healthy individuals between 20-30 years of both sexes currently were divided equally into 2 groups. Group A underwent land based exercises while Group B underwent aquatic based exercises. The outcome measures consist of RPP (rate pressure product, REC HR (recovery heart rate, RHR (resting heart rate and 6MWD (6 minute walking distance was measured before (pre-training and after four weeks of endurance training. Results: In this study, the mean improvement between the 2 groups of land and aquatic based endurance exercises were tested for significance using a dependent t test. The calculated t value were 43.550, 4.583, 16, 5.870 for RPP, REC HR, RHR, 6MWD for group A respectively. For group B 25.922, 12.762, 27.495,19.236 for RPP, REC HR, RHR, 6MWD for group A respectively with p<0.05. This clearly indicated that both land based exercises and aquatic based exercises will improve cardiovascular endurance significantly and there is no significant difference between land based exercises and aquatic based exercises for enhancing endurance in normal individuals. Conclusion: It is concluded that both land based and aquatic based endurance exercises methods produce equivalent, if not same effect on the enhancement of aerobic endurance. There was no significant difference between these two exercising mediums. Nonetheless

  18. Spatial selective auditory attention in the presence of reverberant energy: individual differences in normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Dorea; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2011-06-01

    Listeners can selectively attend to a desired target by directing attention to known target source features, such as location or pitch. Reverberation, however, reduces the reliability of the cues that allow a target source to be segregated and selected from a sound mixture. Given this, it is likely that reverberant energy interferes with selective auditory attention. Anecdotal reports suggest that the ability to focus spatial auditory attention degrades even with early aging, yet there is little evidence that middle-aged listeners have behavioral deficits on tasks requiring selective auditory attention. The current study was designed to look for individual differences in selective attention ability and to see if any such differences correlate with age. Normal-hearing adults, ranging in age from 18 to 55 years, were asked to report a stream of digits located directly ahead in a simulated rectangular room. Simultaneous, competing masker digit streams were simulated at locations 15° left and right of center. The level of reverberation was varied to alter task difficulty by interfering with localization cues (increasing localization blur). Overall, performance was best in the anechoic condition and worst in the high-reverberation condition. Listeners nearly always reported a digit from one of the three competing streams, showing that reverberation did not render the digits unintelligible. Importantly, inter-subject differences were extremely large. These differences, however, were not significantly correlated with age, memory span, or hearing status. These results show that listeners with audiometrically normal pure tone thresholds differ in their ability to selectively attend to a desired source, a task important in everyday communication. Further work is necessary to determine if these differences arise from differences in peripheral auditory function or in more central function.

  19. Gut microbiota and glucometabolic alterations in response to recurrent partial sleep deprivation in normal-weight young individuals

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    Christian Benedict

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Changes to the microbial community in the human gut have been proposed to promote metabolic disturbances that also occur after short periods of sleep loss (including insulin resistance. However, whether sleep loss affects the gut microbiota remains unknown. Methods: In a randomized within-subject crossover study utilizing a standardized in-lab protocol (with fixed meal times and exercise schedules, we studied nine normal-weight men at two occasions: after two nights of partial sleep deprivation (PSD; sleep opportunity 02:45–07:00 h, and after two nights of normal sleep (NS; sleep opportunity 22:30–07:00 h. Fecal samples were collected within 24 h before, and after two in-lab nights, of either NS or PSD. In addition, participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test following each sleep intervention. Results: Microbiota composition analysis (V4 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that after two days of PSD vs. after two days of NS, individuals exhibited an increased Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, higher abundances of the families Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae, and lower abundance of Tenericutes (all P < 0.05 – previously all associated with metabolic perturbations in animal or human models. However, no PSD vs. NS effect on beta diversity or on fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations was found. Fasting and postprandial insulin sensitivity decreased after PSD vs. NS (all P < 0.05. Discussion: Our findings demonstrate that short-term sleep loss induces subtle effects on human microbiota. To what extent the observed changes to the microbial community contribute to metabolic consequences of sleep loss warrants further investigations in larger and more prolonged sleep studies, to also assess how sleep loss impacts the microbiota in individuals who already are metabolically compromised. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Insulin resistance

  20. Waist circumference is a better predictor of risk for frailty than BMI in the community-dwelling elderly in Beijing.

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    Liao, Qiuju; Zheng, Zheng; Xiu, Shuangling; Chan, Piu

    2018-03-27

    Obesity is found to be associated with frailty. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are the commonly used measures for obesity, the former is more closely related to general obesity and body weight; the latter can more accurately reflect abdominal obesity and is more closely associated with metabolic disorders. In this study, we intend to study the relationship between frailty, BMI and WC among older people. Data were derived from the Beijing Longitudinal Study on Aging II Cohort, which included 6320 people 65 years or older from three urban districts in Beijing. A Frailty Index derived from 33 items was developed according to Rockwood's cumulative deficits method. A Frailty Index ≥ 0.25 was used as the cut-off criteria. BMI was classified as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese (BMI (≥ 28.0 kg/m 2 , 22.6%) or a larger WC (18.5%) were more likely to be frail. People with normal BMI and overweight people do not suffer from higher prevalence for frailty. In comparison with individuals with normal BMI (18.5-BMI and large WC (odds ratio 1.68; 95% CI 1.33-2.12), have overweight and large WC (odds ratio 1.58; 95% CI 1.23-1.96), or have obesity and large WC (odds ratio 2.28; 95% CI 1.79-2.89). In people with normal WC, only those who are underweight have a higher risk for frailty (odds ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.52). In comparison with BMI, the relation of WC with the risk for frailty was much closer. Abdominal obesity is more closely associated with incidence of frailty than general obesity in the elderly. Older adults with large waist circumference are more likely to be frail. Frailty in the elderly might be more closely related to metabolic disorders. WC might be a better measurement to detect frailty than BMI, given its relationship with metabolic disorders.

  1. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

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    Xu Li-Hua

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. Methods We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Results Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P P P P P > 0.5. In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P P P > 0.05. Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P P Conclusion Expression of Bmi-1 was greater in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues. The examination of Bmi-1 protein expression is potentially valuable in prognostic evaluation of bladder cancer.

  2. The relationship between recognition memory for emotion-laden words and white matter microstructure in normal older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Carina; Karrasch, Mira; Ilvesmäki, Tero; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha O; Laine, Matti

    2016-12-14

    Functional neuroimaging studies have shown age-related differences in brain activation and connectivity patterns for emotional memory. Previous studies with middle-aged and older adults have reported associations between episodic memory and white matter (WM) microstructure obtained from diffusion tensor imaging, but such studies on emotional memory remain few. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore associations between WM microstructure as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) and recognition memory for intentionally encoded positive, negative, and emotionally neutral words using tract-based spatial statistics applied to diffusion tensor imaging images in an elderly sample (44 cognitively intact adults aged 50-79 years). The use of tract-based spatial statistics enables the identification of WM tracts important to emotional memory without a priori assumptions required for region-of-interest approaches that have been used in previous work. The behavioral analyses showed a positivity bias, that is, a preference for positive words, in recognition memory. No statistically significant associations emerged between FA and memory for negative or neutral words. Controlling for age and memory performance for negative and neutral words, recognition memory for positive words was negatively associated with FA in several projection, association, and commissural tracts in the left hemisphere. This likely reflects the complex interplay between the mnemonic positivity bias, structural WM integrity, and functional brain compensatory mechanisms in older age. Also, the unexpected directionality of the results indicates that the WM microstructural correlates of emotional memory show unique characteristics in normal older individuals.

  3. Reproducibility of isometric shoulder protraction and retraction strength measurements in normal subjects and individuals with winged scapula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Seop; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Dvir, Zeevi

    2016-11-01

    The strength of the shoulder protractors and retractors may be compromised in individuals with winged scapula (IwWS). However, no standard approach to measuring the strength of these muscles has been described. The aim of this study was to study the intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility of a fixed-base isometric dynamometer and to describe cutoff scores for clinically meaningful change for protraction and retraction isometric strength. Twice during a week, 20 normal subjects and 20 IwWS were tested by 2 independent raters. IwWS were significantly weaker (P isometric strength. Excellent intra-rater and inter-rater correlations were obtained in most combinations, leading to low cutoff scores for meaningful change expressed in terms of the smallest real difference. When it is properly used, the technique described in this paper is recommended as an effective clinical tool for the quantitative assessment of protraction and retraction isometric strength, both for status determination and for monitoring of change in IwWS during and after rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on the insulin resistance and β-cell function in individuals with normal and those with abnormal glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zikun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the insulin resistance and β-cell function in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and those with glucose metabolism dysfunction. Methods: Insulin resistance and β-cell function were studied with oral glucose tolerance test and the following parameters: 2h insulin/2h plasma glucose (2hIns/2hPG), insulin resistance index (IRI), insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and 30 min net increment of insulin/30min net increment of glucose (AI 30 /AG 30 ) were examined in 44 individuals with NGT, 45 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 66 recently diagnosed diabetics and 175 well-established diabetics. Results: The insulin resistance index (IRI) increased progressively from that in NGT individuals to that in recently diabetics (20 ± 1. 5→3.1 ± 1.6→4.1 ± 1.8), while the 2hIns/2hPG, ΔI 30 /ΔG 30 and ISI decreased progressively with significant differences between those in successive groups (P 30 /ΔG 30 and ISI kept decreasing (values in patients with disease history less than 3 yrs vs those in patients with disease over 3yrs: 2.9 ± 3.2 vs 2.4 + 2.3, 30.2 + 1.1 vs 23.4 ± 2.3, P 30 /ΔG 30 were significantly correlated with ISI (F =96.3, 58.4 and 47.5 respectively). For principal component analysis display, the cumulative contribution rate of four parameters (2hIns/2hPG, ISI, ΔI 30 /ΔG 30 and 2h C-peptide) exceeded 85% (86.5%). Conclusion: As the dysfunction of glucose metabolism proceeded from IGT to well established diabetes, the IR increased first with decrease of β-cell secretion followed. The parameters 2hIns/2hPG, ISI, 2h C-peptide ΔI 30 /ΔG 30 were especially useful for the investigation . (authors)

  5. Lower Bmi-1 Expression May Predict Longer Survival of Colon Cancer Patients

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    Xiaodong Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate the Bmi-1 expression and the clinical significance in colon cancer (CC. Patients and Methods: Bmi-1 expression in tumor tissue and the corresponding normal tissue was detected using immunohistological staining. The correlations between Bmi-1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics and the overall survival (OS time were analyzed. Results: The median H-scores of Bmi-1 in CC tissues and the corresponding tissues were 80.0 (0-270 and 5.0 (0-90, with no statistically significant difference (Z=-13.7, PP = 0.123. The survival rates of patients with low Bmi-1 expression were higher than those of patients with high Bmi-1 expression but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Bmi-1 expression in CC tissue is significantly higher than that in corresponding normal tissue. While there may be a trend towards improved survival, this is not statistically significant.

  6. Secular and race/ethnic trends in glycemic outcomes by BMI in US adults: The role of waist circumference.

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    Albrecht, Sandra S; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-07-01

    For the same body mass index (BMI) level, waist circumference (WC) is higher in more recent years. How this impacts diabetes and prediabetes prevalence in the United States and for different race/ethnic groups is unknown. We examined prevalence differences in diabetes and prediabetes by BMI over time, investigated whether estimates were attenuated after adjusting for waist circumference, and evaluated implications of these patterns on race/ethnic disparities in glycemic outcomes. Data came from 12 614 participants aged 20 to 74 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-1994 and 2007-2012). We estimated prevalence differences in diabetes and prediabetes by BMI over time in multivariable models. Relevant interactions evaluated race/ethnic differences. Among normal, overweight, and class I obese individuals, there were no significant differences in diabetes prevalence over time. However, among individuals with class II/III obesity, diabetes prevalence rose 7.6 percentage points in 2007-2012 vs 1988-1994. This estimate was partly attenuated after adjustment for mean waist circumference but not mean BMI. For prediabetes, prevalence was 10 to 13 percentage points higher over time at lower BMI values, with minimal attenuation after adjustment for WC. All patterns held within race/ethnic groups. Diabetes disparities among blacks and Mexican Americans relative to whites remained in both periods, regardless of BMI, and persisted after adjustment for WC. Diabetes prevalence rose over time among individuals with class II/III obesity and may be partly due to increasing waist circumference. Anthropometric measures did not appear to account for temporal increases in prediabetes, nor did they attenuate race/ethnic disparities in diabetes. Reasons underlying these trends require further investigation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Morphometric and volumetric study of caudate and putamen nuclei in normal individuals by MRI: Effect of normal aging, gender and hemispheric differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedelahi, Ali; Hasanzadeh, Hadi; Hadizadeh, Homaioon; Joghataie, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine age, gender, and hemispheric differences in the volume of the human neostriatum (striatum) nucleus in healthy humans. This study was performed on 120 normal human subjects (60 males, 60 females, right-handed) 15–65 years old, divided into two groups: young (<40 yrs) and old (=≥40 yrs). Sectional brain images were obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), analyzed and processed using the Image-J software, and the striatum volume was calculated using the Cavalieri’s principle, retrospectively. The analyses revealed bilateral age-related shrinkage of the putamen in both genders and the putamen and caudate nucleus were significantly smaller in older than in younger subjects (P-value <0.001). The age-related shrinkage of the caudate and putamen nucleus in men and women was about 5%, 5% and 4%, 4%, respectively, and there were statistically significant volume differences between males and females (P-value <0.05). In both genders, a significant rightward asymmetry was observed in the caudate and putamen nucleus (3.89%, 4.21% in men and 4.51%, 3.32% in women). Bilateral age-related shrinkage and rightward asymmetry of the striate nucleus was found in healthy adults and there were significant volume differences between men and women. Obtained results provide useful baseline data on age and gender-related changes of the volume of the striatum

  8. Relationship between BMI and blood pressure in girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Zuhal

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between BMI and blood pressure as this is of crucial interest in evaluating both public health and the clinical impact of the so-called obesity epidemic. Data were gathered from 1899 children aged between 6 and 14 years, analysing and evaluating a possible relationship between BMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressure values for both girls and boys. Each child was classified on the basis of age- and sex-specific BMI percentile as normal weight (<85th percentile), overweight (95th percentile). In comparisons among age BMI percentile groups, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were higher in obese and overweight groups than in normal weight groups for both sexes. Although BMI among girls was higher than among boys in all three percentile groups, there were no significant differences between sexes with respect to blood pressure values. The present findings emphasize the importance of the prevention of obesity in order to prevent future related problems such as hypertension in children and adolescents.

  9. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zi-Ke; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Yang, Jian-An; Ye, Yun-lin; Zhang, Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhou, Fang-Jian; Han, Hui; Liu, Zuo-Wei; Song, Li-Bing

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P < 0.01). By immunohistochemical examination, five of 30 adjacent normal bladder specimens (16.7%) versus 75 of 137 bladder cancers (54.3%) showed Bmi-1 protein expression (P < 0.05). Bmi-1 protein expression was intense in 20.6%, 54.3%, and 78.8% of tumors of histopathological stages G1, G2, and G3, respectively (P < 0.05). Expression of Bmi-1 protein was greater in invasive bladder cancers than in superficial bladder cancers (81.5% versus 32.5%, P < 0.05). In invasive bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in progression-free cancers was similar to that of cancers that have progressed (80.0% versus 82.4%, P > 0.5). In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P < 0.05). Bmi-1 expression was positively correlated with tumor classification and TNM stage (P < 0.05), but not with tumor number (P > 0.05). Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P < 0.05). Patients with higher Bmi-1 expression had shorter survival time, whereas patients with lower Bmi-1 expression had longer

  10. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... aging, it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based on ...

  11. BMI and BMI SDS in childhood: annual increments and conditional change

    OpenAIRE

    Brannsether-Ellingsen, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Juliusson, Petur Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection of abnormal weight gain in childhood may be important for preventive purposes. It is still debated which annual changes in BMI should warrant attention. Aim: To analyse 1-year increments of Body Mass Index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI SDS) in childhood and explore conditional change in BMI SDS as an alternative method to evaluate 1-year changes in BMI. Subjects and methods: The distributions of 1-year increments of BMI (kg/m2) and BMI SDS are summarised by...

  12. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

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    Ralf Veit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  13. Alanine aminotransferase is associated with an adverse nocturnal blood glucose profile in individuals with normal glucose regulation.

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    Jian Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and risk of type 2 diabetes is well-studied, the effects of slightly increased ALT levels within the normal range on the temporal normal glucose profile remains poorly understood. METHODS: A total of 322 Chinese subjects without impaired glucose tolerance or previous diagnoses of diabetes were recruited for study from 10 hospitals in urban areas across China. All subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM system for three consecutive days. The diurnal (06∶00-20∶00 and nocturnal (20∶00-06∶00 mean blood glucose (MBG levels were calculated. Subjects were stratified by ALT quartile level and correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: The median ALT level was 17 IU/L, and subjects with ALT ≥17 IU/L had higher nocturnal MBG level than those with ALT 0.05. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis of elevated nocturnal MBG identified increased HOMA-IR, elevated ALT levels, and decreased homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function as independent factors (all, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Mildly elevated ALT levels, within the normal range, are associated with unfavorable nocturnal glucose profiles in Chinese subjects with normal glucose regulation.

  14. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perception of Emotions by Individuals with Cochlear Implants, Hearing Aids, and Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Aviner, Chen

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the benefits of cochlear implant (CI) with regard to emotion perception of participants differing in their age of implantation, in comparison to hearing aid users and adolescents with normal hearing (NH). Emotion perception was examined by having the participants identify happiness, anger, surprise, sadness, fear, and disgust.…

  15. Cortical and Sensory Causes of Individual Differences in Selective Attention Ability among Listeners with Normal Hearing Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This review provides clinicians with an overview of recent findings relevant to understanding why listeners with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs) sometimes suffer from communication difficulties in noisy settings. Method: The results from neuroscience and psychoacoustics are reviewed. Results: In noisy settings, listeners focus their…

  16. Body Size Estimation from Early to Middle Childhood: Stability of Underestimation, BMI, and Gender Effects

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    Silje Steinsbekk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who are overweight are more likely to underestimate their body size than those who are normal weight, and overweight underestimators are less likely to engage in weight loss efforts. Underestimation of body size might represent a barrier to prevention and treatment of overweight; thus insight in how underestimation of body size develops and tracks through the childhood years is needed. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine stability in children’s underestimation of body size, exploring predictors of underestimation over time. The prospective path from underestimation to BMI was also tested. In a Norwegian cohort of 6 year olds, followed up at ages 8 and 10 (analysis sample: n = 793 body size estimation was captured by the Children’s Body Image Scale, height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Overall, children were more likely to underestimate than overestimate their body size. Individual stability in underestimation was modest, but significant. Higher BMI predicted future underestimation, even when previous underestimation was adjusted for, but there was no evidence for the opposite direction of influence. Boys were more likely than girls to underestimate their body size at ages 8 and 10 (age 8: 38.0% vs. 24.1%; Age 10: 57.9% vs. 30.8% and showed a steeper increase in underestimation with age compared to girls. In conclusion, the majority of 6, 8, and 10-year olds correctly estimate their body size (prevalence ranging from 40 to 70% depending on age and gender, although a substantial portion perceived themselves to be thinner than they actually were. Higher BMI forecasted future underestimation, but underestimation did not increase the risk for excessive weight gain in middle childhood.

  17. Light to Moderate Alcohol Consumption Is Protective for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Normal Weight and Overweight Individuals but Not the Obese

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    Patricia A. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM overall and by body mass index. Methods. Cross-sectional study of employed individuals. Daily alcohol intakes were calculated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire by 5,512 Maori, Pacific Island, and European workers (3,992 men, 1520 women aged 40 years and above. Results. There were 170 new cases of T2DM. Compared to the group with no alcohol consumption and adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, the group consuming alcohol had relative risks of T2DM of 0.23 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.65 in normal weight individuals, 0.38 (0.18, 0.81 in overweight individuals, and 0.99 (0.59, 1.67 in obese individuals. After further adjusting for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, smoking habit, physical activity, socioeconomic status, body mass index, and hypertension, the relative risks of T2DM were 0.16 (0.05, 0.50 in normal weight individuals, 0.43 (0.19, 0.97 in overweight individuals, and 0.92 (0.52, 1.60 in overweight individuals. Across the categories of alcohol consumption, there was an approximate U-shaped relationship for new cases of T2DM. There was no significant association between alcohol consumption and IGT. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption was protective against diagnosis of T2DM in normal and overweight individuals but not in the obese.

  18. Change in BMI accurately predicted by social exposure to acquaintances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloritun, Rahman O; Ouarda, Taha B M J; Moturu, Sai; Madan, Anmol; Pentland, Alex Sandy; Khayal, Inas

    2013-01-01

    Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and R(2). This study found a model that explains 68% (pchange in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as close friends.

  19. Change in BMI accurately predicted by social exposure to acquaintances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman O Oloritun

    Full Text Available Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and R(2. This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001 of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as

  20. The 'new normal': relativity of quality of life judgments in individuals with bipolar disorder-a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Emma; Michalak, Erin; Hole, Rachelle; Buzwell, Simone; Murray, Greg

    2018-06-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is increasingly a target of interventions for bipolar disorders (BD). While the subjective experience of consumers is often elevated as central to the construct of QoL in BD, limited investigation in this area means subjective QoL remains poorly understood. The present qualitative study seeks to address this by investigating how people with BD appraise the quality of their lives in the context of a QoL self-management intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 43 individuals who had participated in a self-management intervention for improving QoL in BD. Individuals were questioned about experiences of the intervention and perceptions of their QoL. Thematic analysis was used to explore participants' appraisal of their QoL. An overarching theme concerned the intrinsic relativity of subjective QoL: individuals located QoL as relative to self, others and possible futures. Incorporating illness-related reference points for QoL ('given my circumstances…') was associated with perceptions of improved QoL. Deliberately modifying reference points for QoL was perceived as self-compassionate. The present study generates novel hypotheses about how individuals with BD make sense of their QoL. Data suggest that individuals located their QoL relative to a variety of reference points, use of which was flexible. In accord with gap theories of QoL, individuals experienced acceptance of illness impacts as improving subjective sense of QoL. Rather than 'settling for' a lower standard of QoL, individuals experienced these changes as adaptive and positive. Findings are discussed in relation to the measurement and amelioration of QoL in BD.

  1. Automatic Sleep Scoring in Normals and in Individuals with Neurodegenerative Disorders According to New International Sleep Scoring Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter S.; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Leonthin, Helle

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a fully automatic sleep scoring algorithm on the basis of a reproduction of new international sleep scoring criteria from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. A biomedical signal processing algorithm was developed, allowing for automatic sleep depth....... Based on an observed reliability of the manual scorer of 92.5% (Cohen's Kappa: 0.87) in the normal group and 85.3% (Cohen's Kappa: 0.73) in the abnormal group, this study concluded that although the developed algorithm was capable of scoring normal sleep with an accuracy around the manual interscorer...... reliability, it failed in accurately scoring abnormal sleep as encountered for the Parkinson disease/multiple system atrophy patients....

  2. Automatic sleep scoring in normals and in individuals with neurodegenerative disorders according to new international sleep scoring criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter S; Sorensen, Helge B D; Jennum, Poul

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a fully automatic sleep scoring algorithm on the basis of a reproduction of new international sleep scoring criteria from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. A biomedical signal processing algorithm was developed, allowing for automatic sleep depth....... Based on an observed reliability of the manual scorer of 92.5% (Cohen's Kappa: 0.87) in the normal group and 85.3% (Cohen's Kappa: 0.73) in the abnormal group, this study concluded that although the developed algorithm was capable of scoring normal sleep with an accuracy around the manual interscorer...... reliability, it failed in accurately scoring abnormal sleep as encountered for the Parkinson disease/multiple system atrophy patients....

  3. Relationship of glycemic and triglycerides with BMI in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, A.; Ihsanullah; Rafiq, A.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism arising from defect in insulin secretion or action or both. The clinical guidelines recommend measurement of BMI as vital signs for evaluating the obese and diabetic patients. Methods: This study was carried out on 160 diabetics, which were divided on the basis of BMI into obese (120) and non-obese (40) diabetics from Peshawar district. All patients had their triglycerides and glucose checked after over night fast. Results: The serum triglyceride in diabetics having BMI >30 (obese) was increased as compared to patients having BMI <30 (non-obese). The comparison of serum glucose level in obese diabetics was found to be significantly raised as compared to non-obese diabetics. Conclusions and Recommendations: It was concluded that dyslipidemia is common in all diabetics. The abnormal triglyceride level can improve with good glycemic control, but do not reach the normal state. Good glycaemic control, Reducing BMI, periodic checkups of lipids and blood glucose are recommended for all diabetics in order to avoid complications. (author)

  4. Relationship of glycemic and triglycerides with BMI in diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvez, A; Ihsanullah,; Rafiq, A; Ahmad, N; Khan, E H [Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar (Pakistan). Department of Pathology

    2010-04-15

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism arising from defect in insulin secretion or action or both. The clinical guidelines recommend measurement of BMI as vital signs for evaluating the obese and diabetic patients. Methods: This study was carried out on 160 diabetics, which were divided on the basis of BMI into obese (120) and non-obese (40) diabetics from Peshawar district. All patients had their triglycerides and glucose checked after over night fast. Results: The serum triglyceride in diabetics having BMI >30 (obese) was increased as compared to patients having BMI <30 (non-obese). The comparison of serum glucose level in obese diabetics was found to be significantly raised as compared to non-obese diabetics. Conclusions and Recommendations: It was concluded that dyslipidemia is common in all diabetics. The abnormal triglyceride level can improve with good glycemic control, but do not reach the normal state. Good glycaemic control, Reducing BMI, periodic checkups of lipids and blood glucose are recommended for all diabetics in order to avoid complications. (author)

  5. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context. PMID:27317667

  6. Correlation between BMI and motor coordination in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vítor P; Stodden, David F; Bianchi, Mafalda M; Maia, Jose A R; Rodrigues, Luis P

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the association between motor coordination (MC) and body mass index (BMI) across childhood and early adolescence. This study is cross-sectional. Data were collected in 7175 children (boys n=3616, girls n=3559), ages 6-14 years. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight [body mass (kg)/height (m(2))]. Motor coordination was evaluated using Kiphard-Schilling's body coordination test (KTK). Spearman's rank correlation was used to study the association between BMI and MC. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyze the differences in MC between children of normal weight, overweight and obese children. Correlations between MC and BMI were negative and varied between 0.05 and 0.49. The highest negative correlations for both boys and girls was at 11 years of age. There was a general pattern of increasing negative correlations in both genders from 6 to 11 years of age and then a decrease in correlation strengths through 14 years of age. In both boys (χ(2)((2))=324.01; p<0.001) and girls (χ(2)((2))=291.20; p<0.001) there were significant differences in MC between the three groups' weight status. Normal weight children of both sexes demonstrated significantly higher MC scores than overweight. Obese children in both sexes had the lowest MC scores among all three groups. Motor coordination demonstrated an inverse relationship with BMI across childhood and into early adolescence. The strength of the inverse relation increased during childhood, but decreased through early adolescence. Overweight and obese children of both sexes demonstrated significantly lower MC than normal weight children. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Community-Specific BMI Cutoff Points for South Indian Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kishore Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze multiparameters related to total body composition, with specific emphasis on obesity in South Indian females, in order to derive community-specific BMI cutoff points. Patients and Methods. A total number of 87 females (of age 37.33±13.12 years from South Indian Chennai urban population participated in this clinical study. Body composition analysis and anthropometric measurements were acquired after conducting careful clinical examination. Results. BMI demonstrated high significance when normal group (21.02±1.47 kg/m2 was compared with obese group (29.31±3.95 kg/m2, <0.0001. BFM displayed high significance when normal group (14.92±4.28 kg was compared with obese group (29.94 ± 8.1 kg, <0.0001. Conclusion. Community-specific BMI cutoffs are necessary to assess obesity in different ethnic groups, and relying on WHO-based universal BMI cutoff points would be a wrong strategy.

  8. Automatic sleep scoring in normals and in individuals with neurodegenerative disorders according to new international sleep scoring criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter S.; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Jennum, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Medicine (AASM). Methods: A biomedical signal processing algorithm was developed, allowing for automatic sleep depth quantification of routine polysomnographic (PSG) recordings through feature extraction, supervised probabilistic Bayesian classification, and heuristic rule-based smoothing. The performance......Introduction: Reliable polysomnographic classification is the basis for evaluation of sleep disorders in neurological diseases. Aim: To develop a fully automatic sleep scoring algorithm on the basis of a reproduction of new international sleep scoring criteria from the American Academy of Sleep....... Conclusion: The developed algorithm was capable of scoring normal sleep with an accuracy around the manual inter-scorer reliability, it failed in accurately scoring abnormal sleep as encountered for the PD/MSA patients, which is due to the abnormal micro- and macrostructure pattern in these patients....

  9. A comparative study of deficit pattern in theory of mind and emotion regulation methods in evaluating patients with bipolar disorder and normal individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Fakhari; Khalegh Minashiri; Abolfazl Fallahi; Mohammad Taher Panah

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study compared patterns of deficit in "theory of mind" and "emotion regulation" in patientswith bipolar disorder and normal individuals. METHODS: In this causal-comparative study, subjects were 20 patients with bipolar disorder and 20 normalindividuals. Patients were selected via convenience sampling method among hospitalized patients at Razi hospital ofTabriz, Iran. The data was collected through two scales: Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and Emotion RegulationQuestionnai...

  10. The Report Card on BMI Report Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hannah R; Madsen, Kristine A

    2017-06-01

    Half of states in the USA have legislation requiring that schools conduct body mass index (BMI) screening among students; just under half of these states report results to parents. The effectiveness of school-based BMI screening and reporting in reducing childhood obesity is not established and the practice has raised concerns about the potential for increased weight-based stigmatization. Recent experimental studies of BMI screening and reporting have not demonstrated a positive impact on students' weight status. However, the language and formatting of BMI reports used in studies to date have been suboptimal and have likely limited the potential effectiveness of the practice. This article reviews the recent literature on school-based BMI screening and reporting and highlights important areas for future inquiry. The present review suggests that evidence to date is not sufficient to support definitive conclusions about the value of school-based BMI screening and reporting as a childhood obesity prevention tool.

  11. The Role of BMI1 in CRPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    that inhibiting BMI1 decreased prostate cancer tumor growth in VCaP murine xenograft. 15. SUBJECT TERMS: Polycomb, BMI1, Androgen Receptor ...Repressive Complex, Androgen Receptor , Castration- Resistant Prostate Cancer , small molecule inhibitor 4 ACCOMPLISHMENTS A. What were the major...Qi Cao. A Novel Role of BMI1 in Androgen Receptor Pathway. 23rd Prostate Cancer Foundation Annual Scientific Retreat, Oct 26-29, 2016, Carlsbad, CA

  12. PPARγ gene polymorphism, C-reactive protein level, BMI and periodontitis in post-menopausal Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangming; Sugita, Noriko; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Iwasaki, Masanori; Miyazaki, Hideo; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2016-03-01

    Several studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the association between the PPARγPro12Ala polymorphism and obesity. Obese individuals had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels compared with those of normal weight, and PPARγ activation could significantly reduce serum high-sensitive CRP level. We have previously suggested that the Pro12Ala polymorphism represents a susceptibility factor for periodontitis, which is a known risk factor for increased CRP level. The aim was to investigate associations between PPARγ gene polymorphism, serum CRP level, BMI and/or periodontitis among post-menopausal Japanese women. The final sample in this study comprised 359 post-menopausal Japanese women. Periodontal parameters, including PD, CAL and BOP, were measured per tooth. PPARγPro12Ala genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP. Hs-CRP value was measured by a latex nephelometry assay. No significant differences in age, BMI or periodontal parameters were found between the genotypes. The percentages of sites with PD ≥ 4 mm were significantly higher among the hsCRP ≥ 1 mg/l group than the hsCRP periodontitis, serum CRP level or BMI in post-menopausal Japanese women. However, serum hsCRP level correlated with periodontitis in Ala allele carriers, and with BMI in non-carriers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Differential models of twin correlations in skew for body-mass index (BMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Siny; Duncan, Glen E; Dinescu, Diana; Turkheimer, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI), like most human phenotypes, is substantially heritable. However, BMI is not normally distributed; the skew appears to be structural, and increases as a function of age. Moreover, twin correlations for BMI commonly violate the assumptions of the most common variety of the classical twin model, with the MZ twin correlation greater than twice the DZ correlation. This study aimed to decompose twin correlations for BMI using more general skew-t distributions. Same sex MZ and DZ twin pairs (N = 7,086) from the community-based Washington State Twin Registry were included. We used latent profile analysis (LPA) to decompose twin correlations for BMI into multiple mixture distributions. LPA was performed using the default normal mixture distribution and the skew-t mixture distribution. Similar analyses were performed for height as a comparison. Our analyses are then replicated in an independent dataset. A two-class solution under the skew-t mixture distribution fits the BMI distribution for both genders. The first class consists of a relatively normally distributed, highly heritable BMI with a mean in the normal range. The second class is a positively skewed BMI in the overweight and obese range, with lower twin correlations. In contrast, height is normally distributed, highly heritable, and is well-fit by a single latent class. Results in the replication dataset were highly similar. Our findings suggest that two distinct processes underlie the skew of the BMI distribution. The contrast between height and weight is in accord with subjective psychological experience: both are under obvious genetic influence, but BMI is also subject to behavioral control, whereas height is not.

  14. Some human albumine metabolism aspects, gathered with the utilization of 131I-albumine in normal female individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossermelli, W.; Papaleo Netto, M.; Carvalho, N.

    1974-01-01

    14 female individuals underwent a study of some aspects of the 131 I human albumine metabolism, by following-up the decreasing plasmatic radioactivity rate of this substance. The outcome of this study led to the following conclusions: the distribution hal-life presented an average and confidence interval of 15,40 +- -+ 2,16 hours; renovation half-life showed a median and confidence interval of 11,17 +- -+ 2,10 days; the renovation ratio presented an average and confidence interval of 6,80 +- -+ 1,31% days -1 . The conclusions hereabove allowed the authors to discuss the performance of these parameters upon the evaluation of the albumine synthesis and catabolism [pt

  15. CEBPG transcription factor correlates with antioxidant and DNA repair genes in normal bronchial epithelial cells but not in individuals with bronchogenic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, D'Anna N; Crawford, Erin L; Khuder, Sadik A; Hernandez, Dawn-Alita; Yoon, Youngsook; Willey, James C

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of bronchogenic carcinoma (BC), yet only 10–15% of heavy smokers develop BC and it is likely that this variation in risk is, in part, genetically determined. We previously reported a set of antioxidant genes for which transcript abundance was lower in normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBEC) of BC individuals compared to non-BC individuals. In unpublished studies of the same NBEC samples, transcript abundance values for several DNA repair genes were correlated with these antioxidant genes. From these data, we hypothesized that antioxidant and DNA repair genes are co-regulated by one or more transcription factors and that inter-individual variation in expression and/or function of one or more of these transcription factors is responsible for inter-individual variation in risk for BC. The putative transcription factor recognition sites common to six of the antioxidant genes were identified through in silico DNA sequence analysis. The transcript abundance values of these transcription factors (n = 6) and an expanded group of antioxidant and DNA repair genes (n = 16) were measured simultaneously by quantitative PCR in NBEC of 24 non-BC and 25 BC individuals. CEBPG transcription factor was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with eight of the antioxidant or DNA repair genes in non-BC individuals but not in BC individuals. In BC individuals the correlation with CEBPG was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than that of non-BC individuals for four of the genes (XRCC1, ERCC5, GSTP1, and SOD1) and the difference was nearly significant for GPX1. The only other transcription factor correlated with any of these five target genes in non-BC individuals was E2F1. E2F1 was correlated with GSTP1 among non-BC individuals, but in contrast to CEBPG, there was no significant difference in this correlation in non-BC individuals compared to BC individuals. We conclude that CEBPG is the transcription factor primarily responsible for regulating

  16. Body Mass Index (BMI) in women booking for antenatal care: comparison between selfreported and digital measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) with selfreporting in women early in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 100 women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester with a normal ongoing pregnancy. Selfreported maternal weight and height were recorded and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Afterwards maternal weight and height were digitally measured and actual BMI was calculated. RESULTS: If selfreporting is used for BMI classification, we found that 22% of women were classified incorrectly when BMI was measured. 12% of the women who were classified as having a normal selfreported BMI were overweight and 5% classified as overweight were obese. Similar findings have been reported outside pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for clinical practice, and for research studies exploring the relationship between maternal adiposity and pregnancy complications.

  17. BMI Trajectories Associated With Resolution of Elevated Youth BMI and Incident Adult Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscot, Marie-Jeanne; Thomson, Russell J; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew A; Burgner, David P; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma S A; Jokinen, Eero; Tossavainen, Paivi; Laitinen, Tomi; Raitakari, Olli T; Magnussen, Costan G

    2018-01-01

    Youth with high BMI who become nonobese adults have the same cardiovascular risk factor burden as those who were never obese. However, the early-life BMI trajectories for overweight or obese youth who avoid becoming obese adults have not been described. We aimed to determine and compare the young-childhood BMI trajectories of participants according to their BMI status in youth and adulthood. Bayesian hierarchical piecewise regression modeling was used to analyze the BMI trajectories of 2717 young adults who had up to 8 measures of BMI from childhood (ages 3-18 years) to adulthood (ages 34-49 years). Compared with those with persistently high BMI, those who resolved their high youth BMI by adulthood had lower average BMI at age 6 years and slower rates of BMI change from young childhood. In addition, their BMI levels started to plateau at 16 years old for females and 21 years old for males, whereas the BMI of those whose high BMI persisted did not stabilize until 25 years old for male subjects and 27 years for female subjects. Compared with those youth who were not overweight or obese and who remained nonobese in adulthood, those who developed obesity had a higher BMI rate of change from 6 years old, and their BMI continued to increase linearly until age 30 years. Efforts to alter BMI trajectories for adult obesity should ideally commence before age 6 years. The natural resolution of high BMI starts in adolescence for males and early adulthood for females, suggesting a critical window for secondary prevention. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Classification of single normal and Alzheimer’s disease individuals from cortical sources of resting state EEG rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eBabiloni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown abnormal power and functional connectivity of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG rhythms in groups of Alzheimer’s disease (AD compared to healthy elderly (Nold subjects. Here we tested the best classification rate of 120 AD patients and 100 matched Nold subjects using EEG markers based on cortical sources of power and functional connectivity of these rhythms. EEG data were recorded during resting state eyes-closed condition. Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA estimated the power and functional connectivity of cortical sources in frontal, central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic regions. Delta (2-4 Hz, theta (4-8 Hz, alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz, alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz, beta 1 (13-20 Hz, beta 2 (20-30 Hz, and gamma (30-40 Hz were the frequency bands of interest. The classification rates of interest were those with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC higher than 0.7 as a threshold for a moderate classification rate (i.e. 70%. Results showed that the following EEG markers overcame this threshold: (i central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 1 current density; (ii central, parietal, occipital temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 2 current density; (iii frontal theta/alpha 1 current density; (iv occipital delta/alpha 1 inter-hemispherical connectivity; (v occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1 right and left intra-hemispherical connectivity; and (vi parietal-limbic alpha 1 right intra-hemispherical connectivity. Occipital delta/alpha 1 current density showed the best classification rate (sensitivity of 73.3%, specificity of 78%, accuracy of 75.5%, and AUROC of 82%. These results suggest that EEG source markers can classify Nold and AD individuals with a moderate classification rate higher than 80%.

  19. When overweight is the normal weight: an examination of obesity using a social media internet database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, Meghan; Yom-Tov, Elad; Pelleg, Dan; Puhl, Rebecca M; Muennig, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Using a large social media database, Yahoo Answers, we explored postings to an online forum in which posters asked whether their height and weight qualify themselves as "skinny," "thin," "fat," or "obese" over time and across forum topics. We used these data to better understand whether a higher-than-average body mass index (BMI) in one's county might, in some ways, be protective for one's mental and physical health. For instance, we explored whether higher proportions of obese people in one's county predicts lower levels of bullying or "am I fat?" questions from those with a normal BMI relative to his/her actual BMI. Most women asking whether they were themselves fat/obese were not actually fat/obese. Both men and women who were actually overweight/obese were significantly more likely in the future to ask for advice about bullying than thinner individuals. Moreover, as mean county-level BMI increased, bullying decreased and then increased again (in a U-shape curve). Regardless of where they lived, posters who asked "am I fat?" who had a BMI in the healthy range were more likely than other posters to subsequently post on health problems, but the proportions of such posters also declined greatly as county-level BMI increased. Our findings suggest that obese people residing in counties with higher levels of BMI may have better physical and mental health than obese people living in counties with lower levels of BMI by some measures, but these improvements are modest.

  20. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage studies in BMI and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, Catherine L.; Chiodini, Benedetta D.; Sham, Pak; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Abkevich, Victor; Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; de Andrade, Mariza; Arya, Rector; Berenson, Gerald S.; Blangero, John; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Chen, Wei; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Deng, Hong-Wen; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Feitosa, Mary F.; Froguel, Philippe; Hanson, Robert L.; Hebebrand, Johannes; Huezo-Dias, Patricia; Kissebah, Ahmed H.; Li, Weidong; Luke, Amy; Martin, Lisa J.; Nash, Matthew; Ohman, Muena; Palmer, Lyle J.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Price, R. Arlen; Redline, Susan; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Stern, Michael P.; Stone, Steven; Stringham, Heather; Turner, Stephen; Wijmenga, Cisca; Collier, David A.

    Objective: The objective was to provide an overall assessment of genetic linkage data of BMI and BMI-defined obesity using a nonparametric genome scan meta-analysis. Research Methods and Procedures: We identified 37 published studies containing data on over 31,000 individuals from more than >10,000

  1. Bmi-1 Regulates Extensive Erythroid Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Ram Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs, responsible for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide exchange, are essential for our well-being. Alternative RBC sources are needed to meet the increased demand for RBC transfusions projected to occur as our population ages. We previously have discovered that erythroblasts derived from the early mouse embryo can self-renew extensively ex vivo for many months. To better understand the mechanisms regulating extensive erythroid self-renewal, global gene expression data sets from self-renewing and differentiating erythroblasts were analyzed and revealed the differential expression of Bmi-1. Bmi-1 overexpression conferred extensive self-renewal capacity upon adult bone-marrow-derived self-renewing erythroblasts, which normally have limited proliferative potential. Importantly, Bmi-1 transduction did not interfere with the ability of extensively self-renewing erythroblasts (ESREs to terminally mature either in vitro or in vivo. Bmi-1-induced ESREs can serve to generate in vitro models of erythroid-intrinsic disorders and ultimately may serve as a source of cultured RBCs for transfusion therapy.

  2. Associations between postprandial insulin and blood glucose responses, appetite sensations and energy intake in normal weight and overweight individuals: a meta-analysis of test meal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flint, Anne; Gregersen, Nikolaj T.; Gluud, Lise L.

    2007-01-01

    is unclear whether postprandial blood glucose or insulin exerts a regulatory function in short-term appetite regulation in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate, by use of meta-analysis, the role of blood glucose and insulin in short-term appetite sensation and energy intake (EI......) in normal weight and overweight participants. Data from seven test meal studies were used, including 136 healthy participants (ALL) (92 normal weight (NW) and 44 overweight or obese (OW)). All meals were served as breakfasts after an overnight fast, and appetite sensations and blood samples were obtained...... frequently in the postprandial period. Finally, an ad libitum lunch was served. Data were analysed by fixed effects study level (SL) meta-regression analysis and individual participant data (IPD) regression analysis, using STATA software. In SL analysis, postprandial insulin response was associated...

  3. Do substantial BMI reduction episodes among Swedish schoolchildren have any impact on their final height?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Bente B; Yngve, Agneta; Werner, Bo

    2018-02-06

    This study investigated whether substantial body mass index (BMI) reductions in Swedish schoolchildren aged seven years to 19 years, caused by disease, healthy or unhealthy behaviour, had any impact on their final height. We used height and weight data on 6572 subjects from two nationally representative longitudinal samples of Swedish children born in 1973 and 1981. These provided information on their final height and any BMI reduction episodes. Of the 6572 subjects (50.9% boys), among individuals with information on final height, 1118 had a BMI reduction of 5% and BMI reduction of 10% or more. On a group level, there was no statistically significant difference in the final height of individuals with BMI reductions of 10% or more and those without. The findings were independent of age and the subject's BMI at the start of the reduction episode. However, there were a number of cases where a substantial BMI reduction probably had an impact on the subject's final height. Our study found no evidence that a substantial BMI reduction had any impact on final height on a group level, but further analyses of specific case studies are necessary to determine whether substantial BMI reduction might have an impact on final height. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Performance, fatigue and stress in open-plan offices: The effects of noise and restoration on hearing impaired and normal hearing individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Jahncke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing impaired and normal hearing individuals were compared in two within-participant office noise conditions (high noise: 60 L Aeq and low noise: 30 L Aeq . Performance, subjective fatigue, and physiological stress were tested during working on a simulated open-plan office. We also tested two between-participants restoration conditions following the work period with high noise (nature movie or continued office noise. Participants with a hearing impairment (N = 20 were matched with normal hearing participants (N = 18 and undertook one practice session and two counterbalanced experimental sessions. In each experimental session they worked for two hours with basic memory and attention tasks. We also measured physiological stress indicators (cortisol and catecholamines and self-reports of mood and fatigue. The hearing impaired participants were more affected by high noise than the normal hearing participants, as shown by impaired performance for tasks that involve recall of semantic information. The hearing impaired participants were also more fatigued by high noise exposure than participants with normal hearing, and they tended to have higher stress hormone levels during the high noise compared to the low noise condition. Restoration with a movie increased performance and motivation for the normal hearing participants, while rest with continued noise did not. For the hearing impaired participants, continued noise during rest increased motivation and performance, while the movie did not. In summary, the impact of noise and restorative conditions varied with the hearing characteristics of the participants. The small sample size does however encourage caution when interpreting the results.

  5. Correction of self-reported BMI based on objective measurements: a Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieskens, S; Demarest, S; Bel, S; De Ridder, K; Tafforeau, J

    2018-01-01

    Based on successive Health Interview Surveys (HIS), it has been demonstrated that also in Belgium obesity, measured by means of a self-reported body mass index (BMI in kg/m 2 ), is a growing public health problem that needs to be monitored as accurately as possible. Studies have shown that a self-reported BMI can be biased. Consequently, if the aim is to rely on a self-reported BMI, adjustment is recommended. Data on measured and self-reported BMI, derived from the Belgian Food Consumption Survey (FCS) 2014 offers the opportunity to do so. The HIS and FCS are cross-sectional surveys based on representative population samples. This study focused on adults aged 18-64 years (sample HIS = 6545 and FCS = 1213). Measured and self-reported BMI collected in FCS were used to assess possible misreporting. Using FCS data, correction factors (measured BMI/self-reported BMI) were calculated in function of a combination of background variables (region, gender, educational level and age group). Individual self-reported BMI of the HIS 2013 were then multiplied with the corresponding correction factors to produce a corrected BMI-classification. When compared with the measured BMI, the self-reported BMI in the FCS was underestimated (mean 0.97 kg/m 2 ). 28% of the obese people underestimated their BMI. After applying the correction factors, the prevalence of obesity based on HIS data significantly increased (from 13% based on the original HIS data to 17% based on the corrected HIS data) and approximated the measured one derived from the FCS data. Since self-reported calculations of BMI are underestimated, it is recommended to adjust them to obtain accurate estimates which are important for decision making.

  6. Gene-diet interaction effects on BMI levels in the Singapore Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xuling; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Sun, Ye; Han, Yi; Wang, Ling; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Sim, Xueling; Tai, E-Shyong; Liu, Jianjun; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; van Dam, Rob M; Friedlander, Yechiel; Heng, Chew-Kiat

    2018-02-24

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 97 body-mass index (BMI) associated loci. We aimed to evaluate if dietary intake modifies BMI associations at these loci in the Singapore Chinese population. We utilized GWAS information from six data subsets from two adult Chinese population (N = 7817). Seventy-eight genotyped or imputed index BMI single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that passed quality control procedures were available in all datasets. Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010 score and ten nutrient variables were evaluated. Linear regression analyses between z score transformed BMI (Z-BMI) and dietary factors were performed. Interaction analyses were performed by introducing the interaction term (diet x SNP) in the same regression model. Analysis was carried out in each cohort individually and subsequently meta-analyzed using the inverse-variance weighted method. Analyses were also evaluated with a weighted gene-risk score (wGRS) contructed by BMI index SNPs from recent large-scale GWAS studies. Nominal associations between Z-BMI and AHEI-2010 and some dietary factors were identified (P = 0.047-0.010). The BMI wGRS was robustly associated with Z-BMI (P = 1.55 × 10 - 15 ) but not with any dietary variables. Dietary variables did not significantly interact with the wGRS to modify BMI associations. When interaction analyses were repeated using individual SNPs, a significant association between cholesterol intake and rs4740619 (CCDC171) was identified (β = 0.077, adjP interaction  = 0.043). The CCDC171 gene locus may interact with cholesterol intake to increase BMI in the Singaporean Chinese population, however most known obesity risk loci were not associated with dietary intake and did not interact with diet to modify BMI levels.

  7. [Estimation of the population attributable fraction due to obesity in hospital admissions for flu valued according to Body Mass Index (BMI) and CUN-BAE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Batista, V; Carriedo, D; Díez, F; Pueyo Bastida, A; Martínez Durán, B; Martin, V

    2018-03-01

    The obesity pandemic together with the influenza pandemic could lead to a significant burden of disease. The body mass index (BMI) does not discriminate obesity appropriately. The CUN-BAE has recently been used as an estimate of body fatness for Caucasians, including BMI, gender, and age. The aim of this study is to assess the population attributable fraction of hospital admissions due to influenza, due to the body fatness measured with the BMI, and the CUN-BAE. A multicentre study was conducted using matched case-controls. Cases were hospital admissions with the influenza confirmed by the RT-PCR method between 2009 and 2011. The risk of hospital admission and the population attribuible fraction were calculated using the BMI or the CUN-BAE for each adiposity category in a conditional logical regression analysis adjusted for confounding variables. The analyzes were estimated in the total sample, in unvaccinated people, and those less than 65 years-old. A total of 472 hospitalised cases and 493 controls were included in the study. Compared to normal weight, the aOR of influenza hospital admissions increases with each level of BMI (aOR=1.26; 2.06 and 11.64) and CUN-BAE (aOR=2.78; 4.29; 5.43 and 15.18). The population attributable fraction of influenza admissions using CUN-BAE is 3 times higher than that estimated with BMI (0,72 vs. 0,27), with the differences found being similar the non-vaccinated and under 65 year-olds. The BMI could be underestimating the burden of disease attributable to obesity in individuals hospitalised with influenza. There needs to be an appropriate assessment of the impact of obesity and vaccine recommendation criteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurodevelopmental problems and extremes in BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kerekes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs and body mass index (BMI. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children.Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1 to define the prevalence of extreme (low or high BMI in the group of children with ADHD and/or ASDs compared to the group of children without these NDPs; (2 to analyze whether extreme BMI is associated with the subdomains within the diagnostic categories of ADHD or ASD; and (3 to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to BMI in boys and girls at ages 9 and 12.Method. Parents of 9- or 12-year-old twins (n = 12,496 were interviewed using the Autism—Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC inventory as part of the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS. Univariate and multivariate generalized estimated equation models were used to analyze associations between extremes in BMI and NDPs.Results. ADHD screen-positive cases followed BMI distributions similar to those of children without ADHD or ASD. Significant association was found between ADHD and BMI only among 12-year-old girls, where the inattention subdomain of ADHD was significantly associated with the high extreme BMI. ASD scores were associated with both the low and the high extremes of BMI. Compared to children without ADHD or ASD, the prevalence of ASD screen-positive cases was three times greater in the high extreme BMI group and double as much in the low extreme BMI group. Stereotyped and repetitive behaviors were significantly associated with high extreme BMIs.Conclusion. Children with ASD, with or without coexisting ADHD, are more prone to have low or high extreme BMIs than

  9. Expression and clinicopathological significance of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 mRNA in gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, You-Wei; Li, Jin; Guo, Wei-Jian

    2010-11-08

    The Polycomb group (PcG) genes are a class of regulators responsible for maintaining homeotic gene expression throughout cell division. PcG expression is deregulated in some types of human cancer. Both Bmi-1 and Mel-18 are of the key PcG proteins. We investigate the expression and clinicopathological roles of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 mRNA in gastric cancer. The expression of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 in a series of 71 gastric cancer tissues and paired normal mucosal tissues distant from the tumorous lesion was assayed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. The correlation between Mel-18 and Bmi-1 mRNA expression, and between Mel-18 or Bmi-1 mRNA level and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. Expression of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 genes was variably detected, but overexpression of Bmi-1 mRNA and decreased expression of Mel-18 mRNA were the most frequent alteration. In addition, the expression of Bmi-1 and Mel-18 mRNA inversely correlates in gastric tumors. Moreover, a significant positive correlation between Bmi-1 overexpression and tumor size, depth of invasion, or lymph node metastasis, and a significant negative correlation between Mel-18 low-expression with lymph node metastasis or the clinical stage were observed. Our data suggest that Mel-18 and Bmi-1 may play crucial but opposite roles in gastric cancer. Decreased Mel-18 and increased Bmi-1 mRNA expression was associated with the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. It is possible to list Bmi-1 and Mel-18 as biomarkers for predicting the prognosis of gastric cancer.

  10. CELL RESPIRATION STUDIES : II. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF BLOOD FROM NORMAL INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH INCREASED LEUCOCYTE COUNTS (SEPSIS; CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUCEMIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daland, G A; Isaacs, R

    1927-06-30

    1. The oxygen consumption of blood of normal individuals, when the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, is practically zero within the limits of experimental error of the microspirometer used. 2. The oxygen consumed in a microspirometer by the blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia with a high white blood cell count, and of one with leucocytosis from sepsis, was proportional to the number of adult polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the blood. 3. No correlation could be made between the rate of oxygen absorption and the total number of white blood cells in the blood, or the total number of immature cells, or the number of red blood cells, or the amount of oxyhemoglobin. 4. The blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia continued to use oxygen in the microspirometer longer than that of normal individuals, and the hemoglobin, in the leucemic bloods, became desaturated even though exposed to air. 5. In blood in which the bulk. of the cells were immature and the mature cells few, the oxygen consumption was lower than in blood in which the mature cells predominated. The rate of oxygen consumption of the immature cells was relatively low as compared to the mature. 6. The slower rate of oxygen absorption by the immature leucocytes in chronic myelogenous leucemia as compared to the mature cells, places them, in accord with Warburg's reports, in the class of the malignant tissues in this respect rather than in the group of young or embryonic cells.

  11. Longitudinal association between marital disruption and child BMI and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2012-08-01

    This research examines whether family disruptions (i.e., divorces and separation) contribute to children's weight problems. The sample consists of 7,299 observations for 2,333 children, aged 5-14, over the 1986-2006 period, from a US representative sample from the Child and Young Adult Survey accompanying the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The study uses individual-fixed-effects models in a longitudinal framework to compare children's BMI and weight problems before and after a disruption. Furthermore, besides doing a before-after comparison for children, the study also estimates the effects at various periods relative to the disruption in order to examine whether children are affected before the disruption and whether any effects change as time passes from the disruption, as some effects may be temporary or slow to develop. Despite having a larger sample than the previous studies, the results provide no evidence that, on average, children's BMI and BMI percentile scores (measured with continuous outcomes) are affected before the disruption, after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption, relative to a baseline period a few years before the disruption. However, children experiencing a family disruption do have an increased risk of obesity (having a BMI percentile score of 95 or higher) in the two years leading up to the disruption as well as after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption.

  12. The Non-Linear Relationship between BMI and Health Care Costs and the Resulting Cost Fraction Attributable to Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxy, Michael; Stark, Renée; Peters, Annette; Hauner, Hans; Holle, Rolf; Teuner, Christina M

    2017-08-30

    This study aims to analyse the non-linear relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and direct health care costs, and to quantify the resulting cost fraction attributable to obesity in Germany. Five cross-sectional surveys of cohort studies in southern Germany were pooled, resulting in data of 6757 individuals (31-96 years old). Self-reported information on health care utilisation was used to estimate direct health care costs for the year 2011. The relationship between measured BMI and annual costs was analysed using generalised additive models, and the cost fraction attributable to obesity was calculated. We found a non-linear association of BMI and health care costs with a continuously increasing slope for increasing BMI without any clear threshold. Under the consideration of the non-linear BMI-cost relationship, a shift in the BMI distribution so that the BMI of each individual is lowered by one point is associated with a 2.1% reduction of mean direct costs in the population. If obesity was eliminated, and the BMI of all obese individuals were lowered to 29.9 kg/m², this would reduce the mean direct costs by 4.0% in the population. Results show a non-linear relationship between BMI and health care costs, with very high costs for a few individuals with high BMI. This indicates that population-based interventions in combination with selective measures for very obese individuals might be the preferred strategy.

  13. Acute high-intensity interval exercise induces comparable levels of circulating cell-free DNA and Interleukin-6 in obese and normal-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandi, Peter J; Fico, Brandon G; Whitehurst, Michael; Zourdos, Michael C; Bao, Fanchen; Dodge, Katelyn M; Rodriguez, Alexandra L; Pena, Gabriel; Huang, Chun-Jung

    2018-06-01

    Obesity is associated with lipid aggregation in adipocytes and macrophage infiltration, leading to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Increased cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations have been observed in clinical conditions of systemic inflammation. While the beneficial effects of regular physical activity on the release of circulating cfDNA still remain unknown, acute intense exercise has been shown to increase inflammatory cytokines and cfDNA concentrations in normal-weight individuals. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute high-intensity interval Exercise (HIIE) on plasma cfDNA and interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses in obese and normal-weight subjects. Fourteen male subjects (7 obese and 7 normal-weight) participated in an acute HIIE protocol (30 min, 4x4min @ 80% - 90% of VO 2max ) on a treadmill. Between HIIE intervals, subjects performed 3 min of active recovery at 50-60% VO 2max . Blood samples were collected prior to, immediately following exercise, and one hour into recovery for measurements of plasma cfDNA and IL-6. Our results demonstrated a significant elevation in plasma cfDNA immediately following acute HIIE in both obese and normal-weight subjects. A comparable elevation in the concentration of plasma IL-6 was also found between two groups in response to acute HIIE. Furthermore, the level of plasma cfDNA was not correlated with IL-6 either at baseline or in response to acute HIIE. These findings may support the utilization of HIIE as a time-efficient exercise protocol to understand the obesity-associated cfDNA and inflammatory responses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. BMI Trajectories from Birth to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Shannon M; Osganian, Stavroula K; Feldman, Henry A; Milliren, Carly E; Field, Alison E; Richmond, Tracy K

    2018-04-19

    This study aimed to compare BMI trajectories from childhood to early adulthood in those with overweight and/or obesity versus severe obesity. Longitudinal BMI values (2,542 measurements) were calculated from measured heights and weights for 103 children, adolescents, or young adults with overweight, obesity, or severe obesity. Segmented regression with splines was used to model BMI trajectories. Sixty-nine participants were classified as ever having severe obesity versus 34 who never had severe obesity. Trajectories and slopes did not differ by sex or race/ethnicity. Compared with those who never had severe obesity, BMI was higher in the group with severe obesity at all ages, and BMI slope was higher for those with severe obesity at age 14 (P = 0.002), with peak slope occurring later (18 years vs. 16 years) and higher (4.5 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 /y vs. 2.9 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 /y; P BMI fell below zero by the mid-20s (-0.3 ± 0.6 kg/m 2 /y); in those with severe obesity, BMI slope never reached zero (0.9 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 /y). Youth with severe obesity, compared with their peers without, started with higher BMIs, had more rapid rates of BMI increase beginning at age 14, as well as a higher peak and longer period of increase, and never achieved weight stabilization. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  15. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, M; Mortensen, S P; Hellsten, Y

    2013-03-01

    Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study 2, young (23 ± 1 years, n = 8), older lifelong sedentary (66 ± 2 years, n = 8) and older lifelong endurance-trained (62 ± 2 years, n = 8) subjects were studied in a cross-sectional design. Skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels were increased with age and plasma endothelin-1 levels were higher in hypertensive than normotensive individuals. Eight weeks of exercise training normalized plasma endothelin-1 levels in the hypertensive subjects and increased the protein expression of the ET(A) receptor in skeletal muscle of normotensive subjects. Similarly, individuals that had performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  16. Normalization of similarity-based individual brain networks from gray matter MRI and its association with neurodevelopment in infants with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalle, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Figueras, Francesc; Bargallo, Nuria; Eixarch, Elisenda; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-12-01

    Obtaining individual biomarkers for the prediction of altered neurological outcome is a challenge of modern medicine and neuroscience. Connectomics based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) stands as a good candidate to exhaustively extract information from MRI by integrating the information obtained in a few network features that can be used as individual biomarkers of neurological outcome. However, this approach typically requires the use of diffusion and/or functional MRI to extract individual brain networks, which require high acquisition times and present an extreme sensitivity to motion artifacts, critical problems when scanning fetuses and infants. Extraction of individual networks based on morphological similarity from gray matter is a new approach that benefits from the power of graph theory analysis to describe gray matter morphology as a large-scale morphological network from a typical clinical anatomic acquisition such as T1-weighted MRI. In the present paper we propose a methodology to normalize these large-scale morphological networks to a brain network with standardized size based on a parcellation scheme. The proposed methodology was applied to reconstruct individual brain networks of 63 one-year-old infants, 41 infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and 22 controls, showing altered network features in the IUGR group, and their association with neurodevelopmental outcome at two years of age by means of ordinal regression analysis of the network features obtained with Bayley Scale for Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. Although it must be more widely assessed, this methodology stands as a good candidate for the development of biomarkers for altered neurodevelopment in the pediatric population. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Reproductive Health of Daughters in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariansdatter, Saga Elise; Ernst, Andreas; Toft, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and daughters' age of menarche and subsequent markers of reproductive health. Methods Nine hundred eighty-five pregnant women (80 %) were enrolled at their routine 30th week examinations in 1988...... dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS), estradiol, and free estrogen index (FEI), compared to the middle BMI tertile. This was supported by a sub-analysis using the WHO classification (underweight, BMI obese, BMI ≥ 25.00 kg/m2) as exposure groups, in which daughters...... of overweight mothers had lower levels of DHEAS and estradiol, and lower FEI compared to daughters of normal weight mothers. No associations were found for ovarian follicle count in any of the groups. Conclusions for Practice We found that higher maternal BMI is associated with earlier age of menarche...

  18. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stig; Fleischer Rex, Karsten; Noahsen, Paneeraq; Sørensen, Hans Christian Florian; Mulvad, Gert; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI), a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m(2) in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  19. Physical Activity, BMI, and Blood Pressure in US Youth: NHANES 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Heather Hayes; Eisenmann, Joey C; Laurson, Kelly R; DuBose, Katrina D; Reeves, Mathew J; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2018-03-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined association of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) with blood pressure in youth. Youth aged 8-18 years from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with BMI, blood pressure, and physical activity (accelerometer) were included in the analyses. A total of 2585 subjects (1303 males; 47% of all 8- to 18-year-olds) met these criteria. Obese youth had a systolic blood pressure that was 8 mm Hg higher than normal weight youth. A significant interaction between BMI and physical activity on blood pressure was found (P < .001), and group differences among the BMI/activity groups showed that the 3 obese groups and the overweight/least active group had significantly higher systolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group across all analyses. The overweight/least active and normal weight/least active groups had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group as well. This study showed a significant independent and combined association of BMI and physical activity with blood pressure in youth. Interventions need to focus on the reduction of fatness/BMI as a way to reduce the cardiovascular risk in youth.

  20. Identification of Patient Benefit From Proton Therapy for Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients Based on Individual and Subgroup Normal Tissue Complication Probability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobi, Annika, E-mail: Annika.Jakobi@OncoRay.de [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Bandurska-Luque, Anna [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Stützer, Kristin; Haase, Robert; Löck, Steffen [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Wack, Linda-Jacqueline [Section for Biomedical Physics, University Hospital for Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls Universät Tübingen (Germany); Mönnich, David [Section for Biomedical Physics, University Hospital for Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls Universät Tübingen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium, Tübingen (Germany); Thorwarth, Daniela [Section for Biomedical Physics, University Hospital for Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls Universät Tübingen (Germany); and others

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine, by treatment plan comparison along with normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modeling, whether a subpopulation of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) could be identified that would gain substantial benefit from proton therapy in terms of NTCP. Methods and Materials: For 45 HNSCC patients, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was compared to intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Physical dose distributions were evaluated as well as the resulting NTCP values, using modern models for acute mucositis, xerostomia, aspiration, dysphagia, laryngeal edema, and trismus. Patient subgroups were defined based on primary tumor location. Results: Generally, IMPT reduced the NTCP values while keeping similar target coverage for all patients. Subgroup analyses revealed a higher individual reduction of swallowing-related side effects by IMPT for patients with tumors in the upper head and neck area, whereas the risk reduction of acute mucositis was more pronounced in patients with tumors in the larynx region. More patients with tumors in the upper head and neck area had a reduction in NTCP of more than 10%. Conclusions: Subgrouping can help to identify patients who may benefit more than others from the use of IMPT and, thus, can be a useful tool for a preselection of patients in the clinic where there are limited PT resources. Because the individual benefit differs within a subgroup, the relative merits should additionally be evaluated by individual treatment plan comparisons.

  1. Identification of Patient Benefit From Proton Therapy for Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients Based on Individual and Subgroup Normal Tissue Complication Probability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobi, Annika; Bandurska-Luque, Anna; Stützer, Kristin; Haase, Robert; Löck, Steffen; Wack, Linda-Jacqueline; Mönnich, David; Thorwarth, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine, by treatment plan comparison along with normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modeling, whether a subpopulation of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) could be identified that would gain substantial benefit from proton therapy in terms of NTCP. Methods and Materials: For 45 HNSCC patients, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was compared to intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Physical dose distributions were evaluated as well as the resulting NTCP values, using modern models for acute mucositis, xerostomia, aspiration, dysphagia, laryngeal edema, and trismus. Patient subgroups were defined based on primary tumor location. Results: Generally, IMPT reduced the NTCP values while keeping similar target coverage for all patients. Subgroup analyses revealed a higher individual reduction of swallowing-related side effects by IMPT for patients with tumors in the upper head and neck area, whereas the risk reduction of acute mucositis was more pronounced in patients with tumors in the larynx region. More patients with tumors in the upper head and neck area had a reduction in NTCP of more than 10%. Conclusions: Subgrouping can help to identify patients who may benefit more than others from the use of IMPT and, thus, can be a useful tool for a preselection of patients in the clinic where there are limited PT resources. Because the individual benefit differs within a subgroup, the relative merits should additionally be evaluated by individual treatment plan comparisons

  2. Effects of social mobility from childhood to adolescence on BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the contribution of childhood socio-economic position (SEP) and social mobility to weight change. The present study evaluated the effect of family SEP during the pre-school years and social mobility on BMI between birth and adolescence. Longitudinal. The SEP of each child's family was classified according to an asset-based wealth index as low, medium or high. Four different categories of childhood-adolescence SEP groups were created in order to examine social mobility: low-medium/high, medium-medium, medium-high and high-high/medium. For each of these categories, BMI was tracked from birth to adolescence. Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyse the data. Cuiabá-MT, Brazil. A population-based cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 was assessed between 1999 and 2000, and again between 2009 and 2011. A total of 1716 adolescents were followed from childhood to adolescence (71·4 % of baseline). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 20·4 % in childhood and 27·7 % in adolescence. A higher SEP in childhood was associated with a greater prevalence of overweight in adolescence. Expressive upward social mobility occurred, mainly in the lowest SEP group. There was a greater rate of change in BMI between birth and adolescence among children with a higher SEP in childhood and children who remained in the higher SEP from childhood to adolescence. Individuals from a higher SEP in childhood and those who remained in the higher social classes showed greater rate of change in BMI. Thus, initial SEP was the major determinant of changes in BMI.

  3. Do rapid BMI growth in childhood and early-onset obesity offer cardiometabolic protection to obese adults in mid-life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Laura D; Zimmermann, Esther; Weiss, Ram

    2014-01-01

    BMI growth (7-13 years) using a multilevel model. Early-onset obesity was defined as obesity at examination for national service. OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: We defined metabolic health at the mid-life clinic as non-fasting serum cholesterol fasting glucose ...OBJECTIVE: Some obese individuals have no cardiometabolic abnormalities; they are 'metabolically healthy, but obese' (MHO). Similarly, some non-obese individuals have cardiometabolic abnormalities, that is, 'metabolically at risk, normal weight' (MANW). Previous studies have suggested that early......-onset obesity may be associated with MHO. We aimed to assess whether body mass index (BMI) in childhood and early-onset obesity are associated with MHO. SETTING: General population longitudinal cohort study, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: From 362 200 young men (mean age 20) examined for Danish national service between...

  4. The Spatial Musical Association of Response Codes does not depend on a normal visual experience: A study with early blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Lega, Carlotta; Rinaldi, Luca; Fantino, Micaela; Ferrari, Chiara; Merabet, Lotfi B; Vecchi, Tomaso

    2018-02-26

    Converging evidence suggests that the perception of auditory pitch exhibits a characteristic spatial organization. This pitch-space association can be demonstrated experimentally by the Spatial Musical Association of Response Codes (SMARC) effect. This is characterized by faster response times when a low-positioned key is pressed in response to a low-pitched tone, and a high-positioned key is pressed in response to a high-pitched tone. To investigate whether the development of this pitch-space association is mediated by normal visual experience, we tested a group of early blind individuals on a task that required them to discriminate the timbre of different instrument sounds with varying pitch. Results revealed a comparable pattern in the SMARC effect in both blind participants and sighted controls, suggesting that the lack of prior visual experience does not prevent the development of an association between pitch height and vertical space.

  5. Contribution of polycomb homologues Bmi-1 and Mel-18 to medulloblastoma pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederschain, Dmitri; Chen, Lin; Johnson, Brett; Bettano, Kimberly; Jackson, Dowdy; Taraszka, John; Wang, Y Karen; Jones, Michael D; Morrissey, Michael; Deeds, James; Mosher, Rebecca; Fordjour, Paul; Lengauer, Christoph; Benson, John D

    2007-07-01

    Bmi-1 and Mel-18 are structural homologues that belong to the Polycomb group of transcriptional regulators and are believed to stably maintain repression of gene expression by altering the state of chromatin at specific promoters. While a number of clinical and experimental observations have implicated Bmi-1 in human tumorigenesis, the role of Mel-18 in cancer cell growth has not been investigated. We report here that short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of either Bmi-1 or Mel-18 in human medulloblastoma DAOY cells results in the inhibition of proliferation, loss of clonogenic survival, anchorage-independent growth, and suppression of tumor formation in nude mice. Furthermore, overexpression of both Bmi-1 and Mel-18 significantly increases the clonogenic survival of Rat1 fibroblasts. In contrast, stable downregulation of Bmi-1 or Mel-18 alone does not affect the growth of normal human WI38 fibroblasts. Proteomics-based characterization of Bmi-1 and Mel-18 protein complexes isolated from cancer cells revealed substantial similarities in their respective compositions. Finally, gene expression analysis identified a number of cancer-relevant pathways that may be controlled by Bmi-1 and Mel-18 and also showed that these Polycomb proteins regulate a set of common gene targets. Taken together, these results suggest that Bmi-1 and Mel-18 may have overlapping functions in cancer cell growth.

  6. Weight change by baseline BMI from three-year observational data: findings from the Worldwide Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushe, Chris J; Slooff, Cees J; Haddad, Peter M; Karagianis, Jamie L

    2013-04-01

    The aim was to explore weight and body mass index (BMI) changes by baseline BMI in patients completing three years of monotherapy with various first- and second-generation antipsychotics in a large cohort in a post hoc analysis of three-year observational data. Data were analyzed by antipsychotic and three baseline BMI bands: underweight/normal weight (BMI 30 kg/m²). Baseline BMI was associated with subsequent weight change irrespective of the antipsychotic given. Specifically, a smaller proportion of patients gained ≥7% baseline bodyweight, and a greater proportion of patients lost ≥7% baseline bodyweight with increasing baseline BMI. For olanzapine (the antipsychotic associated with highest mean weight gain in the total drug cohort), the percentage of patients gaining ≥7% baseline weight was 45% (95% CI: 43-48) in the underweight/normal weight BMI cohort and 20% (95% CI: 15-27) in the obese BMI cohort; 7% (95% CI: 6-8) of the underweight/normal cohort and 19% (95% CI: 13-27) of the obese cohort lost ≥7% baseline weight. BMI has an association with the likelihood of weight gain or loss and should be considered in analyses of antipsychotic weight change.

  7. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  8. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Tint, Mya-Thway; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D; Tan, Kok Hian; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2017-03-01

    Background: Infant body mass index (BMI) peak characteristics and early childhood BMI are emerging markers of future obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk, but little is known about their maternal nutritional determinants. Objective: We investigated the associations of maternal macronutrient intake with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study. Design: With the use of infant BMI data from birth to age 18 mo, infant BMI peak characteristics [age (in months) and magnitude (BMI peak ; in kg/m 2 ) at peak and prepeak velocities] were derived from subject-specific BMI curves that were fitted with the use of mixed-effects model with a natural cubic spline function. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake (assessed by using a 24-h recall during late gestation) with infant BMI peak characteristics ( n = 910) and BMI z scores at ages 2, 3, and 4 y were examined with the use of multivariable linear regression. Results: Mean absolute maternal macronutrient intakes (percentages of energy) were 72 g protein (15.6%), 69 g fat (32.6%), and 238 g carbohydrate (51.8%). A 25-g (∼100-kcal) increase in maternal carbohydrate intake was associated with a 0.01/mo (95% CI: 0.0003, 0.01/mo) higher prepeak velocity and a 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08) higher BMI peak These associations were mainly driven by sugar intake, whereby a 25-g increment of maternal sugar intake was associated with a 0.02/mo (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03/mo) higher infant prepeak velocity and a 0.07 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) higher BMI peak Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with a higher offspring BMI z score at ages 2-4 y. Maternal protein and fat intakes were not consistently associated with the studied outcomes. Conclusion: Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes are associated with unfavorable infancy BMI peak characteristics and higher early childhood BMI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  9. End-Stage Renal Disease After Renal Surgery in Patients with Normal Preoperative Kidney Function: Balancing Surgical Strategy and Individual Disorders at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Umberto; Larcher, Alessandro; Terrone, Carlo; Antonelli, Alessandro; Volpe, Alessandro; Fiori, Cristian; Furlan, Maria; Dehò, Federico; Minervini, Andrea; Serni, Sergio; Porpiglia, Francesco; Trevisani, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea; Carini, Marco; Simeone, Claudio; Montorsi, Francesco; Bertini, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Although nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) has demonstrated benefit in terms of renal function preservation, it is unclear whether NSS might also decrease the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) relative to radical nephrectomy (RN). In the current paper, we aimed to report the rate and the predictors of ESRD after surgery, accounting for detailed individual baseline characteristics and comorbidities. A multi-institutional collaboration among five European tertiary care centers allowed study of 2027 patients with normal preoperative renal function and a clinically localized T1abN0M0 renal mass. Cox regression analyses were used to predict the risk of ESRD (defined as the onset of a postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate kidney disease. Univariable ESRD rates at 5 and 10 yr of follow-up were virtually equivalent for patients who underwent NSS (1.5% and 2.5%, respectively) versus RN (1.9% and 2.7%, respectively; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-1.6). However, diabetes, smoking, uncontrolled hypertension, and other comorbidities were consistently more frequent in the NSS group relative to their RN counterparts. After adjusting for detailed baseline individual characteristics, NSS was shown to have an independent protective effect relative to RN (HR: 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8; p=0.02) at multivariable analyses. After accounting for individual baseline characteristics, such as age, diabetes, uncontrolled hypertension, or other comorbidities, partial nephrectomy independently protects against end-stage renal disease and the consequent need for dialysis relative to radical nephrectomy. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Role of BMI1 in CRPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    we discovered that BMI1 directly binds to Androgen Receptor and prevents it from MDM2-mediated protein degradation. We further demonstrated that...lysates. As shown in Fig. 1B, IP with anti-BMI1 pulled down full-length and AR-NTD, but not AR-DBD or AR-LBD. On the other hand , pulldown with Halo...harvested at the indicated time points and immunoblot analysis with anti-AR and anti-β-actin antibodies on the same membrane ( left panel). Density of

  11. Anatomy of Atrioventricular Node Artery and Pattern of Dominancy in Normal Coronary Subject: A Comparison between Individuals with and without Isolated Right Bundle Branch Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemisaeid, Ali; Pakbaz, Marziyeh; Yaminisharif, Ahmad; Davoodi, Gholamreza; Lotfi Tokaldany, Masoumeh; Hakki Kazazi, Elham

    2012-11-01

    Isolated right bundle branch block (RBBB) is a common finding in the general population. The atrioventricular node (AVN) artery contributes to the blood supply of the right bundle branch. Our hypothesis was that the anatomy of the AVN artery and the pattern of dominancy differ between subjects with and without RBBB. We retrospectively studied the coronary angiography of 92 patients with RBBB and 184 age- and gender-matched controls without RBBB. All the subjects had angiographically proven normal coronary arteries. The dominant circulation and precise origin of the AVN artery were determined in each subject. Obtained data were compared between the two study groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of dominancy (p value = 0.200). Origination of the AVN artery from the right circulatory system was more common in both groups, but this pattern was more prevalent in the cases than in the controls (p value = 0.021). There was a great variation of the AVN artery origin. In the total study population, the AVN artery was more commonly separated from a non crux origin than from the crux area. The prevalence of the non-crux origination of the AVN artery was significantly higher in the cases than in the controls (p value AVN artery from the right circulatory system was more common in both groups, the prevalence of the right origin of the AVN artery was significantly higher in the cases than in the controls. We observed that the AVN artery most commonly originated from the dominant artery but not necessarily from the crux. The anatomy of the AVN artery but not the pattern of dominancy is somewhat different in subjects with RBBB compared with normal individuals.

  12. Incremental health expenditure and lost days of normal activity for individuals with mental disorders: results from the São Paulo Megacity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Campino, Antonio Carlos Coelho; Malik, Ana Maria; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-08-05

    With the recent increase in the prevalence of mental disorders in developing countries, there is a growing interest in the study of its consequences. We examined the association of depression, anxiety and any mental disorders with incremental health expenditure, i.e. the linear increase in health expenditure associated with mental disorders, and lost days of normal activity. We analyzed the results from a representative sample survey of residents of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (n = 2,920; São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey), part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization and performed in 28 countries. The instrument used for obtaining the individual results, including the assessment of mental disorders, was the WMH version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 (WMH-CIDI 3.0) that generates psychiatric diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. Statistical analyses were performed by multilevel generalized least squares (GLS) regression models. Sociodemographic determinants such as income, age, education and marital status were included as controls. Depression, anxiety and any mental disorders were consistently associated with both incremental health expenditure and missing days of normal activity. Depression was associated with an incremental annual expenditure of R$308.28 (95% CI: R$194.05-R$422.50), or US$252.48 in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). Anxiety and any mental disorders were associated with a lower, but also statistically significant, incremental annual expenditure (R$177.82, 95% CI: 79.68-275.97; and R$180.52, 95% CI: 91.13-269.92, or US$145.64 and US$147.85 in terms of PPP, respectively). Most of the incremental health costs associated with mental disorders came from medications. Depression was independently associated with higher incremental health expenditure than the two most prevalent chronic

  13. Inclusion of Almonds in a Cholesterol-Lowering Diet Improves Plasma HDL Subspecies and Cholesterol Efflux to Serum in Normal-Weight Individuals with Elevated LDL Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Fleming, Jennifer A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-08-01

    Background : Almonds may increase circulating HDL cholesterol when substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack in an isocaloric diet, yet little is known about the effects on HDL biology and function. Objective: The objective was to determine whether incorporating 43 g almonds/d in a cholesterol-lowering diet would improve HDL subspecies and function, which were secondary study outcomes. Methods: In a randomized, 2-period, crossover, controlled-feeding study, a diet with 43 g almonds/d (percentage of total energy: 51% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 32% total and 8% saturated fat) was compared with a similar diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (58% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 26% total and 8% saturated fat) in men and women with elevated LDL cholesterol. Plasma HDL subspecies and cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages to human serum were measured at baseline and after each diet period. Diet effects were examined in all participants ( n = 48) and in normal-weight (body mass index: almond diet, compared with the control diet, increased α-1 HDL [mean ± SEM: 26.7 ± 1.5 compared with 24.3 ± 1.3 mg apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/dL; P = 0.001]. In normal-weight participants, the almond diet, relative to the control diet, increased α-1 HDL (33.7 ± 3.2 compared with 28.4 ± 2.6 mg apoA-I/dL), the α-1 to pre-β-1 ratio [geometric mean (95% CI): 4.3 (3.3, 5.7) compared with 3.1 (2.4, 4.0)], and non-ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 cholesterol efflux (8.3% ± 0.4% compared with 7.8% ± 0.3%) and decreased pre-β-2 (3.8 ± 0.4 compared with 4.6 ± 0.4 mg apoA-I/dL) and α-3 (23.5 ± 0.9 compared with 26.9 ± 1.1 mg apoA-I/dL) HDL ( P almonds for a carbohydrate-rich snack within a lower-saturated-fat diet may be a simple strategy to maintain a favorable circulating HDL subpopulation distribution and improve cholesterol efflux in normal-weight individuals with elevated LDL cholesterol. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01101230. © 2017

  14. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria; Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2018-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment. 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4). Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)) were available in 469 individuals (264 girls). Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations. At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4) and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6). Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (pobesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition and lipid concentrations may improve.

  15. Does BMI influence hospital stay and morbidity after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Gromov, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Body mass index (BMI) outside the normal range possibly affects the perioperative morbidity and mortality following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in traditional care programs. We determined perioperative morbidity and mortality in such pat......Background and purpose - Body mass index (BMI) outside the normal range possibly affects the perioperative morbidity and mortality following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in traditional care programs. We determined perioperative morbidity and mortality...... in such patients who were operated with the fast-track methodology and compared the levels with those in patients with normal BMI. Patients and methods - This was a prospective observational study involving 13,730 procedures (7,194 THA and 6,536 TKA operations) performed in a standardized fast-track setting....... Complete 90-day follow-up was achieved using national registries and review of medical records. Patients were grouped according to BMI as being underweight, of normal weight, overweight, obese, very obese, and morbidly obese. Results - Median length of stay (LOS) was 2 (IQR: 2-3) days in all BMI groups. 30...

  16. Fitness differences according to BMI categories: a new point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Nicola; Zago, Matteo

    2018-03-06

    Many studies have reported negative association between fitness level and BMI categories but the lack of body weight correction and and the systematic use of physical endurance test made these differences controversial. Thus, the aim of this study was the assessment of physical fitness level associated to BMI using alternative tests. BMI was calculated as body mass/stature2 while fitness level was assessed using field test. In particular, Sit and Reach (SAR), Standing Broad Jump (SBJ), Shuttle Run Test 5mx 10 (SHR), Sit ups (SUP), Bent arm hang (BAH) were assessed in 2545 students. Subsequently, normal weight/overweight/obesity/underweight/thinness students were classified according to the cut-off points defined in literature and then the relative fitness results. The performances in SBJ showed very low differences between BMI categories such as for SUP test. The effects size in SHR were low or close to moderate while in BAH thin students revealed high performance than normal/overweight peers. In SAR test no clear trends in the BMI categories were observed. All test (exluding BAH) were similar for normal, overweight and thin students. This finding can be useful to teachers to encourage over/under-weighted students to adopt active life style because they are close to normal weight counterparts.

  17. BMI not WHR modulates BOLD fMRI responses in a sub-cortical reward network when participants judge the attractiveness of human female bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian E Holliday

    Full Text Available In perceptual terms, the human body is a complex 3d shape which has to be interpreted by the observer to judge its attractiveness. Both body mass and shape have been suggested as strong predictors of female attractiveness. Normally body mass and shape co-vary, and it is difficult to differentiate their separate effects. A recent study suggested that altering body mass does not modulate activity in the reward mechanisms of the brain, but shape does. However, using computer generated female body-shaped greyscale images, based on a Principal Component Analysis of female bodies, we were able to construct images which covary with real female body mass (indexed with BMI and not with body shape (indexed with WHR, and vice versa. Twelve observers (6 male and 6 female rated these images for attractiveness during an fMRI study. The attractiveness ratings were correlated with changes in BMI and not WHR. Our primary fMRI results demonstrated that in addition to activation in higher visual areas (such as the extrastriate body area, changing BMI also modulated activity in the caudate nucleus, and other parts of the brain reward system. This shows that BMI, not WHR, modulates reward mechanisms in the brain and we infer that this may have important implications for judgements of ideal body size in eating disordered individuals.

  18. The SCA1 (Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and MJD (Machado-Joseph disease CAG repeats in normal individuals: segregation analysis and allele frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Emília Vieira Wiezel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1 and Machado-Joseph disease (MJD/SCA3 are autosomal dominant neurodegenerative diseases caused by expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the SCA1 and MJD genes. These expanded sequences are unstable upon transmission, leading to an intergeneration increase in the number of repeats (dynamic mutation. The transmission of the CAG repeat was studied in normal mother-father-child trios, referred for paternity testing (SCA1, n = 367; MJD, n = 879. No segregation distortion was detected. The CAG allele frequencies were determined in 330 unrelated individuals (fathers from couples tested for paternity. The allele frequency distributions did not differ from those previously reported for European populations. The estimated values for the statistic parameters indicating diversity at the SCA1 locus did not differ much from those reported previously for other STRs in the Brazilian population, while those for the MJD locus were close to or higher than the maximum values of previous reports. This shows that SCA1 and MJD are highly informative loci for applications in genetic and population studies and for forensic analysis.

  19. Investigation of the effect of body mass index (BMI) on semen parameters and male reproductive system hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Budak, Salih; Aksoy, Evrim Emre; Yücel, Cem; Karamazak, Serkan; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem; Kozacıoğlu, Zafer

    2017-10-03

    To evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI) ratio on semen parameters and serum reproductive hormones. The data of 454 patients who prsented to male infertility clinics in our hospital between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Weight, height, serum hormone levels and semen analysis results of the patients were obtained. BMI values were calculated by using the weight and height values of the patients and they were classified as group 1 for BMI values ≤ 25 kg/m2, as group 2 for BMI values 25-30 kg/m2 and as group 3 for BMI values ≥ 30 kg/m2. The mean values of BMI, semen volume, concentration, total motility, progressive motility, total progressive motile sperm count (TPMSC), normal morphology according to Kruger, head abnormality, neck abnormality, tail abnormality, FSH, LH, prolactin, T/E2, total testosterone and estradiol parameters of the patients were considered. Patients were divided according to BMI values in Group 1 (n = 165), Group 2 (n = 222) and Group 3 (n = 56). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of all variables between the groups. We analyzed the relationship between BMI level and semen parameters and reproductive hormones, demonstrating no relationship between BMI and semen parameters. In our study, BMI does not affect semen parameters although it shows negative correlation with prolactin and testosterone levels.

  20. Investigation of the effect of body mass index (BMI on semen parameters and male reproductive system hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zeynel Keskin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI ratio on semen parameters and serum reproductive hormones. Materials and methods: The data of 454 patients who prsented to male infertility clinics in our hospital between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Weight, height, serum hormone levels and semen analysis results of the patients were obtained. BMI values were calculated by using the weight and height values of the patients and they were classified as group 1 for BMI values ≤ 25 kg/m2, as group 2 for BMI values 25-30 kg/m2 and as group 3 for BMI values ≥ 30 kg/m2. Results: The mean values of BMI, semen volume, concentration, total motility, progressive motility, total progressive motile sperm count (TPMSC, normal morphology according to Kruger, head abnormality, neck abnormality, tail abnormality, FSH, LH, prolactin, T/E2, total testosterone and estradiol parameters of the patients were considered. Patients were divided according to BMI values in Group 1 (n = 165, Group 2 (n = 222 and Group 3 (n = 56. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of all variables between the groups. Conclusions: We analyzed the relationship between BMI level and semen parameters and reproductive hormones, demonstrating no relationship between BMI and semen parameters. In our study, BMI does not affect semen parameters although it shows negative correlation with prolactin and testosterone levels.

  1. Programs of Active Aging – A Relation between BMI and Triglycerides

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Honório; Marco Batista; Júlio Martins; João Cardoso; Miguel Dias; Bruno Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To enhance the importance of physical activity programs for elderly and their influence on BMI and triglycerides. Methods: The sample consisted of 91 elderly individuals, 63 females and 28 males aged between 65 and 78 years of age. All seniors practice water activities, including swimming and gymnastics. Were analyzed with respect to two aspects: BMI, Triglycerides and practice time, seniors who were physically active at least 2 months, and seniors who maintained habits of physical...

  2. BMI OF FEMALE STUDENTS NEWLY ENROLLED AT TODOR KABLESHKOV UNIVERSITY OF TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Peeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper presents the results of a study where besides using the conventional anthropometry, the individual Body Mass Index (BMI or Ketle Index was calculated. Being established in the mid-nineteenth century, Ketle Index gained wide popularity in the 1950s and 1960s when the problem of obesity in the developed countries acquire serious levels. The aim was to prove the relationship between anthropometric parameters and Body Mass Index as well as the possible health risks of the individual. Methods: The study was carried out on 78 first-year female students at the Todor Kableshkov University of Transport (VTU. The indicators examined were: height, weight, skin fold, waist circumference and BMI. Descriptive statistics was used with data processing and different methods were applied to establish the anthropometric parameters: Body Mass Index or Kettle Index; quantitative subcutaneous fat according to the method developed by Deurenberg; comparative analysis of the link between waist circumference; BMI and the state of the individual’s body. Results: The study showed that the average BMI for the entire group of students was 23.1 and subcutaneous fat of 26.6% respectively. Nearly 10% of those being examined are overweight combining high levels of subcutaneous fat and waist circumference, which is a prerequisite for increased risk of disease. Discussion: In the academic year 2011/2012 a study of anthropometric indicators of the newly-enrolled female students was carried out at the Todor Kableshkov University of Transport (VTU. In compliance with some studies (Popov, 1969 a slight increase of size and weight is observed with increasing the age of women during the time of study at university while according to others (Karapetrov, 1978 changes in anthropometric indicators are reported to a later age. According to the research related to introduction of Euro fit tests, BMI as an indicator of general health of the body works in combination

  3. Overweight or obese BMI is associated with earlier, but not later survival after common acute illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Hallie C; Chang, Virginia W

    2018-02-06

    Obesity has been associated with improved short-term mortality following common acute illness, but its relationship with longer-term mortality is unknown. Observational study of U.S. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) participants with federal health insurance (fee-for-service Medicare) coverage, hospitalized with congestive heart failure (N = 4287), pneumonia (N = 4182), or acute myocardial infarction (N = 2001), 1996-2012. Using cox proportional hazards models, we examined the association between overweight or obese BMI (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 ) and mortality to 5 years after hospital admission, adjusted for potential confounders measured at the same time as BMI, including age, race, sex, education, partnership status, income, wealth, and smoking status. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight collected at the HRS survey prior to hospitalization (a median 1.1 year prior to hospitalization). The referent group was patients with a normal BMI (18.5 to BMI was associated with lower mortality at 1 year after hospitalization for congestive heart failure, pneumonia, and acute myocardial infarction-with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.68 (95% CI 0.59-0.79), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.64-0.84), and 0.65 (95%CI: 0.53-0.80), respectively. Among participants who lived to one year, however, subsequent survival was similar between patients with normal versus overweight/obese BMI. In older Americans, overweight or obese BMI was associated with improved survival following hospitalization for congestive heart failure, pneumonia, and acute myocardial infarction. This association, however, is limited to the shorter-term. Conditional on surviving to one year, we did not observe a survival advantage associated with excess weight.

  4. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review...... with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men...... studies were included in the meta-analysis, resulting in a sample of 13 077 men from the general population and attending fertility clinics. Data were stratified according to the total sperm count as normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Standardized weighted mean differences in sperm...

  5. Sex differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Willemsen, Gonneke; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2003-01-01

    pairs (including opposite sex pairs) aged 20-29 and 30-39 from eight different twin registries participating in the GenomEUtwin project. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted and sex differences were explored. Variation in BMI was greater for women than for men, and in both sexes was primarily...... explained by additive genetic variance in all countries. Sex differences in the variance components were consistently significant. Results from analyses of opposite sex pairs also showed evidence of sex-specific genetic effects suggesting there may be some differences between men and women in the genetic...... factors that influence variation in BMI. These results encourage the continued search for genes of importance to the body composition and the development of obesity. Furthermore, they suggest that strategies to identify predisposing genes may benefit from taking into account potential sex specific effects....

  6. Palo Verde Unit 3 BMI nozzle modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waskey, D.

    2015-01-01

    The 61 BMI (Bottom Mount Instrumentation) nozzles of the unit 3 of the Palo Verde plant have been examined through ASME Code Case N722. The nozzle 3 was the only one with leakage noted. The ultrasound testing results are characteristic of PWSCC (Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking). The initiation likely occurred at a weld defect which was exposed to the primary water environment resulting in PWSCC. All other nozzles (60) showed no unacceptable indications. Concerning nozzle 3 one crack in J-groove weld connected large defect to primary water. An environmental model has been used to simulate and optimize the repair. The AREVA crew was on site 18 days after contract award and the job was completed in 12 days, 30 hours ahead of baseline schedule. This series of slides describes the examination of the BMI nozzles, the repair steps, and alternative design concepts

  7. Universal equation for estimating ideal body weight and body weight at any BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Blackburn, George L; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2016-05-01

    Ideal body weight (IBW) equations and body mass index (BMI) ranges have both been used to delineate healthy or normal weight ranges, although these 2 different approaches are at odds with each other. In particular, past IBW equations are misaligned with BMI values, and unlike BMI, the equations have failed to recognize that there is a range of ideal or target body weights. For the first time, to our knowledge, we merged the concepts of a linear IBW equation and of defining target body weights in terms of BMI. With the use of calculus and approximations, we derived an easy-to-use linear equation that clinicians can use to calculate both IBW and body weight at any target BMI value. We measured the empirical accuracy of the equation with the use of NHANES data and performed a comparative analysis with past IBW equations. Our linear equation allowed us to calculate body weights for any BMI and height with a mean empirical accuracy of 0.5-0.7% on the basis of NHANES data. Moreover, we showed that our body weight equation directly aligns with BMI values for both men and women, which avoids the overestimation and underestimation problems at the upper and lower ends of the height spectrum that have plagued past IBW equations. Our linear equation increases the sophistication of IBW equations by replacing them with a single universal equation that calculates both IBW and body weight at any target BMI and height. Therefore, our equation is compatible with BMI and can be applied with the use of mental math or a calculator without the need for an app, which makes it a useful tool for both health practitioners and the general public. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. The effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score with SGA as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Meliha; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2018-02-21

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score trajectories, and to evaluate whether small-for-gestational-age (SGA) acts as a potential mediator between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and child's BMI z-score at 4 years of age. Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) methods were employed to describe and classify developmental BMI z-score trajectories (the outcome of interest) in children from 9 months to 4 years of age (n = 5221) in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) study (2001-2005). Further analysis examined whether the identified BMI z-score trajectories varied with the exposure, prenatal maternal cigarette smoking. Mediation analyses were utilized to examine whether being SGA (binary measure) acted as a potential mediator in the relationship between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and BMI z-score among 4-year-old children. Using GBTM, two BMI z-score trajectory groups were identified: normal BMI z-score (57.8%); and high BMI z-score (42.2%). Children of mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy were 2.1 times (RR 95% CI: 1.1-4.0, P value = 0.023) more at risk of being in the high BMI z-score trajectory group. Prenatal cigarette smoking was positively related to SGA at birth, but SGA was inversely related to BMI z-score at 4 years. The direct effect (0.19, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.19; P value BMI z-score among 4-year-old children was stronger and in the opposite direction of the indirect effect (-0.04, 95% CI: -0.04, -0.04; P value BMI z-score group, as well with SGA. The effects of prenatal smoking on BMI z-score at 4 years appears to act through pathways other than SGA.

  9. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Jingya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students’ physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China.

  10. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingya, Bai; Ye, He; Jing, Wang; Xi, Huanjiu; Tao, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students' physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China. PMID:24453807

  11. Food brand recognition and BMI in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Moorman, Jessica; Peralta, Mericarmen; Fayhee, Kally

    2017-07-01

    Children's food brand recognition predicts health-related outcomes such as preference for obesogenic foods and increased risk for overweight. However, it is uncertain to what degree food brand recognition acts as a proxy for other factors such as parental education and income, child vocabulary, child age, child race/ethnicity, parent healthy eating guidance, child commercial TV viewing, and child dietary intake, all of which may influence or be influenced by food brand recognition. U.S. preschoolers (N = 247, average age 56 months) were measured for BMI and completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test plus recognition and recall measures for a selection of U.S. food brands. Parents completed measures of healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, child commercial TV viewing, parent education, household income, parent BMI, and child age and race/ethnicity. Controlling these variables, child food brand recognition predicted higher child BMI percentile. Further, qualitative examination of children's incorrect answers to recall items demonstrated perceptual confusion between brand mascots and other fantasy characters to which children are exposed during the preschool years, extending theory on child consumer development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interactive Associations of Vascular Risk and β-Amyloid Burden With Cognitive Decline in Clinically Normal Elderly Individuals: Findings From the Harvard Aging Brain Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Jennifer S; Schultz, Aaron P; Hedden, Trey; Viswanathan, Anand; Marshall, Gad A; Kilpatrick, Emily; Klein, Hannah; Buckley, Rachel F; Yang, Hyun-Sik; Properzi, Michael; Rao, Vaishnavi; Kirn, Dylan R; Papp, Kathryn V; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Chhatwal, Jasmeer P

    2018-05-21

    Identifying asymptomatic individuals at high risk of impending cognitive decline because of Alzheimer disease is crucial for successful prevention of dementia. Vascular risk and β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology commonly co-occur in older adults and are significant causes of cognitive impairment. To determine whether vascular risk and Aβ burden act additively or synergistically to promote cognitive decline in clinically normal older adults; and, secondarily, to evaluate the unique influence of vascular risk on prospective cognitive decline beyond that of commonly used imaging biomarkers, including Aβ burden, hippocampal volume, fludeoxyglucose F18-labeled (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), and white matter hyperintensities, a marker of cerebrovascular disease. In this longitudinal observational study, we examined clinically normal older adults from the Harvard Aging Brain Study. Participants were required to have baseline imaging data (FDG-PET, Aβ-PET, and magnetic resonance imaging), baseline medical data to quantify vascular risk, and at least 1 follow-up neuropsychological visit. Data collection began in 2010 and is ongoing. Data analysis was performed on data collected between 2010 and 2017. Vascular risk was quantified using the Framingham Heart Study general cardiovascular disease (FHS-CVD) risk score. We measured Aβ burden with Pittsburgh Compound-B PET. Cognition was measured annually with the Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite. Models were corrected for baseline age, sex, years of education, and apolipoprotein E ε4 status. Of the 223 participants, 130 (58.3%) were women. The mean (SD) age was 73.7 (6.0) years, and the mean (SD) follow-up time was 3.7 (1.2) years. Faster cognitive decline was associated with both a higher FHS-CVD risk score (β = -0.064; 95% CI, -0.094 to -0.033; P < .001) and higher Aβ burden (β = -0.058; 95% CI, -0.079 to -0.037; P < .001). The interaction of the FHS-CVD risk score and Aβ burden with time

  13. Association between elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake with normal liver enzymes in HIV-HCV infected individuals: results from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, M Patrizia; Lions, Caroline; Sogni, Philippe; Winnock, Maria; Roux, Perrine; Mora, Marion; Bonnard, Philippe; Salmon, Dominique; Dabis, François; Spire, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort study of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals to investigate whether polyphenol rich food intake through coffee and/or daily chocolate consumption could play a role in reducing liver enzymes levels. Longitudinal data collection included self-administered questionnaires and medical data (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) liver enzymes). Two analyses were performed to assess the association between coffee (≥3 cups a day) and daily chocolate intake and abnormal values of AST and ALT (AST or ALT >2.5 × upper normal limit (UNL)) (N=990) over time, after adjustment for known correlates. Logistic regression models based on generalized estimating equations were used to take into account the correlations between repeated measures and estimate adjusted odds ratio. After adjustment, patients reporting elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake were less likely to present abnormal ALT (OR=0.65; p=0.04 and OR=0.57; p=0.04, for coffee and chocolate respectively), while only patients reporting elevated coffee consumption were less likely to have abnormal AST values (p=0.05). Nevertheless, the combined indicator of coffee and chocolate intake was most significantly associated with approximately 40% reduced risk of abnormal liver enzymes (p=0.003 for AST; p=0.002 for ALT). Elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake appear to be associated with reduced levels of liver enzymes in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Further experimental and observational research is needed to better understand the role that polyphenol intake or supplementation can play on liver disease and liver injury. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of body weight and BMI on the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Nathalie; Abitbol, Jean Louis; Mathé, Henri; Scherrer, Bruno; Guillard, Hélène; Gainer, Erin; Ulmann, André

    2015-02-01

    To further evaluate the effect of weight and body mass index (BMI) on the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception. Data from two large, multicenter, randomized controlled trials designed to assess emergency contraceptive efficacy were pooled to evaluate the effect of weight and BMI on pregnancy rates among women who received levonorgestrel. Descriptive methods (comparison of means and distributions according to pregnancy status and pregnancy rates across weight and BMI categories) as well as cubic spline modeling were used to describe the relationship between pregnancy risk and weight/BMI. The analysis population comprised 1731 women, among whom 38 pregnancies were reported. Women for whom levonorgestrel was not effective in preventing pregnancy had a significantly higher mean body weight and BMI than women who did not become pregnant (76.7 vs. 66.4 kg, p85 kg groups, respectively. Statistical modeling demonstrated a steep increase in pregnancy risk starting from a weight near 70-75 kg to reach a risk of pregnancy of 6% or greater around 80 kg. Similar results were obtained for statistical modeling of BMI as well as when the two studies were analyzed individually. All analyses showed a significant drop in the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception with increasing body weight, with pregnancy risk in the higher weight categories similar to expected rates in the absence of contraception. Like body weight, increasing BMI was highly correlated with increased pregnancy risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Individual levels of plasma alpha 2-antiplasmin and alpha 2-macroglobulin during the normal menstrual cycle and in women on oral contraceptives low in oestrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1983-01-01

    Determinations of alpha 2-antiplasmin and alpha 2-macroglobulin were made in plasma samples collected during one normal or hormone induced cycle in 15 normal women and 11 women using oral contraceptives containing 30 micrograms ethinyl oestradiol and 150 micrograms levo-norgestrel. The immediate ...

  16. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objective The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during......, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations. Conclusion Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition...... childhood obesity treatment. Methods 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6±21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3±5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0...

  17. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stig; Fleischer Rex, Karsten; Noahsen, Paneeraq; Sørensen, Hans Christian Florian; Mulvad, Gert; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI), a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI. PMID:23986904

  18. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  19. Physical activity patterns and estimated daily energy expenditures in normal and overweight tunisian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Fayçal; Bouhlel, Ezdine; Feki, Youssef; Amri, Mohamed; Shephard, Roy J

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to test the normality of physical activity patterns and energy expenditures in normal weight and overweight primary school students. Heart rate estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TEE), active energy expenditure (AEE), and activity patterns were made over 3 consecutive school days in healthy middle-class Tunisian children (46 boys, 44 girls, median age (25(th)-75(th)) percentile, 9.2 (8.8-9.9) years. Our cross-section included 52 students with a normal body mass index (BMI) and 38 who exceeded age-specific BMI limits. TEE, AEE and overall physical activity level (PAL) were not different between overweight children and those with a normal BMI [median values (25(th)-75(th)) 9.20 (8.20-9.84) vs. 8.88 (7.42-9.76) MJ/d; 3.56 (2.59-4.22) vs. 3.85 (2.77-4.78) MJ/d and 1.74 (1.54-2.04) vs. 1.89 (1.66-2.15) respectively]. Physical activity intensities (PAI) were expressed as percentages of the individual's heart rate reserve (%HRR). The median PAI for the entire day (PAI24) and for the waking part of day (PAIw) were lower in overweight than in normal weight individuals [16.3 (14.2-18.9) vs. 20.6 (17.9-22.3) %HRR, p spend more time in moderate activity and less time in sedentary pursuits than overweight children.

  20. Assembling of (βLPH) beta-lypothrophine radioimmunoassay. Plasma levels standardization in normal individuals and patients with hypophysis and adrenals diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Margaret de.

    1988-01-01

    The present study investigates the extraction and radioimmunoassay (RIA) conditions of plasma βLPH. It was extracted by the activated silicic acid method, with a mean extraction efficiency of 31.6% and a mean intra-extraction variation coefficient of 8.1%. Radioiodination was performed by the chloramine-T method and βLPH 125 I was purified by gel chromatography on Sephadex G100. Estimated specific activity ranged from 100 to 192.8 μCi/μg, with a mean incorporation percentage of 66.6%. The titer of the first antibody was 1:50.000/100 μl. The assay was performed under non-equilibrium conditions, with a pre-incubation period of 24 hours and incubation of 4 hours. Mean immunoreactivity (Bo/Total) was 21.1%, with a mean Blank/Total ratio of 2.3%. Sensitivity, expressed as the mean minimum detectable dose, was 40 pg/tube, equivalent to 56 pg/ml plasma. Intra-assay variation coefficients were 6.5%, 3.8% and 6.8%, respectively, at B/Bo levels of 0.8, 0.6 and 0.4 of the standard curve. At B/Bo equal to 0.5, the intra-assay variation coefficient was 20.9%. Replicates of 14 plasma samples showed a correlation coefficient of r 0.99, (p< 0.05). Parallelism between the curve obtained with different volumes of an extract with a high βLPH value and the standard curve was found. The method was controlled biologically by the presence of correlation between the plasma βLPH levels and determined pathological states and with clinical functional studies. Twenty seven normal individuals, 10 patients with Cushing's disease to a tumor of the hypophysis, 4 patients with Cushing syndrome due to an adrenal tumor, 10 patients Addison disease, and 8 patients with hypopituitarism were studied. (author). 119 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Pitfalls in Prediction Modeling for Normal Tissue Toxicity in Radiation Therapy: An Illustration With the Individual Radiation Sensitivity and Mammary Carcinoma Risk Factor Investigation Cohorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbah, Chamberlain, E-mail: chamberlain.mbah@ugent.be [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Mathematical Modeling, Statistics, and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Thierens, Hubert [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Thas, Olivier [Department of Mathematical Modeling, Statistics, and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); National Institute for Applied Statistics Research Australia, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); De Neve, Jan [Department of Data Analysis, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Chang-Claude, Jenny; Seibold, Petra; Botma, Akke [Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); West, Catharine [Translational Radiobiology Group, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Radiotherapy Related Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); De Ruyck, Kim [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To identify the main causes underlying the failure of prediction models for radiation therapy toxicity to replicate. Methods and Materials: Data were used from two German cohorts, Individual Radiation Sensitivity (ISE) (n=418) and Mammary Carcinoma Risk Factor Investigation (MARIE) (n=409), of breast cancer patients with similar characteristics and radiation therapy treatments. The toxicity endpoint chosen was telangiectasia. The LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) logistic regression method was used to build a predictive model for a dichotomized endpoint (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer score 0, 1, or ≥2). Internal areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (inAUCs) were calculated by a naïve approach whereby the training data (ISE) were also used for calculating the AUC. Cross-validation was also applied to calculate the AUC within the same cohort, a second type of inAUC. Internal AUCs from cross-validation were calculated within ISE and MARIE separately. Models trained on one dataset (ISE) were applied to a test dataset (MARIE) and AUCs calculated (exAUCs). Results: Internal AUCs from the naïve approach were generally larger than inAUCs from cross-validation owing to overfitting the training data. Internal AUCs from cross-validation were also generally larger than the exAUCs, reflecting heterogeneity in the predictors between cohorts. The best models with largest inAUCs from cross-validation within both cohorts had a number of common predictors: hypertension, normalized total boost, and presence of estrogen receptors. Surprisingly, the effect (coefficient in the prediction model) of hypertension on telangiectasia incidence was positive in ISE and negative in MARIE. Other predictors were also not common between the 2 cohorts, illustrating that overcoming overfitting does not solve the problem of replication failure of prediction models completely

  2. Postprandial glucose-lowering effect of premeal consumption of protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Lee Kyung; Min, Se Hee; Ahn, Chang Ho; Cho, Young Min

    2018-03-04

    Protein preload improves postprandial glycemia by stimulating secretion of insulin and incretin hormones. However, it requires a large dose of protein to produce a significant effect. The present study was carried out to investigate the postprandial glucose-lowering effect of a premeal protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar (PFB), which contains moderate amounts of protein, in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The participants (15 type 2 diabetes mellitus and 15 NGT) were randomly assigned to either a premeal or postmeal PFB group and underwent two mixed meal tolerance tests, 1 week apart in reverse order. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were measured. During the mixed meal tolerance tests, the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma glucose levels was lower with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (14,723 ± 1,310 mg min/dL vs 19,642 ± 1,367 mg min/dL; P = 0.0002) and NGT participants (3,943 ± 416 mg min/dL vs 4,827 ± 520 mg min/dL, P = 0.0296). In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, insulinogenic index and the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 levels were higher with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB, but not in the NGT participants. There was no difference in postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide levels between premeal and postmeal PFB in both groups. Acute administration of premeal PFB decreased postprandial glucose excursion in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and NGT participants. In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, premeal PFB augmented the early-phase insulin secretion, possibly through enhancing glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons

  3. Relationship between 8/9-yr-old school children BMI, parents' BMI and educational level: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilato Valentina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are responsible not only for the genetic structure of their children, but also for passing onto them their behaviours and attitudes toward life. The aim of this study was to analyse the connection between school-age children's obesity and that of their parents as well as between child obesity and parents' educational level, as a proxy indicator of the socio-economic status (SES of families in Tuscany. Methods The children sample was selected from "OKkio alla Salute 2010" (a cross sectional survey carried out by the Italian Institute of Health and consisted of 1,751 (922 males and 855 females 8-9 year-old school children. Weight and height were measured by ad hoc trained personnel, and Body Mass Index (BMI categories were calculated using Cole et al.'s cut-off. Parents' weight, height and educational level were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The educational levels were classified as high, medium and low. Results The prevalence of obese children increased along the parents' BMI category: from 1.4% for underweight mothers to 30.3% for obese mothers and from 4% for under-normal-weight fathers to 23.9% for obese fathers (p Conclusion Parents' obesity and the cultural resources of the family, particularly the father's, seem to influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tuscan children.

  4. Correlation of endoscopic severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease (gerd) with body mass index (bmi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Haq, I.U.; Butt, A.R.; Shafiq, F.; Huda, G.; Mirza, G.; Rehman, A.U.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the correlation of endoscopic severity of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) with Body Mass Index (BMI). This study was conducted on 203 patients, who presented with upper GI symptoms. Patients who fulfilled the symptom criteria were referred for endoscopy. Classification of GERD was done according to LA Grading classification system. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as Body Weight (BW) in kilograms (kg) divided by the square of the body height (BH) in meter (m2). Patient data was analyzed using SPSS 12 software. Statistical evaluation was done using non-parametric Wilcoxon's-sign Rank test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Distribution of GERD was as follows: GERD-A subjects 65 (32%), GERD B subjects 72 (35.4%), GERD-C subjects 23 (11.3%), GERD-D subjects 10 (4.92%), while Non-Erosive Reflux Disease (NERD) was present in 33 subjects (16.2%). Mean BMI was 27+5.02SD (range of 18.2-38.3). BMI of patients having NERD was in normal range but patients who were having advanced disease i.e. Grade C-D were in obese range of BMI, while those who were having LA grade A-B were in overweight BMI range. When regrouped as mild GERD (grade A-B) and NERD versus severe GERD (grade C-D), there was a strong significant correlation between severity of GERD and BMI, as detected by Wilcoxon's signed Rank test (p=0.001). Higher BMI seems to be associated with higher degree of endoscopic GERD severity. (author)

  5. Maternal depression and child BMI: longitudinal findings from a US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, C S; Shen, S; Wu, P; Must, A

    2012-04-01

    To examine the association between maternal depression and child body mass index (BMI) from Kindergarten (K) to fifth grade. Analysis of four waves of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten spanning K to fifth grade. Maternal depressive symptoms (MDSs) were measured by a brief version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analyses, adjusting for key covariates and potential confounders. The analytic sample was restricted to children of normal birth weight. The relationship between MDS and child BMI varies by child gender and age. Among girls, severe MDS at K was related to lower BMI at third grade (but not later at fifth grade) and to an increase in BMI from K to third and K to fifth grades. Among boys, severe MDS at K was related to higher boys' BMI at fifth grade. When severe MDS occurred at third grade, it was related to higher BMI at fifth grade among girls whereas no statistically significant relationship was found for boys. Low levels of physical activity in comparison to peers at fifth grade and more screen time on weekends at third grade are likely mediators of the relationship between MDS and child BMI among girls, while among boys the relationship appears to be mediated by unhealthy eating habits. Our findings, indicating developmental and gender differences in the relationship between maternal depression and child BMI, if confirmed, suggest that interventions addressing maternal depression may have concomitant impact on childhood obesity. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  6. Impact of non-physician health professionals' BMI on obesity care and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy L; Cooper, Lisa A; Gudzune, Kimberly A

    2014-12-01

    Examine the impact of non-physician health professional body mass index (BMI) on obesity care, self-efficacy, and perceptions of patient trust in weight loss advice. A national cross-sectional Internet-based survey of 500 US non-physician health professionals specializing in nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, and pharmacy collected between January 20 and February 5, 2014 was analyzed. Normal-BMI professionals were more likely than overweight/obese professionals to report success in helping patients achieve clinically significant weight loss (52% vs. 29%, P = 0.01). No differences by health professional BMI about the appropriate patient body weight for weight-related care (initiate weight loss discussions and success in helping patients lose weight), confidence in ability to help patients lose weight, or in perceived patient trust in their advice were observed. Most health professionals (71%) do not feel successful in helping patients lose weight until they are morbidly obese, regardless of BMI. Normal-BMI non-physician health professionals report being more successful than overweight and obese health professionals at helping obese patients lose weight. More research is needed to understand how to improve self-efficacy for delivering obesity care, particularly among overweight and class I obese patients. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  7. When overweight is the normal weight: an examination of obesity using a social media internet database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Kuebler

    Full Text Available Using a large social media database, Yahoo Answers, we explored postings to an online forum in which posters asked whether their height and weight qualify themselves as "skinny," "thin," "fat," or "obese" over time and across forum topics. We used these data to better understand whether a higher-than-average body mass index (BMI in one's county might, in some ways, be protective for one's mental and physical health. For instance, we explored whether higher proportions of obese people in one's county predicts lower levels of bullying or "am I fat?" questions from those with a normal BMI relative to his/her actual BMI. Most women asking whether they were themselves fat/obese were not actually fat/obese. Both men and women who were actually overweight/obese were significantly more likely in the future to ask for advice about bullying than thinner individuals. Moreover, as mean county-level BMI increased, bullying decreased and then increased again (in a U-shape curve. Regardless of where they lived, posters who asked "am I fat?" who had a BMI in the healthy range were more likely than other posters to subsequently post on health problems, but the proportions of such posters also declined greatly as county-level BMI increased. Our findings suggest that obese people residing in counties with higher levels of BMI may have better physical and mental health than obese people living in counties with lower levels of BMI by some measures, but these improvements are modest.

  8. Physical activity, BMI and metabolic risk in Portuguese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Karina dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n1p103   It has been reported, in the last decades, a significant decrease in physical activity (PA levels, with a consequent increase in obesity and metabolic risk factors among youth. The aims of this study were to describe PA levels, the prevalence of overweight/obesity and metabolic risk factors, and to examine the association between PA and body mass index (BMI with metabolic risk among Portuguese youth. The sample comprises 212 Portuguese adolescents (12-16 years old. Height and weight were measured. PA was estimated with the Bouchard questionnaire (3 days recall, as well as with the use of a pedometer (used for 5 consecutive days. Metabolic risk factors comprised fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and waist circumference. Subjects were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese according to BMI; the maturational status was indirectly estimated with the maturity offset procedure. A continuous metabolic risk score was computed (zMR and PA values were divided into tertiles. Qui-square test, t-test and ANOVA were used in statistical analyses. SPSS 18.0 and WinPepi softwares were used and p<0.05. A moderate to high prevalence of overweight/obesity and HDL-cholesterol was found, as well as a high prevalence of high blood pressure and low to moderate PA levels among Portuguese youth. The relationship between BMI and zMR showed that obese adolescents have higher zMR when compared to normal weight or overweight adolescents. This finding suggests that increased levels of PA and reduction in the prevalence of overweight/obesity may have a positive role against the development of metabolic risk factors.

  9. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C

    2006-01-01

    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle.......A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle....

  10. Association between Dental Caries and BMI in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongru; Zhi, Qinghui; Zhou, Yan; Tao, Ye; Wu, Liping; Lin, Huancai

    2018-01-01

    Research on the association between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) in children has shown contradictory results; thus we aimed to examine the association between dental caries and the full range of BMI classes among children. We comprehensively searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published prior to March 2017. Articles comparing dental caries among the full range of BMI classes for children below 18 years of both genders were included. Fourteen studies were eligible for this study. Basic information - i.e., first author, published year, study design, country, sample size, age, type of dental caries index and BMI, main results and conclusions, and means and standard deviations of the dental caries indexes used - was pooled. The weighted mean differences and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for dental caries between children with abnormal weight and those with normal weight were analyzed. Generally, no significant differences in caries were found between any abnormal-weight group and the normal-weight group for both primary and permanent teeth. Sensitivity analyses showed that the obese group had more caries than the normal-weight group in their primary teeth. Significantly more caries was found among the overweight and obese children in both primary and permanent teeth in high-income countries, but not in low- and middle-income countries. We recommend that further studies use suitable sample sizes, unify the criteria for BMI categorization and the dental caries index, and investigate the confounding factors that might influence dental caries and BMI. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The Association between BMI and Different Frailty Domains: A U-Shaped Curve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, M L; van der A, D L; van Oostrom, S H; Picavet, H S J; Dollé, M E T; van Steeg, H; Verschuren, W M M; Spijkerman, A M W

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies showed a U-shaped association between BMI and (physical) frailty. We studied the association between BMI and physical, cognitive, psychological, and social frailty. Furthermore, the overlap between and prevalence of these frailty domains was examined. Cross-sectional study. The Doetinchem Cohort Study is a longitudinal population-based study starting in 1987-1991 examining men and women aged 20-59 with follow-up examinations every 5 yrs. For the current analyses, we used data from round 5 (2008-2012) with 4019 participants aged 41-81 yrs. Physical frailty was defined as having ≥ 2 of 4 frailty criteria from the Frailty Phenotype (unintentional weight loss, exhaustion, physical activity, handgrip strength). Cognitive frailty was defined as the BMI was divided into four classes. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, level of education, and smoking. A U-shaped association was observed between BMI and physical frailty, a small linear association for BMI and cognitive frailty and no association between BMI and psychological and social frailty. The four frailty domains showed only a small proportion of overlap. The prevalence of physical, cognitive and social frailty increased with age, whereas psychological frailty did not. We confirm that not only underweight but also obesity is associated with physical frailty. Obesity also seems to be associated with cognitive frailty. Further, frailty prevention should focus on multiple domains and target individuals at a younger age (<65yrs).

  12. Relation between BMI and diabetes mellitus and its complications among US older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Natallia; Picone, Gabriel; Sloan, Frank; Yashkin, Arseniy

    2015-01-01

    This study examined relations between elevated body mass index (BMI) and time to diagnosis with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications among older adults in the United States. Data came from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, 1991-2010. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess relations between excess BMI at the first Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey interview and time to diabetes mellitus diagnosis, complications, and insulin dependence among Medicare beneficiaries, older than 65 years of age with no prior diabetes mellitus diagnosis, and who were not enrolled in Medicare Advantage (N = 14,657). Among individuals diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus, elevated BMIs were associated with a progressively higher risk of complications from diabetes mellitus. For women with a BMI ≥40, the risk of insulin dependence (hazard ratio [HR] 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.36-5.39) was twice that for women with 25 ≤ BMI diabetes mellitus. For men, the increased risk of these complications occurred at higher BMI levels than in women. Ocular complications occurred at higher BMI levels than other complication types in both men and women.

  13. Human milk insulin is related to maternal plasma insulin and BMI: but other components of human milk do not differ by BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B E; Patinkin, Z; Palmer, C; de la Houssaye, B; Barbour, L A; Hernandez, T; Friedman, J E; Krebs, N F

    2017-09-01

    The impact of maternal BMI and insulin sensitivity on bioactive components of human milk (HM) is not well understood. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes rises, it is increasingly critical that we understand how maternal BMI and hormones associated with metabolic disease relate to concentrations of bioactive components in HM. This longitudinal cohort design followed 48 breastfeeding mothers through the first four months of lactation, collecting fasting morning HM samples at 2-weeks and 1, 2, 3 and 4-months, and fasting maternal blood at 2-weeks and 4-months. Insulin, glucose, adipokines leptin and adiponectin, appetite regulating hormone ghrelin, marker of oxidative stress 8OHdG and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a) were measured in HM and maternal plasma. A total of 26 normal weight (NW) (BMI=21.4±2.0 kg/m 2 ) and 22 overweight/obese (OW/Ob) (BMI=30.4±4.2 kg/m 2 ) were followed. Of all HM analytes measured, only insulin and leptin were different between groups - consistently higher in the OW/Ob group (leptin: P<0.001; insulin: P<0.03). HM insulin was 98% higher than maternal plasma insulin at 2-weeks and 32% higher at 4-months (P<0.001). Maternal fasting plasma insulin and HOMA-IR were positively related to HM insulin at 2-weeks (P<0.001, R 2 ⩾0.38, n=31), and 4-months (P⩽0.005, R 2 ⩾0.20, n=38). The concentrations of insulin in HM are higher than in maternal plasma and are related to maternal BMI and insulin sensitivity. With the exception of leptin, there were minimal other differences observed in HM composition across a wide range in maternal BMI.

  14. Metabolic health across the BMI spectrum in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jordan E; Li, Xiuhong; Palella, Frank J; Erlandson, Kristine M; Wiley, Dorothy; Kingsley, Lawrence; Jacobson, Lisa P; Brown, Todd T

    2018-01-02

    In the general population, metabolic health often declines as BMI increases. However, some obese individuals maintain metabolic health. HIV and antiretroviral therapy have been associated with metabolic disturbances. We hypothesized that HIV-infected (HIV) men on suppressive antiretroviral therapy experience less metabolic health than HIV-uninfected (HIV) men across all BMI categories. In a cross-sectional analysis of 1018 HIV and 1092 HIV men enrolled in the multicenter AIDS cohort study, Poisson regression with robust variance determined associations between HIV serostatus and metabolic health prevalence (defined as meeting ≤2 of 5 National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III metabolic syndrome criteria), adjusting for age, race, BMI category, smoking, and hepatitis C virus infection status. HIV men were younger (54 vs. 59 years) and had lower median BMI (25 vs. 27 kg/m). Nonobese HIV men had lower metabolic health prevalence than HIV men (BMI ≤25 kg/m: 80 vs. 94%, P BMI 25-29 kg/m: 64 vs. 71%, P = 0.05), but metabolic health prevalence among obese men did not differ by HIV serostatus (BMI 30-34 kg/m: 35 vs. 39%, P = 0.48; BMI ≥35 kg/m: 27 vs. 25%, P = 0.79). In the adjusted model, nonobese HIV men were less likely to demonstrate metabolic health than nonobese HIV men. Among HIV men, per year darunavir, zidovudine, and stavudine use were associated with lower metabolic health likelihood. Metabolically healthy obesity prevalence does not differ by HIV serostatus. However, among nonobese men, HIV infection is associated with lower metabolic health prevalence, with associations between lack of metabolic health and darunavir and thymidine analog nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor exposure observed.

  15. Change in postprandial substrate oxidation after a high fructose meal is related to Body Mass Index (BMI) in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeraglio, Anne C.; Kennedy, Emily K.; Horgan, Angela; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Gillingham, Melanie B.

    2013-01-01

    Oral fructose decreases fat oxidation and increases carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation in obese subjects, but the metabolic response to fructose in lean individuals is less well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a single fructose-rich mixed meal on substrate oxidation in young healthy non-obese males. We hypothesized that a decrease in fat oxidation and an increase in carbohydrate oxidation would be observed following a fructose-rich mixed meal compared to a glucose-rich mixed meal. Twelve healthy males, normal to overweight and age 23–31 years old, participated in a double-blind, cross-over study. Each participant completed two study visits, eating a mixed meal containing 30% of the calories from either fructose or glucose. Blood samples for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin as well as gas exchange by indirect calorimetry were measured intermittently for 7 hours. Serum insulin was higher after a fructose mixed meal but plasma glucose, plasma leptin and serum triglycerides were not different. Mean postprandial respiratory quotient and estimated fat oxidation did not differ between the fructose and glucose meals. The change in fat oxidation between the fructose and glucose rich meals negatively correlated with BMI (r=−0.59, P=0.04 and r=−0.59, P=0.04 at the 4 and 7 hour time points, respectively). In healthy non-obese males, BMI correlates with altered postprandial fat oxidation after a high-fructose mixed meal. The metabolic response to a high fructose meal may be modulated by BMI. PMID:23746558

  16. Muscle mass, BMI, and mortality among adults in the United States: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Matthew K; Hall, Charles B; Amodu, Afolarin; Sharma, Deep; Androga, Lagu; Hawkins, Meredith

    2018-01-01

    The level of body-mass index (BMI) associated with the lowest risk of death remains unclear. Although differences in muscle mass limit the utility of BMI as a measure of adiposity, no study has directly examined the effect of muscle mass on the BMI-mortality relationship. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 11,687 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Low muscle mass was defined using sex-specific thresholds of the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI). Proportional hazards models were created to model associations with all-cause mortality. At any level of BMI ≥22, participants with low muscle mass had higher body fat percentage (%TBF), an increased likelihood of diabetes, and higher adjusted mortality than other participants. Increases in %TBF manifested as 30-40% smaller changes in BMI than were observed in participants with preserved muscle mass. Excluding participants with low muscle mass or adjustment for ASMI attenuated the risk associated with low BMI, magnified the risk associated with high BMI, and shifted downward the level of BMI associated with the lowest risk of death. Higher ASMI was independently associated with lower mortality. Effects were similar in never-smokers and ever-smokers. Additional adjustment for waist circumference eliminated the risk associated with higher BMI. Results were unchanged after excluding unintentional weight loss, chronic illness, early mortality, and participants performing muscle-strengthening exercises or recommended levels of physical activity. Muscle mass mediates associations of BMI with adiposity and mortality and is inversely associated with the risk of death. After accounting for muscle mass, the BMI associated with the greatest survival shifts downward toward the normal range. These results provide a concrete explanation for the obesity paradox.

  17. Maternal and offspring intelligence in relation to BMI across childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wraw, Christina; Deary, Ian J; Der, Geoff; Gale, Catharine R

    2018-01-30

    The present study tested the association between both mothers' and offspring's intelligence and offspring's body mass index (BMI) in youth. Participants were members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY-79) Children and Young Adults cohort (n = 11,512) and their biological mothers who were members of the NLSY-79 (n = 4932). Offspring's IQ was measured with the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT). Mothers' IQ was measured with the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT). A series of regression analyses tested the association between IQ and offspring's BMI by age group, while adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI and family SES. The analyses were stratified by sex and ethnicity (non-Black and non-Hispanic, Black, and Hispanic). The following associations were observed in the fully adjusted analyses. For the non-Blacks and non-Hispanics, a SD increment in mothers' IQ was negatively associated with daughters' BMI across all age-groups, ranging from β = -0.12 (95% CI -0.22 to -0.02, p = 0.021) in late childhood, to β = -0.17 (95% C.I. -0.27 to -0.07, p = 0001), in early adolescence and a SD increment in boys' IQ was positively associated with their BMI in early adolescence β = 0.09 (95% CI 0.01-0.18, p = 0.031). For Blacks, there was a non-linear relationship between mothers' IQ and daughters' BMI across childhood and between girls' IQ and BMI across adolescence. There was a positive association between mothers' IQ and sons' BMI in early adolescence (β = 0.17, 95% CI 0.02-0.32, p = 0.030). For Hispanic boys, there was a positive IQ-BMI association in late childhood (β = 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.33, p = 0.008) and early adolescence (β = 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.31, p = 0.014). Mothers' IQ and offspring's IQ were associated with offspring's BMI. The relationships varied in direction and strength across ethnicity, age group and sex. Obesity interventions may benefit from acknowledging the heterogeneous

  18. Eating behaviour patterns and BMI in Portuguese higher education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poínhos, Rui; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Correia, Flora

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to determine prototypical patterns of eating behaviour among Portuguese higher education students, and to relate these patterns with BMI. Data from 280 higher education students (63.2% females) aged between 18 and 27 years were analysed. Several eating behaviour dimensions (emotional and external eating, flexible and rigid restraint, binge eating, and eating self-efficacy) were assessed, and eating styles were derived through cluster analysis. BMI for current, desired and maximum self-reported weights and the differences between desired and current BMI and between maximum and current BMI were calculated. Women scored higher in emotional eating and restraint, whereas men showed higher eating self-efficacy. Men had higher current, desired and maximum BMI. Cluster analysis showed three eating styles in both male and female subsamples: "Overeating", "High self-efficacy" and "High restraint". High self-efficacy women showed lower BMI values than the others, and restrictive women had higher lost BMI. High self-efficacy men showed lower desired BMI than overeaters, and lower maximum and lost BMI than highly restrictive ones. Restrictive women and men differ on important eating behaviour features, which may be the cause of differences in the associations with BMI. Eating self-efficacy seems to be a central variable influencing the relationships between other eating behaviour dimensions and BMI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis list: BMI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BMI1 Blood,Digestive tract,Neural,Prostate + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI...1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.5.tsv http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI...1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Diges...tive_tract.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Neural.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscie

  20. Modularity of action programs in normal and Down syndrome individual / Modularidade de programas de ação em indivíduos normais e portadores da síndrome de Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gimenez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor skills are represented as abstract form by action programs that once formed constitutes modules that ease the demand of motor control in complex tasks. The present study investigated whether modules are formed in the acquisition of motor skills in normal individuals and individuals with Down syndrome. Twelve individuals took part in the study, they were assigned equally to three groups: children, adults and adults with Down syndrome. They practiced the manual reproduction of a graphic pattern composed by five linear strokes that was added to another graphic pattern after 100 trials. Down syndrome individuals had difficult to form modules and their performance was similar to that of the children. The lack of modularity in the behavior of Down syndrome individuals may explain the difficulty they face many times while performing motor skills.

  1. The Role of BMI in Hip Fracture Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinleye, Sheriff D; Garofolo, Garret; Culbertson, Maya Deza; Homel, Peter; Erez, Orry

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is an oft-cited cause of surgical morbidity and many institutions require extensive supplementary screening for obese patients prior to surgical intervention. However, in the elderly patients, obesity has been described as a protective factor. This article set out to examine the effect of body mass index (BMI) on outcomes and morbidity after hip fracture surgery. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for all patients undergoing 1 of 4 surgical procedures to manage hip fracture between 2008 and 2012. Patient demographics, BMI, and known factors that lead to poor surgical outcomes were included as putative predictors for complications that included infectious, cardiac, pulmonary, renal, and neurovascular events. Using χ 2 tests, 30-day postoperative complication rates were compared between 4 patient groups stratified by BMI as low weight (BMI BMI = 20-30), obese (BMI = 30-40), and morbidly obese (BMI > 40). A total of 15 108 patients underwent surgery for hip fracture over the examined 5-year period. Of these, 18% were low weight (BMI BMI = 20-30), 13% were obese (BMI = 30-40), and 2% were morbidly obese (BMI > 40). The low-weight and morbidly obese patients had both the highest mortality rates and the lowest superficial infection rates. There was a significant increase in blood transfusion rates that decreased linearly with increasing BMI. Deep surgical site infection and renal failure increased linearly with increasing BMI, however, these outcomes were confounded by comorbidities. This study demonstrates that patients at either extreme of the BMI spectrum, rather than solely the obese, are at greatest risk of major adverse events following hip fracture surgery. This runs contrary to the notion that obese hip fracture patients automatically require additional preoperative screening and perioperative services, as currently implemented in many institutions.

  2. Is there an association between food portion size and BMI among British adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Cade, Janet E

    2014-09-14

    The prevalence of obesity has increased simultaneously with the increase in the consumption of large food portion sizes (FPS). Studies investigating this association among adolescents are limited; fewer have addressed energy-dense foods as a potential risk factor. In the present study, the association between the portion size of the most energy-dense foods and BMI was investigated. A representative sample of 636 British adolescents (11-18 years) was used from the 2008-2011 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey. FPS were estimated for the most energy-dense foods (those containing above 10·5 kJ/g (2·5 kcal/g)). Regression models with BMI as the outcome variable were adjusted for age, sex and misreporting energy intake (EI). A positive association was observed between total EI and BMI. For each 418 kJ (100 kcal) increase in EI, BMI increased by 0·19 kg/m2 (95 % CI 0·10, 0·28; Pportion sizes of a limited number of high-energy-dense foods (high-fibre breakfast cereals, cream and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated)) were found to be positively associated with a higher BMI among all adolescents after adjusting for misreporting. When eliminating the effect of under-reporting, larger portion sizes of a number of high-energy-dense foods (biscuits, cheese, cream and cakes) were found to be positively associated with BMI among normal reporters. The portion sizes of only high-fibre breakfast cereals and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated) were found to be positively associated with BMI among under-reporters. These findings emphasise the importance of considering under-reporting when analysing adolescents' dietary intake data. Also, there is a need to address adolescents' awareness of portion sizes of energy-dense foods to improve their food choice and future health outcomes.

  3. Sexual Orientation Disparities in BMI among US Adolescents and Young Adults in Three Race/Ethnicity Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra L. Katz-Wise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a key public health issue for US youth. Previous research with primarily white samples of youth has indicated that sexual minority females have higher body mass index (BMI and sexual minority males have lower BMI than their same-gender heterosexual counterparts, with sexual orientation differences in males increasing across adolescence. This research explored whether gender and sexual orientation differences in BMI exist in nonwhite racial/ethnic groups. Using data from Waves I–IV (1995–2009 of the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,306, ages 11–34 years, we examined associations between sexual orientation and BMI (kg/m2 over time, using longitudinal linear regression models, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among males, heterosexual individuals showed greater one-year BMI gains than gay males across all race/ethnicity groups. Among females, white and Latina bisexual individuals had higher BMI than same-race/ethnicity heterosexual individuals regardless of age; there were no sexual orientation differences in black/African Americans. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI are a public health concern across race/ethnicity groups. Interventions addressing unhealthy weight gain in youth must be relevant for all sexual orientations and race/ethnicities.

  4. Cumulative and current exposure to potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals and development of chronic kidney disease in HIV-positive individuals with a normal baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D; Ross, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether or not the association between some antiretrovirals used in HIV infection and chronic kidney disease is cumulative is a controversial topic, especially in patients with initially normal renal function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between duration...... of exposure to antiretrovirals and the development of chronic kidney disease in people with initially normal renal function, as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: In this prospective international cohort study, HIV-positive adult participants (aged ≥16 years) from the D......:A:D study (based in Europe, the USA, and Australia) with first eGFR greater than 90 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) were followed from baseline (first eGFR measurement after Jan 1, 2004) until the occurrence of one of the following: chronic kidney disease; last eGFR measurement; Feb 1, 2014; or final visit plus 6...

  5. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenna Ruest Haarmark Nielsen

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI standard deviation score (SDS may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment.876 children and adolescents (498 girls with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7, and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7 were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4. Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG were available in 469 individuals (264 girls. Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations.At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4 and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6. Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (p<2*10-16 and percent truncal body fat (p<2*10-16. Furthermore, reductions in BMI SDS were associated with improvements in concentrations of TC, LDL, HDL, non-HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio, and TG (all p <0.0001. Changes in body fat percentage seemed to mediate the changes in plasma concentrations of TC, LDL, and non-HDL, but could not alone explain the changes in HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio or TG. Among 81 individuals with available lipid concentrations, who increased their BMI SDS, 61% improved their body composition, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations.Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma

  6. Nutritional status (BMI in children suffering from asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćepanović Anđelka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research encompassed 708 children of both genders, aged 6 to 15. Three hundred and fifty four of the total number had been diagnosed with Asthma bronchiale, whereas the other half of the children were healthy and served as a control group. Their nutritional condition was determined on the basis of the percentile value of their BMI. Recent studies on the level of nutrition and its connection to asthma have shown contradictory results. This paper was aimed at estimating the nutritional level of sick children in relation to healthy ones. The data were analyzed in relation to group, gender and age by means of descriptive methods, univariate (analysis of variance - ANOVA and multivariate (multivariate analysis of variance - MANOVA, whereas the results were tested by Roy’s test (Pearson contingency coefficient χ, coefficient of multiple correlation R. It was determined that male children more frequently suffer from this disease than female children do. Both healthy and sick children were normally nourished. However, as regards the sick, the number of normally nourished was considerably lower, whereas the number of underweight was considerably higher, as well as those that were overweight. Intergroup differences in the distribution of certain levels of nutrition of male and female children occurred in only two non-sequential age groups, being later in boys than in girls. This uneven distribution is probably a consequence of the joint effects of environment factors, sickness and therapy.

  7. Method and system for normalizing biometric variations to authenticate users from a public database and that ensures individual biometric data privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Robert S.; Pearson, Peter K.; Sengupta, Sailes K.

    2000-01-01

    A password system comprises a set of codewords spaced apart from one another by a Hamming distance (HD) that exceeds twice the variability that can be projected for a series of biometric measurements for a particular individual and that is less than the HD that can be encountered between two individuals. To enroll an individual, a biometric measurement is taken and exclusive-ORed with a random codeword to produce a "reference value." To verify the individual later, a biometric measurement is taken and exclusive-ORed with the reference value to reproduce the original random codeword or its approximation. If the reproduced value is not a codeword, the nearest codeword to it is found, and the bits that were corrected to produce the codeword to it is found, and the bits that were corrected to produce the codeword are also toggled in the biometric measurement taken and the codeword generated during enrollment. The correction scheme can be implemented by any conventional error correction code such as Reed-Muller code R(m,n). In the implementation using a hand geometry device an R(2,5) code has been used in this invention. Such codeword and biometric measurement can then be used to see if the individual is an authorized user. Conventional Diffie-Hellman public key encryption schemes and hashing procedures can then be used to secure the communications lines carrying the biometric information and to secure the database of authorized users.

  8. Method and system for normalizing biometric variations to authenticate users from a public database and that ensures individual biometric data privacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, R.S.; Pearson, P.K.; Sengupta, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    A password system comprises a set of codewords spaced apart from one another by a Hamming distance (HD) that exceeds twice the variability that can be projected for a series of biometric measurements for a particular individual and that is less than the HD that can be encountered between two individuals. To enroll an individual, a biometric measurement is taken and exclusive-ORed with a random codeword to produce a reference value. To verify the individual later, a biometric measurement is taken and exclusive-ORed with the reference value to reproduce the original random codeword or its approximation. If the reproduced value is not a codeword, the nearest codeword to it is found, and the bits that were corrected to produce the codeword to it is found, and the bits that were corrected to produce the codeword are also toggled in the biometric measurement taken and the codeword generated during enrollment. The correction scheme can be implemented by any conventional error correction code such as Reed-Muller code R(m,n). In the implementation using a hand geometry device an R(2,5) code has been used in this invention. Such codeword and biometric measurement can then be used to see if the individual is an authorized user. Conventional Diffie-Hellman public key encryption schemes and hashing procedures can then be used to secure the communications lines carrying the biometric information and to secure the database of authorized users

  9. Glomerular epithelial foot processes in normal man and rats. Distribution of true width and its intra- and inter-individual variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, H J; Seefeldt, T; Osterby, R

    1980-01-01

    The width of individual glomerular epithelial foot processes appears very different on electron micrographs. A method for obtainining distributions of the true width of foot processes from that of their apparent width on electron micrographs has been developed based on geometric probability theory pertaining to a specific geometric model. Analyses of foot process width in humans and rats show a remarkable interindividual invariance implying rigid control and therefore great biological significance of foot process width or a derivative thereof. The very low inter-individual variation of the true width, shown in the present paper, makes it possible to demonstrate slight changes in rather small groups of patients or experimental animals.

  10. Relationship between 8/9-yr-old school children BMI, parents' BMI and educational level: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Pammolli, Andrea; Pilato, Valentina; Giacchi, Mariano V

    2011-07-19

    Parents are responsible not only for the genetic structure of their children, but also for passing onto them their behaviours and attitudes toward life. The aim of this study was to analyse the connection between school-age children's obesity and that of their parents as well as between child obesity and parents' educational level, as a proxy indicator of the socio-economic status (SES) of families in Tuscany. The children sample was selected from "OKkio alla Salute 2010" (a cross sectional survey carried out by the Italian Institute of Health) and consisted of 1,751 (922 males and 855 females) 8-9 year-old school children. Weight and height were measured by ad hoc trained personnel, and Body Mass Index (BMI) categories were calculated using Cole et al.'s cut-off. Parents' weight, height and educational level were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The educational levels were classified as high, medium and low. The prevalence of obese children increased along the parents' BMI category: from 1.4% for underweight mothers to 30.3% for obese mothers and from 4% for under-normal-weight fathers to 23.9% for obese fathers (p parents' educational level and child obesity, the lowest educational level corresponding to the highest prevalence of obese children: 9.3% for mothers with a low educational level compared to 5.8% for mothers with a high educational level (p = 0.15); similarly, the corresponding prevalence for fathers was 9.5% compared to 4.5% (p = 0.03). Parents' obesity and the cultural resources of the family, particularly the father's, seem to influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tuscan children.

  11. Temporal trends in BMI in Argentina by socio-economic position and province-level economic development, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine, Paul J; Diez Roux, Ana V; Wing, Jeffrey J; Alazraqui, Marcio; Spinelli, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated temporal trends in BMI, and assessed hypothesized predictors of trends including socio-economic position (SEP) and province-level economic development, in Argentina. Using multivariable linear regression, we evaluated cross-sectional patterning and temporal trends in BMI and examined heterogeneity in these associations by SEP and province-level economic development with nationally representative samples from Argentina in 2005 and 2009. We calculated mean annual changes in BMI for men and women to assess secular trends. Women, but not men, exhibited a strong cross-sectional inverse association between SEP and BMI, with the lowest-SEP women having an average BMI 2.55 kg/m(2) greater than the highest-SEP women. Analysis of trends revealed a mean annual increase in BMI of 0.19 kg/m(2) and 0.15 kg/m(2) for women and men, respectively, with slightly greater increases occurring in provinces with greater economic growth. No significant heterogeneity in trends existed by individual SEP. BMI is increasing rapidly over time in Argentina irrespective of various sociodemographic characteristics. Higher BMI remains more common in women of lower SEP compared with those of higher SEP.

  12. Vapreotide: BMY 41606, RC 160, Sanvar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Vapreotide [Octastatin, Sanvar, RC 160, BMY 41606] is a somatostatin analogue developed at Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, USA, which holds patent rights for vapreotide. Vapreotide provides a much higher metabolic stability than its parent compound. Vapreotide was licensed to Debiopharm for development in Europe. Vapreotide is usually administered SC although a slow-release IM formulation is also available. Other sustained-release formulations are under development. H3 Pharma plans to sign agreements for all indications in the core markets of North America, Europe and in non-core geographic regions during 2003. H3 Pharma will also seek to obtain registration and early market entry in non-core countries with help from partners. Sanvar Immediate Release (IR) has been submitted for approval within the European Union for the treatment of acute oesophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). Sanvar IR has been awarded orphan drug status in the US for EVB. In July 2003, H3 Pharma received written confirmation from the US FDA that the dossier for Sanvar is fileable for registration in the United States for the treatment of esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). The Sanvar IR (immediate-release) formulation is expected to enter the US market by late 2004. H3 Pharma expects to file for Latin American registration for this indication in the second half of 2003, with registrations in other regions to follow. Sanvar SR has been submitted for Orphan Drug designation.

  13. Cortisol in human milk predicts child BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Le, Tran Bao; Chung, Anna; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M

    2016-12-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to lower rates of childhood obesity. Human milk contains cortisol, known to regulate glucose storage and metabolism. The aim of this study was to to test the hypothesis that early exposure to cortisol in human breast milk helps to modulate infant body mass index (BMI) trajectories over the first 2 years of life. Growth curve modeling was used to examine whether infant exposure to cortisol in human milk at 3 months predicted changes in child body mass index percentile (BMIP) at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in 51 breastfeeding mother-child pairs. Infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels at 3 months were less likely to exhibit BMIP gains over the first 2 years of life, compared with infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. By age 2, infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels had lower BMIPs than infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. Milk cortisol was a stronger predictor of BMIP change in girls than boys. Cortisol exposure through human milk may help to program metabolic functioning and childhood obesity risk. Further, because infant formula contains only trace amounts of glucocorticoids, these findings suggest that cortisol in milk is a novel biological pathway through which breastfeeding may protect against later obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  14. The impact of BMI on sperm parameters and the metabolite changes of seminal plasma concomitantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dan; Wu, Wei; Tang, Qiuqin; Qiao, Shanlei; Chen, Yiqiu; Chen, Minjian; Teng, Mengying; Lu, Chuncheng; Ding, Hongjuan; Xia, Yankai; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2017-07-25

    The development of male infertility increased rapidly worldwide, which coinciding with the epidemic of obesity. However, the impact of weight abnormalities on sperm quality is still contestable. To assess the correlation between BMI and sperm parameters, we searched relevant articles in PubMed, Embase, Web of science, and Wanfang database published until June 2015 without language restriction. Otherwise, we also recruited some participants who attended fertility clinic as well as some general populations in this report. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis about BMI and sperm parameters containing total sperm count, concentration, semen volume and sperm motility (overall and progressive). Metabolomic analysis of seminal plasma was performed to explore the mechanism from a new perspective. This study found standardized weighted mean differences (SMD) in sperm parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, and semen volume) of abnormal weight groups decreased to different degree compared to normal weight. Dose-response analysis found SMD of sperm count, sperm concentration and semen volume respectively fell 2.4%, 1.3% and 2.0% compared with normal weight for every 5-unit increase in BMI. Metabolomic analysis of seminal plasma showed that spermidine and spermine were likely to play a vital role in the spermatogenesis progress. This systematic review with meta-analysis has confirmed there was a relationship between BMI and sperm quality, suggesting obesity may be a detrimental factor of male infertility.

  15. Diagnostic performance of BMI percentiles to identify adolescents with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R; Welk, Gregory J; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2014-02-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and FITNESSGRAM (FGram) BMI standards for quantifying metabolic risk in youth. Adolescents in the NHANES (n = 3385) were measured for anthropometric variables and metabolic risk factors. BMI percentiles were calculated, and youth were categorized by weight status (using CDC and FGram thresholds). Participants were also categorized by presence or absence of metabolic syndrome. The CDC and FGram standards were compared by prevalence of metabolic abnormalities, various diagnostic criteria, and odds of metabolic syndrome. Receiver operating characteristic curves were also created to identify optimal BMI percentiles to detect metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese youth was 19% to 35%, compared with <2% in the normal-weight groups. The odds of metabolic syndrome for obese boys and girls were 46 to 67 and 19 to 22 times greater, respectively, than for normal-weight youth. The receiver operating characteristic analyses identified optimal thresholds similar to the CDC standards for boys and the FGram standards for girls. Overall, BMI thresholds were more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome in boys than in girls. Both the CDC and FGram standards are predictive of metabolic syndrome. The diagnostic utility of the CDC thresholds outperformed the FGram values for boys, whereas FGram standards were slightly better thresholds for girls. The use of a common set of thresholds for school and clinical applications would provide advantages for public health and clinical research and practice.

  16. The relationship between the BMI and the emotional status of Alexandria University students, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Sadek, Heba A; Abu-Nazel, Mervat W; Shata, Zeinab N; Abd El-Fatah, Nesrin K

    2016-09-01

    Although the relationship between obesity and depression has been researched extensively, the relation of the wide range of body-weight problems, as indicated by the BMI, to emotional health problems has received little attention. To assess the rate of concomitant co-occurrence of emotional health and weight problems in Alexandria University students, and to investigate the relationship between their BMI and emotional status. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 842 university students (17-27 years), enrolled in four faculties of Alexandria University, Egypt, during the academic year 2012-2013. Participants of both sexes were interviewed to collect sociodemographic data. Weight and height were measured, and then the BMI was calculated and classified into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese according to age-corresponding and sex-corresponding standards. The Arabic version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scales was used to assess the emotional status of students. The curve of fit was used to test the statistical quadratic trend. Co-occurrence of depression, anxiety, or stress with any weight problem was prevalent among 7.4, 6.7, and 9.6% of the students, respectively. Obese and underweight students recorded higher rates of emotional problems compared with normal and overweight students, revealing a U-shaped relationship between the BMI and emotional states (R=0.01). This relationship was significant only for anxiety and stress (Pstudents, where sex differences were evident. University preventive strategies and treatment services should address such alarming coexisting problems among youth.

  17. Overexpression of microRNA-132 enhances the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells by down-regulating Bmi-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui-Feng; Zhang, Shu-Hua; Li, Xue-Feng; Cao, Li-Yan; Fu, Zhan-Zhao; Yu, Shao-Nan

    2017-10-06

    We examined the effects of microRNA-132 (miR-132) on Bmi-1 expression and radiosensitivity in HeLa, SiHa, and C33A cervical cancer (CC) cells and 104 CC patients. MiR-132 expression was decreased and Bmi-1 expression was increased in tumor tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues and in radiotherapy-resistant patients compared to radiotherapy-sensitive patients. MiR-132 expression and Bmi-1 mRNA expression were also negatively correlated in tumor tissues. HeLa, SiHa, and C33A cells were divided into blank, miR-132 negative control (NC), miR-132 inhibitor, miR-132 mimics, siBmi-1, and miR-132 inhibitor + siBmi-1 groups, after which expression of miR-132 and Bmi-1, and the interaction between them and cell survival, proliferation, and apoptosis were examined. Bmi-1 was confirmed as a target of miRNA-132. Survival was higher and apoptosis lower in the miR-132 inhibitor group than the blank group after various doses of radiation. By contrast, survival was lower and apoptosis higher in the miRNA-132 mimics and siBmi-1 groups than in the blank group. Moreover, miR-132 expression increased and Bmi-1 mRNA expression decreased in each group at radiation doses of 6 and 8 Gy. Finally, co-administration of radiotherapy and exogenous miR-132 inhibited the growth of HeLa cell transplant-induced tumors in nude mice more effectively than radiotherapy alone. These results suggest overexpression of miR-132 enhances the radiosensitivity of CC cells by down-regulating Bmi-1 and that miR-132 may be a useful new target for the treatment of CC.

  18. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-06-17

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. EEG activation differences in the pre-motor cortex and supplementary motor area between normal individuals with high and low traits of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzo, Ignazio; Cooper, Nicholas R; Vetter, Petra; Russo, Riccardo

    2010-06-25

    The human mirror neuron system (hMNS) is believed to provide a basic mechanism for social cognition. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) in alpha (8-12Hz) and low beta band (12-20Hz) over sensori-motor cortex has been suggested to index mirror neurons' activity. We tested whether autistic traits revealed by high and low scores on the Autistic Quotient (AQ) in the normal population are linked to variations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) over motor, pre-motor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) during action observation. Results revealed that in the low AQ group, the pre-motor cortex and SMA were more active during hand action than static hand observation whereas in the high AQ group the same areas were active both during static and hand action observation. In fact participants with high traits of autism showed greater low beta ERD while observing the static hand than those with low traits and this low beta ERD was not significantly different when they watched hand actions. Over primary motor cortex, the classical alpha and low beta ERD during hand actions relative to static hand observation was found across all participants. These findings suggest that the observation-execution matching system works differently according to the degree of autism traits in the normal population and that this is differentiated in terms of the EEG according to scalp site and bandwidth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. BMI and risk of dementia in two million people over two decades: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qizilbash, Nawab; Gregson, John; Johnson, Michelle E; Pearce, Neil; Douglas, Ian; Wing, Kevin; Evans, Stephen J W; Pocock, Stuart J

    2015-06-01

    Dementia and obesity are increasingly important public health issues. Obesity in middle age has been proposed to lead to dementia in old age. We investigated the association between BMI and risk of dementia. For this retrospective cohort study, we used a cohort of 1,958,191 individuals derived from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) which included people aged 40 years or older in whom BMI was recorded between 1992 and 2007. Follow-up was until the practice's final data collection date, patient death or transfer out of practice, or first record of dementia (whichever occurred first). People with a previous record of dementia were excluded. We used Poisson regression to calculate incidence rates of dementia for each BMI category. Our cohort of 1,958,191 people from UK general practices had a median age at baseline of 55 years (IQR 45-66) and a median follow-up of 9·1 years (IQR 6·3-12·6). Dementia occurred in 45,507 people, at a rate of 2·4 cases per 1000 person-years. Compared with people of a healthy weight, underweight people (BMI risk of dementia. Furthermore, the incidence of dementia continued to fall for every increasing BMI category, with very obese people (BMI >40 kg/m(2)) having a 29% lower (95% CI 22-36) dementia risk than people of a healthy weight. These patterns persisted throughout two decades of follow-up, after adjustment for potential confounders and allowance for the J-shape association of BMI with mortality. Being underweight in middle age and old age carries an increased risk of dementia over two decades. Our results contradict the hypothesis that obesity in middle age could increase the risk of dementia in old age. The reasons for and public health consequences of these findings need further investigation. None. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage studies in BMI and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Catherine L; Chiodini, Benedetta D; Sham, Pak; Lewis, Cathryn M; Abkevich, Victor; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; de Andrade, Mariza; Arya, Rector; Berenson, Gerald S; Blangero, John; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chagnon, Yvon C; Chen, Wei; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Deng, Hong-Wen; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Feitosa, Mary F; Froguel, Philippe; Hanson, Robert L; Hebebrand, Johannes; Huezo-Dias, Patricia; Kissebah, Ahmed H; Li, Weidong; Luke, Amy; Martin, Lisa J; Nash, Matthew; Ohman, Miina; Palmer, Lyle J; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Price, R Arlen; Redline, Susan; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Stern, Michael P; Stone, Steven; Stringham, Heather; Turner, Stephen; Wijmenga, Cisca; Collier, David A

    2007-09-01

    The objective was to provide an overall assessment of genetic linkage data of BMI and BMI-defined obesity using a nonparametric genome scan meta-analysis. We identified 37 published studies containing data on over 31,000 individuals from more than >10,000 families and obtained genome-wide logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores, non-parametric linkage (NPL) scores, or maximum likelihood scores (MLS). BMI was analyzed in a pooled set of all studies, as a subgroup of 10 studies that used BMI-defined obesity, and for subgroups ascertained through type 2 diabetes, hypertension, or subjects of European ancestry. Bins at chromosome 13q13.2- q33.1, 12q23-q24.3 achieved suggestive evidence of linkage to BMI in the pooled analysis and samples ascertained for hypertension. Nominal evidence of linkage to these regions and suggestive evidence for 11q13.3-22.3 were also observed for BMI-defined obesity. The FTO obesity gene locus at 16q12.2 also showed nominal evidence for linkage. However, overall distribution of summed rank p values <0.05 is not different from that expected by chance. The strongest evidence was obtained in the families ascertained for hypertension at 9q31.1-qter and 12p11.21-q23 (p < 0.01). Despite having substantial statistical power, we did not unequivocally implicate specific loci for BMI or obesity. This may be because genes influencing adiposity are of very small effect, with substantial genetic heterogeneity and variable dependence on environmental factors. However, the observation that the FTO gene maps to one of the highest ranking bins for obesity is interesting and, while not a validation of this approach, indicates that other potential loci identified in this study should be investigated further.

  2. BMI-1 suppression increases the radiosensitivity of oesophageal carcinoma via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing-Xiao; Ma, Ming; Sang, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Xue-Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Kun; Song, Heng; Zhu, Shu-Chai

    2018-02-01

    B-cell‑specific Moloney murine leukaemia virus integration site-1 (BMI-1) contributes to the growth of tumour cells post-irradiation (IR). The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of BMI-1 on cell viability, radiosensitivity and its mechanisms of action in oesophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were employed to evaluate the protein expression of BMI-1 in ESCC cells and specimens, respectively. Additionally, the protein expression levels of BMI-1, H2AK119ub and γH2AX in ESCC cells were detected following different doses of IR and at different times after IR. The protein expression levels of MDC1 and 53BP1 were also measured. Flow cytometry and MTT assays were used to determine cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cell viability. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and the agonist IGF-1 were employed to suppress or induce the phosphorylation of Akt to determine whether BMI-1 induces radioresistance in ESCC cells via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. The expression of BMI-1 was higher in ESCC tissues and cells compared with that in normal oesophageal tissues and cells. In addition, BMI-1 was positively related to tumour size and lymph node metastases and negatively to the overall survival of ESCC patients. IR induced the expression of BMI-1, H2AK119ub and γH2AX in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BMI-1 knockdown lowered the expression of γH2AX, MDC1 and 53BP1, suppressed cell viability and increased radiosensitivity. G2/M phase arrest was eliminated; this was followed by an increased proportion of cells entering the G0/G1 phase after IR and BMI-1 knockdown via the upregulation of P16 and downregulation of cyclin D2 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4. Moreover, BMI-1 knockdown increased cell apoptosis, downregulated MCL-1 and p-Akt and upregulated Bax. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of the downregulation of p-Akt by LY294002 on tumour cell viability was identical to that of

  3. BMI-for-age graphs with severe obesity percentile curves: tools for plotting cross-sectional and longitudinal youth BMI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Yu, Liyang; DuPont, Nicholas C; Clark, B Ruth

    2017-05-24

    Severe obesity is an important and distinct weight status classification that is associated with disease risk and is increasing in prevalence among youth. The ability to graphically present population weight status data, ranging from underweight through severe obesity class 3, is novel and applicable to epidemiologic research, intervention studies, case reports, and clinical care. The aim was to create body mass index (BMI) graphing tools to generate sex-specific BMI-for-age graphs that include severe obesity percentile curves. We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention youth reference data sets and weight status criteria to generate the percentile curves. The statistical software environments SAS and R were used to create two different graphing options. This article provides graphing tools for creating sex-specific BMI-for-age graphs for males and females ages 2 to obesity classes 2 and 3, the ability to plot individual data for thousands of children and adolescents on a single graph, and the ability to generate cross-sectional and longitudinal graphs. These new BMI graphing tools will enable investigators, public health professionals, and clinicians to view and present youth weight status data in novel and meaningful ways.

  4. BMI-1, a promising therapeutic target for human cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, MIN-CONG; LI, CHUN-LI; CUI, JIE; JIAO, MIN; WU, TAO; JING, LI; NAN, KE-JUN

    2015-01-01

    BMI-1 oncogene is a member of the polycomb-group gene family and a transcriptional repressor. Overexpression of BMI-1 has been identified in various human cancer tissues and is known to be involved in cancer cell proliferation, cell invasion, distant metastasis, chemosensitivity and patient survival. Accumulating evidence has revealed that BMI-1 is also involved in the regulation of self-renewal, differentiation and tumor initiation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these biological processes remain unclear. The present review summarized the function of BMI-1 in different human cancer types and CSCs, and discussed the signaling pathways in which BMI-1 is potentially involved. In conclusion, BMI-1 may represent a promising target for the prevention and therapy of various cancer types. PMID:26622537

  5. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes......AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. METHODS: In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study...

  6. The mediating role of dichotomous thinking and emotional eating in the relationship between depression and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Evangelia E; Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita

    2017-08-01

    Obesity and depression have important health implications. Although there is knowledge about the moderators of the depression-obesity association, our understanding of the potential behavioral and cognitive mediators that may explain the relationship between depression and obesity, is scarcely researched. The aim of this study is to investigate the mediating role of emotional eating and dichotomous thinking in the depression-obesity relationship. Data on 205 individuals from a community-based study conducted at Maastricht University, Netherlands were used. Self-reported data on depression, emotional eating and dichotomous thinking were collected and BMI scores were calculated in a cross-sectional research design. Correlations between variables were calculated. The primary analysis tested the hypothesis that depression has an effect on BMI through dichotomous thinking and emotional eating. A two-mediator model was used to predict the direct and indirect effects of emotional eating and dichotomous thinking on the depression-BMI relationship. Depression was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.21, p=0.005), emotional eating (r=0.38, pemotional eating were positively correlated with BMI (r=0.35, pemotional eating (Z=3.92 pemotional eating and dichotomous thinking might be useful in guiding assessment and treatment protocols for weight management. The present study adds to the existing literature on the role of dysfunctional cognitions and emotions on eating behavior, and particularly to the factors that may impede people's ability to control their eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anatomy of the collecting system of lower pole of the kidney in patients with a single renal stone: a comparative study with individuals with normal kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorrodi, Afshar; Buhluli, Abulfazel; Fathi, Samad

    2010-07-01

    At least 5% of women and 12% of men during their lives will experience renal colic, at least once. Many theories have been suggested for the etiology of renal stones and variations in the anatomy of the collecting system have been suggested to have a role in stone formation. This study was conducted to examine the role of variation of lower pole collecting system in patients with lower pole kidney stone and compared the same in normal persons (kidney donors). Investigation for the anatomy of the lower pole of the kidney (angle between lower infundibulum and pelvis, length and diameter of the infundibulum and number and pattern distribution of calyces) was carried out using intravenous pyelogram (IVP) in 100 cases with urinary stone (study cases) and 400 persons with normal kidneys (control subjects). The study was a retrospective cross-sectional case control study. Results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney and independent sample chi square tests. The mean infundibulum-pelvic angle (IPA) in control subjects and in patients was 112.5 +/- 10.7 and 96.6 +/- 28.8, respectively. There was significant correlation between reduced angle and stone formation (P= kidney (IPIL) in controls and study patients was 22.5 +/- 4.1 and 27.5 +/- 7.7, respectively, which was statistically significant (Pkidney (LPCN) in controls and study patients was 2.6 +/- 0.6 and 3 +/- 0.9, respectively, which was statistically significant (P = or anatomy was more common in patients with lower pole kidney stone and should be considered a risk factor for forming lower pole kidney stone.

  8. Effects of sulfate deprivation on the production of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by cultures of skin fibroblasts from normal and diabetic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silbert, C.K.; Humphries, D.E.; Palmer, M.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Human skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from two normal men, three Type I diabetic men, and one Type I diabetic woman were incubated with [3H]glucosamine in the presence of diminished concentrations of sulfate. Although total synthesis of [3H]chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans varied somewhat between cell lines, glycosaminoglycan production was not affected within any line when sulfate levels were decreased from 0.3 mM to 0.06 mM to 0.01 mM to 0 added sulfate. Lowering of sulfate concentrations resulted in diminished sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan in a progressive manner, so that overall sulfation dropped to as low as 19% for one of the lines. Sulfation of chondroitin to form chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate was progressively and equally affected by decreasing the sulfate concentration in the culture medium. However, sulfation to form dermatan sulfate was preserved to a greater degree, so that the relative proportion of dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate increased. Essentially all the nonsulfated residues were susceptible to chondroitin AC lyase, indicating that little epimerization of glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid had occurred in the absence of sulfation. These results confirm the previously described dependency of glucuronic/iduronic epimerization on sulfation, and indicate that sulfation of the iduronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of dermatan can take place with sulfate concentrations lower than those needed for 6-sulfation and 4-sulfation of the glucuronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of chondroitin. There were considerable differences among the six fibroblast lines in susceptibility to low sulfate medium and in the proportion of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. However, there was no pattern of differences between normals and diabetics

  9. Trends in BMI of urban Australian adults, 1980-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Helen L; Wolfe, Rory; Haby, Michelle M

    2010-01-01

    of 7.4 kg/m2 at the higher end for women aged 55-64 years. While the prevalence of obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg/m2) doubled, the prevalence of obesity class III (BMI >or= 40 kg/m2) increased fourfold. CONCLUSIONS: BMI in urban Australian adults has increased and its distribution has become increasingly...... right-skewed. This has resulted in a large increase in the prevalence of obesity, particularly the more severe levels of obesity. It will be important to monitor changes in the different classes of obesity and the extent to which obesity interventions both shift the BMI distribution leftwards...

  10. Low fitness is associated with abdominal adiposity and low-grade inflammation independent of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedell-Neergaard, Anne-Sophie; Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Up to 30% of obese individuals are metabolically healthy. Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals are characterized by having low abdominal adiposity, low inflammation level and low risk of developing metabolic comorbidity. In this study, we hypothesize that cardiorespiratory fit...... to be inversely associated with both abdominal adiposity and low-grade inflammation independent of BMI. These data suggest that, in spite of BMI, high fitness levels lead to a reduction in abdominal fat mass and low-grade inflammation.......OBJECTIVE: Up to 30% of obese individuals are metabolically healthy. Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals are characterized by having low abdominal adiposity, low inflammation level and low risk of developing metabolic comorbidity. In this study, we hypothesize that cardiorespiratory...... fitness (fitness) is a determinant factor for the MHO individuals and aim to investigate the associations between fitness, abdominal adiposity and low-grade inflammation within different BMI categories. METHOD: Data from 10,976 individuals from the general population, DANHES 2007-2008, on waist...

  11. BMI-1 targeting interferes with patient-derived tumor-initiating cell survival and tumor growth in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuff, Shamila; Davis, Stephani; Flaherty, Kathleen; Huselid, Eric; Patrizii, Michele; Jones, Daniel; Cao, Liangxian; Sydorenko, Nadiya; Moon, Young-Choon; Zhong, Hua; Medina, Daniel J.; Kerrigan, John; Stein, Mark N.; Kim, Isaac Y.; Davis, Thomas W.; DiPaola, Robert S.; Bertino, Joseph R.; Sabaawy, Hatem E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Current prostate cancer (PCa) management calls for identifying novel and more effective therapies. Self-renewing tumor-initiating cells (TICs) hold intrinsic therapy-resistance and account for tumor relapse and progression. As BMI-1 regulates stem cell self-renewal, impairing BMI-1 function for TICs-tailored therapies appears to be a promising approach. Experimental design We have previously developed a combined immunophenotypic and time-of-adherence assay to identify CD49bhiCD29hiCD44hi cells as human prostate TICs. We utilized this assay with patient derived prostate cancer cells and xenograft models to characterize the effects of pharmacological inhibitors of BMI-1. Results We demonstrate that in cell lines and patient-derived TICs, BMI-1 expression is upregulated and associated with stem cell-like traits. From a screened library, we identified a number of post-transcriptional small molecules that target BMI-1 in prostate TICs. Pharmacological inhibition of BMI-1 in patient-derived cells significantly decreased colony formation in vitro and attenuated tumor initiation in vivo, thereby functionally diminishing the frequency of TICs, particularly in cells resistant to proliferation- and androgen receptor (AR)-directed therapies, without toxic effects on normal tissues. Conclusions Our data offer a paradigm for targeting TICs and support the development of BMI-1-targeting therapy for a more effective PCa treatment. PMID:27307599

  12. Cost of fertility treatment and live birth outcome in women of different ages and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shilpi; McLernon, David J; Scotland, Graham; Mollison, Jill; Wordsworth, Sarah; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2014-10-10

    What is the impact of different age and BMI groups on total investigation and treatment costs in women attending a secondary/tertiary care fertility clinic? Women in their early to mid-30s and women with normal BMI had higher cumulative investigation and treatment costs, but also higher probability of live birth. Female age and BMI have been used as criteria for rationing publically funded fertility treatments. Population-based data on the costs of investigating and treating infertility are lacking. A retrospective cohort study of 2463 women was conducted in a single secondary/tertiary care fertility clinic in Aberdeen, Scotland from 1998 to 2008. Participants included all women living in a defined geographical area referred from primary care to a specialized fertility clinic over an 11-year period. Women were followed up for 5 years or until live birth if this occurred sooner. Mean discounted cumulative National Health Service costs (expressed in 2010/2011 GBP) of fertility investigations, treatments (including all types of assisted reproduction), and pregnancy (including delivery episode) and neonatal admissions were calculated and summarized by age (≤ 30, 31-35, 36-40, >40 years) and BMI groupings (years, with 694 (55.1%) of these being natural conceptions. The live birth rate was highest among women in the youngest age group (64.3%), and lowest in those aged >40 years (13.4%). Overall live birth rates were generally lower in women with BMI >30 kg/m(2). The total costs of investigations were generally highest among women younger than 30 years (£491 in those with normal BMI), whilst treatment costs tended to be higher in 31-35 year olds (£1,840 in those with normal BMI). Multivariate modelling predicted a cost increase associated with treatment which was highest among women in the lowest BMI group (across all ages), and also highest among women aged 31-35 years. The increase in the predicted probability of live birth with exposure to treatment was consistent

  13. Analysis of the prognostic value of BMI and the difference in its impact according to age and sex in DLBCL patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemasa, Yusuke; Shimoyama, Tatsu; Sasaki, Yuki; Tamura, Miho; Sawada, Takeshi; Omuro, Yasushi; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Maeda, Yoshiharu

    2018-02-01

    Studies that have evaluated the prognostic value of body mass index (BMI) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma have recently been reported. However, the impact of BMI on survival outcomes remains controversial. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 406 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP or R-CHOP-like regimens. The number (%) of patients that were categorized into 1 of 4 groups according to BMI were underweight (BMI (BMI (≥25 kg/m 2 ) (5-y OS, 61.5% vs 85.7%; P = .039). In contrast, in young female patients (BMI had significantly better OS than those with a high BMI (5-y OS, 88.6% vs 46.4%; P BMI on OS between young and elderly patients. In this study, we demonstrated that being underweight and obese were independent prognostic factors compared with being normal weight. In female patients, BMI had a different impact on the prognosis of young and elderly patients, whereas in male patients, there was no difference in the effect of BMI on prognosis according to age. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Individual variation in p53 and Cip1 expression profiles in normal human fibroblast strains following exposure to high-let radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, T.R.; Johnson, N.F.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to α-particles emitted by radon progeny appears to be the second-leading cause of lung cancer mortality. However, individual susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of α-particles remains poorly characterized. Variation in susceptibility to cancer produced by certian classes of DNA-damaging chemicals is suspected to involve differences in metabolic activation and detoxication. Susceptibility to α-particle-induced cancer may involve variations in capacity or opportunity to repair DNA damage. Subtle variations in DNA repair capacity would more likely explain radon-related lung cancer susceptibility. The p53 tumor suppressor protein accumulates as a cellular response to DNA damage from ionizing radiation and regulates arrest in the G 1 portion of the cell cycle. Arrest in G 1 portion of the cell cycle. While upstream regulation of p53 protein stability is poorly understood, variations in the ability to accumulate p53 following DNA damage represent potential variations in lung cancer susceptibility related to radon progeny. Further, transcription of the cell-cycle regulatory gene Cip1 is regulated by p53 and increases following ionizing radiation. Therefore, variations in the expression of Cip1 following α-particle exposure may also be a susceptibility factor in radon-related lung cancers. The purpose of the present investigation was to measure p53 and Cip1 protein induction following α-particle exposure of fibroblast lines from nine individuals to determine if there were significant variations. The expression of Cip1 protein indicates the differences in response are biologically relevant

  15. Individual variation in p53 and Cip1 expression profiles in normal human fibroblast strains following exposure to high-let radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, T.R.; Johnson, N.F.; Gilliland, F.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Exposure to {alpha}-particles emitted by radon progeny appears to be the second-leading cause of lung cancer mortality. However, individual susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of {alpha}-particles remains poorly characterized. Variation in susceptibility to cancer produced by certian classes of DNA-damaging chemicals is suspected to involve differences in metabolic activation and detoxication. Susceptibility to {alpha}-particle-induced cancer may involve variations in capacity or opportunity to repair DNA damage. Subtle variations in DNA repair capacity would more likely explain radon-related lung cancer susceptibility. The p53 tumor suppressor protein accumulates as a cellular response to DNA damage from ionizing radiation and regulates arrest in the G{sub 1} portion of the cell cycle. Arrest in G{sub 1} portion of the cell cycle. While upstream regulation of p53 protein stability is poorly understood, variations in the ability to accumulate p53 following DNA damage represent potential variations in lung cancer susceptibility related to radon progeny. Further, transcription of the cell-cycle regulatory gene Cip1 is regulated by p53 and increases following ionizing radiation. Therefore, variations in the expression of Cip1 following {alpha}-particle exposure may also be a susceptibility factor in radon-related lung cancers. The purpose of the present investigation was to measure p53 and Cip1 protein induction following {alpha}-particle exposure of fibroblast lines from nine individuals to determine if there were significant variations. The expression of Cip1 protein indicates the differences in response are biologically relevant.

  16. In a safety net population HPV4 vaccine adherence worsens as BMI increases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Harper

    Full Text Available Obesity adversely inhibits antibody response to vaccination. Three doses of HPV4 may or may not provide adequate long term protection against HPV 16/18 in obese females. The aim of this study was to determine whether adherence to HPV4 vaccination in a safety net population was reduced with increasing body mass index (BMI.We designed a historical prospective study evaluating the number and dates of HPV4 dosing that occurred from July 1, 2006 through October 1, 2009 by the demographic characteristics of the 10-26 year old recipient females. The defined dosing intervals were adapted from the literature and obesity categories were defined by the WHO.1240 females with BMI measurements received at least one dose of HPV4; 38% were obese (class I, II and III and 25% were overweight. Females with normal BMI received on-time triplet dosing significantly more often than did the obese class II and III females (30% vs. 18%, p<0.001. Obese class II/III females have a significant 45% less chance of completing the on-time triplet HPV4 series than normal women (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.83. Pregnancy history has a significant influence on BMI and HPV4 dosing compliance in this safety net population where 71% had been gravid. Hispanic females were less likely to complete HPV4 dosing regardless of BMI (aOR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.95.Obesity, as well as gravidity and Hispanic race, are risk factors for lack of HPV4 vaccine adherence among young females in a safety net population.

  17. Comparison of Biomedical Variables in PCOS Patients with Normal Iranian Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bagheri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To compared serum CRP levels and biochemical relation in PCOS patients with normal Iranian women.This case-control study was performed on 52 individuals with PCOS (Rotterdam 2003 criteria. The cases were compared to 104 healthy non-PCOS, 20 to 35-year-old female subjects with no history of diabetes or renal diseases. Blood samples were taken on the 2(nd to the 5(th day of menstrual cycle for the evaluation of CRP levels, triglyceride, insulin, androstronedion, testestrone and total cholesterol.The mean CRP was 1.38 (± 0.43 mg /dl in the PCOS group, and 1.08 (± 0.49 mg /dl (p= 0.240 in control group.High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (HS-CRP was positively correlated with the Body Mass Index (BMI (r = 0.36, p= 0. 001. Before adjusting for age and BMI, CRP was correlated with LDL (r= 0.16, p= 0.03, total cholesterol (TC (r= 0.17, p= 0. 03, Triglycerid (TG (r= 0.23, p= 0.003, and the insulin (r= 0.20, p= 0. 01 notably in PCOS group. However, after adjustment was made for age and BMI, the correlation was attenuated in PCOS. The regression analyses depicted that CRP level was not under the influence of other medical parameters Conclusion:The results showed that mean CRP level was not significantly different between PCOs and normal women. After adjustment for age and BMI, CRP was not associated with any biochemical marker evaluated in this study. It seems that studied biochemical serum levels were mostly associated with obesity. So reduction of BMI may normalize the serum levels of CRP and other biochemical parameters.

  18. Increased BMI in children-an indicator for less compliance during orthodontic treatment with removable appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bremen, Julia; Lorenz, Nathalie; Ludwig, Björn; Ruf, Sabine

    2018-02-19

    To assess whether or not childhood overweight is associated with lower levels of compliance during orthodontic therapy with removable appliances. Starting in 2011, all upper expansion plates and Sander II appliances were equipped with a Theramon® microsensor chip to assess appliance wear time objectively. According to their pre-treatment, BMI normal weight patients were matched to consecutively treated overweight or obese patients by gender, age, and appliance type. Cooperation was assessed with microelectronic wear time documentation over a period of at least 6 months. A total of 50 patients (25 overweight, 25 normal weight) with upper expansion plates and 64 patients (32 overweight, 32 normal weight) with Sander II appliances were analysed. Spearman Rho coefficients showed an indirect association between BMI and appliance wear time, indicating that the higher the BMI, the less the patients wore their appliances (P appliances (P appliance wear during orthodontic treatment with removable appliances. Additional factors which influenced cooperation during treatment with removable appliances were patient age and appliance type.

  19. Use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of individuals with hearing impairment and normal hearing between 5 and 11 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Endo Amemiya

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nouns and verbs indicate actions in oral communication. However, hearing impairment can compromise the acquisition of oral language to such an extent that appropriate use of these can be challenging. The objective of this study was to compare the use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of hearing-impaired and hearing children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study at the Department of Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Twenty-one children with moderate to profound bilateral neurosensory hearing impairment and twenty-one with normal hearing (controls were matched according to sex, school year and school type. A board showing pictures was presented to each child, to elicit a narrative and measure their performance in producing nouns and verbs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (52.4% of the subjects were males. The mean age was 8 years (standard deviation, SD = 1.5. Comparing averages between the groups of boys and girls, we did not find any significant difference in their use of nouns, but among verbs, there was a significant difference regarding use of the imperative (P = 0.041: more frequent among boys (mean = 2.91. There was no significant difference in the use of nouns and verbs between deaf children and hearers, in relation to school type. Regarding use of the indicative, there was a nearly significant trend (P = 0.058. CONCLUSION: Among oralized hearing-impaired children who underwent speech therapy, their performance regarding verbs and noun use was similar to that of their hearing counterparts.

  20. Longitudinal Analysis of Genetic Susceptibility and BMI Throughout Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Zheng, Yan; Qi, Lu; Hu, Frank B; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about the genetic influence on BMI trajectory throughout adulthood. We created a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising 97 adult BMI-associated variants among 9,971 women and 6,405 men of European ancestry. Serial measures of BMI were assessed from 18 (women) or 21 (men) years to 85 years of age. We also examined BMI change in early (from 18 or 21 to 45 years of age), middle (from 45 to 65 years of age), and late adulthood (from 65 to 80 years of age). GRS was positively associated with BMI across all ages, with stronger associations in women than in men. The associations increased from early to middle adulthood, peaked at 45 years of age in men and at 60 years of age in women (0.91 and 1.35 kg/m 2 per 10-allele increment, respectively) and subsequently declined in late adulthood. For women, each 10-allele increment in the GRS was associated with an average BMI gain of 0.54 kg/m 2 in early adulthood, whereas no statistically significant association was found for BMI change in middle or late adulthood or for BMI change in any life period in men. Our findings indicate that genetic predisposition exerts a persistent effect on adiposity throughout adult life and increases early adulthood weight gain in women. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. BMI may underestimate the socioeconomic gradient in true obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.; van Eijsden, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) does not make a distinction between fat mass and lean mass. In children, high fat mass appears to be associated with low maternal education, as well as low lean mass because maternal education is associated with physical activity. Therefore, BMI might underestimate true obesity

  2. Effect of BMI and body weight on pregnancy rates with LNG as emergency contraception: analysis of four WHO HRP studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festin, Mario Philip R; Peregoudov, Alexandre; Seuc, Armando; Kiarie, James; Temmerman, Marleen

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the effect of increased body weight and body mass index (BMI) on pregnancy rates with levonorgestrel (LNG) 1.5mg used as emergency contraception (EC). The study reviewed data from 6873 women in four WHO-HRP randomized trials on EC conducted between 1993 and 2010. Participants took either 1.5mg of LNG as a single dose or in two doses 12h apart, up to 120h of unprotected intercourse. Contraceptive efficacy (pregnancy rates) at different weight and BMI categories was evaluated. Overall pregnancy rate was low at 1.2%. Pregnancy rates were also low in women weighing over 80kg (0.7%) and who were obese (BMI over 30kg/m 2 ) (2.0%). The pooled analyses for pregnancy demonstrated that BMI over 30kg/m 2 decreased efficacy significantly (odds ratio 8.27, 95% confidence interval = 2.70-25.37) when compared to women in lower BMI categories, mainly influenced by pregnancies in obese women from one study site. Sensitivity analyses excluding that site showed that obesity was no longer a risk factor; however, the other studies included too few obese women in the sample to exclude a substantial decrease in efficacy. Pregnancy rates with use of LNG 1.5mg for EC were low at less than 3% across different weight and BMI categories. Pooled analyses showed an increase in pregnancy rates among obese women (BMI more than 30kg/m 2 ) compared to women with normal BMI levels, influenced by pregnancies all coming from one study site. Access to LNG as EC should still be promoted to women who need them, and not be restricted in any weight or BMI category, with additional attention for counselling and advice for obese women. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Measurement of spontaneous DNA damage and DNA repair capacity in healthy adult individuals from high and normal level natural radiation areas of Kerala, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Jaikrishan, G.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2014-01-01

    Inhabitants of the south west coastal areas of Kerala receive high level natural radiation due to the presence of monazite ( 232 Th) in the beach sand. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate the biological effects of high level natural radiation on humans. This study evaluate basal DNA damage in 149 healthy adult male subjects (104 from high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA, > 1mSv year -1 ) and 45 from normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA, d''1mSv year -1 ) by the alkaline comet assay. Oxidative DNA damage (ENDO III, FPG and hOGG1-sensitive sites) was measured by the enzyme modified comet assay. Induction and rejoining of DNA strand breaks was measured after irradiating peripheral blood lymphocytes with 2 Gy or 4 Gy gamma radiation. Basal damage due to age and residential area of the donors showed significant interaction (P=0.001), when all subjects were analyzed using a general linear model (GLM). In subgroup analysis, basal damage increased with age in subjects from the NLNRA (P=0.007), while a significant negative correlation (P=0.01) was observed in subjects from HLNRA. Oxidative DNA damage was not influenced by age, smoking habit or residential area in the entire sample. Subjects of high dose group from HLNRA (>5.75 mSv/y, N=34) showed a significant reduction in the induction of DNA damage after 2 Gy (P=0.03) and 4 Gy (P=0.05) compared to subjects form NLNRA. The study showed increased rejoining of DNA strand breaks in subjects from HLNRA when measured at 7 minutes after irradiation (P=0.04). In this pilot study, a low basal damage in elderly subjects from HLNRA and a reduced induction of DNA damage after 2 Gy and 4 Gy irradiation in high dose group subjects from HLNRA might suggest a possible role of chronic low dose natural radiation on the induction of an in vivo radio adaptive response. However, our findings need more validation in a larger study population. (author)

  4. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  5. Long-term effects of peer victimization on social outcomes through the fourth decade of life in individuals born at normal or extremely low birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kimberly L; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to early adversity is known to have deleterious effects on brain-behaviour relations across the lifespan and across a range of domains. Here, we tested a cumulative risk hypothesis of adult social functioning and health outcomes in the fourth decade of life, using the oldest known longitudinally followed cohort of survivors of extremely low birthweight (ELBW; 2,500 g) participants. In the combined sample, peer victimization was associated with lower likelihood of having children and household income, poorer family functioning and self-esteem, more loneliness and chronic health conditions, less social support, and increased likelihood for contact with police. Moderation analyses indicated that among ELBW survivors, compared to their NBW counterparts, victimization was more strongly associated with being convicted of a crime and with having chronic health conditions. These findings highlight the negative long-term impact of peer victimization on all children and that some outcomes may be differentially affected by prenatal and early post-natal environments. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Exposure to early adversity has deleterious effects on brain-behaviour relations across the lifespan. Extremely premature children have higher rates of exposure to adversities, including peer victimization. Peer victimization is associated with adverse outcomes in adulthood in those born at term. What does this study add? Victimization negatively impacts the social outcomes of those born extremely premature and at term into adulthood. Associations appear to be affected by individual differences in prenatal and early post-natal environments. Intervention is crucial when peer victimization occurs in children at risk, as well as those typically developing. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Natacha Gomes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and sedentariness (Sed in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9–11 years. Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = −0.02 ± 0.002 and BMI (β = −0.005 ± 0.002. Sleep time is related to Sed (β = −0.42 ± 0.04, while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13, biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07, media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08 and healthy (β = −0.09 ± 0.03 and unhealthy (β = −0.07 ± 0.04 diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = −0.97 ± 0.25, playground equipment (β = −0.67 ± 0.20 and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08 were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children’s traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented.

  7. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI) Categories Based on Asian and Universal Standards and Language Spoken at Home among Asian American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tiffany; McMahan, Shari; Mouttapa, Michele; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Beam, William

    2009-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization released lower Body Mass Index (BMI) cutoff points for Asian individuals to account for increased body fat percentage (BF%) and risk of obesity-related conditions at a lower body mass index. Purpose: This preliminary study: (1) explores the impact of utilizing Asian BMI standards (compared to universal…

  8. Smoking and BMI as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease at a doctors in Tuzla canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merisa Imamović Kuluglić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are becoming the leading social and medical problem of civilization, given the trend indicates an increase of morbidity, disability and mortality from this diseases. The aim ofour study was to determine the frequency of smoking and increased BMI, as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in doctors in the Tuzla Canton and correlate values of BMI by the doctor smokers and nonsmokers.Methods: The study was conducted in 13 medical centers in the area of Tuzla canton in the second quarter of 2009. Two groups were formed by randomization of 150 doctors non-smokers and 150 doctors smokersfrom a total of 366 doctors of both sexes, age over 25 years. The study involved doctors who smoke tobacco 5 or more years. The methods of anthropometric measurements and questionnaires were used in study.Results: The results showed that the total number of doctors surveyed, 44.81% were smokers, with more women smokers (28.7% than men (21.3% smokers (p=0.011. We found that there is a signifi cant statistical difference between subjects with BMI higher than 25 and subjects with normal weight, in the group of smokers (p = 0.0001.Conclusion: It can be concluded that the frequency of smoking in the total number of surveyed doctors, is signifi cant. The increased value of BMI (over 25 is present in large number of subjects (with the larger percentage subjects of smokers.

  9. Longitudinal associations between BMI, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk in US youth: monitoring implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, R; Mendoza, J A; Chen, T; Baranowski, T

    2013-03-01

    This study examined whether change in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) is associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors and differences between cardiovascular disease specific and diabetes specific risk factors among adolescents. We also sought to examine any differences by gender or baseline body mass status. The article is a longitudinal analysis of pre- and post-data collected in the HEALTHY trial. Participants were 4,603 ethnically diverse adolescents who provided complete data at 6th and 8th grade assessments. The main outcome measures were percent change in the following cardiometabolic risk factors: fasting triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose as well as a clustered metabolic risk score. Main exposures were change in BMI or WC z-score. Models were run stratified by gender; secondary models were additionally stratified by baseline BMI group (normal, overweight, or obese). Analysis showed that when cardiometabolic risk factors were treated as continuous variables, there was strong evidence (P fasting glucose and the combined risk factor score for both boys and girls. There was some evidence that change in WC z-score was associated with some cardiovascular risk factors, but change in WC z-score was consistently associated with changes in fasting glucose. In conclusion, routine monitoring of BMI should be continued by health professionals, but additional information on disease risk may be provided by assessing WC. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  10. BMI predicts emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility in adolescents with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Rico, Elena; Río-Valle, Jacqueline S; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Campoy, Cristina; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is increasingly viewed as a brain-related dysfunction, whereby reward-driven urges for pleasurable foods "hijack" response selection systems, such that behavioral control progressively shifts from impulsivity to compulsivity. In this study, we aimed to examine the link between personality factors (sensitivity to reward (SR) and punishment (SP), BMI, and outcome measures of impulsivity vs. flexibility in--otherwise healthy--excessive weight adolescents. Sixty-three adolescents (aged 12-17) classified as obese (n = 26), overweight (n = 16), or normal weight (n = 21) participated in the study. We used psychometric assessments of the SR and SP motivational systems, impulsivity (using the UPPS-P scale), and neurocognitive measures with discriminant validity to dissociate inhibition vs. flexibility deficits (using the process-approach version of the Stroop test). We tested the relative contribution of age, SR/SP, and BMI on estimates of impulsivity and inhibition vs. switching performance using multistep hierarchical regression models. BMI significantly predicted elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity (positive and negative urgency) and inferior flexibility performance in adolescents with excess weight--exceeding the predictive capacity of SR and SP. SR was the main predictor of elevations in sensation seeking and lack of premeditation. These findings demonstrate that increases in BMI are specifically associated with elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility, supporting a dimensional path in which adolescents with excess weight increase their proneness to overindulge when under strong affective states, and their difficulties to switch or reverse habitual behavioral patterns.

  11. Impact of normal weight obesity on fundamental motor skills in pre-school children aged 3 to 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Martin; Kokstejn, Jakub; Papez, Pavel; Scheffler, Christiane; Mumm, Rebekka; Czernitzki, Anna-Franziska; Koziel, Slawomir

    2017-09-01

    Normal weight obesity is defined as having excessive body fat, but normal BMI. Even though previous research revealed that excessive body fat in children inhibited their physical activity and decreased motor performance, there has been only little evidence about motor performance of normal weight obese children. This study aims to establish whether normal weight obese pre-school children aged 3-6 years will have a significantly worse level of fundamental motor skills compared to normal weight non-obese counterparts. The research sample consisted of 152 pre-schoolers selected from a specific district of Prague, the Czech Republic. According to values from four skinfolds: triceps, subscapula, suprailiaca, calf, and BMI three categories of children aged 3-6 years were determined: A) normal weight obese n = 51; B) normal weight non-obese n = 52; C) overweight and obese n = 49. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) was used for the assessment of fundamental motor skills. Normal weight obese children had significantly higher amount of adipose tissue p < 0.001 than normal weight non-obese children but the same average BMI. Moreover, normal weight obese children did not have significantly less amount of subcutaneous fat on triceps and calf compared to their overweight and obese peers. In majority of MABC-2 tests, normal weight obese pre-schoolers showed the poorest performance. Moreover, normal weight obese children had significantly worse total standard score = 38.82 compared to normal weight non-obese peers = 52.27; p < 0.05. In addition, normal weight obese children had a more than three times higher frequency OR = 3.69 CI95% (1.10; 12.35) of severe motor deficit performance ≤ 5 th centile of the MABC-2 norm. These findings are strongly alarming since indices like BMI are not able to identify normal weight obese individual. We recommend verifying real portion of normal weight obese children as they are probably in higher risk of health and motor

  12. Expression of Bmi-1, P16, and CD44v6 in Uterine Cervical Carcinoma and Its Clinical Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Mei-ying; Li, Lin; Feng, Shu-ying; Hong, Shun-jia

    2012-01-01

    Bmi-1, a putative proto-oncogene, is a core member of the polycomb gene family, which is expressed in many human tumors. The p16 protein negatively regulated cell proliferation, whereas CD44v6 is associated with proliferation as an important protein. Additionally, CD44v6 is an important nuclear antigen closely correlated to tumor metastasis. The present study aims to investigate the expression and significance of Bmi-1, p16, and CD44v6 in uterine cervical carcinoma (UCC). A total of 62 UCC, 30 cervical neoplasic, and 20 normal cervical mucosal tissues were used in the current study. The expression of Bmi-1, p16, and CD44v6 in these tissues was determined using immunohistochemical assay. The relationships among the expression of these indices, the clinicopathologic features of UCC, and the survival rate of UCC patients were also discussed. The correlation between Bmi-1 protein expression and p16 or CD44v6 protein in UCC was analyzed. The expression of Bmi-1, p16, and CD44v6 was significantly high in cervical carcinoma compared with that in the cervical neoplasia and normal colorectal mucosa (P<0.05). The over-expression of Bmi-1 protein in UCC was apparently related to the distant metastasis (P<0.01) and the tumor, nodes and metastasis-classification, i.e. the TNM staging, World Health Organization (P<0.05). Nevertheless, the positive expression of p16 protein in UCC was not significantly associated with the clinicopathologic features (P>0.05). The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that the over-expression of Bmi-1 significantly decreased the survival rate of UCC patients (P<0.05). A strong correlation indicated that there was statistical significance between the expression of Bmi-1 and CD44V6 proteins in UCC (r=0.419, P=0.001). The over-expression of Bmi-1 and CD44v6 protein closely correlate to the tumorigenesis, metastasis, and prognosis of UCC. Bmi-1 and CD44v6 may be used to predict the prognosis of cervical carcinoma. Bmi-1 may indirectly regulate the

  13. Association of Pre-pregnancy BMI and Postpartum Weight Retention Before Second Pregnancy, Washington State, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterl, Tyler G; Dundas, Nicolas J; Roncaioli, Steven A; Littman, Alyson J; Phipps, Amanda I

    2018-03-06

    Background Maternal overweight and obesity is one of the most common high-risk obstetric conditions associated with adverse birth outcomes. Smaller studies have suggested that pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with postpartum weight retention. Objective The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy BMI status and maternal weight retention. Study design We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using Washington State birth certificate data from 2003-2013. We included women who had two sequential births during this time period, with the second birth occurring within 18-36 months of the first singleton delivery date. BMI before a women's first pregnancy ("pre-pregnancy BMI") was categorized as normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ) and overweight/obese (25-40 kg/m 2 ). Women were classified as having returned to first pre-pregnancy BMI if their BMI before their second pregnancy was no more than 1 kg/m 2 more compared to their BMI before their first pregnancy. Analyses were stratified by gestational weight gain during the first pregnancy (below, met, exceeded recommended gestational weight gain). Results A total of 49,132 mothers were included in the study. Among women who met their recommended gestational weight gain, compared to mothers with a normal BMI, obese/overweight mothers were less likely to return to their pre-pregnancy BMI (76.5 vs 72.3%; RR Obese/Overweight  = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.85-0.92). A similar pattern was observed among women who exceeded their recommended gestational weight gain (62.6 vs 53.2%; RR Obese/Overweight  = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.78-0.80). Conclusion Pre-pregnancy BMI in the overweight/obese range is associated with a decreased likelihood of returning to pre-pregnancy BMI. Further research to support women during and after their pregnancy to promote behavior changes that prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy and weight retention after birth is needed.

  14. Blood Pressure Variation Throughout Pregnancy According to Early Gestational BMI: A Brazilian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rebelo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The maternal cardiovascular system undergoes progressive adaptations throughout pregnancy, causing blood pressure fluctuations. However, no consensus has been established on its normal variation in uncomplicated pregnancies. Objective: To describe the variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP levels during pregnancy according to early pregnancy body mass index (BMI. Methods: SBP and DBP were measured during the first, second and third trimesters and at 30-45 days postpartum in a prospective cohort of 189 women aged 20-40 years. BMI (kg/m2 was measured up to the 13th gestational week and classified as normal-weight (<25.0 or excessive weight (≥25.0. Longitudinal linear mixed-effects models were used for statistical analysis. Results: A decrease in SBP and DBP was observed from the first to the second trimester (βSBP=-0.394; 95%CI: -0.600- -0.188 and βDBP=-0.617; 95%CI: -0.780- -0.454, as was an increase in SBP and DBP up to 30-45 postpartum days (βSBP=0.010; 95%CI: 0.006-0.014 and βDBP=0.015; 95%CI: 0.012-0.018. Women with excessive weight at early pregnancy showed higher mean SBP in all gestational trimesters, and higher mean DBP in the first and third trimesters. Excessive early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with prospective changes in SBP (βSBP=7.055; 95%CI: 4.499-9.610 and in DBP (βDBP=3.201; 95%CI: 1.136-5.266. Conclusion: SBP and DBP decreased from the first to the second trimester and then increased up to the postpartum period. Women with excessive early pregnancy BMI had higher SBP and DBP than their normal-weight counterparts throughout pregnancy, but not in the postpartum period.

  15. Is BMI a valid measure of obesity in postmenopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banack, Hailey R; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Hovey, Kathleen M; Stokes, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used indicator of obesity status in clinical settings and population health research. However, there are concerns about the validity of BMI as a measure of obesity in postmenopausal women. Unlike BMI, which is an indirect measure of obesity and does not distinguish lean from fat mass, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provides a direct measure of body fat and is considered a gold standard of adiposity measurement. The goal of this study is to examine the validity of using BMI to identify obesity in postmenopausal women relative to total body fat percent measured by DXA scan. Data from 1,329 postmenopausal women participating in the Buffalo OsteoPerio Study were used in this analysis. At baseline, women ranged in age from 53 to 85 years. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m and body fat percent (BF%) greater than 35%, 38%, or 40%. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value to evaluate the validity of BMI-defined obesity relative BF%. We further explored the validity of BMI relative to BF% using graphical tools, such as scatterplots and receiver-operating characteristic curves. Youden's J index was used to determine the empirical optimal BMI cut-point for each level of BF% defined obesity. The sensitivity of BMI-defined obesity was 32.4% for 35% body fat, 44.6% for 38% body fat, and 55.2% for 40% body fat. Corresponding specificity values were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 94.6%, respectively. The empirical optimal BMI cut-point to define obesity is 24.9 kg/m for 35% BF, 26.49 kg/m for 38% BF, and 27.05 kg/m for 40% BF according to the Youden's index. Results demonstrate that a BMI cut-point of 30 kg/m does not appear to be an appropriate indicator of true obesity status in postmenopausal women. Empirical estimates of the validity of BMI from this study may be used by other investigators to account for BMI-related misclassification in older women.

  16. BMI1 loss delays photoreceptor degeneration in Rd1 mice. Bmi1 loss and neuroprotection in Rd1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zencak, Dusan; Crippa, Sylvain V; Tekaya, Meriem; Tanger, Ellen; Schorderet, Daniel E; Munier, Francis L; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Arsenijevic, Yvan

    2006-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders leading to blindness, which remain untreatable at present. Rd1 mice represent a recognized model of RP, and so far only GDNF treatment provided a slight delay in the retinal degeneration in these mice. Bmi1, a transcriptional repressor, has recently been shown to be essential for neural stem cell (NSC) renewal in the brain, with an increased appearance of glial cells in vivo in Bmi1 knockout (Bmi1-/-) mice. One of the roles of glial cells is to sustain neuronal function and survival. In the view of a role of the retinal Miller glia as a source of neural protection in the retina, the increased astrocytic population in the Bmi1-/- brain led us to investigate the effect of Bmi1 loss in Rd1 mice. We observed an increase of Müller glial cells in Rd1-Bmi1-/- retinas compared to Rd1. Moreover, Rd1-Bmi1-/- mice showed 7-8 rows of photoreceptors at 30 days of age (P30), while in Rd1 littermates there was a complete disruption of the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Preliminary ERG results showed a responsiveness of Rd1-Bmi1-/- mice in scotopic vision at P35. In conclusion, Bmi1 loss prevented, or rescued, photoreceptors from degeneration to an unanticipated extent in Rd1 mice. In this chapter, we will first provide a brief review of our work on the cortical NSCs and introduce the Bmi1 oncogene, thus offering a rational to our observations on the retina.

  17. From the BMI paradox to the obesity paradox: the obesity-mortality association in coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, A S; Oikonomou, E K; Antoniades, C; Tousoulis, D

    2016-10-01

    Despite a strong association between body weight and mortality in the general population, clinical evidence suggests better clinical outcome of overweight or obese individuals with established coronary heart disease. This finding has been termed the 'obesity paradox', but its existence remains a point of debate, because it is mostly observed when body mass index (BMI) is used to define obesity. Inherent limitations of BMI as an index of adiposity, as well as methodological biases and the presence of confounding factors, may account for the observed findings of clinical studies. In this review, our aim is to present the data that support the presence of a BMI paradox in coronary heart disease and then explore whether next to a BMI paradox a true obesity paradox exists as well. We conclude by attempting to link the obesity paradox notion to available translational research data supporting a 'healthy', protective adipose tissue phenotype. © 2016 World Obesity. © 2016 World Obesity.

  18. Prediction of BMI by impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiaxia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Discuss the relationship between the impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level and the body mass index (BMI. Method: Test 147 female college students with the impulsivity questionnaire (BIS-11 and BIS/BAS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DBEQ, Sitting Time Scale (STS and Exercising Time Scale (ETS. Results: (1 The correlation analysis indicates that BMI and impulsivity (r = 0.43 and 0.52 have a significant positive correlation with the sitting time (r = 0.61 and a significant negative correlation with the activity level (r= −0.49. (2 The path analysis indicates that the reward sensitivity directly affects BMI and indirectly affects BMI through the activity level as well; the eating behavior has an insignificantly direct impact on BMI, because its impact is generated by the intermediary role of induced diet. Conclusion: (1 The impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level are closely related to BMI; (2 the activity level, sitting time and induced diet play an intermediary role between the impulsivity and BMI.

  19. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C; Grønbaek, Morten; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2006-08-01

    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle. Using data from four follow-ups of the University of North Carolina Alumni Heart Study, we examined the prospective associations between BMI and sedentary lifestyle in a cohort of 4595 middle-aged men and women who had responded to questionnaires at the ages of 41 (standard deviation 2.3), 44 (2.3), 46 (2.0), and 54 (2.0). BMI was consistently related to increased risk of becoming sedentary in both men and women. The odds ratios of becoming sedentary as predicted by BMI were 1.04 (95% confidence limits, 1.00, 1.07) per 1 kg/m(2) from ages 41 to 44, 1.10 (1.07, 1.14) from ages 44 to 46, and 1.12 (1.08, 1.17) from ages 46 to 54. Controlling for concurrent changes in BMI marginally attenuated the effects. Sedentary lifestyle did not predict changes in BMI, except when concurrent changes in physical activity were taken into account (p sedentary lifestyle but did not provide unambiguous evidence for an effect of sedentary lifestyle on weight gain.

  20. Parental nonstandard work schedules during infancy and children's BMI trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Zilanawala

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence has demonstrated adverse associations between parental nonstandard work schedules (i.e., evenings, nights, or weekends and child developmental outcomes. However, there are mixed findings concerning the relationship between parental nonstandard employment and children's body mass index (BMI, and few studies have incorporated information on paternal work schedules. Objective: This paper investigated BMI trajectories from early to middle childhood (ages 3-11 by parental work schedules at 9 months of age, using nationally representative cohort data from the United Kingdom. This study is the first to examine the link between nonstandard work schedules and children's BMI in the United Kingdom. Methods: We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (2001‒2013, n = 13,021 to estimate trajectories in BMI, using data from ages 3, 5, 7, and 11 years. Joint parental work schedules and a range of biological, socioeconomic, and psychosocial covariates were assessed in the initial interviews at 9 months. Results: Compared to children in two-parent families where parents worked standard shifts, we found steeper BMI growth trajectories for children in two-parent families where both parents worked nonstandard shifts and children in single-parent families whose mothers worked a standard shift. Fathers' shift work, compared to standard shifts, was independently associated with significant increases in BMI. Conclusions: Future public health initiatives focused on reducing the risk of rapid BMI gain in childhood can potentially consider the disruptions to family processes resulting from working nonstandard hours. Contribution: Children in families in which both parents work nonstandard schedules had steeper BMI growth trajectories across the first decade of life. Fathers' nonstandard shifts were independently associated with increases in BMI.

  1. Trajectories of BMI from early childhood through early adolescence: SES and psychosocial predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sean P; Bluestone, Cheryl; Burke, Christopher T

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the ways in which body mass index (BMI) percentile - an identified risk factor for overweight and cardiovascular disease in adulthood - develops from birth through early adolescence. In addition, we examined whether psychosocial factors, such as parenting style and maternal depression, mediated the link between socio-economic status (SES) and BMI growth. Design. Data were obtained from phases 1-3 of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) - a longitudinal study that followed children from 10 communities in the United States from birth to age 11. We applied growth mixture models to identify distinct subtypes of BMI development. Within these models, we performed between- and within-class mediation analyses to examine whether SES predicted class membership or differences in development within each class via maternal depression and parenting styles. Results identified three prototypic trajectories of BMI percentile growth, elevated, steady increase, and stable. We found evidence for both between- and within-class mediation, suggesting multiple pathways by which SES can affect BMI development. These findings add to the research that suggests that being in a family with a low SES is associated with falling into patterns of development characterized by early and lasting increases in BMI relative to one's peers, and that this association is partly accounted for by maternal depression and parenting styles. What is already known? Past research has found evidence that patterns of childhood overweight are impacted by socioeconomic status through psychosocial factors like parenting and depression. This evidence is often limited to individual points in time where neglectful, permissive, and authoritarian parenting and higher levels of maternal depression are associated with higher levels of overweight status among children from infancy to adolescence. However, little

  2. BMI calculation in older people: The effect of using direct and surrogate measures of height in a community-based setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rose; McClinchy, Jane; Morreale-Parker, Claudia; Marsh, Wendy; Rennie, Kirsten L

    2017-12-01

    There is currently no consensus on which measure of height should be used in older people's body mass index (BMI) calculation. Most estimates of nutritional status include a measurement of body weight and height which should be reliable and accurate, however at present several different methods are used interchangeably. BMI, a key marker in malnutrition assessment, does not reflect age-related changes in height or changes in body composition such as loss of muscle mass or presence of oedema. The aim of this pilot study was to assess how the use of direct and surrogate measures of height impacts on BMI calculation in people aged ≥75 years. A cross-sectional study of 64 free-living older people (75-96 yrs) quantified height by two direct measurements, current height (H C ), and self-report (H R ) and surrogate equations using knee height (H K ) and ulna length (H U ). BMI calculated from current height measurement (BMI C ) was compared with BMI calculated using self-reported height (BMI R ) and height estimated from surrogate equations for knee height (BMI K ) and ulna length (BMI U ). Median difference of BMI C -BMI R was 2.31 kg/m 2 . BMI K gave the closest correlation to BMI C . The percentage of study participants identified at increased risk of under-nutrition (BMI BMI; from 5% (BMI C ), 7.8% (BMI K ), 12.5% (BMI U ), to 14% (BMI R ) respectively. The results of this pilot study in a relatively healthy sample of older people suggest that interchangeable use of current and reported height in people ≥75 years can introduce substantial significant systematic error. This discrepancy could impact nutritional assessment of older people in poor health and lead to misclassification during nutritional screening if other visual and clinical clues are not taken into account. This could result in long-term clinical and cost implications if individuals who need nutrition support are not correctly identified. A consensus is required on which method should be used to

  3. Is BMI a relevant marker of fat mass in 4 year old children? Results from the MINISTOP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Pontus; Ek, Anna; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Löf, Marie

    2018-03-20

    Due to the increase in childhood obesity, identifying children with excess body fat as early as possible is essential. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a marker of body fat in children, adolescents, and adults, yet whether BMI is a valid marker of body fat in pre-school aged children remains to be confirmed. Therefore, we analyzed the associations of BMI with fat and fat-free mass in healthy 4-year-old Swedish children. The study comprised of 303 children (135 girls) participating in the MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Fat and fat-free mass were measured using air displacement plethysmography and we computed fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI) as fat and fat free mass (kg)/height 2 (m). BMI was positively yet weakly associated with percent fat mass (boys: r 2  = 0.120, P Children classified as normal weight had a wide range of percent fat mass (12.3 to 35.3%) and FMI (1.75 to 5.78 kg/m 2 ). BMI was strongly associated to both FMI and FFMI. Therefore, caution is needed when interpreting body fat status based on BMI values in pre-school children.

  4. Associations Between Parental BMI and the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Environment in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joel E; Helsel, Brian; Griffin, Sarah F; Liang, Jessica

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental BMI and the family environment and determine if differences exist in child diet and physical activity related parenting behaviors by parental BMI in a community sample of families recruited through elementary schools in a local school district. We found an association between parental BMI category and family nutrition and physical activity (FNPA) score. Families with an underweight or normal weight parent had a larger proportion (64.3%) of high (indicating a healthier family environment) FNPA scores and families with an overweight or obese parent had a smaller proportion (45.2%) of high FNPA scores (χ 2  = 5.247, P = 0.022). Families with a parent who was overweight or obese had 2.18 times the odds (95% CI 1.11-4.27) of being in the low FNPA ("less healthy" environment) group. Further, underweight/normal weight parents reported higher levels of monitoring of child diet (Z = -3.652, P authoritative parenting behaviors were associated with a less obesogenic home environment and a positive parenting style related to child eating and physical activity behaviors.

  5. BMI changes in children and adolescents attending a specialized childhood obesity center: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Maggio, Albane BR; Saunders Gasser, Catherine; Gal-Duding, Claudine; Beghetti, Maurice; Martin, Xavier E; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Chamay-Weber, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary group therapies for obese children and adolescents are effective but difficult to implement. There is a crucial need to evaluate simpler management programs that target the obese child and his family. This study aimed to determine changes in body mass indexes (BMI) after individual family-based obesity intervention with a pediatrician in a specialized obesity center for child and adolescent. Methods This cohort study included 283 patients (3.3 to 17.1 years, mean ...

  6. Association of BMI with risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Chee Cheong; Sumarni, Mohd Ghazali; Lim, Kuang Hock; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Tee, Guat Hiong Helen; Gurpreet, Kaur; Faudzi, Yusoff Ahmad; Amal, Nasir Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    To determine the relationship between BMI and risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality among Malaysian adults. Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Participants were followed up for 5 years from 2006 to 2010. Mortality data were obtained via record linkages with the Malaysian National Registration Department. Multiple Cox regression was applied to compare risk of CVD and all-cause mortality between BMI categories adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Models were generated for all participants, all participants the first 2 years of follow-up, healthy participants, healthy never smokers, never smokers, current smokers and former smokers. All fourteen states in Malaysia. Malaysian adults (n 32 839) aged 18 years or above from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey. Total follow-up time was 153 814 person-years with 1035 deaths from all causes and 225 deaths from CVD. Underweight (BMIBMI ≥30·0 kg/m2) was associated with a heightened risk of CVD mortality. Overweight (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2) was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Underweight was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all models except for current smokers. Overweight was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in all participants. Although a positive trend was observed between BMI and CVD mortality in all participants, a significant association was observed only for severe obesity (BMI≥35·0 kg/m2). Underweight was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and obesity with increased risk of CVD mortality. Therefore, maintaining a normal BMI through leading an active lifestyle and healthy dietary habits should continue to be promoted.

  7. Random Generators and Normal Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David H.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant to the authors' previous chaotic-dynamical model for random digits of fundamental constants, we investigate a complementary, statistical picture in which pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) are central. Some rigorous results are achieved: We establish b-normality for constants of the form $\\sum_i 1/(b^{m_i} c^{n_i})$ for certain sequences $(m_i), (n_i)$ of integers. This work unifies and extends previously known classes of explicit normals. We prove that for coprime $b,c>1$ the...

  8. Joint Effects of Physical Activity and BMI on Risk of Hypertension in Women: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is debate as to whether physical activity counteracts the adverse effect of weight on health outcomes. We investigated how physical activity modifies the effect of body mass index (BMI on hypertension risk. Methods. BMI, physical activity, and hypertension were measured at baseline and at three-year interval for 14 years (from 1996 to 2010, in 10,339 participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Generalised estimating equation models for binary repeated measures were performed to determine the individual and joint effects of BMI and physical activity on incident hypertension. Results. At baseline (mean age 47.6±1.5 SD, 57% were healthy weight, 28% overweight, and 14% obese. Increasing BMI and decreasing physical activity were associated with increased risk of hypertension. Physical activity attenuated the positive association between weight and risk of hypertension, especially for obese women. Compared to healthy weight high active women, risk of hypertension in obese high active women was 3.4 times greater (OR 3.43, 95% CI 2.68, 4.39 and in obese inactive women 4.9 times greater (OR 4.91, 95% CI 3.92, 6.13. Conclusions. Both physical activity and maintenance of a healthy body weight are associated with lower risk of hypertension. Physical activity reduced but did not remove the effect of obesity on hypertension risk.

  9. Normality in Analytical Psychology

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    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  10. BMI and waist circumference; cross-sectional and prospective associations with blood pressure and cholesterol in 12-year-olds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga B M Bekkers

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Childhood and adolescent overweight, defined by body mass index (BMI are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Abdominal adiposity may be more important in associations with cardiovascular diseases but waist circumference (WC has been rarely studied in children. We studied associations between BMI and WC and blood pressure (BP and cholesterol in 12-year-old children and prospectively changes in BMI or WC status between age 8 and 12 years and BP and cholesterol at age 12. STUDY DESIGN: Weight, height, WC, BP and cholesterol concentrations were measured in 1432 children at age 12 years. Linear regression was used to study the associations between high BMI and large WC (>90(th percentile and BP and cholesterol. RESULTS: Systolic BP was 4.9 mmHg higher (95% (CI 2.5, 7.2 in girls and 4.2 mmHg (95%CI 1.9, 6.5 in boys with a high BMI. Large WC was also associated with higher systolic BP in girls (3.7 mmHg (95%CI 1.3, 6.1 and boys (3.5 mmHg (95%CI 1.2, 5.8. Diastolic BP and cholesterol concentrations were significantly positively (HDL cholesterol negatively associated with high BMI and large WC, too. Normal weight children with a history of overweight did not have higher blood pressure levels or adverse cholesterol concentrations than children that were normal weight at both ages. CONCLUSION: A high BMI and large WC were associated with higher BP levels and adverse cholesterol concentrations. WC should be taken into account when examining cardiovascular risk factors in children.

  11. Genome-wide association study for the interaction between BMR and BMI in obese Korean women including overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungsook; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Choi, Chong Ran; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Ae-Jung

    2016-02-01

    This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction. The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m(2)) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10(-7), rs1040675; 2.3 × 10(-6)) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10(-5), rs10786764; 6.57 × 10(-5)). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate.

  12. The impact of sleep-disordered breathing on body mass index (BMI: the sleep heart health study (SHHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins JA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is well known that obesity is a risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB. However, whether SDB predicts increase in BMI is not well defined. Data from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS were analyzed to determine whether SDB predicts longitudinal increase in BMI, adjusted for confounding factors.Methods: A full-montage unattended home polysomnogram (PSG and body anthropometric measurements were obtained approximately five years apart in 3001 participants. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI was categorized using clinical thresholds: < 5 (normal, ≥ 5 to <15 (mild sleep apnea, and ³ 15 (moderate to severe sleep apnea. Linear regression was used to examine the association between the three AHI groups and increased BMI. The model included age, gender, race, baseline BMI, and change in AHI as covariates.Results: Mean (SD age was 62.2 years (10.14, 55.2% were female and 76.1% were Caucasian. Five-year increase in BMI was modest with a mean (SD change of 0.53 (2.62 kg/m2 (p=0.071. A multivariate regression model showed that subjects with a baseline AHI between 5-15 had a mean increase in BMI of 0.22 kg/m2 (p=0.055 and those with baseline AHI ≥ 15 had a BMI increase of 0.51 kg/m2 (p<0.001 compared to those with baseline AHI of <5.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is a positive association between severity of SDB and subsequent increased BMI over approximately 5 years. This observation may help explain why persons with SDB have difficulty losing weight.

  13. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  14. Childhood BMI growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer, however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial...... cancer and its sub-types. A cohort of 155,505 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register with measured weights and heights at the ages of 6 to 14 years and born 1930-89 formed the analytical population. BMI was transformed to age-specific z-scores. Using linear spline multilevel models......, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25-7.99, 8.0-10.99, 11.0-14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain...

  15. Orthorexia nervosa: Assessment and correlates with gender, BMI, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D; Samaghabadi, Razieh O; Hughes, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether orthorexia nervosa (ON; characterized by an obsessive fixation on eating healthy) may be predicted from the demographics variables of gender and BMI, and from the personality variables of self-esteem, narcissism, and perfectionism. Participants were 459 college students, who completed several online questionnaires that assessed these variables. A principal components analysis confirmed that the Eating Habits Questionnaire (Gleaves, Graham, & Ambwani, 2013) assesses three internally-consistent ON components: healthy eating behaviors, problems resulting from those behaviors, and positive feelings associated with those behaviors. A MANOVA and its tests of between subjects effects then revealed significant interactions between gender and BMI, such that for men but not women, a higher BMI was associated with greater symptomatology for all ON components. Partial correlation analyses, after controlling for gender and BMI, revealed that both narcissism and perfectionism were positively correlated with all aspects of ON symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due...... to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI......Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight...

  17. Physical Activity, Sleep, and BMI Percentile in Rural and Urban Ugandan Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Mary J; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Baingana, Rhona; Ntambi, James M

    Uganda is experiencing a dual burden of over- and undernutrition, with overweight prevalence increasing while underweight remains common. Potential weight-related factors, particularly physical activity, sleep, and rural/urban status, are not currently well understood or commonly assessed in Ugandan youth. The purpose of this study was to pilot test a survey measuring weight-related factors in rural and urban Ugandan schoolchildren. A cross-sectional survey measured sociodemographics, physical activity, sleep patterns, and dietary factors in 148 rural and urban schoolchildren aged 11-16 in central Uganda. Height and weight were objectively measured. Rural and urban youth were compared on these factors using χ 2 and t tests. Regression was used to identify correlates of higher body mass index (BMI) percentile in the full sample and nonstunted youth. Youth were on average 12.1 ± 1.1 years old; underweight (10%) was more common than overweight (1.4%). Self-reported sleep duration and subjective sleep quality did not differ by rural/urban residence. Rural children overall had higher BMI percentile and marginally higher stunting prevalence. In adjusted analyses in both the full and nonstunted samples, higher BMI percentile was related to living in a rural area, higher frequency of physical activity, and higher subjective sleep quality; it was negatively related to being active on weekends. In the full sample, higher BMI percentile was also related to female gender, whereas in nonstunted youth, higher BMI was related to age. BMI percentile was unrelated to sedentary time, performance of active chores and sports, and dietary factors. This study is one of the first to pilot test a survey assessing weight-related factors, particularly physical activity and sleep, in Ugandan schoolchildren. BMI percentile was related to several sociodemographic, sleep, and physical activity factors among primarily normal-weight school children in Uganda, providing a basis for

  18. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Mansmann, Ulrich; Toschke, André M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI) data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Methods Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs), quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). We analyzed data of 4967 childre...

  19. Physical activity and its related motivational attributes in adolescents with different BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J; Kim, Y H

    2013-03-01

    A number of obesity studies have been focused on identifying the relationships between socioeconomic status and physical activity involvement. In behavioral medicine, the limited data are available on obese people's physical activity and its related psychological predictors based on psychological theories. To identify the differences in physical activity and its related motivational attributes among normal weight, overweight, and obese adolescents and to find the effect of body mass index (BMI) and the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) constructs in predicting physical activity. One thousand seventy-one students ranging from seventh to ninth grades were randomly selected from three junior high schools in Seoul (359 normal weight students, 468 overweight students, and 244 obese students). A Korean version of Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire were applied to measure the participants' motivational attributes and physical activity. Overweight and obese adolescents showed higher scores on amotivation and externally motivated regulations for physical activity than their normal weight counterparts. Internal regulation was more significant for physical activity in normal weight adolescent. However, there was no difference in physical activity among the three groups. Additionally, the findings identified that BMI and the SDT constructs were significant to explain physical activity. This study offers fundamental knowledge in gaining a clearer understanding of the types of motivation most likely to contribute to the initiation and promotion of physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents.

  20. BMI in relation to sperm count: an updated systematic review and collaborative meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L; Shayeb, A G; Bonde, J P; Jensen, T K; Van Wely, M; Cao, J; Martini, A C; Eskandar, M; Chavarro, J E; Koloszar, S; Twigt, J M; Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Borges, E; Lotti, F; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Zorn, B; Polotsky, A J; La Vignera, S; Eskenazi, B; Tremellen, K; Magnusdottir, E V; Fejes, I; Hercberg, S; Lévy, R; Czernichow, S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men) obtained from the Infertility Center of Bondy, France. Abstracts of relevant articles were examined and studies that could be included in this review were retrieved. Authors of relevant studies for the meta-analysis were contacted by email and asked to provide standardized data. RESULTS A total of 21 studies were included in the meta-analysis, resulting in a sample of 13 077 men from the general population and attending fertility clinics. Data were stratified according to the total sperm count as normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Standardized weighted mean differences in sperm concentration did not differ significantly across BMI categories. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI categories and risk of oligozoospermia or azoospermia. Compared with men of normal weight, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for oligozoospermia or azoospermia was 1.15 (0.93-1.43) for underweight, 1.11 (1.01-1.21) for overweight, 1.28 (1.06-1.55) for obese and 2.04 (1.59-2.62) for morbidly obese men. CONCLUSIONS Overweight and obesity were associated with an increased prevalence of azoospermia or oligozoospermia. The main limitation of this report is that studied populations varied, with men recruited from both the general population and infertile couples. Whether weight normalization could improve sperm parameters should be evaluated further.

  1. Smoking and Socio-demographic correlates of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhi Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to examine the associations between Body Mass Index (BMI and socio-demographic factors and to examine the relationship between BMI, smoking status and ethnicity. Methods The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS surveyed Singapore Residents (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents aged 18 years old and above. BMI was calculated using height and weight which were self-reported by respondents. Socio-demographic characteristics and smoking status were recorded in a standardized data collection form. Results Six thousand and six hundred sixteen respondents completed the study (response rate of 75.9 % which constituted a representative sample of the adult resident population in Singapore. Ethnicity, gender and education status were associated with obesity. There was an interaction effect between ethnicity smoking status, and BMI. Indian and Malay smokers were less likely to be obese compared to Chinese smokers. The relationship between ethnicity and BMI was thus reversed when smoking was taken into account. Conclusions The study identified certain subgroups and risk factors that are associated with obesity. There is a need for further research to explore and identify genetic, metabolic and ethnic differences that underlie the interaction between ethnicity and smoking status which affects BMI.

  2. BMI > or = 50 kg/m2 is associated with a younger age of onset of overweight and a high prevalence of adverse metabolic profiles.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Jean

    2010-07-01

    To study the demographic and clinical parameters of three different categories of obesity, with particular focus on a cohort of individuals with BMI > or = 50 kg\\/m2, the fastest growing category of obesity.

  3. Individual differences in fornix microstructure and body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Metzler-Baddeley

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity and associated health conditions is increasing in the developed world. Obesity is related to atrophy and dysfunction of the hippocampus and hippocampal lesions may lead to increased appetite and weight gain. The hippocampus is connected via the fornix tract to the hypothalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and the nucleus accumbens, all key structures for homeostatic and reward related control of food intake. The present study employed diffusion MRI tractography to investigate the relationship between microstructural properties of the fornix and variation in Body Mass Index (BMI, within normal and overweight ranges, in a group of community-dwelling older adults (53-93 years old. Larger BMI was associated with larger axial and mean diffusivity in the fornix (r = 0.64 and r = 0.55 respectively, relationships that were most pronounced in overweight individuals. Moreover, controlling for age, education, cognitive performance, blood pressure and global brain volume increased these correlations. Similar associations were not found in the parahippocampal cingulum, a comparison temporal association pathway. Thus, microstructural changes in fornix white matter were observed in older adults with increasing BMI levels from within normal to overweight ranges, so are not exclusively related to obesity. We propose that hippocampal-hypothalamic-prefrontal interactions, mediated by the fornix, contribute to the healthy functioning of networks involved in food intake control. The fornix, in turn, may display alterations in microstructure that reflect weight gain.

  4. BMI and waist circumference cut-offs for corresponding levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant versus a native Swedish population - the MEDIM population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Louise; Stenkula, Karin; Cushman, Samuel W; Brismar, Kerstin

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to identify corresponding body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference cut-offs for equivalent levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant population compared with native Swedes. Citizens of Malmö, Sweden aged 30 to 75 years, who were born in Iraq or Sweden, were in 2010-2012 invited to participate in a health examination including anthropometrics, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting samples and interviews concerning sociodemographic factors and lifestyle behaviours. In total, 1176 individuals born in Iraq and 688 born in Sweden, without previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes, participated in the study. In normal weight participants (BMI Middle Eastern populations.

  5. Behavioural measures of child's eating temperament and their link with BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, Valérie; Trinchera, Laura; Darcel, Nicolas; Rigal, Natalie

    2017-03-01

    Rothbart's model of temperament, defined as individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation, has a strong heuristic value with applications in a wide variety of children's outcomes. Our objective was to test Rothbart's model applied to children's food behaviours and BMI outcome through behavioural measures. Our hypotheses, according to Rothbart's model, were as follows: (i) self-regulation in eating modulates appetite reactivity; (ii) appetite reactivity increases the risk of excess BMI, whereas self-regulation in eating limits this risk. One hundred and four children aged between 7 and 12 years completed four behavioural tasks to assess scores for two components of appetite reactivity (i.e. appetite arousal and appetite persistence) and two components of self-regulation in eating (i.e. self-regulation in eating without hunger and self-regulation in eating speed). Their heights and weights were measured in order to calculate their BMI-for-age. T-tests and regression analysis were used to verify our hypotheses. None of the scores of self-regulation in eating was directly associated with BMI but we observed a significant impact of self-regulation in eating without hunger on appetite arousal (p-value = 0.04), together with a modest but significant association between appetite persistence and BMI (p-value = 0.02). We can thus conclude that our behavioural measures could be used for the determination of the child's eating temperament. Further studies are needed to investigate how to use these measures to improve the treatment of overweight in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic Abnormalities Are Common among South American Hispanics Subjects with Normal Weight or Excess Body Weight: The CRONICAS Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziger, Catherine P; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to characterize metabolic status by body mass index (BMI) status. The CRONICAS longitudinal study was performed in an age-and-sex stratified random sample of participants aged 35 years or older in four Peruvian settings: Lima (Peru's capital, costal urban, highly urbanized), urban and rural Puno (both high-altitude), and Tumbes (costal semirural). Data from the baseline study, conducted in 2010, was used. Individuals were classified by BMI as normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2), and as metabolically healthy (0-1 metabolic abnormality) or metabolically unhealthy (≥2 abnormalities). Abnormalities included individual components of the metabolic syndrome, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance. A total of 3088 (age 55.6±12.6 years, 51.3% females) had all measurements. Of these, 890 (28.8%), 1361 (44.1%) and 837 (27.1%) were normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Overall, 19.0% of normal weight in contrast to 54.9% of overweight and 77.7% of obese individuals had ≥3 risk factors (poverweight and 3.9% of obese individuals were metabolically healthy and, compared to Lima, the rural and urban sites in Puno were more likely to have a metabolically healthier profile. Most Peruvians with overweight and obesity have additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, as well as a majority of those with a healthy weight. Prevention programs aimed at individuals with a normal BMI, and those who are overweight and obese, are urgently needed, such as screening for elevated fasting cholesterol and glucose.

  7. BMI at birth and overweight at age four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan D; Taylor, Yhenneko; Mowrer, Lauren; Winter, Katherine M; Dulin, Michael F

    Extensive investigation has established that an elevated weight at birth is associated with subsequent obesity and obesity related negative health outcomes. The significance of overweight at birth, however, remains ill-defined. Historically, it has been difficult to approximate adiposity in infancy in a way that is both simple and meaningful. Body-mass-index (BMI) growth charts for children younger than two years of age only became available in 2006 when published by the WHO. This retrospective cohort analysis utilised anthropometric data extracted from the electronic medical record of a large integrated healthcare system in North Carolina. BMI and weight-for-age (WFA) >85% of WHO growth charts measured newborn overweight and macrosomia respectively. Logistic regression models assessed the associations between newborn macrosomia and overweight and overweight at 4 years of age, as well as associations with maternal BMI. Models included demographic data, gestational age, and maternal diabetes status as covariates. Both BMI and WFA >85% at birth were significantly associated with overweight at age 4 years. However, the greater odds of overweight was associated with newborn BMI >85%, with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 2.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.08) versus 1.57 (95% CI: 1.08-2.27). Maternal obesity was also more robustly correlated with newborn BMI >85%, AOR of 4.14 (95% CI: 1.6-10.7), than with newborn WFA >85%, AOR of 3.09 (95% CI: 1.41-6.77). BMI >85% at birth is independently associated with overweight at 4 years. Newborn overweight is perhaps superior to newborn macrosomia in predicting overweight at age 4. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  10. Co-Expression of Bmi-1 and Podoplanin Predicts Overall Survival in Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Treated With Radio(chemo)therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vormittag, Laurenz; Thurnher, Dietmar; Geleff, Silvana; Pammer, Johannes; Heiduschka, Gregor; Brunner, Markus; Grasl, Matthaeus Ch.; Erovic, Boban M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to determine the expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin in healthy oral mucosa and in untreated tumor tissues samples of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. All patients were treated by primary radio(chemo)therapy. Methods and Materials: The expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin was immunohistochemically evaluated in 12 normal oral mucosa and 63 tumor specimens and correlated with patients' clinical data. Results: In healthy mucosa expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin was restricted to the basal cell layer. Expression of both proteins was found in 79% and 86% of our tumor samples, respectively. In 17 and 8 samples, Bmi-1 and podoplanin were co-expressed at the invasive border or diffuse in the bulk of the tumor, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the co-expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin correlated to decreased overall survival (p = 0.044). Moreover, multivariate testing identified high expression of podoplanin (p = 0.044), co-expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin (p = 0.007) and lack of response to therapy (p < 0.0001) as predictors of shortened overall survival in patients treated with primary radio(chemo)therapy. Conclusions: Bmi-1 and podoplanin are expressed at the invasive front of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Co-expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin predicts significantly overall survival of patients treated with primary radio(chemo)therapy

  11. Cognitive biases to healthy and unhealthy food words predict change in BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calitri, Raff; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Tapper, Katy; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    The current study explored the predictive value of cognitive biases to food cues (assessed by emotional Stroop and dot probe tasks) on weight change over a 1-year period. This was a longitudinal study with undergraduate students (N = 102) living in shared student accommodation. After controlling for the effects of variables associated with weight (e.g., physical activity, stress, restrained eating, external eating, and emotional eating), no effects of cognitive bias were found with the dot probe. However, for the emotional Stroop, cognitive bias to unhealthy foods predicted an increase in BMI whereas cognitive bias to healthy foods was associated with a decrease in BMI. Results parallel findings in substance abuse research; cognitive biases appear to predict behavior change. Accordingly, future research should consider strategies for attentional retraining, encouraging individuals to reorient attention away from unhealthy eating cues.

  12. Socioeconomic differences in childhood BMI trajectories in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rita; Tilling, Kate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D; Hughes, Rachael A; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Nicoli, Emily; Oken, Emily; Kramer, Michael S; Martin, Richard M

    2018-02-28

    To examine associations of parental socioeconomic position with early-life offspring body mass index (BMI) trajectories in a middle-income country. Overall, 12,385 Belarusian children born 1996-97 and enrolled in a randomised breastfeeding promotion trial at birth, with 3-14 measurements of BMI from birth to 7 years. Cohort analysis in which exposures were parental education (common secondary or less; advanced secondary or partial university; completed university) and occupation (manual; non-manual) at birth, and the outcome was BMI z-score trajectories estimated using multilevel linear spline models, controlling for trial arm, location, parental BMI, maternal smoking status and number of older siblings. Infants born to university-educated mothers were heavier at birth than those born to secondary school-educated mothers [by 0.13 BMI z-score units (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.07, 0.19) for girls and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.17) for boys; equivalent for an infant of average birth length to 43 and 38 g, respectively]. Between the ages of 3-7 years children of the most educated mothers had larger BMI increases than children of the least educated mothers. At age 7 years, after controlling for trial arm and location,  children of university-educated mothers had higher BMIs than those born to secondary school-educated mothers by 0.11 z-score (95% CI: 0.03, 0.19) among girls and 0.18 (95% CI: 0.1, 0.27) among boys, equivalent to differences in BMI for a child of average height of 0.19 and 0.26 kg/m 2 , respectively. After further controlling for parental BMI, these differences attenuated to 0.08 z-score (95% CI: 0, 0.16) and 0.16 z-score (95% CI: 0.07, 0.24), respectively, but changed very little after additional adjustment for number of older siblings and mother's smoking status. Associations were similar when based on paternal educational attainment and highest household occupation. In Belarus, consistent with some middle-income countries, higher socioeconomic

  13. Dinner rituals that correlate with child and adult BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; van Kleef, Ellen

    2014-05-01

    What predicts whether a child will be at risk for obesity? Whereas past research has focused on foods, eating habits, feeding styles, and family meal patterns, this study departs from a food-centric approach to examine how various dinner rituals might influence the BMIs of children and adults. In this study of 190 parents (BMI = 29.1 ± 7.2) and 148 children (BMI = 20.3 ± 4.4), the relationship between their BMIs and everyday family dinner rituals was examined using both correlation and regression analysis (controlled for educational level of parents). Families who frequently ate dinner in the kitchen or dining room had significantly lower BMIs for both adults (r = -0.31) and children (r = -0.24) compared to families who ate elsewhere. Additionally, helping cook dinner was associated with higher BMI for girls (r = 0.26), and remaining at the table until everyone is finished with eating was associated with lower BMI for boys (r = -0.31). Dinner tables may be one place where social support and family involvement meet-both of which relate to the BMI of children as well as parents. Family meals and their rituals might be an underappreciated battleground to fight obesity. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  14. Changes in blood pressure, bmi and ecg patterns in women using low-dose contraceptives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, S.; Rahim, M.; Javed, M.; Qureshi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the cardiovascular risk factors in users of second generation contraceptives by recording changes in body mass index, blood pressure and electrocardiogram. Sixty four women volunteered for this study (age range 20-35 years), belonging to low-income group with similar socio-cultural background. The Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by measuring height and weight of the subjects, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and ECG recording by standard method. The group means, standard deviations and coefficient correlation for interrelationship among variables in respective groups of subjects were calculated using relevant statistical method and software program. There was no significant difference between BMI of two types of contraceptive users as compared to non users, but BMI was significantly correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in injectable users as compared to controls. ECG alterations frequently observed in contraceptive users (40%) as compared to controls were normal findings. It was observed that women aged < 30 years and using contraceptives for more than three years had a tendency to gain weight and developed a mild increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. (author)

  15. BMI-Referenzwerte für österreichische Knaben und Mädchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BMI-Referenzwerte werden empfohlen zur Diagnose von Untergewicht, Übergewicht und Adipositas. Österreichische BMI-Referenzwerte sind bis dato nicht in ausreichender Qualität verfügbar. Deshalb wurden im Rahmen einer Querschnittsstudie 15.000 Kinder und Jugendliche zwischen 4 und 19 Jahren vermessen und abgewogen. Perzentilenkurven für Knaben und Mädchen wurden mit dem GAMLSS-Modell errechnet. Als Grenzwert für die Einteilung in Untergewicht, Normalgewicht, Übergewicht und Adipositas wurden Perzentilenkurven durch die entsprechenden BMI-Punkte mit 18 Jahren erstellt, welche den WHO-Grenzen von Unter-, Normal- und Übergewicht bzw. Adipositas bei Erwachsenen entsprechen. Unter Anwendung dieser neuen Grenzwerte sind rund 18 % der Knaben und 12 % der Mädchen übergewichtig, weitere 5 % der Knaben und 3 % der Mädchen sind adipös. Übergewicht und Adipositas sind somit bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in Österreich ein nicht zu vernachlässigendes Problem.

  16. Comparative human cellular radiosensitivity: I. The effect of SV40 transformation and immortalisation on the gamma-irradiation survival of skin derived fibroblasts from normal individuals and from ataxia-telangiectasia patients and heterozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlett, C F; Green, M H; Priestley, A; Harcourt, S A; Mayne, L V

    1988-12-01

    We have compared cell killing following 60Co gamma irradiation in 22 primary human fibroblast strains, nine SV40-immortalized human fibroblast lines and seven SV40-transformed pre-crisis human fibroblast cultures. We have examined material from normal individuals, from ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients and from A-T heterozygotes. We have confirmed the greater sensitivity of A-T derived cells to gamma radiation. The distinction between A-T and normal cells is maintained in cells immortalized by SV40 virus but the immortal cells are more gamma radiation resistant than the corresponding primary fibroblasts. Cells transformed by plasmids (pSV3gpt and pSV3neo) expressing SV40 T-antigen, both pre- and post-crisis, show this increased resistance, indicating that it is expression of SV40 T-antigen, rather than immortalization per se which is responsible for the change. We use D0, obtained from a straight line fit, and D, estimated from a multitarget curve, as parameters to compare radiosensitivity. We suggest that both have their advantages; D0 is perhaps more reproducible, but D is more realistic when comparing shouldered and non-shouldered data.

  17. Correlation of Index Finger Length (2D with Height, Weight and BMI in Adult Bangladeshi Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Rezwan Hasan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human hand is one of the most versatile parts of the human body which plays an important role in modern medical science and evolutionary biology. By virtue of evolution and genetic arrangements, digital lengths vary from person to person according to age, sex, races, occupation or even environmental influences. It has been found that the digital lengths and their ratios are not same in different sexes and even in both hands of same individual. Specially, index to ring digit lengths and their ratios which already have been proved to represent sexual dimorphism may differ in both hands of an individual and show positive correlations with other morphological attributes like height, weight and BMI. Objectives: To analyze the variation of index finger (2D length and its correlation with height, weight and BMI in adult Bangladeshi male. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2012 to June 2013 on 100 male MBBS students (20−25 years of age. With the help of digital vernier caliper measurements of index finger length (2D was recorded. Height and weight were measured by the stadiometer and weighing scale respectively. BMI was calculated from height and weight. Pearson’s correlation analysis was done to find out the correlation of index finger length with height, weight and BMI. Results: Significant correlation has been found between the lengths of index fingers (2D and height (p0.05. Conclusion: In this study, we found variation in index finger lengths of both hands of Bangladeshi male subjects, which needs further study and comparison.

  18. Two functional serotonin polymorphisms moderate the effect of food reinforcement on BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K; Salis, Robbert J; Erbe, Richard W; Faith, Myles S; Allison, David B; Stice, Eric; Epstein, Leonard H

    2013-06-01

    Food reinforcement, or the motivation to eat, has been associated with increased energy intake, greater body weight, and prospective weight gain. Much of the previous research on the reinforcing value of food has focused on the role of dopamine, but it may be worthwhile to examine genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin and opioid systems as these neurotransmitters have been shown to be related to reinforcement processes and to influence energy intake. We examined the relationship among 44 candidate genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine, serotonin, and opioid systems, as well as food reinforcement and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 245 individuals. Polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-LPR) and serotonin receptor 2A genes (rs6314) moderated the effect of food reinforcement on BMI, accounting for an additional 5-10% variance and revealed a potential role of the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs6314, in the serotonin 2A receptor as a differential susceptibility factor for obesity. Differential susceptibility describes a factor that can confer either risk or protection depending on a second variable, such that rs6314 is predictive of both high and low BMI based on the level of food reinforcement, while the diathesis stress or dual-gain model only influences one end of the outcome measure. The interaction with MAOA-LPR better fits the diathesis stress model, with the 3.5R/4R allele conferring protection for individuals low in food reinforcement. These results provide new insight into genes theoretically involved in obesity, and support the hypothesis that genetics moderate the association between food reinforcement and BMI. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Effect Of Gender And Lifestyle Behaviors On BMI Trends In A Sample Of The First State's Undergraduate Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J; Walls, Karri-Jo E; Rojas, Christine; Everett, Lynn M; Wentzien, Derald E

    2015-06-01

    The 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report indicates that 63.4% of Delaware's adult population is overweight and 28% is obese. Here, the authors reveal analyses acquired from detailed investigations about the importance of gender, and other lifestyle factors and behaviors on the Body Mass Index (BMI) trends amongst an indiscriminate sample of the Wesley College (Wesley) undergraduate population. A 25-question paper-format survey was distributed to 307 randomly chosen Wesley undergraduates. The accrued qualitative (or categorical) data were transferred to an Excel spreadsheet to construct and observe frequency distributions. A Chi-square test of independence (χ 2 ) was performed between BMI status (normal, overweight, obese) and the following factors: gender, diet plan, adherence to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) MyPlate nutrition guide, use of the seasonal flu shot, weekly workout schedule, supplement usage, participation on athletic teams, questioning of label nutritional facts, and the use of added salt in food. A 2-sample proportion test was performed between students who were overweight or obese for the same factors. Also performed were t-tests for mean BMI for those who followed USDA MyPlate guidelines and for those who did not. An analysis of 278 completed surveys show that 29.5% of the Wesley respondents are overweight and 19.8% are obese. The mean BMI for males was statistically higher than the mean BMI for females. The mean BMI for students living on-campus was statistically higher than the mean BMI for students living off-campus. The results also demonstrate that adhering to the USDA dietary recommendations for fruit and dairy can be important factors in reducing the risk of obesity.

  20. The optimal value of BMI for the lowest risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women aged 40-88 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzek, A; Kozieł, S; Ignasiak, Z

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to establish the optimal values of the body mass index (BMI) which would indicate the most favourable preservation of the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. The material consists of the data of 369 healthy women aged between 40 and 88 years (mean age 67.84, SD=6.70) inhabitants of Wrocław, which were followed up between 2001 and 2006. The absolute measure of bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), expressed in g/(100mm(2)) and was transformed to T-score values. According to the value of BMI, the women were divided into eight groups, the reference group with value between 18.0 and 21.9kg/m(2) and seven other groups beginning with the value 22.0 with a 2-point interval. Postmenopausal status was defined according to the occurrence of menstruation within the last 360 days. The women with osteopenia and osteoporosis were pooled together and comprised the risk group, whereas the other women comprised the normal group (T-score values above -1.0). The adjusted odds ratio showed the highest value for intervals between 24.0 and 25.9 units of BMI, and the lowest value for interval 26.0-27.9 units of BMI. The Youden index showed the lowest value in the 26.0-27.9BMI kg/m(2) interval. For our sample the optimal value of BMI, with the lowest risk of osteopenia and/or osteoporosis was the value of 26.9kg/m(2). A further increase of BMI does not result in a favourable effect on the bones, it rather intensifies negative phenomena in the body resulting in the onset of many diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Someya

    Full Text Available Hypertension is developed easily in Asian adults with normal body mass index (BMI (~23 kg/m2, compared with other ethnicities with similar BMI. This study tested the hypothesis that slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men by historical cohort study.The study participants were 636 male alumni of the physical education school. They had available data on their physical examination at college age and follow-up investigation between 2007 and 2011. The participants were categorized into six categories: BMI at college age of <20.0 kg/m2, 20.0-21.0kg/m2, 21.0-22.0kg/m2, 22.0-23.0kg/m2, 23.0-24.0kg/m2, and ≥24.0kg/m2, and the incidence of hypertension was compared.This study covered 27-year follow-up period (interquartile range: IQR: 23-31 which included 17,059 person-years of observation. Subjects were 22 (22-22 years old at graduated college, and 49 (45-53 years old at first follow-up investigation. During the period, 120 men developed hypertension. The prevalence rates of hypertension for lowest to highest BMI categories were 9.4%, 14.6%, 16.1%, 17.5%, 30.3%, and 29.3%, respectively (p<0.001 for trend, and their hazard ratios were 1.00 (reference, 1.80 (95%CI: 0.65-4.94, 2.17 (0.83-5.64, 2.29 (0.89-5.92, 3.60 (1.37-9.47 and 4.72 (1.78-12.48, respectively (p<0.001 for trend. This trend was similar after adjustment for age, year of graduation, smoking, current exercise status and current dietary intake.Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.

  2. BMI is not a good indicator for metabolic risk in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMI (kg/m2) does not provide information about body fat percentile.Adolescents with BMI girls with low BMI can have high body fat percentile. We hypothesized that these girls are already insulin resi...

  3. The influence of BMI and predictors of disordered eating and life satisfaction on postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sónia F; Silva, Elsa; Gomes, A Rui

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare eating behaviors, body satisfaction, exercise, and life satisfaction between normal-weight and overweight postmenopausal women and to examine the predictors of disordered eating and life satisfaction among postmenopausal women (n = 294). The overweight group had more eating disordered behavior, more body dissatisfaction, and lower physical quality of life. The increase of age predicted less disordered eating. Higher BMI, the perception of an ideal weight lower than the current one, lower body satisfaction, and physical quality of life predicted disordered eating. Higher body satisfaction, less psychosocial discomfort, and a greater degree of sexual symptom discomfort predicted life satisfaction.

  4. The effects of pre-pregnancy BMI and maternal factors on the timing of adiposity rebound in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Jeannette; Corvalán, Camila; Galleguillos, Bárbara; Kain, Juliana; González, Laura; Uauy, Ricardo; Garmendia, María Luisa; Mericq, Verónica

    2016-06-01

    To assess the effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG), and other maternal factors on the timing of adiposity rebound (AR). In this study, 594 mothers (mothers who do not have diabetes and not underweight) from the longitudinal Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study self-reported their weights at the beginning and end of their pregnancies, and their heights were measured. Pre-pregnancy BMI was categorized as normal weight, overweight, or obesity, and GWG was assessed according to Institute of Medicine guidelines. For children, weight and height measurements from 0 to 3 years were retrieved from records, and they were measured from age 4 to 7 years. BMI curves from 0 to 7 years were used to estimate the age at AR, which was categorized as early (7 years). The associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG and early AR were tested using logistic regression models. In total, 33% of the mothers had excess pre-pregnancy weight, 31.2% exceeded Institute of Medicine recommendations, and 45% of children had early AR. The pre-pregnancy BMI and parity were associated with earlier AR (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.02-1.11; OR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.74-0.99, respectively), but GWG was unrelated. These results suggest that preventive strategies for promoting normal pre-pregnancy BMI, especially in women's first pregnancies, could delay the timing of AR, with protective metabolic effects on offspring. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  5. Expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in oral potentially malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalley, Andrew J; Pitty, Luke P; Major, Aidan G; AbdulMajeed, Ahmad A; Farah, Camile S

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis is vital for effective treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The optimal time for clinical intervention is prior to malignancy when patients present with oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia or erythroplakia. Transformation rates for oral dysplasia vary greatly and more rigorous methods are needed to predict the malignant potential of oral lesions. We hypothesized that the expression of two putative stem cell markers, ABCG2 and Bmi-1, would correlate with disease severity for non diseased, potentially malignant and OSCC specimens and cell lines derived from an equivalent range of tissues. We compared immunoreactive protein and relative gene expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in eight cell lines derived from source tissues ranging in disease severity from normal (OKF6-TERT2) through mild and moderate/severe dysplasia (DOK, POE-9n) to OSCC (PE/CA-PJ15, SCC04, SCC25, SCC09, SCC15). We also analyzed immunoreactive protein expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in 189 tissue samples with the same range of disease severity. A trend between oral lesion severity to ABCG2 and Bmi-1 immunostain intensity was observed. Flow cytometry of oral cell lines confirmed this trend and gave good correlation with RT-PCR results for ABCG2 (r = 0.919, P = 0.001; Pearson) but not Bmi-1 (r = −0.311). The results provide evidence of increased density of ABCG2 and Bmi-1-positive populations in malignant and oral potentially malignant lesions and derived cell lines, but that intragroup variability within IHC, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR results compromise the diagnostic potential of these techniques for discriminating oral dysplasia from normal tissue or OSCC

  6. The relation of weight suppression and BMI to bulimic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butryn, Meghan L; Juarascio, Adrienne; Lowe, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    High levels of weight suppression have been associated with greater binge eating and weight gain as well as poorer treatment outcome in bulimia nervosa. This study examined the relationship between weight suppression and bulimia nervosa symptoms and explored how weight suppression might interact with body mass index (BMI) in accounting for level of symptomatology at presentation for treatment. Participants were 64 women with threshold or sub-threshold bulimia nervosa. A clinical interview assessed binge eating and purging. Weight suppression and the interaction between BMI and weight suppression predicted frequency of binge eating such that participants with low BMI and high weight suppression engaged in the most binge eating. High levels of weight suppression also predicted more frequent purging. Additional research is warranted to examine mediators of these relationships. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA; and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP, and riboflavin (p < 0.001, and associated with increased neopterin and KTR levels (p < 0.001. Inflammation seemed to be an independent predictor of low vitamin B6 status, as verified by low PLP and high HK/XA ratio. A high pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant.

  8. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansmann Ulrich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Methods Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs, quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS. We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. Results GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. Conclusion GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  9. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Mansmann, Ulrich; Toschke, André M

    2008-09-08

    Body mass index (BMI) data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs), quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  10. Behavioural patterns only predict concurrent BMI status and not BMI trajectories in a sample of youth in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxer, Rachel E; Cooke, Martin; Dubin, Joel A; Brownson, Ross C; Chaurasia, Ashok; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2018-01-01

    Youth are engaging in multiple risky behaviours, increasing their risk of overweight, obesity, and related chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of engaging in unique clusters of unhealthy behaviours on youths' body mass index (BMI) trajectories. This study used a linked-longitudinal sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (13 to 17 years of age) participating in the COMPASS host study. Students reported obesity-related and other risky behaviours at baseline and height and weight (to derive BMI) at baseline (2012/2013) and annually for 2 years post-baseline (2013/14 and 2014/15). Students were grouped into behavioural clusters based on response probabilities. Linear mixed effects models, using BMI as a continuous outcome measure, were used to examine the effect of engaging in clusters of risky behaviours on BMI trajectories. There were significant differences in BMI of the four behavioural clusters at baseline that remained consistent over time. Higher BMI values were found among youth classified at baseline to be Typical High School Athletes (β = 0.232 kg/m2, [confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.50]), Inactive High Screen-User (β = 0.348 kg/m2, CI: 0.11-0.59) and Moderately Active Substance Users (β = 0.759 kg/m2, CI: 0.36-1.15) compared to students classified as Health Conscious. Despite these baseline differences, BMI appeared to increase across all behavioural clusters annually by the same amount (β = 0.6097 kg/m2, (CI) = 0.57-0.64). Although annual increases in BMI did not differ by behavioural clusters, membership in a particular behavioural cluster was associated with baseline BMI, and these differences remained consistent over time. Results indicate that intervening and modifying unhealthy behaviours earlier might have a greater impact than during adolescence. Health promotion strategies targeting the highest risk youth as they enter secondary school might be promising means to prevent or delay the onset of obesity.

  11. Brain reward system's alterations in response to food and monetary stimuli in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-Román, Juan; Vilar-López, Raquel; Navas, Juan F; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    The brain's reward system is crucial to understand obesity in modern society, as increased neural responsivity to reward can fuel the unhealthy food choices that are driving the growing obesity epidemic. Brain's reward system responsivity to food and monetary rewards in individuals with excessive weight (overweight and obese) versus normal weight controls, along with the relationship between this responsivity and body mass index (BMI) were tested. The sample comprised 21 adults with obesity (BMI > 30), 21 with overweight (BMI between 25 and 30), and 39 with normal weight (BMI food (Willing to Pay) and monetary rewards (Monetary Incentive Delay). Neural activations within the brain reward system were compared across the three groups. Curve fit analyses were conducted to establish the association between BMI and brain reward system's response. Individuals with obesity had greater food-evoked responsivity in the dorsal and ventral striatum compared with overweight and normal weight groups. There was an inverted U-shape association between BMI and monetary-evoked responsivity in the ventral striatum, medial frontal cortex, and amygdala; that is, individuals with BMIs between 27 and 32 had greater responsivity to monetary stimuli. Obesity is associated with greater food-evoked responsivity in the ventral and dorsal striatum, and overweight is associated with greater monetary-evoked responsivity in the ventral striatum, the amygdala, and the medial frontal cortex. Findings suggest differential reactivity of the brain's reward system to food versus monetary rewards in obesity and overweight. Hum Brain Mapp 38:666-677, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Modularidade de programas de ação em indivíduos normais e portadores da síndrome de Down Modularity of action programs in normal and Down syndrome individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gimenez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Habilidades motoras são representadas de forma abstrata em programas de ação. Uma vez formados, esses programas constituem-se em módulos que minimizam as demandas de controle motor em tarefas complexas. O presente estudo investigou se há formação de módulos na aquisição de habilidades motoras em indivíduos normais e portadores da síndrome de Down. Participaram do estudo doze indivíduos divididos igualmente em três grupos (crianças, adultos e adultos portadores da síndrome de Down. Eles praticaram a reprodução manual de um padrão gráfico composto de cinco linhas retas, ao qual foi adicionado um novo padrão após 100 execuções. Os indivíduos portadores da síndrome de Down tiveram dificuldades para formarem módulos e seu desempenho foi similar ao das crianças. A ausência de modularidade no comportamento pode explicar as dificuldades motoras muitas vezes enfrentadas por indivíduos portadores da síndrome de Down.Motor skills are represented as abstract form by action programs that once formed constitutes modules that ease the demand of motor control in complex tasks. The present study investigated whether modules are formed in the acquisition of motor skills in normal individuals and individuals with Down syndrome. Twelve individuals took part in the study, they were assigned equally to three groups: children, adults and adults with Down syndrome. They practiced the manual reproduction of a graphic pattern composed by five linear strokes that was added to another graphic pattern after 100 trials. Down syndrome individuals had difficult to form modules and their performance was similar to that of the children. The lack of modularity in the behavior of Down syndrome individuals may explain the difficulty they face many times while performing motor skills.

  13. No interactions between previously associated 2-hour glucose gene variants and physical activity or BMI on 2-hour glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Robert A; Chu, Audrey Y; Grarup, Niels

    2012-01-01

    to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × BMI and SNP × physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were......Gene-lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact...... dichotomized, with individuals below the first quintile classified as inactive (20%) and the remainder as active (80%). BMI was considered a continuous trait. Inactive individuals had higher 2-h glucose levels than active individuals (ß = 0.22 mmol/L [95% CI 0.13-0.31], P = 1.63 × 10(-6)). All SNPs were...

  14. Expression of BMI-1 and Mel-18 in breast tissue--a diagnostic marker in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Margit L H; Lüders, Torben; Nesbakken, Anne-Jorunn; Vollan, Hilde S; Kristensen, Vessela; Bukholm, Ida R K

    2010-12-16

    Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic silencers involved in maintaining cellular identity, and their deregulation can result in cancer. Expression of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 has been studied in tumor tissue, but not in adjacent non-cancerous breast epithelium. Our study compares the expression of the two genes in normal breast epithelium of cancer patients and relates it to the level of expression in the corresponding tumors as well as in breast epithelium of healthy women. A total of 79 tumors, of which 71 malignant tumors of the breast, 6 fibroadenomas, and 2 DCIS were studied and compared to the reduction mammoplastic specimens of 11 healthy women. In addition there was available adjacent cancer free tissue for 23 of the malignant tumors. The tissue samples were stored in RNAlater, RNA was isolated to create expression microarray profile. These two genes were then studied more closely first on mRNA transcription level by microarrays (Agilent 44 K) and quantitative RT-PCR (TaqMan) and then on protein expression level using immunohistochemistry. Bmi-1 mRNA is significantly up-regulated in adjacent normal breast tissue in breast cancer patients compared to normal breast tissue from noncancerous patients. Conversely, mRNA transcription level of Mel-18 is lower in normal breast from patients operated for breast cancer compared to breast tissue from mammoplasty. When protein expression of these two genes was evaluated, we observed that most of the epithelial cells were positive for Bmi-1 in both groups of tissue samples, although the expression intensity was stronger in normal tissue from cancer patients compared to mammoplasty tissue samples. Protein expression of Mel-18 showed inversely stronger intensity in tissue samples from mammoplasty compared to normal breast tissue from patients operated for breast cancer. Bmi-1 mRNA level is consistently increased and Mel-18 mRNA level is consistently decreased in adjacent normal breast tissue of cancer patients as compared

  15. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  16. Quantification of wear-time adherence of removable appliances in young orthodontic patients in relation to their BMI: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Timm Cornelius; Ludwig, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between unhealthy body mass index (BMI) and adherence to orthodontic treatment with removable appliances has not previously been evaluated. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between BMI and wear time of removable orthodontic appliances and to evaluate BMI changes during orthodontic treatment. Fifty-three normal-weight and 39 overweight/obese children and adolescents (7-15 years old) undergoing orthodontic treatment with removable appliances were enrolled into the study. BMI categories were determined using standardized age-specific and sex-specific BMI criteria, using data measured at the beginning of therapy and once during orthodontic treatment. Wear times of removable appliances were measured at 15-minute intervals over a period of 5 months using implanted microelectronic sensors. Median wear-time values were used in the analysis with the Mann-Whitney U-test used to test statistical differences between groups. The median wear time of removable orthodontic appliances was 9.3 hours for normal-weight patients and 9.2 hours for overweight/obese patients. No statistically significant (P>0.05) or clinically relevant differences in usage or adherence were detected between normal-weight and overweight/obese patients. BMI did not influence wear time or behavior of removable orthodontic appliances by young patients. The majority of patients showed qualitative decreases in BMI during therapy. The orthodontic treatment of young patients with removable devices does not require BMI-dependent changes in the treatment strategy. However, the use of removable appliances during meal times raises the possibility of reducing food intake, and in this way the orthodontist may have an active role to play in weight reduction.

  17. Programs of Active Aging – A Relation between BMI and Triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Honório

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To enhance the importance of physical activity programs for elderly and their influence on BMI and triglycerides. Methods: The sample consisted of 91 elderly individuals, 63 females and 28 males aged between 65 and 78 years of age. All seniors practice water activities, including swimming and gymnastics. Were analyzed with respect to two aspects: BMI, Triglycerides and practice time, seniors who were physically active at least 2 months, and seniors who maintained habits of physical activity between 2 and 6 months and still accumulated 30 or more minutes of other activities. We have established contingency tables were confronted where the variables described in the analysis. Results: It was found that elderly who maintained physical activity programs were broader outnumbered those who were overweight and obesity rates in Table I of BMI, and lower triglycerides values. Conclusions: We concluded therefore that physical activity programs that contemplate 2 or more hours per week, duly organized and systematized constitute a positive factor in combating inactivity and turn into a more active and cheerful elderly.

  18. Effect of BMI on Knee Joint Torques in Ergometer Rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity

  19. The link between BMI and waist circumference in northern Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Waist circumference and not body mass index explains a greater variance in obesity-related health risk. The present study assesses the link between BMI and WC in Iranian adults. Methods: In a population based cross- sectional study on 3600 adults, northern Iran, we investigated the link ...

  20. The Prevalence of Obesity as Indicated by BMI and Waist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in most developed countries and in urban areas of many less developed countries has been increasing markedly over the past twenty years. This study\\'s aims were to determine the prevalence of obesity using BMI and waist circumference among Nigerian adults ...

  1. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Risk of Cerebral Palsy in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forthun, Ingeborg; Wilcox, Allen J; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in offspring. METHODS: The study population consisted of 188 788 children in the Mothers and Babies in Norway and Denmark CP study, using data from 2 population-based, prospective birth...

  2. Differences in the association between childhood trauma and BMI in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However,independent of BMI group, there were significant differences in socioeconomic status (SES) between black and white women (P<0.01). Total CTQ score, as well as the sub-scales, physical and emotional neglect, and physical and sexual abuse were higher in black than white women (all P<0.05), but these scores ...

  3. Low birth weight, adult BMI and inflammation in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Avlund, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association between birthweight and adult BMI with inflammation in middle age measured by interleukin 6 (IL- 6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 18 (IL-18), high sensitivity Creactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf-α). The study is based on partic...

  4. Differences in the association between childhood trauma and BMI in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between childhood trauma and BMI in black and white South African women ... finding, including measures of body image and body size satisfaction that may explain these findings. Keywords: Childhood trauma questionnaire; Body fat; Body image; Sexual abuse; Ethnicity, ... Self-reported exposure to childhood trauma was.

  5. A comparative study on different BMI category and physical fitness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study on different BMI category and physical fitness health related component of sedentary male youth in Terengganu. V Eswaramoorthi, M.R. Abdullah, H Juahir, A.B.H.M. Maliki, R.M. Musa, N.A. Kosni, N Alias, N.B. Raj, S.M.M. Rasid, A Adnan ...

  6. Cognitive Function in Normal-Weight, Overweight, and Obese Older Adults: An Analysis of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Jones, Richard N.; Milberg, William P.; Tennstedt, Sharon; Talbot, Laura; Morris, John N.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess how elevated body mass index (BMI) affects cognitive function in elderly people. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Data for this cross-sectional study were taken from a multicenter randomized controlled trial, the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly trial. PARTICIPANTS The analytic sample included 2,684 normal-weight, overweight, or obese subjects aged 65 to 94. MEASUREMENTS Evaluation of cognitive abilities was performed in several domains: global cognition, memory, reasoning, and speed of processing. Cross-sectional association between body weight status and cognitive functions was analyzed using multiple linear regression. RESULTS Overweight subjects had better performance on a reasoning task (β = 0.23, standard error (SE) = 0.11, P = .04) and the Useful Field of View (UFOV) measure (β = −39.46, SE = 12.95, P = .002), a test of visuospatial speed of processing, after controlling for age, sex, race, years of education, intervention group, study site, and cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects with class I (BMI 30.0–34.9 kg/m2) and class II (BMI>35.0 kg/m2) obesity had better UFOV measure scores (β = −38.98, SE = 14.77, P = .008; β = −35.75, SE = 17.65, and P = .04, respectively) in the multivariate model than normal-weight subjects. The relationships between BMI and individual cognitive domains were nonlinear. CONCLUSION Overweight participants had better cognitive performance in terms of reasoning and visuospatial speed of processing than normal-weight participants. Obesity was associated with better performance in visuospatial speed of processing than normal weight. The relationship between BMI and cognitive function should be studied prospectively. PMID:16420204

  7. Assessing the genetic overlap between BMI and cognitive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marioni, R E; Yang, J; Dykiert, D; Mõttus, R; Campbell, A; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Bressler, Jan; Debette, Stephanie; Schuur, Maaike; Smith, Albert V; Davies, Gail; Bennett, David A; Deary, Ian J; Ikram, M Arfan; Launer, Lenore J; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Seshadri, Sudha; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Mosely Jr, Thomas H; Davies, G; Hayward, C; Porteous, D J; Visscher, P M; Deary, I J

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and low cognitive function are associated with multiple adverse health outcomes across the life course. They have a small phenotypic correlation (r=−0.11; high body mass index (BMI)−low cognitive function), but whether they have a shared genetic aetiology is unknown. We investigated the phenotypic and genetic correlations between the traits using data from 6815 unrelated, genotyped members of Generation Scotland, an ethnically homogeneous cohort from five sites across Scotland. Genetic correlations were estimated using the following: same-sample bivariate genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA)–GREML; independent samples bivariate GCTA–GREML using Generation Scotland for cognitive data and four other samples (n=20 806) for BMI; and bivariate LDSC analysis using the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data on cognitive function (n=48 462) and BMI (n=339 224) to date. The GWAS summary data were also used to create polygenic scores for the two traits, with within- and cross-trait prediction taking place in the independent Generation Scotland cohort. A large genetic correlation of −0.51 (s.e. 0.15) was observed using the same-sample GCTA–GREML approach compared with −0.10 (s.e. 0.08) from the independent-samples GCTA–GREML approach and −0.22 (s.e. 0.03) from the bivariate LDSC analysis. A genetic profile score using cognition-specific genetic variants accounts for 0.08% (P=0.020) of the variance in BMI and a genetic profile score using BMI-specific variants accounts for 0.42% (P=1.9 × 10−7) of the variance in cognitive function. Seven common genetic variants are significantly associated with both traits at Pcognitive function. PMID:26857597

  8. Difficulty buying food, BMI, and eating habits in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Anne; Maguire, Jonathon L; Carsley, Sarah; Chen, Yang; Lebovic, Gerald; Omand, Jessica; Parkin, Patricia; Birken, Catherine S

    2018-01-22

    To determine whether parent report of difficulty buying food was associated with child body mass index (BMI) z-score or with eating habits in young children. This was a cross-sectional study in primary care offices in Toronto, Ontario. Subjects were children aged 1-5 years and their caregivers, recruited through the TARGet Kids! Research Network from July 2008 to August 2011. Regression models were developed to test the association between parent report of difficulty buying food because of cost and the following outcomes: child BMI z-score, parent's report of child's intake of fruit and vegetables, fruit juice and sweetened beverages, and fast food. Confounders included child's age, sex, birth weight, maternal BMI, education, ethnicity, immigration status, and neighbourhood income. The study sample consisted of 3333 children. Data on difficulty buying food were available for 3099 children, and 431 of these (13.9%) were from households reporting difficulty buying food. There was no association with child BMI z-score (p = 0.86). Children from households reporting difficulty buying food (compared with never having difficulty buying food) had increased odds of consuming three or fewer servings of fruits and vegetables per day (odds ratio [OR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.69), more than one serving of fruit juice/sweetened beverage per day (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28-2.00), and, among children 1-2 years old, one or more servings of fast food per week (OR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.67-5.08). Parental report of difficulty buying food is associated with less optimal eating habits in children but not with BMI z-score.

  9. Body mass index (BMI) in the Saudi population of Gassim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyannwo, M A; Kurashi, N Y; Gadallah, M; Hams, J; el-Essawi, O; Khan, N A; Singh, R G; Alamri, A; Beyari, T H

    1998-01-01

    In a total cross-sectional population survey of the Faizia East Primary Health District of Buraidah, Gassim region of Saudi Arabia, 6,044 (2727 male and 3317 females) subjects out of a de facto population of 7695 got their BMI computed because infants and restless or bedridden subjects could not be examined. Mean (+/- SD) and percentiles (25th & 75th) were calculated in the conventional 5-year age cohorts as well as in functional age groups, namely, 0-5, 6-12, 13-49, 50-69 and 70+ years. 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th percentiles were computed only for the functional age groups. In general, the trend was for BMI to increase with age in both genders but the curve pattern showed some plateauing from about the age of 50 with slight decline in later life. Females had significantly higher indices than males, this becoming quite prominent from the 10-14 year age cohort. This difference persisted irrespective of the types of age grouping or residential location. Overall means (+/- SD) were 20.14 +/- 5.98 vs 22.22 +/- 7.21 for males and females respectively; df: 5771; p = 0.0000; 95% CI: -2.43, -1.735. Subjects in the urban living environment had significant higher indices than their rural counterpart: (21.666.92 vs 20.446.33: df: 5771; P = 0.0000; 95% CI: 1.595, -0.840). From the age of 15 about one quarter of females are overweight (BMI at the 75th percentile > 25) and from 30 years the same proportion are frankly obese (BMI > 30). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly positively correlated with BMI in both genders: male SBP: r = 0.22, P r = 0.21, P r = 0.18, P < 0.00001.

  10. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet environments, constant electrical properties over a vast array of temperature settings, and nonflammability properties as well. This makes BMI a popular choice in advance composites and electronics applications [I]. Bismaleimide-2 (BMI-2) resin was used to infuse intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) based carbon fiber. Two panel configurations consisting of 4 plies with [+45deg, 90deg]2 and [0deg]4 orientations were fabricated. For tensile testing, a [90deg]4 configuration was tested by rotating the [0deg]4 configirration to lie orthogonal with the load direction of the test fixture. Curing of the BMI-2/IM7 system utilized an optimal infusion process which focused on the integration of the manufacturer-recommended ramp rates,. hold times, and cure temperatures. Completion of the cure cycle for the BMI-2/IM7 composite yielded a product with multiple surface voids determined through visual and metallographic observation. Although the curing cycle was the same for the three panellayups, the surface voids that remained within the material post-cure were different in abundance, shape, and size. For tensile testing, the [0deg]4 layup had a 19.9% and 21.7% greater average tensile strain performance compared to the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45degg] layups, respectively, at failure. For tensile stress performance, the [0deg]4 layup had a 5.8% and 34.0% greater average performance% than the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45deg] layups.

  11. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  12. The Impact of XmnI-HBG2, BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms on Hb F Variation of Hematologically Normal Iranian Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, Elaheh; Jafari Vesiehsari, Mahjoobeh; Talebi Kakroodi, Setareh; Darabi, Elham; Zamani, Fahimeh; Karimlou, Masoud; Kamali, Koorosh; Neishabury, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    The impact of Hb F on severity of sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia (β-thal) is well documented. The XmnI-HBG2, BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been introduced as the most important factors causing variation in fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) levels in different population studies. However, the extent of their effect could be population-specific. In this study, multivariate linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of Hb F with age, sex, and eight SNPs, including XmnI-HBG2, four BCL11A, two HBS1L-MYB SNPs and the polymorphic palindromic 5' hypersensitive 4-locus control region (5'HS4-LCR). One hundred and twenty-two hematologically normal individuals, from a previous study cohort, constituted our study population. In multivariate regression analyses, no association of Hb F was observed with age or sex of the individuals and SNPs in this study. We conducted a univariate regression analysis to further investigate the results, which among all the factors only detected XmnI-HBG2 and 5'HS4 SNPs as significant modifiers of Hb F. The significance of these two factors disappeared in a bivariate analysis. These results suggest that either XmnI-HBG2 or 5'HS4-LCR have a stronger contribution in Hb F variations of the Iranian population than BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB SNPs. Furthermore, the effect of low population size and technical limitations on obtained results could not be ruled out.

  13. A Comparison of Perceived and Measured Paternal Weight and BMI, and Relationship to Weight and BMI of his Children

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, RF

    2018-02-01

    Nineteen percent of 9 years old Irish children are overweight; seven percent are obese. Our aims were: to examine whether differences exist between paternal self-reported and measured height, weight and BMI in a population representative sample; and to explore paternal perceptions of their own weight status.\\r\

  14. [In vitro study of joint intervention of E-cad and Bmi-1 mediated by transcription activator-like effector nuclease in nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tingting; Yan, Aifen; Liu, Lian; Jiang, Hong; Feng, Cuilan; Liu, Guannan; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dongsheng; Zhou, Tianhong

    2018-03-28

    To explore the effect of intervention of E-cadherin (E-cad) and B-lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region-1 (Bmi-1) mediated by transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) on the biological behaviors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
 Methods: Multi-locus gene targeting vectors pUC-DS1-CMV-E-cad-2A-Neo-DS2 and pUC-DS1-Bmi-1 shRNA-Zeo-DS2 were constructed, and the E-cad and Bmi-1 targeting vectors were transferred with TALEN plasmids to CNE-2 cells individually or simultaneously. The integration of target genes were detected by PCR, the expressions of E-cad and Bmi-1 were detected by Western blot. The changes of cell proliferation were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. The cell migration and invasion were detected by Transwell assay.
 Results: The E-cad and Bmi-1 shRNA expression elements were successfully integrated into the genome of CNE-2 cells, the protein expression level of E-cad was up-regulated, and the protein expression level of Bmi-1 was down-regulated. The intervention of E-cad and Bmi-1 didn't affect the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of CNE-2 cells, but it significantly inhibited the migration and invasion ability of CNE-2 cells. Furthermore, the intervention of E-cad and Bmi-1 together significantly inhibited the migration ability of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells compared with the intervention of E-cad or Bmi-1 alone (all Pcad and Bmi-1 mediated by TALEN can effectively inhibit the migration and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in vitro, which may lay the preliminary experimental basis for gene therapy of human cancer.

  15. Assessing exclusive breastfeeding practices, dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) of nursing mothers in Ekiti State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve

    2010-06-01

    Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeeding mothers that attended postnatal clinic of the state specialist hospitals and maternity centers in the study location. The specialist hospital and two-third of the nine maternity centers were purposively selected because of their health facilities and personnel. The mother-child pairs (200 respondents) were randomly selected from the study locations. Information on demographic characteristic, socio-economic parameters, nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding and dietary intakes of mothers were collected using questionnaires. BMI of mothers was determined as described by World Health Organization. Age distribution of mothers was between 25-34 years; and almost half of respondents had good educational background and were engaged in different occupations. The respondent monthly income ranged between = N = 3500 - 26000 ($26.92 - $200); and their dietary intakes varied between starchy and protein-based food. The result also showed that the respondent consumed enough nutrients to meet up the recommended daily allowance for protein, carbohydrate, fat, zinc, magnesium, sodium and phosphorous requirements. The BMI classifications showed that over three-fifth of respondents were normal, while the remaining were underweight (6%) and overweight/obese (26.5%). Also, large proportion of respondents engaged in exclusive breastfeeding and with good knowledge of breastfeeding practices. Statistically, exclusive breastfeeding practices had no correlation between the BMI and frequency of

  16. Comparação entre dois meios de coleta e transporte para estudo da microbiota conjuntival de indivíduos normais Comparison of two transportation media for study of normal individual conjunctival microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cruz Nogueira

    2007-12-01

    Casa Misericórdia de São Paulo, in August of 2006. Eighty normal eyes of 40 healthy individuals were analyzed. Samples were collected in the right eye with a dry swab and stored in Stuart's medium, where all microbiological material is kept immersed in the medium and the tube is hermetically sealed. In the left eye, the conjunctival material was collected using a swab embedded in saline solution 0.9%, and stored in dry and sterile test tubes sealed with cotton. The samples were analyzed within 2 hours at most after collection. RESULTS: Out of 40 samples collected with wet swab and transported in dry tube, bacteria were observed in 10 (25%, whereas of 40 samples collected with dry swab and transported in Stuart's medium, 12 (30% had bacteria. CONCLUSION: The results of the microbiological profile of normal conjunctival microbiota using dry swab in Stuart's medium were statistically similar (p=0.85 to those obtained in wet swab in dry tube for spreading performed within 2 hours after collection of conjunctival specimen.

  17. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  18. Endothelial function in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): Implications of body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kannishy, Ghada; Kamal, Shaheer; Mousa, Amany; Saleh, Omayma; Badrawy, Adel El; Farahaty, Reham El; Shokeir, Tarek

    2010-01-01

    Evidence regarding endothelial function in both obese and nonobese women with PCOS is contradictory. It is unknown whether obese women with PCOS carry an increased risk related to body mass index (BMI). To identify endothelial function and investigate its relationship to body mass index and insulin resistance in young women with PCOS. Twenty-two obese women with PCOS (BMI 35.2 ± 3.2) as well as fourteen lean women (BMI 22.8 ± 2.1)with PCOS were included in the study. Fasting serum insulin, blood glucose were estimated and HOMA and Quicki index were calculated. All patients were subjected to ultrasound recording of brachial artery diameter at rest and after reactive hyperemia (FMD) for assessment of endothelial function. Ten age matched healthy females with normal BMI were chosen as a control group. There were higher basal insulin levels with lower Quicki index and higher HOMA index in women with PCOS than normal group, but the differences were significant only between obese PCOS subgroup and control. On the other hand, FMD was significantly and equally decreased in both groups of women with PCOS, compared with control subjects (3.7 ± 3.2% in the nonobese subgroup and 3.5 ± 2.8% in the obese one vs. 10.6 ± 4.1% in control subjects, P, 0.001). FMD was not correlated with BMI nor insulin resistance indices. Endothelial dysfunction is already present in young women with PCOS. In this patient group, it cannot be attributed to insulin resistance or obesity. © 2010 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  20. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  1. Impact of baseline BMI on glycemic control and weight change with metformin monotherapy in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients: phase IV open-label trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linong Ji

    Full Text Available Differences exist between treatment recommendations regarding the choice of metformin as first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes patients according to body mass index (BMI. This study compared the efficacy of metformin monotherapy among normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study in China, patients aged 23-77 years were enrolled 1∶1:1 according to baseline BMI: normal-weight (BMI 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2; n = 125; overweight (BMI 24.0-27.9 kg/m(2; n = 122 or obese (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2; n = 124. Extended-release metformin was administered for 16 weeks (500 mg/day, up-titrated weekly to a maximum 2,000 mg/day. The primary efficacy endpoint was the effect of baseline BMI on glycemic control with metformin monotherapy, measured as the change from baseline in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c at week 16 compared among BMI groups using ANCOVA. Other endpoints included comparisons of metformin's effects on fasting plasma glucose (FPG, lipid levels and body weight.Mean HbA1c decreases at week 16, adjusted for baseline values, were -1.84%, -1.78% and -1.78% in normal-weight, overweight and obese patients, (P = 0.664; body weight decreased by 2.4%, 3.9% and 3.5%, respectively. FPG levels decreased similarly over time in all BMI groups (P = 0.461 and changes from baseline in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C did not differ significantly among BMI groups at week 16 (P = 0.143 and 0.451, respectively.Baseline BMI had no impact on glycemic control, weight change or other efficacy measures with metformin monotherapy. These data suggest that normal-weight type 2 diabetes patients would derive the same benefits from first-line treatment with metformin as overweight and obese patients, and are not at increased risk of excess weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00778622.

  2. To Assess the Effect of Maternal BMI on Obstetrical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhanpal, Shuchi; Aggarwal, Asha; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2012-06-01

    AIMS: To assess the effect of maternal BMI on complications in pregnancy, mode of delivery, complications of labour and delivery.METHODS:A crossectional study was carried out in the Obst and Gynae department, Kasturba Hospital, Delhi. The study enrolled 100 pregnant women. They were divided into 2 groups based on their BMI, more than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 were categorized as obese and less than 30 kg/m2 as non obese respectively. Maternal complications in both types of patients were studied.RESULTS:CONCLUSION: As the obstetrical outcome is significantly altered due to obesity, we can improve maternal outcome by overcoming obesity. As obesity is a modifiable risk factor, preconception counseling creating awareness regarding health risk associated with obesity should be encouraged and obstetrical complications reduced.

  3. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    possibilities for individual voice, autonomy and self-determination in the local delivery of activation policy? What barriers do specific organisational models and practices imply for clients to choose, determine and access tailor-made programmes and services? What policy technologies are at work in governing......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...

  4. p38 MAPK-Mediated Bmi-1 Down-Regulation and Defective Proliferation in ATM-Deficient Neural Stem Cells Can Be Restored by Akt Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeesun; Hwangbo, Jeon; Wong, Paul K. Y.

    2011-01-01

    A-T (ataxia telangiectasia) is a genetic disease caused by a mutation in the Atm (A-T mutated) gene that leads to neurodegeneration. Despite an increase in the numbers of studies in this area in recent years, the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in human A-T are still poorly understood. Previous studies demonstrated that neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of Atm -/- mouse brains show defective self-renewal and proliferation, which is accompanied by activation of chronic p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and a lower level of the polycomb protein Bmi-1. However, the mechanism underlying Bmi-1 down-regulation and its relevance to defective proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs remained unclear. Here, we show that over-expression of Bmi-1 increases self-renewal and proliferation of Atm-/- NSCs to normal, indicating that defective proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs is a consequence of down-regulation of Bmi-1. We also demonstrate that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced Akt phosphorylation renders Bmi-1 resistant to the proteasomal degradation, leading to its stabilization and accumulation in the nucleus. However, inhibition of the Akt-dependent Bmi-1 stabilizing process by p38 MAPK signaling reduces the levels of Bmi-1. Treatment of the Atm-/- NSCs with a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 extended Bmi-1 posttranscriptional turnover and H2A ubiquitination in Atm-/- NSCs. Our observations demonstrate the molecular basis underlying the impairment of self-renewal and proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs through the p38 MAPK-Akt-Bmi-1-p21 signaling pathway. PMID:21305053

  5. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children's BMI - A Chinese Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months with infant body mass index (BMI in the first two years of life.A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006. Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, mixed feeding (MF, and formula feeding (FF. General linear models (GLM were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children's BMI-Z.No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05. For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers.Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children's BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity.

  6. Effect of inhaled corticosteroid use on weight (BMI) in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jennifer; Nguyen, John; Kim, Yuna; Geng, Bob; Romanowski, Gale; Alejandro, Lawrence; Proudfoot, James; Xu, Ronghui; Leibel, Sydney

    2018-04-19

    Assess the relationship between inhaled corticosteroid use (ICS) and weight (BMI) in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma. Assess if the number of emergency department (ED) visits correlates with overall BMI trajectory. Assess the trend of prescribing biologic therapy in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma and determine its relationship with weight (BMI). A retrospective chart review was performed on 93 pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma to determine the relationship between ICS use and weight (BMI), biologic therapy and BMI, and number of ED visits and BMI trajectory. A mixed effects model was employed with the correlation between repeated measures accounted for through the random effects. There is a statistically significant increase of 0.369 kg/m 2 in BMI trajectory per year in subjects on high-dose steroids compared to an increase of 0.195 kg/m 2 in the low dose group (p BMI of subjects initiated on biologic therapy (omalizumab or mepolizumab) had a statistically significant decrease in BMI trajectory of 0.818 kg/m 2 per year (p BMI trajectory (p BMI trajectory; the higher the dose, the greater the projected BMI increase per year. Initiation of biologic therapy decreased BMI trajectory over time. Lastly, those with frequent ED visits had a higher BMI trend. Future prospective studies are warranted that further evaluate the potential metabolic impacts of ICS and assess the effects of biologic therapy on BMI.

  7. Malnutrition in Healthy Individuals Results in Increased Mixed Cytokine Profiles, Altered Neutrophil Subsets and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takele, Y.; Adem, E.; Getahun, M.; Tajebe, F.; Kiflie, A.; Hailu, A.; Raynes, J.; Mengesha, B.; Ayele, T. A.; Shkedy, Z.; Lemma, M.; Diro, E.; Toulza, F.; Modolell, M.; Munder, M.; Müller, I.; Kropf, P.

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is commonly associated with increased infectious disease susceptibility and severity. Whereas malnutrition might enhance the incidence of disease as well as its severity, active infection can in turn exacerbate malnutrition. Therefore, in a malnourished individual suffering from a severe infection, it is not possible to determine the contribution of the pre-existing malnutrition and/or the infection itself to increased disease severity. In the current study we focussed on two groups of malnourished, but otherwise healthy individuals: moderately malnourished (BMI: 18.4–16.5) and severely malnourished (BMI <16.5) and compared several immune parameters with those of individuals with a normal BMI (≥18.5). Our results show a similar haematological profile in all three groups, as well as a similar ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We found significant correlations between low BMI and increased levels of T helper (Th) 1 (Interferon (IFN)-γ, (interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), as well as IL-10, IL-33 and tumor necrosis factor-α, but not IL-8 or C reactive protein. The activities of arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, were similar in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils from all groups and no differences in the expression levels of CD3ζ, a marker of T cell activation, were observed in CD4+ and CD8+T cells. Furthermore, whereas the capacity of neutrophils from the malnourished groups to phagocytose particles was not impaired, their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species was impaired. Finally we evaluated the frequency of a subpopulation of low-density neutrophils and show that they are significantly increased in the malnourished individuals. These differences were more pronounced in the severely malnourished group. In summary, our results show that even in the absence of apparent infections, healthy malnourished individuals display dysfunctional immune responses that might contribute to

  8. Chronic disease burden associated with overweight and obesity in Ireland: the effects of a small BMI reduction at population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Karen; Dee, Anne; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Doherty, Edel; Perry, Ivan J

    2014-02-10

    Overweight and obesity prevalence has risen dramatically in recent decades. While it is known that overweight and obesity is associated with a wide range of chronic diseases, the cumulative burden of chronic disease in the population associated with overweight and obesity is not well quantified. The aims of this paper were to examine the associations between BMI and chronic disease prevalence; to calculate Population Attributable Fractions (PAFs) associated with overweight and obesity; and to estimate the impact of a one unit reduction in BMI on the population prevalence of chronic disease. A cross-sectional analysis of 10,364 adults aged ≥18 years from the Republic of Ireland National Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN 2007) was performed. Using binary regression, we examined the relationship between BMI and the selected chronic diseases. In further analyses, we calculated PAFs of selected chronic diseases attributable to overweight and obesity and we assessed the impact of a one unit reduction in BMI on the overall burden of chronic disease. Overweight and obesity prevalence was higher in men (43.0% and 16.1%) compared to women (29.2% and 13.4%), respectively. The most prevalent chronic conditions were lower back pain, hypertension, and raised cholesterol. Prevalence of chronic disease generally increased with increasing BMI. Compared to normal weight persons, the strongest associations were found in obese women for diabetes (RR 3.9, 95% CI 2.5-6.3), followed by hypertension (RR 2.9, 95% CI 2.3-3.6); and in obese men for hypertension (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-2.7), followed by osteoarthritis (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.2). Calculated PAFs indicated that a large proportion of chronic disease is attributable to increased BMI, most noticeably for diabetes in women (42%) and for hypertension in men (30%). Overall, a one unit decrease in BMI results in 26 and 28 fewer cases of chronic disease per 1,000 men and women, respectively. Overweight and obesity are

  9. Evidence for a relationship between VEGF and BMI independent of insulin sensitivity by glucose clamp procedure in a homogenous group healthy young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Loebig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This is the first study to experimentally explore the direct relationship between circulating VEGF levels and body mass index (BMI as well as to unravel the role of insulin sensitivity in this context under standardized glucose clamp conditions as the methodical gold-standard. In order to control for known influencing factors such as gender, medication, and arterial hypertension, we examined a highly homogeneous group of young male subjects. Moreover, to encompass also subjects beyond the normal BMI range, low weight and obese participants were additionally included and stress hormones as a main regulator of VEGF were assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Under euglycemic clamp conditions, VEGF was measured in 15 normal weight (BMI 20-25 kg/m(2, 15 low weight (BMI30 kg/m(2 male subjects aged 18-30 years and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI was calculated. Since stress axis activation promotes VEGF secretion, concentrations of ACTH, cortisol, and catecholamines were monitored. Despite of comparable ACTH (P = 0.145, cortisol (P = 0.840, and norepinephrine (P = 0.065 levels, VEGF concentrations differed significantly between BMI-groups (P = 0.008 with higher concentrations in obese subjects as compared to normal weight (P = 0.061 and low weight subjects (P = 0.002. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between BMI and VEGF levels (r = 0.407; P = 0.010 but no correlation of VEGF with ISI (r = 0.224; P = 0.175. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate a positive correlation between concentrations of circulating VEGF levels and BMI in healthy male subjects under highly controlled conditions. This relationship which is apparently disconnected from insulin sensitivity may be part of some pathogenetic mechanisms underlying obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  10. Investigation on the effects of geometric variables on the residual stresses and PWSCC growth in the RPV BMI penetration nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Ra, Myoung Soo; Lee, Kyoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of various geometric variables on the residual stresses and PWSCC growth of RPV BMI penetration nozzles. An FE residual stress analysis procedure was developed and validated from the viewpoint of FFS assessment. The validated FE residual stress analysis procedure and the PWSCC growth assessment procedure in the ASME B and PV Code, Sec.XI were applied to the BMI penetration nozzles with specified ranges of the geometric variables. The total stresses at steady state during normal operation including welding residual stresses increase with increasing inclination angle of the BMI nozzles, and with tilt angle, depth, and root width of the J-groove weld. The lifetime from the assumed initial crack to the acceptance criteria according to the ASME B and PV Code, Sec.XI also decreases under these conditions. The total stresses decrease and the lifetime increases with increasing nozzle thickness, but outer radius of the BMI nozzles has an insignificant effect on both of these factors.

  11. Women with a BMI ≥ 30kg/m² and their experience of maternity care: A meta ethnographic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catriona; Jomeen, Julie

    2017-10-01

    this paper is a report of a systematic review and meta-ethnography of the experiences of women with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30kg/m² and their experience of maternity care. systematic review methods identified 12 qualitative studies about women's experiences of maternity care when their BMI ≥ 30kg/m². Findings from the identified studies were synthesised into themes, using metaethnography. SYNTHESIS AND FINDINGS: the meta-ethnography produced four key concepts; Initial encounters, Negotiating risk, Missing out and The positive intervention, which represent the experiences of maternity care for women with BMI ≥ 30kg/m² KEY CONCLUSION: many women with BMI ≥ 30kg/m² appear to be dissatisfied with the approaches taken to discuss weight status during maternity encounters. When weight is not addressed during these encounters women appear to be equally dissatisfied. The absence of open and honest discussions about weight, the feeling of being denied of a normal experience, and an over emphasis on the risks imposed upon pregnancy and childbirth by obesity, leave women feeling dissatisfied and disenfranchised. Sensitive care and practical advice about diet and exercise can help women move towards feeling more in control of their weight management. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Low prevalence of hypopituitarism after subarachnoid haemorrhage using confirmatory testing and with BMI-specific GH cut-off levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Chris J; Javadpour, Mohsen; Stoneley, Catherine; Purthuran, Mani; Biswas, Shubhabrata; Daousi, Christina; MacFarlane, Ian A; Cuthbertson, Daniel J

    2013-04-01

    Hypopituitarism following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has been reported to be a frequent occurrence. However, there is considerable heterogeneity between studies with differing patient populations and treatment modalities and most importantly employing differing endocrine protocols and (normal) reference ranges of GH. We aimed to examine prospectively a cohort of SAH survivors for development of hypopituitarism post-SAH using rigorous endocrine testing and compare GH response to glucagon stimulation with a cohort of healthy controls of a similar BMI. Sixty-four patients were investigated for evidence of hypopituitarism 3 months post-SAH with 50 patients tested again at 12 months. Glucagon stimulation testing (GST), with confirmation of deficiencies by GHRH/arginine testing for GH deficiency (GHD) and short synacthen testing for ACTH deficiency, was used. Basal testing of other hormonal axes was undertaken. Mean age of patients was 53±11.7 years and mean BMI was 27.5±5.7 kg/m(2). After confirmatory testing, the prevalence of hypopituitarism was 12% (GHD 10%, asymptomatic hypocortisolaemia 2%). There was no association between hypopituitarism and post-SAH vasospasm, presence of cerebral infarction, Fisher grade, or clinical grading at presentation. There was a significant correlation between BMI and peak GH to glucagon stimulation in both patients and controls. Identification of 'true' GHD after SAH requires confirmatory testing with an alternative stimulation test and application of BMI-specific cut-offs. Using such stringent criteria, we found a prevalence of hypopituitarism of 12% in our population.

  13. Physical activity reduces the influence of genetic effects on BMI and waist circumference: a study in young adult twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustelin, L; Silventoinen, K; Pietiläinen, K; Rissanen, A; Kaprio, J

    2009-01-01

    Both obesity and exercise behavior are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. However, whether obesity and physical inactivity share the same genetic vs environmental etiology has rarely been studied. We therefore analyzed these complex relationships, and also examined whether physical activity modifies the degree of genetic influence on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The FinnTwin16 Study is a population-based, longitudinal study of five consecutive birth cohorts (1975-1979) of Finnish twins. Data on height, weight, WC and physical activity of 4343 subjects at the average age of 25 (range, 22-27 years) years were obtained by a questionnaire and self-measurement of WC. Quantitative genetic analyses based on linear structural equations were carried out by the Mx statistical package. The modifying effect of physical activity on genetic and environmental influences was analyzed using gene-environment interaction models. The overall heritability estimates were 79% in males and 78% in females for BMI, 56 and 71% for WC and 55 and 54% for physical activity, respectively. There was an inverse relationship between physical activity and WC in males (r = -0.12) and females (r=-0.18), and between physical activity and BMI in females (r = -0.12). Physical activity significantly modified the heritability of BMI and WC, with a high level of physical activity decreasing the additive genetic component in BMI and WC. Physically active subjects were leaner than sedentary ones, and physical activity reduced the influence of genetic factors to develop high BMI and WC. This suggests that the individuals at greatest genetic risk for obesity would benefit the most from physical activity.

  14. Prevalence of elevated mean arterial pressure and how fitness moderates its association with BMI in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunleye, Ayodele A; Sandercock, Gavin R; Voss, Christine; Eisenmann, Joey C; Reed, Katharine

    2013-11-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is known to be cardioprotective and its association with the components of the metabolic syndrome in children is becoming clearer. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness may offset the weight-related association with mean arterial pressure (MAP) in schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study. Schoolchildren from the East of England, U.K. A total of 5983 (48% females) schoolchildren, 10 to 16 years of age, had height, weight and blood pressure measured by standard procedures and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed by the 20 m shuttle-run test. Participants were classified as fit or unfit using internationally accepted fitness cut-off points; and as normal weight, overweight or obese based on BMI, again using international cut-off points. Age-adjusted ANCOVA was used to determine the main effects and interaction of fitness and BMI on MAP Z-score. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios of elevated MAP. Prevalence of elevated MAP in schoolchildren was 14.8% overall and 35.7% in those who were obese-unfit. Approximately 21% of participants were overweight and 5% obese, while 23% were classified as unfit. MAP generally increased across BMI categories and was higher in the aerobically unfit participants. Obese-fit males had lower MAP compared with obese-unfit males (P < 0.001); this trend was similar in females (P = 0.05). Increasing fitness level may have a positive impact on the weight-related elevations of MAP seen in obese and overweight schoolchildren.

  15. MK3 modulation affects BMI1-dependent and independent cell cycle check-points.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Prickaerts

    Full Text Available Although the MK3 gene was originally found deleted in some cancers, it is highly expressed in others. The relevance of MK3 for oncogenesis is currently not clear. We recently reported that MK3 controls ERK activity via a negative feedback mechanism. This prompted us to investigate a potential role for MK3 in cell proliferation. We here show that overexpression of MK3 induces a proliferative arrest in normal diploid human fibroblasts, characterized by enhanced expression of replication stress- and senescence-associated markers. Surprisingly, MK3 depletion evokes similar senescence characteristics in the fibroblast model. We previously identified MK3 as a binding partner of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1 proteins. In the current study we show that MK3 overexpression results in reduced cellular EZH2 levels and concomitant loss of epigenetic H3K27me3-marking and PRC1/chromatin-occupation at the CDKN2A/INK4A locus. In agreement with this, the PRC1 oncoprotein BMI1, but not the PCR2 protein EZH2, bypasses MK3-induced senescence in fibroblasts and suppresses P16INK4A expression. In contrast, BMI1 does not rescue the MK3 loss-of-function phenotype, suggesting the involvement of multiple different checkpoints in gain and loss of MK3 function. Notably, MK3 ablation enhances proliferation in two different cancer cells. Finally, the fibroblast model was used to evaluate the effect of potential tumorigenic MK3 driver-mutations on cell proliferation and M/SAPK signaling imbalance. Taken together, our findings support a role for MK3 in control of proliferation and replicative life-span, in part through concerted action with BMI1, and suggest that the effect of MK3 modulation or mutation on M/SAPK signaling and, ultimately, proliferation, is cell context-dependent.

  16. Ethnicity influences BMI as evaluated from reported serum lipid values in Inuit and non-Inuit: raised upper limit of BMI in Inuit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noahsen, Paneeraq; Andersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    To identify thresholds of BMI at which similar levels of serum lipids occur in Inuit and in non-Inuit as the impact of obesity on metabolic risk factors differ in Inuit compared to other ethnic groups. Published comparative data among Inuit and non-Inuit whites on BMI and HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride were identified for analysis. A literature search was done for BMI, lipids, Inuit and Greenland or Canada. Studies with data on triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol in Inuit and non-Inuit Caucasians were selected and data were retrieved. Regression equations were computed for BMI and HDL-cholesterol and BMI and triglycerides. BMI for similar levels of lipids in Inuit and non-Inuit and ratios of Inuit/non-Inuit BMI's were calculated. At BMI 25 kg/m2 HDL-cholesterol was 1.7/1.6 mM in Greenland Inuit/non-Inuit women and 1.7/1.5 mM in men in a major comparative study. HDL cholesterol decreased by 0.09 for each 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI. Serum triglycerides were 1.0/1.1 mM for Greenland Inuit/non-Inuit women and 0.9/ 1.4 mM for men at BMI 25 kg/m2. Slopes were around 0.1. A comparative study in Canadian Inuit/non-Inuit gave similar results. The BMI levels required for similar HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides were around 27.5 kg/m2, and Inuit/non-Inuit BMI-ratios were around 1.1. The same degree of dyslipidaemia was seen when Inuit had a 10% higher BMI compared to non-Inuit. This may support the establishment of Inuit-specific BMI cut-offs for the purposes of health screening and population health surveillance.

  17. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M; Hsiung, Chao A

    2017-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index.We used baseline measurements (2009-2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years).In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35-0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA.A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly.

  18. ERD-based online brain-machine interfaces (BMI) in the context of neurorehabilitation: optimizing BMI learning and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Witkowski, Matthias; Mellinger, Jürgen; Ramos, Ander; Birbaumer, Niels; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2011-10-01

    Event-related desynchronization (ERD) of sensori-motor rhythms (SMR) can be used for online brain-machine interface (BMI) control, but yields challenges related to the stability of ERD and feedback strategy to optimize BMI learning.Here, we compared two approaches to this challenge in 20 right-handed healthy subjects (HS, five sessions each, S1-S5) and four stroke patients (SP, 15 sessions each, S1-S15). ERD was recorded from a 275-sensor MEG system. During daily training,motor imagery-induced ERD led to visual and proprioceptive feedback delivered through an orthotic device attached to the subjects' hand and fingers. Group A trained with a heterogeneous reference value (RV) for ERD detection with binary feedback and Group B with a homogenous RV and graded feedback (10 HS and 2 SP in each group). HS in Group B showed better BMI performance than Group A (p learning was significantly better (p learning relative to use of a heterogeneous RV and binary feedback.

  19. Healthy lifestyle habits and mortality in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Eric M; King, Dana E; Everett, Charles J

    2012-01-01

    Though the benefits of healthy lifestyle choices are well-established among the general population, less is known about how developing and adhering to healthy lifestyle habits benefits obese versus normal weight or overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between healthy lifestyle habits (eating 5 or more fruits and vegetables daily, exercising regularly, consuming alcohol in moderation, and not smoking) and mortality in a large, population-based sample stratified by body mass index (BMI). We examined the association between healthy lifestyle habits and mortality in a sample of 11,761 men and women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III; subjects were ages 21 and older and fell at various points along the BMI scale, from normal weight to obese. Subjects were enrolled between October 1988 and October 1994 and were followed for an average of 170 months. After multivariable adjustment for age, sex, race, education, and marital status, the hazard ratios (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality for individuals who adhered to 0, 1, 2, or 3 healthy habits were 3.27 (2.36-4.54), 2.59 (2.06-3.25), 1.74 (1.51-2.02), and 1.29 (1.09-1.53), respectively, relative to individuals who adhered to all 4 healthy habits. When stratified into normal weight, overweight, and obese groups, all groups benefited from the adoption of healthy habits, with the greatest benefit seen within the obese group. Healthy lifestyle habits are associated with a significant decrease in mortality regardless of baseline body mass index.

  20. Influência do turno laboral na formação de edema dos membros inferiores em indivíduos normais Influence of working shift on the formation of lower limb edema in normal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleusa Ema Quilici Belczak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A presença de edema vespertino nos membros inferiores de indivíduos normais, após jornada habitual de trabalho, foi demonstrada na literatura nacional e internacional. O ritmo de formação e o acúmulo desse edema variam de acordo com os distintos turnos laborais. OBJETIVO: O edema de membros inferiores tem sido descrito após jornadas habituais de trabalho e representa uma queixa freqüente na prática vascular. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a evolução do edema em indivíduos normais durante os distintos turnos laborais. MÉTODO: Foram feitas avaliações volumétricas de ambos os membros inferiores em 20 profissionais da área da saúde do Hospital e Maternidade São Marcos de Maringá, no Paraná. A escolha dos participantes foi por ordem de chegada, e as volumetrias foram feitas por técnica de deslocamento de água às 7, 13 e 19 h. Para análise estatística foi utilizado o teste t de Student, considerando erro alfa de 5%. RESULTADO: Dos 20 participantes, 19 eram do sexo feminino e 1 do masculino, sem evidência de doença venosa nos membros inferiores e pertencentes a C0 e C1 da classificação CEAP (C = clínica, E = etiologia, A = segmento anatômico, P = fisiopatologia. As idades dos participantes variaram entre 20 e 53 anos. Detectou-se aumento significativo de volume nos membros inferiores entre os distintos períodos avaliados, com p = 0,0001 e 0,0001, respectivamente. A maior variação ocorreu no período da manhã, com média ± desvio padrão de 107,2±63,5 mL, enquanto que à tarde, a variação foi de 44,5±35,4 mL. CONCLUSÃO: O edema é uma constante durante atividades laborais, mesmo em pessoas sem doença venosa manifesta e sofre influência do turno laboral ao qual o trabalhador se encontra exposto.BACKGROUND: Presence of evening edema of lower limbs in normal individuals after a regular working shift has been shown in the national and international literature. Formation rhythm and accumulation of

  1. Bmi-1-targeting suppresses osteosarcoma aggressiveness through the NF-κB signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaguo; Luo, Bin; Zhao, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Bone cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies and the specific causes of tumor initiation are not well understood. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 protein (Bmi-1) has been reported to be associated with the initiation and progression of osteosarcoma, and as a prognostic indicator in the clinic. In the current study, a full-length antibody targeting Bmi-1 (AbBmi-1) was produced and the preclinical value of Bmi-1-targeted therapy was evaluated in bone carcinoma cells and tumor xenograft mice. The results indicated that the Bmi-1 expression level was markedly upregulated in bone cancer cell lines, and inhibition of Bmi-1 by AbBmi-1 reduced the invasiveness and migration of osteosarcoma cells. Overexpression of Bmi-1 promoted proliferation and angiogenesis, and increased apoptosis resistance induced by cisplatin via the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signal pathway. In addition, AbBmi-1 treatment inhibited the tumorigenicity of osteosarcoma cells in vivo. Furthermore, AbBmi-1 blocked NF-κB signaling and reduced MMP-9 expression. Furthermore, Bmi-1 promoted osteosarcoma tumor growth, whereas AbBmi-1 significantly inhibited osteosarcoma tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Notably, AbBmi-1 decreased the percentages of Ki67-positive cells and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells in tumors compared with Bmi-1-treated and PBS controls. Notably, MMP-9 and NF-κB expression were downregulated by treatment with AbBmi-1 in MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. In conclusion, the data provides evidence that AbBmi-1 inhibited the progression of osteosarcoma, suggesting that AbBmi-1 may be a novel anti-cancer agent through the inhibition of Bmi-1 via activating the NF-κB pathway in osteosarcoma. PMID:28983587

  2. BMI, life-style and psychological conditions in a sample of elderly Italian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, F; Giuli, C; Papa, R; Gagliardi, C; Malavolta, M; Mocchegiani, E

    2010-08-01

    To identify the relationship among cognitive status, psychological conditions, anthropometric measurements and life-style in a sample of elderly Italian men and women. Three hundred and six volunteers for ZINCAGE Project recruited. The sample was made up of healthy older adults living in the Marche Region aged 65 and over. All elderly were given a complete medical, anthropometric assessment, and psycho-social evaluation. Overall, the participants perceived themselves to be in very good or good (22%) or fair (69%) health; only 9% reported a poor health status. The 46% of the sample fell within the normal body mass index (BMI) range, though 38% were overweight, 12% were obese, and only 4% were underweight. In both sexes, BMI significantly decreased with age (psedentary activities (r=0.188; psedentary (r=0.221; psedentary (r=0.258; p<0.001) leisure activities were positively associated with education level (p<0.05). It was found that lower scores of physical activity were associated to higher scores of Geriatric Depression Scale (r=-0.425; p<0.01), lower scores of Mini Mental State Examination (r=0.266; p<0.001) and higher score of Perceived Stress Scale (r=-0.131; p<0.05). Men and women lead different lifestyles and have a different psychological status, with advancing age consequently stressing the need for healthy lifestyle programmes particularly in the case of overweight and obese elderly people.

  3. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activity in methemoglobin reduction by methylene blue and cyst amine: study on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient individuals, on normal subjects and on riboflavin-treated subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Barraviera

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors have standardized methods for evaluation of the activity of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and of glutathione reductase. The general principle of the first method was based on methemoglobin formation by sodium nitrite followed by stimulation of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with methylene blue. Forty six adults (23 males and 23 females were studied. Subjects were not G6PD deficient and were aged 20 to 30 years. The results showed that methemoglobin reduction by methylene blue was 154.40 and 139.90 mg/min (p<0.05 for males and females, respectively, in whole blood, and 221.10 and 207.85 mg/min (n.s., respectively, in washed red cells. These data showed that using washed red cells and 0.7g% sodium nitrite concentration produced no differences between sexes and also shortened reading time for the residual amount of methemoglobin to 90 minutes. Glutathione reductase activity was evaluated on the basis of the fact that cystamine (a thiol agent binds to the SH groups of hemoglobin, forming complexes. These complexes are reversed by the action of glutathione reductase, with methemoglobin reduction occurring simultaneously with this reaction. Thirty two adults (16 males and 16 females were studied. Subjects were not G6PD deficient and were aged 20 to 30 years. Methemoglobin reduction by cystamine was 81.27 and 91.13 mg/min (p<0.01 for males and females, respectively. These data showed that using washed red cells and 0.1 M cystamine concentration permits a reading of the residual amount of methemoglobin at 180 minutes of incubation. Glutathione reductase activity was evaluated by methemoglobin reduction by cystamine in 14 females before and after treatment with 10 mg riboflavin per day for 8 days. The results were 73.69 and 94.26 jug/min (p<0.01 before and after treatment, showing that riboflavin treatment increase glutathione reductase activity even in normal individuals. Three Black G6PD-deficient individuals (2 males and 1

  4. Concordance between self-reported pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and BMI measured at the first prenatal study contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natamba, Barnabas K; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-07-26

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) gestational weight recommendations are tailored to women's pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Limited evidence exists on methods for estimating women's pre-pregnancy BMI, particularly for women living in low and middle income countries. Using data from collected among Peruvian pregnant women, we compared the concordance between self-reported pre-pregnancy BMI with BMI measured at the earliest prenatal study visit. Data were from the Pregnancy Outcomes Maternal and Infant Study (PrOMIS), a cohort of pregnant women at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal (INMP) in Lima, Peru. 2605 women aged 18 to 49 years (mean ± SD gestational age = 10.9 ± 3.3 weeks) were included in the study. Self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height and measured weight and height were collected at the first prenatal study contact. We assessed the concordance between measured and self-reported BMI; and, the agreement among indicators of nutritional status obtained using measured and self-reported BMI. On average, weight measured at the first prenatal study visit was 0.27 kg higher than self-reported pre-pregnancy weight (p overweight or obese BMI categories tended to be lower when using self-reported BMI (38.2 %) than when using measured BMI (47.7 %). Self-reported pre-pregnancy BMI was strongly correlated with BMI measured at the first prenatal study contact. The findings potentially suggest that, in this context, there is minimal change between pre-pregnancy BMI and BMI measured at the first prenatal study contact; or, that women in this study just recalled their most recent measured anthropometrics (including values obtained during the index pregnancy but before enrollment in the PrOMIS study).

  5. Sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy to normal patient variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargis, Elizabeth; Byrd, Teresa; Logan, Quinisha; Khabele, Dineo; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2011-11-01

    Many groups have used Raman spectroscopy for diagnosing cervical dysplasia; however, there have been few studies looking at the effect of normal physiological variations on Raman spectra. We assess four patient variables that may affect normal Raman spectra: Race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), parity, and socioeconomic status. Raman spectra were acquired from a diverse population of 75 patients undergoing routine screening for cervical dysplasia. Classification of Raman spectra from patients with a normal cervix is performed using sparse multinomial logistic regression (SMLR) to determine if any of these variables has a significant effect. Results suggest that BMI and parity have the greatest impact, whereas race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status have a limited effect. Incorporating BMI and obstetric history into classification algorithms may increase sensitivity and specificity rates of disease classification using Raman spectroscopy. Studies are underway to assess the effect of these variables on disease.

  6. Physical activity during pregnancy in normal-weight and obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, K; Nørgaard, K; Secher, N J

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this prospective study were to compare physical activity in 70 normal-weight women with a body mass index (BMI) 20-25 kg/m(2), and 70 obese with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), before and during pregnancy, and to compare compliance using the pedometer. Physical activity before pregnancy was...

  7. Specific food intake, fat and fiber intake, and behavioral correlates of BMI among overweight and obese members of a managed care organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood Nancy E

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study examined correlates of body mass index (BMI in overweight and obese members of a managed care organization seeking treatment for obesity. It assessed intake of specific foods, dietary fat or fiber, and behaviors attempted to control weight. Methods Participants were 508 men and 1293 women who were > 18 years and had a self-reported BMI > 27.0. This paper reports analyses of baseline and 24-month follow-up data from a randomized weight-loss trial. Cross-sectional and prospective relationships between BMI and behaviors were examined with regression analyses controlling for age and education. Results At baseline, hamburger and beef consumption were associated with higher BMI for men; for women, hamburger, fried chicken, hot dog, bacon or sausage, egg, French fry, and overall fat consumption were associated with higher BMI, while eating high fiber cereal, fruit, and overall fiber intake were associated with lower BMI. Virtually all forms of weight control behavior were reported more often in heavier people. Subscribing to exercise magazines, however, was associated with lower BMI. Decreased fat intake and increased fruit/vegetable/fiber intake over the course of the study were associated with reductions in BMI at 24 months. Conclusion The same behaviors that differentiate individuals with different body weight in the general population also differentiate between individuals of different body weights at the high end of the weight distribution. Educational efforts aimed at preventing weight gain and reducing obesity might benefit from focusing on specific foods known to be associated empirically with body weight and weight change over time.

  8. The effect of overweight/obesity on cognitive function in euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, C Y; Soczynska, J K; Kennedy, S H; Woldeyohannes, H O; Brietzke, E; McIntyre, R S

    2012-04-01

    Persistent impairment in cognitive function has been described in euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder. Collective work indicates that obesity is associated with reduced cognitive function in otherwise healthy individuals. This sub-group post-hoc analysis preliminarily explores and examines the association between overweight/obesity and cognitive function in euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder. Euthymic adults with DSM-IV-TR-defined bipolar I or II disorder were enrolled. Subjects included in this post-hoc analysis (n=67) were divided into two groups (normal weight, body mass index [BMI] of 18.5-24.9 kg/m2; overweight/obese, BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2). Demographic and clinical information were obtained at screening. At baseline, study participants completed a comprehensive cognitive battery to assess premorbid IQ, verbal learning and memory, attention and psychomotor processing speed, executive function, general intellectual abilities, recollection and habit memory, as well as self-perceptions of cognitive failures. BMI was negatively correlated with attention and psychomotor processing speed as measured by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (Pfunction, non-significant trends suggesting a negative association with BMI were observed, with the exception of measures of executive function (i.e., trail making test B) and recollection memory (i.e., process-dissociation task). Notwithstanding the post-hoc methodology and relatively small sample size, the results of this study suggest a possible negative effect of overweight/obesity on cognitive function in euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder. Taken together, these data provide the impetus for more rigorous evaluation of the mediational role of overweight/obesity (and other medical co-morbidity) on cognitive function in psychiatric populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Intuitive eating: associations with physical activity motivation and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Julie; Campbell Nielson, Amy; Hunt, Anne; Leiker, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether university women who demonstrated internal motivation related to eating behavior may also be internally motivated to participate in regular physical activity (PA) and have a lower body mass index (BMI) when controlling for age. Traditional approaches for health promotion related to healthy weight include restrictive eating and exercise prescription. Examining motivation for eating and PA may prove an effective alternative for achieving or maintaining healthy weight for university women. Design was a cross-sectional study. Study setting was a large, public university in the western United States. Subjects . Study subjects were 200 undergraduate women with a mean age of 19 years, mostly white (90%) and of healthy weight (69%, with a BMI range of 18.5-24.9). Study measures were the Intuitive Eating Scale and the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire. Correlations and regression models were used. Intuitive eating was examined in the sample as a whole and among subgroups of respondents grouped based on tertile rankings of intuitive eating scores. There was evidence that women who demonstrated internal motivation related to eating were also internally motivated to participate in regular PA. Women who reported being internally motivated to eat were significantly more likely to engage in PA for pleasure and to view PA as part of their self-concept. Women who reported high levels of intuitive eating had significantly lower BMI scores than those reporting medium or low levels when controlling for age. For women to achieve or maintain a healthy weight, it may be best for health professionals to examine motivation for eating and PA rather than the encouragement of restrictive eating and exercise prescriptions.

  10. Cardiorespiratory fitness, BMI, and risk of hypertension: the HYPGENE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Church, Timothy S; Rice, Treva; Bouchard, Claude; Blair, Steven N

    2007-10-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness and regular physical activity are inversely associated with the risk of hypertension, and exercise training has been shown to lower elevated blood pressure (BP). Genetic factors contribute significantly to the interindividual differences in endurance training-induced changes in BP. However, similar data on the genotype-by-fitness interactions on the risk of hypertension are scarce. In 2000, we started a systematic collection of blood samples from all consenting subjects of the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) with a goal to generate a resource for studies addressing genotype-by-fitness interaction effects on various health-related end points. Here, we introduce the rationale and design of the first study based on the ACLS genetics resource focusing on hypertension as the health outcome (HYPGENE study), and we report the associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) with the risk of hypertension. All HYPGENE subjects (N = 1234) were healthy and normotensive at their first clinic visit. Cases (N = 629) developed hypertension during the follow-up period (mean 8.7 yr), whereas controls (N = 605) remained normotensive (mean follow-up 10.1 yr). Cardiorespiratory fitness was the strongest predictor of the hypertension risk, with each maximal metabolic equivalent unit being associated with a 19% lower risk (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 12-24%). Each baseline BMI unit was associated with a 9% higher hypertension risk (95% CI, 4-13%). However, the association of BMI was greatly attenuated (odds ratio 1.04 [95% CI, 0.99-1.09]) when fitness also was included in the model. The HYPGENE study will provide an excellent resource to address hypotheses regarding the genetic basis of hypertension while taking cardiorespiratory fitness level into account.

  11. Harassment and Mental Distress Among Adolescent Female Students by Sexual Identity and BMI or Perceived Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Michelle Marie; Lowry, Richard; Demissie, Zewditu; Robin, Leah

    2017-08-01

    Sexual minority girls (lesbian/bisexual) and girls with overweight/obesity experience high rates of discrimination and mental distress. This study explored whether BMI or perceived weight status might compound sexual minority girls' risk for harassment and mental distress. Data on female students from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 7,006) were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine differences in bullying, harassment, and mental distress across sexual identity/BMI groups: heterosexual/normal-weight, heterosexual/overweight, sexual minority/normal-weight, and sexual minority/overweight. Procedures were repeated with four analogous groups created from sexual identity and perceived weight. Across sexual identity/BMI groups, being overweight increased heterosexual females' odds of being bullied or experiencing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Regardless of weight status, sexual minority females had greater odds for each outcome than heterosexual females. Sexual minority females who perceived themselves as overweight had greater odds of suicidality than all other sexual minority/perceived weight groups. Double jeopardy may exist for sexual minority female students who perceive themselves as overweight. Professional development with school staff on how to create a positive climate for sexual minorities and those with overweight/obesity and addressing positive identity and body image within school-based suicide prevention efforts may be important to the well-being of adolescent girls. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  12. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  13. Insulin sensitivity is reduced in children with high body-fat regardless of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairchild, Timothy J; Klakk, Heidi; Heidemann, Malene

    2018-01-01

    BF% was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured and the homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) used to assess insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: Approximately 8% of children classified as normal weight...... by BMI had high BF% (NW + Adipose). Children with high BF% had significantly higher insulin (NW + adipose: 32.3%; OW/OB + Adipose: 52.2%) and HOMA-IR scores (NW + Adipose: 32.3%; OW/OB + Adipose: 55.3%) than children classified as NW without high BF% (reference group; NW + NonAdipose). Adjusting for CRF...

  14. A population study of 5 to 15 year olds: full time maternal employment not associated with high BMI. The importance of screen-based activity, reading for pleasure and sleep duration in children's BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne W; Winefield, Helen; Kettler, Lisa; Roberts, Rachel; Gill, Tiffany K

    2012-04-01

    To describe the relationship between maternal full time employment and health-related and demographic variables associated with children aged 5-15 years, and the factors associated with child overweight/obesity. Data from a chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system were limited to children aged 5-15 years whose mothers responded on their behalf (n = 641). Univariate/multivariate analyses described the differences between mothers who did and did not work full time. The same data were analysed comparing children who are overweight/obese against those with a normal BMI. The children of mothers who worked full time are more likely to be older, live in a household with a higher household income, be an only child or have one sibling or other child in the household, have a sole mother family structure and not spend any time reading for pleasure. No relationship was found between maternal employment and BMI. Compared with children of normal weight, those who were overweight/obese were more likely to spend no time studying, spend more than 2 h per day in screen-based activity and sleep less than 10 h per night. Child BMI status was not related to maternal employment. Although this analysis included eight diet related variables none proved to be significant in the final models.This study has shown that mothers' working status is not related to children's BMI. The relationship between overweight/obesity of children and high levels of screen-based activity, low levels of studying, and short sleep duration suggests a need for better knowledge and understanding of sedentary behaviours of children.

  15. Impact of BMI on clinical outcomes of NOAC therapy in daily care - Results of the prospective Dresden NOAC Registry (NCT01588119).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittl, L; Endig, S; Marten, S; Reitter, A; Beyer-Westendorf, I; Beyer-Westendorf, J

    2018-03-14

    Direct acting non-Vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) are characterized by a fixed dosing regimen. Despite the potential for relative underdosing due to large distribution volumes, dose adjustments for patients with high body mass index (BMI) are not recommended. Since efficacy and safety data in obese patients are scarce, we evaluated the impact of BMI on clinical outcomes in daily care patients treated with NOAC for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism. Using prospectively collected data from a non-interventional registry, cardiovascular (CV), major bleeding events (MB) and all-cause mortality were evaluated according to BMI classes. All outcome events were centrally adjudicated using standard scientific definitions. Between November 1st 2011 and December 31st 2016, 3432 patients were enrolled into the registry (61.3% rivaroxaban; 20% apixaban; 10.1% dabigatran, 8.6% edoxaban; mean follow-up 998.1 ± 542.9 days; median 1004 days). With increasing BMI (range 13.7-57.2 kg/m 2 ), the proportion of patients receiving standard (vs. reduced) NOAC dose increased from 64.7% (underweight) to 78.9% (obesity). Although obese patients had more cardiovascular risk factors compared to normal weight patients, on-treatment rates of clinical outcomes (CV, MB, all-cause-mortality) were lowest in overweight and obese patients. In a large set of real-life NOAC recipients we found no indication that high BMI is associated with inferior NOAC effectiveness or safety, which is in line with recent epidemiological data of a "BMI paradox" that indicates a somewhat protective effect of higher BMI regarding unfavourable outcomes also in patients receiving fixed dose NOAC anticoagulation without dose adjustment for higher BMI. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel and ulipristal acetate emergency contraception in women with normal and obese body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praditpan, Piyapa; Hamouie, Angie; Basaraba, Cale N; Nandakumar, Renu; Cremers, Serge; Davis, Anne R; Westhoff, Carolyn L

    2017-05-01

    This study compares the pharmacokinetics (PK) of levonorgestrel (LNG) emergency contraceptive (EC) and ulipristal acetate (UPA)-EC between normal-body mass index (BMI) and obese-BMI women. This prospective, randomized crossover study evaluates the PK of women after single doses of LNG-EC (1.5mg) and UPA-EC (30mg). Study procedures took place during clinical research unit admissions, where participants received a standardized meal and each study drug, in random order, during two separate 24-h admissions. Study staff collected 14 blood specimens (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24 and 48h). We evaluated serum concentrations of LNG and UPA using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy and estimated the PK parameters of both drugs using noncompartmental analysis. The main outcome of this study was a comparison of between-group differences in AUC 0-24 . Thirty-two women completed the study (16 in each group). Among normal-BMI and obese-BMI participants, the mean BMIs were 22.0 (range 18.8-24.6) and 34.3 (range 30.6-39.9), respectively. After LNG-EC, mean AUC 0-24 and maximum concentration (C max ) were 50% lower among obese-BMI women than among normal-BMI women (AUC 0-24 100.8 vs. 208.5ng*h/mL, IQR obese-BMI 35.8, IQR normal-BMI 74.2, p≤.01; C max 10.8 vs. 18.2ng/mL, p=.01). After UPA-EC, AUC 0-24 and C max were similar between obese-BMI and normal-BMI women (AUC 0-24 362.5 vs. 293.5ng*h/mL, IQR obese-BMI 263.2, IQR normal-BMI 112.5, p=.15; C max 95.6 vs. 89.3ng/mL, p=.70). After a single dose of EC, obese-BMI women are exposed to lower concentrations of LNG and similar concentrations of UPA, when compared to normal-BMI women. Differences in LNG-EC PK by BMI group may underlie and account for the lower LNG-EC efficacy reported among obese-BMI women, but modest differences in UPA-EC PK by BMI group provide less support for variable efficacy. A pharmacodynamic study may be able to clarify whether these PK differences account for observed differences

  17. Estudo das latências e amplitudes dos potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência em indivíduos audiologicamente normais Middle latency response study of auditory evoked potentials’ amplitudes and lantencies audiologically normal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Ferreira Neves

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de coorte contemporânea com corte transversal. O Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Média Latência (PEAML é gerado entre 10 e 80ms e possui múltiplos geradores, com maior contribuição da região tálamo-cortical. O estabelecimento de critérios de normalidade para os valores de latência e amplitude é necessário para uso clínico. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a latência e amplitude do PEAML em indivíduos sem alterações audiológicas, e verificar a confiabilidade da amplitude Pa-Nb. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram coletados os PEAML de 25 indivíduos durante o ano de 2005 e analisados os componentes Na, Pa, Nb para cada orelha testada (A1 e A2, e posicionamento de eletrodo (C3 e C4. RESULTADOS: Observou-se diferença estatisticamente significante entre os valores médios de latência para C3A1 e C4A1 com relação aos componentes Na e Pa, não sendo encontrada esta diferença para o componente Nb e valores médios das amplitudes Na-Pa e Pa-Nb. CONCLUSÃO: Foram estabelecidos os valores das médias e desvios padrão para os parâmetros latência e amplitude dos componentes Na, Pa, Nb, e Na-Pa e Pa-Nb, nas condições C3A1, C4A1, C3A2, C4A2, proporcionando os parâmetros para a análise e interpretação deste potencial.Contemporary cohort cross-sectional study. Introduction: The auditory middle latency response (AMLR is generated between 10 and 80 ms and has multiple generators, with a greater contribution from the thalamus-cortical pathways. The establishment of normality criteria for latency and amplitude values is necessary for clinical use. AIM: to analyze the latency and amplitude of the AMLR in individuals without audiological disorders, and verify the reliability of Pa-Nb amplitude. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The AMLR of 25 individuals was collected during 2005 and the Na, Pa, Nb components were analyzed for each tested ear (A1 and A2, and electrode positioning (C3 and C4. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was noticed among middle

  18. The Bmi-1 helix–turn and ring finger domains are required for Bmi-1 antagonism of (–) epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppression of skin cancer cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Scharadin, Tiffany M.; Han, Bingshe; Xu, Wen; Eckert, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The Bmi-1 Polycomb group (PcG) protein is an important epigenetic regulator of chromatin status. Elevated Bmi-1 expression is observed in skin cancer and contributes to cancer cell survival. (–) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an important green tea-derived cancer prevention agent, reduces Bmi-1 level resulting in reduced skin cancer cell survival. This is associated with increased p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, reduced cyclin, and cyclin dependent kinase expression, and increased cleavage of apoptotic markers. These EGCG-dependent changes are attenuated by vector-mediated maintenance of Bmi-1 expression. In the present study, we identify Bmi-1 functional domains that are required for this response. Bmi-1 expression reverses the EGCG-dependent reduction in SCC-13 cell survival, but Bmi-1 mutants lacking the helix–turn–helix–turn–helix–turn (Bmi-1ΔHT) or ring finger (Bmi-1ΔRF) domains do not reverse the EGCG impact. The reduction in Ring1B ubiquitin ligase activity, observed in the presence of mutant Bmi-1, is associated with reduced ability of these mutants to interact with and activate Ring1B ubiquitin ligase, the major ligase responsible for the ubiquitination of histone H2A during chromatin condensation. This results in less chromatin condensation leading to increased tumor suppressor gene expression and reduced cell survival; thereby making the cells more susceptible to the anti-survival action of EGCG. We further show that these mutants act in a dominant-negative manner to inhibit the action of endogenous Bmi-1. Our results suggest that the HT and RF domains are required for Bmi-1 ability to maintain skin cancer cell survival in response to cancer preventive agents. PMID:25843776

  19. The relationship between income, economic freedom, and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, R A; Murphy, R H; Williamson, C R

    2016-05-01

    What explains increases in BMI (and obesity) over time and across countries? Although many microeconomic forces are likely explanations, increasingly scholars are arguing that macroeconomic forces such as market liberalism and globalization are root causes of the obesity epidemic. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of economic freedom on obesity conditional on the level of income and other factors. We use an unbalanced pooled cross section of up to 135 countries for 1995 and 2000-2009. Our statistical model specifications include pooled OLS and fixed effects. First, we find that controlling for fixed effects siphons off much of the relationship previously documented between economic freedom and BMI. Second, economic freedom is associated with slightly higher BMIs but only for men in developing nations. Lastly, we show that economic freedom increases life expectancy for both men and women in developing countries. Therefore, policies aimed at reducing obesity that limit economic liberalism may come at the expense of life expectancy in the developing world. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Excess BMI in Childhood: A Modifiable Risk Factor for Type 1 Diabetes Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Christine Therese; Geyer, Susan Michelle; Liu, Yuk-Fun; Evans-Molina, Carmella; Libman, Ingrid M; Besser, Rachel; Becker, Dorothy J; Rodriguez, Henry; Moran, Antoinette; Gitelman, Stephen E; Redondo, Maria J

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of elevated BMI over time on the progression to type 1 diabetes in youth. We studied 1,117 children in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention cohort (autoantibody-positive relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes). Longitudinally accumulated BMI above the 85th age- and sex-adjusted percentile generated a cumulative excess BMI (ceBMI) index. Recursive partitioning and multivariate analyses yielded sex- and age-specific ceBMI thresholds for greatest type 1 diabetes risk. Higher ceBMI conferred significantly greater risk of progressing to type 1 diabetes. The increased diabetes risk occurred at lower ceBMI values in children <12 years of age compared with older subjects and in females versus males. Elevated BMI is associated with increased risk of diabetes progression in pediatric autoantibody-positive relatives, but the effect varies by sex and age. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Body Mass Index (BMI) and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BMI and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project quantified the risk associated with being overweight and the extent to which the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by certain factors.

  2. Risk of a venous thromboembolic episode due to caesarean section and BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte Berdiin; Ladelund, S; Rasmussen, S

    2014-01-01

    BMI significantly influences the risk of venous thromboembolism after emergency caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery.......BMI significantly influences the risk of venous thromboembolism after emergency caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery....

  3. BMI trajectory groups in veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Patricia H; Ning, Yuming; Brandt, Cynthia; Allore, Heather; Haskell, Sally

    2011-09-01

    The study sought to determine BMI trajectories in Iraq/Afghanistan veterans over 6 years and to examine sociodemographic factors associated with BMI trajectory membership. Our study sample included 16,656 veterans post-deployment and entering the Veteran Healthcare Administration (VHA) healthcare system. We used national VHA administrative sociodemographic data, tracked veteran BMI for 6 years, and used trajectory modeling to identify BMI trajectories and sociodemographic characteristics associated with trajectory membership. Five trajectory groups determined in the full sample were primarily differentiated by their post-deployment initial BMI: "healthy" (14.1%), "overweight" (36.3%), "borderline obese" (27.9%), "obese" (15.7%), and "severely obese" (6.0). Being female, younger, and white were associated with lower initial BMI trajectory group membership (p'seducation and white female Veterans were associated with the lowest initial BMI group (p'sEducation level and racial status are differentially related to BMI trajectory by gender. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Inter-individual, inter-vendor comparison of diffusion-weighted MR imaging of upper abdominal organs at 3.0 tesla with an emphasis on the value of normalization with the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ji Soo; Hwang, Seung Bae; Chung, Gyung Ho; Jin, Gong Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of upper abdominal organs with 2 different 3.0 tesla MR systems and to investigate the usefulness of normalization using the spleen. Forty-one patients were enrolled in this prospective study, of which, 35 patients (M:F, 27:8; mean age ± standard deviation, 62.3 ± 12.3 years) were finally analyzed. In addition to the routine liver MR protocol, single-shot spin-echo echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging using b values of 0, 50, 400, and 800 s/mm{sup 2} in 2 different MR systems was performed. ADC values of the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney and liver lesion (if present) were measured and analyzed. ADC values of the spleen were used for normalization. The Pearson correlation, Spearman correlation, paired sample t test, Wilcoxon signed rank test and Bland-Altman method were used for statistical analysis. For all anatomical regions and liver lesions, both non-normalized and normalized ADC values from 2 different MR systems showed significant correlations (r = 0.5196-0.8488). Non-normalized ADC values of both MR systems differed significantly in all anatomical regions and liver lesions (p < 0.001). However, the normalized ADC of all anatomical regions and liver lesions did not differ significantly (p = 0.065-0.661), with significantly lower coefficient of variance than that of non-normalized ADC (p < 0.009). Normalization of the abdominal ADC values using the spleen as a reference organ reduces differences between different MR systems, and could facilitate consistent use of ADC as an imaging biomarker for multi-center or longitudinal studies.

  5. BMI1 and Mel-18 oppositely regulate carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Sheng, Ya-Ping; Li, Qian; Qin, Wei; Lu, You-Wei; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Liu, Bing-Ya; Zhang, Feng-Chun; Li, Jin; Dimri, Goberdhan P; Guo, Wei-Jian

    2010-02-21

    The BMI1 oncogene is overexpressed in several human malignancies including gastric cancer. In addition to BMI1, mammalian cells also express Mel-18, which is closely related to BMI1. We have reported that Mel-18 functions as a potential tumor suppressor by repressing the expression of BMI1 and consequent downregulation of activated AKT in breast cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of BMI1 overexpression and the role of Mel-18 in other cancers are still not clear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of BMI1 and Mel-18 in gastric cancer. BMI1 was found to be overexpressed in gastric cancer cell lines and gastric tumors. Overexpression of BMI1 correlated with advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis; while the expression of Mel-18 negatively correlated with BMI1. BMI1 but not Mel-18 was found to be an independent prognostic factor. Downregulation of BMI1 by Mel-18 overexpression or knockdown of BMI1 expression in gastric cancer cell lines led to upregulation of p16 (p16INK4a or CDKN2A) in p16 positive cell lines and reduction of phospho-AKT in both p16-positive and p16-negative cell lines. Downregulation of BMI1 was also accompanied by decreased transformed phenotype and migration in both p16- positive and p16-negative gastric cancer cell lines. In the context of gastric cancer, BMI1 acts as an oncogene and Mel-18 functions as a tumor suppressor via downregulation of BMI1. Mel-18 and BMI1 may regulate tumorigenesis, cell migration and cancer metastasis via both p16- and AKT-dependent growth regulatory pathways.

  6. File list: Oth.Neu.10.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Neural SRX109477,SRX109480,SRX1094...82,SRX109479 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.BMI1.AllCell.bed ...

  7. File list: Oth.ALL.05.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.05.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 All cell types SRX644721,SRX109477...79,SRX149715,SRX359986,SRX644717,SRX644709,SRX644713 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.ALL.05.BMI1.AllCell.bed ...

  8. Associations between Three School-Based Measures of Health: Is BMI Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Emily H.; Houser, Robert F.; Au, Lauren E.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) notification programs are often used to raise parental awareness of childhood overweight and obesity, but how BMI results are associated with physical fitness and diet is less clear. This study examined the relationship between BMI, fitness, and diet quality in a diverse sample of urban schoolchildren…

  9. File list: Oth.ALL.20.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Oth.ALL.10.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Oth.Neu.05.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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